WorldWideScience

Sample records for performance measures comparisons

  1. Performance audits and laboratory comparisons for SCOS97-NARSTO measurements of speciated volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Eric M.; Harshfield, Gregory; Sheetz, Laurence

    Performance audits and laboratory comparisons were conducted as part of the quality assurance program for the 1997 Southern California Ozone Study (SCOS97-NARSTO) to document potential measurement biases among laboratories measuring speciated nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), carbonyl compounds, halogenated compounds, and biogenic hydrocarbons. The results show that measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) made during SCOS97-NARSTO are generally consistent with specified data quality objectives. The hydrocarbon comparison involved nine laboratories and consisted of two sets of collocated ambient samples. The coefficients of variation among laboratories for the sum of the 55 PAM target compounds and total NMHC ranged from ±5 to 15 percent for ambient samples from Los Angeles and Azusa. Abundant hydrocarbons are consistently identified by all laboratories, but discrepancies occur for olefins greater than C 4 and for hydrocarbons greater than C 8. Laboratory comparisons for halogenated compounds and biogenic hydrocarbons consisted of both concurrent ambient sampling by different laboratories and round-robin analysis of ambient samples. The coefficients of variation among participating laboratories were about 10-20 percent. Performance audits were conducted for measurement of carbonyl compounds involving sampling from a standard mixture of carbonyl compounds. The values reported by most of the laboratories were within 10-20 percent of those of the reference laboratory. Results of field measurement comparisons showed larger variations among the laboratories ranging from 20 to 40 percent for C 1-C 3 carbonyl compounds. The greater variations observed in the field measurement comparison may reflect potential sampling artifacts, which the performance audits did not address.

  2. European Measurement Comparisons of Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waetjen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The scheme of European measurement comparisons to verify radioactivity monitoring in the European Union is briefly explained. After a review of comparisons conducted during the years 1990, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. IRMM is providing comparison samples with a reference value traceable to the SI units and which is fully documented to all participants and national authorities after completion of the comparison. The sample preparation and determination of traceable reference values at IRMM, the sample treatment and measurement in the participating laboratories, as well as the evaluation of comparison results are described in some detail using the example of an air filter comparison. The results of a comparison to determine metabolised 40 K, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk powder are presented as well. The necessary improvements in the estimation of measurement uncertainty by the participating laboratories are discussed. The performance of individual laboratories which have participated in at least four comparison exercises over the years is studied in terms of observable trends

  3. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: EUROMET.L-S10 Comparison of squareness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    The idea of performing a comparison of squareness resulted from the need to review the MRA Appendix C, Category 90° square. At its meeting in October 1999 (in Prague) it was decided upon a first comparison of squareness measurements in the framework of EUROMET, numbered #570, starting in 2000, with the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) as the pilot laboratory. During the preparation stage of the project, it was agreed that it should be submitted as a EUROMET supplementary comparison in the framework of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the Metre Convention and would boost confidence in calibration and measurement certificates issued by the participating national metrology institutes. The aim of the comparison of squareness measurement was to compare and verify the declared calibration measurement capabilities of participating laboratories and to investigate the effect of systematic influences in the measurement process and their elimination. Eleven NMIs from the EUROMET region carried out this project. Two standards were calibrated: granite squareness standard of rectangular shape, cylindrical squareness standard of steel with marked positions for the profile lines. The following parameters had to be calibrated: granite squareness standard: interior angle γB between two lines AB and AC (envelope - LS regression) fitted through the measured profiles, and/or granite squareness standard: interior angle γLS between two LS regression lines AB and AC fitted through the measured profiles, cylindrical squareness standard: interior angles γ0°, γ90°, γ180°, γ270° between the LS regression line fitted through the measurement profiles at 0°, 90°, 180°, 270° and the envelope plane of the basis (resting on a surface plate), local LS straightness deviation for all measured profiles (2 and 4) of both standards. The results of the comparison are the deviations of profiles and angles measured by the individual NMIs from the reference values. These resulted

  4. PRINCIPLES OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    BEATA ŒLUSARCZYK; SEBASTIAN KOT

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of performance in every business management is a crucial activity allowing for effectiveness increase. The lack of suitable performance measurement is especially noticed in complex systems as supply chains. Responsible persons cannot manage effectively without suitable set of measures those are base for comparison to previous data or effects of other supply chain functioning. The analysis shows that it is very hard to find balanced set of supply chain performance measures those sh...

  5. LCD displays performance comparison by MTF measurement using the white noise stimulus method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjà, Carles; Escofet, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    The amount of images produced to be viewed as soft copies on output displays are significantly increasing. This growing occurs at the expense of the images targeted to hard copy versions on paper or any other physical support. Even in the case of high quality hard copy production, people working in professional imaging uses different displays in selecting, editing, processing and showing images, from laptop screen to specialized high end displays. Then, the quality performance of these devices is crucial in the chain of decisions to be taken in image production. Metrics of this quality performance can help in the equipment acquisition. Different metrics and methods have been described to determine the quality performance of CRT and LCD computer displays in clinical area. One of most important metrics in this field is the device spatial frequency response obtained measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF). This work presents a comparison between the MTF of three different LCD displays, Apple MacBook Pro 15", Apple LED Cinema Display 24" and Apple iPhone4, measured by the white noise stimulus method, over vertical and horizontal directions. Additionally, different displays show particular pixels structure pattern. In order to identify this pixel structure, a set of high magnification images is taken from each display to be related with the respective vertical and horizontal MTF.

  6. Does hospital financial performance measure up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O; Harvey, R K

    1992-05-01

    Comparisons are continuously being made between the financial performance, products and services, of the healthcare industry and those of non-healthcare industries. Several useful measures of financial performance--profitability, liquidity, financial risk, asset management and replacement, and debt capacity, are used by the authors to compare the financial performance of the hospital industry with that of the industrial, transportation and utility sectors. Hospitals exhibit weaknesses in several areas. Goals are suggested for each measure to bring hospitals closer to competitive levels.

  7. Comparison of global sensitivity analysis techniques and importance measures in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovo, E.; Apostolakis, G.E.; Tarantola, S.; Saltelli, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses application and results of global sensitivity analysis techniques to probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) models, and their comparison to importance measures. This comparison allows one to understand whether PSA elements that are important to the risk, as revealed by importance measures, are also important contributors to the model uncertainty, as revealed by global sensitivity analysis. We show that, due to epistemic dependence, uncertainty and global sensitivity analysis of PSA models must be performed at the parameter level. A difficulty arises, since standard codes produce the calculations at the basic event level. We discuss both the indirect comparison through importance measures computed for basic events, and the direct comparison performed using the differential importance measure and the Fussell-Vesely importance at the parameter level. Results are discussed for the large LLOCA sequence of the advanced test reactor PSA

  8. Comparison of Numerically Simulated and Experimentally Measured Performance of a Rotating Detonation Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Fotia, Matthew L.; Hoke, John; Schauer, Fred

    2015-01-01

    A quasi-two-dimensional, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a rotating detonation engine (RDE) is described. The simulation operates in the detonation frame of reference and utilizes a relatively coarse grid such that only the essential primary flow field structure is captured. This construction and other simplifications yield rapidly converging, steady solutions. Viscous effects, and heat transfer effects are modeled using source terms. The effects of potential inlet flow reversals are modeled using boundary conditions. Results from the simulation are compared to measured data from an experimental RDE rig with a converging-diverging nozzle added. The comparison is favorable for the two operating points examined. The utility of the code as a performance optimization tool and a diagnostic tool are discussed.

  9. Medicare Advantage and Fee-for-Service Performance on Clinical Quality and Patient Experience Measures: Comparisons from Three Large States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Bogart, Andy; Damberg, Cheryl L; Elliott, Marc N; Haas, Ann; Gaillot, Sarah J; Goldstein, Elizabeth H; Paddock, Susan M

    2017-12-01

    To compare performance between Medicare Advantage (MA) and Fee-for-Service (FFS) Medicare during a time of policy changes affecting both programs. Performance data for 16 clinical quality measures and 6 patient experience measures for 9.9 million beneficiaries living in California, New York, and Florida. We compared MA and FFS performance overall, by plan type, and within service areas associated with contracts between CMS and MA organizations. Case mix-adjusted analyses (for measures not typically adjusted) were used to explore the effect of case mix on MA/FFS differences. Performance measures were submitted by MA organizations, obtained from the nationwide fielding of the Medicare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (MCAHPS) Survey, or derived from claims. Overall, MA outperformed FFS on all 16 clinical quality measures. Differences were large for HEDIS measures and small for Part D measures and remained after case mix adjustment. MA enrollees reported better experiences overall, but FFS beneficiaries reported better access to care. Relative to FFS, performance gaps were much wider for HMOs than PPOs. Excluding HEDIS measures, MA/FFS differences were much smaller in contract-level comparisons. Medicare Advantage/Fee-for-Service differences are often large but vary in important ways across types of measures and contracts. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. A SOFTWARE TOOL TO COMPARE MEASURED AND SIMULATED BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, Tobias; Bazjanac, Vladimir; O' Donnell, James; Garr, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    Building energy performance is often inadequate when compared to design goals. To link design goals to actual operation one can compare measured with simulated energy performance data. Our previously developed comparison approach is the Energy Performance Comparison Methodology (EPCM), which enables the identification of performance problems based on a comparison of measured and simulated performance data. In context of this method, we developed a software tool that provides graphing and data processing capabilities of the two performance data sets. The software tool called SEE IT (Stanford Energy Efficiency Information Tool) eliminates the need for manual generation of data plots and data reformatting. SEE IT makes the generation of time series, scatter and carpet plots independent of the source of data (measured or simulated) and provides a valuable tool for comparing measurements with simulation results. SEE IT also allows assigning data points on a predefined building object hierarchy and supports different versions of simulated performance data. This paper briefly introduces the EPCM, describes the SEE IT tool and illustrates its use in the context of a building case study.

  11. Interlaboratory comparison on high-temperature superconductor critical-current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiejaczka, J.A.; Goodrich, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    An extensive interlaboratory comparison was conducted on high temperature superconductor (HTS) critical-current measurements. This study was part of an international cooperative effort through the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). The study involved six US laboratories that are recognized leaders in the field of HTS. This paper includes the complete results from this comparison of critical-current measurements on Ag-sheathed Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10-x (2223) tapes. The effects of sample characteristics, specimen mounting, measurement technique, and specimen damage were studied. The future development of a standard HTS measurement method is also discussed. Most of the evolution of this emerging technology has occurred in improvement of the performance of the conductors. The successful completion of this interlaboratory comparison is an important milestone in the evolution of HTS technology and marks a level of maturity that the technology has reached

  12. Case-mix adjustment and the comparison of community health center performance on patient experience measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M Laura; Rodriguez, Hector P; Solorio, M Rosa

    2010-06-01

    To assess the effect of case-mix adjustment on community health center (CHC) performance on patient experience measures. A Medicaid-managed care plan in Washington State collected patient survey data from 33 CHCs over three fiscal quarters during 2007-2008. The survey included three composite patient experience measures (6-month reports) and two overall ratings of care. The analytic sample includes 2,247 adult patients and 2,859 adults reporting for child patients. We compared the relative importance of patient case-mix adjusters by calculating each adjuster's predictive power and variability across CHCs. We then evaluated the impact of case-mix adjustment on the relative ranking of CHCs. Important case-mix adjusters included adult self-reported health status or parent-reported child health status, adult age, and educational attainment. The effects of case-mix adjustment on patient reports and ratings were different in the adult and child samples. Adjusting for race/ethnicity and language had a greater impact on parent reports than adult reports, but it impacted ratings similarly across the samples. The impact of adjustment on composites and ratings was modest, but it affected the relative ranking of CHCs. To ensure equitable comparison of CHC performance on patient experience measures, reports and ratings should be adjusted for adult self-reported health status or parent-reported child health status, adult age, education, race/ethnicity, and survey language. Because of the differential impact of case-mix adjusters for child and adult surveys, initiatives should consider measuring and reporting adult and child scores separately.

  13. Comparison of the performance of three ion mobility spectrometers for measurement of biogenic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpas, Zeev; Guamán, Ana V.; Pardo, Antonio; Marco, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The response to different amounts of TMA (in μg) that were placed in a headspace vial as a function of time for the VG-Test (top) and the GDA (bottom). Note that the ratio [TMA/(TMA + TEP)] (top) and [TMA/(TMA + RIP)] (bottom) and the clearance time increase with the amount of TMA deposited in the vial. Highlights: ► First comparison of performance of IMS devices. ► Gas-phase ion chemistry affected by operational parameters. ► Limits of detection quite similar despite differences in devices. ► LODs determined in controlled continuous flow and in headspace vapor. ► Exponential dilution of headspace studies. - Abstract: The performance of three different types of ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) devices: GDA2 with a radioactive ion source (Airsense, Germany), UV-IMS with a photo-ionization source (G.A.S. Germany) and VG-Test with a corona discharge source (3QBD, Israel) was studied. The gas-phase ion chemistry in the IMS devices affected the species formed and their measured reduced mobility values. The sensitivity and limit of detection for trimethylamine (TMA), putrescine and cadaverine were compared by continuous monitoring of a stream of air with a given concentration of the analyte and by measurement of headspace vapors of TMA in a sealed vial. Preprocessing of the mobility spectra and the effectiveness of multivariate curve resolution techniques (MCR-LASSO) improved the accuracy of the measurements by correcting baseline effects and adjusting for variations in drift time as well as enhancing the signal to noise ratio and deconvolution of the complex data matrix to their pure components. The limit of detection for measurement of the biogenic amines by the three IMS devices was between 0.1 and 1.2 ppm (for TMA with the VG-Test and GDA, respectively) and between 0.2 and 0.7 ppm for putrescine and cadaverine with all three devices. Considering the uncertainty in the LOD determination there is almost no statistically significant

  14. Interlaboratory comparison of measuring results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of measured results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power lines obtained by three laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison was performed to ensure confidence in the quality of the test results. The measured results were analyzed with standard methods, using En number, based on which the evaluation of the laboratories was performed.

  15. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results

  16. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  17. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  18. Detailed comparison between computed and measured FBR core seismic responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forni, M.; Martelli, A.; Melloni, R.; Bonacina, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed comparison between seismic calculations and measurements performed for various mock-ups consisting of groups of seven and nineteen simplified elements of the Italian PEC fast reactor core. Experimental tests had been performed on shaking tables in air and water (simulating sodium) with excitations increasing up to above Safe Shutdown Earthquake. The PEC core-restraint ring had been simulated in some tests. All the experimental tests have been analysed by use of both the one-dimensional computer program CORALIE and the two-dimensional program CLASH. Comparisons have been made for all the instrumented elements, in both the time and the frequency domains. The good agreement between calculations and measurements has confirmed adequacy of the fluid-structure interaction model used for PEC core seismic design verification

  19. Intellectual Estimates of Hearing-Impaired Children: A Comparison of Three Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, David R.

    1976-01-01

    The Arthur Adaptation of the Leiter International Performance Scale, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Performance Section were administered to 31 children with mild to moderate hearing impairments. A comparison of test results indicated moderate convergent validity among the measures. (Author)

  20. International comparisons of public sector performance: how to move ahead?

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMeasuring and comparing the overall performance of countries’ public sectors requires agreement on definitions and objectives of government. I argue that such an agreement is about finding a consensus rather about finding better definitions. Measuring government requires a number of leaps of faith, where certain definitions, assumptions and statistics are accepted as good enough for measurement and comparison. The political science and economic research community have a different ...

  1. Comparison of LOFT zero power physics testing measurement results with predicted values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushton, B.L.; Howe, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    The results of zero power physics testing measurements in LOFT have been evaluated to assess the adequacy of the physics data used in the safety analyses performed for the LOFT FSAR and Technical Specifications. Comparisons of measured data with computed data were made for control rod worths, temperature coefficients, boron worths, and pressure coefficients. Measured boron concentrations at exact critical points were compared with predicted concentrations. Based on these comparisons, the reactivity parameter values used in the LOFT safety analyses were assessed for conservatism

  2. Validation of Questionnaire-Assessed Physical Activity in Comparison With Objective Measures Using Accelerometers and Physical Performance Measures Among Community-Dwelling Adults Aged ≥85 Years in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, Yuko; Osawa, Yusuke; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Tanaka, Shigeho; Lee, I-Min; Arai, Yasumichi

    2017-04-01

    To date, there is no physical activity (PA) questionnaire with convergent and construct validity for the oldest-old. The aim of the current study was to investigate the validity of questionnaire-assessed PA in comparison with objective measures determined by uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers and physical performance measures in the oldest-old. Participants were 155 elderly (mean age 90 years) who were examined at the university and agreed to wear an accelerometer for 7 days in the 3-year-follow-up survey of the Tokyo Oldest-Old Survey of Total Health. Fifty-nine participants wore a uniaxial and triaxial accelerometer simultaneously. Self-rated walking, exercise, and household PA were measured using a modified Zutphen PA Questionnaire (PAQ). Several physical performance tests were done, and the associations among PAQ, accelerometer-assessed PA, and physical performances were compared by Spearman's correlation coefficients. Significant, low to moderate correlations between PA measures were seen on questionnaire and accelerometer assessments (ρ = 0.19 to 0.34). Questionnaireassessed PA measure were correlated with a range of lower extremity performance (ρ = 0.21 to 0.29). This PAQ demonstrated convergent and construct validity. Our findings suggest that the PAQ can reasonably be used in this oldest-old population to rank their PA level.

  3. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting the Performance of Photovoltaic Systems in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.; Hayter, S.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure provides a standard method for measuring and characterizing the long-term energy performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings and the resulting implications to the building's energy use. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks for evaluating system performance and verifying that performance targets have been achieved. Uses may include comparison of performance with the design intent; comparison with other PV systems in buildings; economic analysis of PV systems in buildings; and the establishment of long-term performance records that enable maintenance staff to monitor trends in energy performance.

  4. Brain connectivity measures: computation and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article computation and comparison of causality measures which are used in determination of brain connectivity patterns is investigated. Main analyzed examples included published computation and comparisons of Directed Transfer Function ‐ DTF and Partial Directed Coherence ‐ PDC. It proved that serious methodology mistakes were involved in measure computations and comparisons. It is shown that the neighborhood of zero is of accented importance in such evaluations and that the issues of semantic stability have to be treated with more attention. Published results on the relationship of these two important measures are partly unstable with small changes of zero threshold and pictures of involved brain structures deduced from the cited articles have to be corrected. Analysis of the operators involved in evaluation and comparisons is given with suggestions for their improvement and complementary additional actions.

  5. Assessing Therapist Competence: Development of a Performance-Based Measure and Its Comparison With a Web-Based Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Bohn, Kristin; de Vries, Dian; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2017-10-31

    Recent research interest in how best to train therapists to deliver psychological treatments has highlighted the need for rigorous, but scalable, means of measuring therapist competence. There are at least two components involved in assessing therapist competence: the assessment of their knowledge of the treatment concerned, including how and when to use its strategies and procedures, and an evaluation of their ability to apply such knowledge skillfully in practice. While the assessment of therapists' knowledge has the potential to be completed efficiently on the Web, the assessment of skill has generally involved a labor-intensive process carried out by clinicians, and as such, may not be suitable for assessing training outcome in certain circumstances. The aims of this study were to develop and evaluate a role-play-based measure of skill suitable for assessing training outcome and to compare its performance with a highly scalable Web-based measure of applied knowledge. Using enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders as an exemplar, clinical scenarios for role-play assessment were developed and piloted together with a rating scheme for assessing trainee therapists' performance. These scenarios were evaluated by examining the performance of 93 therapists from different professional backgrounds and at different levels of training in implementing CBT-E. These therapists also completed a previously developed Web-based measure of applied knowledge, and the ability of the Web-based measure to efficiently predict competence on the role-play measure was investigated. The role-play measure assessed performance at implementing a range of CBT-E procedures. The majority of the therapists rated their performance as moderately or closely resembling their usual clinical performance. Trained raters were able to achieve good-to-excellent reliability for averaged competence, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .653 to 909. The measure was

  6. Measurement comparisons of radioactivity among European monitoring laboratories for the environment and food stuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waetjen, U.; Spasova, Y.; Altzitzoglou, T.

    2008-01-01

    For more than 15 years, European Union (EU) laboratories monitoring environmental radioactivity have been obliged to participate in measurement comparisons organised by the European Commission. After a short review of comparisons conducted during the 1990s, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. It relies on the provision of comparison samples with reference values traceable to the International Reference System for radionuclides (SIR). The results of the most recent comparison, the determination of 40 K, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk powder, are presented. The influence of repetitive participation in measurement comparisons on laboratory performance is studied on the basis of data from more than 20 laboratories having participated in several exercises during the last 15 years

  7. Approaches towards airport economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana STRYČEKOVÁ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to assess how economic benchmarking is being used by airports as a means of performance measurement and comparison of major international airports in the world. The study focuses on current benchmarking practices and methods by taking into account different factors according to which it is efficient to benchmark airports performance. As methods are considered mainly data envelopment analysis and stochastic frontier analysis. Apart from them other approaches are discussed by airports to provide economic benchmarking. The main objective of this article is to evaluate the efficiency of the airports and answer some undetermined questions involving economic benchmarking of the airports.

  8. 47 CFR 73.154 - AM directional antenna partial proof of performance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... available to the FCC upon request. Maps showing new measurement points, i.e., points not measured in the...) Measurement points shall be selected from the points measured in latest full proof of performance provided..., the licensee shall measure directional field strength for comparison to either the directional or the...

  9. Performance Assessment of Low-Noise Road Surfaces in the Leopoldo Project: Comparison and Validation of Different Measurement Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Licitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In almost all urban contexts and in many extra-urban conurbations, where road traffic is the main noise pollution source, the use of barriers is not allowed. In these cases, low-noise road surfaces are the most used mitigation action together with traffic flow reduction. Selecting the optimal surface is only the first problem that the public administration has to face. In the second place, it has to consider the issue of assessing the efficacy of the mitigation action. The purpose of the LEOPOLDO project was to improve the knowledge in the design and the characterization of low-noise road surfaces, producing guidelines helpful to the public administrations. Several experimental road surfaces were tested. Moreover, several measurement methods were implemented aiming to select those that are suitable for a correct assessment of the pavement performances laid as mitigation planning. In this paper, the experience gained in the LEOPOLDO project will be described, focusing on both the measurement methods adopted to assess the performance of a low-noise road surface and the criteria by which the experimental results have to be evaluated, presenting a comparison of the obtained results and their monitoring along time.

  10. Performance comparison of weighted sum-minimum mean square error and virtual signal-to-interference plus noise ratio algorithms in simulated and measured channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maryam; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    A comparison in data achievement between two well-known algorithms with simulated and real measured data is presented. The algorithms maximise the data rate in cooperative base stations (BS) multiple-input-single-output scenario. Weighted sum-minimum mean square error algorithm could be used...... in multiple-input-multiple-output scenarios, but it has lower performance than virtual signal-to-interference plus noise ratio algorithm in theory and practice. A real measurement environment consisting of two BS and two users have been studied to evaluate the simulation results....

  11. Comparison of power performance and noise between Aeolus 2 and Naesudden 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, C.; Hinsch, J.; Gabriel, J.; Klug, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut gGmbH (DEWI), Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Ronsten, G. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Simonssen, B. [KM Akustikbyraan, Solna (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The German Wind Energy Institute DEWI and the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden FFA perform comparing measurements at the 3 MW sister turbines Aeolus II and Naesudden II in the framework of WEGA II (CAN-Project). Results exist concerning the comparison of power performance and noise emission. Load measurements have been carried out but no comparing results are available yet. In the case of Aeolus II interesting effects of different meteorological conditions on the power performance have been found. The project will continue till the end of 1996. 6 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  12. Batting and bowling performance measures for list-A and first class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is always difficult to decide whether a batsman (or bowler) who performs well in domestic matches should replace a player in the national team. It is therefore necessary that a sound basis should be found for a comparison of players' performances on local and international levels. In this study the performance measures ...

  13. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/ Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halevy, I.; Dadon, S.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Rofe, S.; Yaar, I.; Wasiolek, P.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC/NA-46) Program, the comparison of the U.S. and Israeli Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) study was proposed and accepted. The study, organized by the DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), involved the DOE/NNSA Aerial Measuring System Project based at the RSL and operated under a contractor agreement by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), and the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Aerial Measuring System. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000 (figure 1, down), was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE Spectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A, figure 1 up) on U.S. DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). A four-person Israeli team from the IAEC, Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) supported the activity. The main objective of this joint comparison was use the DOE/RSL Bell-412 helicopter aerial platform, perform the comparison study of measuring techniques and radiation acquisition systems utilized for emergency response by IEAC and NNSA AMS

  14. An interlaboratory comparison programme on radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements: the second round of the scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolopoulou, E.P.; Ztoupis, I.N.; Gonos, I.F.; Stathopulos, I.A.; Karabetsos, E.

    2015-01-01

    The second round of an interlaboratory comparison scheme on radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements has been conducted in order to evaluate the overall performance of laboratories that perform measurements in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and broadcast antenna facilities. The participants recorded the electric field strength produced by two high frequency signal generators inside an anechoic chamber in three measurement scenarios with the antennas transmitting each time different signals at the FM, VHF, UHF and GSM frequency bands. In each measurement scenario, the participants also used their measurements in order to calculate the relative exposure ratios. The results were evaluated in each test level calculating performance statistics (z-scores and E n numbers). Subsequently, possible sources of errors for each participating laboratory were discussed, and the overall evaluation of their performances was determined by using an aggregated performance statistic. A comparison between the two rounds proves the necessity of the scheme. (authors)

  15. Interlaboratory comparisons in kerma in the air measures and absorbed dose in water using 60Co beams in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, Paulo Henrique Goncalves; Silva, Cosme Norival Mello da

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure that the measures of a quantity have high reliability and traceability interlaboratory comparisons are performed. The LNMRI has participated in several these interlaboratory comparisons. In the period 2000-2013 the LNMRI participated in 5 interlaboratory comparisons for measurement of kerma coefficients in the air and absorbed dose coefficients in the water. The results of interlaboratory comparisons indicate that the measures taken are appropriate to the LNMRI regarding the accuracy and precision measuring of these quantities

  16. Comparison of mixing height parameterizations with profiles measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquier, A.; Stuebi, R.; Tercier, P. [Swiss Meteorological Inst., SMI - MeteoSwiss, Payerne (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    Different meteorological pre-processors for dispersion studies are available to derive the atmospheric boundary layer mixing height (MH). The analysis of their performances has been reviewed in the framework of the European COST Action 710. In this project, the computed mixing height values have been compared with data derived mostly from aero-logical sounding analysis and Sodar measurements. Since then, a new analysis of a low-tropospheric wind profiler (WP) data has been performed taking advantage of its high data sampling ({delta}t {approx} 30 sec.). The comparison between these recent results and aero-logical sounding, Sodar data, as well as to meteorological pre-processors calculations are reported for three periods of several days corresponding to different meteorological situations. In convective conditions, the pre-processors give reasonable level, the mixing height growing rate is in fair agreement with the measured one. In stable cloudy daytime conditions, the modeled mixing height does not correspond to any measured height. (LN)

  17. DESIGNING COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM USING BALANCE SCORECARD APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Mukti Soleh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to design how to measure company performance by using balance scorecard approach in coal transportation services industry. Depth interview was used to obtain qualitative data determination of strategic objectives, key performance indicators, strategic initiatives, and in charge units for each balanced scorecard perspectives while the quantitative data were obtained from weighting through questionnaires and analyzed using paired comparison to get a perspective what mostly affected the performance of the company. To measure the achievement of corporate performance, each KPI used (1 the scoring system with the methods that higher is better, lower is better and precise is better; (2 traffic light system with the help of green, yellow, red for identification of target achievement. This research result shows that in the balance scorecard perspective, the most influences on the overall performance of the company include the customer's perspective (31%, financial perspective (29%, internal business processes (21%, learning, and growth 19%. Keywords: balance scorecard, paired comparison, coal transportation serviceABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang pengukuran kinerja perusahaan dengan menggunakan pendekatan balance scorecard di industri jasa pengangkutan batu bara. Data kualitatif diperoleh melalui indepth interview digunakan untuk menentukan sasaran strategik, indikator kinerja utama, inisiatif strategi dan penanggungjawab setiap divisi setiap perspektif balance scorecard, sedangkan data kuantitatif digunakan untuk pembobotan melalui kuesioner dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode paired comparisson untuk mendapatkan perspektif yang paling berpengaruh terhadap kinerja perusahaan. Ukuran pencapaian kinerja perusahaan dari setiap KPI menggunakan; (1 scoring system dengan bantuan metode higher is better, lower is better dan precise is better;(2 traffic light system dengan menggunakan bantuan warna hijau, kuning, merah

  18. Evaluation of personal dosemeters and comparative measurements performed by PTB in the years 1979 through 1984. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Buchholz, G.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison measurements of the official individual dosemeters performed in the PTB from 1979 to 1984 are described. Also a number of other, unofficial individual dosemeters participated. The performance of the comparison measurements and the types of the individual dosemeters are described. Tables show the values measured with the film dosemeters, with film and TLD dosemeters, and TLD dosemeters as well as dosimetric probes for whole-body and partial body dose measurement. (DG) [de

  19. Multitasking TORT Under UNICOS: Parallel Performance Models and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Barnett, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The existing parallel algorithms in the TORT discrete ordinates were updated to function in a UNI-COS environment. A performance model for the parallel overhead was derived for the existing algorithms. The largest contributors to the parallel overhead were identified and a new algorithm was developed. A parallel overhead model was also derived for the new algorithm. The results of the comparison of parallel performance models were compared to applications of the code to two TORT standard test problems and a large production problem. The parallel performance models agree well with the measured parallel overhead

  20. Multitasking TORT under UNICOS: Parallel performance models and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, A.; Azmy, Y.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The existing parallel algorithms in the TORT discrete ordinates code were updated to function in a UNICOS environment. A performance model for the parallel overhead was derived for the existing algorithms. The largest contributors to the parallel overhead were identified and a new algorithm was developed. A parallel overhead model was also derived for the new algorithm. The results of the comparison of parallel performance models were compared to applications of the code to two TORT standard test problems and a large production problem. The parallel performance models agree well with the measured parallel overhead

  1. Comparison of Different Approaches for Measuring Tibial Cartilage Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease affecting bones and cartilage especially in the human knee. In this context, cartilage thickness is an indicator for knee cartilage health. Thickness measurements are performed on medical images acquired in-vivo. Currently, there is no standard method agreed upon that defines a distance measure in articular cartilage. In this work, we present a comparison of different methods commonly used in literature. These methods are based on nearest neighbors, surface normal vectors, local thickness and potential field lines. All approaches were applied to manual segmentations of tibia and lateral and medial tibial cartilage performed by experienced raters. The underlying data were contrast agent-enhanced cone-beam C-arm CT reconstructions of one healthy subject’s knee. The subject was scanned three times, once in supine position and two times in a standing weight-bearing position. A comparison of the resulting thickness maps shows similar distributions and high correlation coefficients between the approaches above 0.90. The nearest neighbor method results on average in the lowest cartilage thickness values, while the local thickness approach assigns the highest values. We showed that the different methods agree in their thickness distribution. The results will be used for a future evaluation of cartilage change under weight-bearing conditions.

  2. Key indicators for organizational performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Haddadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each organization for assessing the amount of utility and desirability of their activities, especially in complex and dynamic environments, requires determining and ranking the vital performance indicators. Indicators provide essential links among strategy, execution and ultimate value creation. The aim of this paper is to develop a framework, which identifies and prioritizes Key Performance Indicators (KPIs that a company should focus on them to define and measure progress towards organizational objectives. For this purpose, an applied research was conducted in 2013 in an Iranian telecommunication company. We first determined the objectives of the company with respect to four perspectives of BSC (Balanced Scorecard framework. Next, performance indicators were listed and paired wise comparisons were accomplished by company's high-ranked employees through standard Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP questionnaires. This helped us establish the weight of each indicator and to rank them, accordingly.

  3. Comparison of measured and predicted long term performance of grid a connected photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondol, Jayanta Deb; Yohanis, Yigzaw G.; Norton, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Predicted performance of a grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system using TRNSYS was compared with measured data. A site specific global-diffuse correlation model was developed and used to calculate the beam and diffuse components of global horizontal insolation. A PV module temperature equation and a correlation relating input and output power of an inverter were developed using measured data and used in TRNSYS to perform PV array and inverter outputs simulation. Different combinations of the tilted surface radiation model, global-diffuse correlation model and PV module temperature equation were used in the simulations. Statistical error analysis was performed to compare the results for each combination. The simulation accuracy was improved by using the new global-diffuse correlation and module temperature equation in the TRNSYS simulation. For an isotropic sky tilted surface radiation model, the average monthly difference between measured and predicted PV output before and after modification of the TRNSYS component were 10.2% and 3.3%, respectively, and, for an anisotropic sky model, 15.4% and 10.7%, respectively. For inverter output, the corresponding errors were 10.4% and 3.3% and 15.8% and 8.6%, respectively. Measured PV efficiency, overall system efficiency, inverter efficiency and performance ratio of the system were compared with the predicted results. The predicted PV performance parameters agreed more closely with the measured parameters in summer than in winter. The difference between predicted performances using an isotropic and an anisotropic sky tilted surface models is between 1% and 2%

  4. Performance Evaluation of Thermographic Cameras for Photogrammetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastikli, N.; Guler, E.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is the performance evaluation of the termographic cameras for possible use for photogrammetric documentation and deformation analyses caused by moisture and isolation problem of the historical and cultural heritage. To perform geometric calibration of the termographic camera, the 3D test object was designed with 77 control points which were distributed in different depths. For performance evaluation, Flir A320 termographic camera with 320 × 240 pixels and lens with 18 mm focal length was used. The Nikon D3X SLR digital camera with 6048 × 4032 pixels and lens with 20 mm focal length was used as reference for comparison. The size of pixel was 25 μm for the Flir A320 termographic camera and 6 μm for the Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The digital images of the 3D test object were recorded with the Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera and the image coordinate of the control points in the images were measured. The geometric calibration parameters, including the focal length, position of principal points, radial and tangential distortions were determined with introduced additional parameters in bundle block adjustments. The measurement of image coordinates and bundle block adjustments with additional parameters were performed using the PHIDIAS digital photogrammetric system. The bundle block adjustment was repeated with determined calibration parameter for both Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image coordinates was 9.6 μm and 10.5 μm for Flir A320 termographic camera and 8.3 μm and 7.7 μm for Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image points in Flir A320 termographic camera images almost same accuracy level with digital camera in comparison with 4 times bigger pixel size. The obtained results from this research, the interior geometry of the termographic cameras and lens distortion was modelled efficiently

  5. On summary measure analysis of linear trend repeated measures data: performance comparison with two competing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Ayatollahi, S M T; Towhidi, Mina; Ketabchi, Farzaneh

    2012-03-22

    The summary measure approach (SMA) is sometimes the only applicable tool for the analysis of repeated measurements in medical research, especially when the number of measurements is relatively large. This study aimed to describe techniques based on summary measures for the analysis of linear trend repeated measures data and then to compare performances of SMA, linear mixed model (LMM), and unstructured multivariate approach (UMA). Practical guidelines based on the least squares regression slope and mean of response over time for each subject were provided to test time, group, and interaction effects. Through Monte Carlo simulation studies, the efficacy of SMA vs. LMM and traditional UMA, under different types of covariance structures, was illustrated. All the methods were also employed to analyze two real data examples. Based on the simulation and example results, it was found that the SMA completely dominated the traditional UMA and performed convincingly close to the best-fitting LMM in testing all the effects. However, the LMM was not often robust and led to non-sensible results when the covariance structure for errors was misspecified. The results emphasized discarding the UMA which often yielded extremely conservative inferences as to such data. It was shown that summary measure is a simple, safe and powerful approach in which the loss of efficiency compared to the best-fitting LMM was generally negligible. The SMA is recommended as the first choice to reliably analyze the linear trend data with a moderate to large number of measurements and/or small to moderate sample sizes.

  6. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part I, sample preparation and measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R.A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we completed a project on the comparison of macrostickies measurement methods. Based on the success of the project, we decided to embark on this new project on comparison of microstickies measurement methods. When we started this project, there were some concerns and doubts principally due to the lack of an accepted definition of microstickies. However, we...

  7. A comparison of the screening performance of braided coaxial and triaxial cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.P.

    1975-03-01

    The screening performance of a coaxial screened circuit is derived from measurements of the surface transfer impedance, capacitive coupling and conductor eccentricity on short lengths of cable. This is then extended to a triaxial screen considering all the ways the two screens can be connected. Comparison of calculated performance and measured results on a 10m length show that the mechanisms of coupling interact to make triaxial cable screening worse than expected and, in fact, frequently no better than a coaxial cable. The use of superscreened cables is found to overcome all the problems known in triaxial cables. (author)

  8. Comparison of measurement- and proxy-based Vs30 values in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study was prompted by the recent availability of a significant amount of openly accessible measured VS30 values and the desire to investigate the trend of using proxy-based models to predict VS30 in the absence of measurements. Comparisons between measured and model-based values were performed. The measured data included 503 VS30 values collected from various projects for 482 seismographic station sites in California. Six proxy-based models—employing geologic mapping, topographic slope, and terrain classification—were also considered. Included was a new terrain class model based on the Yong et al. (2012) approach but recalibrated with updated measured VS30 values. Using the measured VS30 data as the metric for performance, the predictive capabilities of the six models were determined to be statistically indistinguishable. This study also found three models that tend to underpredict VS30 at lower velocities (NEHRP Site Classes D–E) and overpredict at higher velocities (Site Classes B–C).

  9. A comparison of SAR ATR performance with information theoretic predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacknell, David

    2003-09-01

    Performance assessment of automatic target detection and recognition algorithms for SAR systems (or indeed any other sensors) is essential if the military utility of the system / algorithm mix is to be quantified. This is a relatively straightforward task if extensive trials data from an existing system is used. However, a crucial requirement is to assess the potential performance of novel systems as a guide to procurement decisions. This task is no longer straightforward since a hypothetical system cannot provide experimental trials data. QinetiQ has previously developed a theoretical technique for classification algorithm performance assessment based on information theory. The purpose of the study presented here has been to validate this approach. To this end, experimental SAR imagery of targets has been collected using the QinetiQ Enhanced Surveillance Radar to allow algorithm performance assessments as a number of parameters are varied. In particular, performance comparisons can be made for (i) resolutions up to 0.1m, (ii) single channel versus polarimetric (iii) targets in the open versus targets in scrubland and (iv) use versus non-use of camouflage. The change in performance as these parameters are varied has been quantified from the experimental imagery whilst the information theoretic approach has been used to predict the expected variation of performance with parameter value. A comparison of these measured and predicted assessments has revealed the strengths and weaknesses of the theoretical technique as will be discussed in the paper.

  10. Biases and power for groups comparison on subjective health measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Jean-François; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Le Neel, Tanguy; Kubis, Gildas; Roquelaure, Yves; Sébille, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Subjective health measurements are increasingly used in clinical research, particularly for patient groups comparisons. Two main types of analytical strategies can be used for such data: so-called classical test theory (CTT), relying on observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT) relying on a response model relating the items responses to a latent parameter, often called latent trait. Whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to compare two independent groups of patients on a patient reported outcomes measurement remains unknown and was investigated using simulations. For CTT-based analyses, groups comparison was performed using t-test on the scores. For IRT-based analyses, several methods were compared, according to whether the Rasch model was considered with random effects or with fixed effects, and the group effect was included as a covariate or not. Individual latent traits values were estimated using either a deterministic method or by stochastic approaches. Latent traits were then compared with a t-test. Finally, a two-steps method was performed to compare the latent trait distributions, and a Wald test was performed to test the group effect in the Rasch model including group covariates. The only unbiased IRT-based method was the group covariate Wald's test, performed on the random effects Rasch model. This model displayed the highest observed power, which was similar to the power using the score t-test. These results need to be extended to the case frequently encountered in practice where data are missing and possibly informative.

  11. Biases and power for groups comparison on subjective health measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Hamel

    Full Text Available Subjective health measurements are increasingly used in clinical research, particularly for patient groups comparisons. Two main types of analytical strategies can be used for such data: so-called classical test theory (CTT, relying on observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT relying on a response model relating the items responses to a latent parameter, often called latent trait. Whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to compare two independent groups of patients on a patient reported outcomes measurement remains unknown and was investigated using simulations. For CTT-based analyses, groups comparison was performed using t-test on the scores. For IRT-based analyses, several methods were compared, according to whether the Rasch model was considered with random effects or with fixed effects, and the group effect was included as a covariate or not. Individual latent traits values were estimated using either a deterministic method or by stochastic approaches. Latent traits were then compared with a t-test. Finally, a two-steps method was performed to compare the latent trait distributions, and a Wald test was performed to test the group effect in the Rasch model including group covariates. The only unbiased IRT-based method was the group covariate Wald's test, performed on the random effects Rasch model. This model displayed the highest observed power, which was similar to the power using the score t-test. These results need to be extended to the case frequently encountered in practice where data are missing and possibly informative.

  12. Biases and Power for Groups Comparison on Subjective Health Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Jean-François; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Le Neel, Tanguy; Kubis, Gildas; Roquelaure, Yves; Sébille, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Subjective health measurements are increasingly used in clinical research, particularly for patient groups comparisons. Two main types of analytical strategies can be used for such data: so-called classical test theory (CTT), relying on observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT) relying on a response model relating the items responses to a latent parameter, often called latent trait. Whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to compare two independent groups of patients on a patient reported outcomes measurement remains unknown and was investigated using simulations. For CTT-based analyses, groups comparison was performed using t-test on the scores. For IRT-based analyses, several methods were compared, according to whether the Rasch model was considered with random effects or with fixed effects, and the group effect was included as a covariate or not. Individual latent traits values were estimated using either a deterministic method or by stochastic approaches. Latent traits were then compared with a t-test. Finally, a two-steps method was performed to compare the latent trait distributions, and a Wald test was performed to test the group effect in the Rasch model including group covariates. The only unbiased IRT-based method was the group covariate Wald’s test, performed on the random effects Rasch model. This model displayed the highest observed power, which was similar to the power using the score t-test. These results need to be extended to the case frequently encountered in practice where data are missing and possibly informative. PMID:23115620

  13. REAL-TIME STABILITY AND PROFILE COMPARISON MEASUREMENTS BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT LTPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is a precise angle measurement instrument, with a sensitivity and accuracy that can be in the sub-micron radian range. LTP characteristics depend on the particular LTP system schematic design, and the quality of components and assembly. The conditions of temperature, alignment, and mirror support during the measurement process vary between different laboratories, which influences significantly the test repeatability and accuracy. In this paper we introduce a direct comparison method to test the same object at the same point in the same environment at the same time by using two LTPs, which significantly increases the reliability of the comparison. A compact, portable LTP (PTLTP), which can be carried to different laboratories around the world, is used for comparison testing. Stability Comparison experiments between the LTP II at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), and the PTLTP of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) reveal significant differences in performance between the instruments. The experiment is set up so that each optical head simultaneously records both its own sample probe beam and also the probe beam from the other optical head. The two probe beams are reflected from same point on the mirror. Tests show that the stability of the PTLTP with a monolithic beam splitter is 10 times better than the stability of the LTP II which has a separated beam splitter unit. A scheme for comparing scanning measurements of a mirror is introduced. Experimental results show a significant difference between the two LTPs due mainly to distortions in the optical components inside the optical head. A new scheme is proposed for further mirror comparison scanning tests

  14. Operator Performance Comparison of two VDT-based Alarm Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Oh, In-Suk; Sim, Bong-Shick; Koo, In-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Taek; Lee, Ki-Young; Park, Jong-Kyun

    1998-01-01

    This study is carried out to investigate performance differences between two alarm presentation methods from the viewpoint of human factors and to provide items to be improved. One of the alarm display methods considered in this study displays alarm lists on VDT combined with hardwired alarm panels. The other method displays alarms on plant mimic diagrams of VDT. This alarm display method has other features for operator aid with which operator can get detailed information on the activated alarm in the mimic diagrams, and the capability for alarm processing such as alarm reduction and prioritization. To compare the two display methods, a human factor experiment was performed with a plant simulator in the ITF (Integrated Test Facility) that plant operators run for 4 event scenarios. During the experiment, physiological measurements, system and operator action log, and audio/video recordings were collected. Operators subjective opinion was collected as well after the experiment. Time, error rate and situation awareness were major human factor criteria used for the comparison during the analysis stage of the experiment. No statistical significance was found in the results of our statistical comparison analysis. Several findings were identified, however, through the analysis of subjective opinions. (authors)

  15. Procedures, analysis, and comparison of groundwater velocity measurement methods for unconfined aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearl, P.M.; Dexter, J.J.; Price, J.E.

    1988-09-01

    Six methods for determining the average linear velocity of ground- water were tested at two separate field sites. The methods tested include bail tests, pumping tests, wave propagation, tracer tests, Geoflo Meter/reg sign/, and borehole dilution. This report presents procedures for performing field tests and compares the results of each method on the basis of application, cost, and accuracy. Comparisons of methods to determine the ground-water velocity at two field sites show certain methods yield similar results while other methods measure significantly different values. The literature clearly supports the reliability of pumping tests for determining hydraulic conductivity. Results of this investigation support this finding. Pumping tests, however, are limited because they measure an average hydraulic conductivity which is only representative of the aquifer within the radius of influence. Bail tests are easy and inexpensive to perform. If the tests are conducted on the majority of wells at a hazardous waste site, then the heterogeneity of the site aquifer can be assessed. However, comparisons of bail-test results with pumping-test and tracer-test results indicate that the accuracy of the method is questionable. Consequently, the principal recommendation of this investigation, based on cost and reliability of the ground-water velocity measurement methods, is that bail tests should be performed on all or a majority of monitoring wells at a site to determine the ''relative'' hydraulic conductivities

  16. Comparison of selected variables of gaming performance in football

    OpenAIRE

    Parachin, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Title: Comparison of selected variables of gaming performance in football Objectives: Analysis of selected variables of gaming performance in the matches of professional Czech football teams in the Champions League and UEFA Europa League in 2013. During the observation to register set variables, then evaluate obtained results and compare them. Methods: The use of observational analysis and comparison of selected variables of gaming performance in competitive matches of professional football. ...

  17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THERMOGRAPHIC CAMERAS FOR PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yastikli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is the performance evaluation of the termographic cameras for possible use for photogrammetric documentation and deformation analyses caused by moisture and isolation problem of the historical and cultural heritage. To perform geometric calibration of the termographic camera, the 3D test object was designed with 77 control points which were distributed in different depths. For performance evaluation, Flir A320 termographic camera with 320 × 240 pixels and lens with 18 mm focal length was used. The Nikon D3X SLR digital camera with 6048 × 4032 pixels and lens with 20 mm focal length was used as reference for comparison. The size of pixel was 25 μm for the Flir A320 termographic camera and 6 μm for the Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The digital images of the 3D test object were recorded with the Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera and the image coordinate of the control points in the images were measured. The geometric calibration parameters, including the focal length, position of principal points, radial and tangential distortions were determined with introduced additional parameters in bundle block adjustments. The measurement of image coordinates and bundle block adjustments with additional parameters were performed using the PHIDIAS digital photogrammetric system. The bundle block adjustment was repeated with determined calibration parameter for both Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image coordinates was 9.6 μm and 10.5 μm for Flir A320 termographic camera and 8.3 μm and 7.7 μm for Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image points in Flir A320 termographic camera images almost same accuracy level with digital camera in comparison with 4 times bigger pixel size. The obtained results from this research, the interior geometry of the termographic cameras and lens distortion was

  18. Bilateral comparison between PTB and ENEA to check the performance of a commercial TDCR system for activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossert, Karsten; Capogni, Marco; Nähle, Ole J.

    2014-01-01

    The only commercial TDCR counter from Hidex Oy (Finland), comprising three photomultiplier tubes, was tested at the two National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) PTB and ENEA. To this end, the two NMIs purchased a Hidex 300 SL TDCR counter (METRO version) each and carried out various tests at their laboratories. In addition, the two institutions agreed to organize a bilateral comparison in order to acquire information on the reproducibility of the results obtained with the counters. To achieve this, PTB prepared some 89 Sr liquid scintillation samples, which were first measured in various counters at PTB and then shipped to ENEA for comparative measurements. The aim of this paper is to summarize the findings on the counter characteristics and adjustments. In addition, the results of the bilateral comparison between PTB and ENEA are presented and the results from various commercial counters using the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing and the TDCR method are discussed. - Highlights: • The TDCR counter from Hidex Oy was tested at PTB and ENEA. • The studies comprised linearity checks and investigation of adjustments. • A bilateral 89 Sr comparison was organized to compare two Hidex counters

  19. Unique electron polarimeter analyzing power comparison and precision spin-based energy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph Grames; Charles Sinclair; Joseph Mitchell; Eugene Chudakov; Howard Fenker; Arne Freyberger; Douglas Higinbotham; Poelker, B.; Michael Steigerwald; Michael Tiefenback; Christian Cavata; Stephanie Escoffier; Frederic Marie; Thierry Pussieux; Pascal Vernin; Samuel Danagoulian; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Renee Fatemi; Kyungseon Joo; Markus Zeier; Viktor Gorbenko; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Brian Raue; Riad Suleiman; Benedikt Zihlmann

    2004-01-01

    Precision measurements of the relative analyzing powers of five electron beam polarimeters, based on Compton, Moller, and Mott scattering, have been performed using the CEBAF accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory). A Wien filter in the 100 keV beamline of the injector was used to vary the electron spin orientation exiting the injector. High statistical precision measurements of the scattering asymmetry as a function of the spin orientation were made with each polarimeter. Since each polarimeter receives beam with the same magnitude of polarization, these asymmetry measurements permit a high statistical precision comparison of the relative analyzing powers of the five polarimeters. This is the first time a precise comparison of the analyzing powers of Compton, Moller, and Mott scattering polarimeters has been made. Statistically significant disagreements among the values of the beam polarization calculated from the asymmetry measurements made with each polarimeter reveal either errors in the values of the analyzing power, or failure to correctly include all systematic effects. The measurements reported here represent a first step toward understanding the systematic effects of these electron polarimeters. Such studies are necessary to realize high absolute accuracy (ca. 1%) electron polarization measurements, as required for some parity violation measurements planned at Jefferson Laboratory. Finally, a comparison of the value of the spin orientation exiting the injector that provides maximum longitudinal polarization in each experimental hall leads to an independent and very precise (better than 10-4) absolute measurement of the final electron beam energy

  20. How do american students measure up? Making sense of international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In response to frequent news media reports about how poorly American students fare compared with their peers abroad, Daniel Koretz takes a close look at what these comparisons say, and do not say, about the achievement of U.S. high school students. He stresses that the comparisons do not provide what many observers of education would like: unambiguous information about the effectiveness of American high schools compared with those in other nations. Koretz begins by describing the. two principal international student comparisons-the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Both assessments, he stresses, reflect the performance of students several years before they complete high school. PISA, which targets fifteen-year-old students, measures students' abilities to apply what they have learned in school to real-world problems. By contrast, TIMSS tests fourth and eighth graders. Unlike PISA, TIMSS follows the school curriculum closely. Because the findings of the two tests are sometimes inconsistent, Koretz stresses the importance of considering data from both sources. He cautions against comparing U.S. students with an "international average," which varies widely from survey to survey depending on which countries participate, and recommends instead comparing them with students in other nations that are similar to the United States or that are particularly high-achieving. Many observers, says Koretz, speculate that the lackluster average performance of American students in international comparisons arises because many, especially minority and low-income U.S. students, attend low-performing schools. But both TIMSS and PISA, he says, show that the performance of American students on the exams is not much more variable than that of students in countries that are socially more homogeneous or that have more equitable educational systems. Koretz emphasizes that the international comparisons

  1. Using the balanced scorecard to measure Chinese and Japanese hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-yun; Yamauchi, Kazunobu; Kato, Ken; Nishimura, Akio; Ito, Katuski

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to confirm the feasibility and value of using the balanced scorecard (BSC) to measure performance in two hospitals in different countries. One hospital from China and another from Japan were chosen and key indicators were selected according to the BSC framework. A comparative hospital performance measurement model was set up using the BSC framework to comprehensively compare hospital performance in two countries. The BSC was found to be effective for underlining existing problems and identifying opportunities for improvements. The BSC also revealed the hospitals' contribution to performance improvement of each country's total health system. Hospital performance comparisons between countries using the BSC depend on the selection of feasible and appropriate key performance indicators, which is occasionally limited by data collection problems. The first use of the BSC to compare hospital performance between China and Japan shows benefits that not only suggests performance improvements in individual hospitals but also reveals effective health factors allowing implementation of valid national health policies.

