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Sample records for performance iq piq

  1. A possible correlation between performance IQ, visuomotor adaptation ability and mu suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad Nabeel; Navid, Muhammad Samran; Khan, Mushtaq; Kitajo, Keiichi

    2015-04-07

    Psychometric, anatomical and functional brain studies suggest that individuals differ in the way that they perceive and analyze information and strategically control and execute movements. Inter-individual differences are also observed in neural correlates of specific and general cognitive ability. As a result, some individuals perceive and adapt to environmental conditions and perform motor activities better than others. The aim of this study was to identify a common factor that predicts adaptation of a reaching movement to a visual perturbation and suppression of movement-related brain activity (mu rhythms). Twenty-eight participants participated in two different experiments designed to evaluate visuomotor adaptation and mu suppression ability. Performance intelligence quotient (IQ) was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Performance IQ predicted adaptation index of visuomotor performance (r=0.43, p=0.02) and suppression of mu rhythms (r=-0.59; pIQ were faster at adapting to a visuomotor perturbation and better at suppressing mu activity than participants with low performance IQ. We found a possible link between performance IQ and mu suppression, and performance IQ and the initial rate of adaptation. Individuals with high performance IQ were better in suppressing mu rhythms and were quicker at associating motor command and required movement than individuals with low performance IQ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Differences in IQ Profiles between Individuals with Asperger's Disorder and High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y.; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did…

  3. Relationship of Education and IQ in the WAIS-R Standardization Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Joseph D.; Herman, David O.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzed the total number of years of schooling completed against the Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) of the 1,880 individuals who were used to standardize the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). Analysis revealed a progressive increase in mean FSIQ with increasing education. (JAC)

  4. Does IQ Really Predict Job Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ken; Norgate, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    IQ has played a prominent part in developmental and adult psychology for decades. In the absence of a clear theoretical model of internal cognitive functions, however, construct validity for IQ tests has always been difficult to establish. Test validity, therefore, has always been indirect, by correlating individual differences in test scores with what are assumed to be other criteria of intelligence. Job performance has, for several reasons, been one such criterion. Correlations of around 0.5 have been regularly cited as evidence of test validity, and as justification for the use of the tests in developmental studies, in educational and occupational selection and in research programs on sources of individual differences. Here, those correlations are examined together with the quality of the original data and the many corrections needed to arrive at them. It is concluded that considerable caution needs to be exercised in citing such correlations for test validation purposes. PMID:26405429

  5. Verbal-spatial IQ discrepancies impact brain activation associated with the resolution of cognitive conflict in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amy E; Davis, Katie S; Pao, Lisa S; Lewis, Amy; Yang, Xiao; Tau, Gregory; Zhao, Guihu; Wang, Zhishun; Marsh, Rachel

    2018-03-01

    Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control. Unknown is whether the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy is associated with functional deficits in these areas in healthy or ill children and adolescents. We assessed the effects of the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy on fMRI BOLD response during the resolution of cognitive conflict in 55 healthy children and adolescents during performance of a Simon Spatial Incompatibility task. As the magnitude of the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy increased, activation of fronto-striatal, limbic, and temporal regions decreased during conflict resolution (p PIQ discrepancy was associated with reduced functional connectivity from right inferior frontal gyrus to right thalamus and increased functional connectivity to right supramarginal gyrus (ps PIQ discrepancy may be an important aspect of an individual's cognitive profile and likely contributes to, or is associated with, deficient cognitive control processes characteristic of many childhood disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Meta-Analysis of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Anholt, Gideon; Raveh-Gottfried, Sagi; Hamo, Naama; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2018-03-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a moderate degree of underperformance on cognitive tests, including deficient processing speed. However, despite little research focusing on Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in OCD, it has long been speculated that the disorder is associated with elevated intellectual capacity. The present meta-analytic study was, therefore, conducted to quantitatively summarize the literature on IQ in OCD systematically. We identified 98 studies containing IQ data among individuals with OCD and non-psychiatric comparison groups, and computed 108 effect sizes for Verbal IQ (VIQ, n = 55), Performance IQ (PIQ, n = 13), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ, n = 40). Across studies, small effect sizes were found for FSIQ and VIQ, and a moderate effect size for PIQ, exemplifying reduced IQ in OCD. However, mean IQ scores across OCD samples were in the normative range. Moderator analyses revealed no significant moderating effect across clinical and demographic indices. We conclude that, although lower than controls, OCD is associated with normative FSIQ and VIQ, and relatively lowered PIQ. These results are discussed in light of neuropsychological research in OCD, and particularly the putative impact of reduced processing speed in this population. Recommendations for utilization of IQ tests in OCD, and directions for future studies are offered.

  7. Content Analysis of the 20 Most Influential Articles in "PIQ"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine key research themes in human performance technology (HPT) through content analysis of the 20 most influential articles identified in Cho, Jo, Park, Kang, and Chen (2011). Three questions guiding this inquiry are: (1) What are the key themes of the 20 most influential articles in "PIQ", (2) What information…

  8. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Congenital Strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abbas; Fallahi, Mohammad Reza; Tamannaifard, Shima; Vajebmonfared, Sara; Zonozian, Saideh

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate intelligence quotient (IQ) in patients with congenital strabismus. All patients with congenital strabismus scheduled for surgery were enrolled consecutively over a one year period in a cross-sectional study and were evaluated for verbal, performance and total IQ scores, and compared to the mean normal IQ of 100±15. During the study period, 109 patients with mean age of 18.4±10.5 (range, 4-63) years were included. Educational status in most patients (80%) was less than high-school. Most patients (80%) lived in urban areas and 46 patients (42.2%) had some degrees of unilateral or bilateral amblyopia. Mean verbal IQ was 87.2±19.6 (range, 45-127), performance IQ was 81±15.5 (range, 44-111) and total IQ was 83.5±18.3 (range, 40-120). Total IQ was significantly lower in comparison to the normal population (PIQ levels. Verbal IQ was insignificantly higher in myopes than emmetropes and hyperopes. IQ was better with vertical deviations and was higher in esotropes than exotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Patients with congenital strabismus in this study had lower mean IQ scores than the normal population which may be due to genetic background or acquired causes secondary to strabismus.

  9. Introduction to "PIQ"'s Special Ethics Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Introduces "Performance Improvement Quarterly's" special section on ethics. The focus of this special section is to explore ethics and the field of human performance improvement in a broad sense by encouraging an examination of ethical concepts and responsibilities in the profession. This special section includes three critical views of…

  10. Heritability of Verbal and Performance Intelligence in a Pediatric Longitudinal Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, I.L.C.; Brouwer, R.M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of IQ is well-documented as is its increasing heritability with age. In a longitudinal twin study, we addressed the question to what extent heritability and stability differ for full scale (FSIQ), verbal (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) in childhood (age 9-11 years), and

  11. Callosotomy affects performance IQ: A meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhausen, René; Karud, Celine M R

    2018-02-05

    Morphometric neuroimaging studies on healthy adult individuals regularly report a positive association between intelligence test performance (IQ) and structural properties of the corpus callosum (CC). At the same time, studies examining the effect of callosotomy on epilepsy patients report only negligible changes in IQ as result of the surgery, partially contradicting the findings of the morphometry studies. Objective of the present meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) of 87 cases from 16 reports was to re-investigate the effect of callosotomy on full scale IQ as well as on the verbal and performance subscale under special consideration of two possible moderating factors: pre-surgical IQ levels and the extent of the surgery (complete vs. anterior transsection). The main finding was that callosotomy selectively affects performance IQ, whereby the effect is modulated by the pre-surgical level of performance. Patients with an above-median pre-surgery performance IQ level show a significant average decrease of -5.44 (CI 95% : - 8.33 to - 2.56) IQ points following the surgery, while the below-median group does not reveal a significant change in IQ (mean change: 1.01 IQ points; CI 95% : -1.83 to 3.86). Thus, the present analyses support the notion that callosotomy has a negative effect on the patients' performance IQ, but only in those patients, who at least have an average performance levels before the surgery. This observation also lends support to the findings of previous morphometry studies, indicating that the frequently observed CC-IQ correlation might indeed reflect a functional contribution of callosal interhemispheric connectivity to intelligence-test performance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between IQ and performance on the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mohn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The associations between IQ and individual tests of neurocognitive function are well studied. However, there is a lack of information as to how IQ relates to performance on neuropsychological test batteries as a whole and in the same individuals. In this study, 250 healthy participants aged 20-69 years were tested with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB. In correlation analyses, IQ was significantly related to all MCCB scores, except the Social Cognition domain. Hierarchical regression analyses including gender, age, and education confirmed this association. For overall cognitive function, 50% of the variance was explained by IQ and demographic characteristics. For the domains Speed of Processing, Working Memory, Visual and Verbal Learning, IQ explained a larger proportion of the variance than the demographic factors did. The implication is that these domains may provide information of a person’s intelligence level.

  13. Socioeconomic disparities and sexual dimorphism in neurotoxic effects of ambient fine particles on youth IQ: A longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wang

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence indicates that early-life exposure to particulate air pollutants pose threats to children's cognitive development, but studies about the neurotoxic effects associated with exposures during adolescence remain unclear. We examined whether exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5 at residential locations affects intelligence quotient (IQ during pre-/early- adolescence (ages 9-11 and emerging adulthood (ages 18-20 in a demographically-diverse population (N = 1,360 residing in Southern California. Increased ambient PM2.5 levels were associated with decreased IQ scores. This association was more evident for Performance IQ (PIQ, but less for Verbal IQ, assessed by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. For each inter-quartile (7.73 μg/m3 increase in one-year PM2.5 preceding each assessment, the average PIQ score decreased by 3.08 points (95% confidence interval = [-6.04, -0.12] accounting for within-family/within-individual correlations, demographic characteristics, family socioeconomic status (SES, parents' cognitive abilities, neighborhood characteristics, and other spatial confounders. The adverse effect was 150% greater in low SES families and 89% stronger in males, compared to their counterparts. Better understanding of the social disparities and sexual dimorphism in the adverse PM2.5-IQ effects may help elucidate the underlying mechanisms and shed light on prevention strategies.

  14. Performance IQ in children is associated with blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Bo-Eun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 119 children whose mothers underwent testing of blood cadmium during early pregnancy. All children were evaluated using the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between IQ in children and maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy, after adjustment for covariates. Maternal blood cadmium concentration during early pregnancy was inversely associated with performance IQ, after adjustment for covariates such as sex, educational levels of both parents, family income, and maternal BMI. Maternal blood cadmium concentration, however, was not associated with cognitive IQ. Performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Cannabis users have higher premorbid IQ than other patients with first onset psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Laura; Russo, Manuela; O'Connor, Jennifer; Wiffen, Benjamin D R; Falcone, Maria Aurora; Sideli, Lucia; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Stilo, Simona; Trotta, Antonella; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Taylor, Heather; Friedman, Bess; Sallis, Hannah; La Cascia, Caterina; La Barbera, Daniele; David, Anthony S; Reichenberg, Abraham; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta

    2013-10-01

    A number of studies have reported that patients with psychosis who use cannabis have better cognitive performance than those who do not. This is surprising as cannabis can impair cognition in healthy subjects. An obvious question is whether the better current performance of psychotic patients who have used cannabis is a reflection of their having a higher premorbid IQ than those psychotic patients who haven't used cannabis. In a sample of patients at their first episode of psychosis, we tested the hypothesis that patients who smoked cannabis would have a higher premorbid IQ than patients who did not. 279 participants (119 patients and 160 healthy controls) were assessed in order to obtain current and premorbid IQ measures and detailed information on cannabis use. We examined the association between cannabis use and both premorbid and current IQ in patients and controls. Patients who had ever smoked cannabis had significantly higher current (pIQ (p=.004) compared to patients who had never used cannabis. This difference was not found among controls. These findings suggest that the better cognitive performance of patients with their first episode of psychosis who have used cannabis compared with those who haven't is due to the better premorbid IQ of the former. © 2013.

  16. Pu-238 assay performance with the Canberra IQ3 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, L.; Gillespie, B.; Seaman, G.

    1997-11-01

    Canberra Industries has recently completed a demonstration project at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRC) to characterize 55-gallon drums containing Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 waste to detection limits of less than 50 nCi/g using gamma assay techniques. This would permit reclassification of these drums from transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW). The instrument used for this assay was a Canberra IQ3 high sensitivity gamma assay system, mounted in a trailer. The results of the measurements demonstrate achievement of detection levels as low as 1 nCi/g for low density waste drums, and good correlation with known concentrations in several test drums. In addition, the data demonstrates significant advantages for using large area low-energy germanium detectors for achieving the lowest possible MDAs for gamma rays in the 80-250 keV range. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Relationship of Mathematics Olympiad Performance of Gifted Students with IQ and Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İhsan BORAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship of mathematics Olympiad (analysis-algebra and geometry scores of gifted students with IQ scores (verbal, performance and general and mathematics achievement scores of the gifted students. Study group of the study included 64 gifted students (27 girls and 37 boys who took courses from one Science and Art Center. Data of study involved scores of the participants on mathematics Olympiad exam, WISC-R test and school mathematics achievement. For analysis of the data Pearson correlation analysis, Spearman correlation analysis, independent groups’ t-test and Mann Whitney U test were utilized. The findings showed that there was no significant relationship between the Olympiad scores on analysis-algebra and geometry and IQ scores (general, performance and verbal. But the Olympiad scores on analysis-algebra and geometry factors were significantly related to school mathematics achievement. Comparing IQ scores of highest and lowest scorer groups on the Olympiad scores showed that there were no significant differences between IQ scores (general, performance and verbal of the groups. However school mathematics scores of the participants significantly differed in terms of groups determined based on analysis-algebra and geometry scores.

  18. Are WISC IQ scores in children with mathematical learning disabilities underestimated? The influence of a specialized intervention on test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Katharina; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Intelligence measures play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Probably as a result of math-related material in IQ tests, children with MLD often display reduced IQ scores. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of math remediation extend to IQ scores. The present study investigated the impact of a special remediation program compared to a control group receiving private tutoring (PT) on the WISC IQ scores of children with MLD. We included N=45 MLD children (7-12 years) in a study with a pre- and post-test control group design. Children received remediation for two years on average. The analyses revealed significantly greater improvements in the experimental group on the Full-Scale IQ, and the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Working Memory indices, but not Processing Speed, compared to the PT group. Children in the experimental group showed an average WISC IQ gain of more than ten points. Results indicate that the WISC IQ scores of MLD children might be underestimated and that an effective math intervention can improve WISC IQ test performance. Taking limitations into account, we discuss the use of IQ measures more generally for defining MLD in research and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Childhood IQ and risk of bipolar disorder in adulthood: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J; Anderson, Jana; Zammit, Stanley; Meyer, Thomas D; Pell, Jill P; Mackay, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features assessed at age 22-23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n =1881 individuals). An ordinary least squares linear regression model was used, with normal childhood IQ (range 90-109) as the referent group. We adjusted analyses for confounding factors, including gender, ethnicity, handedness, maternal social class at recruitment, maternal age, maternal history of depression and maternal education. There was a positive association between IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features at age 22-23 years (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.159 (95% CI 0.120-0.198), P >0.001). Individuals in the lowest decile of manic features had a mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) which was almost 10 points lower than those in the highest decile of manic features: mean FSIQ 100.71 (95% CI 98.74-102.6) v . 110.14 (95% CI 107.79-112.50), P >0.001. The association between IQ and manic features was present for FSIQ, VIQ and for PIQ but was strongest for VIQ. A higher childhood IQ score, and high VIQ in particular, may represent a marker of risk for the later development of bipolar disorder. This finding has implications for understanding of how liability to bipolar disorder may have been selected through generations. It will also inform future genetic studies at the interface of intelligence, creativity and bipolar disorder and is relevant to the developmental trajectory of bipolar disorder. It may also improve approaches to earlier detection and treatment of bipolar disorder in adolescents

  20. Accounting for estimated IQ in neuropsychological test performance with regression-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, S Marc; Winicki, Jessica M; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Gordon, Barry; Schretlen, David J

    2009-11-01

    Regression-based normative techniques account for variability in test performance associated with multiple predictor variables and generate expected scores based on algebraic equations. Using this approach, we show that estimated IQ, based on oral word reading, accounts for 1-9% of the variability beyond that explained by individual differences in age, sex, race, and years of education for most cognitive measures. These results confirm that adding estimated "premorbid" IQ to demographic predictors in multiple regression models can incrementally improve the accuracy with which regression-based norms (RBNs) benchmark expected neuropsychological test performance in healthy adults. It remains to be seen whether the incremental variance in test performance explained by estimated "premorbid" IQ translates to improved diagnostic accuracy in patient samples. We describe these methods, and illustrate the step-by-step application of RBNs with two cases. We also discuss the rationale, assumptions, and caveats of this approach. More broadly, we note that adjusting test scores for age and other characteristics might actually decrease the accuracy with which test performance predicts absolute criteria, such as the ability to drive or live independently.

  1. Persistent maternal depressive symptoms trajectories influence children's IQ: The EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waerden, Judith; Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Peyre, Hugo; Heude, Barbara; Melchior, Maria

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the association between timing and course of maternal depression from pregnancy onwards and children's cognitive development at ages 5 to 6. Potential interaction effects with child sex and family socioeconomic status were explored. One thousand thirty-nine mother-child pairs from the French EDEN mother-child birth cohort were followed from 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy onwards. Based on Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores assessed at six timepoints, longitudinal maternal depressive symptom trajectories were calculated with a group-based semiparametric method. Children's cognitive function was assessed at ages 5 to 6 by trained interviewers with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition (WPPSI-III), resulting in three composite scores: Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ). Five trajectories of maternal symptoms of depression could be distinguished: no symptoms, persistent intermediate-level depressive symptoms, persistent high depressive symptoms, high symptoms in pregnancy only, and high symptoms in the child's preschool period only. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that, compared to children of mothers who were never depressed, children of mothers with persistent high levels of depressive symptoms had reduced VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores. This association was moderated by the child's sex, boys appearing especially vulnerable in case of persistent maternal depression. Chronicity of maternal depression predicts children's cognitive development at school entry age, particularly in boys. As maternal mental health is an early modifiable influence on child development, addressing the treatment needs of depressed mothers may help reduce the associated burden on the next generation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Why do IQ Scores Predict Job Performance? An Alternative, Sociological Explanation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Byington (Eliza); W.A. Felps (William)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT During the past century, IQ testing has become a pervasive tool for allocating scarce resources in the United States and beyond. IQ-reflective tests are used in primary and secondary schools to sort students into groups, and by universities and employers to select between

  3. Improved behavior after adenotonsillectomy in children with higher and lower IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seockhoon; Hodges, Elise K; Ruzicka, Deborah L; Hoban, Timothy F; Garetz, Susan L; Guire, Kenneth E; Felt, Barbara T; Dillon, James E; Chervin, Ronald D; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether high intellectual ability, in comparison to average or lower performance, reflects the consequences of sleep-disordered breathing and limits behavioral benefit observed 6 months after adenotonsillectomy. Children aged 3-12 years (n=147) recruited from otolaryngology practices at two hospitals and assessed with Conners' Parent Rating Scales and an age range-appropriate intellectual measure, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale at baseline and 6 months after clinically-indicated adenotonsillectomy. Subjects were classified as having high (IQ≥110), average (90≤IQIQIQ groups (main effects for time, all pIQ group interactions). The magnitude of behavioral improvement among children with high IQ resembled that observed among the other two groups. Changes in the Conners' domains were not significantly correlated with baseline IQ, age, socioeconomic status, body mass index z-score, or respiratory disturbance index. Behavioral function can improve after adenotonsillectomy even among children with relatively high intellectual ability at baseline. Diagnosis and treatment with expectation of neurobehavioral benefit should be considered among high-performing children as readily as it is more traditionally among their lower-performing peers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-06-25

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (PIQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation.

  5. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance: Controlling for the Effects of IQ, Personality, and Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Mercedes; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Almeida, Leandro S.; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Rosario; Lopez-Pina, Jose Antonio; Hernandez, Daniel; Sainz, Marta; Fernandez, Mari-Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and academic performance, controlling for the effects of IQ, personality, and self-concept dimensions. A sample of 290 preadolescents (11-12 years old) took part in the study. The instruments used were (a) Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescents Short Form…

  6. What Does the DAP:IQ Measure?: Drawing Comparisons between Drawing Performance and Developmental Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrig, Gwendolyn; Stromswold, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Human figure drawing tasks such as the Draw-a-Person test have long been used to assess intelligence (F. Goodenough, 1926). The authors investigate the skills tapped by drawing and the risk factors associated with poor drawing. Self-portraits of 345 preschool children were scored by raters trained in using the Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability test (DAP:IQ) rubric (C. R. Reynolds & J. A. Hickman, 2004). Analyses of children's fine motor, gross motor, social, cognitive, and language skills revealed that only fine motor skill was an independent predictor of DAP:IQ scores. Being a boy and having a low birth weight were associated with lower DAP:IQ scores. These findings suggest that although the DAP:IQ may not be a valid measure of cognitive ability, it may be a useful screening tool for fine motor disturbances in at-risk children, such as boys who were born at low birth weights. Furthermore, researchers who use human figure drawing tasks to measure intelligence should measure fine motor skill in addition to intelligence.

  7. Premorbid IQ and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorder: Verbal and Performance subtests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Schiffman, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The present prospective high-risk study examined associations between childhood scores on five Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) subtests (vocabulary, similarities, block design, object assembly, and mazes) and later development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). The sample...... comprised 244 high-risk or control children who were administered the WISC subtests at age 10 to 13 years in 1972. Adult psychiatric data were gathered from psychiatric interviews in 1992-93 and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register in 2007. Thirty-two participants had developed SSD, 79 other...... psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 133 had no diagnosis (ND). The SSD group obtained lower scores than the ND group on all subtests and IQs, but when adjusted for sex and parental social status only significantly lower scores on similarities, object assembly, mazes, and total IQ. Compared with the ND group...

  8. Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Seligman, Martin E P

    2005-12-01

    In a longitudinal study of 140 eighth-grade students, self-discipline measured by self-report, parent report, teacher report, and monetary choice questionnaires in the fall predicted final grades, school attendance, standardized achievement-test scores, and selection into a competitive high school program the following spring. In a replication with 164 eighth graders, a behavioral delay-of-gratification task, a questionnaire on study habits, and a group-administered IQ test were added. Self-discipline measured in the fall accounted for more than twice as much variance as IQ in final grades, high school selection, school attendance, hours spent doing homework, hours spent watching television (inversely), and the time of day students began their homework. The effect of self-discipline on final grades held even when controlling for first-marking-period grades, achievement-test scores, and measured IQ. These findings suggest a major reason for students falling short of their intellectual potential: their failure to exercise self-discipline.

  9. Measuring an artificial intelligence system's performance on a Verbal IQ test for young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Stellan; Sloan, Robert H.; Turán, György; Urasky, Aaron

    2017-07-01

    We administered the Verbal IQ (VIQ) part of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III) to the ConceptNet 4 artificial intelligence (AI) system. The test questions (e.g. "Why do we shake hands?") were translated into ConceptNet 4 inputs using a combination of the simple natural language processing tools that come with ConceptNet together with short Python programs that we wrote. The question answering used a version of ConceptNet based on spectral methods. The ConceptNet system scored a WPPSI-III VIQ that is average for a four-year-old child, but below average for 5-7 year olds. Large variations among subtests indicate potential areas of improvement. In particular, results were strongest for the Vocabulary and Similarities subtests, intermediate for the Information subtest and lowest for the Comprehension and Word Reasoning subtests. Comprehension is the subtest most strongly associated with common sense. The large variations among subtests and ordinary common sense strongly suggest that the WPPSI-III VIQ results do not show that "ConceptNet has the verbal abilities of a four-year-old". Rather, children's IQ tests offer one objective metric for the evaluation and comparison of AI systems. Also, this work continues previous research on psychometric AI.

  10. Tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality (ToPIQ - the protocol of a new study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Since decades it is well documented that ETS can be harmful to human health and causes premature death and disease. In comparison to the huge research on toxicological substances of ETS, less attention was paid on the concentration of indoor ETS-dependent particulate matter (PM. Especially, investigation that focuses on different tobacco products and their concentration of deeply into the airways depositing PM-fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 must be stated. The tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality study (ToPIQS will approach this issue by device supported generation of indoor ETS and simultaneously measurements of PM concentration by laser aerosol spectrometry. Primarily, the ToPIQ study will conduct a field research with focus on PM concentration of different tobacco products and within various microenvironments. It is planned to extend the analysis to basic research on influencing factors of ETS-dependent PM concentration.

  11. IQ and the Wealth of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    In "IQ and the Wealth of Nations" (2002), Lynn and Vanhanen estimate the mean IQs of 185 nations and demonstrate that national IQs strongly correlate with the macroeconomic performance of the nations, explaining about half of the variance in GDP per capita. I seek to replicate Lynn and Vanhanen's results across states within the United…

  12. Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Laviolette, Rachelle; Deluca, Paolo; Monson, Eva; Cornish, Kim; Carrier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    To examine the associations between habitual sleep duration and intellectual functioning in healthy, well-rested, school-age children. The study group consisted of 39 healthy children, aged 7-11 years old. Nightly actigraphic sleep recordings were taken for four consecutive nights to determine habitual week-night sleep duration in the home environment. Objective measures of cognitive functioning and sleepiness were used to measure daytime functioning. Longer habitual sleep duration in healthy school-age participants was associated with better performance on measures of perceptual reasoning and overall IQ, as measured by the WISC-IV, and on reported measures of competence and academic performance. No association between sleep duration and the studied behavioral measures was found. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is differentially related to some components of cognitive functioning, even in the absence of evidence for sleep deprivation or attention deficits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Can music lessons increase the performance of preschool children in IQ tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Hossein; Mirbaha, Hilda; Pournaseh, Mehrangiz; Sagan, Olivia

    2014-02-01

    The impact of music on human cognition has a distinguished history as a research topic in psychology. The focus of the present study was on investigating the effects of music instruction on the cognitive development of preschool children. From a sample of 154 preschool children of Tehran kindergartens, 60 children aged between 5 and 6 were randomly assigned to two groups, one receiving music lessons and the other (matched for sex, age and mother's educational level) not taking part in any music classes. Children were tested before the start of the course of music lessons and at its end with 4 subtests of the Tehran-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (TSB). The experimental group participated in twelve 75-min weekly music lessons. Statistical analysis showed significant IQ increase in participants receiving music lessons, specifically on the TSB verbal reasoning and short-term memory subtests. The numerical and visual/abstract reasoning abilities did not differ for the two groups after lessons. These data support studies that found similar skills enhancements in preschool children, despite vast differences in the setting in which the instruction occurred. These findings appear to be consistent with some neuroimaging and neurological observations which are discussed in the paper.

  14. Verbal memory and Performance IQ predict theory of mind and emotion recognition ability in children with autistic spectrum disorders and in psychiatric control children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, J K; van der Wees, M; Swaab-Barneveld, H; van der Gaag, R J

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the developmental and cognitive correlates of theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition ability in children with autism (N = 20), with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 20), and in psychiatric control children (N = 20). The diagnostic groups were person-to-person matched on age and verbal IQ. The age of the children was between 8 and 18 years; their Full Scale IQ was at least 65. The test battery included tasks for the matching and the context recognition of emotional expressions, and a set of first- and second-order ToM tasks. The relationships between composite domain scores and the subjects' age, Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, verbal memory, visual memory, and gender were examined in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Further, the subjects who reliably and consistently passed the tasks of a domain and those who could not were compared on developmental and cognitive characteristics. Overall, the results of the various analyses converged and indicated that verbal memory, Performance IQ, age and gender were the best predictors of social cognitive ability.

  15. WISC-R subtest but no overall VIQ-PIQ difference in Dutch children with PDD-NOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, EI; Verheij, F; Ferdinand, RF

    VIQ-PIQ differences have been studied in children with autism and Asperger syndrome but have not been studied in a separate group of children with PDD-NO, although, PDD-NOS has a much higher prevalence rate than autism and deficits in communication and social interaction are severe. The Wechsler

  16. Impact of I/Q imbalance on the performance of two-way CSI-assisted AF relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aï ssa, Sonia; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate half-duplex two-way dual-hop channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance. A compensation approach for the I/Q imbalance is proposed, which employs the received signals together with their conjugations to detect the desired signal. We also derive the average symbol error probability of the considered half-duplex two-way dual-hop CSI-assisted AF relaying networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method mitigates the impact of I/Q imbalance to a certain extent. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Impact of I/Q imbalance on the performance of two-way CSI-assisted AF relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate half-duplex two-way dual-hop channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance. A compensation approach for the I/Q imbalance is proposed, which employs the received signals together with their conjugations to detect the desired signal. We also derive the average symbol error probability of the considered half-duplex two-way dual-hop CSI-assisted AF relaying networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method mitigates the impact of I/Q imbalance to a certain extent. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz ... What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Common Misconceptions Cholesterol IQ Quiz • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes of High ...

  19. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...

  20. Adoption and Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Adopted and Nonadopted Children's IQ and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Poelhuis, Caroline W. Klein

    2005-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 62 studies (N=17,767 adopted children) examined whether the cognitive development of adopted children differed from that of (a) children who remained in institutional care or in the birth family and (b) their current (environmental) nonadopted siblings or peers. Adopted children scored higher on IQ tests than their nonadopted…

  1. IQ and Crime: Dull Behavior and/or Misspecified Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brunschot, Erin Gibbs; Brannigan, Augustine

    1995-01-01

    In response to "The Bell Curve," notes that the effects of IQ on crime and delinquency are mediated by gender and age in a fashion that is not readily explained by a reduction to genetic differences. Discusses possible interrelationships among IQ, delinquency, and school performance, and suggests that the causal link between IQ and…

  2. IQ with limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Isolde Woittiez; Michiel Ras; Debbie Oudijk

    2012-01-01

    Original title: IQ met beperkingen Demand for care for people with intellectual disabilities has grown sharply in the Netherlands in recent years. Earlier reports by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP have described the number of persons with intellectual disabilities who apply for care. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the analyses in this report have been extended to include data on the IQ of persons with intellectual disabilities who ...

  3. Does the IQ God Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Linda S.

    1995-01-01

    Responds to "The Bell Curve" by arguing that IQ is merely a statistical fiction, an artificial construct not corresponding to any real entity. Discusses the "seductive statistical trap of factor analysis" as it relates to IQ tests, multiple intelligences, content and bias of IQ tests, lack of validity of IQ tests for individual…

  4. The Role of IQ in the Use of Cognitive Strategies to Learn Information from a Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seokhee

    2010-01-01

    The role of IQ in individual differences in real-life problem solving and strategies use was explored. Repeated trials of learning and recall of information from a map were analyzed with high IQ and average IQ Korean students. IQ correlated with the selection and use of strategies in recall. However, the performance and strategic behaviors of…

  5. Association of paternal IQ in early adulthood with offspring mortality and hospital admissions for injuries: a cohort study of 503 492 Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-07-01

    Higher intelligence (IQ) has been related to a lower risk of mortality and hospital admissions for injuries, but little is known about the effect of parental IQ on offspring outcomes. We explored associations of paternal IQ with mortality and hospitalisations for injuries from all external causes in offspring. A cohort of 503 492 Swedish children under 5 years of age with information on paternal IQ was obtained by record linkage of national registers. HR with 95% CIs were estimated using Cox regression. There was some evidence that paternal IQ was inversely associated with total and external-cause mortality in offspring, although the effects were modest and disappeared when controlling for parents' socioeconomic position (SEP). The only robust gradient was found between paternal IQ and hospital admissions for injuries (HRper 1-SD increase in IQ 0.93, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.94; pIQ may have an increased risk of injury by external causes. Messages on family safety and injury prevention might be tailored according to parental cognitive abilities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-check kits and the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook methods for detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. M...

  7. IQ with limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isolde Woittiez; Michiel Ras; Debbie Oudijk

    2012-01-01

    Original title: IQ met beperkingen Demand for care for people with intellectual disabilities has grown sharply in the Netherlands in recent years. Earlier reports by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP have described the number of persons with intellectual disabilities who apply

  8. Estimating the Impacts of Direct Load Control Programs Using GridPIQ, a Web-Based Screening Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Seemita; Thayer, Brandon L.; Barrett, Emily L.; Studarus, Karen E.

    2017-11-13

    In direct load control (DLC) programs, utilities can curtail the demand of participating loads to contractually agreed-upon levels during periods of critical peak load, thereby reducing stress on the system, generation cost, and required transmission and generation capacity. Participating customers receive financial incentives. The impacts of implementing DLC programs extend well beyond peak shaving. There may be a shift of load proportional to the interrupted load to the times before or after a DLC event, and different load shifts have different consequences. Tools that can quantify the impacts of such programs on load curves, peak demand, emissions, and fossil fuel costs are currently lacking. The Grid Project Impact Quantification (GridPIQ) screening tool includes a Direct Load Control module, which takes into account project-specific inputs as well as the larger system context in order to quantify the impacts of a given DLC program. This allows users (utilities, researchers, etc.) to test and compare different program specifications and their impacts.

  9. DNA polymerases κ and ζ cooperatively perform mutagenic translesion synthesis of the C8–2′-deoxyguanosine adduct of the dietary mutagen IQ in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arindam; Pande, Paritosh; Jasti, Vijay P.; Millsap, Amy D.; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Basu, Ashis K.