  2. Comparison of anterior segment parameters and axial length measurements performed on a Scheimpflug device with biometry function and a reference optical biometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka-Woźniak, Maria; Oleszko, Adam

    2018-04-26

    To compare measurements of axial length (AL), corneal curvature (K), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and white-to-white (WTW) distance on a new device combining Scheimpflug camera and partial coherence interferometry (Pentacam AXL) with a reference optical biometer (IOL Master 500). To evaluate differences between IOL power calculations based on the two biometers. Ninety-seven eyes of 97 consecutive cataract or refractive lens exchange patients were examined preoperatively on IOL Master 500 and Pentacam AXL units. Comparisons between two devices were performed for AL, K, ACD and WTW. Intraocular lens (IOL) power targeting emmetropia was calculated with SRK/T and Haigis formulas on both devices and compared. There were statistically significant differences between two devices for all measured parameters (P eyes for Haigis formula and in 62% of eyes for SRK/T formula, with a mean difference within ± 0.5 D for 72 and 86% of eyes, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between AL, K and WTW measurements obtained with the compared biometers. Flatter corneal curvature measurements on Pentacam AXL necessitate formulas optimisation for Pentacam AXL.

  3. Comparison of two approaches for establishing performance criteria related to Maintenance Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerng, Dong-Wook; Kim, Man Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) serves as a tool for systemically analyzing the safety of nuclear power plants. This paper explains and compares two approaches for the establishment of performance criteria related to the Maintenance Rule: (1) the individual reliability-based approach, and (2) the PSA importance measure-based approach. Different characteristics of the two approaches were compared in a qualitative manner, while a quantitative comparison was performed through application of the two approaches to a nuclear power plant. It was observed that the individual reliability-based approach resulted in more conservative performance criteria, compared to the PSA importance measure-based approach. It is thus expected that the PSA importance measure-based approach will allow for more flexible maintenance policy under conditions of limited resources, while providing for a macroscopic view of overall plant safety. Based on insights derived through this analysis, we emphasize the importance of a balance between reliability and safety significance, and propose a balance measure accordingly. The conclusions of this analysis are likely to be applicable to other types of nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Peer influence on students' estimates of performance: social comparison in clinical rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raat, A N Janet; Kuks, Jan B M; van Hell, E Ally; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-02-01

    During clinical rotations, students move from one clinical situation to another. Questions exist about students' strategies for coping with these transitions. These strategies may include a process of social comparison because in this context it offers the student an opportunity to estimate his or her abilities to master a novel rotation. These estimates are relevant for learning and performance because they are related to self-efficacy. We investigated whether student estimates of their own future performance are influenced by the performance level and gender of the peer with whom the student compares him- or herself. We designed an experimental study in which participating students (n = 321) were divided into groups assigned to 12 different conditions. Each condition entailed a written comparison situation in which a peer student had completed the rotation the participant was required to undertake next. Differences between conditions were determined by the performance level (worse, similar or better) and gender of the comparison peer. The overall grade achieved by the comparison peer remained the same in all conditions. We asked participants to estimate their own future performance in that novel rotation. Differences between their estimates were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Students' estimates of their future performance were highest when the comparison peer was presented as performing less well and lowest when the comparison peer was presented as performing better (p influences students' estimates of their future performance in a novel rotation. The effect depends on the performance level and gender of the comparison peer. This indicates that comparisons against particular peers may strengthen or diminish a student's self-efficacy, which, in turn, may ease or hamper the student's learning during clinical rotations. The study is limited by its experimental design. Future research should focus on students' comparison behaviour in real transitions

  5. Comparison of Thermal Properties Measured by Different Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Haelldahl, Lars

    2003-04-01

    A strategy for a thermal site descriptive model of bedrock is under development at SKB. In the model different kinds of uncertainties exist. Some of these uncertainties are related to the potential errors in the methods used for determining thermal properties of rock. In two earlier investigations thermal properties of rock samples were analysed according to the TPS method (transient plane source). Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were determined using the TPS method. For a comparison, the same samples have been measured at the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF), using different laboratory methods. In this later investigation, the thermal conductivity was determined using the divided-bar method and the specific heat capacity using a calorimetric method. The mean differences between the results of different methods are relatively low but the results of individual samples show large variations. The thermal conductivity measured by the divided bar method gives for most samples slightly higher values, in average about 3%, than the TPS method. The specific heat capacity measured by the calorimetric method gives lower values, in average about 2%, than the TPS method. Consequently, the thermal diffusivity calculated from thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity gives higher values, in average about 6%, than the TPS method. Reasons for the differences are estimated mainly to be dependent on differences between the samples, errors in the temperature dependence of specific heat and in the transformation from volumetric to specific heat. The TPS measurements are performed using two pieces (sub-samples) of rock. Only one of these two sub-samples was measured using the divided bar method and the calorimetric method. Further, sample preparation involved changes in the size of some of the samples. The mean differences between the results of different methods are within the margins of error reported by the measuring laboratories. However, systematic errors in

  6. Comparison of Thermal Properties Measured by Different Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Kukkonen, Ilmo [Geological Survey of Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Haelldahl, Lars [Hot Disk AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    A strategy for a thermal site descriptive model of bedrock is under development at SKB. In the model different kinds of uncertainties exist. Some of these uncertainties are related to the potential errors in the methods used for determining thermal properties of rock. In two earlier investigations thermal properties of rock samples were analysed according to the TPS method (transient plane source). Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were determined using the TPS method. For a comparison, the same samples have been measured at the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF), using different laboratory methods. In this later investigation, the thermal conductivity was determined using the divided-bar method and the specific heat capacity using a calorimetric method. The mean differences between the results of different methods are relatively low but the results of individual samples show large variations. The thermal conductivity measured by the divided bar method gives for most samples slightly higher values, in average about 3%, than the TPS method. The specific heat capacity measured by the calorimetric method gives lower values, in average about 2%, than the TPS method. Consequently, the thermal diffusivity calculated from thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity gives higher values, in average about 6%, than the TPS method. Reasons for the differences are estimated mainly to be dependent on differences between the samples, errors in the temperature dependence of specific heat and in the transformation from volumetric to specific heat. The TPS measurements are performed using two pieces (sub-samples) of rock. Only one of these two sub-samples was measured using the divided bar method and the calorimetric method. Further, sample preparation involved changes in the size of some of the samples. The mean differences between the results of different methods are within the margins of error reported by the measuring laboratories. However, systematic errors in

  7. Performance comparison of Islamic and commercial banks in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizud-din, Azimah; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh; Zahid, Zalina

    2016-10-01

    The steady growth in the size and increase in the number of Islamic banks show that the Islamic banking system is considered as an alternative to the conventional banking system. Due to this, comparisons in term of performance measurements and evaluation of the financial health for both type of banks are essential. The main purpose of this study is to analyse the differences between Islamic and commercial banks performance. Five years secondary data were collected from the annual report for each bank. Return on Asset ratio is chosen as the dependent variable, while capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earning, liquidity and sensitivity to market risk (CAMELS) are the independent variables. Descriptive analyses were done to understand the data. The independent t-test and Mann Whitney test show the differences of Islamic and commercial banks based on the financial variables. The stepwise and hierarchical multiple regressions were used to determine the factor that affects profitability performance of banks. Results show that Islamic banks are better in term of profitability performance, earning power performance, liquidity performance and sensitive to market risk. The factors that affect profitability performance are capital adequacy, earning power and liquidity variable.

  8. Profit, productivity, and price differential: an international performance comparison of the natural gas transportation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Dong Lee; Sung-Bae Park; Tai-Yoo Kim

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of natural gas transportation utilities, focusing on the three-key strategic performance measures of profit, productivity, and price differential. We propose a methodology that expresses the three performance measures in a unified single equation using the Edgeworth index. The proposed methodology is applied to an international comparison of the performance of 28 natural gas transportation utilities operating in eight countries in which the business environments differ greatly. The empirical results show the possible causes of performance differences and may shed some light on the direction of regulatory policy, especially for developing countries that have relatively short histories in the natural gas industry, such as Korea. (author)

  9. A comparison of goniophotometric measurement facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a comparison between widely different goniophotometric and goniospectroradiometric measurement facilities. The objective of the comparison is to increase consistency and clarify the capabilities among Danish test laboratories. The study will seek...... to find the degree of equivalence between the various facilities and methods. The collected data is compared by using a three-way variation of principal component analysis, which is well suited for modelling large sets of correlated data. This method drastically decreases the number of numerical values...

  10. Progress in organizing national and international comparisons for nuclear medicine measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Waetjen, Anamaria C.; Ivan, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the progress registered by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, in improvement of the quality of radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement, and assurance of the whole traceability chain from international level to the national users. The progress in organization of comparisons for radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement is analyzed. A detailed description of two recent national comparisons, and an international one, regarding 131 I solutions, within the frame of the IAEA's CRP E2.10.05 'Harmonization of quality practices for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurements' is done, with the analysis of the strong and week points in measurements. The most important outcome of the paper is the analysis of the evolution in quality of comparisons since a previously reported one. At the RML level, the improvements are: demonstration of the international equivalence of primary Romanian activity standard, improvement of the secondary standard, relevance of the comparison within the IAEA frame, implementation of a quality system in standardization and in comparisons, and implication of the RML in calibrations and metrological checks. The participants' reported improvements refer to growing of the awareness in quality of measurement and improvement of the measurement equipment. Reasons for future comparisons organization are presented. (author)

  11. Emergency medical services key performance measurement in Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Tanaka, Hideharu; Shin, Sang Do; Ng, Yih Yng; Piyasuwankul, Thammapad; Lin, Chih-Hao; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    One of the key principles in the recommended standards is that emergency medical service (EMS) providers should continuously monitor the quality and safety of their services. This requires service providers to implement performance monitoring using appropriate and relevant measures including key performance indicators. In Asia, EMS systems are at different developmental phases and maturity. This will create difficultly in benchmarking or assessing the quality of EMS performance across the region. An attempt was made to compare the EMS performance index based on the structure, process, and outcome analysis. The data was collected from the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcome Study (PAROS) data among few Asian cities, namely, Tokyo, Osaka, Singapore, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Taipei, and Seoul. The parameters of inclusions were broadly divided into structure, process, and outcome measurements. The data was collected by the site investigators from each city and keyed into the electronic web-based data form which is secured strictly by username and passwords. Generally, there seems to be a more uniformity for EMS performance parameters among the more developed EMS systems. The major problem with the EMS agencies in the cities of developing countries like Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur is inadequate or unavailable data pertaining to EMS performance. There is non-uniformity in the EMS performance measurement across the Asian cities. This creates difficulty for EMS performance index comparison and benchmarking. Hopefully, in the future, collaborative efforts such as the PAROS networking group will further enhance the standardization in EMS performance reporting across the region.

  12. OPAL shield design performance assessment. Comparison of measured dose rates against the corresponding design calculated values. A designer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizuela, Martin; Albornoz, Felipe [INVAP SE, Av. Cmte. Piedrabuena, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    A comparison of OPAL shielding calculations against measurements carried out during Commissioning, is presented for relevant structures such as the reactor block, primary shutters, neutron guide bunker, etc. All the results obtained agree very well with the measured values and contribute to establish the confidence on the calculation tools (MCNP4, DORT, etc.) and methodology used for shielding design. (author)

  13. Acceleration performance of individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax measured with a sprint performance chamber: comparison with high-speed cinematography and correlates with ecological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamm, Joshua P; Marras, Stefano; Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey A; Nelson, Jay A

    2012-01-01

    Locomotor performance can influence the ecological and evolutionary success of a species. For fish, favorable outcomes of predator-prey encounters are often presumably due to robust acceleration ability. Although escape-response or "fast-start" studies utilizing high-speed cinematography are prevalent, little is known about the contribution of relative acceleration performance to ecological or evolutionary success in a species. This dearth of knowledge may be due to the time-consuming nature of analyzing film, which imposes a practical limit on sample sizes. Herein, we present a high-throughput potential alternative for measuring fish acceleration performance using a sprint performance chamber (SPC). The acceleration performance of a large number of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two populations was analyzed. Animals from both hatchery and natural ontogenies were assessed, and animals of known acceleration ability had their ecological performance measured in a mesocosm environment. Individuals from one population also had their acceleration performance assessed by both high-speed cinematography and an SPC. Acceleration performance measured in an SPC was lower than that measured by classical high-speed video techniques. However, short-term repeatability and interindividual variation of acceleration performance were similar between the two techniques, and the SPC recorded higher sprint swimming velocities. Wild fish were quicker to accelerate in an SPC and had significantly greater accelerations than all groups of hatchery-raised fish. Acceleration performance had no significant effect on ecological performance (as assessed through animal growth and survival in the mesocosms). However, it is worth noting that wild animals did survive predation in the mesocosm better than farmed ones. Moreover, the hatchery-originated fish that survived the mesocosm experiment, when no predators were present, displayed significantly increased acceleration

  14. Experimental comparison of particle interaction measurement techniques using optical traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, Timothy P.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Molecke, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    Optical tweezers has become a powerful and common tool for sensitive determination of electrostatic interactions between colloidal particles. Recently, two techniques, 'blinking' tweezers and direct force measurements, have become increasingly prevalent in investigations of inter-particle potentials. The 'blinking' tweezers method acquires physical statistics of particle trajectories to determine drift velocities, diffusion coefficients, and ultimately colloidal forces as a function of the center-center separation of two particles. Direct force measurements monitor the position of a particle relative to the center of an optical trap as the separation distance between two continuously trapped particles is gradually decreased. As the particles near each other, the displacement from the trap center for each particle increases proportional to the inter-particle force. Although commonly employed in the investigation of interactions of colloidal particles, there exists no direct comparison of these experimental methods in the literature. In this study, an experimental apparatus was developed capable of performing both methods and is used to quantify electrostatic potentials between particles in several particle/solvent systems. Comparisons are drawn between the experiments conducted using the two measurement techniques, theory, and existing literature. Forces are quantified on the femto-Newton scale and results agree well with literature values

  15. Public Reporting of Primary Care Clinic Quality: Accounting for Sociodemographic Factors in Risk Adjustment and Performance Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Douglas R; Finch, Michael; Kreiger, Rob; Reeves, David

    2018-01-03

    Performance measurement and public reporting are increasingly being used to compare clinic performance. Intended consequences include quality improvement, value-based payment, and consumer choice. Unintended consequences include reducing access for riskier patients and inappropriately labeling some clinics as poor performers, resulting in tampering with stable care processes. Two analytic steps are used to maximize intended and minimize unintended consequences. First, risk adjustment is used to reduce the impact of factors outside providers' control. Second, performance categorization is used to compare clinic performance using risk-adjusted measures. This paper examines the effects of methodological choices, such as risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors in risk adjustment and accounting for patients clustering by clinics in performance categorization, on clinic performance comparison for diabetes care, vascular care, asthma, and colorectal cancer screening. The population includes all patients with commercial and public insurance served by clinics in Minnesota. Although risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors has a significant effect on quality, it does not explain much of the variation in quality. In contrast, taking into account the nesting of patients within clinics in performance categorization has a substantial effect on performance comparison.

  16. Comparison of the inversion algorithms applied to the ozone vertical profile retrieval from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozanov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to an intercomparison of ozone vertical profiles retrieved from the measurements of scattered solar radiation performed by the SCIAMACHY instrument in the limb viewing geometry. Three different inversion algorithms including the prototype of the operational Level 1 to 2 processor to be operated by the European Space Agency are considered. Unlike usual validation studies, this comparison removes the uncertainties arising when comparing measurements made by different instruments probing slightly different air masses and focuses on the uncertainties specific to the modeling-retrieval problem only. The intercomparison was performed for 5 selected orbits of SCIAMACHY showing a good overall agreement of the results in the middle stratosphere, whereas considerable discrepancies were identified in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere altitude region. Additionally, comparisons with ground-based lidar measurements are shown for selected profiles demonstrating an overall correctness of the retrievals.

  17. Analysis of measured and simulated performance data of a 3.2 kWp grid-connected PV system in Port Elizabeth, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, D.; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparisons between actual measured and simulated performance of a grid-connected PV system. • Simulation using measured climate data sets gave good monthly energy yield comparisons to the measured. • The measured performance ratio of 84.3% shows vast solar energy potential in Eastern Cape region of South Africa. • Better annual specific yield is observed in this study compared to other studies internationally. - Abstract: This paper analyzes and compares the actual measured and simulated performance of a 3.2 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system. The system is located at the Outdoor Research Facility (34.01°S, 25.67°E) at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), South Africa. The system consists of 14 poly crystalline silicon modules connected in two strings of 7 series-connected modules, each facing north at a fixed tilt of 34°. The data presented in this study were measured in the year 2013, where the system supplied a total of 5757 kW h to the local electric utility grid. The performance of the system was simulated using PVsyst software using measured and Meteonorm derived climate data sets (solar radiation, ambient temperature and wind speed). The comparison between measured and simulated energy yield are discussed. Although, both simulation results were similar, better comparison between measured and predicted monthly energy yield is observed with simulation performed using measured weather data at the site. The measured performance ratio in the present study is 84% which is slightly higher than values of 74%, 81.5%, 67.4%, 70% and 64.5% reported is Khatkar-Kalan (India), Dublin (Ireland), Crete (Greece), Karnataka (India) and Malaga (Spain), respectively

  18. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K9.2: Subsequent key comparison on pH determination of phosphate buffer by Harned cell measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Petra; Giera, Janine; Fraga, Isabel C.; Tønnes Jakobsen, Pia; Jensen, Hans D.; Hyllested, Peter; Karpov, Oleg; Kutovoy, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Susumu; Vospelova, Alena; Zvezdina, Valentina

    2008-01-01

    CCQM-K9.2 was performed supplementary to the key comparison CCQM-K9 on the pH determination of a phosphate buffer with nominal pH ~ 6.9 (at 25 °C). The sample composition was very similar in both comparisons. Only the source of the starting material used for sample preparation was different. The comparison was restricted to the use of the primary method for pH (Harned cell measurement) as defined in the IUPAC Recommendations [2]. The measurement temperatures were 15 °C, 25 °C, 37 °C. CCQM-K9.2, CCQM-K.9 and the first supplementary comparison CCQM-K9.1 [5] are activities of the Electrochemical Working Group (EAWG) of the CCQM. All three comparisons were coordinated by the PTB, Germany. The Danish Primary Laboratory (DPL) successfully took part in the CCQM-K9. Meanwhile the primary set-up for pH in Denmark moved from DPL affiliated to Radiometer Medical to DFM, Denmark. The subsequent comparison allows assessing the degree of equivalence for the measurement of pH at DFM after the move. Due to the interest of other laboratories in demonstrating their progress in pH measurements on the primary level the CCQM-K9.2 supplementary comparison was extended to other participants than DFM, namely NMIJ, VNIIFTRI, INMETRO and CMI. The reported quantity for CCQM-K9.2 was not the pH of the sample but the acidity function at zero chloride molality (see chapter 12). To calculate the pH value from the acidity function it is necessary to know the ionic strength of the sample buffer solution, which was undisclosed by the coordinator. With the exception of the Czech Metrology Institute, CMI, good agreement in the determined acidity function is found between the participants. The results reported by DFM and by PTB agree within their measurement uncertainty at all measurement temperatures. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report

  19. Medicare Managed Care plan Performance, A Comparison...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The study evaluates the performance of Medicare managed care, Medicare Advantage, Plans in comparison to Medicare fee-for-service Plans in three states with...

  20. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brunner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observation points. This approach allows for a very close comparison with observations and fully accounts for the specific meteorological conditions during the measurement flights. This is important considering the often limited availability and representativity of such trace gas measurements. A new extensive database including all major research and commercial aircraft measurements between 1995 and 1998, as well as ozone soundings, was established specifically to support this type of direct comparison. Quantitative methods were applied to judge model performance including the calculation of average concentration biases and the visualization of correlations and RMS errors in the form of so-called Taylor diagrams. We present the general concepts applied, the structure and content of the database, and an overall analysis of model skills over four distinct regions. These regions were selected to represent various atmospheric conditions and to cover large geographical domains such that sufficient observations are available for comparison. The comparison of model results with the observations revealed specific problems for each individual model. This study suggests the further improvements needed and serves as a benchmark for re-evaluations of such improvements. In general all models show deficiencies with respect to both mean concentrations and vertical gradients of important trace gases. These include ozone, CO and NOx at the tropopause. Too strong two-way mixing across the

  1. Performance Measurement und Environmental Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift besteht in der Entwicklung einer systematisierten Vorgehensweise, eines Controllingmodells, zur unternehmensinternen Umweltleistungsmessung. Das entwickelte Environmental Performance Measurement (EPM)-Modell umfaßt die fünf Stufen Festlegung der Ziele der Umweltleistungsmessung (1. Stufe), Erfassung der Umwelteinflüsse nach der ökologischen Erfolgsspaltung (2. Stufe), Bewertung der Umwelteinflüsse auf der Grundlage des qualitätszielbezogen...

  2. Pairwise Comparison and Distance Measure of Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Term Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set (HFLTS, allowing experts using several possible linguistic terms to assess a qualitative linguistic variable, is very useful to express people’s hesitancy in practical decision-making problems. Up to now, a little research has been done on the comparison and distance measure of HFLTSs. In this paper, we present a comparison method for HFLTSs based on pairwise comparisons of each linguistic term in the two HFLTSs. Then, a distance measure method based on the pairwise comparison matrix of HFLTSs is proposed, and we prove that this distance is equal to the distance of the average values of HFLTSs, which makes the distance measure much more simple. Finally, the pairwise comparison and distance measure methods are utilized to develop two multicriteria decision-making approaches under hesitant fuzzy linguistic environments. The results analysis shows that our methods in this paper are more reasonable.

  3. Dosimertry characteristics and performance comparisons: Environmental radiophotoluminescent glass dosemeters versus thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Lin, M.S.; Hsu, S.M.; Chen, I.J.; Chen, W.L.; Wang, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the dosimetry characteristic comparison of environmental radiophotoluminescent glass dosemeter (RPLGD) and thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) systems employed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan). The luminescence centers of TLD disappeared by reading process, and repetition of measurement is impossible. RPLGDs can be repeatedly read and keep the luminescence centers for a long time. The RPLGD fading is about 1% within 30 days after being exposed to ionizing radiation. Environmental cumulative doses measured by a RPLGD and a TLD were compared at the same monitoring points of INER during two years. The sensitivity of TLD decreased with gradual loss due to fading at higher temperatures. The difference between results obtained by RPLGD and TLD is discussed mainly with respect to the dependence on the ambient temperature. In addition, this research also refers to the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Draft Standard N13.29 (1996) to organize the environmental dosimetry performance tests of the INER's RPLGDs and the TLDs. The results mean that both kinds of dosemeters can meet the performance test criteria. An accreditation procedure for the institutes which provide the environmental dosimetry services in Taiwan was suggested based on the comparison results of these two dosimetry systems

  4. A Comparison Study on Similarity and Dissimilarity Measures in Clustering Continuous Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seyed Shirkhorshidi

    Full Text Available Similarity or distance measures are core components used by distance-based clustering algorithms to cluster similar data points into the same clusters, while dissimilar or distant data points are placed into different clusters. The performance of similarity measures is mostly addressed in two or three-dimensional spaces, beyond which, to the best of our knowledge, there is no empirical study that has revealed the behavior of similarity measures when dealing with high-dimensional datasets. To fill this gap, a technical framework is proposed in this study to analyze, compare and benchmark the influence of different similarity measures on the results of distance-based clustering algorithms. For reproducibility purposes, fifteen publicly available datasets were used for this study, and consequently, future distance measures can be evaluated and compared with the results of the measures discussed in this work. These datasets were classified as low and high-dimensional categories to study the performance of each measure against each category. This research should help the research community to identify suitable distance measures for datasets and also to facilitate a comparison and evaluation of the newly proposed similarity or distance measures with traditional ones.

  5. Towards unified performance measures for evaluating nuclear safeguard systems: mathematical foundations and formal comparison of existing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corynen, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    An important step in the analysis of large-scale systems is the development of economical and meaningful measures of system performance. In the literature on analysis of nuclear safeguard systems, many performance measures have been advanced, but their interrelationships and their relevance to overall system objectives have not received attention commensurate with the effort spent in developing detailed safeguard models. The work reported here is an attempt to improve the development and evaluation of performance measures for nuclear safeguard systems. This work falls into three main areas. First, we develop a new framework which provides an initial basis for defining and structuring performance measures. To demonstrate that this framework allows a clear understanding of the purposes of nuclear safeguard systems, we employ it to state various safeguard questions clearly and concisely. The framework reflects the rough subsystem structure of safeguard systems - the detection and response subsystems - and formally accommodates various safeguard models. We especially emphasize two of these models which are under development at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the structured assessment approach (SAA) and the systems vulnerability assessment method (SVAM). Second, we examine some performance measures presently used in the nuclear safeguards area and in reliability theory in general. Some of these we accept and modify to obtain system performance measures that are an additive combination of subsystem performance measures, a very convenient form indeed. Others we reject as impractical and meaningless. Finally, we determine some common features between the SAA and SVAM models by formally comparing these models in our framework

  6. Performance Measurement using KPKU- BUMN in X School Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arijanto, Sugih; Harsono, Ambar; Taroepratjeka, Harsono

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine X School's Strengths and Opportunity of Improvement through performance measurement using KPKU-BUMN (Kriteria Penilaian Kinerja Unggul - Kementerian Badan Usaha Milik Negara). KPKU-BUMN is developed based on Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellent (MBCfPE). X school is an education foundation at Bandung that has provides education from kindergarten, elementary school, to junior and senior high school. The measurement is implemented by two aspects, Process and Result. The Process is measured by A-D-L-I approaches (Approach- Deployment-Learning- Integration), on the other hand The Result is measured by Le-T-C-I approach (Level-Trend- Comparison-Integration). There are six processes that will be measured: (1) Leadership, (2) Strategic Planning, (3) Customer Focus, (4) Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management, (5) Work Force Focus, and (6) Operation Focus. Meanwhile, the result are (a) product & process outcomes, (b) customer-focused outcomes, (c) workforce-focused outcomes, (d) leadership & governance outcomes, and (e) financial & market outcomes. The overall score for X School is 284/1000, which means X School is at “early result” level at “poor” global image.

  7. SU-E-I-40: New Method for Measurement of Task-Specific, High-Resolution Detector System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughran, B; Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although generalized linear system analytic metrics such as GMTF and GDQE can evaluate performance of the whole imaging system including detector, scatter and focal-spot, a simplified task-specific measured metric may help to better compare detector systems. Methods: Low quantum-noise images of a neuro-vascular stent with a modified ANSI head phantom were obtained from the average of many exposures taken with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and with a Flat Panel Detector (FPD). The square of the Fourier Transform of each averaged image, equivalent to the measured product of the system GMTF and the object function in spatial-frequency space, was then divided by the normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) for each respective system to obtain a task-specific generalized signal-to-noise ratio. A generalized measured relative object detectability (GM-ROD) was obtained by taking the ratio of the integral of the resulting expressions for each detector system to give an overall metric that enables a realistic systems comparison for the given detection task. Results: The GM-ROD provides comparison of relative performance of detector systems from actual measurements of the object function as imaged by those detector systems. This metric includes noise correlations and spatial frequencies relevant to the specific object. Additionally, the integration bounds for the GM-ROD can be selected to emphasis the higher frequency band of each detector if high-resolution image details are to be evaluated. Examples of this new metric are discussed with a comparison of the MAF to the FPD for neuro-vascular interventional imaging. Conclusion: The GM-ROD is a new direct-measured task-specific metric that can provide clinically relevant comparison of the relative performance of imaging systems. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  8. Comparison of Colonoscopy Quality Measures Across Various Practice Settings and the Impact of Performance Scorecards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inra, Jennifer A; Nayor, Jennifer; Rosenblatt, Margery; Mutinga, Muthoka; Reddy, Sarathchandra I; Syngal, Sapna; Kastrinos, Fay

    2017-04-01

    Quality performance measures for screening colonoscopy vary among endoscopists. The impact of practice setting is unknown. We aimed to (1) compare screening colonoscopy performance measures among three different US practice settings; (2) evaluate factors associated with adenoma detection; and (3) assess a scorecard intervention on performance metrics. This multi-center prospective study compared patient, endoscopist, and colonoscopy characteristics performed at a tertiary care hospital (TCH), community-based hospital (CBH), and private practice group (PPG). Withdrawal times (WT), cecal intubation, and adenoma detection rates (ADR) were compared by site at baseline and 12 weeks following scorecard distribution. Generalized linear mixed models identified factors associated with adenoma detection. Twenty-eight endoscopists performed colonoscopies on 1987 asymptomatic, average-risk individuals ≥50 years. Endoscopist and patient characteristics were similar across sites. The PPG screened more men (TCH: 42.8%, CBH: 45.0%, PPG: 54.2%; p scorecard distribution. Adenoma detection was associated with increasing patient age, male gender, WT, adequate preparation, but not practice setting. Each practice performed high-quality screening colonoscopy. Scorecards did not improve performance metrics. Preparation quality varies among practice settings and can be modified to improve adenoma detection.

  9. Strategic Measures of Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Managing the human capital in education requires measuring teacher performance. To measure performance, administrators need to combine measures of practice with measures of outcomes, such as value-added measures, and three measurement systems are needed: classroom observations, performance assessments or work samples, and classroom walkthroughs.…

  10. Comparison between the Academic Performance of the National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison between the Academic Performance of the National and Regional Intake Medical Students at the University of Kordofan, Western Sudan. ... The dropout rate was 5.9% among the regional students compared to 8.9% among the national students. Conclusions: The academic performance of the national intake ...

  11. A Comparison Of GADRAS Simulated And Measured Gamma Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffcoat, R.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray radiation detection systems are continuously being developed and improved for detecting the presence of radioactive material and for identifying isotopes present. Gamma-ray spectra, from many different isotopes and in different types and thicknesses of attenuation material and matrixes, are needed to evaluate the performance of these devices. Recently, a test and evaluation exercise was performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory that required a large number of gamma-ray spectra. Simulated spectra were used for a major portion of the testing in order to provide a pool of data large enough for the results to be statistically significant. The test data set was comprised of two types of data, measured and simulated. The measured data were acquired with a hand-held Radioisotope Identification Device (RIID) and simulated spectra were created using Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS, Mitchell and Mattingly, Sandia National Laboratory). GADRAS uses a one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculation to simulate gamma-ray spectra. The measured and simulated spectra have been analyzed and compared. This paper will discuss the results of the comparison and offer explanations for spectral differences.

  12. Comparison measurements of the official individual dosimetry systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.

    1988-01-01

    At present, about 220,000 radiation workers are subject to individual monitoring of external radiation in the Federal Republic of Germany in accordance with the X-Ray Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Each radiation worker must wear at least one individual dosemeter provided by one of the five officially authorized dosemeter services. Requirements for these dosemeter services with respect to technical equipment and personnel are published in the form of a national directive. The five dosemeter services must participate in the comparison measurements for photon radiation with the official dosemeters issued by them. The comparison measurements are organized at least once a year by the Physicalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in agreement with the Federal Minister of Economics. Film dosemeters evaluated with a filter analysis procedure are most frequently used (96.% of all evaluations in 1984) to monitor the whole body exposure to photon radiation. Glass dosemeters play a minor role (0.5%). They are issued by only two officially authorized dosemeter services and are approved for measurements of photons with energies above 45 keV. According to the national directive, thermoluminescence dosemeters may be used only for partial body dosimetry of photon and beta radiation (2.8%). Nuclear track emulsion films are distributed to measure neutrons of energies above 0.5 MeV. A thermoluminescence albedo dosemeter for the measurement of less energetic neutrons is being introduced. The dosimetry systems involved in the comparison measurements and the operational radiation protection monitoring system of the Federal Republic of Germany are described elsewhere. The objective of this work is to describe the performance of the comparison measurements and to give some results obtained from 1979 to 1984

  13. Measuring recent research performance for Chinese universities using bibliometric methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2014-07-29

    This paper focuses on measuring the academic research performance of Chinese universities by using Scopus database from 2007 to 2010. We have provided meaningful indicators to measure the research performance of Chinese universities as compared to world class universities of the US and the European region. Using these indicators, we first measure the quantity and quality of the research outcomes of the universities and then examine the internationalization of research by using international collaborations, international citations and international impact metrics. Using all of this data, we finally present an overall score called research performance point to measure the comprehensive research strength of the universities for the selected subject categories. The comparison identifies the gap between Chinese universities and top-tier universities from selected regions across various subject areas. We find that Chinese universities are doing well in terms of publication volume but receive less citations from their published work. We also find that the Chinese universities have relative low percentage of publications at high impact venues, which may be the reason that they are not receiving more citations. Therefore, a careful selection of publication venues may help the Chinese universities to compete with world class universities and increase their research internationalization. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  14. Comparison of COSMIC measurements with the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vryonides

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean region with peak ionospheric characteristics (foF2–hmF2 and electron density profiles measured by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites in terms of GPS radio occultation technique and the Cyprus digisonde. In the absence of systematic ionosonde measurements over this area, COSMIC measurements provide an opportunity to perform such a study by considering observations for year 2010 to investigate the behaviour of the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean area.

  15. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...... of all other project material related to that topic, which allows to easily identify the most pertinent information. Part C lists the project partners and sponsors....

  16. 30 CFR 206.176 - How do I perform accounting for comparison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, the actual dual accounting value, for royalty purposes, is the... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I perform accounting for comparison? 206... REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas § 206.176 How do I perform accounting for comparison? (a...

  17. Timing resolution performance comparison of different SiPM devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinsky, Sergei, E-mail: dolinsky@ge.com; Fu, Geng; Ivan, Adrian

    2015-11-21

    Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices with improved parameters were recently introduced by several vendors. In addition to published manufacturer performance specifications, different research groups have reported on measurements of the available SiPMs in different operating conditions and using different test setups. In this work we performed a consistent set of test procedures for SiPM devices from various vendors, with focus on Time-of-Flight (TOF) PET detectors applications. SiPMs from Hamamatsu (HPK), SensL, Ketek, and Excelitas were tested. The same experimental setup and procedures were used for comparison of timing resolution for small (3×3 mm{sup 2}) and large (6×6 mm{sup 2} or 4×6 mm{sup 2}) devices coupled to short (3×3×10 mm{sup 3}) and long (4×4×25 mm{sup 3}) LYSO crystals. The potential opportunities for TOF PET detectors are also evaluated.

  18. The Development and Validation of Test Instruments to Measure Observation and Comparison in Junior High School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Harold Ralph

    This study attempted to design tests for the purpose of measuring the acquisition of the science skills of observation and comparison, to determine if these skills, as measured by these tests, could be differentially improved using differing amounts of training, and to determine the effects of race and cultural status on performance with the…

  19. Using Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Christopher J.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2011-01-01

    All programs have requirements. For these requirements to be met, there must be a means of measurement. A Technical Performance Measure (TPM) is defined to produce a measured quantity that can be compared to the requirement. In practice, the TPM is often expressed as a maximum or minimum and a goal. Example TPMs for a rocket program are: vacuum or sea level specific impulse (lsp), weight, reliability (often expressed as a failure rate), schedule, operability (turn-around time), design and development cost, production cost, and operating cost. Program status is evaluated by comparing the TPMs against specified values of the requirements. During the program many design decisions are made and most of them affect some or all of the TPMs. Often, the same design decision changes some TPMs favorably while affecting other TPMs unfavorably. The problem then becomes how to compare the effects of a design decision on different TPMs. How much failure rate is one second of specific impulse worth? How many days of schedule is one pound of weight worth? In other words, how to compare dissimilar quantities in order to trade and manage the TPMs to meet all requirements. One method that has been used successfully and has a mathematical basis is Utility Analysis. Utility Analysis enables quantitative comparison among dissimilar attributes. It uses a mathematical model that maps decision maker preferences over the tradeable range of each attribute. It is capable of modeling both independent and dependent attributes. Utility Analysis is well supported in the literature on Decision Theory. It has been used at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for internal programs and for contracted work such as the J-2X rocket engine program. This paper describes the construction of TPMs and describes Utility Analysis. It then discusses the use of TPMs in design trades and to manage margin during a program using Utility Analysis.

  20. A comparison between Engin and Engin-X, a new diffractometer optimized for stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dann, J.A.; Daymond, M.R.; Edwards, L.; James, J.A.; Santisteban, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Engineering diffractometers are used extensively by both engineers and materials scientists for the measurement of strain within polycrystalline materials, both metallic and ceramic. In the past neutron diffractometers have generally been built as 'all-purpose' instruments, with designs that are compromises, balancing competing requirements to measure the intensities, positions and widths of diffraction peaks simultaneously. In contrast the newly constructed diffractometer ENGIN-X was designed with the single aim of making engineering strain measurements; essentially the accurate measurement of polycrystalline lattice parameters, at a precisely determined position. Under this design philosophy, considerable performance improvements have been obtained compared to the existing instrument. This paper details the design philosophy of this instrument, including tuneable incident resolution, together with the approaches used to realise the performance required. The improved instrument performance is demonstrated here, with results obtained during the commissioning of ENGIN-X. These results include strain mapping experiments, and demonstrate the influence of resolution on required count times, and provide a direct comparison with measurements from the existing ENGIN instrument at ISIS

  1. Measurement properties of continuous text reading performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussee, Tamara; van Nispen, Ruth M A; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2014-11-01

    Measurement properties of tests to assess reading acuity or reading performance have not been extensively evaluated. This study aims to provide an overview of the literature on available continuous text reading tests and their measurement properties. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo. Subsequently, information on design and content of reading tests, study design and measurement properties were extracted using consensus-based standards for selection of health measurement instruments. Quality of studies, reading tests and measurement properties were systematically assessed using pre-specified criteria. From 2334 identified articles, 20 relevant articles were found on measurement properties of three reading tests in various languages: IReST, MNread Reading Test and Radner Reading Charts. All three reading tests scored high on content validity. Reproducibility studies (repeated measurements between different testing sessions) of the IReST and MNread of commercially available reading tests in different languages were missing. The IReST scored best on inter-language comparison, the MNread scored well in repeatability studies (repeated measurements under the same conditions) and the Radner showed good reproducibility in studies. Although in daily practice there are other continuous text reading tests available meeting the criteria of this review, measurement properties were described in scientific studies for only three of them. Of the few available studies, the quality and content of study design and methodology used varied. For testing existing reading tests and the development of new ones, for example in other languages, we make several recommendations, including careful description of patient characteristics, use of objective and subjective lighting levels, good control of working distance, documentation of the number of raters and their training, careful documentation of scoring rules and the use of Bland-Altman analyses or similar for

  2. Final report on CCQM-K9.2 : subsequent key comparison on pH determination of phosphate buffer by Harned cell measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Spitzer, Petra; Giera, Janine; Fraga, Isabel Cristina Serta; Jakobsen, Pia Tonnes; Jensen, Hans D.; Hyllested, Peter; Karpov, Oleg; Kutovoy, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Susumu; Vospelova, Alena; Zvezdina, Valentina

    2008-01-01

    CCQM-K9.2 was performed supplementary to the key comparison CCQM-K9 [1] on the pH determination of a phosphate buffer with nominal pH ~ 6.9 (at 25 °C). The sample composition was very similar in both comparisons. Only the source of the starting material used for sample preparation was different. The comparison was restricted to the use of the primary method for pH (Harned cell measurement) as defined in the IUPAC Recommendations [2]. The measurement temperatures were15 °C, 25 °C , 37...

  3. Modelling and measurement of a moving magnet linear compressor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Kun; Stone, Richard; Davies, Gareth; Dadd, Mike; Bailey, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A novel moving magnet linear compressor with clearance seals and flexure bearings has been designed and constructed. It is suitable for a refrigeration system with a compact heat exchanger, such as would be needed for CPU cooling. The performance of the compressor has been experimentally evaluated with nitrogen and a mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the performance of the linear compressor. The results from the compressor model and the measurements have been compared in terms of cylinder pressure, the ‘P–V’ loop, stroke, mass flow rate and shaft power. The cylinder pressure was not measured directly but was derived from the compressor dynamics and the motor magnetic force characteristics. The comparisons indicate that the compressor model is well validated and can be used to study the performance of this type of compressor, to help with design optimization and the identification of key parameters affecting the system transients. The electrical and thermodynamic losses were also investigated, particularly for the design point (stroke of 13 mm and pressure ratio of 3.0), since a full understanding of these can lead to an increase in compressor efficiency. - Highlights: • Model predictions of the performance of a novel moving magnet linear compressor. • Prototype linear compressor performance measurements using nitrogen. • Reconstruction of P–V loops using a model of the dynamics and electromagnetics. • Close agreement between the model and measurements for the P–V loops. • The design point motor efficiency was 74%, with potential improvements identified

  4. A comparison of performance measures for online algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, Joan; Irani, Sandy; Larsen, Kim Skak

    2009-01-01

    is to balance greediness and adaptability. We examine how these measures evaluate the Greedy Algorithm and Lazy Double Coverage, commonly studied algorithms in the context of server problems. We examine Competitive Analysis, the Max/Max Ratio, the Random Order Ratio, Bijective Analysis and Relative Worst Order...... Analysis and determine how they compare the two algorithms. We find that by the Max/Max Ratio and Bijective Analysis, Greedy is the better algorithm. Under the other measures Lazy Double Coverage is better, though Relative Worst Order Analysis indicates that Greedy is sometimes better. Our results also...... provide the first proof of optimality of an algorithm under Relative Worst Order Analysis....

  5. International price comparisons for pharmaceuticals. Measurement and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, P M; Kim, J D

    1998-01-01

    Cross-national price comparisons for pharmaceuticals are commonly used for two purposes. Comparisons based on a sample of products are used to draw conclusions about differences in average price levels. Cross-national comparisons applied to individual products are also used by governments to set domestic prices. This paper examines the major methodological issues raised by international price comparisons, focusing on measurement of differences in average price levels and the validity of policy conclusions drawn from such price comparison studies. It argues that valid measures of average price levels can only be obtained from comparisons based on a comprehensive or representative sample of products, appropriately weighted, following standard index number methods. Comparisons of individual product prices should take into account the manufacturer's entire product portfolio over time rather than focus narrowly on a single product at a point in time. Because of the great variation across countries in both the range of drug compounds available and the dosage forms, strengths and pack sizes for each compound, obtaining a broadly comprehensive or representative sample is problematical. If products are required to match on all dimensions, including molecule, manufacturer, strength and pack, as is common in most international price comparisons, then only a very small and unrepresentative sample of the drugs available in each country can be included in the analysis. A trade-off between the desire to compare only identical products and the need to compare a truly representative sample of a country's pharmaceutical market is therefore necessary. A valid comparison of average drug prices should include generics and over-the-counter products that are good substitutes for branded prescription drugs, with all forms, strengths and packs. To achieve this broad representation, however, the requirements of same manufacturer, same brand, dosage form, strength and pack size must be

  6. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  7. Interlaboratory Comparison of a physical and a virtual assembly measured by CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    In a comparison including 20 laboratories, a physical as well as a virtual assembly provided as two data sets were used to investigate measuring and post-processing approaches in Computed Tomography, CT. Different procedures were used in the comparison including one simulating in-line measurement....... The comparison demonstrated that: (i) a tangible improvement in the use of CT compared to previous comparisons; (ii) most of the participants were able to reduce their scanning time by more than 70% without increasing the length measurement errors; and (iii) most of the participants can further reduce...... their uncertainties, thereby reducing the tolerance size that can be inspected using CT in industry....

  8. The Politics of Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Larsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Performance measurements are meant to improve public decision making and organizational performance. But performance measurements are far from always rational tools for problem solving, they are also political instruments. The central question addressed in this article is how performance...... impact on the political decision making process, as the focus on performance goals entails a kind of reductionism (complex problems are simplified), sequential decision making processes (with a division in separate policy issues) and short-sighted decisions (based on the need for making operational goals)....... measurement affects public policy. The aim is to conceptualize the political consequences of performance measurements and of special concern is how performance systems influence how political decisions are made, what kind of political decisions are conceivable, and how they are implemented. The literature...

  9. Bilateral Comparison CIEMAT-CENTIS-DMR for radionuclide activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a bilateral comparison of radionuclide activity measurements between the Radionuclide Metrology Department of the Center of Isotopes of Cuba (CENTIS-DMR), and the Ionising Radiation Metrology Laboratory (LMRI) of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) of Spain. The aim of the comparison was to establish the comparability of the measurement instruments and methods used to obtain radioactive reference materials of some gamma-emitting nuclides at CENTIS-DMR. The results revealed that there are no statistically significant differences between the data reported by both laboratories. (Author) 7 refs

  10. Comparison between wire-mesh sensors and conductive needle-probes for measurements of two-phase flow parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manera, A.; Ozar, B.; Paranjape, S.; Ishii, M.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of two-phase flow parameters such as void-fraction, bubble velocities, and interfacial area density have been performed in an upwards air-water flow at atmospheric pressure by means of a four-tip needle-probe and a wire-mesh sensor. For the first time, a direct comparison between the two measuring techniques has been carried out. Both techniques are based on the measurement of the fluid conductivity. For void-fraction and velocity measurements, similarity exists between the two methodologies for signal analysis. A significantly different approach is followed, instead, for the estimation of the interfacial area concentration: while the evaluation based on the needle-probe signal is carried out by using projections of the gas-liquid interface velocity, the evaluation based on the wire-mesh signals consist in a full reconstruction of the bubbles interfaces. The comparison between the two techniques shows a good agreement.

  11. Comparison between wire-mesh sensors and conductive needle-probes for measurements of two-phase flow parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manera, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Research Center Dresden Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: annalisa.manera@psi.ch; Ozar, B.; Paranjape, S.; Ishii, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Prasser, H.-M. [Research Center Dresden Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    Measurements of two-phase flow parameters such as void-fraction, bubble velocities, and interfacial area density have been performed in an upwards air-water flow at atmospheric pressure by means of a four-tip needle-probe and a wire-mesh sensor. For the first time, a direct comparison between the two measuring techniques has been carried out. Both techniques are based on the measurement of the fluid conductivity. For void-fraction and velocity measurements, similarity exists between the two methodologies for signal analysis. A significantly different approach is followed, instead, for the estimation of the interfacial area concentration: while the evaluation based on the needle-probe signal is carried out by using projections of the gas-liquid interface velocity, the evaluation based on the wire-mesh signals consist in a full reconstruction of the bubbles interfaces. The comparison between the two techniques shows a good agreement.

  12. Neutronics model of the bulk shielding reactor (BSR): validation by comparison of calculations with the experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Miller, L.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1981-05-01

    A neutronics model for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bulk Shielding Reactor (ORNL-SAR) was developed and verified by experimental measurements. A cross-section library was generated from the 218 group Master Library using the AMPX Block Code system. A series of one-, two-, and three-dimensional neutronics calculations were performed utilizing both transport and diffusion theory. Spectral comparison was made with 58 Ni(n,p) reaction. The results of the comparison between the calculational model and other experimental measurements showed agreement within 10% and therefore the model was determined to be adequate for calculating the neutron fluence for future irradiation experiments in the ORNL-BSR

  13. Neutronics model of the bulk shielding reactor (BSR): validation by comparison of calculations with the experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.O.; Miller, L.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1981-05-01

    A neutronics model for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bulk Shielding Reactor (ORNL-SAR) was developed and verified by experimental measurements. A cross-section library was generated from the 218 group Master Library using the AMPX Block Code system. A series of one-, two-, and three-dimensional neutronics calculations were performed utilizing both transport and diffusion theory. Spectral comparison was made with /sup 58/Ni(n,p) reaction. The results of the comparison between the calculational model and other experimental measurements showed agreement within 10% and therefore the model was determined to be adequate for calculating the neutron fluence for future irradiation experiments in the ORNL-BSR.

  14. Spectral analysis of atmospheric composition: application to surface ozone model–measurement comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Bowdalo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Models of atmospheric composition play an essential role in our scientific understanding of atmospheric processes and in providing policy strategies to deal with societally relevant problems such as climate change, air quality, and ecosystem degradation. The fidelity of these models needs to be assessed against observations to ensure that errors in model formulations are found and that model limitations are understood. A range of approaches are necessary for these comparisons. Here, we apply a spectral analysis methodology for this comparison. We use the Lomb–Scargle periodogram, a method similar to a Fourier transform, but better suited to deal with the gapped data sets typical of observational data. We apply this methodology to long-term hourly ozone observations and the equivalent model (GEOS-Chem output. We show that the spectrally transformed observational data show a distinct power spectrum with regimes indicative of meteorological processes (weather, macroweather and specific peaks observed at the daily and annual timescales together with corresponding harmonic peaks at one-half, one-third, etc., of these frequencies. Model output shows corresponding features. A comparison between the amplitude and phase of these peaks introduces a new comparison methodology between model and measurements. We focus on the amplitude and phase of diurnal and seasonal cycles and present observational/model comparisons and discuss model performance. We find large biases notably for the seasonal cycle in the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere where the amplitudes are generally overestimated by up to 16 ppbv, and phases are too late on the order of 1–5 months. This spectral methodology can be applied to a range of model–measurement applications and is highly suitable for Multimodel Intercomparison Projects (MIPs.

  15. Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal microflora when fed diets containing transgenic (Mon-40-3-2) and conventional soybean meal. Jianzhuang Tan, Shasha Liu, Zhe Sun, Hongfu Zhang, Yongwei wang, Dan Liu ...

  16. comparison of performance of public and private boreholes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    comparison of the performance of three categories of boreholes namely: public operated boreholes ... Port Harcourt in River State of Nigeria is a fast developing state. ..... World. Bank. Dujam, Consultants (1988). Nation-wide water. Supply and.

  17. Comparison of ventilation measurement techniques in real conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, K.; Tomasek, L.

    2001-01-01

    Ventilation and radon entry rate are the only two quantities that influence on indoor radon behaviour. In order to investigate the effect of ventilation and radon entry rate on indoor radon behaviour separately , the Institute was equipped with continuous monitor of carbon monoxide (CO). Carbon monoxide serves as a tracer gas for the determination of air exchange rate. The use of a continuous radon monitor and the continuous monitor of CO gas at the same time enables to measure the radon entry rate and the air exchange rate separately. In the lecture are summarized results of comparison of the following three basic methods performed in real living conditions: - constant decay method; - constant tracer method; and steady rate of tracer injection to determine the air exchange rate for 222 Rn and CO gas, which were used as tracer gases. (authors)

  18. The long-term effect of social comparison on academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrens, Maike J. P. W.; Kuyper, Hans; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Buunk, Abraham P.; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was part of a large-scale cohort study among several thousand students in the Netherlands. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of comparison choice, i.e., comparison with a target performing better or worse than oneself, and academic comparative

  19. Contributions of Organizational Performance Measurement Model Performance Prism to the Balanced Scorecard: a study from the stakeholder’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Darcy da Silva Jr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the organizational performance is a big challenge to companies. Thus, we should highlight the organizational performance measurement model Balanced Scorecard (BSC. However, the Performance Prism (PP model emphasizes the organizational stakeholders and states that BSC treats them in a superficial way, giving more importance to the shareholders and the customers. The objective of this research is to identify the PP contributions to the BSC, from the stakeholders perspective. With this objective, a semi-structured script to the interviews was applied to professionals of the strategic area. In parallel, the structure of the models was compared to enrich the results, as well as to complement the analysis of the perceptions of respondents. The results were very relevant given important contributions of the PP to the BSC, opposing the original criticisms of the PP. These criticisms became questionable through the perception of respondents and the comparison between the models.