    2015-01-01

    The roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in bypassing the C8–2′-deoxyguanosine adduct (dG-C8-IQ) formed by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a highly mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, were investigated. Three plasmid vectors containing the dG-C8-IQ adduct at the G1-, G2- or G3-positions of the NarI site (5′-G1G2CG3CC-3′) were replicated in HEK293T cells. Fifty percent of the progeny from the G3 construct were mutants, largely G→T, compared to 18% and 24% from the G1 and G2 constructs, respectively. Mutation frequency (MF) of dG-C8-IQ was reduced by 38–67% upon siRNA knockdown of pol κ, whereas it was increased by 10–24% in pol η knockdown cells. When pol κ and pol ζ were simultaneously knocked down, MF of the G1 and G3 constructs was reduced from 18% and 50%, respectively, to IQ. We conclude that pol κ and pol ζ cooperatively carry out the majority of the error-prone TLS of dG-C8-IQ, whereas pol η is involved primarily in its error-free bypass. PMID:26220181

  10. Negative associations between corpus callosum midsagittal area and IQ in a representative sample of healthy children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Ganjavi

    Full Text Available Documented associations between corpus callosum size and cognitive ability have heretofore been inconsistent potentially owing to differences in sample characteristics, differing methodologies in measuring CC size, or the use of absolute versus relative measures. We investigated the relationship between CC size and intelligence quotient (IQ in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development sample, a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (aged six to 18, n = 198 recruited to be representative of the US population. CC midsagittal area was measured using an automated system that partitioned the CC into 25 subregions. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. After correcting for total brain volume and age, a significant negative correlation was found between total CC midsagittal area and IQ (r = -0.147; p = 0.040. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant negative correlation in children (age<12 (r = -0.279; p = 0.004 but not in adolescents (age≥12 (r = -0.005; p = 0.962. Partitioning the subjects by gender revealed a negative correlation in males (r = -0.231; p = 0.034 but not in females (r = 0.083; p = 0.389. Results suggest that the association between CC and intelligence is mostly driven by male children. In children, a significant gender difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ, and in males, a significant age-group difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ. These findings suggest that the correlation between CC midsagittal area and IQ may be related to age and gender.

  11. IQ discrepancy differentiates levels of fine motor skills and their relationship in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chou, Willy; Chow, Julie Chi; Lin, Chien-Ho; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2018-01-01

    We investigated 1) the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD) on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 2) the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81), discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points]), and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points]). Children's IQD and motor skills were determined with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ - Fourth Edition and the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT), respectively. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant group differences for the fine motor domain of the CDIIT and the visual-motor coordination subtest ( F =3.37-4.38, p motor skills than were children with even IQD and those with discrepantly higher VIQ, and vice versa. IQD (PIQ - VIQ) had significant positive correlations with the fine motor domain and fine motor subtests of the CDIIT ( r =0.18-0.29, p motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. This study suggests important implications for clinicians, therapists, and researchers: discrepantly higher PIQ could be related to better visual-motor coordination, and discrepantly higher VIQ could be related to poor visual-motor coordination. Furthermore, the results support that when therapists are working with preschool-aged children with ASD who are developing fine motor skills or undertaking fine motor tasks related to visual-motor coordination, they may need to pay attention to the children's IQD.

  12. Good cognitive performances in a child with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugnes, Rosa; Zito, Eugenio; Mozzillo, Enza; Camarca, Maria Erminia; Riccio, Maria Pia; Terrone, Gaetano; Melis, Daniela; Bravaccio, Carmela; Franzese, Adriana

    2013-11-15

    We report the case of a child affected by Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) with good cognitive performances and without relevant behavioral abnormalities.The diagnosis of PWS, suspected on the basis of clinical features and past history, was confirmed by DNA methylation analysis. Additional genetic testing revealed a maternal uniparental disomy. Intellectual profile was analyzed by WISC-III and Raven's Progressive Matrices CPM, while the behavior was evaluated by K-SADS-PL and Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 to the parents.WISC-III test showed a Total Intelligence Quotient (T-IQ = 79) at the border level for age. The Verbal Intelligence Quotient (V-IQ) showed a lower score than the Performance Intelligence Quotient (P-IQ) (78 and 85, respectively). Raven's Matrices CPM showed an intelligence level at 75-90° percentile for age. Concerning behavioral evaluation, a difficulty in impulse control was observed, with persistent but controllable search for food, without a clear psychopathological meaning. Also according to K-SADS-PL no areas of psychopathological dimensions were detected. In conclusion, in presence of consisting clinical features of PWS and high diagnostic suspicion, the diagnosis of PWS should be considered even in presence of a borderline IQ and in absence of psychopathological abnormalities.

  13. Moderation of Stimulus Material on the Prediction of IQ with Infants' Performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm: Do Greebles Make the Task More Challenging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubert, Manuel; Lohaus, Arnold; Fassbender, Ina; Vöhringer, Isabel A.; Suhrke, Janina; Poloczek, Sonja; Freitag, Claudia; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the role of the stimulus material for the prediction of later IQ by early learning measures in the Visual Expectation Paradigm (VExP). The VExP was assessed at 9?months using two types of stimuli, Greebles and human faces. Greebles were assumed to be associated with a higher load on working memory in…

  14. Performance Improvement Quarterly. Volume 15, Number 1, 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Performance Improvement Quarterly (PIQ) is a peer-reviewed journal whose goal is to stimulate professional discussion in the field and to advance the discipline of performance technology through the publication of scholarly works...

  15. Factors associated with IQ scores in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, L.L.; Nesbit, M.E. Jr.; Sather, H.N.; Meadows, A.T.; Ortega, J.A.; Hammond, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    To identify factors which might be associated with intellectual function following treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 50 long-term survivors were studied using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. All patients were diagnosed between 1972 and 1974 and were treated on a single clinical trial protocol with identical induction and maintenance chemotherapy plus central nervous system prophylaxis that included cranial radiation. The mean full scale IQ score for the group was 95 (SEM 2.0), with mean verbal IQ of 94.4 and mean performance IQ of 96.9. Factors which were found to be closely associated with a lower IQ score included female sex (in both verbal IQ and full-scale IQ), longer duration of chemotherapy (in performance IQ), and younger age at the time of radiation (in both verbal IQ and full-scale IQ). The age at the time of radiation was found to be significantly correlated with discrepancy between verbal and performance IQ, with younger age being associated with verbal IQ scores higher than performance IQ scores. When analyses were performed within specific subgroups of patients defined by sex and age at the time of radiation, dose of cranial radiation, concomitant intrathecal methotrexate therapy, and duration of therapy were all found to be correlated with a lower level of intellectual function. These preliminary findings provide direction for future studies to help identify high-risk patients

  16. Does IQ Matter in Adolescents' Reading Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortteinen, Hanna; Narhi, Vesa; Ahonen, Timo

    2009-01-01

    We studied the connection of IQ, reading disability (RD) and their interaction with reading, spelling and other cognitive skills in adolescents with average IQ and RD (n = 22), average IQ, non-RD (n = 71), below average IQ and RD (n = 29), and below average IQ non-RD (n = 33). IQ was not connected to reading and spelling in subjects without RD,…

  17. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of personality traits and IQ on lifetime earnings of the men and women of the Terman study, a high-IQ U.S. sample. Age-by-age earnings profiles allow a study of when personality traits affect earnings most, and for whom the effects are strongest. I document...... a concave life-cycle pattern in the payoffs to personality traits, with the largest effects between the ages of 40 and 60. An interaction of traits with education reveals that personality matters most for highly educated men. The largest effects are found for Conscientiousness, Extraversion...

  18. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: Skin Cancer Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents 1. ... Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 2 Page ...

  19. The Stability of IQ in People with Low Intellectual Ability: An Analysis of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the stability of low IQ (IQ less than 80) was performed on IQ tests that have been commonly used--tests that were derived by D. Wechsler (1949, 1955, 1974, 1981, 1991, 1997) and those based on the Binet scales (L. M. Terman, 1960; L. M. Terman & Merrill, 1972). Weighted-mean stability coefficients of 0.77 and 0.78 were found…

  20. Hydraulic laboratory testing of Sontek-IQ Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Janice M.; Kimball, Scott

    2015-11-10

    The SonTek-IQ Plus (IQ Plus) is a bottom-mounted Doppler instrument used for the measurement of water depth and velocity. Evaluation testing of the IQ Plus was performed to assess the accuracy of water depth, discharge, and velocity measurements. The IQ Plus met the manufacturer’s specifications and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard for depth accuracy measurement when the unit was installed, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, at 0 degrees pitch and roll. However, because of the limited depth testing conducted, the depth measurement is not recommended as a primary stage measurement. The IQ Plus was tested in a large indoor tilting flume in a 5-foot (ft) wide, approximately 2.3-ft deep section with mean velocities of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 ft per second. Four IQ Plus instruments using firmware 1.52 tested for water-discharge accuracy using SonTek’s “theoretical” discharge method had a negative bias of -2.4 to -11.6 percent when compared with discharge measured with a SonTek FlowTracker and the midsection discharge method. The IQ Pluses with firmware 1.52 did not meet the manufacturer’s specification of +/-1 percent for measuring velocity. Three IQ Pluses using firmware 1.60 and SonTek’s “theoretical” method had a difference of -1.6 to -7.9 percent when compared with discharge measured with a SonTek FlowTracker and the midsection method. Mean-velocity measurements with firmware 1.60 met the manufacturer’s specification and Price Type AA meter accuracy requirements when compared with FlowTracker measurements. Because of the instrument’s velocity accuracy, the SonTek-IQ Plus with firmware 1.60 is considered acceptable for use as an index velocity instrument for the USGS. The discharge computed by the SonTek-IQ Plus during the tests had a substantial negative bias and will not be as accurate as a discharge computed with the index velocity method. The USGS does not recommend the use of undocumented computation methods, such as Son

  1. Intelligence is in the eye of the beholder: investigating repeated IQ measurements in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were computed, and each IQ score was categorized. Additionally, t-tests and regression analyses were performed. Differences of 10 points or more were found in 66% of the cases comparing WAIS-III with RAVEN scores. Fisher's exact test revealed differences between two WAIS-III scores and the WAIS categories. The WAIS-III did not predict other IQs (WAIS or RAVEN) in participants with intellectual disability. This study showed that stability or interchangeability of scores is lacking, especially in individuals with intellectual disability. Caution in interpreting IQ scores is therefore recommended, and the use of the unitary concept of IQ should be discouraged. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Talented individuals are seen as drivers of long-term growth, but how do they realize their full potential? In this paper, I show that lifetime earnings of high-IQ men and women are substantially influenced by their personality traits, in addition to intelligence and education. Personality traits......, as identified in a factor model, significantly affect earnings, but not for young workers. The effects are furthermore heterogeneous by educational attainment. For women, personality traits do not affect family earnings in the same way as own earnings. Personality and IQ also influence earnings indirectly...... through education, which has sizeable positive rates of return for men in this sample. Women’s returns to education past a bachelor’s degree are lowered through worse marriage prospects, which offset gains to education in terms of own earnings. The causal effect of education is identified through matching...

  3. Rendezvous with IQ: Metacognition in Real-Life Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between metacognition as measured in real-life situations and IQ scores as reflected by performance on the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Scale. It is also intended in this study to report on whether or not there were significant differences in performance on the metacognitive…

  4. IQ variations across time, race, and nationality: an artifact of differences in literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David F

    2010-06-01

    A body of data on IQ collected over 50 years has revealed that average population IQ varies across time, race, and nationality. An explanation for these differences may be that intelligence test performance requires literacy skills not present in all people to the same extent. In eight analyses, population mean full scale IQ and literacy scores yielded correlations ranging from .79 to .99. In cohort studies, significantly larger improvements in IQ occurred in the lower half of the IQ distribution, affecting the distribution variance and skewness in the predicted manner. In addition, three Verbal subscales on the WAIS show the largest Flynn effect sizes and all four Verbal subscales are among those showing the highest racial IQ differences. This pattern of findings supports the hypothesis that both secular and racial differences in intelligence test scores have an environmental explanation: secular and racial differences in IQ are an artifact of variation in literacy skills. These findings suggest that racial IQ distributions will converge if opportunities are equalized for different population groups to achieve the same high level of literacy skills. Social justice requires more effective implementation of policies and programs designed to eliminate inequities in IQ and literacy.

  5. IQ and mental disorder in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort......, military IQ test scores and information on psychiatric hospitalisation were available. We identified 350 men in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and compared the mean IQ test scores of nine diagnostic categories with the mean scores of 2939 unregistered cohort controls. RESULTS: Schizophrenia...... diagnostic categories, test scores were positively associated with the length of the interval between testing and first admission. ICD mood disorders as well as neuroses and related disorders were not significantly associated with low IQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ may be a consequence of mental disease...

  6. Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…

  7. The Importance of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Measuring IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Lex; Meijers, Huub; ter Weel, Bas

    2013-01-01

    This research provides an economic model of the way people behave during an IQ test. We distinguish a technology that describes how time investment improves performance from preferences that determine how much time people invest in each question. We disentangle these two elements empirically using data from a laboratory experiment. The main…

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF IQ ON THEORY OF MIND SKILLS IN A GROUP OF SCHIZOPHRENICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz López Herrero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia sufferers may have Theory of Mind (ToM deficits. These deficits are not as severe as those shown by people with other disorders such as autism, because schizophrenic patients can solve simple ToM tests using their Intelligence Quotient (IQ and general problemsolving skills. Our aim was to study ToM by asking a group of schizophrenics to perform a mental verbs task. We then identified the categories into which the mental verbs were grouped and their use profile, and assessed the influence of intelligence quotient. We observed that those with a higher IQ had lower ToM deficits. Subjects with average IQs grouped the mental activities quite well and those with low IQ performed the task poorly as a result of the combined effects of schizophrenia processes and low IQ.

  9. Characterization of Novel Calmodulin Binding Domains within IQ Motifs of IQGAP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Deok-Jin; Ban, Byungkwan; Lee, Jin-A

    2011-01-01

    IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), which is a well-known calmodulin (CaM) binding protein, is involved in a wide range of cellular processes including cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, adhesion, and migration. Interaction of IQGAP1 with CaM is important for its cellular functions. Although each IQ domain of IQGAP1 for CaM binding has been characterized in a Ca2+-dependent or -independent manner, it was not clear which IQ motifs are physiologically relevant for CaM binding in the cells. In this study, we performed immunoprecipitation using 3xFLAGhCaM in mammalian cell lines to characterize the domains of IQGAP1 that are key for CaM binding under physiological conditions. Interestingly, using this method, we identified two novel domains, IQ(2.7-3) and IQ(3.5-4.4), within IQGAP1 that were involved in Ca2+-independent or -dependent CaM binding, respectively. Mutant analysis clearly showed that the hydrophobic regions within IQ(2.7-3) were mainly involved in apoCaM binding, while the basic amino acids and hydrophobic region of IQ(3.5-4.4) were required for Ca2+/CaM binding. Finally, we showed that IQ(2.7-3) was the main apoCaM binding domain and both IQ(2.7-3) and IQ(3.5-4.4) were required for Ca2+/CaM binding within IQ(1- 2-3-4). Thus, we identified and characterized novel direct CaM binding motifs essential for IQGAP1. This finding indicates that IQGAP1 plays a dynamic role via direct interactions with CaM in a Ca2+-dependent or -independent manner. PMID:22080369

  10. IQ-SPECT for thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: effect of normal databases on quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Takahiro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Yoneyama, Hiroto; Matsuo, Shinro; Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Kinuya, Seigo

    2017-07-01

    Although IQ-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides rapid acquisition and attenuation-corrected images, the unique technology may create characteristic distribution different from the conventional imaging. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of IQ-SPECT using Japanese normal databases (NDBs) with that of the conventional SPECT for thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). A total of 36 patients underwent 1-day 201 Tl adenosine stress-rest MPI. Images were acquired with IQ-SPECT at approximately one-quarter of the standard time of conventional SPECT. Projection data acquired with the IQ-SPECT system were reconstructed via an ordered subset conjugate gradient minimizer method with or without scatter and attenuation correction (SCAC). Projection data obtained using the conventional SPECT were reconstructed via a filtered back projection method without SCAC. The summed stress score (SSS) was calculated using NDBs created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine working group, and scores were compared between IQ-SPECT and conventional SPECT using the acquisition condition-matched NDBs. The diagnostic performance of the methods for the detection of coronary artery disease was also compared. SSSs were 6.6 ± 8.2 for the conventional SPECT, 6.6 ± 9.4 for IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and 6.5 ± 9.7 for IQ-SPECT with SCAC (p = n.s. for each comparison). The SSS showed a strong positive correlation between conventional SPECT and IQ-SPECT (r = 0.921 and p IQ-SPECT with and without SCAC was also good (r = 0.907 and p IQ-SPECT without SCAC; and 88.5, 86.8, and 87.3%, respectively, for IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively. The area under the curve obtained via receiver operating characteristic analysis were 0.77, 0.80, and 0.86 for conventional SPECT, IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively (p = n.s. for each comparison). When appropriate NDBs were used, the diagnostic performance of 201 Tl IQ

  11. Intelligence Deficits in Chinese Patients with Brain Tumor: The Impact of Tumor Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intelligence is much important for brain tumor patients after their operation, while the reports about surgical related intelligence deficits are not frequent. It is not only theoretically important but also meaningful for clinical practice. Methods. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was employed to evaluate the intelligence of 103 patients with intracranial tumor and to compare the intelligence quotient (IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ, and performance IQ (PIQ between the intracerebral and extracerebral subgroups. Results. Although preoperative intelligence deficits appeared in all subgroups, IQ, VIQ, and PIQ were not found to have any significant difference between the intracerebral and extracerebral subgroups, but with VIQ lower than PIQ in all the subgroups. An immediate postoperative follow-up demonstrated a decline of IQ and PIQ in the extracerebral subgroup, but an improvement of VIQ in the right intracerebral subgroup. Pituitary adenoma resection exerted no effect on intelligence. In addition, age, years of education, and tumor size were found to play important roles. Conclusions. Brain tumors will impair IQ, VIQ, and PIQ. The extracerebral tumor resection can deteriorate IQ and PIQ. However, right intracerebral tumor resection is beneficial to VIQ, and transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resection performs no effect on intelligence.

  12. IQ discrepancy differentiates levels of fine motor skills and their relationship in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Willy Chou,2,3 Julie Chi Chow,4 Chien-Ho Lin,5 Li-Chen Tung,2,6 Kuan-Lin Chen7,8 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, 3Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 4Department of Pediatrics, 5Department of Psychiatry, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 6Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Da Chien General Hospital, Miaoli, 7Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 8Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan Purpose: We investigated 1 the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; 2 the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. Methods: A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81, discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points], and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points]. Children’s IQD and motor skills were determined with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition and the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT, respectively. Results: One-way analysis of variance revealed significant group differences for the fine motor domain of the CDIIT and the visual–motor coordination subtest (F=3.37–4.38, p<0.05. Children with discrepantly higher PIQ were associated with better fine motor skills than were children with even IQD and those with discrepantly higher VIQ, and vice versa. IQD (PIQ

  13. Onzin over het IQ van Afrikanen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.

    2010-01-01

    IQ is geen op zichzelf staande eigenschap maar is met allerlei andere variabelen te correleren. Zo blijkt IQ te maken te hebben met cognitieve vaardigheden en opleidingsniveau. Er zijn echter ook andere verbanden te leggen die minder voor de hand liggen en maatschappelijke implicaties hebben.

  14. Heritability Analyses of IQ Scores: Science or Numerology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzer, David

    1974-01-01

    Examines limitations of the heritability concept and heritability analysis, and discusses a conventional application of heritability analysis, IQ scores as measurements of a phenotypic character, the heritability of IQ, and the relationship of IQ and race. (JR)

  15. Does IQ affect the functional brain network involved in pseudoword reading in students with reading disability? A magnetoencephalography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G Simos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined whether individual differences in performance and verbal IQ affect the profiles of reading-related regional brain activation in 127 students experiencing reading difficulties and typical readers. Using magnetoencephalography in a pseudoword read-aloud task, we compared brain activation profiles of students experiencing word-level reading difficulties who did (n=29 or did not (n=36 meet the IQ-reading achievement discrepancy criterion. Typical readers assigned to a lower-IQ (n=18 or a higher IQ (n=44 subgroup served as controls. Minimum norm estimates of regional cortical activity revealed that the degree of hypoactivation in the left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in both RD subgroups was not affected by IQ. Moreover, IQ did not moderate the positive association between degree of activation in the left fusiform gyrus and phonological decoding ability. We did find, however, that the hypoactivation of the left pars opercularis in RD was restricted to lower-IQ participants. In accordance with previous morphometric and fMRI studies, degree of activity in inferior frontal and inferior parietal regions correlated with IQ across reading ability subgroups. Results are consistent with current views questioning the relevance of IQ measures and IQ-discrepancy criteria in the diagnosis of dyslexia.

  16. Image quality (IQ) guided multispectral image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Chen, Genshe; Wang, Zhonghai; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Image compression is necessary for data transportation, which saves both transferring time and storage space. In this paper, we focus on our discussion on lossy compression. There are many standard image formats and corresponding compression algorithms, for examples, JPEG (DCT -- discrete cosine transform), JPEG 2000 (DWT -- discrete wavelet transform), BPG (better portable graphics) and TIFF (LZW -- Lempel-Ziv-Welch). The image quality (IQ) of decompressed image will be measured by numerical metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural Similarity (SSIM) Index. Given an image and a specified IQ, we will investigate how to select a compression method and its parameters to achieve an expected compression. Our scenario consists of 3 steps. The first step is to compress a set of interested images by varying parameters and compute their IQs for each compression method. The second step is to create several regression models per compression method after analyzing the IQ-measurement versus compression-parameter from a number of compressed images. The third step is to compress the given image with the specified IQ using the selected compression method (JPEG, JPEG2000, BPG, or TIFF) according to the regressed models. The IQ may be specified by a compression ratio (e.g., 100), then we will select the compression method of the highest IQ (SSIM, or PSNR). Or the IQ may be specified by a IQ metric (e.g., SSIM = 0.8, or PSNR = 50), then we will select the compression method of the highest compression ratio. Our experiments tested on thermal (long-wave infrared) images (in gray scales) showed very promising results.

  17. A comparison of IQ and memory cluster solutions in moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Terranova, Jennifer; Turner, Alisa; Mayfield, Joan; Allen, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have examined heterogeneous neuropsychological outcomes in childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) using cluster analysis. These studies have identified homogeneous subgroups based on tests of IQ, memory, and other cognitive abilities that show some degree of association with specific cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes, and have demonstrated that the clusters derived for children with TBI are different from those observed in normal populations. However, the extent to which these subgroups are stable across abilities has not been examined, and this has significant implications for the generalizability and clinical utility of TBI clusters. The current study addressed this by comparing IQ and memory profiles of 137 children who sustained moderate-to-severe TBI. Cluster analysis of IQ and memory scores indicated that a four-cluster solution was optimal for the IQ scores and a five-cluster solution was optimal for the memory scores. Three clusters on each battery differed primarily by level of performance, while the others had pattern variations. Cross-plotting the clusters across respective IQ and memory test scores indicated that clusters defined by level were generally stable, while clusters defined by pattern differed. Notably, children with slower processing speed exhibited low-average to below-average performance on memory indexes. These results provide some support for the stability of previously identified memory and IQ clusters and provide information about the relationship between IQ and memory in children with TBI.

  18. Multi-hop amplify-and-forward relaying cooperation in the presence of I/Q imbalance

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aï ssa, Sonia; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, multi-hop cooperative networks implementing channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance are investigated. We propose a compensation algorithm for the I/Q imbalance. The performance of the multi-hop CSI-assisted AF cooperative networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Nakagami-m fading environment is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method can effectively mitigate the impact of I/Q imbalance. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Multi-hop amplify-and-forward relaying cooperation in the presence of I/Q imbalance

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, multi-hop cooperative networks implementing channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance are investigated. We propose a compensation algorithm for the I/Q imbalance. The performance of the multi-hop CSI-assisted AF cooperative networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Nakagami-m fading environment is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method can effectively mitigate the impact of I/Q imbalance. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  1. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sophie Rommel

    Full Text Available While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  2. In Vivo Assessment of Neurodegeneration in Type C Niemann-Pick Disease by IDEAL-IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruo-Mi; Li, Qing-Ling; Luo, Zhong-Xing; Tang, Wen; Jiao, Ju; Wang, Jin; Kang, Zhuang; Chen, Shao-Qiong; Zhang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    To noninvasively assess the neurodegenerative changes in the brain of patients with Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease by measuring the lesion tissue with the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least square estimation-iron quantification (IDEAL-IQ). Routine brain MRI, IDEAL-IQ and 1 H-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS, served as control) were performed on 12 patients with type C Niemann-Pick disease (4 males and 8 females; age range, 15-61 years; mean age, 36 years) and 20 healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females; age range, 20-65 years; mean age, 38 years). The regions with lesion and the normal appearing regions (NARs) of patients were measured and analyzed based on the fat/water signal intensity on IDEAL-IQ and the lipid peak on 1 H-MRS. Niemann-Pick type C patients showed a higher fat/water signal intensity ratio with IDEAL-IQ on T2 hyperintensity lesions and NARs (3.7-4.9%, p IQ instead of 1 H-MRS. The findings of this study suggested that IDEAL-IQ may be useful as a noninvasive and objective method in the evaluation of patients with NPC; additionally, IDEAL-IQ can be used to quantitatively measure the brain parenchymal adipose content and monitor patient follow-up after treatment of NPC.

  3. Brain function during probabilistic learning in relation to IQ and level of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2012-02-15

    Knowing how to adapt your behavior based on feedback lies at the core of successful learning. We investigated the relation between brain function, grey matter volume, educational level and IQ in a Dutch adolescent sample. In total 45 healthy volunteers between ages 13 and 16 were recruited from schools for pre-vocational and pre-university education. For each individual, IQ was estimated using two subtests from the WISC-III-R (similarities and block design). While in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, participants performed a probabilistic learning task. Behavioral comparisons showed that participants with higher IQ used a more adaptive learning strategy after receiving positive feedback. Analysis of neural activation revealed that higher IQ was associated with increased activation in DLPFC and dACC when receiving positive feedback, specifically for rules with low reward probability (i.e., unexpected positive feedback). Furthermore, VBM analyses revealed that IQ correlated positively with grey matter volume within these regions. These results provide support for IQ-related individual differences in the developmental time courses of neural circuitry supporting feedback-based learning. Current findings are interpreted in terms of a prolonged window of flexibility and opportunity for adolescents with higher IQ scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IQ and Reading Comprehension in Translation Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Askari; Azam Samadi Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Having a deeper understanding of determining factors in the quality of translation is in the interest of almost all scholars of translation studies. Students’ intelligence is being measured constantly in order to determine their aptitude for entering into different programs. However, in translation studies, the variable of intelligence quotient (IQ) has been curiously ignored among researchers. This study aimed to explore the strength of both IQ and reading comprehension in predicting transla...

  5. Low IQ scores in schizophrenia : primary or secondary deficit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, M; Withaar, F; van Zomeren, AH; van den Bosch, R

    Background: Schizophrenia is consistently associated with lower IQ compared to the IQ of control groups, or estimated premorbid IQ. It is not likely that the IQ scores deteriorate during the prodromal phase or first psychotic episode; they are already present before the onset of the prodromal phase

  6. Analysis and compensation of I/Q imbalance in amplify-and-forward cooperative systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aissa, Sonia; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative systems in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance, which refers to the mismatch between components in I and Q branches, are investigated. First, we analyze the performance of the considered AF cooperative protocol without compensation for I/Q imbalance as the benchmark. Furthermore, a compensation algorithm for I/Q imbalance is proposed, which makes use of the received signals at the destination, from the source and relay nodes, together with their conjugations to detect the transmitted signal. The performance of the AF cooperative system under study is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability (SEP), which is derived considering transmission over Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation algorithm can efficiently mitigate the effect of I/Q imbalance. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. IQ imbalance tolerable parallel-channel DMT transmission for coherent optical OFDMA access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Min; Mun, Kyoung-Hak; Jung, Sun-Young; Han, Sang-Kook

    2016-12-01

    Phase diversity of coherent optical communication provides spectrally efficient higher-order modulation for optical communications. However, in-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalance in coherent optical communication degrades transmission performance by introducing unwanted signal distortions. In a coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) passive optical network (PON), IQ imbalance-induced signal distortions degrade transmission performance by interferences of mirror subcarriers, inter-symbol interference (ISI), and inter-channel interference (ICI). We propose parallel-channel discrete multitone (DMT) transmission to mitigate transceiver IQ imbalance-induced signal distortions in coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmissions. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of parallel-channel DMT transmission compared with that of OFDM transmission in the presence of IQ imbalance.

  8. Analysis and compensation of I/Q imbalance in amplify-and-forward cooperative systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative systems in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance, which refers to the mismatch between components in I and Q branches, are investigated. First, we analyze the performance of the considered AF cooperative protocol without compensation for I/Q imbalance as the benchmark. Furthermore, a compensation algorithm for I/Q imbalance is proposed, which makes use of the received signals at the destination, from the source and relay nodes, together with their conjugations to detect the transmitted signal. The performance of the AF cooperative system under study is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability (SEP), which is derived considering transmission over Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation algorithm can efficiently mitigate the effect of I/Q imbalance. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. 77 FR 49839 - IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application August 13, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and... IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). SUMMARY OF APPLICATION: Applicants request an order that... series, IQ Global Equity Active ETF (``Global Equity ETF''), IQ Global Fixed Income Active ETF (``Global...

  10. Parental Socioeconomic Status or IQ? An Exploration of Major Determinants of U.S. Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Dillon Montgomery

    2018-01-01

    The Bell Curve by Charles Murray and Richard Herrnstein is one of the most controversial academic works of the last few decades. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (1979), we performed a number of regressions of poverty status in 1989 on parental socioeconomic status, IQ, race, sex, and age. We replicate their results which show that IQ is a more important predictor of poverty status than parental socioeconomic status (SES). We extend their analysis to other groupings ...

  11. A shift to glycolysis accompanies the inflammatory changes in PBMCs from individuals with an IQ-discrepant memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Hannah; Hannigan, Caoimhe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Carroll, Liam Barry; Brennan, Sabina; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H; Lynch, Marina

    2018-04-15

    Identification of a blood-based biomarker that can detect early cognitive decline presents a significant healthcare challenge. We prepared peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals who had a poorer than predicted performance in their delayed recall performance on the Logical Memory II Subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) relative to their IQ estimated by the National Adult Reading Test (NART); we described these individuals as IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. Stimulation with Aβ + LPS increased production of TNFα to a greater extent in cells from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. This was associated with a shift towards glycolysis and the evidence indicates that 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase (PFKFB)3 plays a role in driving glycolysis. A similar shift towards glycolysis was observed in MDMs prepared from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. The important finding here is that we have established an increased sensitivity to Aβ + LPS stimulation in PBMCs from individuals that under-perform on a memory task, relative to their estimated premorbid IQ, which may be an indicator of early cognitive decline. This may be a useful tool in determining the presence of early cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High IQ May "Mask" the Diagnosis of ADHD by Compensating for Deficits in Executive Functions in Treatment-Naïve Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioni, Ana Luiza Vidal; Chaim, Tiffany Moukbel; Cavallet, Mikael; de Oliveira, Nathalya Moleda; Annes, Marco; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Louzã, Mario; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Miguel, Carmen Silvia; Serpa, Mauricio Henriques; Zanetti, Marcus V; Busatto, Geraldo; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the performance of adults with ADHD with high and standard IQ in executive functions (EF) tasks. We investigated the neuropsychological performance of 51 adults with ADHD, compared with 33 healthy controls (HC) while performing a wide battery of neuropsychological tests that measure executive functioning. Adults with clinical diagnosis of ADHD were divided into two groups according to their IQ level (IQ ≥ 110-ADHD group with more elevated IQ, and IQ IQ). The ADHD group with standard IQ presented a worse executive functioning compared with the HC group in the following measures: Stroop 2 ( p = .000) and 3 ( p = .000), Trail Making Test (TMT) B ( p = .005), Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST)-perseverative errors ( p = .022) and failures to maintain set ( p = .020), Continuous Performance Test (CPT)-omission errors ( p = .005) and commission errors ( p = .000), and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB)-conceptualization ( p = .016). The ADHD group with more elevated IQ presented only impairments in the CPT-commission errors ( p = .019) when compared with the control group. Adults with ADHD and more elevated IQ show less evidence of executive functioning deficits compared with those with ADHD and standard IQ, suggesting that a higher degree of intellectual efficiency may compensate deficits in executive functions, leading to problems in establishing a precise clinical diagnosis.

  13. Relationships between Cerebral Blood Flow and IQ in Typically Developing Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Emily; Liu, Collin Y; Yan, Lirong; Kim, Yoon Chun; Dapretto, Mirella; Mendez, Mario F; Wang, Danny J J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between IQ and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in children and adolescents. ASL was used to collect perfusion MRI data on 39 healthy participants aged 7 to 17. The Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale was administered to determine IQ scores. Multivariate regression was applied to reveal correlations between CBF and IQ scores, accounting for age, sex and global mean CBF. Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis, which measures regional cortical volume, was performed as a control. Regression analyses were further performed on CBF data with adjustment of regional gray matter density (GMD). A positive correlation between CBF and IQ scores was primarily seen in the subgenual/anterior cingulate, right orbitofrontal, superior temporal and right inferior parietal regions. An inverse relationship between CBF and IQ was mainly observed in bilateral posterior temporal regions. After adjusting for regional GMD, the correlations between CBF and IQ in the subgenual/anterior cingulate cortex, right orbitofrontal, superior temporal regions and left insula remained significant. These findings support the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of intelligence, especially the role of the subgenual/anterior cingulate cortex in the neural networks associated with intelligence. The present study also demonstrates the unique value of CBF in assessing brain-behavior relationships, in addition to structural morphometric measures.

  14. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast the thinking part ...

  15. Natural IQ: Investigating questions about climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babs McDonald; Jessica Nickelsen; Julia Dobish; Elissa Riley; Michelle Andrews; Emily Melear-Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Scientists report their research in journals, which are special booklets that enable scientists to share information with one another. This journal, Natural IQ, was created so that scientists can share their research with you and with other middle school students. Each article tells you about scientific research conducted by scientists in the Forest Service, U.S....

  16. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Akuntansi Pada IQ Salon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Imam Santoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recording of transactions and financial statements of the manual on IQ Salon raises the risk of error in the financial records are not fast and precise, and cause difficulties with the increasing transaction will occur in the future. The purpose of this research is to design accounting information systems (AIS to prepare financial statements to the income statement and provide convenience in recording daily transactions and the financial statements in order to avoid mistakes. The design used in this study is a Waterfall and programming used is PHP and MySQL as the database. The design uses modeling context diagram, Data Flow Diagrams (DFD, Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD. Accounting information system on IQ Salon built using the programming language PHP and MySQL as the database generates Journal report, Balance Sheet and Income Ledger. The report simplify IQ Salon owners to control and make decisions. It is also easier for employees to serve customers in the event of payment of the services that have been awarded Keywords : DFD; IQ Salon; MySQL; PHP; IAS; Waterfall

  17. The IQ Argument. Race, Intelligence and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, Hans J.

    The controversy over the causes of intelligence--genetic or environmental--is reviewed. More specifically, the subject of the consistently lower intelligence scores for blacks is analyzed. Much attention is devoted to Jensen and his monograph published in the "Harvard Educational Review," entitled "How much can we boost IQ and scholastic…

  18. IQ and Reading Comprehension in Translation Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Askari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Having a deeper understanding of determining factors in the quality of translation is in the interest of almost all scholars of translation studies. Students’ intelligence is being measured constantly in order to determine their aptitude for entering into different programs. However, in translation studies, the variable of intelligence quotient (IQ has been curiously ignored among researchers. This study aimed to explore the strength of both IQ and reading comprehension in predicting translation quality among Iranian translation students.  A sample of forty-six translation students from Alborz University of Qazvin participated in this study. Data were collected using three tests including Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices, Colina’s (2008 componential translation quality rating scheme and the reading comprehension test of IELTS. The results show IQ test scores and reading comprehension significantly predict translation quality assessment. Surprisingly, the most significant finding is that IQ score is by far a better predictor of translation quality than reading comprehension. Overall, it is concluded that translation quality assessment is more of a deeper cognitive function than solely language process, which could lead to more research on cognitive aspects of translation.

  19. IQ Zoo and Teaching Operant Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihm, Elson M.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Lammers, William J.; Huffman, Stephanie P.

    2010-01-01

    Psychology texts often cite the work of Marian and Keller Breland and their business, Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE), to demonstrate operant conditioning and the "misbehavior of organisms" from an evolutionary perspective. Now available on the Internet at the official IQ Zoo website (http://www3.uca.edu/iqzoo/), the artifacts of ABE's work, in…

  20. Educational Technology Research Journals: Performance Improvement Quarterly, 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alisha Rasmussen; Francis, Jenifer; Harrison, J. Buckley; McPhillen, Ammon S.; West, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is an analysis of "Performance Improvement Quarterly" (PIQ) for the years 2001-2010. The intent was to examine the article types used, the authors who contributed the most to the journal, the topics the journal most commonly focused on, and the citation frequency of the journal's articles. The analysis revealed that…

  1. Synthesis and tritium labeling of the food mutagens IQ and methyl-IQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, A.L.; Rapoport, H.

    1985-01-01

    The mutagens found in cooked meat, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (Methyl-IQ), have been synthesized by unambiguous methods that allow for the preparation of sufficient quantities of material for biological studies. These methods avoid difficult separations of regioisomeric mixtures of products and incorporate specific high level tritium labeling, effected by hydrogenolysis of the appropriately substituted 5-bromo precursors. (author)

  2. Birth Order, Sibling IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    The differential impact of birth order and IQ on sibling roles were examined with particular interest focused on achievement outcomes. Subjects were a stratified sample of 37 pairs of near-in-age siblings, all within the normal range in personality and IQ, but differing significantly in scores on the Slosson IQ Test. Results indicate that when the…

  3. The New Assault on Equality: IQ and Social Stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    This book includes nine essays. In the Introduction: "The Lingering Infatuation with IQ," the editors argue that since the IQ test has again risen as an instrument of conservative policy, the test and the arguments built around it must be reexamined. Noam Chomsky criticizes the well-known "Atlantic" article, "IQ" (September, 1971), in "The Fallacy…

  4. IQ Tests: Throwing out the Bathwater, Saving the Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that despite limitations and abuse, IQ tests should play significant role in programs for gifted students. Substance of the Lippmann Terman debates of the 1920s is examined, followed by acknowledgment of major limitations of IQ tests and discussion of rationales for special programs for the gifted. Argument is made for use of IQ tests in an…

  5. A longitudinal twin study on IQ, executive functioning, and attention problems during childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Tinca J C; Gosso, M Florencia; Posthuma, Danielle; Van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Heutink, Peter; Verhulst, Frank C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2006-12-01

    Variation in human behavior may be caused by differences in genotype and by non-genetic differences ("environment") between individuals. The relative contributions of genotype (G) and environment (E) to phenotypic variation can be assessed with the classical twin design. We illustrate this approach with longitudinal data collected in 5 and 12-year-old Dutch twins. At age 5 data on cognitive abilities as assessed with a standard intelligence test (IQ), working memory, selective and sustained attention, and attention problems were collected in 237 twin pairs. Seven years later, 172 twin pairs participated again when they were 12 years old and underwent a similar protocol. Results showed that variation in all phenotypes was influenced by genetic factors. For IQ the heritability estimates increased from 30% at age 5, to 80% at age 12. For executive functioning performance genetic factors accounted for around 50% of the variance at both ages. Attention problems showed high heritabilities (above 60%) at both ages, for maternal and teacher ratings. Longitudinal analyses revealed that executive functioning during childhood was weakly correlated with IQ scores at age 12. Attention problems during childhood, as rated by the mother and the teacher were stronger predictors (r = -0.28 and -0.36, respectively). This association could be attributed to a partly overlapping set of genes influencing attention problems at age 5 and IQ at age 12. IQ performance at age 5 was the best predictor of IQ at age 12. IQ at both ages was influenced by the same genes, whose influence was amplified during development.

  6. IQ and schizophrenia in a Swedish national sample: their causal relationship and the interaction of IQ with genetic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    The authors sought to clarify the relationship between IQ and subsequent risk for schizophrenia. IQ was assessed at ages 18-20 in 1,204,983 Swedish males born between 1951 and 1975. Schizophrenia was assessed by hospital diagnosis through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate future risk for schizophrenia in individuals as a function of their IQ score, and then stratified models using pairs of relatives were used to adjust for familial cluster. Finally, regression models were used to examine the interaction between IQ and genetic liability on risk for schizophrenia. IQ had a monotonic relationship with schizophrenia risk across the IQ range, with a mean increase in risk of 3.8% per 1-point decrease in IQ; this association was stronger in the lower than the higher IQ range. Co-relative control analyses showed a similar association between IQ and schizophrenia in the general population and in cousin, half-sibling, and full-sibling pairs. A robust interaction was seen between genetic liability to schizophrenia and IQ in predicting schizophrenia risk. Genetic susceptibility for schizophrenia had a much stronger impact on risk of illness for those with low than high intelligence. The IQ-genetic liability interaction arose largely from IQ differences between close relatives. IQ assessed in late adolescence is a robust risk factor for subsequent onset of schizophrenia. This association is not the result of a declining IQ associated with insidious onset. In this large, representative sample, we found no evidence for a link between genius and schizophrenia. Co-relative control analyses showed that the association between lower IQ and schizophrenia is not the result of shared familial risk factors and may be causal. The strongest effect was seen with IQ differences within families. High intelligence substantially attenuates the impact of genetic liability on the risk for schizophrenia.

  7. Assessment of PlanIQ Feasibility DVH for head and neck treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, David V; Chera, Bhishamjit S; Das, Shiva K

    2017-09-01

    Designing a radiation plan that optimally delivers both target coverage and normal tissue sparing is challenging. There are limited tools to determine what is dosimetrically achievable and frequently the experience of the planner/physician is relied upon to make these determinations. PlanIQ software provides a tool that uses target and organ at risk (OAR) geometry to indicate the difficulty of achieving different points for organ dose-volume histograms (DVH). We hypothesized that PlanIQ Feasibility DVH may aid planners in reducing dose to OARs. Clinically delivered head and neck treatments (clinical plan) were re-planned (re-plan) putting high emphasis on maximally sparing the contralateral parotid gland, contralateral submandibular gland, and larynx while maintaining routine clinical dosimetric objectives. The planner was blinded to the results of the clinically delivered plan as well as the Feasibility DVHs from PlanIQ. The re-plan treatments were designed using 3-arc VMAT in Raystation (RaySearch Laboratories, Sweden). The planner was then given the results from the PlanIQ Feasibility DVH analysis and developed an additional plan incorporating this information using 4-arc VMAT (IQ plan). The DVHs across the three treatment plans were compared with what was deemed "impossible" by PlanIQ's Feasibility DVH (Impossible DVH). The impossible DVH (red) is defined as the DVH generated using the minimal dose that any voxel outside the targets must receive given 100% target coverage. The re-plans performed blinded to PlanIQ Feasibilty DVH achieved superior sparing of aforementioned OARs compared to the clinically delivered plans and resulted in discrepancies from the impossible DVHs by an average of 200-700 cGy. Using the PlanIQ Feasibility DVH led to additionalOAR sparing compared to both the re-plans and clinical plans and reduced the discrepancies from the impossible DVHs to an average of approximately 100 cGy. The dose reduction from clinical to re-plan and re-plan to

  8. 77 FR 41464 - IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ...] IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application July 9, 2012. AGENCY... IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (``Trust''). Filing Dates: The application was filed on September 9, 2011, and... relief is unusual insofar as the requested order seeks relief for an ETF. Applicants note, however, that...

  9. Cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2018-01-01

    We examined cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID). Problematic drinkers were expected to show a significantly lower estimated performance IQ (PIQ), but not a lower estimated verbal IQ (VIQ), compared to light drinkers.

  10. Aging, Brain Size, and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Whether cross-sectional rates of decline for brain volume and the Performance Intellectual Quotient of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were equivalent over the years 16 to 65 was studied with 196 volunteers. Results indicate remarkably similar rates of decline in perceptual-motor functions and aging brain volume loss. (SLD)

  11. Improving IQ measurement in intellectual disabilities using true deviation from population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Stephanie M; Schneider, Andrea; Bickel, Erika; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Prescott, Christina; Hessl, David

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by global cognitive deficits, yet the very IQ tests used to assess ID have limited range and precision in this population, especially for more impaired individuals. We describe the development and validation of a method of raw z-score transformation (based on general population norms) that ameliorates floor effects and improves the precision of IQ measurement in ID using the Stanford Binet 5 (SB5) in fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 106), the leading inherited cause of ID, and in individuals with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 205). We compared the distributional characteristics and Q-Q plots from the standardized scores with the deviation z-scores. Additionally, we examined the relationship between both scoring methods and multiple criterion measures. We found evidence that substantial and meaningful variation in cognitive ability on standardized IQ tests among individuals with ID is lost when converting raw scores to standardized scaled, index and IQ scores. Use of the deviation z- score method rectifies this problem, and accounts for significant additional variance in criterion validation measures, above and beyond the usual IQ scores. Additionally, individual and group-level cognitive strengths and weaknesses are recovered using deviation scores. Traditional methods for generating IQ scores in lower functioning individuals with ID are inaccurate and inadequate, leading to erroneously flat profiles. However assessment of cognitive abilities is substantially improved by measuring true deviation in performance from standardization sample norms. This work has important implications for standardized test development, clinical assessment, and research for which IQ is an important measure of interest in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and other forms of cognitive impairment.

  12. Glue Ear, Hearing Loss and IQ: An Association Moderated by the Child’s Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda J.; Maw, Richard; Midgley, Elizabeth; Golding, Jean; Steer, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Glue ear or otitis media with effusion (OME) is common in children and may be associated with hearing loss (HL). For most children it has no long lasting effects on cognitive development but it is unclear whether there are subgroups at higher risk of sequelae. Objectives To examine the association between a score comprising the number of times a child had OME and HL (OME/HL score) in the first four/five years of life and IQ at age 4 and 8. To examine whether any association between OME/HL and IQ is moderated by socioeconomic, child or family factors. Methods Prospective, longitudinal cohort study: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). 1155 children tested using tympanometry on up to nine occasions and hearing for speech (word recognition) on up to three occasions between age 8 months and 5 years. An OME/HL score was created and associations with IQ at ages 4 and 8 were examined. Potential moderators included a measure of the child’s cognitive stimulation at home (HOME score). Results For the whole sample at age 4 the group with the highest 10% OME/HL scores had performance IQ 5 points lower [95% CI −9, −1] and verbal IQ 6 points lower [95% CI −10, −3] than the unaffected group. By age 8 the evidence for group differences was weak. There were significant interactions between OME/HL and the HOME score: those with high OME/HL scores and low 18 month HOME scores had lower IQ at age 4 and 8 than those with high OME/HL scores and high HOME scores. Adjusted mean differences ranged from 5 to 8 IQ points at age 4 and 8. Conclusions The cognitive development of children from homes with lower levels of cognitive stimulation is susceptible to the effects of glue ear and hearing loss. PMID:24498289

  13. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with increased IQ in kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene

    2013-04-01

    Studies have documented a positive relationship between regular breakfast consumption and cognitive outcomes in youth. However, most of these studies have emphasized specific measures of cognition rather than cognitive performance as a broad construct (e.g., IQ test scores) and have been limited to Western samples of school-age children and adolescents. This study aims to extend the literature on breakfast consumption and cognition by examining these constructs in a sample of Chinese kindergarten-age children. This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 1269 children (697 boys and 572 girls) aged 6 years from the Chinese city of Jintan. Cognition was assessed with the Chinese version of the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence-revised. Breakfast habits were assessed through parental questionnaire. Analyses of variance and linear regression models were used to analyze the association between breakfast habits and IQ. Socioeconomic and parental psychosocial variables related to intelligence were controlled for. Findings showed that children who regularly have breakfast on a near-daily basis had significantly higher full scale, verbal, and performance IQ test scores (all pbreakfast. This relationship persisted for VIQ (verbal IQ) and FIQ (full IQ) even after adjusting for gender, current living location, parental education, parental occupation, and primary child caregiver. Findings may reflect nutritional as well as social benefits of regular breakfast consumption on cognition, and regular breakfast consumption should be encouraged among young children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long Term Planning at IQ Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case about long term planning at the owner-managed manufacturing firm IQ Metal shows how the future management and ownership may be organized to utilize owner assets and minimize roadblocks. Initially, the owner-manager Bo Fischer Larsen explains how he acquired...... a stake in 2007 in the company which at that time was named Braendstrup Maskinfabrik. He furthermore expalins how he has developed the company based on a strategic plan focusing on professionalization and outsourcing. Next, the video shows how to type Bo Fischer Larsen's replies to the questions...... in The Owner Strategy Map into the questionnaire available on www.ejerstrategi-kortet.dk. Lastly, the Owner Strategy Map's recommendation of how to organize the future management and ownership of IQ Metal is explained....

  15. e-IQ and IQ knowledge mining for generalized LDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; van Bergem, Rutger; Sweet, Charles; Vietsch, Eveline; Szu, Harold

    2015-05-01

    How can the human brain uncover patterns, associations and features in real-time, real-world data? There must be a general strategy used to transform raw signals into useful features, but representing this generalization in the context of our information extraction tool set is lacking. In contrast to Big Data (BD), Large Data Analysis (LDA) has become a reachable multi-disciplinary goal in recent years due in part to high performance computers and algorithm development, as well as the availability of large data sets. However, the experience of Machine Learning (ML) and information communities has not been generalized into an intuitive framework that is useful to researchers across disciplines. The data exploration phase of data mining is a prime example of this unspoken, ad-hoc nature of ML - the Computer Scientist works with a Subject Matter Expert (SME) to understand the data, and then build tools (i.e. classifiers, etc.) which can benefit the SME and the rest of the researchers in that field. We ask, why is there not a tool to represent information in a meaningful way to the researcher asking the question? Meaning is subjective and contextual across disciplines, so to ensure robustness, we draw examples from several disciplines and propose a generalized LDA framework for independent data understanding of heterogeneous sources which contribute to Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD). Then, we explore the concept of adaptive Information resolution through a 6W unsupervised learning methodology feedback system. In this paper, we will describe the general process of man-machine interaction in terms of an asymmetric directed graph theory (digging for embedded knowledge), and model the inverse machine-man feedback (digging for tacit knowledge) as an ANN unsupervised learning methodology. Finally, we propose a collective learning framework which utilizes a 6W semantic topology to organize heterogeneous knowledge and diffuse information to entities within a society in

  16. Receiver IQ mismatch estimation in PDM CO-OFDM system using training symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dandan; Ma, Xiurong; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Haoyuan

    2017-07-01

    Receiver in-phase/quadrature (IQ) mismatch is hard to mitigate at the receiver via using conventional method in polarization division multiplexed (PDM) coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system. In this paper, a novel training symbol structure is proposed to estimate IQ mismatch and channel distortion. Combined this structure with Gram Schmidt orthogonalization procedure (GSOP) algorithm, we can get lower bit error rate (BER). Meanwhile, based on this structure one estimation method is deduced in frequency domain which can achieve the estimation of IQ mismatch and channel distortion independently and improve the system performance obviously. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed two methods have better performance than compared method at 100 Gb/s after 480 km fiber transmission. Besides, the calculation complexity is also analyzed.

  17. Cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; VanDerNagel, Joanne El; Korzilius, Hubert Plm; Engels, Rutger Cme

    2018-03-01

    We examined cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID). Problematic drinkers were expected to show a significantly lower estimated performance IQ (PIQ), but not a lower estimated verbal IQ (VIQ), compared to light drinkers. Participants ( N = 474) were divided into four groups based on IQ and severity of alcohol use-related problems. IQ was estimated using (a short form of) the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale third edition. Severity of alcohol use-related problems was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Overall, there were no significant differences between light and problematic drinkers on estimated VIQ. Within the group without MBID, estimated PIQ was significantly lower. Estimated PIQ was not lower in problematic drinkers with MBID compared to light drinkers with MBID. The results are indicative of cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers without MBID. Screening for cognitive deficits with additional instruments is advised.

  18. High Maternal Blood Mercury Level Is Associated with Low Verbal IQ in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Shin, Jiyoung; Hong, Yun Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship of IQ in children with maternal blood mercury concentration during late pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 553 children whose mothers underwent testing for blood mercury during late pregnancy. The children were given the Korean language version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R) at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis, with adjustment for covariates, was used to assess the relationship between verbal, performance, and total IQ in children and blood mercury concentration of mothers during late pregnancy. The results of multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that a doubling of blood mercury was associated with the decrease in verbal and total IQ by 2.482 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.749-4.214) and 2.402 (95% CI, 0.526-4.279), respectively, after adjustment. This inverse association remained after further adjustment for blood lead concentration. Fish intake is an effect modifier of child IQ. In conclusion, high maternal blood mercury level is associated with low verbal IQ in children. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Physical activity during pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment and IQ in the first 4 years of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos R Domingues

    Full Text Available Maternal physical activity during pregnancy could alter offspring's IQ and neurodevelopment in childhood.Children belonging to a birth cohort were followed at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months of age. Physical activity during pregnancy was assessed retrospectively at birth. Neurodevelopment was evaluated by Battelle's Development Inventory (12, 24 and 48 months and IQ by the Weschler's Intelligence Scale (48 months. Neurodevelopment was based on Battelles' (90th percentile and also analyzed as a continuous outcome. IQ was analyzed as a continuous outcome. Potential confounders were: family income, mother's age, schooling, skin color, number of previous births and smoking; and newborns': preterm birth, sex and low birth weight.From birth to 48 months, sample size decreased from 4231 to 3792. Crude analysis showed that IQ at 48 months was slightly higher (5 points among children from active women. The Battelle's score at 12 and 24 months was higher among offspring from active mothers. After controlling for confounders, physical activity during pregnancy was positively associated to the Battelle's Inventory at 12 months IQ, however, at 48 months no association was observed.Physical activity during pregnancy does not seem to impair children's neurodevelopment and children from active mothers presented better performance at 12 months.

  20. Contribution of brain size to IQ and educational underperformance in extremely preterm adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie L Y Cheong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Extremely preterm (EP survivors have smaller brains, lower IQ, and worse educational achievement than their term-born peers. The contribution of smaller brain size to the IQ and educational disadvantages of EP is unknown. This study aimed (i to compare brain volumes from multiple brain tissues and structures between EP-born (< 28 weeks and term-born (≥ 37 weeks control adolescents, (ii to explore the relationships of brain tissue volumes with IQ and basic educational skills and whether this differed by group, and (iii to explore how much total brain tissue volume explains the underperformance of EP adolescents compared with controls. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study of 148 EP and 132 term controls born in Victoria, Australia in 1991-92. At age 18, magnetic resonance imaging-determined brain volumes of multiple tissues and structures were calculated. IQ and educational skills were measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI and the Wide Range Achievement Test(WRAT-4, respectively. RESULTS: Brain volumes were smaller in EP adolescents compared with controls (mean difference [95% confidence interval] of -5.9% [-8.0, -3.7%] for total brain tissue volume. The largest relative differences were noted in the thalamus and hippocampus. The EP group had lower IQs(-11.9 [-15.4, -8.5], spelling(-8.0 [-11.5, -4.6], math computation(-10.3 [-13.7, -6.9] and word reading(-5.6 [-8.8, -2.4] scores than controls; all p-values<0.001. Volumes of total brain tissue and other brain tissues and structures correlated positively with IQ and educational skills, a relationship that was similar for both the EP and controls. Total brain tissue volume explained between 20-40% of the IQ and educational outcome differences between EP and controls. CONCLUSIONS: EP adolescents had smaller brain volumes, lower IQs and poorer educational performance than controls. Brain volumes of multiple tissues and structures are related to IQ and

  1. Racial IQ Differences among Transracial Adoptees: Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Some academic publications infer from studies of transracial adoptees’ IQs that East Asian adoptees raised in the West by Whites have higher IQs than Western Whites, and that White adoptees raised by Whites have higher IQs than Black adoptees raised by Whites. Those publications suggest that this is because genetic differences give East Asians a higher mean IQ than Whites, and Whites a higher mean IQ than Blacks. This paper proposes a parsimonious alternative explanation: the apparent IQ advantage of East Asian adoptees is an artifact caused by ignoring the Flynn effect and adoption’s beneficial effect on IQ, and most of the IQ disadvantage of Black adoptees disappears when one allows for attrition in the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study, and acknowledges the results of other studies. Diagnosing these artifacts suggests a nil hypothesis: East Asian, White, and Black adoptees raised in the same environment would have similar IQs, hinting at a minimal role for genes in racial IQ differences.

  2. Genetic priming of a proinflammatory profile predicts low IQ in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K. S.; Mortensen, E. L.; Avlund, K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within interleukin (IL)-18, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 gene promoter regions are risk factors for cognitive decline in healthy octogenarians, and to isolate the strongest inflammatory biomarkers...... of cognitive function in the peripheral blood. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered to 112 individuals at ages 80 and 85. An IL-18 haplotype was an independent risk factor of poor Performance IQ. The TNF-308GA genotype was related to individual declines in Verbal IQ, and the IL-10-592 CC...

  3. Cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes: more than IQ scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Glen P

    2002-01-01

    Improved survival in preterm infants has broadened interest in cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes. The incidence of major disabilities (moderate/severe mental retardation, neurosensory disorders, epilepsy, cerebral palsy) has remained consistent, but high prevalence/low severity dysfunctions (learning disabilities, ADHD, borderline mental retardation, specific neuropsychological deficits, behavioral disorders) have increased. The follow-up literature contains methodologic problems that make generalizations regarding outcome difficult, and these are discussed. Although mean IQs of former VLBW infants generally are in the low average range and are 3-9 points below normal birth weight peers, these scores mask subtle deficits in: visual-motor and visual-perceptual abilities, complex language functions, academics (reading, mathematics, spelling and writing), and attentional skills. There is an increased incidence of non-verbal learning disabilities, need for special educational assistance, and behavioral disorders in children born prematurely. Males have more problems, and there is a trend for worsening outcome over time, due to emergence of more subtle deficits in response to increased performance demands. In addition to IQ and achievement testing in follow-up, there should be evaluation of executive functions and attention, language, sensorimotor functions, visuospatial processes, memory and learning, and behavioral adjustment. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Premorbid IQ Predicts Postconcussive Symptoms in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with mTBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Willis, Jada J; Heyanka, Daniel; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; England, Heather; Bruhns, Maya

    2018-03-01

    Extant literature has demonstrated that symptoms of postconcussive syndrome (PCS) persist well beyond the expected 3-month post-injury recovery period in a minority of individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Suboptimal performance on validity measures and pre- and post-injury psychosocial stressors - rather than actual mTBI or current cognitive functioning - have been identified as predictors of chronic PCS. Whether premorbid IQ has any influence on chronic PCS has been understudied, in the context of established psychogenic etiologies. The sample included 31 veterans, who underwent mTBI neuropsychological evaluations six or more months post-injury in a VA outpatient neuropsychology clinic. A two-step multiple linear regression was conducted to examine the effects on the outcome variable, PCS (Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory), of the following predictors: cognitive functioning (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status; Attention, Immediate Memory, and Delayed Memory Indices), performance validity, depression (Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist, Civilian Version), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), pain (Brief Pain Inventory), education, and Premorbid IQ (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading). The overall regression model containing all nine predictor variables was statistically significant. Depression (p IQ (p IQ and greater endorsed symptoms of depression were associated with higher PCS scores. In Step 2 of the multiple linear regression, the WTAR explained an additional 6.7% of the variance in PCS after controlling for psychosocial stressors and current cognitive ability. The findings support premorbid IQ as a unique and relevant predictor of chronic PCS, with significance variance accounted for beyond education, cognitive functioning, and psychosocial variables. Given the predictive relationship between premorbid IQ and PCS, adapting postconcussive

  5. Pervasiveness of the IQ rise: a cross-temporal meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Pietschnig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Generational IQ gains in the general population (termed the Flynn effect show an erratic pattern across different nations as well as across different domains of intelligence (fluid vs crystallized. Gains of fluid intelligence in different countries have been subject to extensive research, but less attention was directed towards gains of crystallized intelligence, probably due to evidence from the Anglo-American sphere suggesting only slight gains on this measure. In the present study, development of crystallized intelligence in the German speaking general population is assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate whether IQ gains for crystallized intelligence are in progress in German-speaking countries, two independent meta-analyses were performed. By means of a cited reference search in ISI Web of Science, all studies citing test manuals and review articles of two widely-used salient measures of crystallized intelligence were obtained. Additionally, the electronic database for German academic theses was searched to identify unpublished studies employing these tests. All studies reporting participants mean IQ or raw scores of at least one of the two measures were included in the present analyses, yielding over 500 studies (>1,000 samples; >45,000 individuals. We found a significant positive association between years of test performance and intelligence (1971-2007 amounting to about 3.5 IQ points per decade. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study clearly demonstrates that crystallized IQ gains are substantial and of comparable strength as Flynn effects typically observed for measures of fluid intelligence in Central Europe. Since mean IQ was assessed in a large number of small, non-representative samples, our evidence suggests a remarkable robustness of these gains. Moreover, in both meta-analyses strength of gains was virtually identical. On the whole, results of the present study demonstrate a pervasive and generalizing

  6. Three IQs of AI Systems and their Testing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Feng; Shi, Yong; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of artificial intelligence has brought the artificial intelligence threat theory as well as the problem about how to evaluate the intelligence level of intelligent products. Both need to find a quantitative method to evaluate the intelligence level of intelligence systems, including human intelligence. Based on the standard intelligence system and the extended Von Neumann architecture, this paper proposes General IQ, Service IQ and Value IQ evaluation methods for intelli...

  7. Parental Stress and ASD: Relationship with Autism Symptom Severity, IQ, and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, M. Inmaculada; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raúl; Navarro-Peña, J. Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate parental stress in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD group) and compare it with the stress in parents of children with typical development (comparison group); (b) to study the relationship between parental stress, autism severity, and both verbal and performance IQ; and (c) to…

  8. IQ AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACROSS REGIONS OF THE UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Noah

    2016-05-01

    Cross-regional correlations between average IQ and socioeconomic development have been documented in many different countries. This paper presents new IQ estimates for the twelve regions of the UK. These are weakly correlated (r=0.24) with the regional IQs assembled by Lynn (1979). Assuming the two sets of estimates are accurate and comparable, this finding suggests that the relative IQs of different UK regions have changed since the 1950s, most likely due to differentials in the magnitude of the Flynn effect, the selectivity of external migration, the selectivity of internal migration or the strength of the relationship between IQ and fertility. The paper provides evidence for the validity of the regional IQs by showing that IQ estimates for UK nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) derived from the same data are strongly correlated with national PISA scores (r=0.99). It finds that regional IQ is positively related to income, longevity and technological accomplishment; and is negatively related to poverty, deprivation and unemployment. A general factor of socioeconomic development is correlated with regional IQ at r=0.72.

  9. How to Improve Interest, IQ, and Motivation of Vocational Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumual, H.; Ombuh, D. M.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of interest, motivation and IQ of students on the learning result. The survey method with quantitative approach was used in this study. The data were then analysed using path paradigm. Data were collected by questionnaire technique, special tests for IQ and documentation for learning outcomes. The results showed that the interest, IQ and the motivation influence significantly and positively on learning result as well as interest to learning motivation. However, no significant influence of IQ on Learning Motivation was detected in this research.

  10. Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of radiation dose-volume distribution on the trajectory of IQ development after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in pediatric patients with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study included 88 patients (median age, 2.8 years ± 4.5 years) with localized ependymoma who received CRT (54-59.4 Gy) that used a 1-cm margin on the postoperative tumor bed. Patients were evaluated with tests that included IQ measures at baseline (before CRT) and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Differential dose-volume histograms (DVH) were derived for total-brain, supratentorial-brain, and right and left temporal-lobe volumes. The data were partitioned into three dose intervals and integrated to create variables that represent the fractional volume that received dose over the specified intervals (e.g., V 0-20Gy , V 20-40Gy , V 40-65Gy ) and modeled with clinical variables to develop a regression equation to estimate IQ after CRT. Results: A total of 327 IQ tests were performed in 66 patients with infratentorial tumors and 20 with supratentorial tumors. The median follow-up was 29.4 months. For all patients, IQ was best estimated by age (years) at CRT; percent volume of the supratentorial brain that received doses between 0 and 20 Gy, 20 and 40 Gy, and 40 and 65 Gy; and time (months) after CRT. Age contributed significantly to the intercept (p > 0.0001), and the dose-volume coefficients were statistically significant (V 0-20Gy , p = 0.01; V 20-40Gy , p 40-65Gy , p = 0.04). A similar model was developed exclusively for patients with infratentorial tumors but not supratentorial tumors. Conclusion: Radiation dosimetry can be used to predict IQ after CRT in patients with localized ependymoma. The specificity of models may be enhanced by grouping according to tumor location

  11. Is lower IQ in children with epilepsy due to lower parental IQ? A controlled comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Natalie M; Jackson, Daren C; Dabbs, Kevin; Jones, Jana E; Hsu, David A; Stafstrom, Carl E; Sheth, Raj D; Koehn, Monica A; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce P

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between parent and child full-scale IQ (FSIQ) in children with epilepsy and in typically developing comparison children and to examine parent–child IQ differences by epilepsy characteristics. Method The study participants were 97 children (50 males, 47 females; age range 8–18y; mean age 12y 3mo, SD 3y.1mo) with recent-onset epilepsy including idiopathic generalized (n=43) and idiopathic localization-related epilepsies (n=54); 69 healthy comparison children (38 females, 31 males; age range 8–18y; mean age 12y 8mo, SD 3y 2mo), and one biological parent per child. All participants were administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale. FSIQ was compared in children with epilepsy and typically developing children; FSIQ was compared in the parents of typically developing children and the parents of participants with epilepsy; parent–child FSIQ differences were compared between the groups. Results FSIQ was lower in children with epilepsy than in comparison children (pepilepsy did not differ from the FSIQ of the parents of typically developing children. Children with epilepsy had significantly lower FSIQ than their parents (pepilepsy than the comparison group (p=0.043). Epilepsy characteristics were not related to parent–child IQ difference. Interpretation Parent–child IQ difference appears to be a marker of epilepsy impact independent of familial IQ, epilepsy syndrome, and clinical seizure features. This marker is evident early in the course of idiopathic epilepsies and can be tracked over time. PMID:23216381

  12. Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrysz, C; Landy, R; Gage, SH; Munafò, MR; Roiser, JP; Curran, HV

    2016-01-01

    There is much debate about the impact of adolescent cannabis use on intellectual and educational outcomes. We investigated associations between adolescent cannabis use and IQ and educational attainment in a sample of 2235 teenagers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. By the age of 15, 24% reported having tried cannabis at least once. A series of nested linear regressions was employed, adjusted hierarchically by pre-exposure ability and potential confounds (e.g. cigarette and alcohol use, childhood mental-health symptoms and behavioural problems), to test the relationships between cumulative cannabis use and IQ at the age of 15 and educational performance at the age of 16. After full adjustment, those who had used cannabis ⩾50 times did not differ from never-users on either IQ or educational performance. Adjusting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both outcomes, and further analyses demonstrated robust associations between cigarette use and educational outcomes, even with cannabis users excluded. These findings suggest that adolescent cannabis use is not associated with IQ or educational performance once adjustment is made for potential confounds, in particular adolescent cigarette use. Modest cannabis use in teenagers may have less cognitive impact than epidemiological surveys of older cohorts have previously suggested. PMID:26739345

  13. COMPARISON OF NERVE CONDUCTION VELOCITY IN TEENAGERS WITH DIFFERENT IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S KHOSRAVI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Correlation between nerve conduction velocity (NCV in peripheral and central nervous systems and intelligence has been investigated during recent years with different results. To determine whether there is any correlation between peripheral NCV and IQ, we tested median and ulnar NCV in three groups of teenagers with different IQs. Methods. 144 normal subjects aged between 12-17 years were studied in three groups. Group I, with IQ more than 120 (measured with the Wechsler intelligence test, group II, with IQ between 90-110 and group III, with IQ below 70. All three groups matched for age and sex. For each case median and ulnar NCVs were measured in sensory and motor fibers. Mean IQ in study groups were compared using ANOVA. Results. Although the range and mean values of NCV in all tested nerves are in normal ranges but there are statistically significant differences between mean NCVs between study groups. In group I (high IQ mean NCV was higher than groups II and III and mean NCV in group III was less than groups I and II (p<0.05. IQ and NCV were not significantly different in girls and boys (p>0.05. Discussion .It is well established that IQ is a multi-factorial parameter and genetic, environment, hormones and individual physical factors such as size and volume of brain could influence intelligence. This study showed statistically difference between IQ and peripheral NCV in adolescents aged 12-17 years. Investigation of correlation between IQ, NCV and other evoked potentials in different age groups is suggested.