  20. THE MEASURABILITY OF CONTROLLING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Laval

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The urge to increase the performance of company processes is ongoing. Surveys indicate however, that many companies do not measure the controlling performance with a defined set of key performance indicators. This paper will analyze three categories of controlling key performance indicators based on their degree of measurability and their impact on the financial performance of a company. Potential measures to optimize the performance of the controlling department will be outlined and put in a logical order. The aligning of the controlling activity with the respective management expectation will be discussed as a key success factor of this improvement project.

  1. Using satellite observations in performance evaluation for regulatory air quality modeling: Comparison with ground-level measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odman, M. T.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A.; Chai, T.; Lee, P.; Shankar, U.; Boylan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Regulatory air quality modeling, such as State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling, requires that model performance meets recommended criteria in the base-year simulations using period-specific, estimated emissions. The goal of the performance evaluation is to assure that the base-year modeling accurately captures the observed chemical reality of the lower troposphere. Any significant deficiencies found in the performance evaluation must be corrected before any base-case (with typical emissions) and future-year modeling is conducted. Corrections are usually made to model inputs such as emission-rate estimates or meteorology and/or to the air quality model itself, in modules that describe specific processes. Use of ground-level measurements that follow approved protocols is recommended for evaluating model performance. However, ground-level monitoring networks are spatially sparse, especially for particulate matter. Satellite retrievals of atmospheric chemical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) provide spatial coverage that can compensate for the sparseness of ground-level measurements. Satellite retrievals can also help diagnose potential model or data problems in the upper troposphere. It is possible to achieve good model performance near the ground, but have, for example, erroneous sources or sinks in the upper troposphere that may result in misleading and unrealistic responses to emission reductions. Despite these advantages, satellite retrievals are rarely used in model performance evaluation, especially for regulatory modeling purposes, due to the high uncertainty in retrievals associated with various contaminations, for example by clouds. In this study, 2007 was selected as the base year for SIP modeling in the southeastern U.S. Performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, at a 12-km horizontal resolution, for this annual simulation is evaluated using both recommended ground-level measurements and non-traditional satellite

  2. A Note on Rocket Performance Comparison Through Impulse and Thrust Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N. V.

    Comparison of rocket motor systems is important when generating data to be used in making design decisions. In order to present meaningful comparisons, non-dimensional numbers related to performance are beneficial, as they remove effects of scale. Traditionally thrust coefficients and C* have been used to quantify the aerodynamic and chemical performance of a system respectively. However, it is argued here that in fact the thrust coefficient does not fully account for aerodynamic performance, as the impact of non-uniform flow at the throat is not accounted for. This discharge coefficient is usually allocated to the chemical efficiency through a correction to C*. However, this causes a coupling between chemical and aerodynamic efficiencies which may lead to poor design decisions. Through the use of a specific impulse coefficient, this risk is avoided, and furthermore comparison of unconventional nozzles becomes more straightforward. It is admitted, however, that this has no actual impact on real motor performance, being more in the way of a tidier `accounting' system.

  3. 45 CFR 305.2 - Performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.2 Performance measures. (a) The child support incentive system measures State performance levels in five program areas... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance measures. 305.2 Section 305.2 Public...

  4. Chapter 1: Reliably Measuring the Performance of Emerging Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumbles, Garry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reese, Matthew O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marshall, Ashley [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-08

    Determining the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells, especially those from new, emerging areas of technology, is important if advances in performance are to be made. However, although precise measurements are important, it is the accuracy of these types of measurements that can cause issues. Accurate measurements not only promote the development of new technology platforms, but they also enable comparisons with established technologies and allow assessments of advancements within the same field. This chapter provides insights into how measurements can be made with reasonable accuracy using both the components of the measuring system and a good protocol to acquire good data. The chapter discusses how to measure a calibrated lamp spectrum, determine a spectral mismatch factor, identify the correct reference cell and filter, define the illuminated active area, measure J-V curves to avoid any hysteresis effects, take note of sample degradation issues and avoid the temptation to artificially enhance efficiency data.

  5. Comparison of asphere measurements by tactile and optical metrological instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, R.H.; Nieuwenkamp, H.J.; Kok, G.J.P.; Blobel, G.; Nouira, H.; Küng, A.; Baas, M.; Voert, M.J.A. te; Baer, G.; Stuerwald, S.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of topography measurements of aspherical surfaces was carried out by European metrology institutes, other research institutes and a company as part of an European metrology research project. In this paper the results of this comparison are presented. Two artefacts were circulated, a

  6. Comparison of self-reported and performance-based measures of functional ability in elderly patients in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise M.; Kirkegaard, Hans; Østergaard, Lisa Gregersen

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of functional ability in elderly patients is often based on self-reported rather than performance-based measures. This study aims to compare self-reported and performance-based measures of functional ability in a population of elderly patients at an emergency department (ED)...

  7. Freight performance measures : approach analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report reviews the existing state of the art and also the state of the practice of freight performance measurement. Most performance measures at the state level have aimed at evaluating highway or transit infrastructure performance with an empha...

  8. Comparison of Stereo-PIV and Plenoptic-PIV Measurements on the Wake of a Cylinder in NASA Ground Test Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahringer, Timothy W.; Thurow, Brian S.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    A series of comparison experiments have been performed using a single-camera plenoptic PIV measurement system to ascertain the systems performance capabilities in terms of suitability for use in NASA ground test facilities. A proof-of-concept demonstration was performed in the Langley Advanced Measurements and Data Systems Branch 13-inch (33- cm) Subsonic Tunnel to examine the wake of a series of cylinders at a Reynolds number of 2500. Accompanying the plenoptic-PIV measurements were an ensemble of complementary stereo-PIV measurements. The stereo-PIV measurements were used as a truth measurement to assess the ability of the plenoptic-PIV system to capture relevant 3D/3C flow field features in the cylinder wake. Six individual tests were conducted as part of the test campaign using three different cylinder diameters mounted in two orientations in the tunnel test section. This work presents a comparison of measurements with the cylinders mounted horizontally (generating a 2D flow field in the x-y plane). Results show that in general the plenoptic-PIV measurements match those produced by the stereo-PIV system. However, discrepancies were observed in extracted pro les of the fuctuating velocity components. It is speculated that spatial smoothing of the vector fields in the stereo-PIV system could account for the observed differences. Nevertheless, the plenoptic-PIV system performed extremely well at capturing the flow field features of interest and can be considered a viable alternative to traditional PIV systems in smaller NASA ground test facilities with limited optical access.

  9. Towards integrating environmental performance in divisional performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C Ngwakwe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests an integration of environmental performance measurement (EPM into conventional divisional financial performance measures as a catalyst to enhance managers’ drive toward cleaner production and sustainable development. The approach is conceptual and normative; and using a hypothetical firm, it suggests a model to integrate environmental performance measure as an ancillary to conventional divisional financial performance measures. Vroom’s motivation theory and other literature evidence indicate that corporate goals are achievable in an environment where managers’ efforts are recognised and thus rewarded. Consequently the paper suggests that environmentally motivated managers are important to propel corporate sustainability strategy toward desired corporate environmental governance and sustainable economic development. Thus this suggested approach modestly adds to existing environmental management accounting (EMA theory and literature. It is hoped that this paper may provide an agenda for further research toward a practical application of the suggested method in a firm.

  10. Measuring CMS Software Performance in the first years of LHC collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Benelli, Gabriele; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Zemleris, Vidmantas

    2011-01-01

    The CMSSW software framework is a complex project enabling the CMS collaboration to investigate the fast growing LHC collision data sample. A software performance suite of tools has been developed and integrated in CMSSW to keep track of cpu time, memory footprint and event size on disk. These three metrics are key constraints in software development in order to meet the computing requirements used in the planning and management of the CMS computing infrastructure. The performance suite allows the measurement and tracking of the performance across the framework, publishing the results in a dedicated database. A web application makes the results easily accessible to software release managers allowing for automatic integration in CMSSW release cycle quality assurance. The performance suite is also available to individual developers for dedicated code optimization and the web application allows historic regression and comparisons across releases. The performance suite tools and the performance of the CMSSW frame...

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON MEASURING PERFORMANCE AND MARKET STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Spiridon Cosmin Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    According to neoclassical theory, the relationship between the price, respectively of marginal cost and market structures, the methods for determining the performance of a firm or of an industry, deviate from the model of perfect competition. Assessing performance involves performing comparisons, reporting that their reference level can be a standard value, or a statistical value which can be a national-regional average, a homogeneous group, or an average value at a market level. Modern theor...

  12. The performance measurement manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, R G

    1991-01-01

    The leading indicators of business performance cannot be found in financial data alone. Quality, customer satisfaction, innovation, market share--metrics like these often reflect a company's economic condition and growth prospects better than its reported earnings do. Depending on an accounting department to reveal a company's future will leave it hopelessly mired in the past. More and more managers are changing their company's performance measurement systems to track nonfinancial measures and reinforce new competitive strategies. Five activities are essential: developing an information architecture; putting the technology in place to support this architecture; aligning bonuses and other incentives with the new system; drawing on outside resources; and designing an internal process to ensure the other four activities occur. New technologies and more sophisticated databases have made the change to nonfinancial performance measurement systems possible and economically feasible. Industry and trade associations, consulting firms, and public accounting firms that already have well-developed methods for assessing market share and other performance metrics can add to the revolution's momentum--as well as profit from the business opportunities it presents. Every company will have its own key measures and distinctive process for implementing the change. But making it happen will always require careful preparation, perseverance, and the conviction of the CEO that it must be carried through. When one leading company can demonstrate the long-term advantage of its superior performance on quality or innovation or any other nonfinancial measure, it will change the rules for all its rivals forever.

  13. Diagnostic colonoscopy: performance measurement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, Naomi

    2002-07-01

    This is the fifth of a series of best practices studies undertaken by the Performance Measurement Initiative (PMI), the centerpiece of the Institute for Quality Improvement (IQI), a not-for-profit quality improvement subsidiary of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) (Performance Measurement Initiative, 1999a, 1999b, 2000a, 2000b). The IQI was created to offer clinical performance measurement and improvement opportunities to ambulatory health care organizations and others interested in quality patient care. The purpose of the study was to provide opportunities to initiate clinical performance measurement on key processes and outcomes for this procedure and use this information for clinical quality improvement. This article provides performance measurement information on how organizations that have demonstrated and validated differences in clinical practice can have similar outcomes, but at a dramatically lower cost. The intent of the article is to provide organizations with alternatives in practice to provide a better value to their patients.

  14. Comparison of the performance of the next generation of optical interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Marco; Yacoot, Andrew; Balling, Petr; Bancone, Nicola; Birlikseven, Cengiz; Çelik, Mehmet; Flügge, Jens; Hamid, Ramiz; Köchert, Paul; Kren, Petr; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Lassila, Antti; Bartolo Picotto, Gian; Şahin, Ersoy; Seppä, Jeremias; Tedaldi, Matthew; Weichert, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Six European National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) have joined forces within the European Metrology Research Programme funded project NANOTRACE to develop the next generation of optical interferometers having a target uncertainty of 10 pm. These are needed for NMIs to provide improved traceable dimensional metrology that can be disseminated to the wider nanotechnology community, thereby supporting the growth in nanotechnology. Several approaches were followed in order to develop the interferometers. This paper briefly describes the different interferometers developed by the various partners and presents the results of a comparison of performance of the optical interferometers using an x-ray interferometer to generate traceable reference displacements.

  15. Comparison of VNEM to measured data from Ringhals unit 3. (Phase 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuiki, M.; Mullet, S.

    2011-01-01

    1. PWR. Comparisons have been made of a PWR core simulator CYGNUS with VNEM neutronics module to the measured data obtained from Ringhals unit 3 NPP through the cycle 1A (core average burnup = 0 through 10,507MWD/MT). The results can be summarized as: core eigenvalue = 0.99937 +/- 0.00086 before intermediate 5 months shutdown core eigenvalue = 0.99647 +/- 0.00029 after intermediate 5 months shutdown. The reason of core eigenvalue drop after the intermediate shutdown is estimated to be the build-up of fissile elements during the long shutdown. A calculation model to track some important isotopes in addition to Xe135 and Sm149 (these isotopes are tracked in the present version of CYGNUS) has to be implemented. As for the comparison of the neutron detector readings, the agreement was excellent throughout the cycle 1A as observed in Phase 1 and 2 (2008, 2009). The burnup tilt effect was not observed during the cycle 1A. The verification of the burnup tilt model of CYGNUS will be performed in the next phase of the project. 2. BWR. A preliminary 2D numerical benchmarking was performed for BWR cores. The problems were generated imitating the NEACRP MOX PWR 2D benchmark problems. The results of comparisons of VNEM to a reference transport code (FCM2D), based on the method of characteristics, were as good as those obtained in the case of PWR cores for similar benchmarking. (Author)

  16. Weigh-in-Motion Sensor and Controller Operation and Performance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This research project utilized statistical inference and comparison techniques to compare the performance of different Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) sensors. First, we analyzed test-vehicle data to perform an accuracy check of the results reported by the sen...

  17. Between-individual comparisons in performance evaluation: a perspective from prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Kwong, Jessica Y Y

    2005-03-01

    This article examines how between-individual comparisons influence performance evaluations in rating tasks. The authors demonstrated a systematic change in the perceived difference across ratees as a result of changing the way performance information is expressed. Study 1 found that perceived performance difference between 2 individuals was greater when their objective performance levels were presented with small numbers (e.g., absence rates of 2% vs. 5%) than when they were presented with large numbers (e.g., attendance rates of 98% vs. 95%). Extending this finding to situations involving trade-offs between multiple performance attributes across ratees, Study 2 showed that the relative preference for 1 ratee over another actually reversed when the presentation format of the performance information changed. The authors draw upon prospect theory to offer a theoretical framework describing the between-individual comparison aspect of performance evaluation.

  18. The influence of uncertainties of measurements in laboratory performance evaluation using an intercomparison program of radionuclide assays in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, Luiz; Elizabeth Couto Machado Vianna, Maria; Eduardo de Oliveira, Antonio; Cristina de Melo Ferreira, Ana; Julia Camara da Silva Braganca, Maura; Faria Clain, Almir

    2006-01-01

    To show the influence of measurement uncertainties in performance evaluation of laboratories, data from 42 comparison runs were evaluated using two statistical criteria. The normalized standard deviation, D, used by US EPA, that mainly takes into account the accuracy, and the normalized deviation, E, that includes the individual laboratory uncertainty used for performance evaluation in the key-comparisons by BIPM. The results show that data evaluated by the different criteria give a significant deviation of laboratory performance in each radionuclide assay when we analyse a large quantity of data

  19. Comparison of measured and calculated burn-up of AVR-Fuel-Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagemann, R.

    1974-03-15

    Burn-up comparisons are made for small batches of three types of AVR fuel elements using a coupled EREBUS-MUPO neutronic analysis compared against test results from both nondestructive gamma-ray measurements of cesium-137 activity and destructive mass spectrometry measurements of the ratio of U-233 to U-235. The comparisons are relatively good for average burn-up and reasonably good for burn-up distributions.

  20. A comparison of ground-based hydroxyl airglow temperatures with SABER/TIMED measurements over 23° N, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Navin; Singh, Dupinder; Gurubaran, Subramanian

    2017-03-01

    Ground-based observations of OH (6, 2) Meinel band nightglow were carried out at Ranchi (23.3° N, 85.3° E), India, during January-March 2011, December 2011-May 2012 and December 2012-March 2013 using an all-sky imaging system. Near the mesopause, OH temperatures were derived from the OH (6, 2) Meinel band intensity information. A limited comparison of OH temperatures (TOH) with SABER/TIMED measurements in 30 cases was performed by defining almost coincident criterion of ±1.5° latitude-longitude and ±3 min of the ground-based observations. Using SABER OH 1.6 and 2.0 µm volume emission rate profiles as the weighing function, two sets of OH-equivalent temperature (T1. 6 and T2. 0 respectively) were estimated from its kinetic temperature profile for comparison with OH nightglow measurements. Overall, fair agreement existed between ground-based and SABER measurements in the majority of events within the limits of experimental errors. Overall, the mean value of OH-derived temperatures and SABER OH-equivalent temperatures were 197.3 ± 4.6, 192.0 ± 10.8 and 192.7 ± 10.3 K, and the ground-based temperatures were 4-5 K warmer than SABER values. A difference of 8 K or more is noted between two measurements when the peak of the OH emission layer lies in the vicinity of large temperature inversions. A comparison of OH temperatures derived using different sets of Einstein transition probabilities and SABER measurements was also performed; however, OH temperatures derived using Langhoff et al. (1986) transition probabilities were found to compare well.

  1. Description and Results: Antenna Measurement Facility Comparisons [Measurements Corner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberica Saporetti, Maria; Foged, Lars; Sierra Castañer, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, formalized facility comparison activities have become important for the documentation and validation of laboratory proficiency and competence and mandatory for achieving accreditation such as that of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 17025 or similar...... for Antennas (VISTA) IC1102, including still ongoing campaigns [3]-[5]. Results of these activities have led to improvements in antenna measurement procedures and protocols in facilities and standards [6], [7]. Due to the direct benefits available to the participants, the activities have been very successful...

  2. International Comparability of 131I, 201TI and 99mTc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa, P; Serra, R; Hernandez, A.T.; Varela, C

    2006-01-01

    This paper refers about the International Comparability of 131 I, 201 TI and 99m Tc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine. Traceability of activity measurements in nuclear medicine based in two aspects: Comparability of clinic results and the safe and effective use of drugs. A bilateral international comparison for activity measurements CIEMAT CENTIS DMR was done. 2000-2004 National Program for 99m Tc 201 TI, 131 I vial and syringe measurements in radionuclide calibrators including a simulated test for activity administration. It is employed the Cause Effect Diagram for the activity measurement result of a source in the calibrator and the statistical methods for comparing several characteristics of the obtained data. The result of the comparisons demonstrates that the measurement quality has increased from one year to another

  3. Recent activity of international comparison for nanoparticle size measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kayori; Takahata, Keiji; Misumi, Ichiko; Sugawara, Kentaro; Gonda, Satoshi; Ehara, Kensei

    2014-08-01

    Nanoparticle sizing is the most fundamental measurement for producing nanomaterials, evaluation of nanostructure, and the risk assessment of nanomaterials for human health. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is widely used as a useful and convenient technique for determining nanoparticle size in liquid; however, the precision of this technique has been unclear. Some international comparisons are now in progress to verify the measurement accuracy of nanoparticle sizing, as a typical example of Asia Pacific Metrology Programme Supplementary Comparison. In this study, we evaluated the precision of DLS technique for nanoparticle sizing and estimated the uncertainty of the DLS data for polystyrene latex suspensions. The extrapolations of apparent diffusion coefficients to infinite dilution and to lower angles yielded more precise values than those obtained at one angle and one concentration. The extrapolated particle size measured by DLS was compared to the size determined by differential mobility analyzer (DMA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before the comparison, the intensity-averaged size measured by DLS was recalculated to the number-averaged size, and the thickness of water layer attaching on the surface of particles were added into uncertainty of particle sizing by DLS. After the recalculation, the consistent values of mean particle diameter were obtained between those by DLS and by DMA, AFM, and SEM within the estimated uncertainties.

  4. Markov model plus k-word distributions: a synergy that produces novel statistical measures for sequence comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qi; Yang, Yanchun; Wang, Tianming

    2008-10-15

    Many proposed statistical measures can efficiently compare biological sequences to further infer their structures, functions and evolutionary information. They are related in spirit because all the ideas for sequence comparison try to use the information on the k-word distributions, Markov model or both. Motivated by adding k-word distributions to Markov model directly, we investigated two novel statistical measures for sequence comparison, called wre.k.r and S2.k.r. The proposed measures were tested by similarity search, evaluation on functionally related regulatory sequences and phylogenetic analysis. This offers the systematic and quantitative experimental assessment of our measures. Moreover, we compared our achievements with these based on alignment or alignment-free. We grouped our experiments into two sets. The first one, performed via ROC (receiver operating curve) analysis, aims at assessing the intrinsic ability of our statistical measures to search for similar sequences from a database and discriminate functionally related regulatory sequences from unrelated sequences. The second one aims at assessing how well our statistical measure is used for phylogenetic analysis. The experimental assessment demonstrates that our similarity measures intending to incorporate k-word distributions into Markov model are more efficient.

  5. COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Ioana Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of economic research has been and remains the re-evaluation of the notion of performance and especially exploring and finding some indicators that would reflect as accurately as possible the subtleties of the economic entity. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the main company performance measurement and reporting methods. Performance is a concept that raises many question marks concerning the most accurate or the best method of reporting the performance at the company level. The research methodology has aimed at studying the Romanian and foreign specialized literature dealing with the analyzed field, studying magazines specialized on company performance measurement. If the financial performance measurement indicators are considered to offer an accurate image of the situation of the company, the modern approach through non-financial indicators offers a new perspective upon performance measurement, which is based on simplicity. In conclusion, after the theoretical study, I have noticed that the methods of performance measurement, reporting and interpretation are various, the opinions regarding the best performance measurement methods are contradictive and the companies prefer resorting to financial indicators that still play a more important role in the consolidation of the company performance measurement than the non-financial indicators do.

  6. Development of a Behavioral Performance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cabus Klotzle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the fifties, several measures have been developed in order to measure the performance of investments or choices involving uncertain outcomes. Much of these measures are based on Expected Utility Theory, but since the nineties a number of measures have been proposed based on Non-Expected Utility Theory. Among the Theories of Non-Expected Utility highlights Prospect Theory, which is the foundation of Behavioral Finance. Based on this theory this study proposes a new performance measure in which are embedded loss aversion along with the likelihood of distortions in the choice of alternatives. A hypothetical example is presented in which various performance measures, including the new measure are compared. The results showed that the ordering of the assets varied depending on the performance measure adopted. According to what was expected, the new performance measure clearly has captured the distortion of probabilities and loss aversion of the decision maker, ie, those assets with the greatest negative deviations from the target were those who had the worst performance.

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of retention curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. H.; Houvenaghel, G.; Janz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of apparent density, solid density, open porosity and retention curves are presented. Baumberger sandstone and Sander sandstone were used as test materials.Repeatability standard deviation and reproducibility standard deviation...

  8. Comparison of Outcome of Students' Performance Using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the outcome of students' performance using the standard setting method with the equivalent outcome they would have obtained using the absolute grading method. It involved the comparison of fail, pass, honors and distinction grades in Digestive System, Endocrine System, Cardiovascular System and ...

  9. Performance measurement for information systems: Industry perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy; Hamilton, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Performance measurement has become a focal topic for information systems (IS) organizations. Historically, IS performance measures have dealt with the efficiency of the data processing function. Today, the function of most IS organizations goes beyond simple data processing. To understand how IS organizations have developed meaningful performance measures that reflect their objectives and activities, industry perspectives on IS performance measurement was studied. The objectives of the study were to understand the state of the practice in IS performance techniques for IS performance measurement; to gather approaches and measures of actual performance measures used in industry; and to report patterns, trends, and lessons learned about performance measurement to NASA/JSC. Examples of how some of the most forward looking companies are shaping their IS processes through measurement is provided. Thoughts on the presence of a life-cycle to performance measures development and a suggested taxonomy for performance measurements are included in the appendices.

  10. Final report on APMP.M.H-S3: Comparison on hardness measurement Rockwell scale A and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanponpute, Tassanai; Meesaplak, Apichaya; Menelao, Febo; Chan, T. K.; Bahng, Gun-Woong; Titus, S. S. K.; Jain, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The APMP.M.H-S3 Rockwell hardness intercomparison was initiated by NIMT, Thailand and the required protocol was prepared by NIMT and checked by Dr John Man, MNIA, Australia, in 2009. PTB, Germany, Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL), Hong Kong, National Physical Laboratory (NPLI), India, and Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Korea, participated in this comparison. This comparison exercise was focused on the measurement range of 25 to 100 HRBW scale and 35 to 85 HRA scale. The round robin test was done during the period from April 2010 to October 2010. The participating laboratories have demonstrated the capability of the machine and the operating conditions according to ISO 6508 Part 3 to perform the measurements. However, SCL, Hong Kong, could demonstrate their capability to perform the measurements only according to ISO 6508 Part 2. The CMCs declared by the different laboratories lie in the range of 0.30 HRA to 0.40 HRA and 0.40 HRBW to 0.75 HRBW. The CMC declared by SCL for the Rockwell B scale is 1.5 HRBW for the reason described above. It is observed from the results that the measurement uncertainty is estimated not less than the CMCs declared by the laboratories. From the measurement results provided by all the participating laboratories, the En ratio was determined to establish the degrees of equivalence. The En ratio was calculated by including as well as by excluding the results of the laboratory which has performed the test according to ISO 6508 Part 2 in order to make sure that it does not affect the overall results. It is noticed that the En ratio was still found to remain less than 1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the APMP, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Environmental Uncertainty, Performance Measure Variety and Perceived Performance in Icelandic Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    and the perceived performance of the company. The sample was the 300 largest companies in Iceland and the response rate was 27%. Compared to other studies the majority of the respondents use a surprisingly high number of different measures – both financial and non-financial. This made testing of the three......The use of performance measures and performance measurement frameworks has increased significantly in recent years. The type and variety of performance measures in use has been researched in various countries and linked to different variables such as the external environment, performance...... measurement frameworks, and management characteristics. This paper reports the results of a study carried out at year end 2013 of the use of performance measures by Icelandic companies and the links to perceived environmental uncertainty, management satisfaction with the performance measurement system...

  12. Performance measures for a dialysis setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2018-03-01

    This study from Japan extracted performance measures for dialysis unit management and investigated their characteristics from professional views. Two surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires, in which dialysis managers/staff were asked to rate the usefulness of 44 performance indicators. A total of 255 managers and 2,097 staff responded. Eight performance measures were elicited from dialysis manager and staff responses: these were safety, operational efficiency, quality of working life, financial effectiveness, employee development, mortality, patient/employee satisfaction and patient-centred health care. These performance measures were almost compatible with those extracted in overall healthcare settings in a previous study. Internal reliability, content and construct validity of the performance measures for the dialysis setting were ensured to some extent. As a general trend, both dialysis managers and staff perceived performance measures as highly useful, especially for safety, mortality, operational efficiency and patient/employee satisfaction, but showed relatively low concerns for patient-centred health care and employee development. However, dialysis managers' usefulness perceptions were significantly higher than staff. Important guidelines for designing a holistic hospital/clinic management system were yielded. Performance measures must be balanced for outcomes and performance shaping factors (PSF); a common set of performance measures could be applied to all the healthcare settings, although performance indicators of each measure should be composed based on the application field and setting; in addition, sound causal relationships between PSF and outcome measures/indicators should be explored for further improvement. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  13. Comparison of the GUM and Monte Carlo methods on the flatness uncertainty estimation in coordinate measuring machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalid Abdelilah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineering industry, control of manufactured parts is usually done on a coordinate measuring machine (CMM, a sensor mounted at the end of the machine probes a set of points on the surface to be inspected. Data processing is performed subsequently using software, and the result of this measurement process either validates or not the conformity of the part. Measurement uncertainty is a crucial parameter for making the right decisions, and not taking into account this parameter can, therefore, sometimes lead to aberrant decisions. The determination of the uncertainty measurement on CMM is a complex task for the variety of influencing factors. Through this study, we aim to check if the uncertainty propagation model developed according to the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM approach is valid, we present here a comparison of the GUM and Monte Carlo methods. This comparison is made to estimate a flatness deviation of a surface belonging to an industrial part and the uncertainty associated to the measurement result.

  14. Transit performance measures in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This research is the result of a California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) request to assess the most commonly : available transit performance measures in California. Caltrans wanted to understand performance measures and data used by : Metr...

  15. Performance Measurement in Global Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    there is a requirement for the process to be monitored and measured relative to the business strategy of an organisation. It was found that performance measurement is a process that helps achieve sustainable business success, encouraging a learning culture within organisations. To this day, much of the research into how...... performance is measured has focussed on the process of product development. However, exploration of performance measurement related to global product development is relatively unexplored and a need for further research is evident. This paper contributes towards understanding how performance is measured...

  16. High Job Performance Through Co-Developing Performance Measures With Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Bianca A.C.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Wouters, Marc

    2017-01-01

    According to various studies, employee participation in the development of performance measures can increase job performance. This study focuses on how this job performance elevation occurs. We hypothesize that when employees have participated in the development of performance measures, they

  17. Comparison of Static Picture and Video Prompting on the Performance of Cooking-Related Tasks by Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Gustafson, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of static photographs and video prompts on the independent task performance of six young men with a diagnosis of autism. An adapted alternating-treatment design with baseline, comparison, withdrawal, and final treatment conditions was used to measure the percentage of cooking-related tasks completed…

  18. Enterprise performance measurement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milija Bogavac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement systems are an extremely important part of the control and management actions, because in this way a company can determine its business potential, its market power, potential and current level of business efficiency. The significance of measurement consists in influencing the relationship between the results of reproduction (total volume of production, value of production, total revenue and profit and investments to achieve these results (factors of production spending and hiring capital in order to achieve the highest possible quality of the economy. (The relationship between the results of reproduction and investment to achieve them quantitatively determines economic success as the quality of the economy. Measuring performance allows the identification of the economic resources the company has, so looking at the key factors that affect its performance can help to determine the appropriate course of action.

  19. Model Engine Performance Measurement From Force Balance Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeracki, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    A large scale model representative of a low-noise, high bypass ratio turbofan engine was tested for acoustics and performance in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. This test was part of NASA's continuing Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. The low tip speed fan, nacelle, and an un-powered core passage (with core inlet guide vanes) were simulated. The fan blades and hub are mounted on a rotating thrust and torque balance. The nacelle, bypass duct stators, and core passage are attached to a six component force balance. The two balance forces, when corrected for internal pressure tares, measure the total thrust-minus-drag of the engine simulator. Corrected for scaling and other effects, it is basically the same force that the engine supports would feel, operating at similar conditions. A control volume is shown and discussed, identifying the various force components of the engine simulator thrust and definitions of net thrust. Several wind tunnel runs with nearly the same hardware installed are compared, to identify the repeatability of the measured thrust-minus-drag. Other wind tunnel runs, with hardware changes that affected fan performance, are compared to the baseline configuration, and the thrust and torque effects are shown. Finally, a thrust comparison between the force balance and nozzle gross thrust methods is shown, and both yield very similar results.

  20. Optical performance evaluation of a solar furnace by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Chai, Kwankyo; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Sangnam; Yoon, Hwanki; Yu, Changkyun; Kang, Yongheack

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated optical performance of a solar furnace in the KIER (Korea Institute of Energy Research) by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux with the flux mapping method. We presented and analyzed optical performance in terms of concentrated solar flux distribution and power distribution. We investigated concentration ratio, stagnation temperature, total power, and concentration accuracy with help of a modeling code based on the ray tracing method and thereby compared with other solar furnaces. We also discussed flux changes by shutter opening angles and by position adjustment of reflector facets. In the course of flux analysis, we provided a better understanding of reference flux measurement for calibration, reflectivity measurement with a portable reflectometer, shadowing area consideration for effective irradiation, as well as accuracy and repeatability of flux measurements. The results in the present study will help proper utilization of a solar furnace by facilitating comparison between flux measurements at different conditions and flux estimation during operation

  1. Quantum-state comparison and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the performance of discrimination strategy in the comparison task of known quantum states. In the discrimination strategy, one infers whether or not two quantum systems are in the same state on the basis of the outcomes of separate discrimination measurements on each system. In some cases with more than two possible states, the optimal strategy in minimum-error comparison is that one should infer the two systems are in different states without any measurement, implying that the discrimination strategy performs worse than the trivial "no-measurement" strategy. We present a sufficient condition for this phenomenon to happen. For two pure states with equal prior probabilities, we determine the optimal comparison success probability with an error margin, which interpolates the minimum-error and unambiguous comparison. We find that the discrimination strategy is not optimal except for the minimum-error case.

  2. Performance comparison of optical interference cancellation system architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Maddie; Chang, Matt; Deng, Yanhua; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-04-10

    The performance of three optics-based interference cancellation systems are compared and contrasted with each other, and with traditional electronic techniques for interference cancellation. The comparison is based on a set of common performance metrics that we have developed for this purpose. It is shown that thorough evaluation of our optical approaches takes into account the traditional notions of depth of cancellation and dynamic range, along with notions of link loss and uniformity of cancellation. Our evaluation shows that our use of optical components affords performance that surpasses traditional electronic approaches, and that the optimal choice for an optical interference canceller requires taking into account the performance metrics discussed in this paper.

  3. MCNP modelling of vaginal and uterine applicators used in intracavitary brachytherapy and comparison with radiochromic film measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccolini, E.; Gerardy, I.; Ródenas, J.; van Dycke, M.; Gallardo, S.; Mostacci, D.

    Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment that is minimally invasive, minimising radiation exposure to the surrounding healthy tissues. Microselectron© Nucletron devices with 192Ir source can be used for gynaecological brachytherapy, in patients with vaginal or uterine cancer. Measurements of isodose curves have been performed in a PMMA phantom and compared with Monte Carlo calculations and TPS (Plato software of Nucletron BPS 14.2) evaluation. The isodose measurements have been performed with radiochromic films (Gafchromic EBT©). The dose matrix has been obtained after digitalisation and use of a dose calibration curve obtained with a 6 MV photon beam provided by a medical linear accelerator. A comparison between the calculated and the measured matrix has been performed. The calculated dose matrix is obtained with a simulation using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code (F4MESH tally).

  4. Comparison of radiation measurements and calculations of reactor surroundings for skyshine analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubosaka, A.; Nomura, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawabe, T. [Japan Research Institute, Limited, Osaka (Japan); Zharkov, V.P.; Kartashev, I.A.; Netecha, M.E.; Orlov, Y.V. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-03-01

    ISTC Project 'Experimental Studies of Radiation Scattering in the Atmosphere' were conducted using the IVG-1M and RA reactors by RDIPE in collaboration with IAE NNC RK and JAERI during 1996-1998. The radial distributions of fast neutron flux, thermal neutron flux and gamma radiation dose rate were measured above these two reactors at three heights. Neutron spectra above these two reactors and thermal and fast neutron fluxes over the hollow pipe height in the IVG-1M reactor were also measured in order to determine the radiation characteristics for skyshine analysis. For verifying the computer codes the calculations of reactor surroundings were performed using MCNP and DORT/DOT-3.5. The comparisons between the measurements and the calculations show that MCNP and DORT/DOT-3.5 codes can be widely applied to the shielding problems by selecting properly the calculation conditions. (author)

  5. Comparison of nuclear safety research reactor (TRIGA-ACPR) performance with analytical prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.; Whittemore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The NSRR was taken critical on June 30, 1975 at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute - Tokai-mura, Japan. Following initial core loading and control rod calibration, a series of pulsing tests was performed to characterize the performance of the reactor. A comparison has been made of performance parameters actually measured in the 157 element core versus predicted values based upon design analyses. The nuclear parameters measured were quite close to prediction. A $4.70 pulse produced a minimum period of 1.12 msec, a peak power of 20,500 MW and yielded a prompt energy release of 103 MW-sec. Pulse tests with experimental UO 2 fuel pins in the central irradiation cavity have produced 320 cal/gm, averaged at the axial center of 10% enriched UO 2 , for a 100 MW-sec pulse. The pulse rods for the NSRR contain B 4 C enriched to about 93 percent in Boron-10 in order to achieve maximum design performance with only three pulse rods. The total worth for the three transient rods was measured to be about $5.05 (vs $5.07 calculated for the 165 element core), thus verifying the effectiveness of the Boron-10 enrichment to achieve the desired result. Analysis of fuel temperature measurements made in the NSRR show that, for fuel temperatures produced during pulsing greater than 900 deg. C, heat transfer in the 0.010-inch gap between fuel and clad is enhanced by the minor outgassing of hydrogen which is characteristic of that temperature region. The hydrogen is normally all reabsorbed within about 100 sec of maximum temperature, at which time the heat transfer is characteristic of air (or argon) in the gap. In some of the temperature-instrumented elements, however, all of the hydrogen was not reabsorbed and as a result these elements gave significantly lower temperatures for high power steady state operation than were recorded prior to pulsing. In general, the NSRR parameters measured during startup were quite close to analytical prediction and the overall performance of the

  6. Providing hierarchical approach for measuring supply chain performance using AHP and DEMATEL methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Najmi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the performance of a supply chain is normally of a function of various parameters. Such a problem often involves in a multiple criteria decision making (MCMD problem where different criteria need to be defined and calculated, properly. During the past two decades, Analytical hierarchy procedure (AHP and DEMATEL have been some of the most popular MCDM approaches for prioritizing various attributes. The study of this paper uses a new methodology which is a combination of AHP and DEMATEL to rank various parameters affecting the performance of the supply chain. The DEMATEL is used for understanding the relationship between comparison metrics and AHP is used for the integration to provide a value for the overall performance.

  7. The Relationship Between Goal Orientation, Social Comparison Responses, Self-Efficacy, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, Carmen; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Peiro, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether social comparison responses (identification and contrast in social comparison) mediated the relationship between goal orientation (promotion and prevention) and self-efficacy, and whether self-efficacy was subsequently related with a better performance. As

  8. Employee participation in developing performance measures and job performance: on the role of measurement properties and incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.; Wouters, M.; Wilderom, C.

    2013-01-01

    Involving employees in the development of performance measures often results in better employee job performance. Yet not all prior studies find such a direct effect. This study explains these inconsistent findings. It focuses on the measurement properties of performance measures and using them for

  9. Comparison of the performances of male and female armed services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the performances of male and female armed services recruits undergoing sports vision testing. ... Previous research has shown that the difference in performance in both males and females is the result of brain lateralization, test familiarity and nerve conduction velocity in the brain. This was, however, not ...

  10. Comparison of Performance of Public and Private Boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last fifteen years, a remarkable increase in the number of privately owned. There has been an increase in the individually owned and operated boreholes within the state because it is claimed that government owned boreholes breakdown too often. Hence, this study is aimed at comparison of the performance of three ...

  11. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  12. Performance measurement in healthcare: part II--state of the science findings by stage of the performance measurement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Carol E; Simpson, Elizabeth; Casebeer, Ann L; Birdsell, Judith M; Hayden, Katharine A; Lewis, Steven

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes findings of a comprehensive, systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature on performance measurement according to each stage of the performance measurement process--conceptualization, selection and development, data collection, and reporting and use. It also outlines implications for practice. Six hundred sixty-four articles about organizational performance measurement from the health and business literature were reviewed after systematic searches of the literature, multi-rater relevancy ratings, citation checks and expert author nominations. Key themes were extracted and summarized from the most highly rated papers for each performance measurement stage. Despite a virtually universal consensus on the potential benefits of performance measurement, little evidence currently exists to guide practice in healthcare. Issues in conceptualizing systems include strategic alignment and scope. There are debates on the criteria for selecting measures and on the types and quality of measures. Implementation of data collection and analysis systems is complex and costly, and challenges persist in reporting results, preventing unintended effects and putting findings for improvement into action. There is a need for further development and refinement of performance measures and measurement systems, with a particular focus on strategies to ensure that performance measurement leads to healthcare improvement.

  13. The performance of the INER improved free-air ionization chamber in the comparison of air kerma calibration coefficients for medium-energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-H. E-mail: jhlee@iner.gov.tw; Kotler, L.H.; Bueermann, Ludwig; Hwang, W.-S.; Chiu, J.-H.; Wang, C.-F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes modifications to an original design, correction factors and uncertainty evaluations for an improved free-air ionization chamber constructed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan). In addition, a comparison of secondary standard air kerma calibration coefficients for 100-250 kV medium-energy X-rays was performed to verify the experimental accuracy and measurement consistency of the improved chamber. The comparison results showed a satisfactory agreement in the measurements which were within the combined expanded uncertainties (k=2)

  14. Predicting psychopharmacological drug effects on actual driving performance (SDLP) from psychometric tests measuring driving-related skills

    OpenAIRE

    Verster, Joris C.; Roth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Rationale There are various methods to examine driving ability. Comparisons between these methods and their relationship with actual on-road driving is often not determined. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether laboratory tests measuring driving-related skills could adequately predict on-the-road driving performance during normal traffic. Methods Ninety-six healthy volunteers performed a standardized on-the-road driving test. Subjects were instructed to drive with a ...

  15. Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data shows storage depletion in Hai River basin, Northern China. ... of the world, their application in conjunction with hydrological models could improve hydrological studies.

  16. Conventional QT Variability Measurement vs. Template Matching Techniques: Comparison of Performance Using Simulated and Real ECG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Mathias; Starc, Vito; Porta, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Increased beat-to-beat variability in the QT interval (QTV) of ECG has been associated with increased risk for sudden cardiac death, but its measurement is technically challenging and currently not standardized. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of commonly used beat-to-beat QT interval measurement algorithms. Three different methods (conventional, template stretching and template time shifting) were subjected to simulated data featuring typical ECG recording issues (broadband noise, baseline wander, amplitude modulation) and real short-term ECG of patients before and after infusion of sotalol, a QT interval prolonging drug. Among the three algorithms, the conventional algorithm was most susceptible to noise whereas the template time shifting algorithm showed superior overall performance on simulated and real ECG. None of the algorithms was able to detect increased beat-to-beat QT interval variability after sotalol infusion despite marked prolongation of the average QT interval. The QTV estimates of all three algorithms were inversely correlated with the amplitude of the T wave. In conclusion, template matching algorithms, in particular the time shifting algorithm, are recommended for beat-to-beat variability measurement of QT interval in body surface ECG. Recording noise, T wave amplitude and the beat-rejection strategy are important factors of QTV measurement and require further investigation. PMID:22860030

  17. Conventional QT variability measurement vs. template matching techniques: comparison of performance using simulated and real ECG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Baumert

    Full Text Available Increased beat-to-beat variability in the QT interval (QTV of ECG has been associated with increased risk for sudden cardiac death, but its measurement is technically challenging and currently not standardized. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of commonly used beat-to-beat QT interval measurement algorithms. Three different methods (conventional, template stretching and template time shifting were subjected to simulated data featuring typical ECG recording issues (broadband noise, baseline wander, amplitude modulation and real short-term ECG of patients before and after infusion of sotalol, a QT interval prolonging drug. Among the three algorithms, the conventional algorithm was most susceptible to noise whereas the template time shifting algorithm showed superior overall performance on simulated and real ECG. None of the algorithms was able to detect increased beat-to-beat QT interval variability after sotalol infusion despite marked prolongation of the average QT interval. The QTV estimates of all three algorithms were inversely correlated with the amplitude of the T wave. In conclusion, template matching algorithms, in particular the time shifting algorithm, are recommended for beat-to-beat variability measurement of QT interval in body surface ECG. Recording noise, T wave amplitude and the beat-rejection strategy are important factors of QTV measurement and require further investigation.

  18. Forensic comparison and matching of fingerprints: using quantitative image measures for estimating error rates through understanding and predicting difficulty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Kellman

    Full Text Available Latent fingerprint examination is a complex task that, despite advances in image processing, still fundamentally depends on the visual judgments of highly trained human examiners. Fingerprints collected from crime scenes typically contain less information than fingerprints collected under controlled conditions. Specifically, they are often noisy and distorted and may contain only a portion of the total fingerprint area. Expertise in fingerprint comparison, like other forms of perceptual expertise, such as face recognition or aircraft identification, depends on perceptual learning processes that lead to the discovery of features and relations that matter in comparing prints. Relatively little is known about the perceptual processes involved in making comparisons, and even less is known about what characteristics of fingerprint pairs make particular comparisons easy or difficult. We measured expert examiner performance and judgments of difficulty and confidence on a new fingerprint database. We developed a number of quantitative measures of image characteristics and used multiple regression techniques to discover objective predictors of error as well as perceived difficulty and confidence. A number of useful predictors emerged, and these included variables related to image quality metrics, such as intensity and contrast information, as well as measures of information quantity, such as the total fingerprint area. Also included were configural features that fingerprint experts have noted, such as the presence and clarity of global features and fingerprint ridges. Within the constraints of the overall low error rates of experts, a regression model incorporating the derived predictors demonstrated reasonable success in predicting objective difficulty for print pairs, as shown both in goodness of fit measures to the original data set and in a cross validation test. The results indicate the plausibility of using objective image metrics to predict expert

  19. Forensic comparison and matching of fingerprints: using quantitative image measures for estimating error rates through understanding and predicting difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Philip J; Mnookin, Jennifer L; Erlikhman, Gennady; Garrigan, Patrick; Ghose, Tandra; Mettler, Everett; Charlton, David; Dror, Itiel E

    2014-01-01

    Latent fingerprint examination is a complex task that, despite advances in image processing, still fundamentally depends on the visual judgments of highly trained human examiners. Fingerprints collected from crime scenes typically contain less information than fingerprints collected under controlled conditions. Specifically, they are often noisy and distorted and may contain only a portion of the total fingerprint area. Expertise in fingerprint comparison, like other forms of perceptual expertise, such as face recognition or aircraft identification, depends on perceptual learning processes that lead to the discovery of features and relations that matter in comparing prints. Relatively little is known about the perceptual processes involved in making comparisons, and even less is known about what characteristics of fingerprint pairs make particular comparisons easy or difficult. We measured expert examiner performance and judgments of difficulty and confidence on a new fingerprint database. We developed a number of quantitative measures of image characteristics and used multiple regression techniques to discover objective predictors of error as well as perceived difficulty and confidence. A number of useful predictors emerged, and these included variables related to image quality metrics, such as intensity and contrast information, as well as measures of information quantity, such as the total fingerprint area. Also included were configural features that fingerprint experts have noted, such as the presence and clarity of global features and fingerprint ridges. Within the constraints of the overall low error rates of experts, a regression model incorporating the derived predictors demonstrated reasonable success in predicting objective difficulty for print pairs, as shown both in goodness of fit measures to the original data set and in a cross validation test. The results indicate the plausibility of using objective image metrics to predict expert performance and

  20. International comparison of radon measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Weigen; Song Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    It introduces the radon measurements international comparison using solid state track detectors among Zhejiang Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center (RMTC), Japan Chemical Analysis Center (JCAC) and National Institute for Radiological Protection of China CDC (NIRP). The results of the international comparison show that: Compared to the reference values, the measurements' relative deviations of detectors from 3 labs were 2%∼22%, which were exposed in radon chambers with different radon concentration, while the measurements' relative deviations were 0.5%∼13% when exposed in the environment. The measurement's relative deviations of RMTC were 5%∼3% in radon chambers and 0.5%∼9% in the environment, the results met requirements of the relative standards both at home and abroad. (authors)

  1. Comparison of phoswich and ARSA-type detectors for radioxenon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.M.; Biegalski, S.R.F.; Hennig, W.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring of atmospheric radioxenon to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has driven the development of improved detectors for measuring xenon, including the development of a phoswich detector. This detector uses only one PMT to detect β-γ coincidence, thus greatly reducing the bulk and electronics of the detector in comparison to the ARSA-type detector. In this experiment, 135 Xe was produced through neutron activation and a phoswich detector was used to attain spectra from the gas. These results were compared to similar results from an ARSA-type β-γ coincidence spectrum. The spectral characteristics and resolution were compared for the coincidence and beta spectra. Using these metrics, the overall performance of the phoswich detector for β-γ coincidence of radioxenon was evaluated. (author)

  2. Comparison of performance of simulation models for floor heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the comparison of performance of simulation models for floor heating with different level of detail in the modelling process. The models are compared in an otherwise identical simulation model containing room model, walls, windows, ceiling and ventilation system. By exchanging...

  3. Performance measurement in transport sector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Išoraitė

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the following issues: 1. Performance measurement in literature. The performance measurement has an important role to play in the efficient and effective management of organizations. Kaplan and Johnson highlighted the failure of the financial measures to reflect changes in the competitive circumstances and strategies of modern organizations. Many authors have focused attention on how organizations can design more appropriate measurement systems. Based on literature, consultancy experience and action research, numerous processes have been developed that organizations can follow in order to design and implement systems. Many frameworks have been proposed that support these processes. The objective of such frameworks is to help organizations define a set of measures that reflect their objectives and assess their performance appropriately. 2. Transport sector performance and its impacts measuring. The purpose of transport measurement is to identify opportunities enhancing transport performance. Successful transport sector management requires a system to analyze its efficiency and effectiveness as well as plan interventions if transport sector performance needs improvement. Transport impacts must be measurable and monitorable so that the person responsible for the project intervention can decide when and how to influence them. Performance indicators provide a means to measure and monitor impacts. These indicators essentially reflect quantitative and qualitative aspects of impacts at given time and places. 3. Transport sector output and input. Transport sector inputs are the resources required to deliver transport sector outputs. Transport sector inputs are typically: human resources, particularly skilled resources (including specialists consulting inputs; technology processes such as equipment and work; and finance, both public and private. 4. Transport sector policy and institutional framework; 5. Cause – effect linkages; 6

  4. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  5. The impact of multi-criteria performance measurement on business performance improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fentahun Moges Kasie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between multi-criteria performance measurement (MCPM practice and business performance improvement using the raw data collected from 33 selected manufacturing companies. In addition, it proposes modified MCPM model as an effective approach to improve business performance of manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach:Research paper. Primary and secondary data were collected using questionnaire survey, interview and observation of records. The methodology is to evaluate business performances of sampled manufacturing companies and the extent of utilization of crucial non-financial (lagging and non-financial (leading performance measures. The positive correlation between financial business performance and practice of MCPM is clearly shown using Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis. Findings –This research paper indicates that companies which measure their performance using important financial and non-financial measures achieve better business performance. Even though certain companies are currently using non-financial measures, the researchers have learned that these financial measures were not integrated with each other, financial measures and strategic objectives. Research limitations/implications: The limitation of this paper is that the number of surveyed companies is small to make generalization and they are found in a single country. Further researches which incorporate a large number of companies from various developing nations are suggested to minimize the limitation of this research.Practical Implication: The paper shows that multi-dimensional performance measures with the inclusion of key leading indicator are essential to predict the future environment. But cost-accounting based financial measures are inadequate to do so. These are shown practically using Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis. Originality/value: The significance of multi

  6. Comparison of MODIS and VIIRS On-board Blackbody Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jack; Butler, Jim; Wu, Aisheng; Chiang, Vincent; McIntire, Jeff; Oudari, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    MODIS has 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), covering wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4 microns. MODIS TEBs are calibrated on-orbit by a v-grooved blackbody (BB) on a scan-by-scan basis. The BB temperatures are measured by a set of 12 thennistors. As expected, the BB temperature uncertainty and stability have direct impact on the quality of TEB calibration and, therefore, the quality of the science products derived from TEB observations. Since launch, Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for more than 12 and 10 years, respectively. Their on-board BB performance has been satisfactory in meeting the TEB calibration requirements. The first VIIRS, launched on-board the Suomi NPP spacecraft on October 28, 2011, has successfully completed its initial Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) phase. VIIRS has 7 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), covering wavelengths from 3.7 to 12.4 microns. Designed with strong MODIS heritage, VIIRS uses a similar BB for its TEB calibration. Like MODIS, VIIRS BB is nominally controlled at a pre-determined temperature (set point). Periodically, a BB Warm-Up and Cool-Down (WUCD) operation is performed, during which the BB temperatures vary from instrument ambient (temperature) to 315K. This paper examines NPP VIIRS BB on-orbit performance. It focuses on its BB temperature scan-to-scan variations at nominally controlled temperature as well as during its WUCD operation and their impact on TEB calibration uncertainty. Comparisons of VIIRS (NPP) and MODIS (Terra and Aqua) BB on-orbit performance and lessons learned for future improvements are also presented in this paper.

  7. National comparison on volume sample activity measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.; Grigorescu, E.L.; Popescu, C.; Razdolescu, C.