  14. Evaluating the relationship between cannabis use and IQ in youth and young adults at clinical high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, Lisa; Seidman, Larry J; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Stone, William; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel H; Addington, Jean

    2015-12-30

    Among people with psychosis, those with a history of cannabis use show better cognitive performance than those who are cannabis naïve. It is unknown whether this pattern is present in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. We evaluated relationships between IQ and cannabis use while controlling for use of other substances known to impact cognition in 678 CHR and 263 healthy control (HC) participants. IQ was estimated using the Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Drug and alcohol use severity and frequency were assessed with the Alcohol and Drug Use Scale, and we inquired participants' age at first use. CHR were further separated into early and late age at onset of cannabis use sub-groups, and low-, moderate- and high-frequency sub-groups. No significant differences in IQ emerged between CHR or HC cannabis users vs. non-users, or between use frequency groups. CHR late-onset users showed significantly higher IQ than CHR early-onset users. Age at onset of cannabis use was significantly and positively correlated with IQ in CHR only. Results suggest that age at onset of cannabis may be a more important factor for IQ than use current use or use frequency in CHR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  16. Comparisons of IQ in Children With and Without Cochlear Implants: Longitudinal Findings and Associations With Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Ivette; Mitchell, Christine M; Hoffman, Michael; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2018-04-05

    To make longitudinal comparisons of intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and typical hearing peers from early in development to the school-age period. Children with additional comorbidities and CIs were also evaluated. To estimate the impact of socioeconomic status and oral language on school-age cognitive performance. This longitudinal study evaluated nonverbal IQ in a multicenter, national sample of 147 children with CIs and 75 typically hearing peers. IQ was evaluated at baseline, prior to cochlear implantation, using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and the Leiter International Performance Scale. School-age IQ was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. For the current study, only the Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed indices were administered. Oral language was evaluated using the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. Children in the CI group scored within the normal range of intelligence at both time points. However, children with additional comorbidities scored significantly worse on the Processing Speed, but not the Perceptual Reasoning Index. Maternal education and language were significantly related to school-age IQ in both groups. Importantly, language was the strongest predictor of intellectual functioning in both children with CIs and normal hearing. These results suggest that children using cochlear implants perform similarly to hearing peers on measures of intelligence, but those with severe comorbidities are at-risk for cognitive deficits. Despite the strong link between socioeconomic status and intelligence, this association was no longer significant once spoken language performance was accounted for. These results reveal the important contributions that early intervention programs, which emphasize language and parent training, contribute to cognitive functioning in school-age children with CIs. For families from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, who are at

  17. Exponential Correlation of IQ and the Wealth of Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Plots of mean IQ and per capita real Gross Domestic Product for groups of 81 and 185 nations, as collected by Lynn and Vanhanen, are best fitted by an exponential function of the form: GDP = "a" * 10["b"*(IQ)], where "a" and "b" are empirical constants. Exponential fitting yields markedly higher correlation coefficients than either linear or…

  18. Shortcomings of the IQ-Based Construct of Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Albert; Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2012-01-01

    Despite being plagued by serious conceptual problems, underachievement ranks among the most popular constructs in research on the gifted. Many of its problems have their roots in the use of the IQ as the supposedly best method of measuring ability levels. Only a few decades ago the opinion was still widespread that the IQ-based construct of…

  19. IQ Predicts Word Decoding Skills in Populations with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yonata

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of word decoding in adolescents with Down syndrome and in adolescents with Intellectual Deficits of unknown etiology. It was designed as a replication of studies of word decoding in English speaking and in Hebrew speaking adolescents with Williams syndrome ([0230] and [0235]). Participants' IQ was matched to IQ in the groups with…

  20. IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

  1. STATUS/IQ: A Semi-Intelligent Information Retrieval System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Provides background on the problems of traditional text retrieval systems and describes STATUS/IQ, an advanced text retrieval system that incorporates a natural language front-end and an advanced relevance ranking facility. The principles, capabilities, and benefits of the system are discussed, and an example of a STATUS/IQ session is presented…

  2. Sucrose and IQ induced mutations in rat colon by independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Hald, M. T.; Autrup, H.

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets have repeatedly been observed to have co-carcinogenic actions in colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate a possible interaction between sucrose and IQ...... on the genotoxicity in rat liver and colon, we gave Big Blue rats(TM) a diet containing sucrose (0%, 3.45% or 13.4% w/w) and/or IQ (70 ppm) for a period of 3 weeks. Sucrose and IQ increased the mutation frequency in the colon. The effect of combined treatments with IQ and sucrose on the mutation frequencies...... was additive indicating that sucrose and IQ act independently. This was supported by the mutation spectra where sucrose expands the background mutations in the colon, whereas IQ, in other studies, more specifically has induced G:C --> T:A transversions. In the liver IQ increased the mutation frequency, whereas...

  3. IQ and Level of Alcohol Consumption—Findings from a National Survey of Swedish Conscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, Sara; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Allebeck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between IQ and alcohol consumption have shown conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between IQ test results and alcohol consumption, measured as both total alcohol intake and pattern of alcohol use. Methods The study population consists of 49,321 Swedish males born 1949 to 1951 who were conscripted for Swedish military service 1969 to 1970. IQ test results were available from tests performed at conscription. Questionnaires performed at conscription provided data on total alcohol intake (consumed grams of alcohol/wk) and pattern of drinking. Multinomial and binomial logistic regressions were performed on the cross-sectional data to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Adjustments were made for socioeconomic position as a child, psychiatric symptoms and emotional stability, and father's alcohol habits. Results We found an increased OR of 1.20 (1.17 to 1.23) for every step decrease on the stanine scale to be a high consumer versus a light consumer of alcohol. For binge drinking, an increased OR of 1.09 (95% CI = 1.08 to 1.11) was estimated for every step decrease on the stanine scale. Adjustment for confounders attenuated the associations. Also, IQ in adolescence was found to be inversely associated with moderate/high alcohol consumption measured in middle age. Conclusions We found that lower results on IQ tests are associated with higher consumption of alcohol measured in terms of both total alcohol intake and binge drinking in Swedish adolescent men. PMID:25702705

  4. IQ and the values of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    The origin of values and preferences is an unresolved theoretical question in behavioural and social sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel values and preferences (such as liberalism and atheism and, for men, sexual exclusivity) than less intelligent individuals, but that general intelligence may have no effect on the acquisition and espousal of evolutionarily familiar values. Macro-level analyses show that nations with higher average intelligence are more liberal (have greater highest marginal individual tax rate and, as a result, lower income inequality), less religious (a smaller proportion of the population believes in God or considers themselves religious) and more monogamous. The average intelligence of a population appears to be the strongest predictor of its level of liberalism, atheism and monogamy.

  5. Pioneering studies of IQ by G.H. Thomson and J.F. Duff--an example of established knowledge subsequently 'hidden in plain sight'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-11-01

    Perhaps the earliest authoritative measurement of a social class gradient in IQ, with a stratification of occupations among the parents of children with different IQs, is seen in two fascinating papers published in 1923 and 1929 in the British Journal of Psychology. The authors were GH Thomson and JF Duff (both of whom were later knighted) and the papers' main findings were confirmed by later researchers. Results of an intelligence test administered to 13419 children aged 11-12 were analyzed according to parent's occupation. The average children's IQ at extremes of social class among their parents included clergymen-121, teachers-116 and bankers and managers-112 at the upper end; while at the lower end there were 'cripples and invalids'-94, cattlemen-93, hawkers and chimneysweeps-91, and the 'insane, criminal'-88. More than 100 specific categories of parental occupations were then combined into 13 social classes, with their children's average IQ as follows: Professional-112; Managers-110; Higher Commercial-109; Army, Navy, Police, Postmen-106; Shopkeeping-105; Engineers [ie. apprenticed craftsmen, such as mining engineers]-103; Foremen-103; Building trades-102; Metal workers, shipbuilders-101; Miscellaneous industrial workers-101; Miners and quarrymen-98; Agriculture-98; Labourers-96. A follow-up study compared an 'intelligent' group (IQ 136 plus) with a matched IQ 95-105 'control' group. IQ testing at age 11-12 was predictive of teacher's reports of higher levels of intelligence and health at age 16; and better performance in official examinations. The occupations of fathers, grandfathers and uncles were consistent with occupation being indicative of 'an inherited quality' (i.e. IQ) and there was regression from parents to grandparents and uncles among the 'intelligent' but not among controls. Other findings included a wider variance in intelligence among boys than girls, and descriptions of the predictive value of IQ in estimating future education, examinations

  6. The Relation between Nonverbal IQ and Postoperative CI Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Preliminary Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study assessed the correlation between performance intelligence and the postoperative cochlear implant (CI outcome in Korean-speaking children. In addition, the relationship between the performance intelligence subscales and the post-CI speech outcome was evaluated. Materials and Methods. Thirteen pediatric CI users (five males, eight females; median age at implantation 6.2 (range 1.3–14.2 years; median age at intelligence test 9.3 (range 5–16 years who were tested using the Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children were studied. The correlations between the intelligence scores and 1-2 years postoperative Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP scores and between subscales of performance and 1-2 years postoperative CAP scores were analyzed. Results. There was no correlation between the categories of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ and performance IQ for “mentally retarded” and “average,” respectively (Spearman’s rho = 0.42, P=0.15. There was a strong correlation between performance IQ and the postoperative CAP scale (Spearman’s rho = 0.8977, P=0.0008. “Picture arrangement” and “picture completion,” reflecting social cognition, were strongly correlated with the postoperative CAP scales. Conclusion. Performance intelligence, especially social cognition, was strongly related to the postoperative CI outcome of cochlear implant users. Therefore, auditory rehabilitation, including social rehabilitation, should maximize the postoperative CI outcomes.

  7. The Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in four memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model, at the level of individual participants. The values of the components of processing identified by the model for the recognition tasks, as well as accuracy for cued and free recall, were compared across levels of IQ ranging from 85 to 140 and age (college-age, 60-74 year olds, and 75-90 year olds). IQ had large effects on the quality of the evidence from memory on which decisions were based in the recognition tasks and accuracy in the recall tasks, except for the oldest participants for whom some of the measures were near floor values. Drift rates in the recognition tasks, accuracy in the recall tasks, and IQ all correlated strongly with each other. However, there was a small decline in drift rates for item recognition and a large decline for associative recognition and accuracy in cued recall (about 70 percent). In contrast, there were large age effects on boundary separation and nondecision time (which correlated across tasks), but little effect of IQ. The implications of these results for single- and dual- process models of item recognition are discussed and it is concluded that models that deal with both RTs and accuracy are subject to many more constraints than models that deal with only one of these measures. Overall, the results of the study show a complicated but interpretable pattern of interactions that present important targets for response time and memory models. PMID:21707207

  8. Compensation for HPA nonlinearity and I/Q imbalance in MIMO beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aissa, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity and in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance on the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems. Specifically, we propose a compensation method for HPA nonlinearity and I/Q imbalance together in MIMO TB systems. The performance of the MIMO TB system under study is evaluated in terms of the average symbol error probability (SEP) and system capacity, considering transmission over uncorrelated frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects of several system parameters, such as the HPA parameters, image-leakage ratio, numbers of transmit and receive antennas, length of pilot symbols, and modulation order of phase-shift keying (PSK), on performance. © 2010 IEEE.

  9. Compensation for HPA nonlinearity and I/Q imbalance in MIMO beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity and in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance on the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems. Specifically, we propose a compensation method for HPA nonlinearity and I/Q imbalance together in MIMO TB systems. The performance of the MIMO TB system under study is evaluated in terms of the average symbol error probability (SEP) and system capacity, considering transmission over uncorrelated frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects of several system parameters, such as the HPA parameters, image-leakage ratio, numbers of transmit and receive antennas, length of pilot symbols, and modulation order of phase-shift keying (PSK), on performance. © 2010 IEEE.

  10. Health impact from lead: IQ decrement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, C

    1994-07-01

    The effects of lead, once it is in the body, are the same no matter how it enters. Exposure to lead is especially dangerous for unborn children, with high levels associated with premature birth and low birth weight. Young children are at risk because they swallow lead when they put toys or other objects soiled with lead-containing dirt in their mouths. A greater proportion of the lead ingested by children enters their bodies than enters the bodies of adults. For infants and young children, lead exposure has been shown in some studies to decrease intelligence (IQ) scores, slow growth, and cause hearing problems. These effects can last as children get older and can be permanent. Realistic risk assessment for lead-induced neurobehavioral deficit in environmentally exposed children must stem from consistent results from independent studies, as well as the documentation of dose-response relationships. At present, studies investigating such effects have not been definitive. However, taken as a whole, there is growing support for the absence of a threshold for adverse effects in exposed children. Summary of selected recent studies and the obtained data are analyzed.

  11. Health impact from lead: IQ decrement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of lead, once it is in the body, are the same no matter how it enters. Exposure to lead is especially dangerous for unborn children, with high levels associated with premature birth and low birth weight. Young children are at risk because they swallow lead when they put toys or other objects soiled with lead-containing dirt in their mouths. A greater proportion of the lead ingested by children enters their bodies than enters the bodies of adults. For infants and young children, lead exposure has been shown in some studies to decrease intelligence (IQ) scores, slow growth, and cause hearing problems. These effects can last as children get older and can be permanent. Realistic risk assessment for lead-induced neurobehavioral deficit in environmentally exposed children must stem from consistent results from independent studies, as well as the documentation of dose-response relationships. At present, studies investigating such effects have not been definitive. However, taken as a whole, there is growing support for the absence of a threshold for adverse effects in exposed children. Summary of selected recent studies and the obtained data are analyzed

  12. Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    Kanazawa (2008), Templer (2008), and Templer and Arikawa (2006) claimed to have found empirical support for evolutionary theories of race differences in intelligence by correlating estimates of national IQ with indicators of reproductive strategies, temperature, and geographic distance from Africa.

  13. Investigation of factors affecting the intelligence quotient (IQ) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mirgissa

    significant effect on IQ levels: diagnosis of cerebral palsy, age at onset of speech, duration of education, age at onset of ... addition to biological factors, psychological and social risk factors ..... the child's gender, parents' skin color, number of.

  14. Inbreeding Depression and IQ in a Study of 72 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In this ecological study, a robust negative correlation of r = - 0.62 (P less than 0.01) is reported between national IQs and consanguinity as measured by the log10 transformed percentage of consanguineous marriages for 72 countries. This correlation is reduced in magnitude, when IQ is controlled for GDP per capita (r = - 0.41, P less than 0.01);…

  15. Influence of memory, attention, IQ and age on auditory temporal processing tests: preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Roque, Daniela Tsubota; Ventura, Dora Selma Fix; Schochat, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the existence of correlations between the performance of children in auditory temporal tests (Frequency Pattern and Gaps in Noise - GIN) and IQ, attention, memory and age measurements. METHOD: Fifteen typically developing individuals between the ages of 7 to 12 years and normal hearing participated in the study. Auditory temporal processing tests (GIN and Frequency Pattern), as well as a Memory test (Digit Span), Attention tests (auditory and visual modality) and ...

  16. Empowerment of Mustaḥiq Zakat Model Towards Business Independency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Hamzah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zakat has not been utilized intensively for the empowerment of mustaḥiq (zakat beneficiaries in the form of productive economic business. The objective of the research was to analyze the level of mustaḥiqs’ business independency; to analyze dominant factors that influenced mustaḥiqs’ business independency, and to formulate an appropriate strategy to develop the mustaḥiqs’ business independency. The research has been carried out on 254 mustaḥiqs in Bogor Regency (66 mustaḥiqs engaged in vegetable production at Cibungbulang District, 85 mustaḥiqs in skewer business at Tenjolaya District, and 103 mustaḥiqs in shoe business at Taman Sari District. A census sampling, data collection through a questionnaire, an in-depth interview and observation were carried out in 2013. Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically, using structural equation model (SEM. The results of the research showed that: (1 the strategy of mustaḥiq empowerment could be carried out through strengthening the intrinsic motivation, training technical aspects, assisting business capital and assistance. Empowerment can be conducted synergically by the government (arrangement, service, and counseling, private sectors/State Owned Business (BUMN, higher education and community.

  17. Blind I/Q Signal Separation-Based Solutions for Receiver Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visa Koivunen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces some novel digital signal processing (DSP-based approaches to some of the most fundamental tasks of radio receivers, namely, channel equalization, carrier synchronization, and I/Q mismatch compensation. The leading principle is to show that all these problems can be solved blindly (i.e., without training signals by forcing the I and Q components of the observed data as independent as possible. Blind signal separation (BSS is then introduced as an efficient tool to carry out these tasks, and simulation examples are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed approaches. The main application area of the presented carrier synchronization and I/Q mismatch compensation techniques is in direct-conversion type receivers, while the proposed channel equalization principles basically apply to any radio architecture.

  18. Breastfeeding and IQ Growth from Toddlerhood through Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for cognitive development continue to be hotly debated but are yet to be supported by conclusive empirical evidence. We used here a latent growth curve modeling approach to test the association of breastfeeding with IQ growth trajectories, which allows differentiating the variance in the IQ starting point in early life from variance in IQ gains that occur later in childhood through adolescence. Breastfeeding (yes/ no) was modeled as a direct predictor of three IQ latent growth factors (i.e. intercept, slope and quadratic term) and adjusted for the covariates socioeconomic status, mother's age at birth and gestational stage. Data came from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), a prospective cohort study of twins born between 1996 and 1994 in the United Kingdom, who were assessed 9 times on IQ between age 2 and 16 years (N = 11,582). Having been breastfed was associated with a small yet significant advantage in IQ at age 2 in girls (β = .07, CI 95% from 0.64 to 3.01; N = 3,035) but not in boys (β = .04, CI 95% from -0.14 to 2.41). Having been breastfeeding was neither associated with the other IQ growth factors in girls (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.25 to 0.43; quadratic: β = .01, CI 95% from -0.02 to 0.02) nor in boys (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.30 to 0.47; quadratic: β = -.01, CI 95% from -0.01 to 0.01). Breastfeeding has little benefit for early life intelligence and cognitive growth from toddlerhood through adolescence.

  19. Breastfeeding and IQ Growth from Toddlerhood through Adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie von Stumm

    Full Text Available The benefits of breastfeeding for cognitive development continue to be hotly debated but are yet to be supported by conclusive empirical evidence.We used here a latent growth curve modeling approach to test the association of breastfeeding with IQ growth trajectories, which allows differentiating the variance in the IQ starting point in early life from variance in IQ gains that occur later in childhood through adolescence. Breastfeeding (yes/ no was modeled as a direct predictor of three IQ latent growth factors (i.e. intercept, slope and quadratic term and adjusted for the covariates socioeconomic status, mother's age at birth and gestational stage. Data came from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS, a prospective cohort study of twins born between 1996 and 1994 in the United Kingdom, who were assessed 9 times on IQ between age 2 and 16 years (N = 11,582.Having been breastfed was associated with a small yet significant advantage in IQ at age 2 in girls (β = .07, CI 95% from 0.64 to 3.01; N = 3,035 but not in boys (β = .04, CI 95% from -0.14 to 2.41. Having been breastfeeding was neither associated with the other IQ growth factors in girls (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.25 to 0.43; quadratic: β = .01, CI 95% from -0.02 to 0.02 nor in boys (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.30 to 0.47; quadratic: β = -.01, CI 95% from -0.01 to 0.01.Breastfeeding has little benefit for early life intelligence and cognitive growth from toddlerhood through adolescence.

  20. Cognitive, motor, behavioural and academic performances of children born preterm: a meta-analysis and systematic review involving 64 061 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotey, J; Zamora, J; Cheong-See, F; Kalidindi, M; Arroyo-Manzano, D; Asztalos, E; van der Post, Jam; Mol, B W; Moore, D; Birtles, D; Khan, K S; Thangaratinam, S

    2018-01-01

    Preterm birth may leave the brain vulnerable to dysfunction. Knowledge of future neurodevelopmental delay in children born with various degrees of prematurity is needed to inform practice and policy. To quantify the long-term cognitive, motor, behavioural and academic performance of children born with different degrees of prematurity compared with term-born children. PubMed and Embase were searched from January 1980 to December 2016 without language restrictions. Observational studies that reported neurodevelopmental outcomes from 2 years of age in children born preterm compared with a term-born cohort. We pooled individual estimates of standardised mean differences (SMD) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. We included 74 studies (64 061 children). Preterm children had lower cognitive scores for FSIQ (SMD: -0.70; 95% CI: -0.73 to -0.66), PIQ (SMD: -0.67; 95% CI: -0.73 to -0.60) and VIQ (SMD: -0.53; 95% CI: -0.60 to -0.47). Lower scores for preterm children in motor skills, behaviour, reading, mathematics and spelling were observed at primary school age, and this persisted to secondary school age, except for mathematics. Gestational age at birth accounted for 38-48% of the observed IQ variance. ADHD was diagnosed twice as often in preterm children (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.3-1.8), with a differential effect observed according to the severity of prematurity (I 2 = 49.4%, P = 0.03). Prematurity of any degree affects the cognitive performance of children born preterm. The poor neurodevelopment persists at various ages of follow up. Parents, educators, healthcare professionals and policy makers need to take into account the additional academic, emotional and behavioural needs of these children. Adverse effect of preterm birth on a child's neurodevelopment persists up to adulthood. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. 10 year course of IQ in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) exhibit a general intellectual impairment at illness onset, but the subsequent intellectual course remains unclear. Relationships between accumulated time in psychosis and long-term intellectual functionin...... performance on test of immediate verbal recall/working memory (WAIS-R Digit Span). This indicates a relationship between accumulated duration of psychosis and long-term intellectual course, irrespective of diagnostic category, in a significant subgroup of patients.......A substantial proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) exhibit a general intellectual impairment at illness onset, but the subsequent intellectual course remains unclear. Relationships between accumulated time in psychosis and long-term intellectual functioning...... categories were defined: core versus non-core SSDs. No significant change in IQ was found for the total sample. Intellectual course was not related to DUP or stringency of diagnostic category. However, a subgroup with long DAT demonstrated a significant intellectual decline, mainly associated with a weaker...

  2. Analysis and compensation for the joint effects of HPA nonlinearity, I/Q imbalance and crosstalk in MIMO beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the joint effects of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity, in-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance and crosstalk, on the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems

  3. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents Are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the…

  4. Beyond IQ: A Latent State-Trait Analysis of General Intelligence, Dynamic Decision Making, and Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Daniel; Hagemann, Dirk; Schankin, Andrea; Hager, Marieke; Funke, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive performance measures beyond IQ. In particular, we investigated the psychometric properties of dynamic decision making variables and implicit learning variables and their relation with general intelligence and professional success. N = 173 employees from different companies and occupational groups completed…

  5. Ejection fraction in myocardial perfusion imaging assessed with a dynamic phantom: comparison between IQ-SPECT and LEHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippeläinen, Eero; Mäkelä, Teemu; Kaasalainen, Touko; Kaleva, Erna

    2017-12-01

    Developments in single photon emission tomography instrumentation and reconstruction methods present a potential for decreasing acquisition times. One of such recent options for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is IQ-SPECT. This study was motivated by the inconsistency in the reported ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular (LV) volume results between IQ-SPECT and more conventional low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimation protocols. IQ-SPECT and LEHR quantitative results were compared while the equivalent number of iterations (EI) was varied. The end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic volumes (ESV) and the derived EF values were investigated. A dynamic heart phantom was used to produce repeatable ESVs, EDVs and EFs. Phantom performance was verified by comparing the set EF values to those measured from a gated multi-slice X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan (EF True ). The phantom with an EF setting of 45, 55, 65 and 70% was imaged with both IQ-SPECT and LEHR protocols. The data were reconstructed with different EI, and two commonly used clinical myocardium delineation software were used to evaluate the LV volumes. The CT verification showed that the phantom EF settings were repeatable and accurate with the EF True being within 1% point from the manufacture's nominal value. Depending on EI both MPI protocols can be made to produce correct EF estimates, but IQ-SPECT protocol produced on average 41 and 42% smaller EDV and ESV when compared to the phantom's volumes, while LEHR protocol underestimated volumes by 24 and 21%, respectively. The volume results were largely similar between the delineation methods used. The reconstruction parameters can greatly affect the volume estimates obtained from perfusion studies. IQ-SPECT produces systematically smaller LV volumes than the conventional LEHR MPI protocol. The volume estimates are also software dependent.

  6. Basic Information Processing Abilities at 11 years Account for Deficits in IQ Associated with Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2011-07-01

    Although it is well established that preterms as a group do poorly relative to their full-term peers on tests of global cognitive functioning, the basis for this relative deficiency is less understood. The present paper examines preterm deficits in core cognitive abilities and determines their role in mediating preterm/full-term differences in IQ. The performance of 11-year-old children born preterm (birth weight <1750g) and their full-term controls were compared on a large battery of 15 tasks, covering four basic cognitive domains -- memory, attention, speed of processing and representational competence. The validity of these four domains was established using latent variables and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Preterms showed pervasive deficits within and across domains. Additionally, preterm deficits in IQ were completely mediated by these four cognitive domains in a structural equation model involving a cascade from elementary abilities (attention and speed), to more complex abilities (memory and representational competence), to IQ. The similarity of findings to those obtained with this cohort in infancy and toddlerhood suggest that preterm deficits persist - across time, across task, and from the non-verbal to the verbal period.

  7. Comparative study on optical performance and visual outcomes between two diffractive multifocal lenses: AMO Tecnis ® ZMB00 and AcrySof ® IQ ReSTOR ® Multifocal IOL SN6AD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Pereira Dias Chaves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the optical performance and visual outcomes between two diffractive multifocal lenses: AMO Tecnis® ZMB00 and AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1. Methods: This prospective, non-randomized comparative study included the assessment of 74 eyes in 37 patients referred for cataract surgery and candidates for multifocal intraocular lens implants. Exclusion criteria included existence of any other eye disease, previous eye surgery, high axial myopia, preoperative corneal astigmatism of >1.00 cylindrical diopter (D, and intraoperative or postoperative complications. Ophthalmological evaluation included the measurement of uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, distance-corrected near visual acuity (DCNVA, and distance-corrected intermediate visual acuity (DCIVA, with analysis of contrast sensitivity (CS, wavefront, and visual defocus curve. Results: Postoperative UDVA was 0.09 and 0.08 logMAR in the SN6AD1 and ZMB00 groups, respectively (p=0.868; postoperative CDVA was 0.04 and 0.02 logMAR in the SN6AD1 and ZMB00 groups, respectively (p=0.68; DCIVA was 0.17 and 0.54 logMAR in the SN6AD1 and ZMB00 groups, respectively (p=0.000; and DCNVA was 0.04 and 0.09 logMAR in the SN6AD1 and ZMB00 groups, respectively (p=0.001. In both cases, there was an improvement in the spherical equivalent and UDVA (p<0.05. Under photopic conditions, the SN6AD1 group had better CS at low frequencies without glare (p=0.04; however, the ZMB00 group achieved better sensitivity at high frequencies with glare (p=0.003. The SN6AD1 and ZMB00 lenses exhibited similar behavior for intermediate vision, according to the defocus curve; however, the ZMB00 group showed a shorter reading distance than the SN6AD1 group. There were no significant differences regarding aberrometry between the two groups. Conclusion: Both lenses promoted better quality of vision for both long and short distances and exhibited a similar behavior for

  8. All Digital IQ Servo-System for CERN Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Rohlev, A; Garoby, R

    2003-01-01

    A new VME based system has been developed and built at CERN for the servo loops regulating the field in the linac accelerating structure. It makes use of high speed digital In-phase/Quadrature (IQ) detection, digital processing, and digital IQ modulation. The digital processing and IQ modulation is done in a single PLD. The system incorporates continually variable set points, iterative learning, feed forward as well as extensive diagnostics and other features well suited for digital implementations. Built on a single VME card, it will be first used in the energy ramping RF chain of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (linac 3) and later for upgrading the present proton linac (linac 2). This system serves also as a prototype for the future Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL). The design principle and the experimental results are described.

  9. Do attention deficits influence IQ assessment in children and adolescents with ADHD?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between IQ and attention deficits in children with ADHD and to estimate the inattention-related mean influence on IQ when children are tested before stimulant drug treatment has been initiated. METHOD: Studies of various methodologies are reviewed....... RESULTS: Correlation studies show mostly weak associations between IQ scores and attention deficits. Meta-analyses report the average short-term stimulant treatment effect on IQ in children with ADHD to be 2 to 7 IQ points. CONCLUSION: The associations between IQ and attention deficits in ADHD...

  10. Using linked educational attainment data to reduce bias due to missing outcome data in estimates of the association between the duration of breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Rosie P; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Davies, Amy; Macleod, John

    2015-06-01

    Most epidemiological studies have missing information, leading to reduced power and potential bias. Estimates of exposure-outcome associations will generally be biased if the outcome variable is missing not at random (MNAR). Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the missing study outcome allows assessment of whether this outcome is MNAR and the evaluation of bias. We examined this in relation to the association between infant breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years, where a proxy for IQ was available through linkage to school attainment data. Subjects were those who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in 1990-91 (n = 13 795), of whom 5023 had IQ measured at age 15. For those with missing IQ, 7030 (79%) had information on educational attainment at age 16 obtained through linkage to the National Pupil Database. The association between duration of breastfeeding and IQ was estimated using a complete case analysis, multiple imputation and inverse probability-of-missingness weighting; these estimates were then compared with those derived from analyses informed by the linkage. IQ at 15 was MNAR-individuals with higher attainment were less likely to have missing IQ data, even after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. All the approaches underestimated the association between breastfeeding and IQ compared with analyses informed by linkage. Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the outcome variable allows the MNAR assumption to be tested and more efficient analyses to be performed. Under certain circumstances, this may produce unbiased results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  11. Effects of low-level prenatal lead exposure on child IQ at 4 and 8 years in a UK birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Kordas, Katarzyna; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2017-09-01

    The association between childhood exposure to lead (Pb) and deficits in cognitive function is well established. The association with prenatal exposure, however, is not well understood, even though the potential adverse effects are equally important. To evaluate the association between low prenatal exposure to lead and IQ in children, to determine whether there were sex differences in the associations, and to evaluate the moderation effect of prenatal Pb exposure on child IQ. Whole blood samples from pregnant women enrolled in ALSPAC (n=4285) and from offspring at age 30 months (n=235) were analysed for Pb. Associations between prenatal blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) and child IQ at age 4 and 8 years (WPPSI and WISC-III, respectively) were examined in adjusted regression models. There was no association of prenatal lead exposure with child IQ at 4 or 8 years old in adjusted regression models, and no moderation of the association between child B-Pb and IQ. However, there was a positive association for IQ at age 8 years in girls with a predicted increase in IQ (points) per 1μg/dl of: verbal 0.71, performance 0.57, total 0.73. In boys, the coefficients tended to be negative (-0.15, -0.42 and -0.29 points, respectively). Prenatal lead exposure was not associated with adverse effects on child IQ at age 4 or 8 years in this study. There was, however, some evidence to suggest that boys are more susceptible than girls to prenatal exposure to lead. Further investigation in other cohorts is required. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging using thallium-201 with a novel multifocal collimator SPECT/CT: IQ-SPECT versus conventional protocols in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Wakabayash, Hiroshi; Okuda, Koichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2015-06-01

    A novel multifocal collimator, IQ-SPECT (Siemens) consists of SMARTZOOM, cardio-centric and 3D iterative SPECT reconstruction and makes it possible to perform MPI scans in a short time. The aims are to delineate the normal uptake in thallium-201 ((201)Tl) SPECT in each acquisition method and to compare the distribution between new and conventional protocol, especially in patients with normal imaging. Forty patients (eight women, mean age of 75 years) who underwent myocardial perfusion imaging were included in the study. All patients underwent one-day protocol perfusion scan after an adenosine-stress test and at rest after administering (201)Tl and showed normal results. Acquisition was performed on a Symbia T6 equipped with a conventional dual-headed gamma camera system (Siemens ECAM) and with a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator. Imaging was performed with a conventional system followed by IQ-SPECT/computed tomography (CT). Reconstruction was performed with or without X-ray CT-derived attenuation correction (AC). Two nuclear physicians blinded to clinical information interpreted all myocardial perfusion images. A semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion was analyzed by a 17-segment model with a 5-point visual scoring. The uptake of each segment was measured and left ventricular functions were analyzed by QPS software. IQ-SPECT provided good or excellent image quality. The quality of IQ-SPECT images without AC was similar to those of conventional LEHR study. Mid-inferior defect score (0.3 ± 0.5) in the conventional LEHR study was increased significantly in IQ-SPECT with AC (0 ± 0). IQ-SPECT with AC improved the mid-inferior decreased perfusion shown in conventional images. The apical tracer count in IQ-SPECT with AC was decreased compared to that in LEHR (0.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.5 ± 0.7, p IQ-SPECT was significantly higher than that from the LEHR collimator (p = 0.0009). The images of IQ-SPECT acquired in a short time are equivalent to that of conventional LEHR

  13. One Century of Global IQ Gains: A Formal Meta-Analysis of the Flynn Effect (1909-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschnig, Jakob; Voracek, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The Flynn effect (rising intelligence test performance in the general population over time and generations) varies enigmatically across countries and intelligence domains; its substantive meaning and causes remain elusive. This first formal meta-analysis on the topic revealed worldwide IQ gains across more than one century (1909-2013), based on 271 independent samples, totaling almost 4 million participants, from 31 countries. Key findings include that IQ gains vary according to domain (estimated 0.41, 0.30, 0.28, and 0.21 IQ points annually for fluid, spatial, full-scale, and crystallized IQ test performance, respectively), are stronger for adults than children, and have decreased in more recent decades. Altogether, these findings narrow down proposed theories and candidate factors presumably accounting for the Flynn effect. Factors associated with life history speed seem mainly responsible for the Flynn effect's general trajectory, whereas favorable social multiplier effects and effects related to economic prosperity appear to be responsible for observed differences of the Flynn effect across intelligence domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Variabilité selon le captureur de l'efficacité de répulsifs à base d'huiles végétales dans la protection individuelle contre les piqûres de Simulium damnosum s. l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylla M.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le présent article, nous faisons état de la variabilité selon le captureur de l'efficacité de répulsifs à base d'huiles végétales appliquées sur la peau contre les piqûres de Simulium damnosum s. l. Les expérimentations ont été effectuées en zones de savane (Chaussée-Niaka et de forêt (Soubré de Côte d'Ivoire. Les formulations (lotions, crèmes] testées lors de ces travaux ont été obtenues à partir d'huiles d'amande de palme (Elaeis guineensis, de coco (Cocos nucifera et de gobi (Carapa procera. La technique classique de capture sur homme à l'aide de tubes à hémolyse en matière plastique a été utilisée. Pour chaque journée d'expérimentation, un captureur non traité (jambes non enduites de répulsif servait de témoin. Les résultats indiquent qu'en savane, quels que soient le répulsif et le captureur, la densité simulidienne se situait de 1 à 4, 1 à 6 et de 2 à 10 simulies par homme et par jour lorsque le captureur était respectivement protégé avec le coco, le palmiste et le gobi. Avec les mêmes répulsifs, en zone de forêt, l'agressivité simulidienne variait de 9 à 16, de 2 à 30 et de 8 à 49 piqûres par jour. En comparaison, le témoin recevait de 67 à 90 et de 310 à 533 piqûres par jour, respectivement en zones de savane et de forêt. Malgré les variations importantes dans le nombre de simulies capturées en fonction du captureur choisi, nos résultats montrent que quels que soient le répulsif et l'espèce simulidienne, une protection similaire est conférée à tous les captureurs. Ils indiquent également que le recours à des substances naturelles locales, utilisées comme répulsifs en application dermique, est l'une des meilleures méthodes de protection personnelle contre les simulies.

  15. The nature and nurture of high IQ: an extended sensitive period for intellectual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Angela M; Munakata, Yuko; Boomsma, Dorret I; Defries, John C; Haworth, Claire M A; Keller, Matthew C; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matthew; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert; Wadsworth, Sally J; Wright, Margaret J; Hewitt, John K

    2013-08-01

    IQ predicts many measures of life success, as well as trajectories of brain development. Prolonged cortical thickening observed in individuals with high IQ might reflect an extended period of synaptogenesis and high environmental sensitivity or plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by examining the timing of changes in the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on IQ as a function of IQ score. We found that individuals with high IQ show high environmental influence on IQ into adolescence (resembling younger children), whereas individuals with low IQ show high heritability of IQ in adolescence (resembling adults), a pattern consistent with an extended sensitive period for intellectual development in more-intelligent individuals. The pattern held across a cross-sectional sample of almost 11,000 twin pairs and a longitudinal sample of twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings.

  16. The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence inventory…

  17. A genetic analysis of brain volumes and IQ in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.; Peper, J.S.; van den Berg, S.M.; Brouwer, R.M.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Kahn, R.S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    In a population-based sample of 112 nine-year old twin pairs, we investigated the association among total brain volume, gray matter and white matter volume, intelligence as assessed by the Raven IQ test, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization and perceptual speed as assessed by the Wechsler

  18. Parallelised Krylov subspace method for reactor kinetics by IQS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anurag; Modak, R.S.; Gupta, H.P.; Kumar, Vinod; Bhatt, K.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear reactor kinetics involves numerical solution of space-time-dependent multi-group neutron diffusion equation. Two distinct approaches exist for this purpose: the direct (implicit time differencing) approach and the improved quasi-static (IQS) approach. Both the approaches need solution of static space-energy-dependent diffusion equations at successive time-steps; the step being relatively smaller for the direct approach. These solutions are usually obtained by Gauss-Seidel type iterative methods. For a faster solution, the Krylov sub-space methods have been tried and also parallelised by many investigators. However, these studies seem to have been done only for the direct approach. In the present paper, parallelised Krylov methods are applied to the IQS approach in addition to the direct approach. It is shown that the speed-up obtained for IQS is higher than that for the direct approach. The reasons for this are also discussed. Thus, the use of IQS approach along with parallelised Krylov solvers seems to be a promising scheme

  19. Normal IQ is possible in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Yasemen; Nguyen-Driver, Mina; Steiner, Robert D; Merkens, Louise; Merkens, Mark; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Elias, Ellen; Sarphare, Geeta; Porter, Forbes D; Li, Chumei; Tierney, Elaine; Nowaczyk, Małgorzata J; Freeman, Kurt A

    2017-08-01

    Children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are typically reported to have moderate to severe intellectual disability. This study aims to determine whether normal cognitive function is possible in this population and to describe clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of children with SLOS and normal intelligent quotient (IQ). The study included children with SLOS who underwent cognitive testing in four centers. All children with at least one IQ composite score above 80 were included in the study. Six girls, three boys with SLOS were found to have normal or low-normal IQ in a cohort of 145 children with SLOS. Major/multiple organ anomalies and low serum cholesterol levels were uncommon. No correlation with IQ and genotype was evident and no specific developmental profile were observed. Thus, normal or low-normal cognitive function is possible in SLOS. Further studies are needed to elucidate factors contributing to normal or low-normal cognitive function in children with SLOS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  1. A Critical Analysis of IQ Studies of Adopted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ken; Norgate, Sarah H.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of parent-child correlations in adoption studies has long been interpreted to suggest substantial additive genetic variance underlying variance in IQ. The studies have frequently been criticized on methodological grounds, but those criticisms have not reflected recent perspectives in genetics and developmental theory. Here we apply…

  2. Outsmarting IQ: The Emerging Science of Learnable Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David

    Pychologists, educators, and others have challenged the idea of a fixed IQ. This book uses recent research and earlier discoveries to argue that intelligence is not genetically set. Noting that the idea of learnable intelligence reflects the belief that intelligence can be taught, the book outlines a theory of learnable intelligence, including…

  3. Correlation of WAIS IQ in 10 Pairs of Brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Joseph D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Pairs of brothers were individually examined with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale some 10 months apart by an experienced clinical psychologist unaware of the consanguineous relationship. Correlation of .42 for Full Scale IQ is consistent with median correlation reported by Erlenmeyer-Kimling and Jarvik in their 1963 literature review.…

  4. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    -10, St. Louis and Flexible System-Wide. Only the ICD-10 schizophrenia patients exhibited a significantly lower premorbid IQ. There were suggestive differences between the four examined systems as well as between the ICD-10 paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes. Exploration of crucial diagnostic features...

  5. A Genetic Analysis of Brain Volumes and IQ in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; Peper, Jiska S.; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kahn, Rene S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    In a population-based sample of 112 nine-year old twin pairs, we investigated the association among total brain volume, gray matter and white matter volume, intelligence as assessed by the Raven IQ test, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization and perceptual speed as assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III. Phenotypic…

  6. Defining Learning Disability: Does IQ Have Anything Significant to Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    A debate exists in the research community about replacing the traditional IQ/achievement discrepancy method for learning disability identification with a "response-to-intervention model". This new assessment paradigm uses a student's level of improvement with small-group or individual programming to determine a possible need for…

  7. Evidence for Latent Classes of IQ In Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Munson, Jeffrey; Dawson, Geraldine; Sterling, Lindsey; Beauchaine, Theodore; Zhou, Andrew; Koehler, Elizabeth; Lord, Catherine; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Estes, Annette; Abbott, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Autism is currently viewed as a spectrum condition including strikingly different severity levels. IQ is consistently described as one of the primary aspects of the heterogeneity in autism. To investigate the possibility of more than one distinct subtype of autism based on IQ, both latent class analysis and taxometric methods were used to classify Mullen IQ scores in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (N=456). Evidence for multiple IQ-based subgroups was found using both metho...

  8. Economic, Educational, and IQ Gains in Eastern Germany 1990-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2012-01-01

    Lynn and Vanhanen (2012) have convincingly established that national IQs correlate positively with GDP, education, and many other social and economic factors. The direction of causality remains debatable. The present study re-examines data from military psychological assessments of the German federal army that show strong IQ gains of 0.5 IQ point…

  9. Dementia Screening Accuracy is Robust to Premorbid IQ Variation: Evidence from the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III and the Test of Premorbid Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Joshua; Scior, Katrina; Mandy, William; Charlesworth, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Scores on cognitive screening tools for dementia are associated with premorbid IQ. It has been suggested that screening scores should be adjusted accordingly. However, no study has examined whether premorbid IQ variation affects screening accuracy. To investigate whether the screening accuracy of a widely used cognitive screening tool for dementia, the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination-III (ACE-III), is improved by adjusting for premorbid IQ. 171 UK based adults (96 memory service attendees diagnosed with dementia and 75 healthy volunteers over the age of 65 without subjective memory impairments) completed the ACE-III and the Test of Premorbid Function (TOPF). The difference in screening performance between the ACE-III alone and the ACE-III adjusted for TOPF was assessed against a reference standard; the presence or absence of a diagnosis of dementia (Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or others). Logistic regression and receiver operating curve analyses indicated that the ACE-III has excellent screening accuracy (93% sensitivity, 94% specificity) in distinguishing those with and without a dementia diagnosis. Although ACE-III scores were associated with TOPF scores, TOPF scores may be affected by having dementia and screening accuracy was not improved by accounting for premorbid IQ, age, or years of education. ACE-III screening accuracy is high and screening performance is robust to variation in premorbid IQ, age, and years of education. Adjustment of ACE-III cut-offs for premorbid IQ is not recommended in clinical practice. The analytic strategy used here may be useful to assess the impact of premorbid IQ on other screening tools.

  10. MetaPro-IQ: a universal metaproteomic approach to studying human and mouse gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Ning, Zhibin; Mayne, Janice; Moore, Jasmine I; Li, Jennifer; Butcher, James; Deeke, Shelley Ann; Chen, Rui; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Wen, Ming; Mack, David; Stintzi, Alain; Figeys, Daniel

    2016-06-24

    The gut microbiota has been shown to be closely associated with human health and disease. While next-generation sequencing can be readily used to profile the microbiota taxonomy and metabolic potential, metaproteomics is better suited for deciphering microbial biological activities. However, the application of gut metaproteomics has largely been limited due to the low efficiency of protein identification. Thus, a high-performance and easy-to-implement gut metaproteomic approach is required. In this study, we developed a high-performance and universal workflow for gut metaproteome identification and quantification (named MetaPro-IQ) by using the close-to-complete human or mouse gut microbial gene catalog as database and an iterative database search strategy. An average of 38 and 33 % of the acquired tandem mass spectrometry (MS) spectra was confidently identified for the studied mouse stool and human mucosal-luminal interface samples, respectively. In total, we accurately quantified 30,749 protein groups for the mouse metaproteome and 19,011 protein groups for the human metaproteome. Moreover, the MetaPro-IQ approach enabled comparable identifications with the matched metagenome database search strategy that is widely used but needs prior metagenomic sequencing. The response of gut microbiota to high-fat diet in mice was then assessed, which showed distinct metaproteome patterns for high-fat-fed mice and identified 849 proteins as significant responders to high-fat feeding in comparison to low-fat feeding. We present MetaPro-IQ, a metaproteomic approach for highly efficient intestinal microbial protein identification and quantification, which functions as a universal workflow for metaproteomic studies, and will thus facilitate the application of metaproteomics for better understanding the functions of gut microbiota in health and disease.

  11. Added value of Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the ultrasound assessment of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianculescu, Victor; Ciolovan, Laura Maria; Dunant, Ariane; Vielh, Philippe; Mazouni, Chafika; Delaloge, Suzette; Dromain, Clarisse; Blidaru, Alexandru; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions. Conventional B-mode and elasticity imaging were used to evaluate 110 breast lesions. Elastographic assessment of breast tissue abnormalities was done using a shear wave based technique, Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ), implemented on a Siemens Acuson S3000 ultrasound machine. Tissue mechanical properties were interpreted as two-dimensional qualitative and quantitative colour maps displaying relative shear wave velocity. Wave speed measurements in m/s were possible at operator defined regions of interest. The pathologic diagnosis was established on samples obtained by ultrasound guided core biopsy or fine needle aspiration. BIRADS based B-mode evaluation of the 48 benign and 62 malignant lesions achieved 92% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity. Subsequently performed VTIQ elastography relying on visual interpretation of the colour overlay displaying relative shear wave velocities managed similar standalone diagnostic performance with 92% sensitivity and 64.6% specificity. Lesion and surrounding tissue shear wave speed values were calculated and a significant difference was found between the benign and malignant populations (Mann-Whitney U test, pmasses, we reached overall levels of 92% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity. VTIQ qualitative and quantitative elastography has the potential to further characterise B-mode detected breast lesions, increasing specificity and reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Tissue strain rate estimator using ultrafast IQ complex data

    OpenAIRE

    TERNIFI , Redouane; Elkateb Hachemi , Melouka; Remenieras , Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Pulsatile motion of brain parenchyma results from cardiac and breathing cycles. In this study, transient motion of brain tissue was estimated using an Aixplorer® imaging system allowing an ultrafast 2D acquisition mode. The strain was computed directly from the ultrafast IQ complex data using the extended autocorrelation strain estimator (EASE), which provides great SNRs regardless of depth. The EASE first evaluates the autocorrelation function at each depth over a set...

  14. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O' Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  15. In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

  16. Mitochondrial DNA Marker EST00083 Is Not Associated with High vs. Average IQ in a German Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moises, Hans W.; Yang, Liu; Kohnke, Michael; Vetter, Peter; Neppert, Jurgen; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Tested the association of a mitochondrial DNA marker (EST00083) with high IQ in a sample of 47 German adults with high IQ scores and 77 adults with IQs estimated at lower than 110. Results do not support the hypothesis that high IQ is associated with this marker. (SLD)

  17. Binding of 14C-labeled food mutagens (IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx) by dietary fiber in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, P.B.; Nyman, M.E.; Nilsson, L.; Asp, N.L.; Jaegerstad, M.

    1985-01-01

    Binding of three mutagens, known to occur in fried or broiled foods, by thirteen different types of dietary fiber was investigated in vitro. Nonspecific binding by other food polymers was minimized by using protease and amylase treatment. Water-insoluble fiber components were responsible for most of the binding capacity. Generally, a slightly larger proportion of 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) than of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo] -4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was bound. There was a significant correlation between Klason lignin content and binding of mutagens. Optimum pH for binding was between 4 and 6. Dietary fiber from sorghum had the highest binding capacity, which could be due to the presence of a large Klason lignin fraction

  18. Measuring premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury: an examination of the validity of the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robin E A; Melo, Brenda; Christensen, Bruce; Ngo, Le-Anh; Monette, Georges; Bradbury, Cheryl

    2008-02-01

    Estimation of premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically and scientifically valuable because it permits the quantification of the cognitive impact of injury. This is achieved by comparing performances on tests of current ability to estimates of premorbid IQ, thereby enabling current capacity to be interpreted in light of preinjury ability. However, the validity of premorbid IQ tests that are commonly used for TBI has been questioned. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of a recently developed test, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), which has yet to be examined for TBI. The cognitive performance of a group of 24 patients recovering from TBI (with a mean Glasgow Coma Scale score in the severely impaired range) was measured at 2 and 5 months postinjury. On both occasions, patients were administered three tests that have been used to measure premorbid IQ (the WTAR and the Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition, WAIS-III) and three tests of current ability (Symbol Digit Modalities Test-Oral and Similarities and Block Design subtests of the WAIS-III). We found that performance significantly improved on tests of current cognitive ability, confirming recovery. In contrast, stable performance was observed on the WTAR from Assessment 1 (M = 34.25/50) to Assessment 2 (M = 34.21/50; r = .970, p tests are indicated (i.e., in patients for whom English is spoken and read fluently), these results endorse the use of the WTAR for patients with TBI.

  19. Maternal prenatal blood mercury is not adversely associated with offspring IQ at 8 years provided the mother eats fish: A British prebirth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Gregory, Steven M; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Emond, Alan; Taylor, Caroline M

    2017-10-01

    Conflicting evidence concerning possible harm from mercury (Hg) in regard to offspring cognition if the woman eats fish has prompted this study to examine evidence from a British pre-birth cohort to investigate the relationship between the two. Pregnant women (median prenatal blood mercury 1.86μg/L) resident in the study area with delivery between April 1991 and December 1992 were followed up and verbal, performance and total intelligence quotient (IQ) of 2062 offspring were measured at age 8. Analysis treated IQ as (a) continuous and (b) the lowest 25% of the distribution. Multiple and logistic regression analyses took account of social and demographic variables. Stratification considered children of fish eaters separately. Before adjustment, mean full-scale IQ increased with increasing Hg (change with 1SD of Hg=+2.02; 95%CI+1.40,+2.64 IQ points; P mercury and offspring IQ appears to be benign provided the mother consumes fish. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  20. Error compensation of IQ modulator using two-dimensional DFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Takashi, E-mail: ohshima@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maesaka, Hirokazu [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Matsubara, Shinichi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Otake, Yuji [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    It is important to precisely set and keep the phase and amplitude of an rf signal in the accelerating cavity of modern accelerators, such as an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) linac. In these accelerators an acceleration rf signal is generated or detected by an In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) modulator, or a demodulator. If there are any deviations of the phase and the amplitude from the ideal values, crosstalk between the phase and the amplitude of the output signal of the IQ modulator or the demodulator arises. This causes instability of the feedback controls that simultaneously stabilize both the rf phase and the amplitude. To compensate for such deviations, we developed a novel compensation method using a two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Because the observed deviations of the phase and amplitude of an IQ modulator involve sinusoidal and polynomial behaviors on the phase angle and the amplitude of the rf vector, respectively, the DFT calculation with these basis functions makes a good approximation with a small number of compensation coefficients. Also, we can suppress high-frequency noise components arising when we measure the deviation data. These characteristics have advantages compared to a Look Up Table (LUT) compensation method. The LUT method usually demands many compensation elements, such as about 300, that are not easy to treat. We applied the DFT compensation method to the output rf signal of a C-band IQ modulator at SACLA, which is an XFEL facility in Japan. The amplitude deviation of the IQ modulator after the DFT compensation was reduced from 15.0% at the peak to less than 0.2% at the peak for an amplitude control range of from 0.1 V to 0.9 V (1.0 V full scale) and for a phase control range from 0 degree to 360 degrees. The number of compensation coefficients is 60, which is smaller than that of the LUT method, and is easy to treat and maintain.

  1. Association of COMT and PRODH gene variants with intelligence quotient (IQ) and executive functions in 22q11.2DS subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Miri; Zarchi, Omer; Michaelovsky, Elena; Frisch, Amos; Patya, Miriam; Green, Tamar; Gothelf, Doron; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) carries the highest genetic risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. We investigated the association of genetic variants in two schizophrenia candidate genes with executive function (EF) and IQ in 22q11.2DS individuals. Ninety two individuals with 22q11.2 deletion were studied for the genetic association between COMT and PRODH variants and EF and IQ. Subjects were divided into children (under 12 years old), adolescents (between 12 and 18 years old) and adults (older than 18 years), and genotyped for the COMT Val158Met (rs4680) and PRODH Arg185Trp (rs4819756) polymorphisms. The participants underwent psychiatric evaluation and EF assessment. Our main finding is a significant influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on both IQ and EF performance. Specifically, 22q11.2DS subjects with Met allele displayed higher IQ scores in all age groups compared to Val carriers, reaching significance in both adolescents and adults. The Met allele carriers performed better than Val carriers in EF tasks, being statistically significant in the adult group. PRODH Arg185Trp variant did not affect IQ or EF in our 22q11.2DS cohort. In conclusion, functional COMT variant, but not PRODH, affects IQ and EF in 22q11.2DS subjects during neurodevelopment with a maximal effect at adulthood. Future studies should monitor the cognitive performance of the same individuals from childhood to old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparison of low IQ scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphress, Thomas B

    2008-06-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index scores were significantly higher than WAIS-III Full Scale IQ scores at the alpha level of .01. There was a significant difference between the RIAS Nonverbal Intelligence and WAIS-III Performance Scale, but there was no significant difference between the RIAS Verbal Intelligence Index and the WAIS-III Verbal Scale IQ. The results raise questions concerning test selection for diagnosing intellectual disability and the use of the correlation statistic for comparing intelligence tests.

  3. 100-Gb/s InP DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiro; Ogiso, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Eiichi

    2016-02-01

    We developed a compact InP-based DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers. The modulator achieves 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK modulation with a driving voltage of 6 Vppd. In addition, it provides 86-Gb/s DP-16 QAM signal generation and 240-km transmission with negligible degradation of BER performance. The halfwavelength voltage of our recent device is 1.9 V, and a high median extinction ratio of over 32 dB was achieved for more than 1,400 child MZ modulators. We have also proposed an athermal InP-based twin IQ modulator that enables us to use a modulator in a TEC-free operation. It contributes to lowering the power consumption of transceivers. Under a constant driving condition, there is little change in 56-Gb/s x 2 QPSK modulation characteristics in the range of 20 to 80°C.

  4. Digital Compensation in IQ Modulator Using Optimization—A State-Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim AGKC

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In DSP-based IQ modulators generating CPFSK signals, shortcomings in the implementation of the analog reconstruction filters result in the loss of the constant envelope property of the output CPFSK signal. These ripples cause undesirable spreading of the transmitted signal spectrum into adjacent channels when the signal passes through nonlinear elements in the transmission path and the consequent failure of the transmitted signal in meeting transmission standards requirements. Therefore, digital techniques compensating for these shortcomings play an important role in enhancing the performance of the IQ modulation system. Recently, several methods have been proposed in the literature to digitally compensate for the imperfections in the transfer characteristics of the analog reconstruction filters. Although these methods have been shown to be effective in removing the output envelope ripples, they result in filters of high orders and are therefore computationally demanding to implement on the DSP. Furthermore, previous techniques suffer from numerical instabilities as a result of matrix inversion in the process of calculating the solution vector. In this paper, we present two new techniques for designing the digital compensation filters by means of optimization to address the limitations of previous solutions. Design of control systems by optimization is now a standard technique. Simulation examples show that these techniques are effective and lead to substantial improvement of the output envelope ripples.

  5. The relationship between executive functions and IQ in Korean children and the comparison with Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyunjoo; Jinyu, An

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived/performance-based executive function and IQ. Additionally, the relationship between perceived executive function and intelligence was investigated cross-culturally between South Korea and China. Korean children (60; M = 34, F = 26, Mean age = 10.35) were included in study 1, and Korean children (43, M = 23, F = 20, Mean age = 10.05) and Chinese children (56; M = 29, F = 27, Mean age = 10.40) were included in study 2. The Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, the Stroop test, the CTT-2, and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean subjects, and the Raven's matrix test and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean and Chinese subjects. Multiple regression showed that CTT-2(RT), emotional control difficulty, and Color Word within a 45' Stroop test trial were significant predictors of total IQ. The cross-cultural analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the two countries in the emotional control aspect of perceived executive function. There were no interactions between country and intelligence. In conclusion, intelligence was related to overall executive function. Korean children and Chinese children showed cultural differences in processing emotion. These results are expected to contribute to developing therapeutic strategies for executive function in children and to exchanging these strategies between Korea and China.

  6. Influence of memory, attention, IQ and age on auditory temporal processing tests: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Roque, Daniela Tsubota; Ventura, Dora Selma Fix; Schochat, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the existence of correlations between the performance of children in auditory temporal tests (Frequency Pattern and Gaps in Noise--GIN) and IQ, attention, memory and age measurements. Fifteen typically developing individuals between the ages of 7 to 12 years and normal hearing participated in the study. Auditory temporal processing tests (GIN and Frequency Pattern), as well as a Memory test (Digit Span), Attention tests (auditory and visual modality) and intelligence tests (RAVEN test of Progressive Matrices) were applied. Significant and positive correlation between the Frequency Pattern test and age variable were found, which was considered good (p<0.01, 75.6%). There were no significant correlations between the GIN test and the variables tested. Auditory temporal skills seem to be influenced by different factors: while the performance in temporal ordering skill seems to be influenced by maturational processes, the performance in temporal resolution was not influenced by any of the aspects investigated.

  7. A Population-based Longitudinal Study of Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders, IQ and Subsequent Risk of Psychotic Experiences in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Golam M.; Stochl, Jan; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia has a neurodevelopmental component to its origin, and may share overlapping pathogenic mechanisms with childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (ND). Yet longitudinal studies of psychotic outcomes among individuals with ND are limited. We report a population-based prospective study of six common childhood ND, subsequent neurocognitive performance and the risk of psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Methods PEs were assessed by semi-structured interviews at age 13 years. IQ and working memory were measured between ages 9 and 11 years. The presence of six neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia) was determined from parent-completed questionnaire at age 9 years. Linear regression calculated mean difference in cognitive scores between those with and without ND. The association between ND and PEs was expressed as odds ratio (OR); effects of cognitive deficits were examined. Potential confounders included age, gender, father’s social class, ethnicity and maternal education. Results Out of 8,220 children, 487 (5.9%) were reported to have ND at age 9 years. Children with, compared with those without ND performed worse on all cognitive measures; adjusted mean difference in total IQ 6.84 (95% CI 5.00- 8.69). The association between total IQ and ND was linear (pneurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:25066026

  8. Shared temporoparietal dysfunction in dyslexia and typical readers with discrepantly high IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roeland; Gabrieli, John D E; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-12-01

    It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy. This pattern was consistent and spatially overlapping with results in children with RD compared to typically reading children. The results suggest a shared neurological atypicality in regions associated with phonological processing between children with dyslexia and children with typical reading ability that is substantially below their IQ.

  9. Differential brain development with low and high IQ in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick de Zeeuw

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and intelligence (IQ are both heritable phenotypes. Overlapping genetic effects have been suggested to influence both, with neuroimaging work suggesting similar overlap in terms of morphometric properties of the brain. Together, this evidence suggests that the brain changes characteristic of ADHD may vary as a function of IQ. This study investigated this hypothesis in a sample of 108 children with ADHD and 106 typically developing controls, who participated in a cross-sectional anatomical MRI study. A subgroup of 64 children also participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Brain volumes, local cortical thickness and average cerebral white matter microstructure were analyzed in relation to diagnostic group and IQ. Dimensional analyses investigated possible group differences in the relationship between anatomical measures and IQ. Second, the groups were split into above and below median IQ subgroups to investigate possible differences in the trajectories of cortical development. Dimensionally, cerebral gray matter volume and cerebral white matter microstructure were positively associated with IQ for controls, but not for ADHD. In the analyses of the below and above median IQ subgroups, we found no differences from controls in cerebral gray matter volume in ADHD with below-median IQ, but a delay of cortical development in a number of regions, including prefrontal areas. Conversely, in ADHD with above-median IQ, there were significant reductions from controls in cerebral gray matter volume, but no local differences in the trajectories of cortical development.In conclusion, the basic relationship between IQ and neuroanatomy appears to be altered in ADHD. Our results suggest that there may be multiple brain phenotypes associated with ADHD, where ADHD combined with above median IQ is characterized by small, more global reductions in brain volume that are stable over development, whereas ADHD with

  10. Differential Brain Development with Low and High IQ in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Patrick; Schnack, Hugo G.; van Belle, Janna; Weusten, Juliette; van Dijk, Sarai; Langen, Marieke; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and intelligence (IQ) are both heritable phenotypes. Overlapping genetic effects have been suggested to influence both, with neuroimaging work suggesting similar overlap in terms of morphometric properties of the brain. Together, this evidence suggests that the brain changes characteristic of ADHD may vary as a function of IQ. This study investigated this hypothesis in a sample of 108 children with ADHD and 106 typically developing controls, who participated in a cross-sectional anatomical MRI study. A subgroup of 64 children also participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Brain volumes, local cortical thickness and average cerebral white matter microstructure were analyzed in relation to diagnostic group and IQ. Dimensional analyses investigated possible group differences in the relationship between anatomical measures and IQ. Second, the groups were split into above and below median IQ subgroups to investigate possible differences in the trajectories of cortical development. Dimensionally, cerebral gray matter volume and cerebral white matter microstructure were positively associated with IQ for controls, but not for ADHD. In the analyses of the below and above median IQ subgroups, we found no differences from controls in cerebral gray matter volume in ADHD with below-median IQ, but a delay of cortical development in a number of regions, including prefrontal areas. Conversely, in ADHD with above-median IQ, there were significant reductions from controls in cerebral gray matter volume, but no local differences in the trajectories of cortical development. In conclusion, the basic relationship between IQ and neuroanatomy appears to be altered in ADHD. Our results suggest that there may be multiple brain phenotypes associated with ADHD, where ADHD combined with above median IQ is characterized by small, more global reductions in brain volume that are stable over development, whereas ADHD with below median IQ is

  11. Nitrite and hypochlorite treatments in determination of the contributions of IQ-type and non-IQ-type heterocyclic amines to the mutagenicities in crude pyrolyzed materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, M.; Negishi, C.; Makino, R.; Sato, S.; Yamaizumi, Z.; Hirayama, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1985-12-01

    The mutagenic heterocyclic amines Glu-P-2, MeA alpha C and Phe-P-1, which possess a 2-aminopyridine structure in their molecule (non-IQ-type mutagens), were found to be inactivated by nitrite treatment under acidic conditions, as observed previously with Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, Glu-P-1 and A alpha C. In contrast, MeIQx, 4,8- and 7,8-DiMeIQx, which were originally isolated from fried beef or heated model mixtures of creatinine, amino acids and glucose, and which have a 2-aminoimidazole moiety in their molecules (IQ-type mutagens), were very resistant to nitrite treatment like IQ and MeIQ. Both types of mutagenic heterocyclic amines were completely inactivated by treatment with hypochlorite. This differential inactivation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines by nitrite and hypochlorite was used in determination of the contributions of IQ-type and non-IQ-type mutagens to the total mutagenicities of various pyrolyzed materials. The percentage contributions of IQ-type mutagens to the mutagenicities of broiled sardine, fried beef, broiled horse mackerel, cigarette smoke condensate and albumin tar were 88, 75, 48, 6 and 4, respectively.

  12. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Abbaskhanian, Ali; Jalili, Masumeh; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children. This was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011-May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50%) in the case group and 90 children (50%), the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57%) were male and 80 (43%) were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females. Although allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ.

  13. Widely Linear Equalization for IQ Imbalance and Skew Compensation in Optical Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front-end are ......In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front...

  14. Ka-band IQ vector modulator employing GaAs HBTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yuxiong; Wu Danyu; Chen Gaopeng; Jin Zhi; Liu Xinyu

    2011-01-01

    The importance of high-performance, low-cost and millimeter-wave transmitters for digital communications and radar applications is increasing. The design and performance of a Ka-band balanced in-phase and quadrature-phase (I-Q) type vector modulator, using GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) as switching elements, are presented. The balanced technique is used to remove the parasitics of the HBTs to result in near perfect constellations. Measurements of the monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chip with a size of 1.89 x 2.26 mm 2 demonstrate an amplitude error below 1.5 dB and the phase error within 3 0 between 26 and 40 GHz except for a singular point at 35.6 GHz. The results show that the technique is suitable for millimeter-wave digital communications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Prevalence of Principles of Piaget's Theory Among 4-7-year-old Children and their Correlation with IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Sugandha; Goswami, Mousumi; Vashist, Binny

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive development is a major area of human development and was extensively studied by Jean Piaget. He proposed that the development of intellectual abilities occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages and that a child's way of thinking and viewing the world is different at different stages. To assess Piaget's principles of the intuitive stage of preoperational period among 4-7-year-old children relative to their Intelligence quotient (IQ). Various characteristics as described by Jean Piaget specific for the age group of 4-7 years along with those of the previous (preconceptual stage of preoperational period) and successive periods (concrete operations) were analysed using various experiments in 300 children. These characteristics included the concepts of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism, centration and reversibility. IQ of the children was measured using Seguin form board test. Inferential statistics were performed using Chi-square test and Kruskal Wallis test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. The prevalence of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism was 10.7% and 31.7% based on the experiments and 33% based on the interview question. Centration was present in 96.3% of the children. About 99% children lacked the concept of reversibility according to the clay experiment while 97.7% possessed this concept according to the interview question. The mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was significantly higher than those who lacked these characteristics. Perceptual egocentrism had almost disappeared and prevalence of cognitive egocentrism decreased with increase in age. Centration and lack of reversibility were appreciated in most of the children. There was a gradual reduction in the prevalence of these characters with increasing age. Mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was

  16. Does IQ influence associations between ADHD symptoms and other cognitive functions in young preschoolers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer-Baumgartner, Nina; Zeiner, Pål; Egeland, Jens; Gustavson, Kristin; Skogan, Annette Holth; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Aase, Heidi

    2014-05-01

    Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low.

  17. Added value of Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the ultrasound assessment of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianculescu, Victor; Ciolovan, Laura Maria [Radiology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dunant, Ariane [Department of Statistics, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Vielh, Philippe [Department of Biopathology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Mazouni, Chafika [Department of Surgery, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Delaloge, Suzette [Department of Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dromain, Clarisse [Radiology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Blidaru, Alexandru [Department of Surgery, Bucharest Institute of Oncology, Bucharest (Romania); Balleyguier, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.balleyguier@gustaveroussy.fr [Radiology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); UMR 8081, IR4M, Paris-Sud University, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic performance of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods: Conventional B-mode and elasticity imaging were used to evaluate 110 breast lesions. Elastographic assessment of breast tissue abnormalities was done using a shear wave based technique, Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ), implemented on a Siemens Acuson S3000 ultrasound machine. Tissue mechanical properties were interpreted as two-dimensional qualitative and quantitative colour maps displaying relative shear wave velocity. Wave speed measurements in m/s were possible at operator defined regions of interest. The pathologic diagnosis was established on samples obtained by ultrasound guided core biopsy or fine needle aspiration. Results: BIRADS based B-mode evaluation of the 48 benign and 62 malignant lesions achieved 92% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity. Subsequently performed VTIQ elastography relying on visual interpretation of the colour overlay displaying relative shear wave velocities managed similar standalone diagnostic performance with 92% sensitivity and 64.6% specificity. Lesion and surrounding tissue shear wave speed values were calculated and a significant difference was found between the benign and malignant populations (Mann–Whitney U test, p < 0.0001). By selecting a lesion cut-off value of 3.31 m/s we achieved 80.4% sensitivity and 73% specificity. Applying this threshold only to BIRADS 4a masses, we reached overall levels of 92% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity. Conclusion: VTIQ qualitative and quantitative elastography has the potential to further characterise B-mode detected breast lesions, increasing specificity and reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies.