    1992-01-01

    A national comparison on volume sample activity measurements methods may be regarded as a step toward accomplishing the traceability of the environmental and food chain activity measurements to national standards. For this purpose, the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory has distributed 137 Cs and 134 Cs water-equivalent solid standard sources to 24 laboratories having responsibilities in this matter. Every laboratory has to measure the activity of the received source(s) by using its own standards, equipment and methods and report the obtained results to the organizer. The 'measured activities' will be compared with the 'true activities'. A final report will be issued, which plans to evaluate the national level of precision of such measurements and give some suggestions for improvement. (Author)

  8. Comparison of Two Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Assessment Approaches Using Prognostic Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Guan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two probabilistic prognosis updating schemes are compared. One is based on the classical Bayesian approach and the other is based on newly developed maximum relative entropy (MRE approach. The algorithm performance of the two models is evaluated using a set of recently developed prognostics-based metrics. Various uncertainties from measurements, modeling, and parameter estimations are integrated into the prognosis framework as random input variables for fatigue damage of materials. Measures of response variables are then used to update the statistical distributions of random variables and the prognosis results are updated using posterior distributions. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC technique is employed to provide the posterior samples for model updating in the framework. Experimental data are used to demonstrate the operation of the proposed probabilistic prognosis methodology. A set of prognostics-based metrics are employed to quantitatively evaluate the prognosis performance and compare the proposed entropy method with the classical Bayesian updating algorithm. In particular, model accuracy, precision, robustness and convergence are rigorously evaluated in addition to the qualitative visual comparison. Following this, potential development and improvement for the prognostics-based metrics are discussed in detail.

  9. Comparison of methods and instruments for 222Rn/220Rn progeny measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanyang; Shang Bing; Wu Yunyun; Zhou Qingzhi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, comparisons were made among three methods of measurement (grab measurement, continuous measurement and integrating measurement) and also measurement of different instruments for a radon/thoron mixed chamber. Taking the optimized five-segment method as a comparison criterion, for the equilibrium-equivalent concentration of 222 Rn, measured results of Balm and 24 h integrating detectors are 31% and 29% higher than the criterion, the results of Wl x, however, is 20% lower; and for 220 Rn progeny, the results of Fiji-142, Kf-602D, BWLM and 24 h integrating detector are 86%, 18%, 28% and 36% higher than the criterion respectively, except that of WLx, which is 5% lower. For the differences shown, further research is needed. (authors)

  10. On the equivalence of generalized least-squares approaches to the evaluation of measurement comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, A.; Clare, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of CIPM international comparisons is increasingly being carried out using a model-based approach that leads naturally to a generalized least-squares (GLS) solution. While this method offers the advantages of being easier to audit and having general applicability to any form of comparison protocol, there is a lack of consensus over aspects of its implementation. Two significant results are presented that show the equivalence of three differing approaches discussed by or applied in comparisons run by Consultative Committees of the CIPM. Both results depend on a mathematical condition equivalent to the requirement that any two artefacts in the comparison are linked through a sequence of measurements of overlapping pairs of artefacts. The first result is that a GLS estimator excluding all sources of error common to all measurements of a participant is equal to the GLS estimator incorporating all sources of error, including those associated with any bias in the standards or procedures of the measuring laboratory. The second result identifies the component of uncertainty in the estimate of bias that arises from possible systematic effects in the participants' measurement standards and procedures. The expression so obtained is a generalization of an expression previously published for a one-artefact comparison with no inter-participant correlations, to one for a comparison comprising any number of repeat measurements of multiple artefacts and allowing for inter-laboratory correlations.

  11. a Performance Comparison of Feature Detectors for Planetary Rover Mapping and Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W.; Peng, M.; Xing, Y.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z.; Di, K.; Teng, B.; Mao, X.; Zhao, Q.; Xin, X.; Jia, M.

    2017-07-01

    Feature detection and matching are key techniques in computer vision and robotics, and have been successfully implemented in many fields. So far there is no performance comparison of feature detectors and matching methods for planetary mapping and rover localization using rover stereo images. In this research, we present a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of six feature detectors, including Moravec, Förstner, Harris, FAST, SIFT and SURF, aiming for optimal implementation of feature-based matching in planetary surface environment. To facilitate quantitative analysis, a series of evaluation criteria, including distribution evenness of matched points, coverage of detected points, and feature matching accuracy, are developed in the research. In order to perform exhaustive evaluation, stereo images, simulated under different baseline, pitch angle, and interval of adjacent rover locations, are taken as experimental data source. The comparison results show that SIFT offers the best overall performance, especially it is less sensitive to changes of image taken at adjacent locations.

  12. A PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF FEATURE DETECTORS FOR PLANETARY ROVER MAPPING AND LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature detection and matching are key techniques in computer vision and robotics, and have been successfully implemented in many fields. So far there is no performance comparison of feature detectors and matching methods for planetary mapping and rover localization using rover stereo images. In this research, we present a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of six feature detectors, including Moravec, Förstner, Harris, FAST, SIFT and SURF, aiming for optimal implementation of feature-based matching in planetary surface environment. To facilitate quantitative analysis, a series of evaluation criteria, including distribution evenness of matched points, coverage of detected points, and feature matching accuracy, are developed in the research. In order to perform exhaustive evaluation, stereo images, simulated under different baseline, pitch angle, and interval of adjacent rover locations, are taken as experimental data source. The comparison results show that SIFT offers the best overall performance, especially it is less sensitive to changes of image taken at adjacent locations.

  13. Comparison of reactivity estimation performance between two extended Kalman filtering schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xingjie; Cai, Yun; Li, Qing; Wang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The performances of two EKF schemes using different Jacobian matrices are compared. • Numerical simulations are used for the validation and comparison of these two EKF schemes. • The simulation results show that the EKF scheme adopted by this paper performs better than the one adopted by previous literatures. - Abstract: The extended Kalman filtering (EKF) technique has been utilized in the estimation of reactivity which is a significantly important parameter to indicate the status of the nuclear reactor. In this paper, the performances of two EKF schemes using different Jacobian matrices are compared. Numerical simulations are used for the validation and comparison of these two EKF schemes, and the results show that the Jacobian matrix obtained directly from the discrete-time state model performs better than the one which is the discretization form of the Jacobian matrix obtained from the continuous-time state model.

  14. Comparison Study of Three Common Technologies for Freezing-Thawing Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbao Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison study on three different technologies (i.e., thermocouple, electrical resistivity probe and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR that are commonly used for frost measurement. Specially, the paper developed an analyses procedure to estimate the freezing-thawing status based on the dielectric properties of freezing soil. Experiments were conducted where the data of temperature, electrical resistivity, and dielectric constant were simultaneously monitored during the freezing/thawing process. The comparison uncovered the advantages and limitations of these technologies for frost measurement. The experimental results indicated that TDR measured soil dielectric constant clearly indicates the different stages of the freezing/thawing process. Analyses method was developed to determine not only the onset of freezing or thawing, but also the extent of their development. This is a major advantage of TDR over other technologies.

  15. Measurements of air kerma index in computed tomography: a comparison among methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the most important and widely used technique for diagnosis purpose. As CT exams impart high doses to patients in comparison to other radiologist techniques, reliable dosimetry is required. Dosimetry in CT is done in terms of air kerma index in air or in a phantom measured by a pencil ionization chamber under a single X-ray tube rotation. In this work, a comparison among CT dosimetric quantities measured by an UNFORS pencil ionization chamber, MTS-N RADOS thermoluminescent dosimeters and GAFCHROMIC XR-CT radiochromic film was done. The three dosimetric systems were properly calibrated in X-ray reference radiations in a calibration laboratory. CT dosimetric quantities were measured in CT Bright Speed GE Medical Systems Inc., scanner in a PMMA trunk phantom and a comparison among the three dosimetric techniques was done. (Author)

  16. Measurements of air kerma index in computed tomography: a comparison among methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: alonso@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Programa de Ciencia y Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pres. Antonio Carlos 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the most important and widely used technique for diagnosis purpose. As CT exams impart high doses to patients in comparison to other radiologist techniques, reliable dosimetry is required. Dosimetry in CT is done in terms of air kerma index in air or in a phantom measured by a pencil ionization chamber under a single X-ray tube rotation. In this work, a comparison among CT dosimetric quantities measured by an UNFORS pencil ionization chamber, MTS-N RADOS thermoluminescent dosimeters and GAFCHROMIC XR-CT radiochromic film was done. The three dosimetric systems were properly calibrated in X-ray reference radiations in a calibration laboratory. CT dosimetric quantities were measured in CT Bright Speed GE Medical Systems Inc., scanner in a PMMA trunk phantom and a comparison among the three dosimetric techniques was done. (Author)

  17. Impaired financial capacity in late life depression is associated with cognitive performance on measures of executive functioning and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, R Scott; Areán, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Late life depression (LLD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with significant disability and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence and cognitive correlates of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with LLD. Participants included 65 LLD individuals and 32 comparison subjects. Assessments included measures of financial capacity, cognitive functioning, and depression symptom severity. Individuals with LLD exhibited a significantly higher rate of impaired financial capacity (22%) than the comparison group (6%). Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that performance on measures of executive functioning and attention, but not depression severity, were most strongly associated with financial capacity performance in LLD. Our results suggest impairments of financial capacity in LLD are largely explained by cognitive functioning in these domains.

  18. Process measures or patient reported experience measures (PREMs) for comparing performance across providers? A study of measures related to access and continuity in Swedish primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenngård, Anna H; Anell, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Aim To study (a) the covariation between patient reported experience measures (PREMs) and registered process measures of access and continuity when ranking providers in a primary care setting, and (b) whether registered process measures or PREMs provided more or less information about potential linkages between levels of access and continuity and explaining variables. Access and continuity are important objectives in primary care. They can be measured through registered process measures or PREMs. These measures do not necessarily converge in terms of outcomes. Patient views are affected by factors not necessarily reflecting quality of services. Results from surveys are often uncertain due to low response rates, particularly in vulnerable groups. The quality of process measures, on the other hand, may be influenced by registration practices and are often more easy to manipulate. With increased transparency and use of quality measures for management and governance purposes, knowledge about the pros and cons of using different measures to assess the performance across providers are important. Four regression models were developed with registered process measures and PREMs of access and continuity as dependent variables. Independent variables were characteristics of providers as well as geographical location and degree of competition facing providers. Data were taken from two large Swedish county councils. Findings Although ranking of providers is sensitive to the measure used, the results suggest that providers performing well with respect to one measure also tended to perform well with respect to the other. As process measures are easier and quicker to collect they may be looked upon as the preferred option. PREMs were better than process measures when exploring factors that contributed to variation in performance across providers in our study; however, if the purpose of comparison is continuous learning and development of services, a combination of PREMs and

  19. Ionospheric tomography over South Africa: Comparison of MIDAS and ionosondes measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giday, Nigussie M.; Katamzi, Zama T.; McKinnell, Lee-Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to show the results of an ionospheric tomography algorithm called Multi-Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS) over the South African region. Recorded data from a network of 49-53 Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers over the South African region was used as input for the inversion. The inversion was made for April, July, October and December representing the four distinct seasons (Autumn, Winter, Spring and Summer respectively) of the year 2012. MIDAS reconstructions were validated by comparing maximum electron density of the F2 layer (NmF2) and peak height (hmF2) values predicted by MIDAS to those derived from three South African ionosonde measurements. The diurnal and seasonal trends of the MIDAS NmF2 values were in good agreement with the respective NmF2 values derived from the ionosondes. In addition, good agreement was found between the two measurements with minimum and maximum coefficients of determination (r2) between 0.84 and 0.96 in all the stations and validation days. The seasonal trend of the NmF2 values over the South Africa region has been reproduced using this inversion which was in good agreement with the ionosonde measurements. Moreover, a comparison of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model NmF2 values with the respective ionosonde derived NmF2 values showed to have higher deviation than a similar comparison between the MIDAS reconstruction and the ionosonde measurements. However, the monthly averaged hmF2 values derived from IRI 2012 model showed better agreement than the respective MIDAS reconstructed hmF2 values compared with the ionosonde derived hmF2 values.The performance of the MIDAS reconstruction was observed to deteriorate with increased geomagnetic conditions. MIDAS reconstructed electron density were slightly elevated during three storm periods studied (24 April, 15 July and 8 October) which was in good agreement with the ionosonde measurements.

  20. When tight blood pressure control is not for everyone: a new model for performance measurement in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael A; Goldstein, Mary K

    2010-04-01

    Many patients with hypertension have legitimate reasons to forego standard blood pressure targets yet are nonetheless included in performance measurement systems. An approach to performance measurement incorporating clinical reasoning was developed to determine which patients to include in a performance measure. A 10-member multispecialty advisory panel refined a taxonomy of situations in which the balance of benefits and harms of anti-hypertensive treatment does not clearly favor tight blood pressure control (measurement for blood pressure control. These included (1) patients who have suffered adverse effects from multiple classes of antihypertensive medications; (2) patients already taking four or more antihypertensive medications; (3) patients with terminal disease, moderate to severe dementia, or other conditions that overwhelmingly dominate the patient's clinical status; and (4) other patient factors, including comfort care orientation and poor medication adherence despite attempts to remedy adherence difficulties. Several general principles also emerged. Performance measurement should focus on patients for whom the benefits of treatment clearly outweigh the harms and should incorporate a longitudinal approach. In addition, the criteria for exempting a patient from performance measurement should be more strict in patients at higher risk of adverse health outcomes from hypertension and more lenient for patients at lower risk. Incorporating "real world" clinical principles and judgment into performance measurement systems may improve targeting of care and, by accounting for patient case mix, allow for better comparison of performance between institutions.

  1. Job Performance Effectiveness: A Comparison of Teachers in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job Performance Effectiveness: A Comparison of Teachers in Public and Private Schools ... Teachers in the two types of schools were about the same in classroom ... Also that public school teachers must be provided with conducive teaching/learning environment to enable them meet up the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crawford, Alasdair J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Viswanathan, Vilayanur [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ferreira, Summer Rhodes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This Protocol provides a set of “best practices” for characterizing energy storage systems (ESSs) and measuring and reporting their performance. It serves as a basis for assessing how an ESS will perform with respect to key performance attributes relevant to different applications. It is intended to provide a valid and accurate basis for the comparison of different ESSs. By achieving the stated purpose, the Protocol will enable more informed decision-making in the selection of ESSs for various stationary applications. The Protocol identifies general information and technical specifications relevant in describing an ESS and also defines a set of test, measurement, and evaluation criteria with which to express the performance of ESSs that are intended for energy-intensive and/or power-intensive stationary applications. An ESS includes a storage device, battery management system, and any power conversion systems installed with the storage device. The Protocol is agnostic with respect to the storage technology and the size and rating of the ESS. The Protocol does not apply to single-use storage devices and storage devices that are not coupled with power conversion systems, nor does it address safety, security, or operations and maintenance of ESSs, or provide any pass/fail criteria.

  3. Comparison of specific production performances by two crystalline silicon PV systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fajman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of two independent photovoltaic (PV systems located close to each other on the south of the Czech Moravian Highland was accomplished. Due to differences in installation parameters; reference quantities were used to calculate transformed data sets for specific production performances comparison. Differences in monthly and annually daily production were performed by t-test.According to obtained results, it was concluded that annually mean daily productions per 1 kWp of installed capacity and per 1 m2 of active area of the panels are significantly better by single crystal silicon installation in tracking system than by stable installation of a different technology of single crystal silicon. However, comparing this performance per 1 m2 of occupied land by studied power-plants the stable installation performed higher production rates on daily mean basis in majority of months of the year 2010 as well as by annually mean daily production.

  4. Comparison of calculated neutral beam shine through with measured shine-through in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, H.K.; Hong, R.

    1997-11-01

    A comparison of the calculated shine through of neutral particle beams in the DIII-D plasma to measured values inferred from the target temperature rise is reported. This provides an opportunity to verify the shine through calculations and makes them more reliable in those cases where the shine through can not be measured. The DIII-D centerpost neutral beam target tiles are safe-guarded against excessive beam shine-through by pyrometry and thermocouple (TC) arrays on the tiles. Shine-through beam power is calculated from the measured temperature changes reported by the target tile TC array. These measurements are performed at the beginning of each operational year at DIII-D. Theoretically, the beam energy deposited into the plasma can be expressed as a function of the change in beam density. Neutral beam energy deposition in plasma (of known density) is inferred by comparing the results of a series of shine-through measurements for the 1997 campaign at DIII-D to the expected shine-through given by theory

  5. Measuring Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Gillen, David

    2014-01-01

    Set in the airport industry, this paper measures firm performance using both desirable and bad outputs (i.e. airport delays). We first estimate a model that does not include the bad outputs and then a model that includes bad outputs. The results show important differences in the efficiency...

  6. Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request template is used to document changes to scope, cost, schedule, or operational performance metrics for SSA's Major...

  7. Comparison of the performances of the CS model coil and the Good Joint SULTAN sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesche, Rainer; Herzog, Robert; Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    The relevance of short sample measurements in SULTAN for the prediction of the performance of the coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is assessed using the case of the Nb 3 Sn high-field central solenoid model coil (CSMC) conductor, for which both coil performance and short sample SULTAN results (Good Joint (GJ) sample) are available. A least-squares fit procedure, based on a uniform current distribution among the strands and the Durham scaling relations for the field, temperature and strain dependences of the strand J c provides a thermal strain of -0.294% and a degradation factor of approximately 60% for the GJ sample. In the calculation of the voltage along Layer 1A of the CSMC the hoop stress and the variation of the magnetic field in the conductor cross-section were taken into account. The temperature profile, used in the calculations, is based on published temperature profiles and empirical relations between helium inlet and outlet temperatures. A comparison with the GJ results indicates that short sample measurements in SULTAN provide a conservative estimate of the coil performance

  8. Comparison of calculations with neutron dosimetry measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Poolside Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maerker, R.E.; Williams, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Poolside Facility (PSF), like the Pool Critical Assembly (PCA), is used for benchmark dosimetry measurements which can serve to validate the transport methods used in calculating the high-energy neutron fluences (> 0.1 MeV) in LWR pressure vessels required to estimate the neutron damage to the pressure vessels in the form of embrittlement. The PSF consists of an arrangement of two water gaps of 4 and 12 cm thickness separated by a simulated thermal shield and followed by a simulated pressure vessel wall and then a void box to represent a reactor cavity. The PSF is driven by the 30 MW ORR reactor, whereas the geometrically similar core of the PCA has a maximum power of only 10 KW. This paper reports the results of some calculated activities and compares them with published PSF measurements performed by HEDL and other laboratories on the so-called Westinghouse surveillance capsule perturbation experiment.

  9. Comparison of calculations with neutron dosimetry measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Poolside Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, R.E.; Williams, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Poolside Facility (PSF), like the Pool Critical Assembly (PCA), is used for benchmark dosimetry measurements which can serve to validate the transport methods used in calculating the high-energy neutron fluences (> 0.1 MeV) in LWR pressure vessels required to estimate the neutron damage to the pressure vessels in the form of embrittlement. The PSF consists of an arrangement of two water gaps of 4 and 12 cm thickness separated by a simulated thermal shield and followed by a simulated pressure vessel wall and then a void box to represent a reactor cavity. The PSF is driven by the 30 MW ORR reactor, whereas the geometrically similar core of the PCA has a maximum power of only 10 KW. This paper reports the results of some calculated activities and compares them with published PSF measurements performed by HEDL and other laboratories on the so-called Westinghouse surveillance capsule perturbation experiment

  10. Measuring the performance of business incubators

    OpenAIRE

    VANDERSTRAETEN, Johanna; MATTHYSSENS, Paul; VAN WITTELOOSTUIJN, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on incubator performance measurement. First, we report the findings of an extensive literature review. Both existing individual measures and more comprehensive measurement systems are discussed. This literature review shows that most incubator researchers and practitioners only use one or a few indicators for performance evaluation, and that existing measurement systems do not recognize the importance of short, medium and long-term results, do not always include an incubato...

  11. Lessons learnt from participation in international inter-comparison exercise for environmental radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Pulhani, Vandana; Sartandel, Sangeeta

    2016-06-01

    Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Section of Health Physics Division is regularly carrying out surveillance of the radioactivity concentration in the environment. The laboratory participates in the inter-comparison exercises conducted by various international agencies for quality assurance and quality control of analytical estimations. This report summarizes the results of the analysis of radioactivity in environmental matrices of the inter-comparison exercises. The participation in inter-comparison exercises has demonstrated competence in radionuclide identification and estimations, equivalence with the results of other participating laboratories, validated adopted analytical methods, introduced traceability to measurement etc. at national and international level. (author)

  12. Assessment of quality of measurement results in interlaboratory comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Matel, L.; Rajec, P.

    2009-01-01

    Testing laboratory accredited according to ISO/IEC 17025:2005 has to ensure the quality of their results. Important aspect of correct evaluation of the result is the accuracy and uncertainty. Requirement of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 is the accredited laboratories to express their results with the corresponding uncertainty. Participation of laboratories in interlaboratory comparisons provides objective evidence of the level of reliability and quality of their results. Thereby the competency of accredited laboratories verified, including the verification of the declared measurement uncertainty. Some interlaboratory comparisons in which took participation the Testing Laboratory of Radiochemical Analysis (LARCHA) are presented.

  13. Verification of Electromagnetic Field Measurements via Inter-laboratory Comparison Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inter-laboratory comparison of field strength measurements was conducted in order to verify the comparability of high-frequency electromagnetic field measurements. For this purpose, 17 participating teams hosted by the working group "procedures of exposure determination" of the LAI (Länderausschuss für Immissionsschutz, state committee on immission control determined the field strength at given stations around a hospital situation. At those stations very different signals were generated, such as sine wave signals at 27MHz and 433MHz, signals from a diathermy device in Continuous-Wave (CW and Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM mode, from a GSM base station at 900MHz and 1800MHz, from a UMTS base station, from a babyphone device and from a DECT cordless phone. This contribution describes the evaluation of the measured values and the approach to the computation of a reference value. Considering various sources of electromagnetic fields in the areas of personal safety at work and of immission control, the most important results are presented and the conclusions drawn are discussed.

  14. The service of public services performance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2014-01-01

    that performance measurement serves as “rituals of verification” which promotes the interests of political masters and their mistresses rather than public service. Another area of concern is the cost of performance measurement. Hood & Peters (2004:278) note that performance measurement is likely to “distract...... measurement suggests a range of contested and contradictory propositions. Its alleged benefits include public assurance, better functioning of supply markets for public services, and direct improvements of public services. But the literature also demonstrates the existence of significant concern about...... the actual impact, the costs and unintended consequences associated with performance measurement. This paper identifies the main rationales and rationalities in the scholarly discourse on public services performance measurement. It concludes with some suggestions on how to deal with the many rationales...

  15. 26 CFR 801.2 - Measuring organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measuring organizational performance. 801.2 Section 801.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL... REVENUE SERVICE § 801.2 Measuring organizational performance. The performance measures that comprise the...

  16. A comparison of irradiance responsivity and thermodynamic temperature measurement between PTB and NIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Yuan, Z.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between PTB and NIM in the field of absolute spectral-band radiometry and thermodynamic temperature measurement. For the comparison a NIM made interference filter radiometer with a centre wavelength of 633 nm was taken to PTB. The filter radiometer was calibrated at NIM and PTB with respect to spectral irradiance responsivity. For the integral value in the band-pass range an agreement of 0.1% was observed in both calibrations. In a next step, the 633 nm filter radiometer was used to measure the temperature of a high-temperature blackbody in comparison to an 800 nm filter radiometer of PTB in the temperature range between 1400 K and 2750 K. The thermodynamic temperature measured by the two filter radiometers agreed to within 0.2 K to 0.5 K with an estimated measurement uncertainty ranging between 0.1 K and 0.4 K (k=1)

  17. Measuring and improving infrastructure performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Measuring and Improving Infrastructure Performance, National Research Council

    .... Developing a framework for guiding attempts at measuring the performance of infrastructure systems and grappling with the concept of defining good performance are the major themes of this book...

  18. A performance comparison of direct- and indirect-detection flat-panel imagers

    CERN Document Server

    Partridge, M; Müller, L

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of the performance of a direct- and an indirect-detection amorphous silicon flat-panel X-ray imager is presented for a 6 MV beam. Experimental measurements of the noise characteristics, image lag, spectral response, spatial resolution and quantum efficiency are described, compared and discussed. The two systems are comprised of 512x512 pixel, 400 mu m pitch, arrays of a-Si:H p-i-n photodiodes and thin-film transistors. In the direct-detection system, X-rays interact to produce electron/hole pairs directly in the silicon photodiodes. For the indirect-detection system, a phosphor screen converts energy from the incident X-rays into visible light, which is then detected by the photodiodes. Both systems are shown to be quantum noise limited, with the total electronic noise in the detector 10-15 times smaller than the Poisson noise level in detected signal. The measured lag for both systems is 1.0+-0.1% or less in the first frame with subsequent signals decaying exponentially with frame read-out, with...

  19. New’ Performance Measures: Determinants of Their Use and Their Impact on Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.M. Verbeeten (Frank)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the extent to which Dutch organizations use ‘new’ performance measures to deal with the perceived inadequacies of traditional accounting performance measures. In addition, the determinants of the use of these ‘new’ performance measures are documented; finally, the

  20. A Critique of Health System Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Health system performance measurement is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Many authors have identified multiple methodological and substantive problems with performance measurement practices. Despite the validity of these criticisms and their cross-national character, the practice of health system performance measurement persists. Theodore Marmor suggests that performance measurement invokes an "incantatory response" wrapped within "linguistic muddle." In this article, I expand upon Marmor's insights using Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework to suggest that, far from an aberration, the "linguistic muddle" identified by Marmor is an indicator of a broad struggle about the representation and classification of public health services as a public good. I present a case study of performance measurement from Alberta, Canada, examining how this representational struggle occurs and what the stakes are. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Comparison of different methods for thoron progeny measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Lei; Zhu Li; Shang Bing; Cui Hongxing; Zhang Qingzhao

    2009-01-01

    Four popular methods for thoron progeny measurement were discussed, including the aspects of detector,principle, precondition, calculation advantages and disadvantages. Comparison experiments were made in mine and houses with high background in Yunnan Province. Since indoor thoron progeny changes with time obviously and with no rule, α track method is recommended in the area of radiation protection for environmental detection and assessment. (authors)

  2. Measurement Of Shariah Stock Performance Using Risk Adjusted Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhairan Y Yunan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the shariah stock performance using risk adjusted performance method. There are three parameters to measure the stock performance i.e. Sharpe, Treynor, and Jensen. This performance’s measurements calculate the return and risk factor from shariah stocks. The data that used on this research is using the data of stocks at Jakarta Islamic Index. Sampling method that used on this paper is purposive sampling. This research is using ten companies as a sample. The result shows that from three parameters, the stock that have a best performance are AALI, ANTM, ASII, CPIN, INDF, KLBF, LSIP, and UNTR.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i1.1364

  3. Antisaccade performance in schizophrenia patients, their first-degree biological relatives, and community comparison subjects: data from the COGS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radant, Allen D; Dobie, Dorcas J; Calkins, Monica E; Olincy, Ann; Braff, David L; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Light, Gregory A; Meichle, Sean P; Millard, Steve P; Mintz, Jim; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Schork, Nicholas J; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Tsuang, Debby W

    2010-09-01

    The antisaccade task is a widely used technique to measure failure of inhibition, an important cause of cognitive and clinical abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Although antisaccade performance, which reflects the ability to inhibit prepotent responses, is a putative schizophrenia endophenotype, researchers have not consistently reported the expected differences between first-degree relatives and comparison groups. Schizophrenia participants (n=219) from the large Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) sample (n=1078) demonstrated significant deficits on an overlap version of the antisaccade task compared to their first-degree relatives (n=443) and community comparison subjects (CCS; n=416). Although mean antisaccade performance of first-degree relatives was intermediate between schizophrenia participants and CCS, a linear mixed-effects model adjusting for group, site, age, and gender found no significant performance differences between the first-degree relatives and CCS. However, admixture analyses showed that two components best explained the distributions in all three groups, suggesting two distinct doses of an etiological factor. Given the significant heritability of antisaccade performance, the effects of a genetic polymorphism is one possible explanation of our results.

  4. MEASUREMENT: ACCOUNTING FOR RELIABILITY IN PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Brian; Sutter, Robert; Burroughs, Thomas; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating physician performance measures, physician leaders are faced with the quandary of determining whether departures from expected physician performance measurements represent a true signal or random error. This uncertainty impedes the physician leader's ability and confidence to take appropriate performance improvement actions based on physician performance measurements. Incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurement is a valuable way of reducing the impact of random error in the measurements, such as those caused by small sample sizes. Consequently, the physician executive has more confidence that the results represent true performance and is positioned to make better physician performance improvement decisions. Applying reliability adjustment to physician-level performance data is relatively new. As others have noted previously, it's important to keep in mind that reliability adjustment adds significant complexity to the production, interpretation and utilization of results. Furthermore, the methods explored in this case study only scratch the surface of the range of available Bayesian methods that can be used for reliability adjustment; further study is needed to test and compare these methods in practice and to examine important extensions for handling specialty-specific concerns (e.g., average case volumes, which have been shown to be important in cardiac surgery outcomes). Moreover, it's important to note that the provider group average as a basis for shrinkage is one of several possible choices that could be employed in practice and deserves further exploration in future research. With these caveats, our results demonstrate that incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurements is feasible and can notably reduce the incidence of "real" signals relative to what one would expect to see using more traditional approaches. A physician leader who is interested in catalyzing performance improvement

  5. Comparison of turbulence measurements from DIII-D low-mode and high-performance plasmas to turbulence simulations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, T.L.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Sydora, R.D.; Groebner, R.J.; Doyle, E.J.; McKee, G.R.; Peebles, W.A.; Rettig, C.L.; Zeng, L.; Wang, G.

    2002-01-01

    Measured turbulence characteristics (correlation lengths, spectra, etc.) in low-confinement (L-mode) and high-performance plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak [Luxon et al., Proceedings Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] show many similarities with the characteristics determined from turbulence simulations. Radial correlation lengths Δr of density fluctuations from L-mode discharges are found to be numerically similar to the ion poloidal gyroradius ρ θ,s , or 5-10 times the ion gyroradius ρ s over the radial region 0.2 θ,s or 5-10 times ρ s , an experiment was performed which modified ρ θs while keeping other plasma parameters approximately fixed. It was found that the experimental Δr did not scale as ρ θ,s , which was similar to low-resolution UCAN simulations. Finally, both experimental measurements and gyrokinetic simulations indicate a significant reduction in the radial correlation length from high-performance quiescent double barrier discharges, as compared to normal L-mode, consistent with reduced transport in these high-performance plasmas

  6. Does social comparison make a difference? Optimism as a moderator of the relation between comparison level and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbons, FX; Blanton, H; Gerrard, M; Buunk, B; Eggleston, T

    Previous research has demonstrated that poor academic performance is associated with a downward shift in preferred level of academic comparison level (ACL). The current study assessed the long-term impact of this downward shift on the academic performance of college students and also examined the

  7. Performance of biometric quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grother, Patrick; Tabassi, Elham

    2007-04-01

    We document methods for the quantitative evaluation of systems that produce a scalar summary of a biometric sample's quality. We are motivated by a need to test claims that quality measures are predictive of matching performance. We regard a quality measurement algorithm as a black box that converts an input sample to an output scalar. We evaluate it by quantifying the association between those values and observed matching results. We advance detection error trade-off and error versus reject characteristics as metrics for the comparative evaluation of sample quality measurement algorithms. We proceed this with a definition of sample quality, a description of the operational use of quality measures. We emphasize the performance goal by including a procedure for annotating the samples of a reference corpus with quality values derived from empirical recognition scores.

  8. Developing Human Performance Measures (PSAM8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2006-01-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC's risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: (1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, (2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  9. Final report on COOMET.RI(II)-S2.Cs-137 (319/RU/04): Comparison measurements of radionuclide volume sources (Cs-137)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostin, S.; Hernandez, T.; Oropesa, P.; Arnold, D.; Evseev, V.; Ivanukovich, A.; Milevskiy, V.; Svec, A.; Lapenas, A.; Andonova, V.; Steiner, V.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the Cs-137 specific activity in artificial volume material of water density were performed in nine laboratories with HPGe spectrometry technique. Analysis of the gamma radiation absorption in measured material and in the most important for environmental monitoring substances (food, water, biological materials, soils) confirmed the Compton scattering as the main mechanism of interaction. The list of CMCs supported by the comparison is suggested. (authors)

  10. Final report on COOMET.RI(II)-S2.Cs-137 (319/RU/04): Comparison measurements of radionuclide volume sources (Cs-137)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostin, S. [All Russian Research Institute for Physical-Technical and Radio-Technical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Hernandez, T.; Oropesa, P. [Center of Isotopes - Radionuclide Metrology Department (CENTIS-DMR), Habana (Cuba); Arnold, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Evseev, V. [National Scientific Centre ' Institute of Metrology' (NSC IM), Kharkov (Ukraine); Ivanukovich, A.; Milevskiy, V. [Belarusian State Institute of Metrology (BelGIM), Minsk (Belarus); Svec, A. [Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU), Bratislava (Slovakia); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd, Radiation Metrology and Testing Centre (RMTC), Salaspils (Latvia); Andonova, V. [Bulgarian Institute of Metrology - National Centre of Metrology (BIM-NCM), Sofia (Bulgaria); Steiner, V. [Ministry of the Environment - Radiation and Noise Division (ISR-MoE), Jerusalem (Israel)

    2010-04-15

    Measurements of the Cs-137 specific activity in artificial volume material of water density were performed in nine laboratories with HPGe spectrometry technique. Analysis of the gamma radiation absorption in measured material and in the most important for environmental monitoring substances (food, water, biological materials, soils) confirmed the Compton scattering as the main mechanism of interaction. The list of CMCs supported by the comparison is suggested. (authors)

  11. Assessing measures of energy efficiency performance and their application in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.

    2008-02-15

    This paper explores different measures of energy efficiency performance (hereafter referred to as 'MEEP'): absolute energy consumption, energy intensity, diffusion of specific energy-saving technology and thermal efficiency. It discusses their advantages and disadvantages and their roles within policy frameworks. MEEP may be necessary at several stages during policy design: in a developing regulatory framework; during the actual application; and in evaluation after policy implementation. Policy makers should consider the suitability of MEEP at each of these stages, based on criteria such as reliability, feasibility and verifiability. The paper considers the importance of so-called boundary definitions when measuring energy performance, and how these affect the appropriateness of country comparisons to guide policy decisions. The paper also addresses the limitations of both energy intensity and technology diffusion indicators as measures of energy efficiency performance. A case study on Japan's iron and steel industry illustrates the critical role of proper boundary definitions for a meaningful assessment of energy efficiency in industry. Depending on the boundaries set for the analysis, the energy consumption per ton of crude steel ranges from 16 to 21 GJ. Both a proper understanding of various methods to assess energy efficiency and the linkage with policy objectives and frameworks are important. Using the diffusion rates of specific energy-efficient processes is a technology-oriented approach which seeks to encourage the retrofitting or replacement of less efficient equipment. There are fewer boundary problems using diffusion rates than by calculating energy consumption. 42 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs., 1 app.

  12. Inter-laboratory comparison of HITU power measurement methods and capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenderka, K V; Durando, G; Karaboece, B; Rajagopal, S; Shaw, A

    2011-01-01

    High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound (HITU) is gaining in importance among the spectrum of therapeutic options to combat cancer. HITU has already been approved and is in clinical use for the treatment of organs like the prostate, the liver and the uterus. Nevertheless, the metrology of the applied high power ultrasound fields, and in consequence, reliable treatment planning and monitoring, is still a challenge. As part of a European Metrology Research Programme project, the four National Metrology Institutes from the UK, Germany, Italy and Turkey conducted an inter-laboratory comparison of their power measurement capabilities at power levels of 5, 25, 75 and 150 W each at frequencies of 1.1, 1.5 and 3.3 MHz. The task was to measure the total, time-averaged ultrasonic output power, emitted by the circulated transducers under specified electrical excitation conditions into an anechoic water load, and the actual rms transducer input voltage. The output value to be reported was the electro-acoustic radiation conductance including the associated standard and expanded uncertainties. Several different measurement techniques were applied to gain further insight into HITU power measurement. The deviations from the calculated comparison reference value found for the different techniques are discussed and conclusions for the further improvement of measuring procedures are drawn.

  13. Inter-laboratory comparison of HITU power measurement methods and capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenderka, K V [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Durando, G [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Karaboece, B [Tuebitak Ulusal Metroloji Enstituesue (UME), P.K. 54 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Rajagopal, S; Shaw, A, E-mail: kvjend@ieee.org [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound (HITU) is gaining in importance among the spectrum of therapeutic options to combat cancer. HITU has already been approved and is in clinical use for the treatment of organs like the prostate, the liver and the uterus. Nevertheless, the metrology of the applied high power ultrasound fields, and in consequence, reliable treatment planning and monitoring, is still a challenge. As part of a European Metrology Research Programme project, the four National Metrology Institutes from the UK, Germany, Italy and Turkey conducted an inter-laboratory comparison of their power measurement capabilities at power levels of 5, 25, 75 and 150 W each at frequencies of 1.1, 1.5 and 3.3 MHz. The task was to measure the total, time-averaged ultrasonic output power, emitted by the circulated transducers under specified electrical excitation conditions into an anechoic water load, and the actual rms transducer input voltage. The output value to be reported was the electro-acoustic radiation conductance including the associated standard and expanded uncertainties. Several different measurement techniques were applied to gain further insight into HITU power measurement. The deviations from the calculated comparison reference value found for the different techniques are discussed and conclusions for the further improvement of measuring procedures are drawn.

  14. New MRI Markers for Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging and a Comparison with Medial Temporal Lobe Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clerx, L.; Visser, P.J.; Verhey, F.; Aalten, P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for early Alzheimer's disease (AD) in comparison to widely accepted medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy measurements. A systematic literature research was performed into DTI and MTL atrophy in AD and

  15. An efficient binomial model-based measure for sequence comparison and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Dai, Qi; Li, Lihua; He, Zerong

    2011-04-01

    Sequence comparison is one of the major tasks in bioinformatics, which could serve as evidence of structural and functional conservation, as well as of evolutionary relations. There are several similarity/dissimilarity measures for sequence comparison, but challenges remains. This paper presented a binomial model-based measure to analyze biological sequences. With help of a random indicator, the occurrence of a word at any position of sequence can be regarded as a random Bernoulli variable, and the distribution of a sum of the word occurrence is well known to be a binomial one. By using a recursive formula, we computed the binomial probability of the word count and proposed a binomial model-based measure based on the relative entropy. The proposed measure was tested by extensive experiments including classification of HEV genotypes and phylogenetic analysis, and further compared with alignment-based and alignment-free measures. The results demonstrate that the proposed measure based on binomial model is more efficient.

  16. Final report of the key comparison CCQM-K106: Pb, As and Hg measurements in cosmetic (cream)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Qian; Yamani, Randa Nasr Ahmed; Shehata, Adel B.; Jacimovic, Radojko; Pavlin, Majda; Horvat, Milena; Tsoi, Y. P.; Tsang, C. K.; Shin, Richard; Chailap, Benjamat; Yafa, Charun; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; de Almeida, Marcelo; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Kyoung-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Konopelko, Leonid; Ari, Betül; Tokman, Nilgün; Rienitz, Olaf; Jaehrling, Reinhard; Pape, Carola

    2015-01-01

    relating to CCQM-K106 was sent to each participant by e-mail, which consisted of technical protocol, results report form and inorganic core capabilities tables. The results were reported as mass faction (mg/kg). Calculation of the uncertainty expressed as a combined standard uncertainty and an expanded uncertainty at 95% confidence. In order to allow a sufficient evaluation of the comparison, the report was required to include a detailed description of the applied method of measurement, information about sample digestion and preparation, information about the reference material used for calibration. The methods of measurement were free to be selected by the participants. For the sample treatment, most of the participants used microwave digestion method. For instrumental determination, a variety of techniques such as ICP-MS, AAS, INAA were adopted by the participants. Most participants choose ID-ICP-MS method to measure Pb and Hg, which showed the better performance in terms of consistency and reliability of the measurement results. The reference mass fraction values and associated uncertainties were calculated by different statistic ways. As the result, the median and uncertainty of median were proposed as the key comparison reference value (KCRV) and its associated key comparison reference uncertainty after removal of suspected extreme values. In general, the performances of the majority of the CCQM-K106 participants are excellent, illustrating their measurement capability for Pb, As and Hg in a complex greasy matrix. The results can be used further by any participant to support its CMC claim at least for a borate buffer. That claim will concern the pH method employed by the participant during this comparison and will cover the used temperature(s) or the full temperature range between 15°C and 37 °C for the participant which measured pH values at the three temperatures. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that

  17. Performances of different digital mammography imaging systems: Evaluation and comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, M.G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: giuseppina.bisogni@pi.infn.it; Bulajic, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Delogu, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Fantacci, M.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Novelli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Quattrocchi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Rosso, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Stefanini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, e Sezione INFN di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Digital mammography is entering routine clinical use and many commercial systems are now in use in the radiological units for screening and diagnostic mammography. At the same time, the research in the digital mammography field is very active in the development of more and more performing devices. In this paper we present the performance of single photon counting pixel detectors (MedipixI) tailored for digital mammographic applications. These devices are based on semiconductor (Si and GaAs) pixel detectors of different thickness, read-out by custom designed integrated circuits. To assess the imaging capability of such systems, the images of a mammographic phantom have been acquired in standard conditions for a clinical examination. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of details simulating tumor masses has been evaluated. The same phantom has been also radiographed by three different commercial digital mammographic systems in the same reference conditions and a comparison in terms of SNR has been carried out. The spatial resolution of the single photon counting systems has also been evaluated by measuring the line spread function with the edge technique and then calculating the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The MTFs of the single photon counting systems have been compared with the MTFs of the commercial systems.

  18. Performances of different digital mammography imaging systems: Evaluation and comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Bulajic, D.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Novelli, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.

    2005-01-01

    Digital mammography is entering routine clinical use and many commercial systems are now in use in the radiological units for screening and diagnostic mammography. At the same time, the research in the digital mammography field is very active in the development of more and more performing devices. In this paper we present the performance of single photon counting pixel detectors (MedipixI) tailored for digital mammographic applications. These devices are based on semiconductor (Si and GaAs) pixel detectors of different thickness, read-out by custom designed integrated circuits. To assess the imaging capability of such systems, the images of a mammographic phantom have been acquired in standard conditions for a clinical examination. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of details simulating tumor masses has been evaluated. The same phantom has been also radiographed by three different commercial digital mammographic systems in the same reference conditions and a comparison in terms of SNR has been carried out. The spatial resolution of the single photon counting systems has also been evaluated by measuring the line spread function with the edge technique and then calculating the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The MTFs of the single photon counting systems have been compared with the MTFs of the commercial systems

  19. Comparison of precision and speed in laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgical task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihni, Ahmed; Gerull, William D; Cavallo, Jaime A; Ge, Tianjia; Ray, Shuddhadeb; Chiu, Jason; Brunt, L Michael; Awad, Michael M

    2018-03-01

    Robotic platforms have the potential advantage of providing additional dexterity and precision to surgeons while performing complex laparoscopic tasks, especially for those in training. Few quantitative evaluations of surgical task performance comparing laparoscopic and robotic platforms among surgeons of varying experience levels have been done. We compared measures of quality and efficiency of Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery task performance on these platforms in novices and experienced laparoscopic and robotic surgeons. Fourteen novices, 12 expert laparoscopic surgeons (>100 laparoscopic procedures performed, no robotics experience), and five expert robotic surgeons (>25 robotic procedures performed) performed three Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery tasks on both laparoscopic and robotic platforms: peg transfer (PT), pattern cutting (PC), and intracorporeal suturing. All tasks were repeated three times by each subject on each platform in a randomized order. Mean completion times and mean errors per trial (EPT) were calculated for each task on both platforms. Results were compared using Student's t-test (P task performance was slower on the robotic platform compared with laparoscopy. In comparisons of expert laparoscopists performing tasks on the laparoscopic platform and expert robotic surgeons performing tasks on the robotic platform, expert robotic surgeons demonstrated fewer errors during the PC task (P = 0.009). Robotic assistance provided a reduction in errors at all experience levels for some laparoscopic tasks, but no benefit in the speed of task performance. Robotic assistance may provide some benefit in precision of surgical task performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional inter-comparison of measurements of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) using photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.; Zahili, M.; Kharita, M.H.

    2012-11-01

    The overall objective is to verify performance and to improve the Individual Monitoring services (IMS). This can be achieved with the following specific objectives of the intercomparison:1. To assess the capabilities of the dosimetry services to measure the quantity H p (10) in photon (gamma and x-ray) fields. 2. To help the participating Member States in achieving sufficiently accurate dosimetry service and, if necessary, 3. To provide guidelines for improvements and not simply a test of the performance of the existing dosimetric service. Actually a significant improvement has been achieved by the participants in the accuracy of evaluating personal dose equivalent from 15% in the first phase to 5% in the second phase. Some participants used the results of the inter-comparison to verify the calibration and to improve their dosimetric procedures, but from the results it was clear that some participants need to a technical support especially in calibration and using their measuring system in the field of personal monitoring. The conclusion contains advises, solutions, propositions and evaluation for all situations which noticed during the intercomparison. (authors)

  1. Measurement-Based Evaluation of Installed Filtration System Performance in Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu Rengie; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-04-03

    This guide discusses important study design issues to consider when conducting an on-site evaluation of filtration system performance. The two most important dichotomies to consider in developing a study protocol are (1) whether systems are being evaluated in occupied or unoccupied homes and (2) whether different systems are being compared in the same homes or if the comparison is between systems installed in different homes. This document provides perspective and recommendations about a suite of implementation issues including the choice of particle measurement devices, selection of sampling locations, ways to control and/or monitor factors and processes that can impact particle concentrations, and data analysis approaches.

  2. Measurement and Comparison of Variance in the Performance of Algerian Universities using models of Returns to Scale Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Bebba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure and compare the performance of forty-seven Algerian universities, using models of returns to Scale approach, which is based primarily on the Data Envelopment Analysis  method. In order to achieve the objective of the study, a set of variables was chosen to represent the dimension of teaching. The variables consisted of three input variables, which were:  the total number of students  in the undergraduate level, students in the post graduate level and the number of permanent professors. On the other hand, the output variable was represented by the total number of students holding degrees of the two levels. Four basic models for data envelopment analysis method were applied. These were: (Scale Returns, represented by input-oriented and output-oriented constant returns and input-oriented and output-oriented  variable returns. After the analysis of data, results revealed that eight universities achieved full efficiency according to constant returns to scale in both input and output orientations. Seventeen universities achieved full efficiency according to the model of input-oriented returns to scale variable. Sixteen universities achieved full efficiency according to the model of output-oriented  returns to scale variable. Therefore, during the performance measurement, the size of the university, competition, financial and infrastructure constraints, and the process of resource allocation within the university  should be taken into consideration. Also, multiple input and output variables reflecting the dimensions of teaching, research, and community service should be included while measuring and assessing the performance of Algerian universities, rather than using two variables which do not reflect the actual performance of these universities. Keywords: Performance of Algerian Universities, Data envelopment analysis method , Constant returns to scale, Variable returns to scale, Input-orientation, Output-orientation.

  3. Longitudinal measurements of luminance and chromatic contrast sensitivity: comparison between wavefront-guided LASIK and contralateral PRK for myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, Mirella Telles Salgueiro; Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Barreto Junior, Jackson; Lago, Marcos; Bechara, Samir Jacob; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to compare the postoperative contrast sensitivity functions between wavefront-guided LASIK eyes and their contralateral wavefront-guided PRK eyes. The participants were 11 healthy subjects (mean age=32.4 ± 6.2 years) who had myopic astigmatism. The spatial contrast sensitivity functions were measured before and three times after the surgery. Psycho and a Cambridge graphic board (VSG 2/4) were used to measure luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow spatial contrast sensitivity functions (from 0.85 to 13.1 cycles/degree). Longitudinal analysis and comparison between surgeries were performed. There was no significant contrast sensitivity change during the one-year follow-up measurements neither for LASIK nor for PRK eyes. The comparison between procedures showed no differences at 12 months postoperative. The present data showed similar contrast sensitivities during one-year follow-up of wave-front guided refractive surgeries. Moreover, one year postoperative data showed no differences in the effects of either wavefront-guided LASIK or wavefront-guided PRK on the luminance and chromatic spatial contrast sensitivity functions.

  4. Robust, accurate, and non-contacting vibration measurement systems: Summary of comparison measurements of the robust laser interferometer and typical accelerometer systems. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenow, T.C.; Shipman, R.L.; Holland, H.M.

    1995-06-01

    Epoch Engineering, Incorporated (EEI) has completed a series of vibration measurements comparing their newly-developed Robust Laser Interferometer (RLI) with accelerometer-based instrumentation systems. EEI has successfully demonstrated, on several pieces of commonplace machinery, that non-contact, line-of-sight measurements are practical and yield results equal to or, in some cases, better than customary field implementations of accelerometers. The demonstration included analysis and comparison of such phenomena as nonlinearity, transverse sensitivity, harmonics, and signal-to-noise ratio. Fast Fourier Transformations were performed on the accelerometer and the laser system outputs to provide a comparison basis. The RLI was demonstrated, within the limits of the task, to be a viable, line-of-sight, non-contact alternative to accelerometer systems. Several different kinds of machinery were instrumented and compared, including a small pump, a gear-driven cement mixer, a rotor kit, and two small fans. Known machinery vibration sources were verified and RLI system output file formats were verified to be compatible with commercial computer programs used for vibration monitoring and trend analysis. The RLI was also observed to be less subject to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and more capable at very low frequencies

  5. Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES): A Framework for Developing Performance Measures for Behavioral Health Crisis and Psychiatric Emergency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Tanner, Kathleen; Jurica, Paul J; Rhoads, Richard; Carson, Chris A

    2016-01-01

    Crisis and emergency psychiatric services are an integral part of the healthcare system, yet there are no standardized measures for programs providing these services. We developed the Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES) framework to create measures that inform internal performance improvement initiatives and allow comparison across programs. The framework consists of two components-the CRISES domains (timely, safe, accessible, least-restrictive, effective, consumer/family centered, and partnership) and the measures supporting each domain. The CRISES framework provides a foundation for development of standardized measures for the crisis field. This will become increasingly important as pay-for-performance initiatives expand with healthcare reform.

  6. International comparison of activity measurements of a solution of 75Se

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, Guy

    2002-04-01

    Activity measurements of a solution of 75Se, supplied by the BIPM, have been carried out by 21 laboratories within the framework of an international comparison. Seven different methods were used. Details on source preparation, experimental facilities and counting data are reported. The measured activity-concentration values show a total spread of 6.62% before correction and 6.02% after correction for delayed events, with standard deviations of the unweighted means of 0.45% and 0.36%, respectively. The correction for delayed events was measured directly by four laboratories. Unfortunately no consensus on the activity value could be deduced from their results. The results of the comparison have been entered in the tables of the International Reference System (SIR) for γ-ray emitting radionuclides. The half-life of the metastable state was also determined by two laboratories and found to be in good agreement with the values found in the literature.

  7. Performance Measurement Systems in Swedish Health Care Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kollberg, Beata

    2007-01-01

    In the quality management literature, measurements are attributed great importance in improving products and processes. Systems for performance measurement assessing financial and non-financial measurements were developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The research on performance measurement systems has mainly been focused on the design of different performance measurement systems. Many authors are occupied with the study of the constructs of measures and developing prescriptive models of...

  8. Performance Measurement at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes empirical approaches to testing the reliability, validity, and organizational effectiveness of student evaluations of teaching (SET) as a performance measurement instrument in knowledge management at the institutional level of universities. Departing from Weber’s concept...

  9. A comparison of systemwide and hospital-specific performance measurement tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Clarence; Siu, Emily; Baker, G Ross; Brown, Adalsteinn D

    2005-01-01

    Balanced scorecards are being implemented at the system and organizational levels to help managers link their organizational strategies with performance data to better manage their healthcare systems. Prior to this study, hospitals in Ontario, Canada, received two editions of the system-level scorecard (SLS)--a framework, based on the original balanced scorecard, that includes four quadrants: system integration and management innovation (learning and growth), clinical utilization and outcomes (internal processes), patient satisfaction (customer), and financial performance and condition (financial). This study examines the uptake of the SLS framework and indicators into institution-specific scorecards for 22 acute care institutions and 2 non-acute-care institutions. This study found that larger (teaching and community) hospitals were significantly more likely to use the SLS framework to report performance data than did small hospitals (p < 0.0049 and 0.0507) and that teaching hospitals used the framework significantly more than community hospitals did (p < 0.0529). The majority of hospitals in this study used at least one indicator from the SLS in their own scorecards. However, all hospitals in the study incorporated indicators that required data collection and analysis beyond the SLS framework. The study findings suggest that SLS may assist hospitals in developing institution-specific scorecards for hospital management and that the balanced scorecard model can be modified to meet the needs of a variety of hospitals. Based on the insight from this study and other activities that explore top priorities for hospital management, the issues related to efficiency and human resources should be further examined using SLSs.