  18. Added value of Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the ultrasound assessment of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianculescu, Victor; Ciolovan, Laura Maria; Dunant, Ariane; Vielh, Philippe; Mazouni, Chafika; Delaloge, Suzette; Dromain, Clarisse; Blidaru, Alexandru; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic performance of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods: Conventional B-mode and elasticity imaging were used to evaluate 110 breast lesions. Elastographic assessment of breast tissue abnormalities was done using a shear wave based technique, Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ), implemented on a Siemens Acuson S3000 ultrasound machine. Tissue mechanical properties were interpreted as two-dimensional qualitative and quantitative colour maps displaying relative shear wave velocity. Wave speed measurements in m/s were possible at operator defined regions of interest. The pathologic diagnosis was established on samples obtained by ultrasound guided core biopsy or fine needle aspiration. Results: BIRADS based B-mode evaluation of the 48 benign and 62 malignant lesions achieved 92% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity. Subsequently performed VTIQ elastography relying on visual interpretation of the colour overlay displaying relative shear wave velocities managed similar standalone diagnostic performance with 92% sensitivity and 64.6% specificity. Lesion and surrounding tissue shear wave speed values were calculated and a significant difference was found between the benign and malignant populations (Mann–Whitney U test, p < 0.0001). By selecting a lesion cut-off value of 3.31 m/s we achieved 80.4% sensitivity and 73% specificity. Applying this threshold only to BIRADS 4a masses, we reached overall levels of 92% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity. Conclusion: VTIQ qualitative and quantitative elastography has the potential to further characterise B-mode detected breast lesions, increasing specificity and reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies

  19. Honesty-humility in contemporary students: manipulations of self-image by inflated IQ estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, P J

    2014-08-01

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance, and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = -.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students' self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  20. 78 FR 79519 - IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 23, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... instruments. Applicants: IndexIQ ETF Trust, IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (each, a ``Trust,'' and collectively, the..., to operate as exchange-traded funds (collectively, ``ETFs'' and each, an ``ETF''). In addition...

  1. IQs Are Very Strong but Imperfect Indicators of Psychometric "g": Results from Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The most global score yielded by intelligence tests, IQs, are supported by substantial validity evidence and have historically been central to the identification of intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and giftedness. This study examined the extent to which IQs measure the ability they target, psychometric "g." Data from…

  2. Value Innovation in Hospital: Increase Organizational IQ by Managing Intellectual Capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mahtab; Torabi, Mashallah

    2015-02-01

    Hospital is a complex organization rich in intellectual capitals. Effective management of these assets in line with innovating value to reach strategic goals and objectives can lead to increasing organizational IQ. In hospital with high organizational IQ, Increasing syntropy in intellectual capitals can convert it to an agile, learner, innovative, and smart organization.

  3. Association of IQ Changes and Progressive Brain Changes in Patients With Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubota, Manabu; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Haijma, Sander V.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    IMPORTANCE Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time.

  4. IQ at Age Four in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Use and Smoking during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses on data from 421 children indicated that mother's use of more than 1.5 ounces (approximately three drinks) of alcohol per day during pregnancy was significantly related to average IQ decrement at four years of age of almost five IQ points even after adjustment for numerous variables. Readers cautioned against using…

  5. Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds…

  6. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  7. Do Attention Deficits Influence IQ Assessment in Children and Adolescents with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M.; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the relationship between IQ and attention deficits in children with ADHD and to estimate the inattention-related mean influence on IQ when children are tested before stimulant drug treatment has been initiated. Method: Studies of various methodologies are reviewed. Results: Correlation studies show mostly weak…

  8. Small Family, Smart Family? Family Size and the IQ Scores of Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Norwegian data to estimate the effect of family size on IQ scores of men. Instrumental variables (IV) estimates using sex composition as an instrument show no significant negative effect of family size; however, IV estimates using twins imply that family size has a negative effect on IQ scores. Our results suggest that the effect…

  9. Value Innovation in Hospital: Increase Organizational IQ by Managing Intellectual Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mahtab; Torabi, Mashallah

    2015-01-01

    Hospital is a complex organization rich in intellectual capitals. Effective management of these assets in line with innovating value to reach strategic goals and objectives can lead to increasing organizational IQ. In hospital with high organizational IQ, Increasing syntropy in intellectual capitals can convert it to an agile, learner, innovative, and smart organization. PMID:25870494

  10. Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples around 3000 years B.C.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    In this rejoinder, we respond to comments by Lynn, Rushton, and Templer on our previous paper in which we criticized the use of national IQs in studies of evolutionary theories of race differences in intelligence. We reiterate that because of the Flynn Effect and psychometric issues, national IQs

  11. A Systematic Literature Review of the Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of several reviews of the literature, Lynn [Lynn, R., (2006). Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] and Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., (2006). IQ and global inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] concluded that the average IQ of the…

  12. Widely Linear Blind Adaptive Equalization for Transmitter IQ-Imbalance/Skew Compensation in Multicarrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated....

  13. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men. NBER Working Paper No. 13237

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and…

  14. Intelligence Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Investigating Repeated IQ Measurements in Forensic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…

  15. Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Jean; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)

  16. Conduct Problems, IQ, and Household Chaos: A Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Beekman, Charles; Petrill, Stephen A.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that household chaos would be associated with lower child IQ and more child conduct problems concurrently and longitudinally over two years while controlling for housing conditions, parent education/IQ, literacy environment, parental warmth/negativity, and stressful events. Methods: The sample included 302…

  17. Evidence for Latent Classes of IQ in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Jeffrey; Dawson, Geraldine; Sterling, Lindsey; Beauchaine, Theodore; Zhou, Andrew; Koehler, Elizabeth; Lord, Catherine; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Estes, Annette; Abbott, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Autism is currently viewed as a spectrum condition that includes strikingly different severity levels; IQ is consistently described as one of the primary aspects of the heterogeneity in autism. To investigate the possibility of more than one distinct subtype of autism based on IQ, both latent class analysis and taxometrics methods were used to…

  18. The Mean Southern Italian Children IQ Is Not Particularly Low: A Reply to R. Lynn (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Belacchi, Carmen; Giofre, David; Martini, Angela; Tressoldi, Patrizio

    2010-01-01

    Working with data from the PISA study (OECD, 2007), Lynn (2010) has argued that individuals from South Italy average an IQ approximately 10 points lower than individuals from North Italy, and has gone on to put forward a series of conclusions on the relationship between average IQ, latitude, average stature, income, etc. The present paper…

  19. The secular rise in IQs in the Netherlands: Is the Flynn Effect on g?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; van der Flier, H.

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores have been increasing over the last half century, a phenomenon known as the Flynn effect. In this study, we focused on the question to what extent these secular gains are on the g factor. Two IQ batteries: the Interest-School achievement-Intelligence Test (ISI) and the Groningen Final

  20. The identical-twin transfusion syndrome: a source of error in estimating IQ resemblance and heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsinger, H

    1977-01-01

    Published studies show that among identical twins, lower birthweight is associated with lower adult intelligence. However, no such relation between birthweight and adult IQ exists among fraternal twins. A likely explanation for the association between birthweight and intelligence among identical twins is the identical twin transfusion syndrome which occurs only between some monochorionic identical twin pairs. The IQ scores from separated identical twins were reanalysed to explore the consequences of identical twin transfusion syndrome for IQ resemblance and heritability. Among 129 published cases of identical twin pairs reared apart, 76 pairs contained some birthweight information. The 76 pairs were separated into three classes: 23 pairs in which there was clear evidence of a substantial birthweight differences (indicating the probable existence of the identical twin transfusion syndrome), 27 pairs in which the information on birthweight was ambiguous (?), and 26 pairs in which there was clear evidence that the twins were similar in birthweight. The reanalyses showed: (1) birthweight differences are positively associated with IQ differences in the total sample of separated identical twins; (2) within the group of 23 twin pairs who showed large birthweight differences, there was a positive relation between birthweight differences and IQ differences; (3) when heritability of IQ is estimated for those twins who do not suffer large birthweight differences, the resemblance (and thus, h2/b) of the separated identical twins' IG is 0-95. Given that the average reliability of the individual IQ test is around 0-95, these data suggest that genetic factors and errors of measurement cause the individual differences in IQ among human beings. Because of the identical twin transfusion syndrome, previous studies of MZ twins have underestimated the effect of genetic factors on IQ. An analysis of the IQs for heavier and lighter birthweight twins suggests that the main effect of the

  1. Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevie C. Biffen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm

  2. IQ subgroups in relation to neurocognitive profiles, psychopathology and brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    . low) using the healthy controls as reference. The IQ subgroups were compared using psychopathology ratings (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), neuropsychological assessments (Brief Assessment of Cognition in schizophrenia and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and a combined 3T......Background and Aim: Approximately half of patients with schizophrenia experience a deterioration in IQ before or around illness onset and recent studies have found apositive association between IQ and brain volume in first episode schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the combined...... impact of estimated IQ trajectory and IQ level at illness onset on psychopathology, neurocognitive profiles and brain volume. Materials and methods: The design is a cross-sectional, case-control study of 60 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 60 matched healthy controls...

  3. Confiabilidad de la Prueba de Habilidad Intelectual DAP:IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Honores Mendoza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the scores of Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents and Adults, DAP: IQ is examined with a sample of 155 children aged 6 to 11 years. Alpha coefficients were obtained from 0.63 to 0.74, the average alpha for the total sample was 0.68; It also was the difference in alpha coefficients confirmed that the low reliability of all our data with regard to the normative study. The agreement interscorer was 0.91. The results were not consistent with those reported by the authors of the test. We suggest a cautious use of this instrument for the assessment of groups with similar characteristics.

  4. Absolute dimensions and masses of eclipsing binaries. V. IQ Persei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, C.H.; Frueh, M.L.; McDonald Observatory, Austin)

    1985-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 1.7 day eclipsing binary IQ Persei (B8 + A6) have been analyzed to yield very accurate fundamental properties of the system. Reticon spectroscopic observations obtained at McDonald Observatory were used to determine accurate radial velocities of both stars in this slightly eccentric large light-ratio binary. A new set of VR light curves obtained at McDonald Observatory were analyzed by synthesis techniques, and previously published UBV light curves were reanalyzed to yield accurate photometric orbits. Orbital parameters derived from both sets of photometric observations are in excellent agreement. The absolute dimensions, masses, luminosities, and apsidal motion period (140 yr) derived from these observations agree well with the predictions of theoretical stellar evolution models. The A6 secondary is still very close to the zero-age main sequence. The B8 primary is about one-third of the way through its main-sequence evolution. 27 references

  5. Temporal Stability of ADHD in the High-IQ Population: Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Maglione, Katherine; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder and high-IQ children and whether ADHD has a high predictive value among youths with high-IQ. Results further supported the hypothesis for the predictive validity of ADHD in high-IQ youths.

  6. Empirical Implications of Matching Children with Specific Language Impairment to Children with Typical Development on Nonverbal IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, F. Sayako; Gallinat, Erica L.; Grela, Bernard G.; Lehto, Alexa; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the effect of matching children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers with typical development (TD) for nonverbal IQ on the IQ test scores of the resultant groups. Studies published between January 2000 and May 2012 reporting standard nonverbal IQ scores for SLI and age-matched TD controls were categorized…

  7. Pre-morbid IQ in mental disorders: a Danish draft-board study of 7486 psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer-Parnas, A; Lykke Mortensen, E; Sæbye, D

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies indicate that future schizophrenia patients exhibit lower IQ than healthy controls. Recent studies suggest that future patients with other mental illnesses obtain lower pre-morbid IQ. The aims of this study were to compare pre-morbid IQ among five diagnostic...

  8. Is low IQ related to risk of death by homicide? Testing an hypothesis using data from a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, George David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R

    2008-01-01

    Lower IQ test scores are related to an increased risk of violent assault. We tested the relation between IQ and death by homicide. In a prospective cohort study of 14,537 men (21 homicides), the association between lower IQ and an increased risk of homicide was lost after multiple adjustment....

  9. Stanford-Binet and WAIS IQ Differences and Their Implications for Adults with Intellectual Disability (aka Mental Retardation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wayne; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Zigman, Warren; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon; Urv, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs were compared for a group of 74 adults with intellectual disability (ID). In every case, WAIS Full Scale IQ was higher than the Stanford-Binet Composite IQ, with a mean difference of 16.7 points. These differences did not appear to be due to the lower minimum possible score for the…

  10. The City Intelligence Quotient (City IQ Evaluation System: Conception and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After a systematic review of 38 current intelligent city evaluation systems (ICESs from around the world, this research analyzes the secondary and tertiary indicators of these 38 ICESs from the perspectives of scale structuring, approaches and indicator selection, and determines their common base. From this base, the fundamentals of the City Intelligence Quotient (City IQ Evaluation System are developed and five dimensions are selected after a clustering analysis. The basic version, City IQ Evaluation System 1.0, involves 275 experts from 14 high-end research institutions, which include the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Science and Engineering (Germany, the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, the Planning Management Center of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China, and the Development Research Center of the State Council of China. City IQ Evaluation System 2.0 is further developed, with improvements in its universality, openness, and dynamic adjustment capability. After employing deviation evaluation methods in the IQ assessment, City IQ Evaluation System 3.0 was conceived. The research team has conducted a repeated assessment of 41 intelligent cities around the world using City IQ Evaluation System 3.0. The results have proved that the City IQ Evaluation System, developed on the basis of intelligent life, features more rational indicators selected from data sources that can offer better universality, openness, and dynamics, and is more sensitive and precise.

  11. IQ and adolescent self-harm behaviours in the ALSPAC birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Heron, Jon; Kidger, Judi; Lewis, Glyn; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Low IQ is associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicide attempt in adults, but less is known about the relationship between IQ and aspects of suicidal/self-harm behaviours in adolescence. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based prospective UK cohort. Binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association of IQ measured at age 8 with suicide-related outcomes amongst 4810 adolescents aged 16-17 years. There was some evidence that associations differed in boys and girls (p values for interaction ranged between 0.06 and 0.25). In boys higher IQ was associated with increased risk of suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio per 10 point increase in IQ score=1.14, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-1.28) and suicidal plans (1.15, 95% CI 0.93-1.43), although statistical evidence for the latter association was limited. There was also evidence for an association with non-suicidal self-harm (1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.45) but not suicidal self-harm (1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25). In girls higher IQ was associated with increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm (1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.22) but not suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans or suicidal self-harm. Loss to follow up and questionnaire non-response may have led to selection bias. In contrast to previous studies of IQ-suicide associations in adults, we found that higher IQ was associated with an increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm in male and female adolescents and suicidal thoughts in males. Associations of IQ with self-harm differed for self-harm with and without suicidal intent, suggesting that the aetiology of these behaviours may differ. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ma, Hong-Wei; Tian, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2009-10-01

    To study the intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The intelligence levels were tested by the Wechsler Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in 54 children with FGR and in 84 normal children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) in the FGR group were 105.9+/-10.3, 112.4+/-11.2 and 97.1+/-10.6 respectively, and they all were in a normal range. But the PIQ was significantly lower than that in the control group (104.8+/-10.5; pintelligence level of children with FGR is normal, but there are imbalances in the intelligence structure and dysfunctions in performance ability related to right cerebral hemisphere. Performance trainings should be done from the infancy in children with FGR.

  13. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY CORRELATES OF INTELLIGENCE LEVEL (IQ IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES AND OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Starostina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Level of intelligence influences compliance of diabetic patients and their active and conscious participation in self-care. A potential association between IQ and surrogate efficacy markers of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM treatment has not been studied in Russia.Aim: To assess potential association between level of intelligence, glucose control, blood pressure (BP control and obesity in T2DM patients.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included 161 T2DM patients (28 males, 133 females aged from 37 to 79 years with diabetes duration from 0,5 to 30 years. All patients underwent standard clinical and laboratory assessment, including glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c measurement and were seen by a psychiatrist to diagnose possible depressive and cognitive disorders according to International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria. Each participant underwent psychometrical assessment, including Hachinski Ischemia Scale and a battery of cognitive tests. IQ was measured with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS.Results: Mean (± SD IQ was 100,6 ± 14,9, which corresponds to average IQ. There was no correlation between IQ and patients age. There were no differences in IQ in T2DM patients from various bodyweight categories. Correlation between HbA1c and IQ in the whole group was non-significant (r = -0,13. Only patients with high and very high IQ (≥ 110 had lower HbA1c than the rest of the group (with IQ < 110: 8,1 ± 2,4 и 8,9 ± 1,9%, respectively (р < 0,05. Level of education did not influence glucose control, BP and body mass index (BMI; HbA1c, BMI and BP values in patients with primary and higher education was virtually similar.Conclusion: Level of intelligence of T2DM patients does not contribute to risk factor control, such as bodyweight and BP. In majority of T2DM patients, glycemic control does not depend on their IQ and educational level; significantly better glucose control is achieved only by patients with higher

  14. Intellectual development in preschool children with early treated congenital hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min Kyoung; Yoon, Jong Seo; So, Chul Hwan; Lee, Hae Sang; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2017-06-01

    Delayed treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a common cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intellectual outcomes in preschool children with treated CH. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 43 children (age range: 13 to 60 days of life; 22 girls and 21 boys) diagnosed with CH. Children aged 5 to 7 years were examined using the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Korean Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. The patients started treatment between 13 and 60 days of age. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of patients tested at age 5 to 7 years was 103.14±11.68 (IQ range: 76-126). None had intellectual disability (defined as an IQ scale IQ (FSIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) scores between the 2 groups. FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ scores were not significantly correlated with initial dose of L-T4, initial fT4, age at treatment in multivariate analysis. IQ scores of subjects with early treated CH diagnosed through a neonatal screening test were within normal range, regardless of etiology, thyroid function, initial dose of levothyroxine, and age at start of treatment.

  15. Association Between Low IQ Scores and Early Mortality in Men and Women: Evidence From a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2015-05-01

    Lower (versus higher) IQ scores have been shown to increase the risk of early mortality, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and previous studies underrepresent individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and women. This study followed one third of all senior-year students (approximately aged 17) attending public high school in Wisconsin, U.S. in 1957 (n  =  10,317) until 2011. Men and women with the lowest IQ test scores (i.e., IQ scores ≤ 85) had increased rates of mortality compared to people with the highest IQ test scores, particularly for cardiovascular disease. Importantly, when educational attainment was held constant, people with lower IQ test scores did not have higher mortality by age 70 than people with higher IQ test scores. Individuals with lower IQ test scores likely experience multiple disadvantages throughout life that contribute to increased risk of early mortality.

  16. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Brain Health held on Aug. 12, 2015.

  17. INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ AS A PREDICTOR OF READING COMPREHENSION AND WRITING ACHIEVEMENT OF EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Setya B. Ningrum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating Intelligent Quotient (IQ as a predictor of reading comprehension and writing achievement as well as to correlate the students‟ reading comprehension with their writing achievement. The participant of the study were 32 senior high school Indonesian students. There are three instruments used in this study, those are IQ test, reading comprehension test, and writing test. Upon obtaining the whole data needed, Pearson Product Moment formula was employed to determine the correlation of IQ with reading comprehension and writing achievement as well as reading comprehension with writing achievement. The result of this study revealed that IQ made significant contribution in predicting reading comprehension (23.42% and writing achievement (16.08%. In addition, the correlation coefficient of reading comprehension and writing achievement shows that they are moderately correlated (r=.587, meaning that reading comprehension contributes as many as 34.45% to writing achievement.

  18. Bifactor model of WISC-IV: Applicability and measurement invariance in low and normal IQ groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair; Watson, Shaun

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the applicability and measurement invariance of the bifactor model of the 10 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) core subtests in groups of children and adolescents (age range from 6 to 16 years) with low (IQ ≤79; N = 229; % male = 75.9) and normal (IQ ≥80; N = 816; % male = 75.0) IQ scores. Results supported this model in both groups, and there was good support for measurement invariance for this model across these groups. For all participants together, the omega hierarchical and explained common variance (ECV) values were high for the general factor and low to negligible for the specific factors. Together, the findings favor the use of the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores of the WISC-IV, but not the subscale index scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    worse in the VIQ>PIQ group than in the NON and PIQ>VIQ groups. Significant negative correlations between IQD and most of the motor subtests (r=0.31–0.46, P<0.01 were found only in the VIQ>PIQ group.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that 1 IQD indicates the level of motor competence in preschoolers at risk for developmental delays and 2 IQD is negatively associated with motor competence in preschoolers with significant VIQ>PIQ discrepancy. The first finding was that preschoolers with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD performed significantly worse on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD and preschoolers with PIQ>VIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD. However, preschoolers with significant PIQ>VIQ discrepancy performed better on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD, though the difference was not statistically significant. The second finding was that preschoolers with larger VIQ>PIQ discrepancy had worse motor competence in visual-motor integration and body-movement coordination. Professionals should pay attention to the motor development of children with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy and evaluate children’s IQD along with their motor competence. Keywords: IQ discrepancy, motor competence, child

  20. Joint IQ Skew and Chromatic Dispersion Estimation for Coherent Optical Communication Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros Diniz, Júlio César; Porto da Silva, Edson; Piels, Molly

    2016-01-01

    A low-complexity scanning method for joint estimation of receiver IQ skew and chromatic dispersion is proposed. This method shows less than 1 ps skew error for a 1200-km 32-GBd DP-16QAM optical transmission experiment.......A low-complexity scanning method for joint estimation of receiver IQ skew and chromatic dispersion is proposed. This method shows less than 1 ps skew error for a 1200-km 32-GBd DP-16QAM optical transmission experiment....

  1. Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Alloway, Ross G.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the relationship between working memory and academic attainment. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether working memory is simply a proxy for IQ or whether there is a unique contribution to learning outcomes. The findings indicate that children's working memory skills at 5 years of age were the best predictor of literacy and numeracy 6 years later. IQ in contrast, accounted for a smaller portion of unique variance to these learning outcomes. The r...

  2. IQ, the Urban Environment, and Their Impact on Future Schizophrenia Risk in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulopoulou, Timothea; Picchioni, Marco; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to an urban environment during early life and low IQ are 2 well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. It is not known, however, how these factors might relate to one another. Data were pooled from the North Jutland regional draft board IQ assessments and the Danish Conscription Registry for men born between 1955 and 1993. Excluding those who were followed up for less than 1 year after the assessment yielded a final cohort of 153170 men of whom 578 later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. We found significant effects of having an urban birth, and also experiencing an increase in urbanicity before the age of 10 years, on adult schizophrenia risk. The effect of urban birth was independent of IQ. However, there was a significant interaction between childhood changes in urbanization in the first 10 years and IQ level on the future adult schizophrenia risk. In short, those subjects who moved to more or less urban areas before their 10th birthday lost the protective effect of IQ. When thinking about adult schizophrenia risk, the critical time window of childhood sensitivity to changes in urbanization seems to be linked to IQ. Given the prediction that by 2050, over 80% of the developed world's population will live in an urban environment, this represents a major future public health issue. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation and I/Q Imbalance Compensation for OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omair Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of radio-frequency front-end imperfections, that is, carrier frequency offset and the inphase/quadrature (I/Q imbalance are considered for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM communication systems. A preamble-assisted carrier frequency estimator is proposed along with an I/Q imbalance compensation scheme. The new frequency estimator reveals the relationship between the inphase and the quadrature components of the received preamble and extracts the frequency offset from the phase shift caused by the frequency offset and the cross-talk interference due to the I/Q imbalance. The proposed frequency estimation algorithm is fast, efficient, and robust to I/Q imbalance. An I/Q imbalance estimation/compensation algorithm is also presented by solving a least-square problem formulated using the same preamble as employed for the frequency offset estimation. The computational complexity of the I/Q estimation scheme is further reduced by using part of the short symbols with a little sacrifice in the estimation accuracy. Computer simulation and comparison with some of the existing algorithms are conducted, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Analysis and compensation for the joint effects of HPA nonlinearity, I/Q imbalance and crosstalk in MIMO beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the joint effects of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity, in-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance and crosstalk, on the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems, and propose a compensation method for the three impairments together. The performance of the MIMO TB system equipped with the proposed compensation scheme is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability and capacity when transmissions are performed over uncorrelated Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects on performance of several system parameters, namely, the HPA parameters, image-leakage ratio, crosstalk, numbers of antennas, length of pilot symbols and phase-shift keying modulation order. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Association of Childhood Infection With IQ and Adult Nonaffective Psychosis in Swedish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalman, Christina; Kappelmann, Nils; Stochl, Jan; Dal, Henrik; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Jones, Peter B.; Karlsson, Håkan

    2018-01-01

    Importance Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. Objectives To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based longitudinal cohort study using linkage of Swedish national registers. The risk set included all Swedish men born between 1973 and 1992 and conscripted into the military until the end of 2010 (n = 771 698). We included 647 515 participants in the analysis. Measurement of Exposures Hospitalization with any infection from birth to age 13 years. Main Outcomes and Measures Hospitalization with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of NAP until the end of 2011. At conscription around age 18 years, IQ was assessed for all participants. Results At the end of follow-up, the mean (SD) age of participants was 30.73 (5.3) years. Exposure to infections, particularly in early childhood, was associated with lower IQ (adjusted mean difference for infection at birth to age 1 year: –1.61; 95% CI, −1.74 to −1.47) and with increased risk of adult NAP (adjusted hazard ratio for infection at birth to age 1 year: 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33). There was a linear association between lower premorbid IQ and adult NAP, which persisted after excluding prodromal cases (adjusted hazard ratio per 1-point increase in IQ: 0.976; 95% CI, 0.974 to 0.978). The infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations were similar in the general population and in full-sibling pairs discordant for exposure. The association between infection and NAP was both

  6. Covalent binding of food carcinogens MeIQx, MeIQ and IQ to DNA and protein in microsomal incubations and isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.; Holme, J.A.; Alexander, J.

    1992-01-01

    The metabolic activation of 14 C-labelled food carcinogens 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx),2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline(MeIQ) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) to macromolecular bound species was studied in microsomal and hepatocellular incubations. Several data indicated that the covalent binding was dependent on P450 enzymes: It was dependent on NADPH, it was induced many times by the P450 IA1 and IA2 upregulators β-naphthoflavone and polychlorinated biphenyls, and was inhibited by the P450 IA1 and IA2 inhibitor α-naphtoflavone. In both hepatocellular and microsomal incubations the three compounds bound with similar efficiency, with IQ being somewhat more potent compared to MeIQx and MeIQ. The binding appeared to follow saturation kinetics with K m values less than 20 μM. In incubations with hepatocytes the compounds bound to both cellular DNA and to bovine serum albumin in the medium. The fact that 13-26% of total adducts were formed with bovine serum albumin, indicates that reactive metabolites of the compounds may be transported and react at distant sites from their formation without any further activation. (au)

  7. IQ and obesity in adolescence: a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S; Werbeloff, N; Fruchter, E; Portuguese, S; Davidson, M; Weiser, M

    2014-12-01

    Low IQ is associated with high BMI in childhood. There are inconsistent findings on the association between low SES and high BMI. Youth with low IQ have been reported to have poorer health behaviors, such as poor nutrition and less physical activity. Low IQ is significantly associated with obesity for both male and female adolescents, though more strongly for female adolescents. Physical activity has a mediating effect on the association between low IQ and obesity among both male and female adolescents, though more strongly for male adolescents. The association between low IQ and obesity is strongest among adolescents from high SES backgrounds. Previous studies have shown an association between low intelligence quotient (IQ), high body mass index and low socioeconomic status (SES). This study examined the cross-sectional association between IQ and obesity, exploring the roles of gender, SES and physical activity in this association. Subjects were 235,663 male and 169,259 female adolescents assessed by the Israeli military draft board. Low IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of obesity among male (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-1.52) and female adolescents (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.51-1.73); this association was significantly stronger among female adolescents. Sobel tests indicated that physical activity had a significant mediating effect on this association for male and female adolescents, although more strongly for male adolescents. Dividing the sample according to SES, the association between low IQ and obesity was strongest in the high SES group (male adolescents: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10-1.43, female adolescents: OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.38-1.89), even when controlling for physical activity. The findings suggest that low IQ is associated with increased odds of obesity, particularly in female adolescents and in adolescents with high SES. Physical activity has a mediating effect on this

  8. A 24 GHz Waveguide based Radar System using an Advanced Algorithm for I/Q Offset Cancelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Will

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Precise position measurement with micrometer accuracy plays an important role in modern industrial applications. Herewith, a guided wave Six-Port interferometric radar system is presented. Due to limited matching and discontinuities in the radio frequency part of the system, the designers have to deal with DC offsets. The offset voltages in the baseband lead to worse relative modulation dynamics relating to the full scale range of the analog-to-digital converters and thus, considerably degrade the system performance. While common cancelation techniques try to estimate and extinguish the DC offsets directly, the proposed radar system is satisfied with equalizing both DC offsets for each of the two differential baseband signal pairs. Since the complex representation of the baseband signals is utilized for a subsequent arctangent demodulation, the proposed offset equalization implicates a centering of the in-phase and quadrature (I/Q components of the received signal, which is sufficient to simplify the demodulation and improve the phase accuracy. Therefore, a standard Six-Port radar system is extended and a variable phase shifter plus variable attenuators are inserted at different positions. An intelligent algorithm adjusts these configurable components to achieve optimal I/Q offset cancelation.

  9. Feasibility of one-eighth time gated myocardial perfusion SPECT functional imaging using IQ-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caobelli, Federico; Thackeray, James T.; Bengel, Frank M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Hannover (Germany); Soffientini, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Guerra, Ugo Paolo [Fondazione Poliambulanza, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    IQ-SPECT, an add-on to general purpose cameras based on multifocal collimation, can reduce myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) acquisition times to one-fourth that of standard procedures (to 12 s/view). In a phantom study, a reduction of the acquisition time to one-eighth of the standard time (to 6 s/view) was demonstrated as feasible. It remains unclear whether such a reduction could be extended to clinical practice. Fifty patients with suspected or diagnosed CAD underwent a 2-day stress-rest {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi MPI protocol. Two consecutive SPECT acquisitions (6 and 12 s/view) were performed. Electrocardiogram-gated images were reconstructed with and without attenuation correction (AC). Polar maps were generated and visually scored by two blinded observers for image quality and perfusion in 17 segments. Global and regional summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS) and summed difference score (SDS) were determined. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were calculated based on automated contour detection. Image quality was scored higher with the 12 s/view acquisition, both with and without AC. Summed scores were statistically comparable between the 6 s/view and the 12 s/view acquisition, both globally and in individual coronary territories (e.g. in images with AC, SSS were 6.6 ± 8.3 and 6.2 ± 8.2 with 6 s and 12 s/view, respectively, p = 0.10; SRS were 3.9 ± 5.6 and 3.5 ± 5.3, respectively, p = 0.19; and SDS were 2.8 ± 5.7 and 2.6 ± 5.7, respectively, p = 0.59). Both acquisitions allowed MPI-based diagnosis of CAD in 25 of the 50 patients (with AC). Calculated end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were modestly higher with the 6 s/view acquisition than with the 12 s/view acquisition (EDV +4.8 ml at rest and +3.7 ml after stress, p = 0.003; ESV +4.1 ml at rest and +2.6 ml after stress, p = 0.01), whereas the ejection fraction did not differ (-1.2 % at rest, p = 0.20, and -0.9 % after stress, p = 0.27). Image quality and

  10. Breastfeeding and Childhood IQ: The Mediating Role of Gray Matter Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Whalen, Diana; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-05-01

    A substantial body of literature has established the positive effect of breastfeeding on child developmental outcomes. There is increasing consensus that breastfed children have higher IQs after accounting for key variables, including maternal education, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional investigations of the effects of breastfeeding on structural brain development suggest that breastfed infants have larger whole brain, cortical, and white matter volumes. To date, few studies have related these measures of brain structure to IQ in breastfed versus nonbreastfed children in a longitudinal sample. Data were derived from the Preschool Depression Study (PDS), a prospective longitudinal study in which children and caregivers were assessed annually for 8 waves over 11 years. A subset completed neuroimaging between the ages of 9.5 and 14.11 years. A total of 148 individuals had breastfeeding data at baseline and complete data on all variables of interest, including IQ and structural neuroimaging. General linear models and process mediation models were used. Breastfed children had significantly higher IQ scores and larger whole brain, total gray matter, total cortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter volumes compared with the nonbreastfed group in models that covaried for key variables. Subcortical gray matter volume significantly mediated the association between breastfeeding and children's IQ scores. The study findings suggest that the effects of breastfeeding on child IQ are mediated through subcortical gray volume. This effect and putative mechanism is of public health significance and further supports the importance of breastfeeding in mental health promotion. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Breastfeeding and Childhood IQ: The Mediating Role of Gray Matter Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.; Whalen, Diana; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A substantial body of literature has established the positive effect of breastfeeding on child developmental outcomes. There is increasing consensus that breastfed children have higher IQs after accounting for key variables, including maternal education, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional investigations of the effects of breastfeeding on structural brain development suggest that breastfed infants have larger whole brain, cortical, and white matter volumes. To date, few studies have related these measures of brain structure to IQ in breastfed versus nonbreastfed children in a longitudinal sample. Method Data were derived from the Preschool Depression Study (PDS), a prospective longitudinal study in which children and caregivers were assessed annually for 8 waves over 11 years. A subset completed neuroimaging between the ages of 9.5 and 14.11 years. A total of 148 individuals had breastfeeding data at baseline and complete data on all variables of interest, including IQ and structural neuroimaging. General linear models and process mediation models were used. Results Breastfed children had significantly higher IQ scores and larger whole brain, total gray matter, total cortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter volumes compared with the nonbreastfed group in models that covaried for key variables. Subcortical gray matter volume significantly mediated the association between breast-feeding and children's IQ scores. Conclusion The study findings suggest that the effects of breastfeeding on child IQ are mediated through subcortical gray volume. This effect and putative mechanism is of public health significance and further supports the importance of breastfeeding in mental health promotion. PMID:27126850

  12. Intelligence May Moderate the Cognitive Profile of Patients with ASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Rommelse

    Full Text Available The intelligence of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD varies considerably. The pattern of cognitive deficits associated with ASD may differ depending on intelligence. We aimed to study the absolute and relative severity of cognitive deficits in participants with ASD in relation to IQ.A total of 274 children (M age = 12.1, 68.6% boys participated: 30 ASD and 22 controls in the below average Intelligence Quotient (IQ group (IQ115. Matching for age, sex, Full Scale IQ (FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ, Performance IQ (PIQ and VIQ-PIQ difference was performed. Speed and accuracy of social cognition, executive functioning, visual pattern recognition and basic processing speed were examined per domain and as a composite score.The composite score revealed a trend significant IQ by ASD interaction (significant when excluding the average IQ group. In absolute terms, participants with below average IQs performed poorest (regardless of diagnosis. However, in relative terms, above average intelligent participants with ASD showed the most substantial cognitive problems (particularly for social cognition, visual pattern recognition and verbal working memory since this group differed significantly from the IQ-matched control group (p < .001, whereas this was not the case for below-average intelligence participants with ASD (p = .57.In relative terms, cognitive deficits appear somewhat more severe in individuals with ASD and above average IQs compared to the below average IQ patients with ASD. Even though high IQ ASD individuals enjoy a certain protection from their higher IQ, they clearly demonstrate cognitive impairments that may be targeted in clinical assessment and treatment. Conversely, even though in absolute terms ASD patients with below average IQs were clearly more impaired than ASD patients with average to above average IQs, the differences in cognitive functioning between participants with and without ASD on the lower end of the IQ spectrum were

  13. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguocha Chinyere M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition (ICD - 10 criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. Results A total of forty-four (44 children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001. First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children

  14. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ubochi, Vincent N; Okoroikpa, Ifeoma N; Aguocha, Chinyere M; Ebigbo, Peter O

    2009-09-15

    There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition(ICD - 10) criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. A total of forty-four (44) children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001). First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children showed higher correlation score between clinicians

  15. Stanford-Binet & WAIS IQ Differences and Their Implications for Adults with Intellectual Disability (aka Mental Retardation)

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Wayne; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Zigman, Warren; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon; Urv, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs were compared for a group of 74 adults with intellectual disability (ID). In every case, WAIS Full Scale IQ was higher than the Stanford-Binet Composite IQ, with a mean difference of 16.7 points. These differences did not appear to be due to the lower minimum possible score for the Stanford-Binet. Additional comparisons with other measures suggested that the WAIS might systematically underestimate severity of intellectual impairm...

  16. Future Cognitive Ability: US IQ Prediction until 2060 Based on NAEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The US National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measures cognitive competences in reading and mathematics of US students (last 2012 survey N = 50,000). The long-term development based on results from 1971 to 2012 allows a prediction of future cognitive trends. For predicting US averages also demographic trends have to be considered. The largest groups’ (White) average of 1978/80 was set at M = 100 and SD = 15 and was used as a benchmark. Based on two past NAEP development periods for 17-year-old students, 1978/80 to 2012 (more optimistic) and 1992 to 2012 (more pessimistic), and demographic projections from the US Census Bureau, cognitive trends until 2060 for the entire age cohort and ethnic groups were estimated. Estimated population averages for 2060 are 103 (optimistic) or 102 (pessimistic). The average rise per decade is dec = 0.76 or 0.45 IQ points. White-Black and White-Hispanic gaps are declining by half, Asian-White gaps treble. The catch-up of minorities (their faster ability growth) contributes around 2 IQ to the general rise of 3 IQ; however, their larger demographic increase reduces the general rise at about the similar amount (-1.4 IQ). Because minorities with faster ability growth also rise in their population proportion the interactive term is positive (around 1 IQ). Consequences for economic and societal development are discussed. PMID:26460731

  17. The Effect of Maternal Stress during Pregnancy on IQ and ADHD Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizenko, Natalie; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Gaudreau-Simard, Mathilde; Jolicoeur, Claude; Joober, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy (MSDP) has been linked to a decrease in Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in the general population. The purpose of this study is to first examine the association between MSDP and IQ in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and second, to confirm, in a large sample, the link between MSDP and ADHD behavioral symptomatology. Four hundred ten children diagnosed with ADHD, ages six to 12, were consecutively recruited from the ADHD clinic and day hospital at the Douglas Institute from 1999 to 2013. IQ was assessed using the WISC III and IV. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Connor's Global Index for Parents (CGI-P) and Teachers (CGI-T). No significant effect of MSDP on full scale IQ was observed, but MSDP had a significant effect on CBCL and CGI scores. Elevated MSDP was significantly associated with increased CBCL internalizing scores (β=4.2, pemotional lability scores (β=3.1, p=.02), and CGI-T restless-impulsive (β=2.2, p=.05) and emotional lability (β=3.4, p=.04) scores. MSDP increased the variance explained of ADHD symptomatology even after controlling for various factors (i.e. familial income, parental education, smoking and drinking during pregnancy, gender and age). The study demonstrates that in children with ADHD, MSDP does not have an impact on IQ but rather on ADHD symptomatology, highlighting the importance of potentially offering psychological and social support to mothers who experience stress during pregnancy.

  18. Developmental Trajectories for Children With Dyslexia and Low IQ Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly. Children with dyslexia showed atypical development in phonological awareness, while low IQ poor readers showed developmental delay. Low IQ poor readers showed atypical PSTM and RAN development, but children with dyslexia showed developmental delay. These divergent trajectories may have important ramifications for supporting each type of poor reader, although all poor readers showed weakness in all areas. Regarding auditory processing, the developmental trajectories were very similar for the two poor reader groups. However, children with dyslexia demonstrated developmental delay for auditory discrimination of Duration, while the low IQ children showed atypical development on this measure. The data show that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have developmental trajectories that differ from typically developing children. The trajectories approach enables differences in trajectory classification to be identified across poor reader group, as well as specifying the individual nature of these trajectories. PMID:27110928

  19. Language performance in siblings of nonverbal children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yonata; Bar-Yuda, Chanit

    2011-05-01

    The study focuses on language and cognitive abilities of siblings of the linguistically most affected children with autism (i.e. siblings of nonverbal children - SIBS-ANV). Twenty-eight SIBS-ANV (17 boys), ages 4-9 years, took part in the study. All children attended regular schools, and none had received a diagnosis of autism. Controls were 27 typically developing children (SIBS-TD; 16 boys) matched to the SIBS-ANV on age, family background, socioeconomic status and type of school they attended. Significant IQ differences, as well as language differences as measured on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF), emerged between SIBS-ANV and SIBS-TD. However, differences in the language scores mostly disappeared when PIQ and FSIQ were controlled for. Furthermore, grammatical analysis of spontaneous speech samples produced in the course of testing did not reveal any significant differences between the groups. These results add to recent work suggesting that language deficits may not be part of the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP). It further suggests that the cognitive deficit characteristic of nonverbal people with autism may be familial.

  20. Prevalence of Principles of Piaget’s Theory Among 4-7-year-old Children and their Correlation with IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Sugandha; Vashist, Binny

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive development is a major area of human development and was extensively studied by Jean Piaget. He proposed that the development of intellectual abilities occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages and that a child’s way of thinking and viewing the world is different at different stages. Aim To assess Piaget’s principles of the intuitive stage of preoperational period among 4-7-year-old children relative to their Intelligence quotient (IQ). Materials and Methods Various characteristics as described by Jean Piaget specific for the age group of 4-7 years along with those of the previous (preconceptual stage of preoperational period) and successive periods (concrete operations) were analysed using various experiments in 300 children. These characteristics included the concepts of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism, centration and reversibility. IQ of the children was measured using Seguin form board test. Inferential statistics were performed using Chi-square test and Kruskal Wallis test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results The prevalence of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism was 10.7% and 31.7% based on the experiments and 33% based on the interview question. Centration was present in 96.3% of the children. About 99% children lacked the concept of reversibility according to the clay experiment while 97.7% possessed this concept according to the interview question. The mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was significantly higher than those who lacked these characteristics. Conclusion Perceptual egocentrism had almost disappeared and prevalence of cognitive egocentrism decreased with increase in age. Centration and lack of reversibility were appreciated in most of the children. There was a gradual reduction in the prevalence of these characters with increasing age. Mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism

  1. Translesion Synthesis of the N2-2′-Deoxyguanosine Adduct of the Dietary Mutagen IQ in Human Cells: Error-Free Replication by DNA Polymerase κ and Mutagenic Bypass by DNA Polymerases η, ζ, and Rev1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) of the N2-2′-deoxyguanosine (dG-N2-IQ) adduct of the carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was investigated in human embryonic kidney 293T cells by replicating plasmid constructs in which the adduct was individually placed at each guanine (G1, G2, or G3) of the NarI sequence (5′-CG1G2CG3CC-3′). TLS efficiency was 38%, 29%, and 25% for the dG-N2-IQ located at G1, G2, and G3, respectively, which suggests that dG-N2-IQ is bypassed more efficiently by one or more DNA polymerases at G1 than at either G2 or G3. TLS efficiency was decreased 8–35% in cells with knockdown of pol η, pol κ, pol ι, pol ζ, or Rev1. Up to 75% reduction in TLS occurred when pol η, pol ζ, and Rev1 were simultaneously knocked down, suggesting that these three polymerases play important roles in dG-N2-IQ bypass. Mutation frequencies (MFs) of dG-N2-IQ at G1, G2, and G3 were 23%, 17%, and 11%, respectively, exhibiting a completely reverse trend of the previously reported MF of the C8-dG adduct of IQ (dG-C8-IQ), which is most mutagenic at G3 ((2015) Nucleic Acids Res.43, 8340−835126220181). The major type of mutation induced by dG-N2-IQ was targeted G → T, as was reported for dG-C8-IQ. In each site, knockdown of pol κ resulted in an increase in MF, whereas MF was reduced when pol η, pol ι, pol ζ, or Rev1 was knocked down. The reduction in MF was most pronounced when pol η, pol ζ, and Rev1 were simultaneously knocked down and especially when the adduct was located at G3, where MF was reduced by 90%. We conclude that pol κ predominantly performs error-free TLS of the dG-N2-IQ adduct, whereas pols η, pol ζ, and Rev1 cooperatively carry out the error-prone TLS. However, in vitro experiments using yeast pol ζ and κ showed that the former was inefficient in full-length primer extension on dG-N2-IQ templates, whereas the latter was efficient in both error-free and error-prone extensions. We believe that the observed differences between

  2. An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique for wideband wireless transceivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jin; Zhou Liguo; Yao Heng; Yuan Fang; Shi Yin; Fang Zhi

    2014-01-01

    An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique based on the digital baseband for wideband wireless communication transmitters is proposed. The digital baseband transmits the signal used for IQ mismatch calibration. The signal passes through the RF transmitter path, the calibration loop (which is composed of a square power detector and a band-pass filter in the RF transceiver) and the variable gain amplifier of the receiver. The digital baseband samples the signal for IQ mismatch estimation and compensates for it. Compared with the self-calibration technique in the RF chip, the proposed technique saves area and power consumption for the wireless local area network solution. This technique has been successfully used for the 802.11n system and satisfies the requirement of the standard by achieving over 50 dB image suppression. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. The IQ-wall and IQ-station -- harnessing our collective intelligence to realize the potential of ultra-resolution and immersive visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric A. Wernert; William R. Sherman; Chris Eller; David Reagan; Patrick D. Beard; Eric T. Whiting; Patrick O' Leary

    2012-03-01

    We present a pair of open-recipe, affordably-priced, easy-to-integrate, and easy-to-use visualization systems. The IQ-wall is an ultra-resolution tiled display wall that scales up to 24 screens with a single PC. The IQ-station is a semi-immersive display system that utilizes commodity stereoscopic displays, lower cost tracking systems, and touch overlays. These systems have been designed to support a wide range of research, education, creative activities, and information presentations. They were designed to work equally well as stand-alone installations or as part of a larger distributed visualization ecosystem. We detail the hardware and software components of these systems, describe our deployments and experiences in a variety of research lab and university environments, and share our insights for effective support and community development.

  4. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 5-year-old children: a cohort based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nøhr, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of -0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of -0.27 (-0.50 to -0.03). After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of -0.26 (-0.59 to 0.07), which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (-0.20 (-0.44 to 0.04)). Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.

  5. Premorbid IQ subgroups in first episode non affective psychosis patients: Long-term sex differences in function and neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl David; Belzunces, Àuria Albacete; Contreras, Fernando; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2017-12-21

    Low IQ has been associated with schizophrenia, even to the point of being posited as a possible causal factor for psychosis. However, individuals with normal and high IQ also develop psychotic illnesses. The aim of this study was to characterize premorbid IQ subgroups at first episode of psychosis (FEP). The study sample comes from a large epidemiological, 3-year longitudinal, intervention program on psychosis containing individuals living in a catchment area in Spain. Estimated premorbid IQ (epIQ) scores were used to build low (110) epIQ subgroups in samples of FEP patients (N=292) and healthy controls (N=199). The epIQ subgroups were compared in sociodemographic, neuropsychological, clinical and premorbid characteristics. Long-term functional and cognitive outcome, with a focus on sex differences, were also explored. Low-epIQ was more frequently found in FEP patients (28.8%) than in healthy controls (14.6%). Low-epIQ patients were more likely to have worse premorbid adjustment, belong to low socioeconomic status families, have less years of education, and to be single, unemployed, and younger. They presented more severe impairments in processing speed, executive and global cognitive function. Female patients with low-epIQ showed better baseline function and more stable outcome than males. Our results indicate that low premorbid IQ is a morbid manifestation, easily detected in a subgroup of FEP patients that predicts poorer outcome particularly in males. This perspective provides important information for the tailoring of subgroup-specific early intervention programs for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on improved Ip-iq APF control algorithm and its application in micro grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xifeng; Shi, Hua; Deng, Haiyingv

    2018-01-01

    In order to enhance the tracking velocity and accuracy of harmonic detection by ip-iq algorithm, a novel ip-iq control algorithm based on the Instantaneous reactive power theory is presented, the improved algorithm adds the lead correction link to adjust the zero point of the detection system, the Fuzzy Self-Tuning Adaptive PI control is introduced to dynamically adjust the DC-link Voltage, which meets the requirement of the harmonic compensation of the micro grid. Simulation and experimental results verify the proposed method is feasible and effective in micro grid.

  7. IQ is an independent predictor of glycated haemoglobin level in young and middle-aged adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T; Miki, T; Itoh, T; Ohnishi, H; Asari, M; Chihiro, S; Yamamoto, A; Aotsuka, K; Kawakami, N; Ichikawa, J; Hirota, Y; Miura, T

    2015-01-01

    Here we examined whether intellectual disability is independently associated with hyperglycaemia. We recruited 233 consecutive young and middle-aged adults with intellectual disability. After exclusion of subjects on medication for metabolic diseases or with severe intellectual disability (IQ IQ into a group with moderate intellectual disability (35 ≤ IQ ≤ 50), a mild intellectual disability group (51 ≤ IQ ≤ 70) and a borderline group (IQ > 70). HbA1c level was higher in subjects with moderate intellectual disability (42 ± 9 mmol/mol; 6.0 ± 0.8%) than those in the borderline group (36 ± 4 mmol/mol; 5.5 ± 0.3%) and mild intellectual disability group (37 ± 5 mmol/mol; 5.5 ± 0.5%) groups. HbA1c level was correlated with age, BMI, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and IQ in simple linear regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis indicated that IQ, age, BMI and diastolic blood pressure were independent explanatory factors of HbA1c level. An unfavourable effect of intellectual disability on lifestyle and untoward effect of hyperglycaemia on cognitive function may underlie the association of low IQ with hyperglycaemia. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  8. 78 FR 56978 - In the Matter of Carbiz, Inc., InZon Corporation, IQ Micro, Inc., Irwin Financial Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Carbiz, Inc., InZon Corporation, IQ Micro, Inc., Irwin Financial Corporation, and Princeton Media Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension... information concerning the securities of IQ Micro, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  9. Judicial Reliance on Parental IQ in Appellate-Level Child Welfare Cases Involving Parents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Ella; Tahir, Munazza; Feldman, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are over-represented in child welfare cases. Although IQ "per se" is an invalid indicator of parenting abilities, this study examined the prevalence of judicial consideration of parental IQ test evidence in US appellate cases. Methods: The present authors…

  10. Graduate Student WAIS-III Scoring Accuracy Is a Function of Full Scale IQ and Complexity of Examiner Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Richard, David C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) suggests that practicing clinical psychologists and graduate students make item-level scoring errors that affect IQ, index, and subtest scores. Studies have been limited in that Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and examiner administration,…

  11. Preconception Maternal Iodine Status Is Positively Associated with IQ but Not with Measures of Executive Function in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sian M; Crozier, Sarah R; Miles, Elizabeth A; Gale, Catharine R; Calder, Philip C; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M

    2018-05-15

    Adverse effects of severe maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy on fetal brain development are well-established, but the effects of milder deficiency are uncertain. Most studies examine iodine status in pregnancy; less is known about iodine nutrition before conception. We examined relations between maternal preconception iodine status and offspring cognitive function, within a prospective mother-offspring cohort. Maternal iodine status was assessed through the use of the ratio of iodine:creatinine concentrations (I/Cr) in spot urine samples [median (IQR) period before conception 3.3 y (2.2-4.7 y)]. Childhood cognitive function was assessed at age 6-7 y. Full-scale IQ was assessed via the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and executive function through the use of tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Analyses (n = 654 mother-child dyads) were adjusted for potential confounders including maternal intelligence, education, and breastfeeding duration. The median (IQR) urinary iodine concentration was 108.4 µg/L (62.2-167.8 µg/L) and the I/Cr ratio 114 µg/g (76-164 µg/g). The preconception I/Cr ratio was positively associated with child IQ, before and after adjustment for potential confounding influences [β = 0.13 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.21)/SD, P = 0.003]. 8.9% of women had a preconception urinary I/Cr ratio function outcomes assessed via CANTAB, before or after adjustment for confounders. The positive association between iodine status before conception and child IQ provides some support for demonstrated links between low maternal iodine status in pregnancy and poorer cognitive function reported in other studies. However, given the negative effects on school performance previously observed in children born to iodine-deficient mothers, the lack of associations with measures of executive function in the present study was unexpected. Further data are needed to establish the public health importance of low preconception

  12. There Is No Difference in IQ between Suicide and Non-Suicide Psychiatric Patients: A Retrospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Yi, Kikyoung; Lee, Joon Deuk; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between IQ and suicide in psychiatric patients. We conducted a nested case-control study using data obtained from psychiatric patients affiliated with a general hospital in Seoul, Korea. In a one-to-two ratio the psychiatric patients who died of suicide (Suicide Group; n=35) were matched to those who didn't (Non-suicide Group; n=70) by age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis and approximate time of first treatment. IQ was measured using the Korean version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. There were no significant differences in any type of IQ between suicide patients and non-suicide patients. Logistic regression showed no evidence of an association between IQ and suicide. These results do not support the existence of an association between IQ and suicide.

  13. Roles of Education and IQ in Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Armstrong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The role of cognitive reserve in Parkinson’s disease (PD-mild cognitive impairment (MCI is incompletely understood. Methods: The relationships between PD-MCI, years of education, and estimated premorbid IQ were examined in 119 consecutive non-demented PD patients using logistic regression models. Results: Higher education and IQ were associated with reduced odds of PD-MCI in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, a higher IQ was associated with a significantly decreased odds of PD-MCI, but education was not. Conclusion: The association of higher IQ and decreased odds of PD-MCI supports a role for cognitive reserve in PD, but further studies are needed to clarify the interaction of IQ and education and the impact of other contributors such as employment and hobbies.

  14. Intelligence moderates the benefits of strategy instructions on memory performance: an adult-lifespan examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenmolen, Nikita L; Altgassen, Mareike; Kessels, Renée; de Waal, Marleen M; Hindriksen, Julie-Anne; Verhoeven, Barbara; Fasotti, Luciano; Scheres, Anouk; Kessels, Roy P C; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2017-01-01

    Whether older adults can compensate for their associative memory deficit by using memory strategies efficiently might depend on their general cognitive abilities. This study examined the moderating role of an IQ estimate on the beneficial effects of strategy instructions. A total of 142 participants (aged 18-85 years) received either intentional learning or strategy ("sentence generation") instructions during encoding of word pairs. Whereas young adults with a lower IQ benefited from strategy instructions, those with a higher IQ did not, presumably because they already use strategies spontaneously. Older adults showed the opposite effect: following strategy instructions, older adults with a higher IQ showed a strong increase in memory performance (approximately achieving the level of younger adults), whereas older adults with a lower IQ did not, suggesting that they have difficulties implementing the provided strategies. These results highlight the importance of the role of IQ in compensating for the aging-related memory decline.

  15. Practical Aspects of IQ and OQ Electron Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, A.

    2007-01-01

    The steps of validation as described in the EN ISO 11137 Standard are: process definition, installation qualification, operational qualification and performance qualification. In addition routine process control must be performed. All these steps are described in details and discussed

  16. Longitudinal Patterns of Employment and Postsecondary Education for Adults with Autism and Average-Range IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Henninger, Natalie A.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined correlates of participation in postsecondary education and employment over 12?years for 73 adults with autism spectrum disorders and average-range IQ whose families were part of a larger, longitudinal study. Correlates included demographic (sex, maternal education, paternal education), behavioral (activities of daily living,…

  17. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI...

  18. IQ, Skin Color, Crime, HIV/AIDS, and Income in 50 U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.; Rushton, J. Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In 50 U.S. states, we found a positive manifold across 11 measures including IQ, skin color, birth rate, infant mortality, life expectancy, HIV/AIDS, violent crime, and state income with the first principal component accounting for 33% of the variance (median factor loading = 0.34). The correlation with a composite of total violent crime was…

  19. Direct and Indirect Effects of Brain Volume, Socioeconomic Status and Family Stress on Child IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Jenkins, Jade V; Woolley, Donald P; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    1.1. Background A large literature documents the detrimental effects of socioeconomic disparities on intelligence and neuropsychological development. Researchers typically measure environmental factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), using income, parent's occupation and education. However, SES is more complex, and this complexity may influence neuropsychological outcomes. 1.2. Methods This studyused principal components analysis to reduce 14 SES and 28 family stress indicators into their core dimensions (e.g. community and educational capital, financial resources, marital conflict). Core dimensions were used in path analyses to examine their relationships with parent IQ and cerebral volume (white matter, grey matter and total brain volume), to predict child IQ in a sample of typically developing children. 1.3. Results Parent IQ affected child IQ directly and indirectly through community and educational capital, demonstrating how environmental factors interact with familial factors in neuro-development. There were no intervening effects of cerebral white matter, grey matter, or total brain volume. 1.4. Conclusions Findings may suggest that improving community resources can foster the intellectual development of children. PMID:24533427

  20. Developmental Trajectories for Children with Dyslexia and Low IQ Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah E. A.; Goswami, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The…

  1. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  2. Breastfeeding Is Positively Associated with Child Intelligence Even Net of Parental IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Some previous reviews conclude that breastfeeding is not significantly associated with increased intelligence in children once mother's IQ is statistically controlled. The conclusion may potentially have both theoretical and methodological problems. The National Child Development Study allows the examination of the effect of breastfeeding on…

  3. The Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans: Comments on Wicherts, Dolan, and van der Maas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Wicherts, Dolan, and van der Maas (2009) contend that the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans is about 80. A critical evaluation of the studies presented by WDM shows that many of these are based on unrepresentative elite samples. We show that studies of 29 acceptably representative samples on tests other than the Progressive Matrices give a…

  4. Functional Connectivity of Child and Adolescent Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Patients: Correlation with IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Yong; Hong, Jisu; Lee, Seung-Hak; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC). We used group independent component analysis (ICA) and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent) and symptom (ADHD and NC) in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects ( p = 0.0068). The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies.

  5. The Predictive Ability of IQ and Working Memory Scores in Literacy in an Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gregory, David

    2013-01-01

    Literacy problems are highly prevalent and can persist into adulthood. Yet, the majority of research on the predictive nature of cognitive skills to literacy has primarily focused on development and adolescent populations. The aim of the present study was to extend existing research to investigate the roles of IQ scores and Working Memory…

  6. Face and Object Discrimination in Autism, and Relationship to IQ and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Cohen, Shereen J.; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested fine discrimination of upright and inverted faces and objects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as compared to age- and IQ-matched controls. Discrimination sensitivity was tested using morphed faces and morphed objects, and all stimuli were equated in low-level visual characteristics (luminance, contrast,…

  7. IQs in Italy Are Higher in the North: A Reply to Felice and Giugliano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Criticisms advanced by Felice and Giugliano (2011) of the thesis that IQs in Italy are higher in the north than in the south are answered and new data confirming the thesis are given from the PISA 2009 study and for math and reading abilities in the recent INVALSI study. New genetic data are given showing higher frequency of blond hair the…

  8. A low-complexity feed-forward I/Q imbalance compensation algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moseley, N.A.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a low-complexity adaptive feed- forward I/Q imbalance compensation algorithm. The feed-forward so- lution has guaranteed stability. Due to its blind nature the algorithm is easily incorporated into an existing receiver design. The algorithm uses three estimators to obtain the

  9. Psychopathy, IQ, and Violence in European American and African American County Jail Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Zach; Swogger, Marc T.; Kosson, David S.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of the prediction of criminal violence may be improved by combining psychopathy with other variables that have been found to predict violence. Research has suggested that assessing intelligence (i.e., IQ) as well as psychopathy improves the accuracy of violence prediction. In the present study, the authors tested this hypothesis by…

  10. A systematic literature review of the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Dolan, C.V.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of several reviews of the literature, Lynn [Lynn, R., (2006). Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] and Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., (2006). IQ and global inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit

  11. Differential Epidemiology: IQ, Neuroticism, and Chronic Disease by the 50 U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesta, Bryan J.; Bertsch, Sharon; McDaniel, Michael A.; Mahoney, Christine B.; Poznanski, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Current research shows that geo-political units (e.g., the 50 U.S. states) vary meaningfully on psychological dimensions like intelligence (IQ) and neuroticism (N). A new scientific discipline has also emerged, differential epidemiology, focused on how psychological variables affect health. We integrate these areas by reporting large correlations…

  12. IQ and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children Exposed to Interpersonal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The literature is mixed as to the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in adult populations. Even less is known about the relationship in children who have been traumatized. Methods: Fifty-nine children and adolescents (mean age = 10.6) with a history of interpersonal…

  13. Functional connectivity of child and adolescent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients: correlation with IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control, and 28 adolescent normal control. We used group independent component analysis (ICA and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent and symptom (ADHD and NC in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects (p = 0.0068. The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies.

  14. The Effect of TPR and Audio - Lingual Method in Teaching Vocabulary Viewed from Students’ IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Dewi Ekawati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the effect of Total Physical Response (TPR on elementary school students’ English vocabulary mastery with regards to their Intelligence Quotient (IQ. Whether or not there is an interaction between the teaching method and IQ in teaching vocabulary was also investigated in this study . The research was carried out at an elementary school in Central Java , Indonesia . The population was the fifth year students of two classes. Both the experimental and control groups consisted of 40 students. The data were analyzed using multifactor analysis of variance 2 x 2 (ANOVA. Then, it was analyzed using Tukey test. The study reveals that TPR was an effective method for teaching vocabulary in elementary school, and the effectiveness of the method was influenced by the level of students’ IQ. The results of the study may become a reference for EFL teachers to apply an effective method to teach English vocabulary to elementary school students. Moreover, EFL teachers need to take into account students’ IQ in implementing the teaching method

  15. Measurement of Nonverbal IQ in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Scores in Young Adulthood Compared to Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L.; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges…

  16. Longitudinal genetic study of verbal and nonverbal IQ from early childhood to young adulthood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal genetic study we explored which factors underlie stability in verbal and nonverbal abilities, and the extent to which the association between these abilities becomes stronger as children grow older. Measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ were collected in Dutch twin pairs at age 5, 7,

  17. WAIS-III IQs, Horn's Theory, and Generational Changes from Young Adulthood to Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Alan S.

    2001-01-01

    Examined age changes in intellectual ability in the range from 16 to 89 years through 2 studies that involved IQs on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). Results are interpreted in the context of the fluid-crystallized intelligence theory of J. Horn. Studies used WAIS-III standardization data for 2,450 adults and longitudinal data…

  18. Association of IQ Changes and Progressive Brain Changes in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Manabu; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Haijma, Sander V; Schnack, Hugo G; Cahn, Wiepke; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S

    2015-08-01

    Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time. Case-control longitudinal study at the Department of Psychiatry at the University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, comparing patients with schizophrenia and healthy control participants between September 22, 2004, and April 17, 2008. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and IQ scores were obtained at baseline and the 3-year follow-up. Participants included 84 patients with schizophrenia (mean illness duration, 4.35 years) and 116 age-matched healthy control participants. Associations between changes in IQ and the total brain, cerebral gray matter, cerebral white matter, lateral ventricular, third ventricles, cortical, and subcortical volumes; cortical thickness; and cortical surface area. Cerebral gray matter volume (P = .006) and cortical volume (P = .03) and thickness (P = .02) decreased more in patients with schizophrenia across time compared with control participants. Patients showed additional loss in cortical volume and thickness of the right supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, left supramarginal, left postcentral, and occipital regions (P values were between IQ increased similarly in patients with schizophrenia and control participants, changes in IQ were negatively correlated with changes in lateral ventricular volume (P = .05) and positively correlated with changes in cortical volume (P = .007) and thickness (P = .004) only in patients with schizophrenia. Positive correlations between changes in IQ and cortical volume and thickness were found globally and in widespread regions across frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices (P values were between <.001 and .03 after clusterwise correction). These findings were independent of symptom

  19. Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Network Analysis of Cerebellum with Respect to IQ and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios C. Pezoulas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, it has been established that the prefrontal and posterior parietal brain lobes, which are mostly related to intelligence, have many connections to cerebellum. However, there is a limited research investigating cerebellum's relationship with cognitive processes. In this study, the network of cerebellum was analyzed in order to investigate its overall organization in individuals with low and high fluid Intelligence Quotient (IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were selected from 136 subjects in resting-state from the Human Connectome Project (HCP database and were further separated into two IQ groups composed of 69 low-IQ and 67 high-IQ subjects. Cerebellum was parcellated into 28 lobules/ROIs (per subject using a standard cerebellum anatomical atlas. Thereafter, correlation matrices were constructed by computing Pearson's correlation coefficients between the average BOLD time-series for each pair of ROIs inside the cerebellum. By computing conventional graph metrics, small-world network properties were verified using the weighted clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length for estimating the trade-off between segregation and integration. In addition, a connectivity metric was computed for extracting the average cost per network. The concept of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST was adopted and implemented in order to avoid methodological biases in graph comparisons and retain only the strongest connections per network. Subsequently, six global and three local metrics were calculated in order to retrieve useful features concerning the characteristics of each MST. Moreover, the local metrics of degree and betweenness centrality were used to detect hubs, i.e., nodes with high importance. The computed set of metrics gave rise to extensive statistical analysis in order to examine differences between low and high-IQ groups, as well as between all possible gender-based group combinations. Our results

  20. Profile-IQ: Web-based data query system for local health department infrastructure and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gulzar H; Leep, Carolyn J; Alexander, Dayna

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of National Association of County & City Health Officials' Profile-IQ, a Web-based data query system, and how policy makers, researchers, the general public, and public health professionals can use the system to generate descriptive statistics on local health departments. This article is a descriptive account of an important health informatics tool based on information from the project charter for Profile-IQ and the authors' experience and knowledge in design and use of this query system. Profile-IQ is a Web-based data query system that is based on open-source software: MySQL 5.5, Google Web Toolkit 2.2.0, Apache Commons Math library, Google Chart API, and Tomcat 6.0 Web server deployed on an Amazon EC2 server. It supports dynamic queries of National Profile of Local Health Departments data on local health department finances, workforce, and activities. Profile-IQ's customizable queries provide a variety of statistics not available in published reports and support the growing information needs of users who do not wish to work directly with data files for lack of staff skills or time, or to avoid a data use agreement. Profile-IQ also meets the growing demand of public health practitioners and policy makers for data to support quality improvement, community health assessment, and other processes associated with voluntary public health accreditation. It represents a step forward in the recent health informatics movement of data liberation and use of open source information technology solutions to promote public health.

  1. Neurobiological mechanisms for nonverbal IQ tests: implications for instruction of nonverbal children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vyshedskiy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the neurological correlates of IQ test questions are characterized qualitatively in terms of ‘control of attention’ and ‘working memory.’ In this report we attempt to characterize each IQ test question quantitatively by two factors: a the number of disparate objects that have to be imagined in concert in order to solve the problem and, b the amount of recruited posterior cortex territory. With such a classification, an IQ test can be understood on a neuronal level and a subject’s IQ score could be interpreted in terms of specific neurological mechanisms available to the subject. Here we present the results of an analysis of the three most popular nonverbal IQ tests: Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI-4, Standard Raven's Progressive Matrices, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-V. Our analysis shows that approximately half of all questions (52±0.02% are limited to mental computations involving only a single object; these easier questions are found towards the beginning of each test. More difficult questions located towards the end of each test rely on mental synthesis of several disparate objects and the number of objects involved in computations gradually increases with question difficulty. These more challenging questions require the organization of wider posterior cortex networks by the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. This conclusion is in line with neuroimaging studies showing that activation level of the lateral PFC and the posterior cortex positively correlates with task difficulty. This analysis has direct implications for brain pathophysiology and, specifically, for therapeutic interventions for children with language impairment, most notably for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and other developmental disorders.

  2. Poster - 31: Predicting IQ and hearing loss following radiotherapy in pediatric brain tumors: proton vs photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, Dominique; Ng, Angela; Tsang, Derek; Sharpe, Michael; Laperriere, Norm; Hodgson, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The increased sparing of normal tissues in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in pediatric brain tumor treatments should translate into improved neurocognitive outcomes. Models were used to estimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the risk of hearing loss 5 years post radiotherapy and to compare outcomes of proton against photon in pediatric brain tumors. Methods: Patients who had received intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were randomly selected from our retrospective database. The existing planning CT and contours were used to generate IMPT plans. The RBE-corrected dose was calculated for both IMPT and IMRT. For each patient, the IQ was estimated via a Monte Carlo technique, whereas the reported incidence of hearing loss as a function of cochlear dose was used to estimate the probability of occurrence. Results: The integrated brain dose was reduced in all IMPT plans, translating into a gain of 2 IQ points on average for protons for the whole cohort at 5 years post-treatment. In terms of specific diseases, the gains in IQ ranged from 0.8 points for medulloblastoma, to 2.7 points for craniopharyngioma. Hearing loss probability was evaluated on a per-ear-basis and was found to be systematically less for proton versus photon: overall 2.9% versus 7.2%. Conclusions: A method was developed to predict IQ and hearing outcomes in pediatric brain tumor patients on a case-by-case basis. A modest gain was systematically observed for proton in all patients. Given the uncertainties within the model used and our reinterpretation, these gains may be underestimated.