  10. Comparison of Core Performance with Various Oxide fuels on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Ha; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The system is called Prototype GenIV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR). Ultimate goal of PGSFR is test for capability of TRU transmutation. Purpose of this study is test for evaluation of in-core performance and TRU transmutation performance by applying various oxide fuel loaded TRU. Fuel type of reference core is changed to uranium-based oxide fuel. Oxide fuel has a lot of experience through fuel fabrication and reactor operation. This study performed by compared and analyzed a core performance of various oxide fuels. (U,Pu)O{sub 2} and (U,TRU)O{sub 2} which various oxide fuel types are selected as extreme case for comparison with core performance and transmutation capability of TRU isotopes. Thorium-based fuel is known that it has good performance for burner reactor due to low proliferation characteristic. To check the performance of TRU incineration for comparison with uranium-based fuel on prototype SFR, Thorium-based fuel, (Th,U)O{sub 2}, (Th,Pu)O{sub 2} and (Th,TRU)O{sub 2}, is selected. Calculations of core performance for various oxide fuel are performed using the fast calculation tool, TRANSX / DANTSTS / REBUS-3. In this study, comparison of core performance and transmutation performance is conducted with various fuel types in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Mixed oxide fuel with TRU can produce the energy with small amount of fissile material. However, the TRU fuel is confirmed to bring a potential decline of the safety parameters. In case of (Th,U)O2 fuel, the flux level in thermal neutron region becomes lower because of higher capture cross-section of Th-232 than U-238. However, Th-232 has difficulty in converting to TRU isotopes. Therefore, the TRU consumption mass is relatively high in mixed oxide fuel with thorium and TRU.

  11. Comparison of Core Performance with Various Oxide fuels on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Ha; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The system is called Prototype GenIV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR). Ultimate goal of PGSFR is test for capability of TRU transmutation. Purpose of this study is test for evaluation of in-core performance and TRU transmutation performance by applying various oxide fuel loaded TRU. Fuel type of reference core is changed to uranium-based oxide fuel. Oxide fuel has a lot of experience through fuel fabrication and reactor operation. This study performed by compared and analyzed a core performance of various oxide fuels. (U,Pu)O_2 and (U,TRU)O_2 which various oxide fuel types are selected as extreme case for comparison with core performance and transmutation capability of TRU isotopes. Thorium-based fuel is known that it has good performance for burner reactor due to low proliferation characteristic. To check the performance of TRU incineration for comparison with uranium-based fuel on prototype SFR, Thorium-based fuel, (Th,U)O_2, (Th,Pu)O_2 and (Th,TRU)O_2, is selected. Calculations of core performance for various oxide fuel are performed using the fast calculation tool, TRANSX / DANTSTS / REBUS-3. In this study, comparison of core performance and transmutation performance is conducted with various fuel types in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Mixed oxide fuel with TRU can produce the energy with small amount of fissile material. However, the TRU fuel is confirmed to bring a potential decline of the safety parameters. In case of (Th,U)O2 fuel, the flux level in thermal neutron region becomes lower because of higher capture cross-section of Th-232 than U-238. However, Th-232 has difficulty in converting to TRU isotopes. Therefore, the TRU consumption mass is relatively high in mixed oxide fuel with thorium and TRU.

  12. Comparison of viable plate count, turbidity measurement and real-time PCR for quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clais, S; Boulet, G; Van Kerckhoven, M; Lanckacker, E; Delputte, P; Maes, L; Cos, P

    2015-01-01

    The viable plate count (VPC) is considered as the reference method for bacterial enumeration in periodontal microbiology but shows some important limitations for anaerobic bacteria. As anaerobes such as Porphyromonas gingivalis are difficult to culture, VPC becomes time-consuming and less sensitive. Hence, efficient normalization of experimental data to bacterial cell count requires alternative rapid and reliable quantification methods. This study compared the performance of VPC with that of turbidity measurement and real-time PCR (qPCR) in an experimental context using highly concentrated bacterial suspensions. Our TaqMan-based qPCR assay for P. gingivalis 16S rRNA proved to be sensitive and specific. Turbidity measurements offer a fast method to assess P. gingivalis growth, but suffer from high variability and a limited dynamic range. VPC was very time-consuming and less repeatable than qPCR. Our study concludes that qPCR provides the most rapid and precise approach for P. gingivalis quantification. Although our data were gathered in a specific research context, we believe that our conclusions on the inferior performance of VPC and turbidity measurements in comparison to qPCR can be extended to other research and clinical settings and even to other difficult-to-culture micro-organisms. Various clinical and research settings require fast and reliable quantification of bacterial suspensions. The viable plate count method (VPC) is generally seen as 'the gold standard' for bacterial enumeration. However, VPC-based quantification of anaerobes such as Porphyromonas gingivalis is time-consuming due to their stringent growth requirements and shows poor repeatability. Comparison of VPC, turbidity measurement and TaqMan-based qPCR demonstrated that qPCR possesses important advantages regarding speed, accuracy and repeatability. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Comparisons with measured data of the simulated local core parameters by the coupled code ATHLET-BIPR-VVER applying a new enhanced model of the reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, S.; Pasichnyk, I.; Velkov, K.; Pautz, A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the performed comparisons of measured and simulated local core data based on the OECD/NEA Benchmark on Kalinin-3 NPP: 'Switching off of one of the four operating main circulation pumps at nominal reactor power'. The local measurements of in core self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) in 64 fuel assemblies on 7 axial levels are used for the comparisons of the assemblies axial power distributions and the thermocouples readings at 93 fuel assembly heads are applied for the fuel assembly coolant temperature comparisons. The analyses are done on the base of benchmark transient calculations performed with the coupled system code ATHLET/BIPR-VVER. In order to describe more realistically the fluid mixing phenomena in a reactor pressure vessel a new enhanced nodalization scheme is being developed. It could take into account asymmetric flow behaviour in the reactor pressure vessel structures like downcomer, reactor core inlet and outlet, control rods' guided tubes, support grids etc. For this purpose details of the core geometry are modelled. About 58000 control volumes and junctions are applied. Cross connection are used to describe the interaction between the fluid objects. The performed comparisons are of great interest because they show some advantages by performing coupled code production pseudo-3D analysis of NPPs applying the parallel thermo-hydraulic channel methodology (or 1D thermo-hydraulic system code modeling). (Authors)

  14. Comparison of VOC measurements in Nashville, TN, during the southern oxidants study (SOS) 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabmer, W.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Stroud, C.; Roberts, J.M.; Fehsenfeld, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: During the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) 1999 Nashville campaign ambient air samples were analyzed at Cornelia Fort Airport (CFA) for organic compounds by two independent methods: 1) a gas chromatographic systems operated by NOAAs Aeronomy Laboratory, which performed immediate analysis of collected samples and 2) an in situ proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) system operated by the Univ. of Innsbruck. The sample protocols were quite different for the different methods. The GC system sequentially collected and analyzed air samples each 60 minutes for VOCs. The in-situ PTR-MS system measured more than 20 VOCs on a time shared basis for 5 to 15 seconds respectively, once each 5 minutes. The PTR-MS system is not able to distinguish between isobaric species, therefore acetone and propanal (MVK and MACR) values measured by NOAAs GC were added up prior to comparison with the respective PTR-MS values. For all species mentioned above the different measurement methods show good agreement. (author)

  15. Comparison of VOC measurements in Nashville, TE, during the southern oxidants study (SOS) 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabmer, W.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Stroud, C.; Roberts, J.M.; Fehsenfeld, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    During the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) 1999 Nashville campaign ambient air samples were analyzed at Cornelia Fort Airport (CFA) for organic compounds by two independent methods: 1) a gas chromatographic systems operated by NOAAs Aeronomy Laboratory, which performed immediate analysis of collected samples and 2) an in situ proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR M S) system operated by the University of Innsbruck. The sample protocols were quite different for the different methods. The GC system sequentially collected and analyzed air samples each 60 minutes for VOCs. The in-situ PTR-MS system measured more than 20 VOCs on a time shared basis for 5 to 15 seconds respectively, once each five minutes. The PTR-MS system is not able to distinguish between isobaric species, therefor acetone and propanal (MVK and MACR) values measured by NOAAs GC were added up prior to comparison with the respective PTR-MS values. For all species mentioned above the different measurement methods show good agreement. (author)

  16. Comparison of Cloud backup performance and costs in Oracle database

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaž Zrnec; Dejan Lavbič

    2011-01-01

    Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Oracle database u...

  17. Towards Comparison of Ultrasound Dose Measurements - Current Capabilities and Open Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durando, G.; Guglielmone, C.; Haller, J.; Georg, O.; Shaw, A.; Martin, E.; Karaböce, B.

    The aim of this work is to evaluate measurement methods for dosimetry and exposimetry quantities that were developed in the EMRP project "Dosimetry for Ultrasound Therapy -DUTy" by comparing the measurement results for three common quantities from three national laboratories. It further aims to investigate the general feasibility of possible future (key) comparisons for dosimetry and exposimetry quantities and to identify possible open challenges towards this goal. The general format is similar to a metrological comparison, with which the National Metrological Institutes, NMIs, are already familiar. The first step involved the agreement of the protocol that was to specify the set of transducers to be circulated and the measurement conditions. Two transducers were circulated and different drive voltage levels and pulsing regimes were defined and tissue mimicking materials (TMMs) characteristics were specified. Each lab was asked to prepare the TMMs for their own measurements with the inclusion of formulations and preparation instructions specified in the protocol. Uncertainties of the input data were to be declared by the participating laboratories.

  18. Quantification of the flow measurement performance due to installation changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ana Luisa Auler da Silva [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The objective is to present a criterion to identify and quantify improvements in the performance of flowmeters due to alterations in the design of a measurement system. The method was developed aiming at improvements in the operational systems, but is also useful in custody transfer systems. Take as base the estimate of uncertainty in the measurement systems, and seek a more intuitive way so as to aggregate the experience and knowledge available in the company. The identification of the measurand is carried out based on available information, the processing of data and the method of calculation. The improvements in the installation of measurement systems are given priority based on the measurement uncertainty of the CTPL (temperature and pressure correction factor) and the MF(meter factor). In the case of the CTPL, the influence of the pressure, temperature and density instruments in the results of the measurement system is evaluated, and in the case of the MF, the influence of the calibration system. The possibilities for calibrating the flowmeter in industry are presented, also detailing the calibration of the operational meter against custody transfer systems. The analysis of networks includes calculating the uncertainty in the closing of the network balance, calculation of the uncertainties and contributions of the measurement systems that form part of the network, and a comparison of improvements and costs, calculation for each alteration in the design of the measurement system, and its cost per improvement of 0.01% in the uncertainty of the closing. (author)

  19. Comparison of ambient aerosol extinction coefficients obtained from in-situ, MAX-DOAS and LIDAR measurements at Cabauw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zieger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field, aerosol in-situ measurements are often performed under dry conditions (relative humidity RH<30–40%. Since ambient aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth at enhanced RH, their microphysical and optical properties – especially the aerosol light scattering – are also strongly dependent on RH. The knowledge of this RH effect is of crucial importance for climate forcing calculations or for the comparison of remote sensing with in-situ measurements. Here, we will present results from a four-month campaign which took place in summer 2009 in Cabauw, The Netherlands. The aerosol scattering coefficient σsp(λ was measured dry and at various, predefined RH conditions between 20 and 95% with a humidified nephelometer. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH,λ is the key parameter to describe the effect of RH on σsp(λ and is defined as σsp(RH,λ measured at a certain RH divided by the dry σsp(dry,λ. The measurement of f(RH,λ together with the dry absorption measurement (assumed not to change with RH allows the determination of the actual extinction coefficient σep(RH,λ at ambient RH. In addition, a wide range of other aerosol properties were measured in parallel. The measurements were used to characterize the effects of RH on the aerosol optical properties. A closure study showed the consistency of the aerosol in-situ measurements. Due to the large variability of air mass origin (and thus aerosol composition a simple parameterization of f(RH,λ could not be established. If f(RH,λ needs to be predicted, the chemical composition and size distribution need to be known. Measurements of four MAX-DOAS (multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy instruments were used to retrieve vertical profiles of σep(λ. The values of the lowest layer were compared to the in-situ values after conversion of the latter ones to ambient

  20. Comparison of eye-safe solid state laser DIAL with passive gas filter correlation measurements from aircraft and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert V.; Staton, Leo D.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Wang, Liang-Guo

    1992-01-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) using solid state Ti:sapphire lasers finds current application in the NASA/LASE Project for H2O vapor measurements in the approximately = 0.820 micron region for the lower and mid-troposphere and in potential future applications in planned measurements of the approximately = 0.940 micron region where both strong and weak absorption lines enables measurements throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The challenge exists to perform measurements in the eye-safe greater than 1.5 micron region. A comparison between DIAL and passive Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR) measurements is made. The essence of the differences in signal to noise ratio for DIAL and passive GFCR measurements is examined. The state of the art of lasers and optical parametric oscillators (OPO's) is discussed.

  1. Performance Measures, Benchmarking and Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Felicity

    This paper discusses performance measurement in university libraries, based on examples from the University of Wollongong (UoW) in Australia. The introduction highlights the integration of information literacy into the curriculum and the outcomes of a 1998 UoW student satisfaction survey. The first section considers performance indicators in…

  2. Methane airborne measurements and comparison to global models during BARCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Veronika; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph; Bergamaschi, Peter; Bruhwiler, Lori; Houweling, Sander; Röckmann, Thomas; Kolle, Olaf; Steinbach, Julia; Koch, Thomas; Sapart, Célia J.; van der Veen, Carina; Frankenberg, Christian; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Longo, Karla M.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2012-08-01

    Tropical regions, especially the Amazon region, account for large emissions of methane (CH4). Here, we present CH4 observations from two airborne campaigns conducted within the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) project in the Amazon basin in November 2008 (end of the dry season) and May 2009 (end of the wet season). We performed continuous measurements of CH4 onboard an aircraft for the first time in the Amazon region, covering the whole Amazon basin with over 150 vertical profiles between altitudes of 500 m and 4000 m. The observations support the finding of previous ground-based, airborne, and satellite measurements that the Amazon basin is a large source of atmospheric CH4. Isotope analysis verified that the majority of emissions can be attributed to CH4 emissions from wetlands, while urban CH4 emissions could be also traced back to biogenic origin. A comparison of five TM5 based global CH4 inversions with the observations clearly indicates that the inversions using SCIAMACHY observations represent the BARCA observations best. The calculated CH4 flux estimate obtained from the mismatch between observations and TM5-modeled CH4 fields ranges from 36 to 43 mg m-2 d-1 for the Amazon lowland region.

  3. Comparison of various measures for assessing medication refill adherence using prescription data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, N. M.; Klungel, O. H.; Stolk, R. P.; Denig, P.

    Background Several measures using prescription data have been developed for estimating medication refill adherence. Few Studies have made direct comparisons, and little is known about the accuracy of these measures in patients oil a multiple-drug regimen. Purpose To compare different calculation

  4. Scalable Performance Measurement and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamblin, Todd [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Concurrency levels in large-scale, distributed-memory supercomputers are rising exponentially. Modern machines may contain 100,000 or more microprocessor cores, and the largest of these, IBM's Blue Gene/L, contains over 200,000 cores. Future systems are expected to support millions of concurrent tasks. In this dissertation, we focus on efficient techniques for measuring and analyzing the performance of applications running on very large parallel machines. Tuning the performance of large-scale applications can be a subtle and time-consuming task because application developers must measure and interpret data from many independent processes. While the volume of the raw data scales linearly with the number of tasks in the running system, the number of tasks is growing exponentially, and data for even small systems quickly becomes unmanageable. Transporting performance data from so many processes over a network can perturb application performance and make measurements inaccurate, and storing such data would require a prohibitive amount of space. Moreover, even if it were stored, analyzing the data would be extremely time-consuming. In this dissertation, we present novel methods for reducing performance data volume. The first draws on multi-scale wavelet techniques from signal processing to compress systemwide, time-varying load-balance data. The second uses statistical sampling to select a small subset of running processes to generate low-volume traces. A third approach combines sampling and wavelet compression to stratify performance data adaptively at run-time and to reduce further the cost of sampled tracing. We have integrated these approaches into Libra, a toolset for scalable load-balance analysis. We present Libra and show how it can be used to analyze data from large scientific applications scalably.

  5. Comparisons of Air Radiation Model with Shock Tube Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak; McCorkle, Evan; Bogdanoff, David W.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the predictive capability of shock layer radiation model appropriate for NASA s Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle lunar return entry. A detailed set of spectrally resolved radiation intensity comparisons are made with recently conducted tests in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The spectral range spanned from vacuum ultraviolet wavelength of 115 nm to infrared wavelength of 1400 nm. The analysis is done for 9.5-10.5 km/s shock passing through room temperature synthetic air at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.7 Torr. The comparisons between model and measurements show discrepancies in the level of background continuum radiation and intensities of atomic lines. Impurities in the EAST facility in the form of carbon bearing species are also modeled to estimate the level of contaminants and their impact on the comparisons. The discrepancies, although large is some cases, exhibit order and consistency. A set of tests and analyses improvements are proposed as forward work plan in order to confirm or reject various proposed reasons for the observed discrepancies.

  6. Benchmarking and Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, J. Stephen

    This paper defines benchmarking and its relationship to quality management, describes a project which applied the technique in a library context, and explores the relationship between performance measurement and benchmarking. Numerous benchmarking methods contain similar elements: deciding what to benchmark; identifying partners; gathering…

  7. Performance Analysis Comparison Of Coca Cola And Pepsi

    OpenAIRE

    The, Glenny Marselia; Saerang, David Paul Elia; Tumewu, Ferdinand

    2014-01-01

    All companies fight to get as many consumers as they can and it makes, product, price, place and promotion become important factors to make a company has a successful marketing campaign. The companies spend much money for create an attractive product at an affordable price, a place that can be reached, and the promotion that can be well-received by the public. So, regarding that fact, the researcher writes a study about the performance analysis comparison of Coca Cola and Pepsi in Manado b...

  8. Health Plan Performance Measurement within Medicare Subvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    the causes of poor performance (Siren & Laffel, 1996). Although outcomes measures such as nosocomial infection rates, admission rates for select...defined. Traditional outcomes measures include infection rates, morbidity, and mortality. The problem with these traditional measures is... Maternal /Child Care Indicators Nursing Staffing Indicators Outcome Indicators Technical Outcomes Plan Performance Stability of Health Plan

  9. Measurement of Capsaicinoids in Chiltepin Hot Pepper: A Comparison Study between Spectrophotometric Method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González-Zamora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct spectrophotometric determination of capsaicinoids content in Chiltepin pepper was investigated as a possible alternative to HPLC analysis. Capsaicinoids were extracted from Chiltepin in red ripe and green fruit with acetonitrile and evaluated quantitatively using the HPLC method with capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin standards. Three samples of different treatment were analyzed for their capsaicinoids content successfully by these methods. HPLC-DAD revealed that capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin comprised up to 98% of total capsaicinoids detected. The absorbance of the diluted samples was read on a spectrophotometer at 215–300 nm and monitored at 280 nm. We report herein the comparison between traditional UV assays and HPLC-DAD methods for the determination of the molar absorptivity coefficient of capsaicin (ε280=3,410 and ε280=3,720 M−1 cm−1 and dihydrocapsaicin (ε280=4,175 and ε280=4,350 M−1 cm−1, respectively. Statistical comparisons were performed using the regression analyses (ordinary linear regression and Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Comparative data for pungency was determined spectrophotometrically and by HPLC on samples ranging from 29.55 to 129 mg/g with a correlation of 0.91. These results indicate that the two methods significantly agree. The described spectrophotometric method can be routinely used for total capsaicinoids analysis and quality control in agricultural and pharmaceutical analysis.

  10. Performance Comparison of Grid-Faulty Control Schemes for Inverter-Based Industrial Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camacho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several control schemes specifically designed to operate inverter-based industrial microgrids during voltage sags have been recently proposed. This paper first classifies these control schemes in three categories and then performs a comparative analysis of them. Representative control schemes of each category are selected, described and used to identify the main features and performance of the considered category. The comparison is based on the evaluation of several indexes, which measure the power quality of the installation and utility grid during voltage sags, including voltage regulation, reactive current injection and transient response. The paper includes selected simulation results from a 500 kVA industrial microgrid to validate the expected features of the considered control schemes. Finally, in view of the obtained results, the paper proposes an alternative solution to cope with voltage sags, which includes the use of a static compensator in parallel with the microgrid. The novelty of this proposal is the suitable selection of the control schemes for both the microgrid and the static compensator. The superior performance of the proposal is confirmed by the analysis of the quality indexes. Its practical limitations are also revealed, showing that the topic studied in this paper is still open for further research.

  11. Comprehensive performance comparison of airfoil fin PCHEs with NACA 00XX series airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fei, E-mail: chenfei@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Heating Technology Research and Development Center, Beijing District Heating Group, Beijing 100028 (China); Zhang, Lishen, E-mail: lishenzhang@sina.com [Heating Technology Research and Development Center, Beijing District Heating Group, Beijing 100028 (China); Huai, Xiulan, E-mail: hxl@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Jufeng, E-mail: lijufeng.net@163.com [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100082 (China); Zhang, Hang, E-mail: zhanghang@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhigang, E-mail: zgliu9322@163.com [Energy Research Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250014 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Pressure drop of NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE reduces strikingly in comparison with the zigzag PCHE. • Pressure drop of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE decreases as airfoil thickness increases. • Heat transfer performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness rises. • Comprehensive performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE degrades as airfoil thickness increases. - Abstract: Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) can be used in supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle. The present study compares NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE with conventional zigzag PCHE by numerical analysis. Pressure drop of the former has a striking reduction while maintaining excellent heat transfer performance. Comparison on four NACA 00XX series airfoil fin PCHEs is performed to investigate the influence of airfoil profile on flow and heat transfer performance. With a fixed vertical pitch, heat transfer performance of NACA series airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness increases. However, comprehensive performance, in which both flow and heat transfer are taken into account, degrades with increasing airfoil thickness. Among four NACA airfoil fin PCHEs presented in this paper, NACA 0010 airfoil fin PCHE demonstrates the best comprehensive performance.

  12. Comprehensive performance comparison of airfoil fin PCHEs with NACA 00XX series airfoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fei; Zhang, Lishen; Huai, Xiulan; Li, Jufeng; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pressure drop of NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE reduces strikingly in comparison with the zigzag PCHE. • Pressure drop of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE decreases as airfoil thickness increases. • Heat transfer performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness rises. • Comprehensive performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE degrades as airfoil thickness increases. - Abstract: Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) can be used in supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO_2) Brayton cycle. The present study compares NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE with conventional zigzag PCHE by numerical analysis. Pressure drop of the former has a striking reduction while maintaining excellent heat transfer performance. Comparison on four NACA 00XX series airfoil fin PCHEs is performed to investigate the influence of airfoil profile on flow and heat transfer performance. With a fixed vertical pitch, heat transfer performance of NACA series airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness increases. However, comprehensive performance, in which both flow and heat transfer are taken into account, degrades with increasing airfoil thickness. Among four NACA airfoil fin PCHEs presented in this paper, NACA 0010 airfoil fin PCHE demonstrates the best comprehensive performance.

  13. Calculation-measurement comparison for control rods reactivity in RA-3 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estryk, Guillermo; Gomez, Angel

    2002-01-01

    The RA-3 Nuclear Reactor of the Atomic Energy National Commission from Argentina, begun working with high enrichment fuel elements in 1967, and turned to low enrichment by 1990. During 1999 it was found out that several fuel elements had problems, so more than 50 % of them had to be removed from the core. Because of this, it was planned to go from core 93 to core 94 with special care from nuclear safety point of view. Core 94 was preceded by other five, T-1 to T-5, only as transitory ones. The care implied several nuclear parameters measurements: core reactivity excess, calibration of control rods, etc. Calculations were performed afterwards to simulate those measurements using the neutron diffusion code PUMA. The comparison shows a good agreement for more than 80% of the cases with differences lower than 10% in reactivity. The greatest differences were found in the last part of the control rods calibration and a better calculation of cell constants is planned to be done in order to improve the adjustment. (author)

  14. Analysis of changes in environmental radiation, and three types of environmental radiation detector performance comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H; Seo, J.H; Park, S.M; Yu, B.N; Park, J.H; Joo, K.S

    2013-06-01

    High-pressure ion chamber (GE Reuter-Stokes, HPIC), accuracy is high but the high price and do not have the ability nuclide analysis is a disadvantage. NaI(Tl) and PMT scintillation detector of radioactive materials can be divided. Environmental radiation measurements using a semiconductor with SiPM detector PMT to replace the value of the results were compared. SiPM detector using radiation environment were measured in the field to verify the accuracy and energy resolution. SiPMs performance as environmental radiation measurement equipment and radioactive material distinction as a personal dosimeter based technology, using the above results were prepared. The interest on the environmental radiation due to the Fukushima power plant crisis in Japan has been growing concern about the radiation environment of the relatively close proximity Korea is a very heightened state. Could be confirmed in the radiation environment of nuclear power plants around the analysis and performance of the next generation of environmental radiation meter. Fukushima power plants accident after 2 years, the equipment installed by this analysis meets the performance as a radiation detector could be confirmed as follows. CANA Inc. developed by radionuclides classification of using man-made and natural radionuclides and man-made radionuclides separated, ensure the value of the results were analyzed. Could be and alternative to the conventional detector energy resolution ( 137 CS<15%) and linearity (<15%) to satisfy the performance requirements of the measurement result of environmental radiation detector is considered. SiPM radiation environment changes and HPIC and NaI(TI) scintillation detector installed in Korea of the Fukushima power plant after the accident, radiation environment using a small alternative was to verify the accuracy of the measuring equipment. A big difference in performance as invisible by comparison with the large detector Assay miniaturization rough as a personal

  15. Bayesian Comparison of Alternative Graded Response Models for Performance Assessment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaowen; Stone, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relative effectiveness of Bayesian model comparison methods in selecting an appropriate graded response (GR) model for performance assessment applications. Three popular methods were considered: deviance information criterion (DIC), conditional predictive ordinate (CPO), and posterior predictive model checking (PPMC). Using…

  16. Performance comparisons of enhanced tubes with discrete and wavy disruption shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arman, B.; Rabas, T.J.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents comparisons of the friction factors and heat-transfer coefficients obtained with enhanced tubes with transverse discrete and almost transverse wavy two-dimensional disruptions. Both experimental data and numerical predictions were used for the comparisons. For the latter a two-layer turbulence model incorporated in a body-fitted, finite-volume method was used. The disruption shape, discrete or wavy, depends on the manufacturing process. If an extrusion process is used, discrete disruptions (ribs) of various profiles are obtained that are separated from each other by a flat or unaltered inside diameter. If a spirally indenting process is used, a wavy proflie is obtained with a continuously varying inside diameter between two adjacent disruption peaks. These disruptions are transverse or almost transverse to the tube axis and separated by a distance that exceeds the reattachment length. Based on these comparisons, the following conclusions are obtained: (1) the disruption shape is not an important correlating parameter for discrete disruptions, (2) only the friction factor is influenced by the shape for wavy disruptions, and (3) there are major differences between both the friction-factor and heat-transfer performance of discrete and wavy disruptions with the same maximum disruption height and spacing. However, the most important finding is that the groove radius of spirally indented tubes should be increased because of the substantial reduction of the friction factor but only a small decrease in the thermal performance. Additional comparisons of predicted results were made to obtain a fundamental understanding of the influence of these different shapes.

  17. National comparison of activity measurements of 131I, 60Co, and 133Ba in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurdiyanto, Gatot; Marsoem, Pujadi; Widodo, Susilo; Iskandar, Dadong; Muhayatun; Hartoyo, Unggul; Sugino; Gede Sutresna, I.; Hutabarat, Tommy; Suparman, Ibon; Purwanto, Setyo

    2014-01-01

    National comparisons of radioactivity measurements of 131 I and 60 Co (in 2010) and of 133 Ba (in 2011) were carried out within the framework of the National Radiation Metrology Laboratory Program of Indonesia, coordinated by PTKMR-BATAN. Eleven laboratories took part in the comparison, and all measurements were made using gamma spectrometry, on point sources with an activity between 2000 Bq and 6000 Bq. Several laboratories reported values which were more than 10% different from the reference value for 131 I and 133 Ba. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. This program will be continued with other radionuclides to maintain and control quality assurance for the local laboratories. - Highlights: • PTKMR-BATAN coordinated national comparison of 131 I, 60 Co and 133 Ba. • Eleven laboratories took part in the comparison. • All measurements were done using gamma spectrometry methods. • For 131 I and 133 Ba, 3 laboratories have more than 10% difference from reference laboratory value

  18. Internal Performance Measurement Systems: Problems and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    This article pursues two aims: to identify problems and dangers related to the operational use of internal performance measurement systems of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) type and to provide some guidance on how performance measurement systems may be designed to overcome these problems....... The analysis uses and extends N rreklit's (2000) critique of the BSC by applying the concepts developed therein to contemporary research on the BSC and to the development of practice in performance measurement. The analysis is of relevance for many companies in the Asia-Pacific area as an increasing numbers...

  19. Traffic Management Systems Performance Measurement: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James H.; Kelly, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a study of performance measurement for Transportation Management Centers (TMCs). Performance measurement requirements were analyzed, data collection and management techniques were investigated, and case study traffic data system improvement plans were prepared for two Caltrans districts.

  20. Online physician ratings fail to predict actual performance on measures of quality, value, and peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskivich, Timothy J; Houman, Justin; Fuller, Garth; Black, Jeanne T; Kim, Hyung L; Spiegel, Brennan

    2018-04-01

    Patients use online consumer ratings to identify high-performing physicians, but it is unclear if ratings are valid measures of clinical performance. We sought to determine whether online ratings of specialist physicians from 5 platforms predict quality of care, value of care, and peer-assessed physician performance. We conducted an observational study of 78 physicians representing 8 medical and surgical specialties. We assessed the association of consumer ratings with specialty-specific performance scores (metrics including adherence to Choosing Wisely measures, 30-day readmissions, length of stay, and adjusted cost of care), primary care physician peer-review scores, and administrator peer-review scores. Across ratings platforms, multivariable models showed no significant association between mean consumer ratings and specialty-specific performance scores (β-coefficient range, -0.04, 0.04), primary care physician scores (β-coefficient range, -0.01, 0.3), and administrator scores (β-coefficient range, -0.2, 0.1). There was no association between ratings and score subdomains addressing quality or value-based care. Among physicians in the lowest quartile of specialty-specific performance scores, only 5%-32% had consumer ratings in the lowest quartile across platforms. Ratings were consistent across platforms; a physician's score on one platform significantly predicted his/her score on another in 5 of 10 comparisons. Online ratings of specialist physicians do not predict objective measures of quality of care or peer assessment of clinical performance. Scores are consistent across platforms, suggesting that they jointly measure a latent construct that is unrelated to performance. Online consumer ratings should not be used in isolation to select physicians, given their poor association with clinical performance.

  1. 45 CFR 305.40 - Penalty performance measures and levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.40 Penalty performance measures and levels. (a) There are three performance measures for which States must... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penalty performance measures and levels. 305.40...

  2. Measures of Strategic Alliance Performance, Classified and Assessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jeppe; Plenborg, Thomas; Robson, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades, strategic alliance performance has been an important research topic within the international business and management fields. Researchers have investigated a number of factors explaining performance but often find diverging results. Scholars have suggested that one...... reason may be that different performance measures are used as the dependent variable. But which differences exist and how can they matter? Against this backdrop, the present study makes three main contributions. First, we identify dimensions that illustrate differences and similarities between...... performance measures and provide a simple yet comprehensive classification of the different performance measures used in 167 empirical studies in the literature. Second, we suggest how differences in performance measures may influence construct validity under different circumstances. Third, we show...

  3. Reconsidering the measurement of ancillary service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D T; Rauscher, J A

    1987-08-01

    Prospective payment reimbursement systems have forced hospitals to review their costs more carefully. The result of the increased emphasis on costs is that many hospitals use costs, rather than margin, to judge the performance of ancillary services. However, arbitrary selection of performance measures for ancillary services can result in managerial decisions contrary to hospital objectives. Managerial accounting systems provide models which assist in the development of performance measures for ancillary services. Selection of appropriate performance measures provides managers with the incentive to pursue goals congruent with those of the hospital overall. This article reviews the design and implementation of managerial accounting systems, and considers the impact of prospective payment systems and proposed changes in capital reimbursement on this process.

  4. APMP/TCRI key comparison report of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (APMP.RI(I)-K3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Hwang, W.S.; Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V.; Buermann, L.; Burns, D.T.; Takeyeddin, M.; Shaha, V.V.; Srimanoroth, S.; Meghzifene, A.; Hah, S.H.; Chun, K.J.; Kadni, T.B.; Takata, N.; Msimang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The APMP/TCRI Dosimetry Working Group performed the APMP.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (100 kV to 250 kV) between 2000 and 2003. In total, 11 institutes took part in the comparison, among which 8 were APMP member laboratories. Two commercial cavity ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. All the participants established the 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV x-ray beam qualities equivalent to those of the BIPM. The results showed that the maximum difference between the participants and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range, evaluated using the comparison data of the linking laboratories ARPANSA and PTB, is less than 1.4%. The degrees of equivalence between the participants are presented and this comparison confirms the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. (authors)

  5. APMP/TCRI key comparison report of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (APMP.RI(I)-K3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H.; Hwang, W.S. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie (Australia); Buermann, L. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Burns, D.T. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, 92 - Sevres (France); Takeyeddin, M. [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shaha, V.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Srimanoroth, S. [Department of Medical Sciences, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Meghzifene, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hah, S.H.; Chun, K.J. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Yusong (Korea, Republic of); Kadni, T.B. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang (Malaysia); Takata, N. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Msimang, Z. [National Metrology Institute of South Africa, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-10-15

    The APMP/TCRI Dosimetry Working Group performed the APMP.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (100 kV to 250 kV) between 2000 and 2003. In total, 11 institutes took part in the comparison, among which 8 were APMP member laboratories. Two commercial cavity ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. All the participants established the 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV x-ray beam qualities equivalent to those of the BIPM. The results showed that the maximum difference between the participants and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range, evaluated using the comparison data of the linking laboratories ARPANSA and PTB, is less than 1.4%. The degrees of equivalence between the participants are presented and this comparison confirms the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. (authors)

  6. Performance measurement of plate fin heat exchanger by exploration: ANN, ANFIS, GA, and SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work is conducted on counter flow plate fin compact heat exchanger using offset strip fin under different mass flow rates. The training, testing, and validation set of data has been collected by conducting experiments. Next, artificial neural network merged with Genetic Algorithm (GA utilized to measure the performance of plate-fin compact heat exchanger. The main aim of present research is to measure the performance of plate-fin compact heat exchanger and to provide full explanations. An artificial neural network predicted simulated data, which verified with experimental data under 10–20% error. Then, the authors examined two well-known global search techniques, simulated annealing and the genetic algorithm. The proposed genetic algorithm and Simulated Annealing (SA results have been summarized. The parameters are impartially important for good results. With the emergence of a new data-driven modeling technique, Neuro-fuzzy based systems are established in academic and practical applications. The neuro-fuzzy interference system (ANFIS has also been examined to undertake the problem related to plate-fin heat exchanger performance measurement under various parameters. Moreover, Parallel with ANFIS model and Artificial Neural Network (ANN model has been created with emphasizing the accuracy of the different techniques. A wide range of statistical indicators used to assess the performance of the models. Based on the comparison, it was revealed that technical ANFIS improve the accuracy of estimates in the small pool and tropical ANN.

  7. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Studies of Nuclear Fuel Performance Using On-site Gamma-ray Spectroscopy and In-pile Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsson, Ingvar

    2006-01-01

    Presently there is a clear trend of increasing demands on in-pile performance of nuclear fuel. Higher target burnups, part length rods and various fuel additives are some examples of this trend. Together with an increasing demand from the public for even safer nuclear power utilisation, this implies an increased focus on various experimental, preferably non-destructive, methods to characterise the fuel. This thesis focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of such methods. In its first part, the thesis presents a method based on gamma-ray spectroscopy with germanium detectors that have been used at various power reactors in Europe. The aim with these measurements is to provide information about the thermal power distribution within fuel assemblies in order to validate core physics production codes. The early closure of the Barsebaeck 1 BWR offered a unique opportunity to perform such validations before complete depletion of burnable absorbers in Gd-rods had taken place. To facilitate the measurements, a completely submersible measuring system, LOKET, was developed allowing for convenient in-pool measurements to be performed. In its second part, the thesis describes methods that utilise in-pile measurements. These methods have been used in the Halden test-reactor for determination of fission gas release, pellet-cladding interaction studies and fuel development studies. Apart from the power measurements, the LOKET device has been used for fission gas release (FGR) measurements on single fuel rods. The significant reduction in fission gas release in the modern fuel designs, in comparison with older designs, has been demonstrated in a series of experiments. A FGR database covering a wide range of burnup, power histories and fuel designs has been compiled and used for fuel performance analysis. The fission gas release has been measured on fuel rods with average burnups well above 60 MWd/kgU. The comparison between core physics calculations (PHOENIX-4/POLCA

  9. Comparison of DOE-2 with measurements in the Pala Test houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldem, R.; Winkelmann, F.

    1995-07-01

    The predictions of the DOE-2 program for building energy analysis have been compared with measurements in the Pala test houses near San Diego. This work is part of the California Institute for Energy Efficiency {open_quotes}Alternatives to Compressor Cooling in California Transition Zones{close_quotes} project in which DOE-2 is being used for parametric analysis of cooling strategies that reduce peak electrical power in hot, dry climates. To establish the validity of DOE-2 for this kind of analysis the program was compared with room air temperature measurements in a {open_quotes}low-mass{close_quotes} house with conventional insulated study wall construction and a {open_quotes}high-mass{close_quotes} house with insulated concrete walls. To test different aspects of the DOE-2 calculation, four different unconditioned thermal configurations of these houses were considered: unshaded windows, shaded windows, white exterior surfaces, and forced night ventilation. In all cases DOE-2 agreed well with the air temperature measurements, with a mean deviation between simulation and measurement ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 K depending on configuration and type of house. Using a development version of DOE-2 comparisons with inside surface temperature measurements were also made. These comparisons also showed good agreement.

  10. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Economic and environmental performance of alternative policy measures to reduce nutrient surpluses in Finnish agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. LEHTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an economic sector level analysis of the effectiveness of different policy measures in decreasing nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P surpluses from agriculture in order to reduce nutrient runoff from agricultural fields to watercourses and to improve water quality of surface waters. Assuming no changes in the EU level policies after CAP reform 2003 we focus on national level policy measures such as full or partial de-coupling of national support from production, payments for reduced nutrient surpluses of N and P, and N fertiliser tax. None of the analysed policy measures is superior one with respect to environmental performance, since full decoupling of national support would be the most effective in reducing P surpluses while payment for reduced nutrient surplus performed best with respect to N surpluses. Economic performance (farmers’ compliance cost per %-reduction of N or P surplus of full and partial de-coupling of national support is clearly better than that of specialised agri-environmental policy instruments, because both decoupling scenarios result in the increase of farmers’ income in comparison to base scenario, and thus compliance costs are in fact negative in these two cases. Our analysis confirms the fact that the overall policy package matters a lot for the effectiveness of agrienvironmental policy measures. Environmental performance of agri-environmental policy measures may be significantly reduced, if they are implemented jointly with production coupled income support policies. Thus, in order to increase the effectiveness of agri-environmental policy measures agricultural income support policies should be decoupled from production and this alone would bring substantial reduction in nutrient surpluses.;

  12. A comparison of predictions and measurements for the Stripa simulated drift experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.

    1991-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of measurements and predictions for the simulated drift experiment based on groundwater flow to the D-holes at the SCV site. The comparison was carried out on behalf of the Stripa task force on fracture flow modelling, as a learning exercise for the validation exercise to be based on flow to the validation drift. The paper summarises the characterisation data and their preliminary interpretation, and reviews the fracture flow modelling predictions made by teams from AEA Harwell, Golder Associates and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The predictions are compared with each other and with the D-hole inflow measurements, and this experience is used to provide detailed feedback to future experimental and modelling work. (35 refs.)

  13. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO (Triple, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.5 pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument on average agree to around 20% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations of the remote sensing instruments (SAOZ

  14. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Larsen, Erik

    The ‘CIA-CT comparison - Inter laboratory comparison on industrial Computed Tomography” is organized by DTU Department of Mechanical Engineering within the Danish project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning - CIA-CT”. The project is co-financed by the Danish Ministry of Science......, Technology and Innovation. The comparison aims to collect information about measurement performance in state-of the-art industrial CT (Computed Tomography) scanning. Since CT scanning has entered the field of manufacturing and coordinate metrology, evaluation of uncertainty of measurement with assessment...

  15. MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS FROM MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘTEFĂNESCU CRISTIAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a multi-dimensional model for measuring organizational performance providing a mechanism that will allow quantification of performance based on selected criteria. The model will attempt to eliminate inconsistencies and incongruities of organizational effectiveness models developed by specialists from organization theory area, performance measurement models developed by specialists from accounting management area and models of measuring the efficiency and effectiveness developed by specialists from strategic management and entrepreneurship areas.

  16. Comparison of measured and calculated reaction rate distributions in an scwr-like test lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetz, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.raetz@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Jordan, Kelly A., E-mail: kelly.jordan@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Murphy, Michael F., E-mail: mike.murphy@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Perret, Gregory, E-mail: gregory.perret@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, Rakesh, E-mail: rakesh.chawla@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, EPFL (Switzerland)

    2011-04-15

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements were performed on 61 rods of an SCWR-like fuel lattice, after irradiation in the central test zone of the PROTEUS zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. The derived reaction rates are the capture rate in {sup 238}U (C{sub 8}) and the total fission rate (F{sub tot}), and also the reaction rate ratio C{sub 8}/F{sub tot}. Each of these has been mapped rod-wise on the lattice and compared to calculated results from whole-reactor Monte Carlo simulations with MCNPX. Ratios of calculated to experimental values (C/E's) have been assessed for the C{sub 8}, F{sub tot} and C{sub 8}/F{sub tot} distributions across the lattice. These C/E's show excellent agreement between the calculations and the measurements. For the {sup 238}U capture rate distribution, the 1{sigma} level in the comparisons corresponds to an uncertainty of {+-}0.8%, while for the total fission rate the corresponding value is {+-}0.4%. The uncertainty for C{sub 8}/F{sub tot}, assessed as a reaction rate ratio characterizing each individual rod position in the test lattice, is significantly higher at {+-}2.2%. To determine the reproducibility of these results, the measurements were performed twice, once in 2006 and again in 2009. The agreement between these two measurement sets is within the respective statistical uncertainties.

  17. Performance comparison of OpenCL and CUDA by benchmarking an optimized perspective backprojection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swall, Stefan; Ritschl, Ludwig; Knaup, Michael; Kachelriess, Marc [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics (IMP)

    2011-07-01

    The increase in performance of Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and the onward development of dedicated software tools within the last decade allows to transfer performance-demanding computations from the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to the GPU and to speed up certain tasks by utilizing the massiv parallel architecture of these devices. The Computate Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) developed by NVIDIA provides an easy hence effective way to develop application that target NVIDIA GPUs. It has become one of the cardinal software tools for this purpose. Recently the Open Computing Language (OpenCL) became available that is neither vendor-specific nor limited to GPUs only. As the benefits of CUDA-based image reconstruction are well known we aim at providing a comparison between the performance that can be achieved with CUDA in comparison to OpenCL by benchmarking the time required to perform a simple but computationally demanding task: the perspective backprojection. (orig.)

  18. Performance measurement of workplace change: in two different cultural contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Riratanaphong

    2014-01-01

    , learning & growth are applied in all three cases as well, with different points of focus regarding their business types. The corporate real estate performance measures found in the case studies and classified in the six categories can be aligned with most of the areas of the added value of CREM in the literature and can also be viewed as value dimensions. In all three cases, the performance measures related to human resource management were focused on the occupiers having been provided with an office environment that enables employees to increase their productivity. The findings show that organisation and workplace change characteristics have an influence on the satisfaction of employees. The physical characteristics of workplace change that have influenced different degrees of employee satisfaction include location, building grade, architectural design, workplace concept and supporting facilities. The findings also show a negative impact of workplace design on perceived productivity support, due to the miscalculation of the users’ needs and preferences during the implementation process. Furthermore staff characteristics, the work process and work patterns showed to have an effect on which work environment aspects employees perceive as being most important. Regarding the impact of culture, the findings show that the dominant organisational culture types obtained from the organisational culture survey have been influenced by the structure and staff characteristics of the case organisations. The data from the national culture surveys that were conducted in the case studies show large differences in comparison to the findings from the studies by Hofstede (1997. These differences can be explained by the organisational context. Conclusions The cross-case analysis led to several conclusions: • The relevance of corporate real estate performance measures depends on different stakeholders, and different real estate and managerial levels. • The study confirms that measuring

  19. The (mis)Measurement of M&A Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; Risberg, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to further the understanding of the variety of meanings M&A scholars attach to the label “M&A performance” by providing an alternative way to interpret the claimed inconsistency of M&A research findings. While many scholars contend that the problem stems from the multiplicity of M......&A performance measures, we believe the problem rests in trying to compare different measures as if they were measuring the same feature of the organization. Through our narrative review of empirical research we analyze factors shaping the M&A – as well as the organizational – performance measurement process....... The conclusion is that it is not possible to talk about M&A performance as if it was a universal construct....

  20. Strategic performance management: development of a performance measurement system at the Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtright, J W; Stolp-Smith, S C; Edell, E S

    2000-01-01

    Managing and measuring performance become exceedingly complex as healthcare institutions evolve into integrated health systems comprised of hospitals, outpatient clinics and surgery centers, nursing homes, and home health services. Leaders of integrated health systems need to develop a methodology and system that align organizational strategies with performance measurement and management. To meet this end, multiple healthcare organizations embrace the performance-indicators reporting system known as a "balanced scorecard" or a "dashboard report." This discrete set of macrolevel indicators gives senior management a fast but comprehensive glimpse of the organization's performance in meeting its quality, operational, and financial goals. The leadership of outpatient operations for Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota built on this concept by creating a performance management and measurement system that monitors and reports how well the organization achieves its performance goals. Internal stakeholders identified metrics to measure performance in each key category. Through these metrics, the organization links Mayo Clinic's vision, primary value, core principles, and day-to-day operations by monitoring key performance indicators on a weekly, monthly, or quarterly basis.

  1. Ambulatory care registered nurse performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Beth Ann; Haas, Sheila A; Chow, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    On March 1-2, 2010, a state-of-the-science invitational conference titled "Ambulatory Care Registered Nurse Performance Measurement" was held to focus on measuring quality at the RN provider level in ambulatory care. The conference was devoted to ambulatory care RN performance measurement and quality of health care. The specific emphasis was on formulating a research agenda and developing a strategy to study the testable components of the RN role related to care coordination and care transitions, improving patient outcomes, decreasing health care costs, and promoting sustainable system change. The objectives were achieved through presentations and discussion among expert inter-professional participants from nursing, public health, managed care, research, practice, and policy. Conference speakers identified priority areas for a unified practice, policy, and research agenda. Crucial elements of the strategic dialogue focused on issues and implications for nursing and inter-professional practice, quality, and pay-for-performance.

  2. Performance comparison between total variation (TV)-based compressed sensing and statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jie; Nett, Brian E; Chen Guanghong

    2009-01-01

    Of all available reconstruction methods, statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms appear particularly promising since they enable accurate physical noise modeling. The newly developed compressive sampling/compressed sensing (CS) algorithm has shown the potential to accurately reconstruct images from highly undersampled data. The CS algorithm can be implemented in the statistical reconstruction framework as well. In this study, we compared the performance of two standard statistical reconstruction algorithms (penalized weighted least squares and q-GGMRF) to the CS algorithm. In assessing the image quality using these iterative reconstructions, it is critical to utilize realistic background anatomy as the reconstruction results are object dependent. A cadaver head was scanned on a Varian Trilogy system at different dose levels. Several figures of merit including the relative root mean square error and a quality factor which accounts for the noise performance and the spatial resolution were introduced to objectively evaluate reconstruction performance. A comparison is presented between the three algorithms for a constant undersampling factor comparing different algorithms at several dose levels. To facilitate this comparison, the original CS method was formulated in the framework of the statistical image reconstruction algorithms. Important conclusions of the measurements from our studies are that (1) for realistic neuro-anatomy, over 100 projections are required to avoid streak artifacts in the reconstructed images even with CS reconstruction, (2) regardless of the algorithm employed, it is beneficial to distribute the total dose to more views as long as each view remains quantum noise limited and (3) the total variation-based CS method is not appropriate for very low dose levels because while it can mitigate streaking artifacts, the images exhibit patchy behavior, which is potentially harmful for medical diagnosis.

  3. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Rush, Kurt; Rabenhorst, Scott; Welch, Wayne; Cadirola, Martin; McIntire, Gerry; Russo, Felicita; Adam, Mariana; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; hide

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance Raman lidar operating in the UV portion of the spectrum has been used to acquire, for the first time using a single lidar, simultaneous airborne profiles of the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscatter, aerosol extinction, aerosol depolarization and research mode measurements of cloud liquid water, cloud droplet radius, and number density. The Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) system was installed in a Beechcraft King Air B200 aircraft and was flown over the mid-Atlantic United States during July August 2007 at altitudes ranging between 5 and 8 km. During these flights, despite suboptimal laser performance and subaperture use of the telescope, all RASL measurement expectations were met, except that of aerosol extinction. Following the Water Vapor Validation Experiment Satellite/Sondes (WAVES_2007) field campaign in the summer of 2007, RASL was installed in a mobile trailer for groundbased use during the Measurements of Humidity and Validation Experiment (MOHAVE-II) field campaign held during October 2007 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory s Table Mountain Facility in southern California. This ground-based configuration of the lidar hardware is called Atmospheric Lidar for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education (ALVICE). During theMOHAVE-II field campaign, during which only nighttime measurements were made, ALVICE demonstrated significant sensitivity to lower-stratospheric water vapor. Numerical simulation and comparisons with a cryogenic frost-point hygrometer are used to demonstrate that a system with the performance characteristics of RASL ALVICE should indeed be able to quantify water vapor well into the lower stratosphere with extended averaging from an elevated location like Table Mountain. The same design considerations that optimize Raman lidar for airborne use on a small research aircraft are, therefore, shown to yield significant dividends in the quantification of lower-stratospheric water vapor. The MOHAVE

  4. Business process performance measurement: a structured literature review of indicators, measures and metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Looy, Amy; Shafagatova, Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the performance of business processes has become a central issue in both academia and business, since organizations are challenged to achieve effective and efficient results. Applying performance measurement models to this purpose ensures alignment with a business strategy, which implies that the choice of performance indicators is organization-dependent. Nonetheless, such measurement models generally suffer from a lack of guidance regarding the performance indicators that exist and how they can be concretized in practice. To fill this gap, we conducted a structured literature review to find patterns or trends in the research on business process performance measurement. The study also documents an extended list of 140 process-related performance indicators in a systematic manner by further categorizing them into 11 performance perspectives in order to gain a holistic view. Managers and scholars can consult the provided list to choose the indicators that are of interest to them, considering each perspective. The structured literature review concludes with avenues for further research.

  5. Comparisons of MOVES Light-duty Gasoline NOx Emission Rates with Real-world Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D.; Sonntag, D.; Warila, J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown differences between air quality model estimates and monitored values for nitrogen oxides. Several studies have suggested that the discrepancy between monitored and modeled values is due to an overestimation of NOx from mobile sources in EPA's emission inventory, particularly for light-duty gasoline vehicles. EPA's MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) is an emission modeling system that estimates emissions for cars, trucks and other mobile sources at the national, county, and project level for criteria pollutants, greenhouse gases, and air toxics. Studies that directly measure vehicle emissions provide useful data for evaluating MOVES when the measurement conditions are properly accounted for in modeling. In this presentation, we show comparisons of MOVES2014 to thousands of real-world NOx emissions measurements from individual light-duty gasoline vehicles. The comparison studies include in-use vehicle emissions tests conducted on chassis dynamometer tests in support of Denver, Colorado's Vehicle Inspection & Maintenance Program and remote sensing data collected using road-side instruments in multiple locations and calendar years in the United States. In addition, we conduct comparisons of MOVES predictions to fleet-wide emissions measured from tunnels. We also present details on the methodology used to conduct the MOVES model runs in comparing to the independent data.

  6. Synthesis of work-zone performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main objective of this synthesis was to identify and summarize how agencies collect, analyze, and report different work-zone : traffic-performance measures, which include exposure, mobility, and safety measures. The researchers also examined comm...

  7. Comparison of surface extraction techniques performance in computed tomography for 3D complex micro-geometry dimensional measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba, Marta; Jiménez, Roberto; Yagüe-Fabra, José A.

    2018-01-01

    micro-geometries as well (i.e., in the sub-mm dimensional range). However, there are different factors that may influence the CT process performance, being one of them the surface extraction technique used. In this paper, two different extraction techniques are applied to measure a complex miniaturized......The number of industrial applications of computed tomography (CT) for dimensional metrology in 100–103 mm range has been continuously increasing, especially in the last years. Due to its specific characteristics, CT has the potential to be employed as a viable solution for measuring 3D complex...... dental file by CT in order to analyze its contribution to the final measurement uncertainty in complex geometries at the mm to sub-mm scales. The first method is based on a similarity analysis: the threshold determination; while the second one is based on a gradient or discontinuity analysis: the 3D...

  8. Better Measurement for Performance Improvement in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) Experience of Conceptual Framework Development and Indicator Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillard, Jeremy; Cowling, Krycia; Bitton, Asaf; Ratcliffe, Hannah; Kimball, Meredith; Barkley, Shannon; Mercereau, Laure; Wong, Ethan; Taylor, Chelsea; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Wang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    Policy Points: Strengthening accountability through better measurement and reporting is vital to ensure progress in improving quality primary health care (PHC) systems and achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) provides national decision makers and global stakeholders with opportunities to benchmark and accelerate performance improvement through better performance measurement. Results from the initial PHC performance assessments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are helping guide PHC reforms and investments and improve the PHCPI's instruments and indicators. Findings from future assessment activities will further amplify cross-country comparisons and peer learning to improve PHC. New indicators and sources of data are needed to better understand PHC system performance in LMICs. The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI), a collaboration between the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The World Bank, and the World Health Organization, in partnership with Ariadne Labs and Results for Development, was launched in 2015 with the aim of catalyzing improvements in primary health care (PHC) systems in 135 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), in order to accelerate progress toward universal health coverage. Through more comprehensive and actionable measurement of quality PHC, the PHCPI stimulates peer learning among LMICs and informs decision makers to guide PHC investments and reforms. Instruments for performance assessment and improvement are in development; to date, a conceptual framework and 2 sets of performance indicators have been released. The PHCPI team developed the conceptual framework through literature reviews and consultations with an advisory committee of international experts. We generated 2 sets of performance indicators selected from a literature review of relevant indicators, cross-referenced against indicators available from international sources, and evaluated through

  9. Evaluation of emergency department performance - a systematic review on recommended performance and quality-in-care measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørup, Christian Michel; Jacobsen, Peter; Forberg, Jakob Lundager

    2013-08-09

    Evaluation of emergency department (ED) performance remains a difficult task due to the lack of consensus on performance measures that reflects high quality, efficiency, and sustainability. To describe, map, and critically evaluate which performance measures that the published literature regard as being most relevant in assessing overall ED performance. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature review of review articles reporting accentuated ED performance measures was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Study eligibility criteria includes: 1) the main purpose was to discuss, analyse, or promote performance measures best reflecting ED performance, 2) the article was a review article, and 3) the article reported macro-level performance measures, thus reflecting an overall departmental performance level. A number of articles addresses this study's objective (n = 14 of 46 unique hits). Time intervals and patient-related measures were dominant in the identified performance measures in review articles from US, UK, Sweden and Canada. Length of stay (LOS), time between patient arrival to initial clinical assessment, and time between patient arrivals to admission were highlighted by the majority of articles. Concurrently, "patients left without being seen" (LWBS), unplanned re-attendance within a maximum of 72 hours, mortality/morbidity, and number of unintended incidents were the most highlighted performance measures that related directly to the patient. Performance measures related to employees were only stated in two of the 14 included articles. A total of 55 ED performance measures were identified. ED time intervals were the most recommended performance measures followed by patient centeredness and safety performance measures. ED employee related performance measures were rarely mentioned in the investigated literature. The study's results allow for advancement towards improved performance measurement and

  10. English Value-Added Measures: Examining the Limitations of School Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Value-added "Progress" measures are to be introduced for all English schools in 2016 as "headline" measures of school performance. This move comes despite research highlighting high levels of instability in value-added measures and concerns about the omission of contextual variables in the planned measure. This article studies…

  11. From performance measurement to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Triantafillou, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades accountability has accommodated an increasing number of different political, legal and administrative goals. This article focuses on the administrative aspect of accountability and explores the potential perils of a shift from performance measurement to learning. While...... overload. We conclude with some comments on limiting the undesirable consequences of such a move. Points for practitioners Public administrators need to identify and weigh the (human, political and economic) benefits and costs of accountability regimes. While output-focused performance measurement regimes...... to comply with accountability requirements, because of the first point. Third, the costs of compliance are likely to increase because learning requires more participation and dialogue. Fourth, accountability as learning may generate a ‘change for the sake of change’ mentality, creating further government...

  12. Monte Carlo dose calculations in homogeneous media and at interfaces: a comparison between GEPTS, EGSnrc, MCNP, and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibani, Omar; Li, X Allen

    2002-05-01

    Three Monte Carlo photon/electron transport codes (GEPTS, EGSnrc, and MCNP) are bench-marked against dose measurements in homogeneous (both low- and high-Z) media as well as at interfaces. A brief overview on physical models used by each code for photon and electron (positron) transport is given. Absolute calorimetric dose measurements for 0.5 and 1 MeV electron beams incident on homogeneous and multilayer media are compared with the predictions of the three codes. Comparison with dose measurements in two-layer media exposed to a 60Co gamma source is also performed. In addition, comparisons between the codes (including the EGS4 code) are done for (a) 0.05 to 10 MeV electron beams and positron point sources in lead, (b) high-energy photons (10 and 20 MeV) irradiating a multilayer phantom (water/steel/air), and (c) simulation of a 90Sr/90Y brachytherapy source. A good agreement is observed between the calorimetric electron dose measurements and predictions of GEPTS and EGSnrc in both homogeneous and multilayer media. MCNP outputs are found to be dependent on the energy-indexing method (Default/ITS style). This dependence is significant in homogeneous media as well as at interfaces. MCNP(ITS) fits more closely the experimental data than MCNP(DEF), except for the case of Be. At low energy (0.05 and 0.1 MeV), MCNP(ITS) dose distributions in lead show higher maximums in comparison with GEPTS and EGSnrc. EGS4 produces too penetrating electron-dose distributions in high-Z media, especially at low energy (MCNP results depend significantly on the electron energy-indexing method.

  13. Performance Measure as Feedback Variable in Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Danijela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the view of image processing performance measure presenting the use of this measure as an actual value in a feedback structure. The idea behind is that the control loop, which is built in that way, drives the actual feedback value to a given set point. Since the performance measure depends explicitly on the application, the inclusion of feedback structures and choice of appropriate feedback variables are presented on example of optical character recognition in industrial application. Metrics for quantification of performance at different image processing levels are discussed. The issues that those metrics should address from both image processing and control point of view are considered. The performance measures of individual processing algorithms that form a character recognition system are determined with respect to the overall system performance.

  14. Comparison between measured and design dose rate equivalents on board of Nuclear Ship Mutsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akio; Sakamoto, Yukio

    1993-01-01

    The power-up test of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu was restarted in March 1990 and completed successfully in February 1991. The experimental voyages were carried out for about one year and all experiments were completed in February 1992. A comparison between the measured and design dose rate equivalents on board is described with showing a modified method in the shielding design. The measured values were obtained extensively in the cavity between the primary and secondary shields, in the double bottom, outside the secondary shield, and on the surface of the main coolant loop. The shielding design calculations were made with the most conservative geometries and material compositions within the allowed tolerance. In addition, a conservative model was adopted in case of performing the approximation due to the geometrical restriction of calculation code. The computational accuracies were evaluated based on various experimental analyses. The evaluated value was used as the design value. The shield structures were determined with a judgement that the real value does not exceed the design value. The adequacy of the judgement was confirmed by measurements on board. The measured dose rate equivalents in all positions on board satisfied the design criteria. (author)

  15. International key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields: C.C.R.I.(3)-K10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Wang, Z.; Rong, C. [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Beijing, People' s Republic of China (China); Lovestam, G.; Plompen, A.; Puglisi, N. [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Gilliam, D.M.; Eisenhauer, C.M.; Nico, J.S.; Dewey, M.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg (United States); Kudo, K.; Uritani, A.; Harano, H.; Takeda, N. [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Tsukuba (Japan); Thomas, D.J.; Roberts, N.J.; Bennett, A.; Kolkowski, P. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington (United Kingdom); Moisseev, N.N.; Kharitonov, I.A. [Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Guldbakke, S.; Klein, H.; Nolte, R.; Schlegel, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    C.C.R.I. Section III (neutron measurements) conducted a unique key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields. In contrast to former comparisons, here the fluence measurements were performed with the participants' instruments in the same neutron fields at the P.T.B. accelerator facility. Seven laboratories- the C.I.A.E. (China), I.R.M.M. (E.C.), N.M.I.J. (Japan), N.I.S.T. (USA), N.P.L. (UK), P.T.B. (Germany) and the V.N.I.I.M. (Russia)-employed their primary standard reference methods or transfer instruments carefully calibrated against their primary standards, to determine the fluence of 0.144 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 5.0 MeV and 14.8 MeV neutrons and reported calibration coefficients for a selected neutron monitor and each neutron energy with a detailed uncertainty budget for the measurements. The key comparison reference values (K.C.R.V.) were finally evaluated as the weighted mean values of the neutron fluence at 1 m distance from the target in vacuum per neutron monitor count. The uncertainties of each K.C.R.V. amounted to about 1%. The degree of equivalence (D.o.E.), defined as the deviation of the result reported by the laboratories for each energy from the corresponding K.C.R.V., and the associated expanded uncertainty are also reported. The deviations between the results of two laboratories each with the corresponding expanded uncertainties complete the documentation of the degrees of equivalence. (authors)

  16. Comparison of simulated and measured quantities of a duplex reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, M.; Kajava, M. [ABB Marine, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of an analog simulator as a design tool when designing new power electric equipment. The purpose of simulation is to predict the functionality of electrical equipment to be constructed. Duplex reactor is an electromagnetic device designed to reduce voltage harmonics and short circuit currents in the ship electrical network. In this report a comparison between simulated and measured electrical quantities of a duplex reactor has been made. The purpose of the measurements was to show the correct functioning of the reactor. The simulation results and the measured waveforms corresponds well to each other. (orig.) 4 refs.

  17. Student Listening Gains in the Basic Communication Course: A Comparison of Self-Report and Performance-Based Competence Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Danette Ifert; Long, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Direct listening instruction is a frequent component of basic communication courses. Research has found changes in self-perceived listening competence during a basic communication course and only a minimal relationship between self-perceived and performance-based measures of listening and other communication behaviors. Results of the present study…

  18. Work zone performance measures pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...

  19. Continuous 222Rn measurements in water to perform a hydrograph separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, H.; Kies, A.; Tosheva, Z.

    2004-01-01

    To get information about the different components of runoff before, during and after heavy rain events, micro catchments were selected to perform hydrograph separations using the radioactive noble gas 222 Rn and the stable isotope 18 O as natural occurring, conservative tracers. These tracers help to separate 'pre event', 'event', and 'post event' water in the total runoff. The selected micro basins are situated in the western part of Luxembourg and belong to the Attert River catchment area. Our investigations are a part of the project 'Cycleau' which is studying risk assessments in the Attert River area. By combining the databases great opportunities for comparison were realized. So far the catchment areas have been studied for two years. Continuous monitoring radon detectors were installed at selected measuring points, which were important for the different flow regimes. Along with the detectors precision thermometers, conductivity instruments, CO 2 -detectors, flow meter, v-notches, and automatic sampler for chemical analysis were set up. Besides the continuous measurements for 222 Rn, point samples were taken for liquid scintillation analysis (LCS). Single rain events will have been sampled and measured intensively for 222 Rn (LCS) and 18 O in two to three days field campaigns, for a comparison of the continuous method with the 18 O results and to strengthen our data by the end of march 2004. During the first year of this study instrument testing and evaluation was performed. Different radon monitor units were examined to find instruments that work best under field conditions. Additionally, separate units had to be constructed for a degassing of the solved gases out of the water, because the instruments for radon measuring were constructed for radon in air not for radon in water. A 'bubbler' had be developed that performs the degassing process. The techniques will be presented. Through stable results from our instrument developments, we observed different radon

  20. Performance evaluation of 2D image registration algorithms with the numeric image registration and comparison platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, G.; Kuvandjiev, V.; Dimitrova, I.; Mitev, K.; Kawrakow, I.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the capabilities of the NUMERICS web platform for evaluation of the performance of image registration algorithms. The NUMERICS platform is a web accessible tool which provides access to dedicated numerical algorithms for registration and comparison of medical images (http://numerics.phys.uni-sofia.bg). The platform allows comparison of noisy medical images by means of different types of image comparison algorithms, which are based on statistical tests for outliers. The platform also allows 2D image registration with different techniques like Elastic Thin-Plate Spline registration, registration based on rigid transformations, affine transformations, as well as non-rigid image registration based on Mobius transformations. In this work we demonstrate how the platform can be used as a tool for evaluation of the quality of the image registration process. We demonstrate performance evaluation of a deformable image registration technique based on Mobius transformations. The transformations are applied with appropriate cost functions like: Mutual information, Correlation coefficient, Sum of Squared Differences. The accent is on the results provided by the platform to the user and their interpretation in the context of the performance evaluation of 2D image registration. The NUMERICS image registration and image comparison platform provides detailed statistical information about submitted image registration jobs and can be used to perform quantitative evaluation of the performance of different image registration techniques. (authors)

  1. Comparison of Cloud backup performance and costs in Oracle database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž Zrnec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SL X-NONE X-NONE Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Oracle database using Amazon S3 and EC2 cloud services. The costs estimation was performed on the basis of the prices published on Amazon S3 and Amazon EC2 sites.

  2. Ground Snow Measurements: Comparisons of the Hotplate, Weighing and Manual Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, A.; Snider, J.; Campbell, L. S.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Burkhart, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) Hotplate was developed to avoid some of the problems associated with weighing snowfall sensors. This work compares Hotplate, weighing sensor (ETI NOAH-II) and manual measurements of liquid-equivalent depth. The main field site was at low altitude in western New York; Hotplate and ETI comparisons were also made at two forested subalpine sites in southeastern Wyoming. The manual measurement (only conducted at the New York site) was derived by weighing snow cores sampled from a snow board. The two recording gauges (Hotplate and ETI) were located within 5 m of the snow board. Hotplate-derived accumulations were corrected using a wind-speed dependent catch efficiency and the ETI orifice was heated and alter shielded. Three important findings are evident from the comparisons: 1) The Yes-derived accumulations, recorded in a user-accessible file, were compared to accumulations derived using an in-house calibration and fundamental measurements (plate power, long and shortwave radiances, wind speed, and temperature). These accumulations are highly correlated (N=24; r2=0.99), but the YES-derived values are larger by 20%. 2) The in-house Hotplate accumulations are in good agreement with ETI-based accumulations but with larger variability (N=24; r2=0.88). 3) The comparison of in-house Hotplate accumulation versus manual accumulation, expressed as mm of liquid, exhibits a fitted linear relationship Y (in-house) versus X (manual) given by Y = -0.2 (±1.4) + 0.9 (±0.1) · X (N= 20; r2=0.89). Thus, these two methods agree within statistical uncertainty.

  3. Drivers of Performance Measurement Use: Empirical Evidence from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milosavljević

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the interest of academics and practitioners for the efficiency of performance measurement system use has grown rapidly. The aim of this paper is to examine, articulate and test the relationship between maturity of performance measurement systems, strategic compliance of performance measurement and managerial orientation, on one side, and the portfolio of performance measurement uses, on the other. Data were collected from 86 Serbian companies. The results indicate that the most influential factor for diversified use of performance measurement is the maturity of the system. The paper also discusses theoretical contributions, implications for managers and scholars, and recommendations for decision-makers.

  4. Business sustainability performance measurement: Eco-ratio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eco-aware customers and stakeholders are demanding for a measurement that links environmental performance with other business operations. To bridge this seemingly measurement gap, this paper suggests ‘Eco-Ratio Analysis’ and proposes an approach for conducting eco-ratio analysis. It is argued that since accounting ratios function as a tool for evaluating corporate financial viability by management and investors, eco-ratio analysis should be brought to the fore to provide a succinct measurement about the linkage between environmental performance and conventional business performance. It is hoped that this suggestion will usher in a nuance debate and approach in the teaching, research and practice of environmental management and sustainability accounting

  5. Rigorous approach to the comparison between experiment and theory in Casimir force measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Chen, F; Decca, R S; Fischbach, E; Krause, D E; Lopez, D; Mohideen, U; Mostepanenko, V M

    2006-01-01

    In most experiments on the Casimir force the comparison between measurement data and theory was done using the concept of the root-mean-square deviation, a procedure that has been criticized in the literature. Here we propose a special statistical analysis which should be performed separately for the experimental data and for the results of the theoretical computations. In so doing, the random, systematic and total experimental errors are found as functions of separation, taking into account the distribution laws for each error at 95% confidence. Independently, all theoretical errors are combined to obtain the total theoretical error at the same confidence. Finally, the confidence interval for the differences between theoretical and experimental values is obtained as a function of separation. This rigorous approach is applied to two recent experiments on the Casimir effect

  6. Comparison of 3 Types of Readmission Rates for Measuring Hospital and Surgeon Performance After Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle, Alex; Loeffler, Mark D; Aylin, Paul; Ali, Adam M

    2018-02-26

    All-cause 30-day hospital readmission is in widespread use for monitoring and incentivizing hospital performance for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, little is known on the extent to which all-cause readmission is influenced by hospital or surgeon performance and whether alternative measures may be more valid. This is an observational study using multilevel modeling on English administrative data to determine the interhospital and intersurgeon variation for 3 readmission metrics: all-cause, surgical, and return-to-theater. Power calculations estimated the likelihood of identifying whether the readmission rate for a surgeon or hospital differed from the national average by a factor of 1.25, 1.5, 2, or 3 times, for both average and high-volume providers. 259,980 THAs and 311,033 TKAs were analyzed. Variations by both surgeons and hospitals were smaller for the all-cause measure than for the surgical or return-to-theater metrics, although statistical power to detect differences was higher. Statistical power to detect surgeon-level rates of 1.25 or 1.5 times the average was consistently low. However, at the hospital level, the surgical readmission measure showed more variation by hospital while maintaining excellent power to detect differences in rates between hospitals performing the average number of THA or TKA cases per year in England. In practice, more outliers than expected from purely random variation were found for all-cause and surgical readmissions, especially at hospital level. The 30-day surgical readmission rate should be considered as an adjunctive measure to 30-day all-cause readmission rate when assessing hospital performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparison on radar range profiles between in-flight measurements and RCS-predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are nut available. In this paper we present the results of a comparison on one-dimensional signatures, i.e. radar range profiles. The profiles

  8. MM98.52 - An industrial comparison of coordinate measuring machines in Scandinavia with focus on uncertainty statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Chiffre, Leonardo De

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an industrial comparison of coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) carried out in the Scandinavian countries from October 1994 to May 1996. Fifty-nine industrial companies with a total of 62 CMMs participated in the project and measured a comparison package with five items chosen....... An important part of the intercomparison was to test the ability of the participants to determine measurement uncertainties. One of the uncertainties was based upon a "best guess" but nevertheless, many participants did not even report this uncertainty. Uncertainty budgeting was not used for measurements other...... than simple length. For each company, a comparison of their measurement ability with the reference laboratory and other Scandinavian companies was made possible. A network regarding CMMs was created in these Scandinavian countries. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved....

  9. Robust, accurate, and non-contacting vibration measurement systems: Supplemental appendices presenting comparison measurements of the robust laser interferometer and typical accelerometer systems. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenow, T.C.; Shipman, R.L.; Holland, H.M.

    1995-06-01

    Epoch Engineering, Incorporated (EEI) has completed a series of vibration measurements comparing their newly-developed Robust Laser Interferometer (RLI) with accelerometer-based instrumentation systems. EEI has successfully demonstrated, on several pieces of commonplace machinery, that non-contact, line-of-sight measurements are practical and yield results equal to or, in some cases, better than customary field implementations of accelerometers. The demonstration included analysis and comparison of such phenomena as nonlinearity, transverse sensitivity, harmonics, and signal-to-noise ratio. Fast Fourier Transformations were performed on the accelerometer and the laser system outputs to provide a comparison basis. The RLI was demonstrated, within the limits o the task, to be a viable, line-of-sight, non-contact alternative to accelerometer systems. Several different kinds of machinery were instrumented and. compared, including a small pump, a gear-driven cement mixer, a rotor kit, and two small fans. Known machinery vibration sources were verified and RLI system output file formats were verified to be compatible with commercial computer programs used for vibration monitoring and trend analysis. The RLI was also observed to be less subject to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and more capable at very low frequencies. This document, Volume 2, provides the appendices to this report

  10. Influence of Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty on Handset Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2005-01-01

    system that may introduce errors in standardized performance measurements. Radiation patterns of six handsets have been measured while they were mounted at various offsets from the reference position defined by the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) certification. The change...... in the performance measures are investigated for both the GSM-900 and the GSM-1800 band. Despite the deliberately large deviations from the reference position, the changes in TRP and TIS are generally within ±0.5 dB with a maximum of about 1.4 dB. For the MEG values the results depend on the orientation...

  11. Developing integrated benchmarks for DOE performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, Jr. H.C.

    1992-09-30

    The objectives of this task were to describe and evaluate selected existing sources of information on occupational safety and health with emphasis on hazard and exposure assessment, abatement, training, reporting, and control identifying for exposure and outcome in preparation for developing DOE performance benchmarks. Existing resources and methodologies were assessed for their potential use as practical performance benchmarks. Strengths and limitations of current data resources were identified. Guidelines were outlined for developing new or improved performance factors, which then could become the basis for selecting performance benchmarks. Data bases for non-DOE comparison populations were identified so that DOE performance could be assessed relative to non-DOE occupational and industrial groups. Systems approaches were described which can be used to link hazards and exposure, event occurrence, and adverse outcome factors, as needed to generate valid, reliable, and predictive performance benchmarks. Data bases were identified which contain information relevant to one or more performance assessment categories . A list of 72 potential performance benchmarks was prepared to illustrate the kinds of information that can be produced through a benchmark development program. Current information resources which may be used to develop potential performance benchmarks are limited. There is need to develop an occupational safety and health information and data system in DOE, which is capable of incorporating demonstrated and documented performance benchmarks prior to, or concurrent with the development of hardware and software. A key to the success of this systems approach is rigorous development and demonstration of performance benchmark equivalents to users of such data before system hardware and software commitments are institutionalized.

  12. A Study on Relationships between Functional Performance and Task Performance Measure through Experiments in NPP MCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, In Seok; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Further improvements in levels of organization, management, man-machine interfaces, education, training, etc. are required, if high operating reliability of operators in huge and complex plants such as chemical plants and electrical power generating plants is to be maintained. Improvement requires good understanding of operators' behavior, including defining what is good performance for operators, especially in emergency situations. Human performance measures, therefore, are important to enhance performance and to reduce the probability of incidents and accidents in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Operators' performance measures are used for multi-objectives such as control room design, human system interface evaluation, training, procedure and so on. There are two kinds of representative methods to measure operators' performance. These methods are now known as the functional performance measure and task performance measure. Functional performance measures are basically based on the plant process parameters. Functional performance measures indicate how well the operators controlled selected critical parameters. The parameters selected in this paper are derived from the four Critical Safety Functions (CSFs) identified in the emergency operating procedures such as achievement of subcriticality, maintenance of core cooling, maintenance of heat sink and maintenance of containment integrity. Task performance measures are based on the task analysis. Task analysis is to determine the tasks required and how operators are performed. In this paper, task analysis is done with ideal path for an accident completed by experts and Emergency Operation Procedure (EOP). However, most literatures related to operators' performance have been using one of these measures and there is no research to find out the relationships between two measures. In this paper, the relationships between functional performance measure and task performance measure are investigated using experiments. Shortly

  13. A Comparison between HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors performance for gamma-spectrometry of low level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursiamy, N. H.; Tajikahmadi, H.; Mirshojaei, S. F.

    2005-01-01

    According to progressive usage of nuclear technology, it's important to prevent the contamination of the environment by man-made radioisotopes and exposures of human being. Radioisotopes can enter the human body by inhalation and ingestion which are the most important ways to internal exposures. Measurement of radiation level in foodstuff is one of the most important parameters in environmental safety which is performed according to constitution and standard tests in most countries such as Iran. Gamma spectrometry is carried out by NaI(Tl) and HPGe detector systems for foodstuffs. In this research operation of HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors in gamma spectrometry with a standard radioactive source are investigated and compared. Also the result of NaI superiority in foodstuff radiation measurement given

  14. Comparisons of measurements and numerical simulations of a nonlinear beam subjected to a multi-harmonic non-ideal input signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claeys, M.; Sinou, J.J.; Lambelin, J.P.; Alcoverro, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a direct comparison of measured and predicted nonlinear vibrations of a clamped-clamped steel beam. A multi-harmonic comparison of simulations with measurements is performed at the vicinity of the primary resonance. First of all, a nonlinear analytical model of the beam is developed taking into account non-ideal boundary conditions. The Harmonic Balance Method is implemented to estimate the nonlinear behavior of the clamped-clamped beam. This nonlinear method enables to simulate the vibration stationary response of a nonlinear system projected on several harmonics. This study then proposes a method to compare numerical simulations with measurements on all these harmonics. A signal analysis tool is developed to extract the system harmonics' frequency responses from a temporal signal of a swept sine experiment. An evolutionary updating algorithm (Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy), coupled with highly selective filters is used to identify both fundamental frequency and harmonics' amplitude in the temporal signal, at every moment. This tool enables to extract the harmonic amplitudes of the output signal as well as the input signal. The input of the Harmonic Balance Method can then be either an ideal mono-harmonic signal or a multi-harmonic experimental input signal. Finally, the present work focuses on the comparison of experimental and simulated results. From experimental output harmonics and numerical simulations, it is shown that it is possible to distinguish the nonlinearities of the clamped-clamped beam and the effect of the non-ideal input signal. (authors)

  15. Infrared signature modelling of a rocket jet plume - comparison with flight measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rialland, V; Perez, P; Roblin, A; Guy, A; Gueyffier, D; Smithson, T

    2016-01-01

    The infrared signature modelling of rocket plumes is a challenging problem involving rocket geometry, propellant composition, combustion modelling, trajectory calculations, fluid mechanics, atmosphere modelling, calculation of gas and particles radiative properties and of radiative transfer through the atmosphere. This paper presents ONERA simulation tools chained together to achieve infrared signature prediction, and the comparison of the estimated and measured signatures of an in-flight rocket plume. We consider the case of a solid rocket motor with aluminized propellant, the Black Brant sounding rocket. The calculation case reproduces the conditions of an experimental rocket launch, performed at White Sands in 1997, for which we obtained high quality infrared signature data sets from DRDC Valcartier. The jet plume is calculated using an in-house CFD software called CEDRE. The plume infrared signature is then computed on the spectral interval 1900-5000 cm -1 with a step of 5 cm -1 . The models and their hypotheses are presented and discussed. Then the resulting plume properties, radiance and spectra are detailed. Finally, the estimated infrared signature is compared with the spectral imaging measurements. The discrepancies are analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  16. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, Daniel R

    2012-09-01

    Glucose meter performance is commonly measured in several different ways, including the relative bias and coefficient of variation (CV), the total error, the mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), and the size of the interval around the reference value that would be necessary to contain a meter measurement at a specified probability. This fourth measure is commonly expressed as a proportion of the reference value and will be referred to as the necessary relative deviation. A deeper understanding of the relationships between these measures may aid health care providers, patients, and regulators in comparing meter performances when different measures are used. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance were derived mathematically. Equations are presented for calculating the total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation using the reference value, relative bias, and CV when glucose meter measurements are normally distributed. When measurements are also unbiased, the CV, total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation are linearly related and are therefore equivalent measures of meter performance. The relative bias and CV provide more information about meter performance than the other measures considered but may be difficult for some audiences to interpret. Reporting meter performance in multiple ways may facilitate the informed selection of blood glucose meters. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Facilities projects performance measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The two DOE-owned facilities at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), are described. The performance measurement systems used at these two facilities are next described

  18. Is the Speech Transmission Index (STI) a robust measure of sound system speech intelligibility performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Although RaSTI is a good indicator of the speech intelligibility capability of auditoria and similar spaces, during the past 2-3 years it has been shown that RaSTI is not a robust predictor of sound system intelligibility performance. Instead, it is now recommended, within both national and international codes and standards, that full STI measurement and analysis be employed. However, new research is reported, that indicates that STI is not as flawless, nor robust as many believe. The paper highlights a number of potential error mechanisms. It is shown that the measurement technique and signal excitation stimulus can have a significant effect on the overall result and accuracy, particularly where DSP-based equipment is employed. It is also shown that in its current state of development, STI is not capable of appropriately accounting for a number of fundamental speech and system attributes, including typical sound system frequency response variations and anomalies. This is particularly shown to be the case when a system is operating under reverberant conditions. Comparisons between actual system measurements and corresponding word score data are reported where errors of up to 50 implications for VA and PA system performance verification will be discussed.

  19. Therapy response evaluation of malignant lymphoma in a multicenter study. Comparison of manual and semiautomatic measurements in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessling, J.; Schuelke, C.; Koch, R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of manual one-/bi-dimensional measurements versus semi-automatically derived one-/bi-dimensional and volumetric measurements for therapy response evaluation of malignant lymphoma during CT follow-up examinations in a multicenter setting. Materials and Methods: MSCT data sets of patients with malignant lymphoma were evaluated before (baseline) and after two cycles of chemotherapy (follow-up) at radiological centers of five university hospitals. The long axis diameter (LAD), the short axis diameter (SAD) and the bi-dimensional WHO of 307 target lymph nodes were measured manually and semi-automatically using dedicated software. Lymph node volumetry was performed semi-automatically only. The therapeutic response was evaluated according to lymphoma-adapted RECIST. Results: Based on a single lymph node, semi-automatically derived multidimensional parameters allowed for significantly more accurate therapy response classification than the manual or the semi-automatic unidimensional parameters. Incorrect classifications were reduced by up to 9.6%. Compared to the manual approach, the influence of the study center on correct therapy classification is significantly less relevant when using semi-automatic measurements. Conclusion: Semi-automatic volumetry and bi-dimensional WHO significantly reduce the number of incorrectly classified lymphoma patients by approximately 9.6% in the multicenter setting in comparison to linear parameters. Semi-automatic quantitative software tools may help to significantly reduce wrong classifications that are associated with the manual assessment approach. (orig.)

  20. Therapy response evaluation of malignant lymphoma in a multicenter study. Comparison of manual and semiautomatic measurements in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessling, J.; Schuelke, C. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Koch, R. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Informatics and Biomathematics; and others

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Comparison of manual one-/bi-dimensional measurements versus semi-automatically derived one-/bi-dimensional and volumetric measurements for therapy response evaluation of malignant lymphoma during CT follow-up examinations in a multicenter setting. Materials and Methods: MSCT data sets of patients with malignant lymphoma were evaluated before (baseline) and after two cycles of chemotherapy (follow-up) at radiological centers of five university hospitals. The long axis diameter (LAD), the short axis diameter (SAD) and the bi-dimensional WHO of 307 target lymph nodes were measured manually and semi-automatically using dedicated software. Lymph node volumetry was performed semi-automatically only. The therapeutic response was evaluated according to lymphoma-adapted RECIST. Results: Based on a single lymph node, semi-automatically derived multidimensional parameters allowed for significantly more accurate therapy response classification than the manual or the semi-automatic unidimensional parameters. Incorrect classifications were reduced by up to 9.6%. Compared to the manual approach, the influence of the study center on correct therapy classification is significantly less relevant when using semi-automatic measurements. Conclusion: Semi-automatic volumetry and bi-dimensional WHO significantly reduce the number of incorrectly classified lymphoma patients by approximately 9.6% in the multicenter setting in comparison to linear parameters. Semi-automatic quantitative software tools may help to significantly reduce wrong classifications that are associated with the manual assessment approach. (orig.)

  1. Telerobotic system performance measurement - Motivation and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-01-01

    A systems performance-based strategy for modeling and conducting experiments relevant to the design and performance characterization of telerobotic systems is described. A developmental testbed consisting of a distributed telerobotics network and initial efforts to implement the strategy described is presented. Consideration is given to the general systems performance theory (GSPT) to tackle human performance problems as a basis for: measurement of overall telerobotic system (TRS) performance; task decomposition; development of a generic TRS model; and the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT employs a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented within the framework of a distributed telerobotics network as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data is described.

  2. High dose rate brachytherapy source measurement intercomparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Joel; Smith, Ryan L; Shelton, Nikki; Whitaker, May; Butler, Duncan; Haworth, Annette

    2017-06-01

    This work presents a comparison of air kerma rate (AKR) measurements performed by multiple radiotherapy centres for a single HDR 192 Ir source. Two separate groups (consisting of 15 centres) performed AKR measurements at one of two host centres in Australia. Each group travelled to one of the host centres and measured the AKR of a single 192 Ir source using their own equipment and local protocols. Results were compared to the 192 Ir source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer by means of a ratio of measured to certified AKR. The comparisons showed remarkably consistent results with the maximum deviation in measurement from the decay-corrected source certificate value being 1.1%. The maximum percentage difference between any two measurements was less than 2%. The comparisons demonstrated the consistency of well-chambers used for 192 Ir AKR measurements in Australia, despite the lack of a local calibration service, and served as a valuable focal point for the exchange of ideas and dosimetry methods.

  3. Bursty data traffic via satellite: performance comparison between two TDMA access schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Celandroni, Nedo; Ferro, Erina; Potort?, Francesco; Maral, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the simulation results of a performance comparison between two centralised thin route TDrvlA satellite access schemes, in terms of bursty data transmission delay in the context of LAN interconnection traffic. The schemes compared are CFRA' I, and FODA/IBEA'

  4. Cross-National Yardstick Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Hansen, Kasper; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Bech, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    performance comparisons—even when accounting for classic national sociotropic and egotropic items. Specifically, voters respond strongly to how the prospective wealth of Denmark evolves relative to the neighboring Sweden. Interestingly, voters are more negative in their response to cross-national losses......Comparing performance between countries is both a theoretically and intuitively useful yardstick for voters. Cross-national comparisons provide voters with heuristics that are less cognitively demanding, less ambiguous, and less uncertain than solely national, absolute performance measurements. We...... test this proposition using a unique, choice experiment embedded in the 2011 Danish National Election Study. This design allows to contrast cross-national comparisons with more traditional national sociotropic and egotropic concerns. The findings suggest that voters are strongly influenced by cross-national...

  5. Performance comparisons of dish type solar concentrator with mirror arrangements and receiver shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Joo Hyun; Kim, Yong; Ma, Dae Sung; Seo, Tae Beom [Graduate School, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yong Heack [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    The performance comparisons of dish type solar concentrators are numerically investigated. The dish type solar concentrator considered in this paper consists of a receiver and multi-faceted mirrors. In order to investigate the performance comparisons of dish type solar concentrators, six different mirror arrangements and four different receivers are considered. A parabolic-shaped perfect mirror of which diameter is 1.40 m is considered as the reference for the mirror arrangements. The other mirror arrangements consist of twelve identical parabolic-shaped mirror facets of which diameter are 0.405 m. Their total collecting areas, which are 1.545 m{sup 2}, are the same. Four different solar receiver shapes are a conical, a dome, a cylindrical, and a unicorn type. In order to investigate the thermal performance of the dish type solar concentrator, the radiative heat loss in the receiver should be calculated. For calculation, the net radiation method and the Monte-Carlo method are used. Also, because the thermal performance of the dish type solar concentrator can vary as the receiver surface temperature, the various surface temperatures are considered. Based on the calculation, the unicorn type has the best performance in receiver shapes and the STAR has the best performance in mirror arrangements except the perfect mirror. (orig.)

  6. National comparison of {sup 131}I measurement among nuclear medicine clinics of eight countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsovcova, Veronika, E-mail: volsovcova@cmi.c [Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1, Praha 10, 102 00 (Czech Republic); Iwahara, Akira [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22780-160 Brazil (Brazil); Oropesa, Pilar [Centro de Isotopos, Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada, Km 31/2, Guanabacoa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Joseph, Leena; Ravindra, Anuradha [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Division, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Ghafoori, Mostafa [SSDL, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School (AMIRS). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Son, Hye-Kyung [Radiation Safety Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 194 Tongilro, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Sahagia, Maria [Horia Hulubei National Institute of R and D for Physics and Engineering, POB MG-6, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Tastan, Selma [Ankara University Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cebeci 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Zimmerman, Brian [Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8462 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A generally applicable protocol for organizing comparisons among nuclear medicine clinics created within the IAEA project CRP E2.10.05 was tested in Brazil, Cuba, Czech Republic, India, Iran, Republic of Korea, Romania and Turkey in 2007. Comparisons of measurement of {sup 131}I were organized by local pilot laboratories with different backgrounds and levels of experience in this field. The results and experiences gained were compared and analyzed. A majority of results in each national comparison were within 10% of the reference value.

  7. Supplement to procedures, analysis, and comparison of groundwater velocity measurement methods for unconfined aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkl, R.J.; Kearl, P.M.

    1988-09-01

    This report is a supplement to Procedures, Analysis, and Comparison of Groundwater Velocity Measurement Methods for Unconfined Aquifers and provides computer program descriptions, type curves, and calculations for the analysis of field data in determining groundwater velocity in unconfined aquifers. The computer programs analyze bail or slug tests, pumping tests, Geoflo Meter data, and borehole dilution data. Appendix A is a description of the code, instructions for using the code, an example data file, and the calculated results to allow checking the code after installation on the user's computer. Calculations, development of formulas, and correction factors for the various programs are presented in Appendices B through F. Appendix G provides a procedure for calculating transmissivity and specific yield for pumping tests performed in unconfined aquifers

  8. New performance in harmonic analysis device generation used for magnetic fields measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evesque, C.; Tkatchenko, M.

    1996-12-31

    In particle accelerator, correcting high multipole components of magnets are of high importance for quality magnet: to get a pure quadrupole to within 10{sup -4}, we have to know the field quality to 10{sup -5} through the 30. order. Our laboratory needed such a very sharp device to find small harmonic components of magnetic field. For harmonic analysis of magnetic field, we adopted the standard method, i.e. a rotating coil connected to a flux integrator. Nowadays, coils measuring azimuthal component of magnetic field are used. In order to obtain correct and accurate measurements, we were guided by two imperatives: first, optimisation of construction constraints and second, comparison of azimuthal and radial component measurements. With this background, this article describes both new technological solutions adopted and new performance obtained. We also discuss the most suitable geometric structure for the coils. We obtained a noiseless signal, a repeatability of 10{sup -5} and a sensitivity up to 10{sup -8} Weber for both types of coils. Our device is able to find and measure main component, normal and skew multipole components up to the 32. order, when simulating local defects. The magnetic axis is located within 5 {mu}m. The central gradient is also measured and magnetic length deduced. Complementary functions of two types of coils were noticed in detecting local defects of magnetic structure. (authors).

  9. New performance in harmonic analysis device generation used for magnetic fields measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evesque, C.; Tkatchenko, M.

    1996-01-01

    In particle accelerator, correcting high multipole components of magnets are of high importance for quality magnet: to get a pure quadrupole to within 10 -4 , we have to know the field quality to 10 -5 through the 30. order. Our laboratory needed such a very sharp device to find small harmonic components of magnetic field. For harmonic analysis of magnetic field, we adopted the standard method, i.e. a rotating coil connected to a flux integrator. Nowadays, coils measuring azimuthal component of magnetic field are used. In order to obtain correct and accurate measurements, we were guided by two imperatives: first, optimisation of construction constraints and second, comparison of azimuthal and radial component measurements. With this background, this article describes both new technological solutions adopted and new performance obtained. We also discuss the most suitable geometric structure for the coils. We obtained a noiseless signal, a repeatability of 10 -5 and a sensitivity up to 10 -8 Weber for both types of coils. Our device is able to find and measure main component, normal and skew multipole components up to the 32. order, when simulating local defects. The magnetic axis is located within 5 μm. The central gradient is also measured and magnetic length deduced. Complementary functions of two types of coils were noticed in detecting local defects of magnetic structure. (authors)

  10. Safety Performance Indicator for alcohol in road accidents--international comparison, validity and data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assum, Terje; Sørensen, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Safety Performance Indicators, SPIs, are developed for various areas within road safety such as speed, car occupant protection, alcohol and drugs, vehicle safety, etc. SPIs can be used to indicate the road safety situation and to compare road safety performance between countries and over time and to understand the process leading to accidents, helping to select the measures to reduce them. This article describes an alcohol SPI defined as the percentage of fatalities resulting from accidents involving at least one driver impaired by alcohol. The calculation of the alcohol SPI for 26 European countries shows that the SPI varies from 4.4% in Bulgaria to 72.2% in Italy. These results raise the question if the results reflect the real situation or if there is a methodological explanation. To answer this question three different studies were carried out: comparison with other alcohol SPIs, in-depth studies of data quality in seven selected countries, and a study of correlations between the SPI and influencing factors. These studies indicate clearly that there is a need to improve quality of the data used for the alcohol SPI. Most importantly, the total number of drivers involved in fatal accidents, the number tested for alcohol and the number not tested, should be reported, in addition to the number of alcohol positive and negative drivers among those tested. Until these improvements are made, the validity of this SPI seems poor and comparison of the alcohol SPI results across countries should be made with caution. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comparison of two measures of quality of life of Nigerian clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparison of two measures of quality of life of Nigerian clinic patients with ... well-being questionnaire and the WHOQOL-BREF, a generic instrument. ... not influenced by characteristics such as age, gender, marital or educational status.

  12. Comparison of TLD air kerma measurements in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.

    2002-01-01

    The mammography examination is usually targeted at asymptomatic women so the narrow balance between benefit and undesirable effects is important. During the past few decades there have been significant advances in the equipment used for mammography. Even when the latest equipment and imaging systems are used, there is considerable variation from centre-to-centre in the choice of imaging parameters and techniques. There may be quite large differences in image quality and breast dose among the centres. A Co-ordinated Research Programme on 'Image quality and patient dose optimization in mammography in Eastern European Countries' was conducted by the IAEA, aiming at defining a methodology for the implementation of a quality assurance (QA) programme in mammography and at exercising the assessment of image quality and patient doses in a sample of hospitals in East European countries. Selected mammography clinics from Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia participate in the project. The teams consisted of experienced clinicians and physicists. They were supported by a group of experts (clinicians and medical physicists) from France, Italy and Spain. As an outcome of the project, improvements in these indicators (image quality and patient dose) after the implementation of the QA programme are expected. A comparison of dosimetry systems has been organized to assure that dosimetry measurements done in the frame of the project are comparable and traceable to the international measurement system. All five East European countries plus Spain took part in the exercise. The thermoluminescent (TL) method was selected for the comparison

  13. BER performance comparison of optical CDMA systems with/without turbo codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Chauhan, Vijender S.; Dutta, Yashpal; Sinha, Ravindra K.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed and simulated the BER performance of a turbo coded optical code-division multiple-access (TC-OCDMA) system. A performance comparison has been made between uncoded OCDMA and TC-OCDMA systems employing various OCDMA address codes (optical orthogonal codes (OOCs), Generalized Multiwavelength Prime codes (GMWPC's), and Generalized Multiwavelength Reed Solomon code (GMWRSC's)). The BER performance of TC-OCDMA systems has been analyzed and simulated by varying the code weight of address code employed by the system. From the simulation results, it is observed that lower weight address codes can be employed for TC-OCDMA systems that can have the equivalent BER performance of uncoded systems employing higher weight address codes for a fixed number of active users.

  14. Multi-country comparisons of energy performance: The index decomposition analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Xu, X.Y.; Su, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Index decomposition analysis (IDA) is a popular tool for studying changes in energy consumption over time in a country or region. This specific application of IDA, which may be called temporal decomposition analysis, has been extended by researchers and analysts to study variations in energy consumption or energy efficiency between countries or regions, i.e. spatial decomposition analysis. In spatial decomposition analysis, the main objective is often to understand the relative contributions of overall activity level, activity structure, and energy intensity in explaining differences in total energy consumption between two countries or regions. We review the literature of spatial decomposition analysis, investigate the methodological issues, and propose a spatial decomposition analysis framework for multi-region comparisons. A key feature of the proposed framework is that it passes the circularity test and provides consistent results for multi-region comparisons. A case study in which 30 regions in China are compared and ranked based on their performance in energy consumption is presented. - Highlights: • We conducted cross-regional comparisons of energy consumption using IDA. • We proposed two criteria for IDA method selection in spatial decomposition analysis. • We proposed a new model for regional comparison that passes the circularity test. • Features of the new model are illustrated using the data of 30 regions in China

  15. Scattering parameters of the 3.9 GHz accelerating module in a free-electron laser linac: A rigorous comparison between simulations and measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Flisgen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparison between measured and simulated scattering parameters in a wide frequency interval for the third harmonic accelerating module ACC39 in the linear accelerator FLASH, located at DESY in Hamburg/Germany. ACC39 is a cryomodule housing four superconducting 3.9  GHz accelerating cavities. Due to the special shape of the cavities (in particular its end cells and the beam pipes in ACC39, the electromagnetic field in the module is, in many frequency ranges, coupled from one cavity to the next. Therefore, the scattering parameters are determined by the entire string and not solely by the individual cavities. This makes the determination of the scattering properties demanding. As far as the authors can determine, this paper shows for the first time a direct comparison between state-of-the-art simulations and measurements of rf properties of long, complex, and asymmetric structures over a wide frequency band. Taking into account the complexity of the system and various geometrical unknowns, the agreement between experimental measurements and simulations is remarkably good for several distinct measurements, although a variety of effects (e.g. cavity deviations from the ideal shape or interactions with not modeled parts of the structure is not considered in the computer simulation. After a short introduction, the paper provides detailed descriptions of simulations and experimental measurements performed at the module. In this context, the estimation of the cable properties is discussed as well. As a central part of the article, the comparison between measured and simulated transmission spectra and quality factors is presented. This study represents one of the first detailed comparisons between simulations and measurements for a coupled accelerator cavity system.

  16. Application of sonoelastography: Comparison of performance between mass and non-mass lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun Sook; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Rock Bum; Noh, Woo-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of the conventional ultrasonography (US) and sonoelastography (SE) in three conditions of all lesions, confined to mass, and confined to non-mass lesion and to compare the performance of each modality between mass and non-mass lesion. Materials and methods: A total 364 patients with 375 lesions were evaluated with US and subsequently SE before performing US-guided biopsy. Two radiologists retrospectively analyzed conventional US and elasticity images by consensus. The US findings were classified as mass or non-mass lesion. With final pathology as reference, in each case of all lesions, masses, and non-mass lesions, areas under the ROC curves (Az) were calculated and compared for the two techniques. The comparison of Az values between the curves for US and SE, and between the curves for mass and non-mass lesion was performed. Results: Among 375 lesions, 104 (28%) lesions were malignant and 271 (72%) lesions were benign. 36 (9.6%) of 375 lesions were classified as non-mass lesion at US. There were statistically significant difference of performance between US and SE in cases of all lesion (p = 0.003) and mass (p = 0.023). However, there was no statistically significant difference of performance in case of non-mass lesion (p = 0.5). Comparisons of the Az values of US and SE between mass and non-mass lesions were not statistically significant (p = 0.745, p = 0.415, respectively). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference of performance of US and SE between mass and non-mass lesion.

  17. Innovation and organisational performance: A critical review of the instruments used to measure organisational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo Sethibe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Innovation is recognised as one of the most important determinant of organisational performance. Yet, the results of studies that investigate the relationship between innovation and organisational performance are inconclusive. The inconsistency has been attributed to a number of factors, which include, among others, the measures used to evaluate organisational performance. Aim: This study was set out to identify, categorise and critically analyse the instruments used to assess organisational performance when investigating the relationship between innovation and organisational performance. Setting: The study focuses on all scientific publications reporting on organisational performance, inclusive of both financial and non-financial indicators of performance, and are not limited to any specific country or industry. Methods: The systematic literature review methodology was used to identify studies which investigated the relationship between innovation and organisational performance. Once identified, articles were analysed on the way organisational performance was measured. Classification was done with reference to financial and non-financial indicators, accounting and market-based, as well as objective and subjective measures. Results: The findings show that profitability, sales growth and return on assets (ROA are the most preferred accounting-based financial measures of organisation performance. In addition, Tobin’s Q was found to be the most favoured market-based financial measure of organisational performance. The study further reveals that market share, customer satisfaction and productivity are the most popular non-financial-based measures of organisational performance. Conclusion: The use of measures of organisational performance is often left to the discussion of the researcher, which is not implicitly wrong, but does little to contribute to the body of knowledge on this important topic. Researchers are firstly urged to

  18. Introduction to control system performance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, K C

    1968-01-01

    Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave

  19. Comparison of Performance Measurements of Photovoltaic Modules during Winter Months in Taxila, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anser Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparative performance evaluation of three commercially available photovoltaic modules (monocrystalline, polycrystalline, and single junction amorphous silicon in Taxila, Pakistan. The experimentation was carried out at outdoor conditions for winter months. Power output, module efficiency, and performance ratio were calculated for each module and the effect of module temperature and solar irradiance on these parameters was investigated. Module parameters showed strong dependence on the solar irradiance and module temperature. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules showed better performance in high irradiance condition whereas it decreased suddenly with decrease in irradiance. Amorphous solar module also showed good performance in low irradiance due to its better light absorbing characteristics and thus showed higher average performance ratio. Monocrystalline photovoltaic module showed higher monthly average module efficiency and was found to be more efficient at this site. Module efficiency and performance ratio showed a decreasing trend with increase of irradiance and photovoltaic module back surface temperature.

  20. Comparison of activity measurements of the 67Ga and 123I at Brazilian nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A. dos; Silva, M.A.L. da; Lopes, R.T.; Iwahara, A.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Tauhata, L.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1998, the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI), of Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, belonging to the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (IRD/CNEN), is conducting a comparison program for the measurements of radiopharmaceutical activities applied to to patients at the nuclear medicine sector, viewing to assessment the quality of that measurements. This work presents the results of three comparison rounds using the 67 Ga and 123 I, establishing the metrological tracking of the calibrators used by the participants. The results were analysed under the the viewpoint of the conformal with the regulatory authority and show that those comparisons are necessary to improve the quality of radiopharmaceutical measurement activities, identify failures on the equipment and technical procedures used by the nuclear medicine services all over the country

  1. Determinants of the use of value-based performance measures for managerial performance evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.; Groot, T.L.C.M.; Schoute, M.; Wiersma, E.

    2012-01-01

    As value-based (VB) performance measures include firms' cost of capital, they are considered more congruent than earnings measures. Prior studies, however, find that their use for managerial performance evaluation is less extensive than their presumed benefits would suggest. We examine how the

  2. ASUPT Automated Objective Performance Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Wayne L.; And Others

    To realize its full research potential, a need exists for the development of an automated objective pilot performance evaluation system for use in the Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) facility. The present report documents the approach taken for the development of performance measures and also presents data collected…

  3. Measuring Adolescent Self-Awareness and Accuracy Using a Performance-Based Assessment and Parental Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Zlotnik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AimThe aim of this study was to assess awareness of performance and performance accuracy for a task that requires executive functions (EF, among healthy adolescents and to compare their performance to their parent’s ratings.MethodParticipants: 109 healthy adolescents (mean age 15.2 ± 1.86 years completed the Weekly Calendar Planning Activity (WCPA. The discrepancy between self-estimated and actual performance was used to measure the level of awareness. The participants were divided into high and low accuracy groups according to the WCPA accuracy median score. The participants were also divided into high and low awareness groups. A comparison was conducted between groups using WCPA performance and parent ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF.ResultsHigher awareness was associated with better EF performance. Participants with high accuracy scores were more likely to show high awareness of performance as compared to participants with low accuracy scores. The high accuracy group had better parental ratings of EF, higher efficiency, followed more rules, and were more aware of their WCPA performance.ConclusionOur results highlight the important contribution that self-awareness of performance may have on the individual’s function. Assessing the level of awareness and providing metacognitive training techniques for those adolescents who are less aware, could support their performance.

  4. A key performance measures for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Shashi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a set of measures, evaluate their importance and effect in cold supply chain performance. This investigation reviewed previous research works on all the stages of the farm product supply chain. Based on farm product supply chain, 4 measures with 31 metrics were identified and developed to measure the cold supply chain performance. A survey was organized to establish the importance and the effect of identified measures. The 5 point Likert scale questionnaire was distributed among SC academics and practitioners. The observed finding infers that the measurement instrument was substantiating for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry. The new developed metrics will help firms improve the visibility of supply among partners and in better decision making. The investigation was enfolded up through the plan of direction intended for future study.

  5. Performance measures for world class maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labib, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    A main problem in maintenance in general, and in power plants and related equipment in particular, is the lack of a practical, consistent, and adaptive performance measure that provides a focused feedback and integrates preventive and corrective modes of maintenance. The presentation defines concepts of world class and benchmarking. Desirable features in an appropriate performance measure are identified. It then, demonstrates current practices in maintenance and criticises their shortcomings. An alternative model is presented through a case study. The model monitors performance from a general view, and then offers a focused analysis. The main conclusion is that the proposed model offers an adaptive and a dynamic framework, and hence production and maintenance are integrated in a 'real time' environment. The system is also flexible in working with any other criteria whether they are of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. (orig.) 16 refs

  6. Performance measures for world class maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, A W [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    A main problem in maintenance in general, and in power plants and related equipment in particular, is the lack of a practical, consistent, and adaptive performance measure that provides a focused feedback and integrates preventive and corrective modes of maintenance. The presentation defines concepts of world class and benchmarking. Desirable features in an appropriate performance measure are identified. It then, demonstrates current practices in maintenance and criticises their shortcomings. An alternative model is presented through a case study. The model monitors performance from a general view, and then offers a focused analysis. The main conclusion is that the proposed model offers an adaptive and a dynamic framework, and hence production and maintenance are integrated in a `real time` environment. The system is also flexible in working with any other criteria whether they are of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. (orig.) 16 refs.

  7. Performance measures for world class maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, A.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    A main problem in maintenance in general, and in power plants and related equipment in particular, is the lack of a practical, consistent, and adaptive performance measure that provides a focused feedback and integrates preventive and corrective modes of maintenance. The presentation defines concepts of world class and benchmarking. Desirable features in an appropriate performance measure are identified. It then, demonstrates current practices in maintenance and criticises their shortcomings. An alternative model is presented through a case study. The model monitors performance from a general view, and then offers a focused analysis. The main conclusion is that the proposed model offers an adaptive and a dynamic framework, and hence production and maintenance are integrated in a `real time` environment. The system is also flexible in working with any other criteria whether they are of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. (orig.) 16 refs.

  8. Performance of computed tomography for contrast agent concentration measurements with monochromatic x-ray beams: comparison of K-edge versus temporal subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleaume, H.; Charvet, A.M.; Corde, S.; Esteve, F.; Le Bas, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the performance of monochromatic computed tomography for the quantification of contrast agent concentrations. Two subtraction methods (K-edge subtraction and temporal subtraction) were evaluated and compared theoretically and experimentally in terms of detection limit, precision and accuracy. Measurements were performed using synchrotron x-rays with Lucite phantoms (10 cm and 17.5 cm in diameter) containing iodine or gadolinium solutions ranging from 50 μg ml -1 to 5 mg ml -1 . The experiments were carried out using monochromators developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) medical beamline. The phantoms were imaged either above and below the contrast agent K-edge, or before and after the addition of the contrast agent. Both methods gave comparable performance for phantoms less than 10 cm in diameter. For large phantoms, equivalent to a human head, the temporal subtraction is more suitable for detecting elements such as iodine, keeping a reasonable x-ray dose delivered to the phantom. A good agreement was obtained between analytical calculations, simulations and measurements. The beam harmonic content was taken into account in the simulations. It explains the performance degradation with high contrast agent concentrations. The temporal subtraction technique has the advantage of energy tunability and is well suited for imaging elements, such as iodine or gadolinium, in highly absorbing samples. For technical reasons, the K-edge method is preferable when the imaged organ is moving since the two measurements can be performed simultaneously, which is mandatory for obtaining a good subtraction. (author)

  9. A 2015 comparison of operational performance : Washington state ferries to ferry operators worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides an update to the 2010 report A Comparison of Operational Performance: : Washington State Ferries to Ferry Operators Worldwide, observing changes in Washington State : Ferries, 23 other ferry systems, and the ferry industry ...

  10. Calculation of the Flux in a Square Lattice Cell and a Comparison with Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelqvist, G [State Power Board, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1961-05-15

    A calculation has been made of the thermal neutron flux in a square lattice cell using methods devised by Galanin. The f and L lattice parameters have been expressed in measurable quantities and a comparison made between measured and calculated values.

  11. On music performance, theories, measurement en diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.; Honing, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of musical performances is of interest to studies in musicology, music psychology and music performance practice, but in general it has not been considered the main issue: when analyzing Western classical music, these disciplines usually focus on the score rather than the performance.

  12. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  13. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  14. Corporate Social Performance: From Output Measurement to Impact Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E.H. Maas (Karen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAll organisations have social, environmental and economic impacts that effect people, their communities and the natural environment. Impacts include intended as well as unintended effects and negative as well as positive effects. Current practice in performance measurement tends to focus

  15. Balanced Scorecard Based Performance Measurement & Strategic Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Permatasari, Paulina

    2006-01-01

    Developing strategy and performance measurement are an integral part of management control system. Making strategic decision about planning and controlling require information regarding how different subunits in organization work. To be effective, performance measurement, both financial and non-financial must motivate manager and employees at different levels to force goal accomplishment and organization strategic. An organization's measurement system strongly affects the behavior of people b...

  16. A comparative study of performance measurement standards of railway operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongjirawut Siripong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European standard (EN 13816, is one of the widely accepted standards for measuring the quality of public passenger transport (PPT service. EN 13816 indicates 8 measurement criteria, 29 sub-criteria and 193 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs to be used to measure the performance of railway operators. Nowadays, there are other addition criteria beyond EN13816, developed by various organisations. This research firstly aims to explore the service performance measurement of railway operators used by actual railway operators at international level and in Thailand. After an intensive review of performance measurement standards, 9 standards are compiled and compared in terms of criteria, sub-criteria and KPIs using a cluster analysis methodology. The result found additional performance measurement aspects at 2 sub-criteria and 91 KPIs in addition to EN 13816. This research summarized and compared different performance measurement standards to measure service quality of metro rail line.

  17. Measuring performance in virtual reality phacoemulsification surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Per; Laurell, Carl-Gustaf; Simawi, Wamidh; Skarman, Eva; Nordh, Leif; Nordqvist, Per

    2008-02-01

    We have developed a virtual reality (VR) simulator for phacoemulsification surgery. The current work aimed at developing a relative performance index that characterizes the performance of an individual trainee. We recorded measurements of 28 response variables during three iterated surgical sessions in 9 experienced cataract surgeons, separately for the sculpting phase and the evacuation phase of phacoemulsification surgery and compared their outcome to that of a reference group of naive trainees. We defined an individual overall performance index, an individual class specific performance index and an individual variable specific performance index. We found that on an average the experienced surgeons performed at a lower level than a reference group of naive trainees but that this was particularly attributed to a few surgeons. When their overall performance index was further analyzed as class specific performance index and variable specific performance index it was found that the low level performance was attributed to a behavior that is acceptable for an experienced surgeon but not for a naive trainee. It was concluded that relative performance indices should use a reference group that corresponds to the measured individual since the definition of optimal surgery may vary among trainee groups depending on their level of experience.

  18. The Curvilinear Association between Performance Measurement System Design and Strategic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Melanie L.; Mahlendorf, Matthias D.; Schäffer, Utz

    This paper reconciles prior research regarding beneficial and detrimental effects of performance measurement system (PMS) design on performance by arguing for a curvilinear association. By taking the too-much-of-a-good-thing effect as a starting point, we challenge the assumption of a linear...

  19. Improvement an enterprises marketing performance measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Business conditions in which modern enterprises do business are more and more complex. The complexity of the business environment is caused by activities of external and internal factors, which imposes the need for the turn in management focus. One of key turns is related to the need of adaptation and development of new business performance evaluation systems. The evaluation of marketing contribution to business performance is very important however a complex task as well. The marketing theory and practice indicates the need for developing adequate standards and systems for evaluating the efficiency of marketing decisions. The better understanding of marketing standards and ways that managers use is a very important factor that affects the efficiency of strategic decision-making. The paper presents the results of researching the way in which managers perceive and apply marketing performance measures. The data that were received through the field research sample enabled the consideration of the managers' attitudes on practical ways of implementing marketing performance measurement and identifying measures that managers imply as used mostly in business practice.

  20. Total performance measurement and management: TPM2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheather, G. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    As the rate of incremental improvement activities and business process re-engineering programs increase, product development times reduce, collaborative endeavours between OEMs and out-sourcing suppliers increase, as agile manufacturing responds to the demands of a global marketplace, the `virtual` organisation is becoming a reality. In this context, customers, partners, suppliers and manufacturers are increasingly separated by field geography, time zone, and availability, but linked by distributed information systems. Measuring and monitoring business performance in this environment requires a entirely different framework and set of key performance indicators (KPIs) usually associated with traditional financial accounting approaches. These approaches are critiqued, then the paper introduces a new concept `Total Performance Measurement Management` (TPM2), to distinguish it from the conventional TPM (Total Productive Management). A model for combining both financial and non-financial KPIs relevant to real-time performance measures stretching across strategic, business unit and operational levels, is presented. The results of the model confirm the hypothesis that it is feasible to develop a TPM2 framework for achieving enterprise wide strategic objectives. (author). 6 tabs., 18 figs., refs.

  1. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. This study was designed to (1) identify indicators for each dimension, (2) select the most relevant indicators, and (3) determine the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of work performance. IWP indicators were identified from multiple research disciplines, via literature, existing questionnaires, and expert interviews. Subsequently, experts selected the most relevant indicators per dimension and scored the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of IWP. In total, 128 unique indicators were identified. Twenty-three of these indicators were selected by experts as most relevant for measuring IWP. Task performance determined 36% of the work performance rating, while the other three dimensions respectively determined 22%, 20% and 21% of the rating. Notable consensus was found on relevant indicators of IWP, reducing the number from 128 to 23 relevant indicators. This provides an important step towards the development of a standardized, generic and short measurement instrument for assessing IWP.

  2. On the comparison of the ballistic performance of 10% zirconia toughened alumina and 95% alumina ceramic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.F.; Li, Y.C.

    2010-01-01

    Ballistic performance of different type of ceramic materials subjected to high velocity impact was investigated in many theoretical, experimental and numerical studies. In this study, a comparison of ballistic performance of 95% alumina ceramic and 10% zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramic tiles was analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Spherical cavity model based on the concepts of mechanics of compressible porous media of Galanov was used to analyze the relation of target resistance and static mechanical properties. Experimental studies were carried out on the ballistic performance of above two types of ceramic tiles based on the depth of penetration (DOP) method, when subjected to normal impact of tungsten long rod projectiles. Typical damaged targets were presented. The residual depth of penetration on after-effect target was measured in all experiments, and the ballistic efficiency factor of above two types ceramic plates were determined. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the improvement on ballistic resistance was clearly observed by increasing fracture toughness in ZTA ceramics.

  3. Performance indicators for power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, C.; White, M.

    1995-11-01

    A review of Canadian and worldwide performance indicator definitions and data was performed to identify a set of indicators that could be used for comparison of performance among nuclear power plants. The results of this review are to be used as input to an AECB team developing a consistent set of performance indicators for measuring Canadian power reactor safety performance. To support the identification of performance indicators, a set of criteria was developed to assess the effectiveness of each indicator for meaningful comparison of performance information. The project identified a recommended set of performance indicators that could be used by AECB staff to compare the performance of Canadian nuclear power plants among themselves, and with international performance. The basis for selection of the recommended set and exclusion of others is provided. This report provides definitions and calculation methods for each recommended performance indicator. In addition, a spreadsheet has been developed for comparison and trending for the recommended set of indicators. Example trend graphs are included to demonstrate the use of the spreadsheet. (author). 50 refs., 11 tabs., 3 figs

  4. An Examination of Organizatinal Performance Measurement System Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    DeBusk, Gerald Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation provides results of three studies, which examine the utilization of organizational performance measurement systems. Evidence gathered in the first study provides insight into the number of perspectives or components found in the evaluation of an organization's performance and the relative weight placed on those components. The evidence suggests that the number of performance measurement components and their relative composition is situational. Components depend heavily on th...

  5. The impact of multi-criteria performance measurement on business performance improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Kasie, Fentahun Moges; Belay, Alemu Moges

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between multi-criteria performance measurement (MCPM) practice and business performance improvement using the raw data collected from 33 selected manufacturing companies. In addition, it proposes modified MCPM model as an effective approach to improve business performance of manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach:Research paper. Primary and secondary data were collected using questionnaire survey, interview an...

  6. Assertiveness, submissive behaviour and social comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, P; Allan, S

    1994-09-01

    This paper explores the relationship between a new assertiveness measure (the Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour--SIB), social comparison and submissive behaviour. The paper investigates these measures in relation to the personality traits of neuroticism and introversion. Findings suggest: (a) that social comparison may be an important variable in assertiveness and submissive behaviour and shows a strong relationship to neuroticism and introversion; (b) that submissive behaviour is not the mirror opposite of assertive behaviour; and (c) submissive behaviour seems more strongly associated with introversion and neuroticism than assertive performance.

  7. An Experimental Comparison of Similarity Assessment Measures for 3D Models on Constrained Surface Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Lulin; Yang, Zhixin

    2010-05-01

    To address the issues in the area of design customization, this paper expressed the specification and application of the constrained surface deformation, and reported the experimental performance comparison of three prevail effective similarity assessment algorithms on constrained surface deformation domain. Constrained surface deformation becomes a promising method that supports for various downstream applications of customized design. Similarity assessment is regarded as the key technology for inspecting the success of new design via measuring the difference level between the deformed new design and the initial sample model, and indicating whether the difference level is within the limitation. According to our theoretical analysis and pre-experiments, three similarity assessment algorithms are suitable for this domain, including shape histogram based method, skeleton based method, and U system moment based method. We analyze their basic functions and implementation methodologies in detail, and do a series of experiments on various situations to test their accuracy and efficiency using precision-recall diagram. Shoe model is chosen as an industrial example for the experiments. It shows that shape histogram based method gained an optimal performance in comparison. Based on the result, we proposed a novel approach that integrating surface constrains and shape histogram description with adaptive weighting method, which emphasize the role of constrains during the assessment. The limited initial experimental result demonstrated that our algorithm outperforms other three algorithms. A clear direction for future development is also drawn at the end of the paper.

  8. Strategy Archetypes Adopted by Icelandic Companies, Their Fit with Performance Measures and Effects on Financial Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    Past research seems to suggest that companies adopting certain strategies favor certain sets of performance measures. That is to say companies using entrepreneurial focused strategies favor non-financial measures or a balanced mix of financial and non-financial measures. Companies adopting reactive...... or operational strategies seem to favor financial measures and are less likely to use non-financial measures. We take this research further by focusing not only on the link between strategy types and performance measures but also on what specific performance measures are used in connection to which strategies....... Furthermore, we examine the link between the strategies adopted, the performance measures favored and the financial performance of the companies. The empirical data collection was carried out in winter 2013 with a population of the 300 largest companies in Iceland. The survey was sent to the CFO...

  9. Measurement of natural radioactivity: Calibration and performance of a high-resolution gamma spectrometry facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, A. S.; Helsted, L. M.; Autzen, M.

    2018-01-01

    Murray et al. (2015) described an international inter-comparison of dose rate measurements undertaken using a homogenised beach ridge sand from Jutland, Denmark. The measured concentrations for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K from different laboratories varied considerably, with relative standard deviations...... of 26% (n=8), 59% (n=23) and 15% (n=23), respectively. In contrast, the relative standard deviations observed internally within our laboratory were 9%, 11% and 7%, respectively (n=20), and in addition our mean values were consistent with the global 40K mean, but significantly different from the 232Th...... mean. These problems in both accuracy and precision have led us to examine both the long term performance of our analytical facility, and its calibration. Our approach to the preparation of new absolute 238U, 232Th and 40K standards is outlined and tested against international standards. We also report...

  10. Measurements of total and tropospheric ozone from IASI: comparison with correlative satellite, ground-based and ozonesonde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boynard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present measurements of total and tropospheric ozone, retrieved from infrared radiance spectra recorded by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, which was launched on board the MetOp-A European satellite in October 2006. We compare IASI total ozone columns to Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 observations and ground-based measurements from the Dobson and Brewer network for one full year of observations (2008. The IASI total ozone columns are shown to be in good agreement with both GOME-2 and ground-based data, with correlation coefficients of about 0.9 and 0.85, respectively. On average, IASI ozone retrievals exhibit a positive bias of about 9 DU (3.3% compared to both GOME-2 and ground-based measurements. In addition to total ozone columns, the good spectral resolution of IASI enables the retrieval of tropospheric ozone concentrations. Comparisons of IASI tropospheric columns to 490 collocated ozone soundings available from several stations around the globe have been performed for the period of June 2007–August 2008. IASI tropospheric ozone columns compare well with sonde observations, with correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.77 for the [surface–6 km] and [surface–12 km] partial columns, respectively. IASI retrievals tend to overestimate the tropospheric ozone columns in comparison with ozonesonde measurements. Positive average biases of 0.15 DU (1.2% and 3 DU (11% are found for the [surface–6 km] and for the [surface–12 km] partial columns respectively.

  11. Performance evaluation of commercial radionuclide calibrators in Indonesian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candra, Hermawan; Marsoem, Pujadi; Wurdiyanto, Gatot

    2012-01-01

    Dose calibrator is one of the supporting equipments in the field of nuclear medicine. At the hospitals, dose calibrator is used for activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical before it is administered to patients. Comparison of activity measurements of 131 I and 99m Tc with dose calibrators was organized in Indonesia during 2007–2010 with the the aim of obtaining information dose calibrator performance in the hospitals. Seven Indonesian hospitals participated in this comparison. The measurement results were evaluated using the E n criteria. The result presented in this paper facilitated the evaluation of dose calibrator performance at several hospitals. - Highlights: ► National comparisons of 131 I and 99m Tc radionuclides in Indonesian hospitals. ► Standardization using a Centronic IG11/A20 4πγ Ionization Chamber and participants using commercial radionuclide calibrators. ► Performance radionuclide calibrator in nuclear medicine in Indonesia. ► Measurement of activity of 99m Tc and 131 I was found satisfactory.

  12. CRIQ : An innovative measure using comparison awareness to avoid self-presentation tactics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Nicole; van Leeuwen, Rob G.J.; Hoekstra, Hans A.; van der Zee, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a new measure for career role identification, the Career Role Identification Questionnaire (CRIQ). In constructing the CRIQ, we used the Comparison Awareness Inducing Technique (CAIT), a new and innovative method to reduce the effects of self-presentation tactics. The results

  13. CRIQ : An innovative measure using comparison awareness to avoid self-presentation tactics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Nicole; van Leeuwen, Rob G.J.; Hoekstra, Hans A.; van der Zee, Karen I.

    The article presents a new measure for career role identification, the Career Role Identification Questionnaire (CRIQ). In constructing the CRIQ, we used the Comparison Awareness Inducing Technique (CAIT), a new and innovative method to reduce the effects of self-presentation tactics.The results

  14. Performance of A Compact Multi-crystal High-purity Germanium Detector Array for Measuring Coincident Gamma-ray Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Chris [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Daigle, Stephen [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Buckner, Matt [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Erikson, Luke E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Runkle, Robert C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, Sean C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Champagne, Art [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Cooper, Andrew [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Downen, Lori [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Glasgow, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, Keegan [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Sallaska, Anne [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-02-18

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a 14-crystal array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in a single cryostat. The array was used to measure the astrophysical S-factor for the 14N(p,γ)15O* reaction for several transition energies at an effective center of mass energy of 163 keV. Owing to the segmented nature of the MARS detector, the effect of gamma-ray summing was greatly reduced in comparison to past experiments which utilized large, single-crystal detectors. The new S-factor values agree within the uncertainties with the past measurements. Details of the analysis and detector performance will be presented.

  15. Performance of a compact multi-crystal high-purity germanium detector array for measuring coincident gamma-ray emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Chris; Daigle, Stephen; Buckner, Matt [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Erikson, Luke E.; Runkle, Robert C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Stave, Sean C., E-mail: Sean.Stave@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Champagne, Arthur E.; Cooper, Andrew; Downen, Lori [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Glasgow, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kelly, Keegan; Sallaska, Anne [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a 14-crystal array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in a single cryostat. The array was used to measure the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 14}N(p,γ){sup 15}O{sup ⁎} reaction for several transition energies at an effective center-of-mass energy of 163 keV. Owing to the granular nature of the MARS detector, the effect of gamma-ray summing was greatly reduced in comparison to past experiments which utilized large, single-crystal detectors. The new S-factor values agree within their uncertainties with the past measurements. Details of the analysis and detector performance are presented.

  16. APPROXIMATIONS TO PERFORMANCE MEASURES IN QUEUING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambo, N. S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximations to various performance measures in queuing systems have received considerable attention because these measures have wide applicability. In this paper we propose two methods to approximate the queuing characteristics of a GI/M/1 system. The first method is non-parametric in nature, using only the first three moments of the arrival distribution. The second method treads the known path of approximating the arrival distribution by a mixture of two exponential distributions by matching the first three moments. Numerical examples and optimal analysis of performance measures of GI/M/1 queues are provided to illustrate the efficacy of the methods, and are compared with benchmark approximations.

  17. Performance Measurement of Research Activitities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Peyton, Margit Malmmose

    Performance measurements have made their entry into the world of universities. Every research activity is registered in a database and the output measures form the foundation for managerial decisions. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the registration practices among researchers...... the registrations as a way to be promoted and to legitimise and account for their work; on the other hand, the economic incentives behind ranking lists and bibliographic research indicators threaten the individual researcher's freedom. The findings also show how managers have difficulties in translating back...

  18. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two...... investigating measurement properties of performance measures, including responsiveness and interpretability in people with hip and/or knee OA, is needed. Consensus on which combination of measures will best assess physical function in people with hip/and or knee OA is urgently required....

  19. Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

  20. Measuring individual work performance: Identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions.

  1. Comparison of Cloud vs. Tape Backup Performance and Costs with Oracle Database

    OpenAIRE

    Zrnec, Aljaž; Lavbič, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Ora...

  2. GRAPH THEORY APPROACH TO QUANTIFY UNCERTAINTY OF PERFORMANCE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio D. Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance measurement process is studied to quantify the uncertainty induced in the resulting performance measure (PM. To that end, the causes of uncertainty are identified, analysing the activities undertaken in the three following stages of the performance measurement process: design and implementation, data collection and record, and determination and analysis. A quantitative methodology based on graph theory and on the sources of uncertainty of the performance measurement process is used to calculate an uncertainty index to evaluate the level of uncertainty of a given PM or (key performance indicator. An application example is presented. The quantification of PM uncertainty could contribute to better represent the risk associated with a given decision and also to improve the PM to increase its precision and reliability.

  3. Performance measures for transform data coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, J.; Andrews, H. C.; Pratt, W. K.

    1972-01-01

    This paper develops performance criteria for evaluating transform data coding schemes under computational constraints. Computational constraints that conform with the proposed basis-restricted model give rise to suboptimal coding efficiency characterized by a rate-distortion relation R(D) similar in form to the theoretical rate-distortion function. Numerical examples of this performance measure are presented for Fourier, Walsh, Haar, and Karhunen-Loeve transforms.

  4. Multi-instance dictionary learning via multivariate performance measure optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2016-12-29

    The multi-instance dictionary plays a critical role in multi-instance data representation. Meanwhile, different multi-instance learning applications are evaluated by specific multivariate performance measures. For example, multi-instance ranking reports the precision and recall. It is not difficult to see that to obtain different optimal performance measures, different dictionaries are needed. This observation motives us to learn performance-optimal dictionaries for this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel joint framework for learning the multi-instance dictionary and the classifier to optimize a given multivariate performance measure, such as the F1 score and precision at rank k. We propose to represent the bags as bag-level features via the bag-instance similarity, and learn a classifier in the bag-level feature space to optimize the given performance measure. We propose to minimize the upper bound of a multivariate loss corresponding to the performance measure, the complexity of the classifier, and the complexity of the dictionary, simultaneously, with regard to both the dictionary and the classifier parameters. In this way, the dictionary learning is regularized by the performance optimization, and a performance-optimal dictionary is obtained. We develop an iterative algorithm to solve this minimization problem efficiently using a cutting-plane algorithm and a coordinate descent method. Experiments on multi-instance benchmark data sets show its advantage over both traditional multi-instance learning and performance optimization methods.

  5. Multi-instance dictionary learning via multivariate performance measure optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Cui, Xuefeng; Lu, Zhiwu; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The multi-instance dictionary plays a critical role in multi-instance data representation. Meanwhile, different multi-instance learning applications are evaluated by specific multivariate performance measures. For example, multi-instance ranking reports the precision and recall. It is not difficult to see that to obtain different optimal performance measures, different dictionaries are needed. This observation motives us to learn performance-optimal dictionaries for this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel joint framework for learning the multi-instance dictionary and the classifier to optimize a given multivariate performance measure, such as the F1 score and precision at rank k. We propose to represent the bags as bag-level features via the bag-instance similarity, and learn a classifier in the bag-level feature space to optimize the given performance measure. We propose to minimize the upper bound of a multivariate loss corresponding to the performance measure, the complexity of the classifier, and the complexity of the dictionary, simultaneously, with regard to both the dictionary and the classifier parameters. In this way, the dictionary learning is regularized by the performance optimization, and a performance-optimal dictionary is obtained. We develop an iterative algorithm to solve this minimization problem efficiently using a cutting-plane algorithm and a coordinate descent method. Experiments on multi-instance benchmark data sets show its advantage over both traditional multi-instance learning and performance optimization methods.

  6. The analysis of results of comparison test for radionuclides measurement through γ spectrum analysis from 2007 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jialong; He Jian; Sun Wei; Wang Yun

    2013-01-01

    In order to test the capability of radionuclides measurement through γ spectrum analysis and improve the ability of the technicians by inter-laboratory comparison test, Gansu Center for Disease Prevention and Control participated in the comparison test organized by China Center for Disease Prevention and Control continuously from 2007 to 2012. All of the measured values are within the scope of qualified, and the relative deviation of measured value in the entire comparison tests is range from -16.31% to 11.83%.The results show that the equipment for γ spectrum measurement works normally, the analysis methods used for radioactive nuclide measuring is correct and the data in issued test report is accurate and reliable. The ability of the γ spectrum analysis satisfies the requirements of China Metrology Accreditation and the occupational health technical service. (authors)

  7. Prediction of Landing Gear Noise Reduction and Comparison to Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonard V.

    2010-01-01

    Noise continues to be an ongoing problem for existing aircraft in flight and is projected to be a concern for next generation designs. During landing, when the engines are operating at reduced power, the noise from the airframe, of which landing gear noise is an important part, is equal to the engine noise. There are several methods of predicting landing gear noise, but none have been applied to predict the change in noise due to a change in landing gear design. The current effort uses the Landing Gear Model and Acoustic Prediction (LGMAP) code, developed at The Pennsylvania State University to predict the noise from landing gear. These predictions include the influence of noise reduction concepts on the landing gear noise. LGMAP is compared to wind tunnel experiments of a 6.3%-scale Boeing 777 main gear performed in the Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley. The geometries tested in the QFF include the landing gear with and without a toboggan fairing and the door. It is shown that LGMAP is able to predict the noise directives and spectra from the model-scale test for the baseline configuration as accurately as current gear prediction methods. However, LGMAP is also able to predict the difference in noise caused by the toboggan fairing and by removing the landing gear door. LGMAP is also compared to far-field ground-based flush-mounted microphone measurements from the 2005 Quiet Technology Demonstrator 2 (QTD 2) flight test. These comparisons include a Boeing 777-300ER with and without a toboggan fairing that demonstrate that LGMAP can be applied to full-scale flyover measurements. LGMAP predictions of the noise generated by the nose gear on the main gear measurements are also shown.

  8. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. OBJECTIVE: This

  9. A performance comparison of two emotion-recognition implementations using OpenCV and Cognitive Services API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán Prieto Luis Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions represent feelings about people in several situations. Various machine learning algorithms have been developed for emotion detection in a multimedia element, such as an image or a video. These techniques can be measured by comparing their accuracy with a given dataset in order to determine which algorithm can be selected among others. This paper deals with the comparison of two implementations of emotion recognition in faces, each implemented with specific technology. OpenCV is an open-source library of functions and packages mostly used for computer-vision analysis and applications. Cognitive services is a set of APIs containing artificial intelligence algorithms for computer-vision, speech, knowledge, and language processing. Two Android mobile applications were developed in order to test the performance between an OpenCV algorithm for emotion recognition and an implementation of Emotion cognitive service. For this research, one thousand tests were carried out per experiment. Our findings show that the OpenCV implementation got a better performance than the Cognitive services application. In both cases, performance can be improved by increasing the sample size per emotion during the training step.

  10. Performance measurement, expectancy and agency theory: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of (optimal) performance measures are typically performed within the realm of the linear agency model. This model implies that, for a given compensation scheme, the agent’s optimal effort is unrelated to the amount of noise in the performance measure. In contrast, expectancy

  11. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.).

  12. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, K.

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.)

  13. Systematic comparison of ORC configurations by means of comprehensive performance indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branchini, Lisa; De Pascale, Andrea; Peretto, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is considered as an emerging technology for power generation through heat recovering from different thermal sources, based on the use of organic fluids as working medium. This paper presents a numerical study to assess the relevance: i) of the thermodynamic cycle, ii) of the main design parameters and iii) of the working fluid, on the achievable performance. The ORC performance is here calculated in terms of six different thermodynamic indexes, offering comprehensive information, namely: cycle efficiency, specific work, recovery efficiency, turbine volumetric expansion ratio, ORC fluid-to-hot source mass flow ratio and heat exchangers size parameter. In the framework of a systematic investigation approach, various possible modifications to the simple ORC plant layout are here analyzed and compared, in order to improve the ORC recovery performance; arrangements such as recuperation, superheated cycle, supercritical conditions, regenerative cycle and their combinations are taken into account. The investigation is carried out by means of an in-house developed calculation tool, based on a thermodynamic property database of the considered fluids, including aromatics, siloxanes, refrigerants and hydrocarbons. A comprehensive parametric analysis of these cycles at different hot source temperature and different evaporation pressure values is carried out. The objectives of this investigation are to provide useful guidelines to select the ORC configuration, the most appropriate fluid and to define the operating parameters, depending on the specific application. Thermodynamic results are also related with sizing of ORC components and thus can be used for economic assessment of the different ORC design alternatives. -- Highlights: • Systematic comparison of ORC thermodynamic arrangements is performed. • Performance is calculated introducing six comprehensive energy and size/economic indexes. • An in-house-developed calculation tool is used

  14. Comparison of Processor Performance of SPECint2006 Benchmarks of some Intel Xeon Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Kareem PARCHUR; Ram Asaray SINGH

    2012-01-01

    High performance is a critical requirement to all microprocessors manufacturers. The present paper describes the comparison of performance in two main Intel Xeon series processors (Type A: Intel Xeon X5260, X5460, E5450 and L5320 and Type B: Intel Xeon X5140, 5130, 5120 and E5310). The microarchitecture of these processors is implemented using the basis of a new family of processors from Intel starting with the Pentium 4 processor. These processors can provide a performance boost for many ke...

  15. Changes in Handset Performance Measures due to Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    An important characteristic of a mobile handset is its ability to receive and transmit power. One way to characterize the performance of a handset in this respect is to use measurements of the spherical radiation pattern from which the total radiated power (TRP), total isotropic sensitivity (TIS)...... with respect to the environment. Standard deviations up to about 0.5dB and a maximum deviation of about 1.6dB were found....... in the performance measures are investigated for both the GSM-900 and the GSM-1800 band. Despite the deliberately large deviations from the reference position, the changes in TRP and TIS are generally within ±0.5dB with a maximum of about 1.4dB. For the MEG values the results depend on the orientation of the handset...... system that may introduce errors in standardized performance measurements. Radiation patterns of six handsets have been measured while they were mounted at various offsets from the reference position defined by the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) certification. The change...

  16. Comparison of performance of some common Hartmann-Shack centroid estimation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatiparthi, C.; Ommani, A.; Burman, R.; Thapa, D.; Hutchings, N.; Lakshminarayanan, V.

    2016-03-01

    The accuracy of the estimation of optical aberrations by measuring the distorted wave front using a Hartmann-Shack wave front sensor (HSWS) is mainly dependent upon the measurement accuracy of the centroid of the focal spot. The most commonly used methods for centroid estimation such as the brightest spot centroid; first moment centroid; weighted center of gravity and intensity weighted center of gravity, are generally applied on the entire individual sub-apertures of the lens let array. However, these processes of centroid estimation are sensitive to the influence of reflections, scattered light, and noise; especially in the case where the signal spot area is smaller compared to the whole sub-aperture area. In this paper, we give a comparison of performance of the commonly used centroiding methods on estimation of optical aberrations, with and without the use of some pre-processing steps (thresholding, Gaussian smoothing and adaptive windowing). As an example we use the aberrations of the human eye model. This is done using the raw data collected from a custom made ophthalmic aberrometer and a model eye to emulate myopic and hyper-metropic defocus values up to 2 Diopters. We show that the use of any simple centroiding algorithm is sufficient in the case of ophthalmic applications for estimating aberrations within the typical clinically acceptable limits of a quarter Diopter margins, when certain pre-processing steps to reduce the impact of external factors are used.

  17. Comparison of measurement capability with 100 μmol/mol of carbon monoxide in nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongsoon; Lee, JinBok; Lim, Jeongsik; Tarhan, Tanıl; Liu, Hsin-Wang; Aggarwal, Shankar G.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen was one of the first types of gas mixtures used in an international key comparison. The comparison dates back to 1998 (CCQMK1a) [1]. Since then, many National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) have developed calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. Recently, NMIs in the APMP region have actively participated in international comparisons to provide domestic services. At the 2013 APMP meeting, several NMIs requested a CO comparison to establish CO/N2 certification for industrial applications, which was to be coordinated by KRISS. Consequently, this comparison provides an opportunity for APMP regional NMIs to develop CO/N2 CMC claims. The goal of this supplementary comparison is to support CMC claim for carbon monoxide in the N2 range of 50–2000 μmol/mol. An extended range may be supported as described in the GAWG strategy for comparisons and CMC claims. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie C. Frankle; Judith F. Briesmeister

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k{sub eff} measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a {sup 252}Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented.

  19. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankle, Stephanie C.; Briesmeister, Judith F.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k eff measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a 252 Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented

  20. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on APMP.PR-S1.1: Bilateral comparison of irradiance responsivity of UVA detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuebo

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the performance of the standards and techniques used for calibration and measurement of UVA irradiance responsivity of photodetectors in NMISA, South Africa, a new comparison was decided as a follow-up to comparison APMP.PR-S1. It is registered in the Key Comparison Data Base (KCDB) of BIPM as a bilateral supplementary comparison, with the identifier APMP.PR-S1.1. The comparison was carried out following the same technical protocol as that of supplementary comparison APMP PR-S1. The principle, organization and method of the comparison, as well as the preliminary measurements at the pilot laboratory NMC-A*STAR Singapore, were described in the Final Report of the APMP.PR-S1 comparison. The results of this bilateral comparison show that the NMISA's results lie within ±2% against the comparison reference values of APMP.PR-S1, which is a great improvement. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the APMP, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  1. Comparison of quality of life measures in a depressed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Stephen R; Rush, A John; Bryan, Charlene; Shelton, Richard; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Marcus, Sheila; Husain, Mustafa M; Hollon, Steven D; Fava, Maurizio

    2007-03-01

    Measures of quality of life have been increasingly used in clinical trials. When designing a study, researchers must decide which quality of life measure to use. Some literature provides guidance through general recommendations, though lacks quantitative comparisons. In this report, 2 general quality of life measures, the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), are compared in a depressed population. STAR*D data were used to analyze the associations among the SF-12 and the Q-LES-Q. Each measure covers 6 domains, overlapping on 5 (health, self-esteem/well-being, community/productivity, social/love relationships, leisure/creativity), with the SF-12 addressing family and the Q-LES-Q addressing living situations. Strong item-by-item associations exist only between the Q-LES-Q and the SF-12 physical health items. The 2 measures overlap on the domains covered while the lack of correlation between the 2 measures may be attributed to the perspective of each question as the Q-LES-Q measures satisfaction while the SF-12 measures the patient's perception of function.

  2. Comparison of design and torque measurements of various manual wrenches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Petermöller, Simone; Scheer, Martin; Happe, Arndt; Faber, Franz-Josef; Zoeller, Joachim E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate torque application and determination of the applied torque during surgical and prosthetic treatment is important to reduce complications. A study was performed to determine and compare the accuracy of manual wrenches, which are available in different designs with a large range of preset torques. Thirteen different wrench systems with a variety of preset torques ranging from 10 to 75 Ncm were evaluated. Three different designs were available, with a spring-in-coil or toggle design as an active mechanism or a beam as a passive mechanism, to select the preset torque. To provide a clinically relevant analysis, a total of 1,170 torque measurements in the range of 10 to 45 Ncm were made in vitro using an electronic torque measurement device. The absolute deviations in Ncm and percent deviations across all wrenches were small, with a mean of -0.24 ± 2.15 Ncm and -0.84% ± 11.72% as a shortfall relative to the preset value. The greatest overage was 8.2 Ncm (82.5%), and the greatest shortfall was 8.47 Ncm (46%). However, extreme values were rare, with 95th-percentile values of -1.5% (lower value) and -0.16% (upper value). A comparison with respect to wrench design revealed significantly higher deviations for coil and toggle-style wrenches than for beam wrenches. Beam wrenches were associated with a lower risk of rare extreme values thanks to their passive mechanism of achieving the selected preset torque, which minimizes the risk of harming screw connections.

  3. PERFORMANCE MEASURES OF STUDENTS IN EXAMINATIONS: A STOCHASTIC APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Goutam Saha; GOUTAM SAHA

    2013-01-01

    Data on Secondary and Higher Secondary examination (science stream) results from Tripura (North-East India) schools are analyzed to measure the performance of students based on tests and also the performance measures of schools based on final results and continuous assessment processes are obtained. The result variation in terms of grade points in the Secondary and Higher Secondary examinations are analysed using different sets of performance measures. The transition probabilities from one g...

  4. Comparison of relative renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, F.C.; Fujikawa, G.Y.; Decker, H.; Alonso, G.; Pereira, J.C.; Duarte, P.S. [Centro de Diagnostico Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Medicina Nuclear; Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Saude Publica. Dept. de Epidemiologia]. E-mail: paulo.duarte@fleury.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the renal function measured with either {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA or {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Methods: the values of relative renal function measured in 111 renal dynamic scintigraphies performed either with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (55 studies) or with {sup 99m}Tc-EC (56 studies) were compared with the relative function measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy performed within a 1-month period. The comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-EC studies that presented relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, using chi square test were also compared. Results: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC is not statistically different from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA (p = 0.97). The relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was statistically different from that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, but with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). The number of studies with relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA is higher for the {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA scintigraphy (p 0.04) than for {sup 99m}Tc-EC. Conclusion: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphy is comparable with that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy, while the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy presents a significant statistical difference from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. (author)

  5. Comparison of relative renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, F.C.; Fujikawa, G.Y.; Decker, H.; Alonso, G.; Pereira, J.C.; Duarte, P.S.; Sao Paulo Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured using 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Methods: the values of relative renal function measured in 111 renal dynamic scintigraphies performed either with 99m Tc-DTPA (55 studies) or with 99m Tc-EC (56 studies) were compared with the relative function measured using 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy performed within a 1-month period. The comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-EC studies that presented relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA, using chi square test were also compared. Results: the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-EC is not statistically different from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA (p = 0.97). The relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-DTPA was statistically different from that measured using 99m Tc-DMSA, but with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). The number of studies with relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA is higher for the 99m Tc-DTPA scintigraphy (p 0.04) than for 99m Tc-EC. Conclusion: the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphy is comparable with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy, while the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy presents a significant statistical difference from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. (author)

  6. Comparison of Instantaneous Frequency Scaling from Rain Attenuation and Optical Disdrometer Measurements at K/Q bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James; Zemba, Michael; Luini, Lorenzo; Riva, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Rain attenuation is strongly dependent on the rain rate, but also on the rain drop size distribution (DSD). Typically, models utilize an average drop size distribution, such as those developed by Laws and Parsons, or Marshall and Palmer. However, individual rain events may possess drop size distributions which could be significantly different from the average and will impact, for example, fade mitigation techniques which utilize channel performance estimates from a signal at a different frequency. Therefore, a good understanding of the characteristics and variability of the raindrop size distribution is extremely important in predicting rain attenuation and instantaneous frequency scaling parameters on an event-toevent basis. Since June 2014, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have measured the attenuation due to rain in Milan, Italy, on the 20/40 GHz beacon signal broadcast from the Alphasat TDP#5 Aldo Paraboni Q/V-band Payload. Concomitant with these measurements are the measurements of drop size distribution and rain rate utilizing a Thies Clima laser precipitation monitor (disdrometer). In this paper, we discuss the comparison of the predicted rain attenuation at 20 and 40 GHz derived from the drop size distribution data with the measured rain attenuation. The results are compared on statistical and real-time bases. We will investigate the performance of the rain attenuation model, instantaneous frequency scaling, and the distribution of the scaling factor. Further, seasonal rain characteristics will be analysed.

  7. Measuring Distribution Performance? Benchmarking Warrants Your Attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Sean J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alvarez, Paul [The Wired Group

    2018-04-13

    Identifying, designing, and measuring performance metrics is critical to securing customer value, but can be a difficult task. This article examines the use of benchmarks based on publicly available performance data to set challenging, yet fair, metrics and targets.

  8. Comparison of the performance of different radar pulse compression techniques in an incoherent scatter radar measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Damtie

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Improving an estimate of an incoherent scatter radar signal is vital to provide reliable and unbiased information about the Earth's ionosphere. Thus optimizing the measurement spatial and temporal resolutions has attracted considerable attention. The optimization usually relies on employing different kinds of pulse compression filters in the analysis and a matched filter is perhaps the most widely used one. A mismatched filter has also been used in order to suppress the undesirable sidelobes that appear in the case of matched filtering. Moreover, recently an adaptive pulse compression method, which can be derived based on the minimum mean-square error estimate, has been proposed. In this paper we have investigated the performance of matched, mismatched and adaptive pulse compression methods in terms of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the variance and bias of the estimator. This is done by using different types of optimal radar waveforms. It is shown that for the case of low SNR the signal degradation associated to an adaptive filtering is less than that of the mismatched filtering. The SNR loss of both matched and adaptive pulse compression techniques was found to be nearly the same for most of the investigated codes for the case of high SNR. We have shown that the adaptive filtering technique is a compromise between matched and mismatched filtering method when one evaluates its performance in terms of the variance and the bias of the estimator. All the three analysis methods were found to have the same performance when a sidelobe-free matched filter code is employed.

  9. Comparison of the performance of different radar pulse compression techniques in an incoherent scatter radar measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Damtie

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Improving an estimate of an incoherent scatter radar signal is vital to provide reliable and unbiased information about the Earth's ionosphere. Thus optimizing the measurement spatial and temporal resolutions has attracted considerable attention. The optimization usually relies on employing different kinds of pulse compression filters in the analysis and a matched filter is perhaps the most widely used one. A mismatched filter has also been used in order to suppress the undesirable sidelobes that appear in the case of matched filtering. Moreover, recently an adaptive pulse compression method, which can be derived based on the minimum mean-square error estimate, has been proposed. In this paper we have investigated the performance of matched, mismatched and adaptive pulse compression methods in terms of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the variance and bias of the estimator. This is done by using different types of optimal radar waveforms. It is shown that for the case of low SNR the signal degradation associated to an adaptive filtering is less than that of the mismatched filtering. The SNR loss of both matched and adaptive pulse compression techniques was found to be nearly the same for most of the investigated codes for the case of high SNR. We have shown that the adaptive filtering technique is a compromise between matched and mismatched filtering method when one evaluates its performance in terms of the variance and the bias of the estimator. All the three analysis methods were found to have the same performance when a sidelobe-free matched filter code is employed.

  10. Qualitative performance comparison of reactivity estimation between the extended Kalman filter technique and the inverse point kinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Y.; Rooijen, W.F.G. van

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of the reactivity of nuclear reactor based on neutron flux measurements. • Comparison of the traditional method, and the new approach based on Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF). • Estimation accuracy depends on filter parameters, the selection of which is described in this paper. • The EKF algorithm is preferred if the signal to noise ratio is low (low flux situation). • The accuracy of the EKF depends on the ratio of the filter coefficients. - Abstract: The Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF) technique has been applied for estimation of subcriticality with a good noise filtering and accuracy. The Inverse Point Kinetic (IPK) method has also been widely used for reactivity estimation. The important parameters for the EKF estimation are the process noise covariance, and the measurement noise covariance. However the optimal selection is quite difficult. On the other hand, there is only one parameter in the IPK method, namely the time constant for the first order delay filter. Thus, the selection of this parameter is quite easy. Thus, it is required to give certain idea for the selection of which method should be selected and how to select the required parameters. From this point of view, a qualitative performance comparison is carried out

  11. A Comparison of Three Methods for Measuring Distortion in Optical Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Nurge, Mark A.; Skow, Miles

    2015-01-01

    It's important that imagery seen through large-area windows, such as those used on space vehicles, not be substantially distorted. Many approaches are described in the literature for measuring the distortion of an optical window, but most suffer from either poor resolution or processing difficulties. In this paper a new definition of distortion is presented, allowing accurate measurement using an optical interferometer. This new definition is shown to be equivalent to the definitions provided by the military and the standards organizations. In order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of this new approach, the distortion of an acrylic window is measured using three different methods: image comparison, moiré interferometry, and phase-shifting interferometry.

  12. Some results of Krsko NPP core calculations and comparison with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Zefran, B.; Kromar, M.; Ravnik, M.; Slavic, S.

    1996-01-01

    Current status of the CORD-2 package is described. Results of the predictions of some important reactor core parameters are presented for the 12 th operation cycle of the Krsko NPP. Comparison with measurements is made to illustrate that the accuracy of the calculations is acceptable. Some comments are made on the enhancements, which are currently being implemented on the package. (author)

  13. Feasibility of quantitative performance measures for evaluating nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.; Connelly, E.M.; Krois, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    A more valid measure of team performance in nuclear power plants is needed. A study is described which was oriented towards evaluating the feasibility of synthesizing performance measures by deriving measures for crews responding to an off-normal event in a full-scope simulator. The thesis was that performance assessment is based on the subjective judgment of training instructors. The procedure used to synthesize the performance measure consisted of: identification of the factors believed to be important to performance assessment, development of example crew performances and ratings on each by instructors, and derivation of the measure by capturing the instructors' assessment rules. A performance measure was derived which explains nearly all of the variance of the instructors' team performance assessments. There is reason to believe that this method of synthesizing measures can be applied to other events. 7 tabs

  14. CIRP Interlaboratory Comparison of Coordinate Measuring Machines using an Optomechanical Hole Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renata Erica

    An interlaboratory comparison on mechanical and optical coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) has been organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management (IPL), Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within Collège...... plate [1], designed and manufactured by DTU. A measurement procedure was sent to each participant together with the hole plate to be measured. The procedure consists mainly of two parts [2]: 1) four reversal measurements, by which the systematic errors in the measuring plane (X,Y) on the CMM...... are eliminated, except the positioning errors; 2) transfer of traceability by comparator measurement using a length reference chosen by the participant, by which the positioning errors are eliminated. Furthermore, a third optional part could be carried out by the participant, using a different measurement...

  15. Comparison of measured and calculated composition of irradiated EBR-II blanket assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K. N.

    1998-01-01

    In anticipation of processing irradiated EBR-II depleted uranium blanket subassemblies in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at ANL-West, it has been possible to obtain a limited set of destructive chemical analyses of samples from a single EBR-II blanket subassembly. Comparison of calculated values with these measurements is being used to validate a depletion methodology based on a limited number of generic models of EBR-II to simulate the irradiation history of these subassemblies. Initial comparisons indicate these methods are adequate to meet the operations and material control and accountancy (MC and A) requirements for the FCF, but also indicate several shortcomings which may be corrected or improved

  16. Applying Importance-Performance Analysis as a Service Quality Measure in Food Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As the global economy becomes a service oriented economy, food service accounts for over 20% of service revenue, with an annual growth rate of more than 3%. Compared to physical products, service features are invisible, and the production and sale occurs simultaneously. There is not easy to measure the performance of service. Therefore, the service quality of catering services is considered to be an important topic of service management. According Market Intelligence & Consulting Institute (MIC to apply blog text analyzing to point out top 10 restaurants of blog in Taiwan, what it’s popular restaurant in food service industries. This paper attempts to identify both the importance and performance of restaurant service quality in the Taiwan food service industry using the SERVQUAL and IPA model. We can conclude with certainty that three methods (SERVQUAL, IF and IPA are able to explain significant amount of service quality. At the same time, the service quality factors of IPA model had more comprehensive consideration in comparison to those of SERVQUAL and IF.

  17. Electron and ion temperatures: a comparison of ground-based incoherent scatter and AE-C satellite measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Bauer, P.; Brace, L.H.; Carlson, H.C.; Hagen, J.; Hanson, W.B.; Hoegy, W.R.; Torr, M.R.; Wickwar, V.B.

    1977-01-01

    The Atmosphere Exploere-C satellite (AE-C) is uniquely suited for correlative studies with ground-based stations because its on-board propulsion system enables a desired ground station overflight condition to be maintained for a period of several weeks. It also provides the first low-altitude (below 260 km) comparison of satellite and incoherent scatter electron and ion temperatures. More than 40 comparisons of remote and in situ measurements were made by using data from AE-C and four incoherent scatter stations (Arecibo, Chatanika, Millstone Hill, and St. Santin). The results indicate very good agreement between satellite and ground measurements of the ion temperature, the average satellite retarding potential analyzer temperatures differing from the average incoherent scatter temperatures by -2% at St. Santin, +3% at Millstone Hill, and +2% at Arecibo. The electron temperatures also agree well, the average satellite temperatures exceeding the average incoherent scatter temperatures by 3% at St. Santin, 2% at Arecibo, and 11% at Millstone Hill. Several temperature comparisons were made between AE-C and Chatanika. In spite of the highly variable ionosphere often encountered at this high-latitude location, good agreement was obtained between the in situ and remote measurements of electron and ion temperatures. Longitudinal variations are found to be very important in the comparisons of electron temperature in some locations. The agreement between the electron temperatures is considerably better than that found in some earlier comparisons involving satellities at higher altitudes

  18. Simulation of Electron-Cloud Build-Up for the Cold Arcs of the LHC and Comparison with Measured Data

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H; Rumolo, G; Tavian, L; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    The electron cloud generated by synchrotron radiation or residual gas ionization is a concern for LHC operation and performance. We report the results of simulations studies which examine the electron cloud build-up, at injection energy, 3.5 TeV for various operation parameters. In particular, we determine the value of the secondary emission yield corresponding to the multipacting threshold, and investigate the electron density, and heat as a function of bunch intensity for dipoles and field-free regions. We also include a comparison between simulations results and measured heat-load data from the LHC scrubbing runs in 2011.

  19. Indoor and outdoor Radon concentration measurements in Sivas, Turkey, in comparison with geological setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihci, Metin [Iller Bankasi, Etud Plan ve Yol Dairesi, Opera, 06053 Ankara (Turkey); Buyuksarac, Aydin [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 17020, Canakkale (Turkey); Aydemir, Attila, E-mail: aydemir@tpao.gov.t [Turkiye Petrolleri A.O. Mustafa, Kemal Mah. 2. Cad. No: 86, 06100 Sogutozu, Ankara (Turkey); Celebi, Nilgun [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre (CNAEM), Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Indoor and soil gas Radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentration measurements were accomplished in two stages in Sivas, a central eastern city in Turkey. In the first stage, CR-39 passive nuclear track detectors supplied by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) were placed in the selected houses throughout Sivas centrum in two seasons; summer and winter. Before the setup of detectors, a detailed questionnaire form was distributed to the inhabitants of selected houses to investigate construction parameters and properties of the houses, and living conditions of inhabitants. Detectors were collected back two months later and analysed at TAEA laboratories to obtain indoor {sup 222}Rn gas concentration values. In the second stage, soil gas {sup 222}Rn measurements were performed using an alphameter near the selected houses for the indoor measurements. Although {sup 222}Rn concentrations in Sivas were quite low in relation with the allowable limits, they are higher than the average of Turkey. Indoor and soil gas {sup 222}Rn concentration distribution maps were prepared seperately and these maps were applied onto the surface geological map. In this way, both surveys were correlated with the each other and they were interpreted in comparison with the answers of questionnaire and the geological setting of the Sivas centrum and the vicinity.

  20. Measuring systolic ankle and toe pressure using the strain gauge technique--a comparison study between mercury and indium-gallium strain gauges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Rikke; Wiinberg, Niels; Simonsen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of the ankle and toe pressures are often performed using a plethysmograph, compression cuffs and a strain gauge. Usually, the strain gauge contains mercury but other alternatives exist. From 2014, the mercury-containing strain gauge will no longer be available in the Europ......BACKGROUND: Measurement of the ankle and toe pressures are often performed using a plethysmograph, compression cuffs and a strain gauge. Usually, the strain gauge contains mercury but other alternatives exist. From 2014, the mercury-containing strain gauge will no longer be available...... in the European Union. The aim of this study was to compare an indium-gallium strain gauge to the established mercury-containing strain gauge. METHODS: Consecutive patients referred to the Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine at Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals for measurements of systolic...... ankle and toe pressures volunteered for the study. Ankle and toe pressures were measured twice with the mercury and the indium-gallium strain gauge in random order. Comparison of the correlation between the mean pressure using the mercury and the indium-gallium device and the difference between the two...

  1. Coming up short on nonfinancial performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittner, Christopher D; Larcker, David F

    2003-11-01

    Companies in increasing numbers are measuring customer loyalty, employee satisfaction, and other nonfinancial areas of performance that they believe affect profitability. But they've failed to relate these measures to their strategic goals or establish a connection between activities undertaken and financial outcomes achieved. Failure to make such connections has led many companies to misdirect their investments and reward ineffective managers. Extensive field research now shows that businesses make some common mistakes when choosing, analyzing, and acting on their nonfinancial measures. Among these mistakes: They set the wrong performance targets because they focus too much on short-term financial results, and they use metrics that lack strong statistical validity and reliability. As a result, the companies can't demonstrate that improvements in nonfinancial measures actually affect their financial results. The authors lay out a series of steps that will allow companies to realize the genuine promise of nonfinancial performance measures. First, develop a model that proposes a causal relationship between the chosen nonfinancial drivers of strategic success and specific outcomes. Next, take careful inventory of all the data within your company. Then use established statistical methods for validating the assumed relationships and continue to test the model as market conditions evolve. Finally, base action plans on analysis of your findings, and determine whether those plans and their investments actually produce the desired results. Nonfinancial measures will offer little guidance unless you use a process for choosing and analyzing them that relies on sophisticated quantitative and qualitative inquiries into the factors actually contributing to economic results.

  2. The Comparison between Spectral and Entropic Measures Following Fatigue in Erector Spinae Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Talebian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surface electromyography (sEMG of muscles is a non-invasive tool that can be helpful in the assessment of muscle function and some motor control evaluations. A loss of force, known as muscle fatigue is accompanied by changes in muscle electrical activity. One of the most commonly used surface EMG parameters which reflects paraspinal muscle fatigue during different tasks and positions is median frequency. Although it is widely known that the electromyography power spectrum shifts to lower frequencies during fatiguing contraction, an opinion exists that the validity of spectral shifts in assessment of fatigue is questionable. Some researchers have examined whether other quantities derived from sEMG signals are better indicators for muscle fatigue. Following cyclic flexion/extension and consequence fatigue, variation in sEMG signals may be complex for study. The aim of this study was to determine which of the median frequency (MF or entropic (ENTR is more sensitive for measuring muscular fatigue in erector spinae muscles during cyclic flexion/extension. Methods: Surface electromyography of erector spine muscles was recorded in 25 healthy subjects during cyclic dynamic contractions. The experimental session consisted of two parts: measurement of Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC, and performing the fatigue test. All subjects performed rhythmic flexion/extension with 50% MVC loading against B-200 Isostation, about 4-6 minutes. The MF and ENTR of the muscle activities were computed to assess muscular fatigue. Results: Paired sample t-tests showed that MF and ENTR changes after fatigue test were significant (P<0.001. Percentage changes of both MF and ENTR were reduced, this reduction for ENTR was more than 40% (P<0.001. Conclusion: It seems that the changes of ENTR in muscle activities have the ability to measure muscular fatigue and is more sensitive in comparison to MF.

  3. Oblique incidence of electron beams - comparisons between calculated and measured dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karcher, J.; Paulsen, F.; Christ, G.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical applications of high-energy electron beams, for example for the irradiation of internal mammary lymph nodes, can lead to oblique incidence of the beams. It is well known that oblique incidence of electron beams can alter the depth dose distribution as well as the specific dose per monitor unit. The dose per monitor unit is the absorbed dose in a point of interest of a beam, which is reached with a specific dose monitor value (DIN 6814-8[5]). Dose distribution and dose per monitor unit at oblique incidence were measured with a small-volume thimble chamber in a water phantom, and compared to both normal incidence and calculations of the Helax TMS 6.1 treatment planning system. At 4 MeV and 60 degrees, the maximum measured dose per monitor unit at oblique incidence was decreased up to 11%, whereas at 18MeV and 60 degrees this was increased up to 15% compared to normal incidence. Comparisons of measured and calculated dose distributions showed that the predicted dose at shallow depths is usually higher than the measured one, whereas it is smaller at depths beyond the depth of maximum dose. On the basis of the results of these comparisons, normalization depths and correction factors for the dose monitor value were suggested to correct the calculations of the dose per monitor unit. (orig.)

  4. The use of performance measurement systems in the public sector: effects on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, R.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the use of performance measurement systems in the public sector. We hypothesize that the way in which these systems are being used affects organizational performance, and that these performance effects depend on contractibility. Contractibility encompasses clarity of goals, the ability to

  5. Instruments to measure radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. Interlaboratory comparison 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2011-10-01

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices 1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by BfS. A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organizational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the website www.bfs.de/de/ion/radon/fachinfomessung/vergleichspruefungen.html and from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (eptis) available in the internet. (orig.)

  6. Environmental Measurements Laboratory 2002 Unit Performance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-10-01

    This EML Unit Performance Plan provides the key goals and performance measures for FY 2002 and continuing to FY 2003. The purpose of the Plan is to inform EML's stakeholders and customers of the Laboratory's products and services, and its accomplishments and future challenges. Also incorporated in the Unit Performance Plan is EML's Communication Plan for FY 2002.

  7. Performance measures for metropolitan planning organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Performance measurement is a topic of increasing importance to transportation agencies, as issues with : funding shortfalls and concerns about transportation system efficiency lead to a shift in how transportation : decision making is carried out. In...

  8. Comparison of Exercise Performance in Recreationally Active and Masters Athlete Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew S; Glenn, Jordan M; Vincenzo, Jennifer L; Gray, Michelle

    2018-02-01

    Stone, MS, Glenn, JM, Vincenzo, JL, and Gray, M. Comparison of exercise performance in recreationally active and masters athlete women. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 565-571, 2018-Master athletes (MA) are an understudied, ever-growing cohort. As such, it is important to examine how age affects muscular power and fatigability. Of particular interest is muscular power maintenance and fatigue mitigation of MA compared with young, healthy adults. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the differences in peak power, average power, total work (WRK), and fatigue index (FI) between recreationally active (RA) younger adults and female MA during anaerobic cycling exercise. Two groups, RA (n = 15; 20.6 ± 0.8 years) and MA (n = 17; 50.5 ± 8.6 years), participated in this study. Peak power, APWR, WRK, and FI were measured during a 30-second Wingate maximum anaerobic cycling protocol at a predetermined resistance of 7.5% body mass. Peak power (p = 0.92; RA: 654.1 ± 114.5 W; MA: 658.6 ± 147.6 W), APWR (p = 0.09; RA: 429.8 ± 73.3 W; MA: 384 ± 73.8 W), WRK (p = 0.09; RA: 12,894.3 ± 2,198.3 J; MA: 18,044.3 ± 27,184.9 J), and FI (p = 0.30; RA: 11.8 ± 4.1 W·s; MA: 14 ± 5.2 W·s) were not significantly different between groups. Master athletes produce power and WRK comparable to rates of fatigue among RA. This suggests that MA can maintain physical ability similar to RA in multiple parameters of high-intensity exercise while mitigating fatigue comparably. These data allow for advancements in exercise training and performance outcomes in MA populations. Further research within the MA population is warranted regarding other aspects of exercise and sport performance.

  9. Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illian, Howard F.

    2010-12-20

    Frequency control is an essential requirement of reliable electric power system operations. Determination of frequency control depends on frequency measurement and the practices based on these measurements that dictate acceptable frequency management. This report chronicles the evolution of these measurements and practices. As technology progresses from analog to digital for calculation, communication, and control, the technical basis for frequency control measurement and practices to determine acceptable performance continues to improve. Before the introduction of digital computing, practices were determined largely by prior experience. In anticipation of mandatory reliability rules, practices evolved from a focus primarily on commercial and equity issues to an increased focus on reliability. This evolution is expected to continue and place increased requirements for more precise measurements and a stronger scientific basis for future frequency management practices in support of reliability.

  10. From Performance Measurement to Strategic Management Model: Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Savsar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In Today’s competitive markets, one of the main conditions of the surviving of enterprises is the necessity to have effective performance management systems. Decisions must be taken by the management according to the performance of assets. In the transition from industrial society to information society, the presence of business structures have changed and the values of non-financial assets have increased in this period. So some systems have emerged based on intangible assets and to measure them instead of tangible assets and their measurements. With economic and technological development multi-dimensional evaluation in the business couldn’t be sufficient.  Performance evaluation methods can be applied in business with an integrated approach by its accordance with business strategy, linking to reward system and cause effects link established between performance measures. Balanced scorecard is one of the commonly used in measurement methods. While it was used for the first time in 1992 as a performance measurement tool today it has been used as a strategic management model besides its conventional uses. BSC contains customer perspective, internal perspective and learning and growth perspective besides financial perspective. Learning and growth perspective is determinant of other perspectives. In order to achieve the objectives set out in the financial perspective in other dimensions that need to be accomplished, is emphasized. Establishing a causal link between performance measures and targets how to achieve specified goals with strategy maps are described.

  11. Development of a measure of student self-evaluation of physics exam performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Eric Anthony

    The central purpose of this study was to provide preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the SEVSI - P (Self- evaluation scaled instrument - physics). This instrument, designed to measure student self-evaluation of physics exam performance, was developed in congruence with social cognitive theory. Self-evaluation in this study is defined to consist of two of the three subprocesses of self-regulation: self-observation and judgmental process. As such, the SEVSI - P consists of two subscales, one measuring the frequency and types of self-observations made during a physics exam and one measuring the frequency and types of judgmental comparisons made after an exam. Data from 621 completed surveys, voluntarily taken by first semester algebra/trigonometry based physics students at six Midwestern universities and one Southern university, were analyzed for reliability and factorial validity. Cronbach alphas of .71 and .83 for the self-observation and judgment subscales, respectively, indicate acceptable reliability for the instrument. Confirmatory factor analysis indicates the acceptability of the hypothesis that the data analyzed could have indeed been obtained from the proposed two factor model (self-observation and judgment). The results of this confirmatory factor analysis provide preliminary construct validity for this instrument. A number of theoretically related items were included on the SEVSI - P form to elicity information about the use of goals and pre-planned strategies, actions taken in response to previous poor performances, and emotional responses to performance. A correlational analysis of these items along with the self-observation and judgment subscale scores provided a limited degree of convergent validity for the two subscales. Analyses of variance were done to determine the presence of differences in scoring patterns based on gender or reported ethnic origin. These results indicate slightly higher judgment subscale scores for women and

  12. Comparison of VOC measurements made by PTR-MS, adsorbent tubes-GC-FID-MS and DNPH derivatization-HPLC during the Sydney Particle Study, 2012: a contribution to the assessment of uncertainty in routine atmospheric VOC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Erin; Galbally, Ian E.; Cheng, Min; Selleck, Paul; Molloy, Suzie B.; Lawson, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding uncertainty is essential for utilizing atmospheric volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements in robust ways to develop atmospheric science. This study describes an inter-comparison of the VOC data, and the derived uncertainty estimates, measured with three independent techniques (PTR-MS, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry; GC-FID-MS, gas chromatography with flame-ionization and mass spectrometric detection; and DNPH-HPLC, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography) during routine monitoring as part of the Sydney Particle Study (SPS) campaign in 2012. Benzene, toluene, C8 aromatics, isoprene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were selected for the comparison, based on objective selection criteria from the available data. Bottom-up uncertainty analyses were undertaken for each compound and each measurement system. Top-down uncertainties were quantified via the inter-comparisons. In all seven comparisons, the correlations between independent measurement techniques were high with R2 values with a median of 0.92 (range 0.75-0.98) and small root mean square of the deviations (RMSD) of the observations from the regression line with a median of 0.11 (range 0.04-0.23 ppbv). These results give a high degree of confidence that for each comparison the response of the two independent techniques is dominated by the same constituents. The slope and intercept as determined by reduced major axis (RMA) regression gives a different story. The slopes varied considerably with a median of 1.25 and a range of 1.16-2.01. The intercepts varied with a median of 0.04 and a range of -0.03 to 0.31 ppbv. An ideal comparison would give a slope of 1.00 and an intercept of 0. Some sources of uncertainty that are poorly quantified by the bottom-up uncertainty analysis method were identified, including: contributions of non-target compounds to the measurement of the target compound for benzene, toluene and isoprene by

  13. Consensus on measurement properties and feasibility of performance tests for the exercise and sport sciences: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sam; Kremer, Peter; Aisbett, Brad; Tran, Jacqueline; Cerin, Ester

    2017-12-01

    Performance tests are used for multiple purposes in exercise and sport science. Ensuring that a test displays an appropriate level of measurement properties for use within a population is important to ensure confidence in test findings. The aim of this study was to obtain subject matter expert consensus on the measurement and feasibility properties that should be considered for performance tests used in the exercise and sport sciences and how these should be defined. This information was used to develop a checklist for broader dissemination. A two-round Delphi study was undertaken including 33 exercise scientists, academics and sport scientists. Participants were asked to rate the importance of a range of measurement properties relevant to performance tests in exercise and sport science. Responses were obtained in binary and Likert-scale formats, with consensus defined as achieving 67% agreement on each question. Consensus was reached on definitions and terminology for all items. Ten level 1 items (those that achieved consensus on all four questions) and nine level 2 items (those achieving consensus on ≥2 questions) were included. Both levels were included in the final checklist. The checklist developed from this study can be used to inform decision-making and test selection for practitioners and researchers in the exercise and sport sciences. This can facilitate knowledge sharing and performance comparisons across sub-disciplines, thereby improving existing field practice and research methodological quality.

  14. Comparison of Colour Duplex Ultrasound with Computed Tomography to Measure the Maximum Abdominal Aortic Aneurysmal Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maximum diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is the main indication for surgery. This study compared colour duplex ultrasound (CDU and computed tomography (CT in assessing AAA diameter. Patients and Methods. Patients were included if they had both scans performed within 90 days. Pearson’s correlation coefficient, paired t-test, and limits of agreement (LOA were calculated for the whole group. Subgroup analysis of small (6.5 cm aneurysms was performed. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. 389 patients were included, giving 130 pairs of tests for comparison. Excellent correlation was in the whole group (r = 0.95 and in the subgroups (r = 0.94; 0.69; 0.96, resp.. Small LOA between the two imaging modalities was found in all subgroups. Conclusion. Small aneurysms can be accurately measured using CDU. CDU is preferable for small AAAs, but cannot supplant CT for planning aortic intervention.

  15. Proposed system for measuring project performance using process-based key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haponava, T.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite some evidence of its usefulness, performance measurement by using Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in the construction industry also has its critics. Among the shortcomings attributed to existing KPIs is the fact that almost all of them are product oriented. This means that the indicators

  16. Routine measurements of left and right ventricular output by gated blood pool emission tomography in comparison with thermodilution measurements: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano-Goulart, D.; Boudousq, V.; Comte, F.; Eberle, M.C.; Zanca, M.; Kotzki, P.O.; Rossi, M.; Piot, C.; Raczka, F.; Davy, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the accuracy of left and right ventricular output computed from a semi-automatic processing of tomographic radionuclide ventriculography data (TRVG) in comparison with the conventional thermodilution method. Twenty patients with various heart diseases were prospectively included in the study. Thermodilution and TRVG acquisitions were carried out on the same day for all patients. Analysis of gated blood pool slices was performed using a watershed-based segmentation algorithm. Right and left ventricular output measured by TRVG correlated well with the measurements obtained with thermodilution (r=0.94 and 0.91 with SEE=0.38 and 0.46 l/min, respectively, P<0.001). The limits of agreement for TRVG and thermodilution measurements were -0.78-1.20 l/min for the left ventricle and -0.34-1.16 l/min for the right ventricle. No significant difference was found between the results of TRVG and thermodilution with respect to left ventricular output (P=0.09). A small but significant difference was found between right ventricular output measured by TRVG and both left ventricular output measured by TRVG (mean difference=0.17 l/min, P=0.04) and thermodilution-derived cardiac output (mean difference=0.41 l/min, P=0.0001). It is concluded that the watershed-based semi-automatic segmentation of TRVG slices provides non-invasive measurements of right and left ventricular output and stroke volumes at equilibrium, in routine clinical settings. Further studies are necessary to check whether the accuracy of these measurements is good enough to permit correct assessment of intracardiac shunts. (orig.)

  17. A critical perspective on the measurement of performance in the empirical multinationality and performance literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Nicole Franziska; Schmidt, Robert; Ladwig, Tina J.

    2017-01-01

    used in empirical studies and the underlying theoretical streams that explain the effects on benefits and costs of multinationality. Our findings indicate that authors still largely rely on overall financial performance measures. Theoretical arguments, in contrast, refer to specific benefit and cost......This paper contributes to the core research in international business (IB), namely the relation between multinationality and performance, and is concerned with the quality of past empirical research designs. On the basis of 49 studies, we critically evaluate the match between performance measures...... positions that are better reflected in operational performance indicators. In our view, the idiosyncratic choice of the performance measures contributes to the varying results in past studies. We offer suggestions for improving future research designs....

  18. Raman Lidar Measurements During the International H2O Project. 2; Instrument Comparisons and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Demoz, B.; DiGirolamo, P.; Corner, J.; Veselovskii, I.; Evans, K.; Wang, Z.; Sabatino, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the International H2O Project (IHOP) that occurred in May and June, 2002 in the midwestern part of the U. S. The SRL system configuration and methods of data analysis were described in part I of this paper. In this second part, comparisons of SRL water vapor measurements and those of chilled mirror radiosonde and LASE airborne water vapor lidar are performed. Two case studies are presented; one for daytime and one for nighttime. The daytime case study is of a convectively driven boundary layer event and is used to characterize the SRL water vapor random error characteristics. The nighttime case study is of a thunderstorm-generated cirrus cloud case that is studied in it s meteorological context. Upper tropospheric humidification due to precipitation from the cirrus cloud is quantified as is the cirrus cloud ice water content and particle depolarization ratio. These detailed cirrus cloud measurements are being used in a cirrus cloud modeling study.

  19. Comparison of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Performance Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Cano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture is a farm management technology that involves sensing and then responding to the observed variability in the field. Remote sensing is one of the tools of precision agriculture. The emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUAV have paved the way to accessible remote sensing tools for farmers. This paper describes the development of an image processing approach to compare two popular off-the-shelf sUAVs: 3DR Iris+ and DJI Phantom 2. Both units are equipped with a camera gimbal attached with a GoPro camera. The comparison of the two sUAV involves a hovering test and a rectilinear motion test. In the hovering test, the sUAV was allowed to hover over a known object and images were taken every quarter of a second for two minutes. For the image processing evaluation, the position of the object in the images was measured and this was used to assess the stability of the sUAV while hovering. In the rectilinear test, the sUAV was allowed to follow a straight path and images of a lined track were acquired. The lines on the images were then measured on how accurate the sUAV followed the path. The hovering test results show that the 3DR Iris+ had a maximum position deviation of 0.64 m (0.126 m root mean square RMS displacement while the DJI Phantom 2 had a maximum deviation of 0.79 m (0.150 m RMS displacement. In the rectilinear motion test, the maximum displacement for the 3DR Iris+ and the DJI phantom 2 were 0.85 m (0.134 m RMS displacement and 0.73 m (0.372 m RMS displacement. These results demonstrated that the two sUAVs performed well in both the hovering test and the rectilinear motion test and thus demonstrated that both sUAVs can be used for civilian applications such as agricultural monitoring. The results also showed that the developed image processing approach can be used to evaluate performance of a sUAV and has the potential to be used as another feedback control parameter for autonomous navigation.

  20. Degradation and performance evaluation of PV module in desert climate conditions with estimate uncertainty in measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezzani Amor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of photovoltaic (PV module is affected by outdoor conditions. Outdoor testing consists installing a module, and collecting electrical performance data and climatic data over a certain period of time. It can also include the study of long-term performance under real work conditions. Tests are operated in URAER located in desert region of Ghardaïa (Algeria characterized by high irradiation and temperature levels. The degradation of PV module with temperature and time exposure to sunlight contributes significantly to the final output from the module, as the output reduces each year. This paper presents a comparative study of different methods to evaluate the degradation of PV module after a long term exposure of more than 12 years in desert region and calculates uncertainties in measuring. Firstly, this evaluation uses three methods: Visual inspection, data given by Solmetric PVA-600 Analyzer translated at Standard Test Condition (STC and based on the investigation results of the translation equations as ICE 60891. Secondly, the degradation rates calculated for all methods. Finally, a comparison between a degradation rates given by Solmetric PVA-600 analyzer, calculated by simulation model and calculated by two methods (ICE 60891 procedures 1, 2. We achieved a detailed uncertainty study in order to improve the procedure and measurement instrument.

  1. Performance Comparison for Virtual Impedance Techniques Used in Droop Controlled Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    ). Virtual impedance loops were proposed in literature to improve the current sharing between the inverters by normalizing the output impedance of the inverters. However, virtual impedance loops have constraints in this respect since the improvement in the current sharing occurs through redistribution...... for a single phase microgrid setup to achieve a fair performance comparison of the different virtual impedance techniques....

  2. Risk adjustment of health-care performance measures in a multinational register-based study: A pragmatic approach to a complicated topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tron Anders Moger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health-care performance comparisons across countries are gaining popularity. In such comparisons, the risk adjustment methodology plays a key role for meaningful comparisons. However, comparisons may be complicated by the fact that not all participating countries are allowed to share their data across borders, meaning that only simple methods are easily used for the risk adjustment. In this study, we develop a pragmatic approach using patient-level register data from Finland, Hungary, Italy, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Data on acute myocardial infarction patients were gathered from health-care registers in several countries. In addition to unadjusted estimates, we studied the effects of adjusting for age, gender, and a number of comorbidities. The stability of estimates for 90-day mortality and length of stay of the first hospital episode following diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction is studied graphically, using different choices of reference data. Logistic regression models are used for mortality, and negative binomial models are used for length of stay. Results: Results from the sensitivity analysis show that the various models of risk adjustment give similar results for the countries, with some exceptions for Hungary and Italy. Based on the results, in Finland and Hungary, the 90-day mortality after acute myocardial infarction is higher than in Italy, Norway, and Sweden. Conclusion: Health-care registers give encouraging possibilities to performance measurement and enable the comparison of entire patient populations between countries. Risk adjustment methodology is affected by the availability of data, and thus, the building of risk adjustment methodology must be transparent, especially when doing multinational comparative research. In that case, even basic methods of risk adjustment may still be valuable.

  3. Holistic Performance Measurement to Achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Keni Keni

    2013-01-01

    In the past, companies used balanced scorecard to measure its performance. Now, balanced scorecard as a performance measurement tool is no longer sufficient because business has been affected by changes to the natural environment and developing social expectations. In order to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, companies are beginning to address the risks and opportunities associated with these changes in their longer-term business planning. To turn risks into opportunities, companies...

  4. Smart city performance measurement framework. CITYkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Airaksinen, M.; Seppa, I.P.; Huovilla, A.; Neumann, H.M.; Iglar, B.; Bosch, P.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic performance measurement framework for harmonized and transparent monitoring and comparability of the European cities activities during the implementation of Smart City solutions. The work methodology was based on extensive collaboration and communication with European

  5. Specific activity measurement of 64Cu: A comparison of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastren, Tara; Guthrie, James; Eisenbeis, Paul; Voller, Tom; Mebrahtu, Efrem; Robertson, J. David; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Effective specific activity of 64 Cu (amount of radioactivity per µmol metal) is important in order to determine purity of a particular 64 Cu lot and to assist in optimization of the purification process. Metal impurities can affect effective specific activity and therefore it is important to have a simple method that can measure trace amounts of metals. This work shows that ion chromatography (IC) yields similar results to ICP mass spectrometry for copper, nickel and iron contaminants in 64 Cu production solutions. - Highlights: • Comparison of TETA titration, ICP mass spectrometry, and ion chromatography to measure specific activity. • Validates ion chromatography by using ICP mass spectrometry as the “gold standard”. • Shows different types and amounts of metal impurities present in 64 Cu

  6. Designing a performance measurement system: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohman, Clemens; Fortuin, Leonard; Wouters, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Performance measurement (PM) by means of local performance indicators (PIs) is developing into performance management at a company-wide scale. But how should PIs at various levels in the organization be incorporated into one system that can help managers, working at levels that range from

  7. Designing a performance measurement system : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohman, C.T.M.; Fortuin, L.; Wouters, M.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Performance measurement (PM) by means of local performance indicators (PIs) is developing into performance management at a company-wide scale. But how should PIs at various levels in the organization be incorporated into one system that can help managers, working at levels that range from

  8. Procurement performance measurement system in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Ozdamar, Linet; Ng, Chai Peng

    2005-01-01

    The rising operating cost of providing healthcare is of concern to health care providers. As such, measurement of procurement performance will enable competitive advantage and provide a framework for continuous improvement. The objective of this paper is to develop a procurement performance measurement system. The paper reviews the existing literature in procurement performance measurement to identify the key areas of purchasing performance. By studying the three components in the supply chain collectively with the resources, procedures and output, a model is been developed. Additionally, a balanced scorecard is proposed by establishing a set of generic measures and six perspectives. A case study conducted at the Singapore Hospital applies the conceptual model to describe the purchasing department and the activities within and outside the department. The results indicate that the material management department has already made a good start in measuring the procurement process through the implementation of the balanced scorecard. There are many data that are collected but not properly collated and utilized. Areas lacking measurement include cycle time of delivery, order processing time, effectiveness, efficiency and reliability. Though a lot of hard work was involved, the advantages of establishing a measurement system outweigh the costs and efforts involved in its implementation. Results of balanced scorecard measurements provide decision-makers with critical information on efficiency and effectiveness of the purchasing department's work. The measurement model developed could be used for any hospital procurement system.

  9. Comparison Criteria and Performance Levels for Soundproofing Panels Made in Different Constructive Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gheorghe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the performance lavels and comparison criteria for panels made from different soundproofing materials, in different constructive variants. Setting the performance level, on the basis of normative and regulatory documents, for soundproofing materials contained inside of noise reduction devices, is determined so that it can be defined, tested and established feasible technical solutions for sound absorbing protection, through a dissemination of obtained results as well for ensuring requirements for implementing the technology transfer for manufacturing.

  10. CITYkeys Smart city performance measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huovila, A.; Airaksinen, M.; Pinto-Seppa, I.; Piira, K.; Bosch, P.R.; Penttinen, T.; Neumann, H.M.; Kontinakis, N.

    2017-01-01

    Cities are tackling their economic, social and environmental challenges through smart city solutions. To demonstrate that these solutions achieve the desired impact, an indicator-based assessment system is needed. This paper presents the process of developing CITYkeys performance measurement system

  11. Supply chain oriented performance measurement for automotive spare parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Beekman, L.

    2008-01-01

    Literature provides a number of conceptual frameworks and discussions on performance measurement in supply chains. However, most of these frameworks focus on a single link of a supply chain. Furthermore, there is a lack of empirical analysis and case studies on performance metrics and measurements

  12. Performance measurement system for training simulators. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockhold, G. Jr.; Roth, D.R.

    1978-05-01

    In the first project phase, the project team has designed, installed, and test run on the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant training simulator a performance measurement system capable of automatic recording of statistical information on operator actions and plant response. Key plant variables and operator actions were monitored and analyzed by the simulator computer for a selected set of four operating and casualty drills. The project has the following objectives: (1) To provide an empirical data base for statistical analysis of operator reliability and for allocation of safety and control functions between operators and automated controls; (2) To develop a method for evaluation of the effectiveness of control room designs and operating procedures; and (3) To develop a system for scoring aspects of operator performance to assist in training evaluations and to support operator selection research. The performance measurement system has shown potential for meeting the research objectives. However, the cost of training simulator time is high; to keep research program costs reasonable, the measurement system is being designed to be an integral part of operator training programs. In the pilot implementation, participating instructors judged the measurement system to be a valuable and objective extension of their abilities to monitor trainee performance

  13. Resources on work zone safety and mobility performance monitoring and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Work zone performance measures are metrics that help quantify how work zones impact travelers, residents, businesses, and workers. Some performance measures describe how an individual work zone impacts these audiences; other performance measures desc...

  14. A Framework of Performance Measurement System for Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermawan Wibisono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current dynamic environment, measuring a company’s performance becomes exceedingly complex since Performance Measurements Systems (PMS not only measure a company’s performance but also reflect their organizational culture and philosophy. Designing and implementing PMS is an integral part of management control systems. However, traditional PMS are criticized for being obsolete, irrelevant to managerial decisionmaking, unrelated to strategic objectives and detrimental to organizational improvements. Given the shortcomings of traditional PMS, there is need for a new framework that canlead to the design of a PMS that balances short-term and long-term measures, internal and external measures, and financial and operational measures. This paper presents issuesassociated with the needs of a dynamic PMS, observe past research achievements in PMS and review past PMS frameworks that have been introduced. The paper then proposes animproved methodology for the design of a realistic PMS and its effective implementation in a manufacturing environment with case for Indonesia’s company.

  15. A Framework of Performance Measurement System for Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermawan Wibisono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current dynamic environment, measuring a company’s performance becomes exceedingly complex since Performance Measurements Systems (PMS not only measure a company’s performance but also reflect their organizational culture and philosophy. Designing and implementing PMS is an integral part of management control systems. However, traditional PMS are criticized for being obsolete, irrelevant to managerial decision making, unrelated to strategic objectives and detrimental to organizational improvements. Given the shortcomings of traditional PMS, there is need for a new framework that can lead to the design of a PMS that balances short-term and long-term measures, internal and external measures, and financial and operational measures. This paper presents issues associated with the needs of a dynamic PMS, observe past research achievements in PMS and review past PMS frameworks that have been introduced. The paper then proposes an improved methodology for the design of a realistic PMS and its effective implementation in a manufacturing environment with case for Indonesia’s company.

  16. Comparison of measured and Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions from circular collimators for radiosurgical beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnaashari, K. N.; Allahverdi, M.; Gharaati, H.; Shahriari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is an important clinical tool for the treatment of small lesions in the brain, including benign conditions, malignant and localized metastatic tumors. A dosimetry study was performed for Elekta 'Synergy S' as a dedicated Stereotactic radiosurgery unit, capable of generating circular radiation fields with diameters of 1-5 cm at iso centre using the BEAM/EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Materials and Methods: The linear accelerator Elekta Synergy S equipped with a set of 5 circular collimators from 10 mm to 50 mm in diameter at iso centre distance was used. The cones were inserted in a base plate mounted on the collimator linac head. A PinPoint chamber and Wellhofer water tank chamber were selected for clinical dosimetry of 6 MV photon beams. The results of simulations using the Monte Carlo system BEAM/EGS4 to model the beam geometry were compared with dose measurements. Results: An excellent agreement was found between Monte Carlo calculated and measured percentage depth dose and lateral dose profiles which were performed in water phantom for circular cones with 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm in diameter. The comparison between calculation and measurements showed up to 0.5 % or 1 m m difference for all field sizes. The penumbra (80-20%) results at 5 cm depth in water phantom and SSD=95 ranged from 1.5 to 2.1 mm for circular collimators with diameter 1 to 5 cm. Conclusion: This study showed that BEAMnrc code has been accurate in modeling Synergy S linear accelerator equipped with circular collimators

  17. Final report on COOMET.RI(II)-S2.Eu-152 (319/RU/04): Comparison measurements of radionuclide volume sources (Eu-152)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostin, S.; Hernandez, T.; Oropesa, P.; Arnold, D.; Evseev, V.; Ivanukovich, A.; Milevskiy, V.; Svec, A.; Lapenas, A.; Andonova, V.; Steiner, V.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the Eu-152 specific activity in artificial volume sample of water density were performed in nine laboratories with the HPGe spectrometry technique. Analysis of the gamma radiation absorption in the sample material confirmed the Compton scattering as the main mechanism of interaction of photons with energy between 300 - 600 keV and 779 - 1408 keV in the most important for environmental monitoring substances (food, water, biological materials, soils). A list of CMCs supported by the comparison is suggested. (authors)

  18. Final report on COOMET.RI(II)-S2.Eu-152 (319/RU/04): Comparison measurements of radionuclide volume sources (Eu-152)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostin, S. [All Russian Research Institute for Physical-Technical and Radio-Technical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Hernandez, T.; Oropesa, P. [Center of Isotopes - Radionuclide Metrology Department (CENTIS-DMR), Habana (Cuba); Arnold, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Evseev, V. [National Scientific Centre ' Institute of Metrology' (NSC IM), Kharkov (Ukraine); Ivanukovich, A.; Milevskiy, V. [Belarusian State Institute of Metrology (BelGIM), Minsk (Belarus); Svec, A. [Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU), Bratislava (Slovakia); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd, Radiation Metrology and Testing Centre (RMTC), Salaspils (Latvia); Andonova, V. [Bulgarian Institute of Metrology - National Centre of Metrology (BIM-NCM), Sofia (Bulgaria); Steiner, V. [Ministry of the Environment - Radiation and Noise Division (ISR-MoE), Jerusalem (Israel)

    2010-04-15

    Measurements of the Eu-152 specific activity in artificial volume sample of water density were performed in nine laboratories with the HPGe spectrometry technique. Analysis of the gamma radiation absorption in the sample material confirmed the Compton scattering as the main mechanism of interaction of photons with energy between 300 - 600 keV and 779 - 1408 keV in the most important for environmental monitoring substances (food, water, biological materials, soils). A list of CMCs supported by the comparison is suggested. (authors)

  19. In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, A

    2010-01-01

    The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

  20. In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, A.

    2010-08-01

    The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

  1. Comparison of dose measurements in water versus in air for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasukha

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of dose measurements in water versus in air for therapy. Dose measurements in water and in the air had been done by teletherapy unit Co-60 Picker Model V 4m/60 with Farmer dosimeter. The result of inverse square law, TAR, PDD, and PSF compared to BJR No. 17 produced a difference of more than 4,65% with SSD 80 cm. Doses in water calculated from the result of dose measurement in air using BJR tables given, was compared with direct dose measurement in water. Values of 0,9850 to 1,0302 were obtained if using inverse square law, PDD and PSF formula. Using inverse square law and TAR, values of 0,9474 to 1,0197 were obtained for 4 depths and 5 field sizes. Measurements done in 5 cm depth and 10 cm x 10 cm field size using both methods, were still good. (author). 7 figs, 8 refs

  2. Experimental technologies comparison for strain measurement of a composite main landing gear bay specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, Massimo; Arena, Maurizio; Ciminello, Monica; Guida, Michele; Meola, Carosena; Cerreta, Pietro

    2018-03-01

    The development of advanced monitoring system for strain measurements on aeronautical components remain an important target both when related to the optimization of the lead-time and cost for part validation, allowing earlier entry into service, and when related to the implementation of advanced health monitoring systems dedicated to the in-service parameters verification and early stage detection of structural problems. The paper deals with the experimental testing of a composite samples set of the main landing gear bay for a CS-25 category aircraft, realized through an innovative design and production process. The test have represented a good opportunity for direct comparison of different strain measurement techniques: Strain Gauges (SG) and Fibers Bragg Grating (FBG) have been used as well as non-contact techniques, specifically the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Infrared (IR) thermography applied where possible in order to highlight possible hot-spot during the tests. The crucial points identification on the specimens has been supported by means of advanced finite element simulations, aimed to assessment of the structural strength and deformation as well as to ensure the best performance and the global safety of the whole experimental campaign.

  3. The manometric sorptomat—an innovative volumetric instrument for sorption measurements performed under isobaric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudasik, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    The present paper discusses the concept of measuring the process of sorption by means of the volumetric method, developed in such a way as to allow measurements performed under isobaric conditions. On the basis of the concept in question, a prototype of a sorption instrument was built: the manometric sorptomat. The paper provides a detailed description of the idea of the instrument, and of the way it works. In order to evaluate the usefulness of the device in sorption measurements carried out under laboratory conditions, comparative studies were conducted, during which the results of sorption measurements obtained with the developed instrument were compared with the results Mateusz obtained with a reference device. The objects of comparison were the sorption capacities of hard coal samples, calculated on the basis of the established courses of the methane sorption process. The results were regarded as compatible if the compared values fell within the range of the measurement uncertainty of the two devices. For the sake of the comparative studies, fifteen granular samples of hard coal—representing the 0.20–0.25 mm grain fraction and coming from various mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin—were used. After comparing the results obtained with the original manometric sorptomat with the results obtained with the gravimetric reference device, it was observed that the compatibility of measurements of sorption capacities was over 90%, based on the defined criterion of the measurement compatibility. (paper)

  4. A framework to improve performance measurement in engineering projects

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng , Li; Baron , Claude; Esteban , Philippe; Xue , Rui; Zhang , Qiang

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A wide range of methods and good practices have been developed for the measurement of projects performance. They help project managers to effectively monitor the project progress and evaluate results. However, from a literature review, we noticed several remaining critical issues in measuring projects performance, such as an unbalanced development of Key Performance Indicators types between lagging and leading indicators. On the other hand, systems engineering measurem...

  5. Comparison of VOC measurements made by PTR-MS, adsorbent tubes–GC-FID-MS and DNPH derivatization–HPLC during the Sydney Particle Study, 2012: a contribution to the assessment of uncertainty in routine atmospheric VOC measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dunne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding uncertainty is essential for utilizing atmospheric volatile organic compound (VOC measurements in robust ways to develop atmospheric science. This study describes an inter-comparison of the VOC data, and the derived uncertainty estimates, measured with three independent techniques (PTR-MS, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry; GC-FID-MS, gas chromatography with flame-ionization and mass spectrometric detection; and DNPH–HPLC, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography during routine monitoring as part of the Sydney Particle Study (SPS campaign in 2012. Benzene, toluene, C8 aromatics, isoprene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were selected for the comparison, based on objective selection criteria from the available data. Bottom-up uncertainty analyses were undertaken for each compound and each measurement system. Top-down uncertainties were quantified via the inter-comparisons. In all seven comparisons, the correlations between independent measurement techniques were high with R2 values with a median of 0.92 (range 0.75–0.98 and small root mean square of the deviations (RMSD of the observations from the regression line with a median of 0.11 (range 0.04–0.23 ppbv. These results give a high degree of confidence that for each comparison the response of the two independent techniques is dominated by the same constituents. The slope and intercept as determined by reduced major axis (RMA regression gives a different story. The slopes varied considerably with a median of 1.25 and a range of 1.16–2.01. The intercepts varied with a median of 0.04 and a range of −0.03 to 0.31 ppbv. An ideal comparison would give a slope of 1.00 and an intercept of 0. Some sources of uncertainty that are poorly quantified by the bottom-up uncertainty analysis method were identified, including: contributions of non-target compounds to the measurement of the target compound for

  6. Thermal performance measurements on ATLAS-SCT KB forward modules

    CERN Document Server

    Donegà, M; D'Onofrio, M; Ferrère, D; Hirt, C; Ikegami, Y; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Lindsay, S; Mangin-Brinet, M; Niinikoski, T O; Pernegger, H; Perrin, E; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Unno, Y; Wallny, R; Weber, M

    2003-01-01

    The thermal design of the KB module is presented. A Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) has been used to finalize the module design. The thermal performance of an outer irradiated KB module has been measured at different cooling conditions. The thermal runaway of the module has been measured. The FEA model has been compared with the measurements and has been used to predict the thermal performance in a realistic SCT scenario.

  7. COOMET.RI(I)-K1 comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for 60Co γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buermann, L.; Oborin, A.V.; Dobrovosky, J.; Milevsky, V.S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Lapenas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented of the COOMET key comparison of the national measurement standards of air kerma for 60 Co γ radiation. Participants of the comparison were PTB (Germany, pilot institute), VNIIM (Russia), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Belarus), CPHR (Cuba) and RMTC (Latvia). PTB, VNIIM and SMU had previously taken part in a key comparison with the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and operated as link laboratories in order to evaluate the degree of equivalence of the participants' results with the key comparison reference value. These data form the basis of the results entered into the BIPM key comparison database for comparison COOMET.RI(I)-K1. (authors)

  8. Comparison of response formats and concurrent hedonic measures for optimal use of the EmoSensory® Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouteten, Joachim J; Gellynck, Xavier; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Sas, Benedikt; Bredie, Wender L P; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; De Steur, Hans

    2017-03-01

    The study of emotional and sensory profiling with food products is gaining momentum in the field of sensory research. These methods can be applied in order to obtain a broader consumer perspective on product performance beyond traditional hedonic measurements (Jiang, King, & Prinyawiwatkul, 2014; Varela & Ares, 2012). The EmoSensory® Wheel, a recently introduced method which combines emotional and sensory assessment in a wheel questionnaire format is one example of conducting such a task in a consumer-friendly way. However, little is known about its performance compared to a traditional list-based questionnaire format. This comparison is undertaken in this study for two product categories (chocolate and yogurt). Further, two methodological issues are addressed by (i) comparing the use of Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) and rate-all-that-apply (RATA) response formats and (ii) examining whether the method impacts on the concurrent hedonic product assessment for two product categories (chocolate and yogurt). Although both questionnaire formats showed similar findings, more consumers preferred the wheel questionnaire format. Regarding the latter, CATA and RATA scaling yielded similar performance and no influence on the concurrent hedonic assessment was found. This study lends further support for combining emotional and sensory measurements using the EmoSensory® profile, which is of interest for food scientists and the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (Review of Economics and Statistics, 90, 428-441) to detect whether the widely...

  10. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (2008) to detect whether the widely used class of Residual Income based performa...

  11. The comprehensive care project: measuring physician performance in ambulatory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric S; Weng, Weifeng; Arnold, Gerald K; Kaplan, Sherrie H; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Greenfield, Sheldon; Hood, Sarah; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of comprehensively assessing physician-level performance in ambulatory practice. Ambulatory-based general internists in 13 states participated in the assessment. We assessed physician-level performance, adjusted for patient factors, on 46 individual measures, an overall composite measure, and composite measures for chronic, acute, and preventive care. Between- versus within-physician variation was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). External validity was assessed by correlating performance on a certification exam. Medical records for 236 physicians were audited for seven chronic and four acute care conditions, and six age- and gender-appropriate preventive services. Performance on the individual and composite measures varied substantially within (range 5-86 percent compliance on 46 measures) and between physicians (ICC range 0.12-0.88). Reliabilities for the composite measures were robust: 0.88 for chronic care and 0.87 for preventive services. Higher certification exam scores were associated with better performance on the overall (r = 0.19; pmeasures and by sampling feasible numbers of patients for each condition. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Comparison of Single-Particle Monte Carlo Simulation with Measured Output Characteristics of an 0.1µm n-MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Bufler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between non-selfconsistent single-particle Monte Carlo (MC simulations and measurements of the output characteristics of an 0.1 µm n-MOSFET is presented. First the bulk MC model, which features a new simplified treatment of inelastic acoustic intravalley scattering, is validated by comparison with experimental literature data for mobilities and velocities. The dopant distribution of the MOSFET is obtained from a 2D process simulation, which is calibrated with SIMS and electrical measurements and fine-tuned by a comparison of the measured transfer characteristics in the subthreshold regime with a coupled Schro¨dinger drift-diffusion (DD simulation. Then the quantum effect is replaced by a shift of the work function and the DD, hydrodynamic (HD and MC models are adjusted to reproduce the measured drain current in the linear regime. The results of the three models in the non-linear regime are compared without further adjustment to the measured output characteristics. While good agreement is found for the MC model, the on-current is significantly overestimated by the HD model and underestimated by the DD model.

  13. Recursive formulae and performance comparisons for first mode dynamics of periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeck, Jared D.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2017-05-01

    Periodic structures are growing in popularity especially in the energy harvesting and metastructures communities. Common types of these unique structures are referred to in the literature as zigzag, orthogonal spiral, fan-folded, and longitudinal zigzag structures. Many of these studies on periodic structures have two competing goals in common: (a) minimizing natural frequency, and (b) minimizing mass or volume. These goals suggest that no single design is best for all applications; therefore, there is a need for design optimization and comparison tools which first require efficient easy-to-implement models. All available structural dynamics models for these types of structures do provide exact analytical solutions; however, they are complex requiring tedious implementation and providing more information than necessary for practical applications making them computationally inefficient. This paper presents experimentally validated recursive models that are able to very accurately and efficiently predict the dynamics of the four most common types of periodic structures. The proposed modeling technique employs a combination of static deflection formulae and Rayleigh’s Quotient to estimate the first mode shape and natural frequency of periodic structures having any number of beams. Also included in this paper are the results of an extensive experimental validation study which show excellent agreement between model prediction and measurement. Lastly, the proposed models are used to evaluate the performance of each type of structure. Results of this performance evaluation reveal key advantages and disadvantages associated with each type of structure.

  14. Simulation and Comparison of the Calorimeters Measuring the Nuclear Heating in the OSIRIS Reactor, with the TRIPOLI-4R Monte-Carlo Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peron, A.; Malouch, F.; Diop, C.M.

    2013-06-01

    Two calorimeter devices are used in the OSIRIS MTR reactor (CEA-Saclay center) for the nuclear heating measurements. The first one is a fixed five-stage calorimeter device. The second one is an innovative mobile probe called 'CALMOS'. The design of these devices is different (in particular their geometry), implying modifications on the local neutron and photon fluxes and hence on nuclear heating measured values. The measurements performed by the two calorimeter devices cannot directly be compared; this requires perfect irradiation conditions in the reactor core, especially for the core loading and the control element positions. Simulation is here a good help to perform a fully relevant comparison. In this paper, differences between calorimeter devices in terms of nuclear heating and particle fluxes are evaluated using the TRIPOLI-4 Monte-Carlo code. After a description of the OSIRIS reactor and the design of the two calorimeter devices, the nuclear heating calculation scheme used for simulation will be introduced. Different simulations and results will be detailed and analyzed to determine the calorimeter geometry impact on the measured nuclear heating. (authors)

  15. Comparison of SAND-II and FERRET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.; Schmittroth, F.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, SAND-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters

  16. An investigation of methods for free-field comparison calibration of measurement microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera-Figueroa, Salvador; Moreno Pescador, Guillermo; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Free-field comparison calibration of measurement microphones requires that a calibrated reference microphone and a test microphone are exposed to the same sound pressure in a free field. The output voltages of the microphones can be measured either sequentially or simultaneously. The sequential...... method requires the sound field to have good temporal stability. The simultaneous method requires instead that the sound pressure is the same in the positions where the microphones are placed. In this paper the results of the application of the two methods are compared. A third combined method...

  17. Predicting Document Retrieval System Performance: An Expected Precision Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losee, Robert M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an expected precision (EP) measure designed to predict document retrieval performance. Highlights include decision theoretic models; precision and recall as measures of system performance; EP graphs; relevance feedback; and computing the retrieval status value of a document for two models, the Binary Independent Model and the Two Poisson…

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUCCESS OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT: EVIDENCE FROM LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Primarisanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There were only a few government institutions in Indonesia capable of preparing good accountability reports. Based on the survey conducted in the Special District of Yogyakarta, the study aimed to empirically examine the influencing factors in the development of the measure-ment system of performance, performance accountability and the use of performance informa-tion. Additionally, it also tried to interpret and to explain empirical evidence in the perspective of the institutional theory. The institutional theory was used to find out the extent to which the development of the measurement system of the performance, the performance accountability and the use of the performance information was influenced because of the presence of coercive, mimetic and normative isomorphism phenomena. The study used mixed methods that combined quantitative and qualitative study approaches simultaneously and a sequential explanatory strategy. It used Partial Least Square (PLS analysis to test the hypotheses. It gave evidence that training, incentives and authority in decision making had significant impacts on the development of the measurement of the performance, the performance accountability and the use of the performance information. It contributed to the understanding of the influencing factors of the development of the measurement system of the performance, the performance accountability and the use of the performance information in order to improve the measurement system of the performance of government institutions.

  19. SWIR, VIS and LWIR observer performance against handheld objects: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomeit, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    The short wave infrared spectral range caused interest to be used in day and night time military and security applications in the last years. This necessitates performance assessment of SWIR imaging equipment in comparison to the one operating in the visual (VIS) and thermal infrared (LWIR) spectral range. In the military context (nominal) range is the main performance criteria. Discriminating friend from foe is one of the main tasks in today's asymmetric scenarios and so personnel, human activities and handheld objects are used as targets to estimate ranges. The later was also used for an experiment at Fraunhofer IOSB to get a first impression how the SWIR performs compared to VIS and LWIR. A human consecutively carrying one of nine different civil or military objects was recorded from five different ranges in the three spectral ranges. For the visual spectral range a 3-chip color-camera was used, the SWIR range was covered by an InGaAs-camera and the LWIR by an uncooled bolometer. It was ascertained that the nominal spatial resolution of the three cameras was in the same magnitude in order to enable an unbiased assessment. Daytime conditions were selected for data acquisition to separate the observer performance from illumination conditions and to some extend also camera performance. From the recorded data, a perception experiment was prepared. It was conducted as a nine-alternative forced choice, unlimited observation time test with 15 observers participating. Before the experiment, the observers were trained on close range target data. Outcome of the experiment was the average probability of identification versus range between camera and target. The comparison of the range performance achieved in the three spectral bands gave a mixed result. On one hand a ranking VIS / SWIR / LWIR in decreasing order can be seen in the data, but on the other hand only the difference between VIS and the other bands is statistically significant. Additionally it was not possible