  3. Poster - 31: Predicting IQ and hearing loss following radiotherapy in pediatric brain tumors: proton vs photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, Dominique; Ng, Angela; Tsang, Derek; Sharpe, Michael; Laperriere, Norm; Hodgson, David [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The increased sparing of normal tissues in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in pediatric brain tumor treatments should translate into improved neurocognitive outcomes. Models were used to estimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the risk of hearing loss 5 years post radiotherapy and to compare outcomes of proton against photon in pediatric brain tumors. Methods: Patients who had received intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were randomly selected from our retrospective database. The existing planning CT and contours were used to generate IMPT plans. The RBE-corrected dose was calculated for both IMPT and IMRT. For each patient, the IQ was estimated via a Monte Carlo technique, whereas the reported incidence of hearing loss as a function of cochlear dose was used to estimate the probability of occurrence. Results: The integrated brain dose was reduced in all IMPT plans, translating into a gain of 2 IQ points on average for protons for the whole cohort at 5 years post-treatment. In terms of specific diseases, the gains in IQ ranged from 0.8 points for medulloblastoma, to 2.7 points for craniopharyngioma. Hearing loss probability was evaluated on a per-ear-basis and was found to be systematically less for proton versus photon: overall 2.9% versus 7.2%. Conclusions: A method was developed to predict IQ and hearing outcomes in pediatric brain tumor patients on a case-by-case basis. A modest gain was systematically observed for proton in all patients. Given the uncertainties within the model used and our reinterpretation, these gains may be underestimated.

  4. School-Level Genetic Variation Predicts School-Level Verbal IQ Scores: Results from a Sample of American Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently revealed that average IQ scores vary significantly across macro-level units, such as states and nations. The reason for this variation in IQ, however, has remained at the center of much controversy. One of the more provocative explanations is that IQ across macro-level units is the result of genetic differences, but…

  5. Birth Order, Age-Spacing, IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    1980-01-01

    Very close age spacing was an obstacle to high academic performance for later borns. In family relations and self-esteem, first borns scored better and performed in school as well as their potentially much more able younger siblings, regardless of age spacing. (Author)

  6. Toward standardized quantitative image quality (IQ) assessment in computed tomography (CT): A comprehensive framework for automated and comparative IQ analysis based on ICRU Report 87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahn, Gregor; Skornitzke, Stephan; Schlemmer, Hans-Peter; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stiller, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Based on the guidelines from "Report 87: Radiation Dose and Image-quality Assessment in Computed Tomography" of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), a software framework for automated quantitative image quality analysis was developed and its usability for a variety of scientific questions demonstrated. The extendable framework currently implements the calculation of the recommended Fourier image quality (IQ) metrics modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS), and additional IQ quantities such as noise magnitude, CT number accuracy, uniformity across the field-of-view, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of simulated lesions for a commercially available cone-beam phantom. Sample image data were acquired with different scan and reconstruction settings on CT systems from different manufacturers. Spatial resolution is analyzed in terms of edge-spread function, line-spread-function, and MTF. 3D NPS is calculated according to ICRU Report 87, and condensed to 2D and radially averaged 1D representations. Noise magnitude, CT numbers, and uniformity of these quantities are assessed on large samples of ROIs. Low-contrast resolution (CNR, SNR) is quantitatively evaluated as a function of lesion contrast and diameter. Simultaneous automated processing of several image datasets allows for straightforward comparative assessment. The presented framework enables systematic, reproducible, automated and time-efficient quantitative IQ analysis. Consistent application of the ICRU guidelines facilitates standardization of quantitative assessment not only for routine quality assurance, but for a number of research questions, e.g. the comparison of different scanner models or acquisition protocols, and the evaluation of new technology or reconstruction methods. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Study Of The Relation Between IQ And Personality Types Among Male And Female Students Of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaee D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologists have been thinking that some personality types may have a higher IQ comparing with the other types, and this could be considered as a general belief. Eysenck, the eminent British psychologist, described the introverted people to have a higher. Intelligence comparing with the extroverted people. Materials and Methods: We maintain two objectives from this study. Firstly if there is a relation between the IQ and personality types or not and secondly the mean IQ of which group is higher and thirdly, what is the relation between sexes. Results: 297 students were selected randomly from Tabriz University and Tabriz Medical Sciences University. Every examination was given both Raven IQ test and Eysenck personality inventory and examination answered the both tests at the same time. Both tests were evaluated by the standard scoring system. The results of both tests were extracted then statistical evaluations ofx and t-test were done. No significant and meaningful relation was found between IQ and personality types pf Eysenck ( introversion- extroversion, neuroticism, emotion stability among male and female students. Also introverted students and extroverted students did not have significant differences in the mean of IQ. Conclusion: Altogether these kinds of findings seem to be interesting, judging about psychological and behavioral characteristic of people needs more studies, and a single IQ or personality test is not sufficient. Therefore reaching an exact conclusion as a scientific fact will be possible by further researches.

  8. Childhood IQ and survival to 79: Follow-up of 94% of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čukić, Iva; Brett, Caroline E; Calvin, Catherine M; Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J

    2017-07-01

    To extend previous literature that suggests higher IQ in youth is associated with living longer. Previous studies have been unable to assess reliably whether the effect differs across sexes and ages of death, and whether the effect is graded across different levels of IQ. We test IQ-survival associations in 94% of the near-entire population born in Scotland in 1936 who took an IQ test at age 11 (n = 70,805) and were traced in a 68-year follow-up. Higher IQ at age 11 years was associated with a lower risk of death (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.81). The decline in risk across categories of IQ scores was graded across the full range with the effect slightly stronger in women (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.77, 0.80) than in men (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.81, 0.84). Higher IQ had a significantly stronger association with death before and including age 65 (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.77) than in those participants who died at an older age (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.78, 0.80). Higher childhood IQ is associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in both men and women. This is the only near-entire population study to date that examines the association between childhood IQ and mortality across most of the human life course.

  9. Clever sillies: why high IQ people tend to be deficient in common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-12-01

    In previous editorials I have written about the absent-minded and socially-inept 'nutty professor' stereotype in science, and the phenomenon of 'psychological neoteny' whereby intelligent modern people (including scientists) decline to grow-up and instead remain in a state of perpetual novelty-seeking adolescence. These can be seen as specific examples of the general phenomenon of 'clever sillies' whereby intelligent people with high levels of technical ability are seen (by the majority of the rest of the population) as having foolish ideas and behaviours outside the realm of their professional expertise. In short, it has often been observed that high IQ types are lacking in 'common sense'--and especially when it comes to dealing with other human beings. General intelligence is not just a cognitive ability; it is also a cognitive disposition. So, the greater cognitive abilities of higher IQ tend also to be accompanied by a distinctive high IQ personality type including the trait of 'Openness to experience', 'enlightened' or progressive left-wing political values, and atheism. Drawing on the ideas of Kanazawa, my suggested explanation for this association between intelligence and personality is that an increasing relative level of IQ brings with it a tendency differentially to over-use general intelligence in problem-solving, and to over-ride those instinctive and spontaneous forms of evolved behaviour which could be termed common sense. Preferential use of abstract analysis is often useful when dealing with the many evolutionary novelties to be found in modernizing societies; but is not usually useful for dealing with social and psychological problems for which humans have evolved 'domain-specific' adaptive behaviours. And since evolved common sense usually produces the right answers in the social domain; this implies that, when it comes to solving social problems, the most intelligent people are more likely than those of average intelligence to have novel but

  10. Childhood IQ and marriage by mid-life: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, M.D.; Hart, C.L.; Davey Smith, G.; Whalley, L.J.; Hole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the influence of IQ at age 11 years on marital status by mid-adulthood. The combined databases of the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies provided data from 883 subjects. With regard to IQ at age 11, there was an interaction between sex and marital status by mid-adulthood (p = 0.0001). Women who had ever-married achieved mean lower childhood IQ scores than women who had never-married (p < 0.001). Conversely, there was a trend for men who had ever-mar...

  11. Health impact assessment and monetary valuation of IQ loss in pre-school children due to lead exposure through locally produced food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, J; Buekers, J; Van Holderbeke, M; Torfs, R

    2012-01-01

    A case study has been performed which involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb) and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR) in response to current and future legislation. Consecutive model calculations (MSCE-HM, WATSON, XtraFOOD, IEUBK) were performed by different partners on the project as part of the full chain approach to derive estimates of blood lead (B-Pb) levels in children as a consequence of the consumption of local produce. The estimated B-Pb levels were translated into an average loss of IQ points/child using an empirical relationship based on a meta-analysis performed by Schwartz (1994). The calculated losses in IQ points were subsequently further translated into the average cost/child using a cost estimate of €10.000 per loss of IQ point based on data from a literature review. The estimated average reduction of cost/child (%) for all countries considered in 2010 under BAU and MFTR are 12.16 and 18.08% as compared to base line conditions, respectively. In 2020 the percentages amount to 20.19 and 23.39%. The case study provides an example of the full-chain impact pathway approach taking into account all foreseeable pathways both for assessing the environmental fate and the associated human exposure and the mode of toxic action to arrive at quantitative estimates of health impacts at the individual and

  12. Validation of the Child Premorbid Intelligence Estimate method to predict premorbid Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ among children with brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Lange, Rael T; Saklofske, Donald H; Suarez, Mariann; Brickell, Tracey A

    2008-12-01

    Determination of neuropsychological impairment involves contrasting obtained performances with a comparison standard, which is often an estimate of premorbid IQ. M. R. Schoenberg, R. T. Lange, T. A. Brickell, and D. H. Saklofske (2007) proposed the Child Premorbid Intelligence Estimate (CPIE) to predict premorbid Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003). The CPIE includes 12 algorithms to predict FSIQ, 1 using demographic variables and 11 algorithms combining WISC-IV subtest raw scores with demographic variables. The CPIE was applied to a sample of children with acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI sample; n = 40) and a healthy demographically matched sample (n = 40). Paired-samples t tests found estimated premorbid FSIQ differed from obtained FSIQ when applied to the TBI sample (ps .02). The demographic only algorithm performed well at a group level, but estimates were restricted in range. Algorithms combining single subtest scores with demographics performed adequately. Results support the clinical application of the CPIE algorithms. However, limitations to estimating individual premorbid ability, including statistical and developmental factors, must be considered. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Design of a digital PAD based on I/Q demodulation principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Zheqiao; Cui Yanyan; Hou Mi; Pei Guoxi

    2005-01-01

    Conventional analog I/Q demodulator suffers from phase and amplitude imbalance and DC offset, which cause big error into the measurement. A digital PAD is designed. Based on I/Q demodulation principle, using digital algorithms, such as digital filter and Hilbert transform, the conventional measurement error can basically be removed. Measuremental results show that the digital PAD has a maximum phase error of ±0.5 degree and a resolution of 0.2 degree. Its temperature coefficient is -0.1 degree/degree C. Its dynamic ranges for phase-measurement and amplitude-measurement are -1825 dBm and -2020 dBm, respectively. The digital PAD can meet the need of the BEPC II phasing system. (authors)

  14. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  15. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ubochi, Vincent N; Okoroikpa, Ifeoma N; Aguocha, Chinyere M; Ebigbo, Peter O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intell...

  16. Prenatal DDT and DDE exposure and child IQ in the CHAMACOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Fraser W; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Chevrier, Jonathan; Mora, Ana Maria; Sjödin, Andreas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Although banned in most countries, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for vector control in some malaria endemic areas. Previous findings from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) cohort study found increased prenatal levels of DDT and its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) to be associated with altered neurodevelopment in children at 1 and 2years of age. In this study, we combined the measured maternal DDT/E concentrations during pregnancy obtained for the prospective birth cohort with predicted prenatal DDT and DDE levels estimated for a retrospective birth cohort. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) and linear regression models, we evaluated the relationship of prenatal maternal DDT and DDE serum concentrations with children's cognition at ages 7 and 10.5years as assessed using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and 4 subtest scores (Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Verbal Comprehension, and Processing Speed) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). In GEE analyses incorporating both age 7 and 10.5 scores (n=619), we found prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales (p-value>0.05). In linear regression analyses assessing each time point separately, prenatal DDT levels were inversely associated with Processing Speed at age 7years (n=316), but prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales at age 10.5years (n=595). We found evidence for effect modification by sex. In girls, but not boys, prenatal DDE levels were inversely associated with Full Scale IQ and Processing Speed at age 7years. We conclude that prenatal DDT levels may be associated with delayed Processing Speed in children at age 7years and the relationship between prenatal DDE levels and children's cognitive development may be modified by sex, with girls being more adversely

  17. Small family, smart family? : family size and the IQ scores of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    How do families influence the ability of children? Cognitive skills have been shown to be a strong predictor of educational attainment and future labor market success; as a result, understanding the determinants of cognitive skills can lead to a better understanding of children's long run outcomes. This paper uses a large dataset on the male population of Norway and focuses on one family characteristic: the effect of family size on IQ. Because of the endogeneity of family size, we instrument ...

  18. In-utero exposure to bereavement and offspring IQ: a Danish national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasveer Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination. METHODS: We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N = 167,900. The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight. RESULTS: When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value = 0.01. We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events. CONCLUSION: We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal

  19. Automated urinalysis: first experiences and a comparison between the Iris iQ200 urine microscopy system, the Sysmex UF-100 flow cytometer and manual microscopic particle counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayanfar, Noushin; Tobler, Ulrich; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Bestmann, Lukas

    2007-01-01

    Automated analysis of insoluble urine components can reduce the workload of conventional microscopic examination of urine sediment and is possibly helpful for standardization. We compared the diagnostic performance of two automated urine sediment analyzers and combined dipstick/automated urine analysis with that of the traditional dipstick/microscopy algorithm. A total of 332 specimens were collected and analyzed for insoluble urine components by microscopy and automated analyzers, namely the Iris iQ200 (Iris Diagnostics) and the UF-100 flow cytometer (Sysmex). The coefficients of variation for day-to-day quality control of the iQ200 and UF-100 analyzers were 6.5% and 5.5%, respectively, for red blood cells. We reached accuracy ranging from 68% (bacteria) to 97% (yeast) for the iQ200 and from 42% (bacteria) to 93% (yeast) for the UF-100. The combination of dipstick and automated urine sediment analysis increased the sensitivity of screening to approximately 98%. We conclude that automated urine sediment analysis is sufficiently precise and improves the workflow in a routine laboratory. In addition, it allows sediment analysis of all urine samples and thereby helps to detect pathological samples that would have been missed in the conventional two-step procedure according to the European guidelines. Although it is not a substitute for microscopic sediment examination, it can, when combined with dipstick testing, reduce the number of specimens submitted to microscopy. Visual microscopy is still required for some samples, namely, dysmorphic erythrocytes, yeasts, Trichomonas, oval fat bodies, differentiation of casts and certain crystals.

  20. Development of RF non-IQ sampling module for Helium RFQ LLRF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae-Seong; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Kim, Seong-Gu; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has a plan to develop the helium irradiation system. This system includes the Ion source, LEBT, RFQ, MEBT systems to transport helium particles to the target. Especially, the RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) system should receive the 200MHz RF within 1% amplitude error stability. For supplying stable 200MHz RF to the RFQ, the low-level radio frequency (LLRF) should be controlled by control system. The helium RFQ LLRF control system adopted non- IQ sampling method to sample the analog input RF. Sampled input data will be calculated to get the I, Q values. These I, Q values will be used to monitor the amplitude and phase of the RF signal. In this paper, non-IQ sampling logic and amplitude and phase calculating logic of the FPGA will be introduced. Using Xilinx ISE design suite which is tool for developing the FPGA logic module, non-IQ sampling module and amplitude and phase computing module developed. In the future, PI gain module and frequency error computing module will be developed.

  1. Institutional care and iron deficiency increase ADHD symptomology and lower IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R; Georgieff, Michael K; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-05-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad, Rao & Georgieff, 2008b). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M = 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M = 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into four groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = -0.28, p IQ, r(85) = -.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUFDAS3DD1c. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Muñoz Q

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites (OP in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Cognitive functioning was measured using the WISC-III intelligence test. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Results: 56% of the children had concentration levels above the detection limit for dimethylphosphate (DMP and dimethyltiophosphate (DMTP. Moreover, 92% of them had the metabolite diethylphosphate (DEP values on this limit. Regarding the WISC-III, the intelligence quotient (IQ values below the average (IQ ˃ 90 correspond to: Total IQ = 60% performance IQ = 64%, verbal IQ = 52%, perceptual organization IQ = 60%, processing speed IQ = 95%, and freedom from distractibility IQ = 64%. An inverse association was found between the processing speed factor and DMTP (rs = -0.44, p = 0.014. Conclusions: results indicate that the rural schoolchildren whose urine was measured with OP metabolite biomarkers had been exposed to OP pesticides. A relationship was observed between the presence of OP metabolites and the cognitive performance factor of the WISC-III test. We believe it is appropriate to evaluate the effects of the presence of OP metabolites on cognitive functioning in a larger sample, while considering other exposure variables.

  3. Neonatal/infant validation study of the CAS model 740 noninvasive blood pressure monitor with the Orion/MaxIQ NIBP module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sean M; Giuliano, John S; Carroll, Christopher L; Rosenkrantz, Ted S; Eisenfeld, Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential vital sign when caring for critically ill children. Invasive monitoring is considered the gold standard, but is not always feasible. The following study compared the CAS model 740 noninvasive blood pressure monitor with the Orion/MaxIQ NIBP module with the reference (invasive arterial measurement). We evaluated the validity of the system using the criteria provided by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. We performed paired measurements of 29 critically ill neonates and children. For individual paired comparisons, the mean difference in the systolic blood pressure was 2.42 mmHg (SD ± 6.3). The mean difference in the diastolic blood pressure was -1.29 mmHg (SD ± 5.45). The percentage of readings within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for systolic blood pressure was 65.6, 86.0, and 96.8%, respectively. The percentage of readings within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure was 77.7, 93, and 95.5%, respectively. The CAS model 740 noninvasive blood pressure monitor with the Orion/MaxIQ NIBP module fulfills the accuracy performance criteria of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. This model may allow for rapid and accurate noninvasive blood pressure monitoring in neonates and children.

  4. Impact of parental cancer on IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness in young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen R

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruoqing Chen,1 Katja Fall,1,2 Kamila Czene,1 Beatrice Kennedy,2 Unnur Valdimarsdóttir,1,3,4 Fang Fang1 1Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 3Centre of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland; 4Department of Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Background: A parental cancer diagnosis is a stressful life event, potentially leading to increased risks of mental and physical problems among children. This study aimed to investigate the associations of parental cancer with IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness of the affected men during early adulthood. Materials and methods: In this Swedish population-based study, we included 465,249 men born during 1973–1983 who underwent the military conscription examination around the age of 18 years. We identified cancer diagnoses among the parents of these men from the Cancer Register. IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness of the men were assessed at the time of conscription and categorized into three levels: low, moderate, and high (reference category. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the studied associations. Results: Overall, parental cancer was associated with higher risks of low stress resilience (relative risk ratio [RRR]: 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.04–1.15] and low physical fitness (RRR: 1.12 [95% CI 1.05–1.19]. Stronger associations were observed for parental cancer with a poor expected prognosis (low stress resilience: RRR: 1.59 [95% CI 1.31–1.94]; low physical fitness: RRR: 1.45 [95% CI 1.14–1.85] and for parental death after cancer diagnosis (low stress resilience: RRR: 1.29 [95% CI 1.16–1.43]; low physical fitness: RRR: 1.40 [95% CI 1.23–1.59]. Although there was no overall association between parental

  5. Combined effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and material hardship on child IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevetsky, Julia; Tang, Deliang; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Roen, Emily L; Wang, Ya; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Miller, Rachel L; Herbstman, Julie; Perera, Frederica P

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common carcinogenic and neurotoxic urban air pollutants. Toxic exposures, including air pollution, are disproportionately high in communities of color and frequently co-occur with chronic economic deprivation. We examined whether the association between child IQ and prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differed between groups of children whose mothers reported high vs. low material hardship during their pregnancy and through child age 5. We tested statistical interactions between hardships and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as measured by DNA adducts in cord blood, to determine whether material hardship exacerbated the association between adducts and IQ scores. Prospective cohort. Participants were recruited from 1998 to 2006 and followed from gestation through age 7 years. Urban community (New York City) A community-based sample of 276 minority urban youth EXPOSURE MEASURE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cord blood as an individual biomarker of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Maternal material hardship self-reported prenatally and at multiple timepoints through early childhood. Child IQ at 7 years assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Significant inverse effects of high cord PAH-DNA adducts on full scale IQ, perceptual reasoning and working memory scores were observed in the groups whose mothers reported a high level of material hardship during pregnancy or recurring high hardship into the child's early years, and not in those without reported high hardship. Significant interactions were observed between high cord adducts and prenatal hardship on working memory scores (β = -8.07, 95% CI (-14.48, -1.66)) and between high cord adducts and recurrent material hardship (β = -9.82, 95% CI (-16.22, -3.42)). The findings add to other evidence that socioeconomic disadvantage can increase the adverse effects of toxic physical "stressors" like air pollutants

  6. Auditing Knowledge toward Leveraging Organizational IQ in Healthcare Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Karami, Mahtab; Farzaneh Nejad, Ahmadreza

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a knowledge audit was conducted based on organizational intelligence quotient (OIQ) principles of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) to determine levers that can enhance OIQ in healthcare. The mixed method study was conducted within the MOHME. The study population consisted of 15 senior managers and policymakers. A tool based on literature review and panel expert opinions was developed to perform a knowledge audit. The significant results of this auditing revealed the following: lack of defined standard processes for organizing knowledge management (KM), lack of a knowledge map, absence of a trustee to implement KM, absence of specialists to produce a knowledge map, individuals' unwillingness to share knowledge, implicitness of knowledge format, occasional nature of knowledge documentation for repeated use, lack of a mechanism to determine repetitive tasks, lack of a reward system for the formation of communities, groups and networks, non-updatedness of the available knowledge, and absence of commercial knowledge. The analysis of the audit findings revealed that three levers for enhancing OIQ, including structure and process, organizational culture, and information technology must be created or modified.

  7. Utility of the General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) with Survivors of Pediatric Brain Tumors: Comparison to Full Scale IQ and Premorbid IQ Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Winter-Greenberg, Amanda; Stancel, Heather; Ris, M. Douglas; Gragert, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric brain tumor survivors are at risk for working memory and processing speed impairment. The General Ability Index (GAI) provides an estimate of intellectual functioning that is less influenced by working memory and processing speed than a Full Scale IQ (FSIQ). The Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) provides a measure of efficient information processing derived from working memory and processing speed tasks. We examined the utility of the GAI and CPI to quantify neurocognitive outcomes in a sample of pediatric brain tumor survivors. Methods GAI, CPI, and FSIQ scores from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) were examined for 57 pediatric brain tumor survivors (ages 6–16) treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT). Results GAI scores were higher than FSIQ and CPI scores, both p < .001. Lower CPI scores were associated with history of craniospinal irradiation and time since RT. Lower FSIQ and GAI scores were associated with higher RT dose and time since RT. The rate of clinically significant GAI-FSIQ discrepancies in our sample was greater than observed in the WISC-IV standardization sample, p < .001. Estimated premorbid IQ scores were higher than GAI, p < .01, and FSIQ scores, p < .001. Conclusions Pediatric brain tumor survivors exhibit weaker cognitive proficiency than expected for age, while general reasoning ability remains relatively spared. The GAI may be useful to quantify the intellectual potential of a survivor when appropriate accommodations are in place for relative cognitive proficiency weaknesses. The CPI may be a particularly sensitive outcome measure of treatment-related cognitive change in this population. PMID:27295192

  8. Impact of IQ on the diagnostic yield of chromosomal microarray in a community sample of adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Chelsea; Merico, Daniele; Costain, Gregory; Waserman, Jack; Boyd, Kerry; Noor, Abdul; Speevak, Marsha; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J; Wei, John; Lionel, Anath C; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Bassett, Anne S

    2017-11-30

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with IQ deficits. Rare copy number variations (CNVs) have been established to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several of the large rare CNVs associated with schizophrenia have been shown to negatively affect IQ in population-based controls where no major neuropsychiatric disorder is reported. The aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic yield of microarray testing and the functional impact of genome-wide rare CNVs in a community ascertained cohort of adults with schizophrenia and low (IQ. We recruited 546 adults of European ancestry with schizophrenia from six community psychiatric clinics in Canada. Each individual was assigned to the low or average IQ group based on standardized tests and/or educational attainment. We used rigorous methods to detect genome-wide rare CNVs from high-resolution microarray data. We compared the burden of rare CNVs classified as pathogenic or as a variant of unknown significance (VUS) between each of the IQ groups and the genome-wide burden and functional impact of rare CNVs after excluding individuals with a pathogenic CNV. There were 39/546 (7.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.2-9.7%) schizophrenia participants with at least one pathogenic CNV detected, significantly more of whom were from the low IQ group (odds ratio [OR] = 5.01 [2.28-11.03], p = 0.0001). Secondary analyses revealed that individuals with schizophrenia and average IQ had the lowest yield of pathogenic CNVs (n = 9/325; 2.8%), followed by those with borderline intellectual functioning (n = 9/130; 6.9%), non-verbal learning disability (n = 6/29; 20.7%), and co-morbid intellectual disability (n = 15/62; 24.2%). There was no significant difference in the burden of rare CNVs classified as a VUS between any of the IQ subgroups. There was a significantly (p=0.002) increased burden of rare genic duplications in individuals with schizophrenia and low IQ

  9. The interplay of childhood behavior problems and IQ in the development of later schizophrenia and affective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Seidman, Larry J; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Buka, Stephen L

    2017-06-01

    Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are both associated with impaired social functioning, but the extent to which childhood behavioral impairments are present prior to onset of illness is less well studied. Moreover, the concurrent relationship of childhood behavior problems and premorbid IQ with subsequent psychotic disorder has not been established. We investigated whether childhood behavior problems are associated with increased risk for adult schizophrenia or affective psychosis, independently and in combination with IQ. The study included individuals with schizophrenia (N=47), affective psychoses (N=45) and non-psychotic controls (N=1496) from the New England Family Study. Behavior problems were prospectively assessed from standardized clinician observations at ages 4 and 7. IQ was assessed with the Stanford-Binet at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. We found externalizing problems at age 4 and externalizing and internalizing problems at age 7 were associated with later schizophrenia, and both internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 4 and 7 were associated with later development of affective psychoses. Lower IQ at ages 4 and 7 was associated with schizophrenia, while lower IQ was associated with affective psychoses at age 7 only. Examined simultaneously, both lower IQ and behavior problems remained associated with risk of schizophrenia, while only behavior problems remained associated with affective psychoses. Behavior problems appear to be a general marker of risk of adult psychotic disorder, while lower childhood IQ is more specific to risk of schizophrenia. Future research should clarify the premorbid evolution of behavior and cognitive problems into adult psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  11. Receiver sensitivity improvement in spectrally-efficient guard-band twin-SSB-OFDM using an optical IQ modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Peng, Miao; Zhou, Hui; Zheng, Zhiwei; Tang, Xionggui; Maivan, Lap

    2017-12-01

    To further improve receiver sensitivity of spectrally-efficient guard-band direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) with twin single-side-band (SSB) modulation technique, an optical IQ modulator (IQM) is employed to optimize optical carrier-to-signal power ratio (CSPR). The CSPRs for the guard-band twin-SSB-OFDM signal generated by using dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) and optical IQM are theoretically analyzed and supported by simulations. The optimal CSPR for the two types of guard-band twin-SSB-OFDM are identified. The simulations exhibit that the error vector magnitude (EVM) performance of the IQM-enabled guard-band twin-SSB-OFDM is improved by more than 4-dB compared to that of the twin-SSB-OFDM enabled by DD-MZM after 80-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission. In addition, more than 3-dB and 10 dB receiver sensitivity improvements in terms of received optical power (ROP) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) are also achieved, respectively.

  12. Upgrade of the COMPASS tokamak microwave reflectometry system with I/Q modulation and detection.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajac, Jaromír; Bogár, Ondrej; Varavin, Mykyta; Žáček, František; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír; Nanobashvili, S.; Silva, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, November (2017), s. 911-914 ISSN 0920-3796. [SOFT 2016: Symposium on Fusion Technology /29./. Prague, 05.09.2016-09.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Microwave reflectometry * Heterodyne detection * I/Q modulator * COMPASS tokamak Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379617303101

  13. Unity in John 17 and in IQS I-IX: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. de Wet

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The unity theme as it is found in John 17 and in IQS I-IX provides sufficient comparative material to give an indication of the extent to which John�s theology flourished within the contemporary Jewish context. It is argued that the events surrounding Christ constituted for John the central point of orientation according to which the typical Jewish ideas could be interpreted and reformulated. It is finally concluded that, according to this radical and exclusive Christian dynamic approach, certain elements within Judaism, also found among members of the Qumran community, were reinterpreted, while others were either continued or discontinued.

  14. Childhood IQ and all-cause mortality before and after age 65: Prospective observational study linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, C.L.; Taylor, M.D.; Davey Smith, G.; Whalley, L.J.; Starr, J.M.; Hole, D.; Wilson, V.; Deary, I.J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate how childhood IQ related to all-cause mortality before and after age 65. DESIGN: The Midspan prospective cohort studies, followed-up for mortality for 25 years, were linked to individuals' childhood IQ from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932. METHODS: The Midspan studies collected data on risk factors for cardiorespiratory disease from a questionnaire and at a screening examination, and were conducted on adults in Scotland in the 1970s. An age 11 IQ f...

  15. Right-handers have negligibly higher IQ scores than left-handers: Systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntolka, Eleni; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence and handedness remains a matter of debate. The present study is a systematic review of 36 studies (totaling 66,108 individuals), which have measured full IQ scores in different handedness groups. Eighteen of those studies were further included in three sets of meta-analyses (totaling 20,442 individuals), which investigated differences in standardized mean IQ scores in (i) left-handers, (ii) non-right-handers, and (iii) mixed-handers compared to right-handers. The bulk of the studies included in the systematic review reported no differences in IQ scores between left- and right-handers. In the meta-analyses, statistically significant differences in mean IQ scores were detected between right-handers and left-handers, but were marginal in magnitude (d=-0.07); the data sets were found to be homogeneous. Significance was lost when the largest study was excluded. No differences in mean IQ scores were found between right-handers and non-right-handers as well as between right-handers and mixed-handers. No sex differences were found. Overall, the intelligence differences between handedness groups in the general population are negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of the DSM-V Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Criteria for Diagnosing Children With High IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongseiratch, Therdpong; Worachotekamjorn, Juthamas

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the number of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV versus DSM-V criterion in children who have learning or behavioral problems with high IQ. The medical records of children ≤15 years of age who presented with learning or behavioral problems and underwent a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-III IQ test at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic unit between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Information on DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria for ADHD were derived from computer-based medical records. Twenty-eight children who had learning or behavioral problems were identified to have a full-scale IQ ≥120. Sixteen of these high-IQ children met the DSM-IV criteria diagnosis for ADHD. Applying the extension of the age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years in DSM-V led to an increase of three cases, all of which were the inattentive type ADHD. Including the pervasive developmental disorder criterion led to an increase of one case. The total number of ADHD cases also increased from 16 to 20 in this group. The data supported the hypothesis that applying the extension of the age-of-onset ADHD criterion and enabling the diagnosis of children with pervasive developmental disorders will increase the number of ADHD diagnoses among children with high IQ. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Intellectual development in preschool children with early treated congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyoung Seo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeDelayed treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH is a common cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intellectual outcomes in preschool children with treated CH.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 43 children (age range: 13 to 60 days of life; 22 girls and 21 boys diagnosed with CH. Children aged 5 to 7 years were examined using the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Korean Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence.ResultsThe patients started treatment between 13 and 60 days of age. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ of patients tested at age 5 to 7 years was 103.14±11.68 (IQ range: 76–126. None had intellectual disability (defined as an IQ <70. Twenty-one subjects were treated with a low dose (6.0–9.9 µg/kg/day and 22 with a high dose of levothyroxine (10.0–16.0 µg/kg/day. There was no significant difference in the mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ, and performance IQ (PIQ scores between the 2 groups. FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ scores were not significantly correlated with initial dose of L-T4, initial fT4, age at treatment in multivariate analysis.ConclusionIQ scores of subjects with early treated CH diagnosed through a neonatal screening test were within normal range, regardless of etiology, thyroid function, initial dose of levothyroxine, and age at start of treatment.

  18. Early adolescent outcomes of joint developmental trajectories of problem behavior and IQ in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Papachristou, Efstathios; Midouhas, Emily; Joshi, Heather; Ploubidis, George B; Lewis, Glyn

    2018-04-16

    General cognitive ability (IQ) and problem behavior (externalizing and internalizing problems) are variable and inter-related in children. However, it is unknown how they co-develop in the general child population and how their patterns of co-development may be related to later outcomes. We carried out this study to explore this. Using data from 16,844 Millennium Cohort Study children, we fitted three-parallel-process growth mixture models to identify joint developmental trajectories of internalizing, externalizing and IQ scores at ages 3-11 years. We then examined their associations with age 11 outcomes. We identified a typically developing group (83%) and three atypical groups, all with worse behavior and ability: children with improving behavior and low (but improving in males) ability (6%); children with persistently high levels of problems and low ability (5%); and children with worsening behavior and low ability (6%). Compared to typically developing children, the latter two groups were more likely to show poor decision-making, be bullies or bully victims, engage in antisocial behaviors, skip and dislike school, be unhappy and have low self-esteem. By contrast, children (especially males) in the improver group had outcomes that were similar to, or even better than, those of their typically developing peers. These findings encourage the development of interventions to target children with both cognitive and behavioral difficulties.

  19. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  20. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...... of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  1. Stanford-Binet & WAIS IQ Differences and Their Implications for Adults with Intellectual Disability (aka Mental Retardation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wayne; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Zigman, Warren; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon; Urv, Tiina

    2010-03-01

    Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs were compared for a group of 74 adults with intellectual disability (ID). In every case, WAIS Full Scale IQ was higher than the Stanford-Binet Composite IQ, with a mean difference of 16.7 points. These differences did not appear to be due to the lower minimum possible score for the Stanford-Binet. Additional comparisons with other measures suggested that the WAIS might systematically underestimate severity of intellectual impairment. Implications of these findings are discussed regarding determination of disability status, estimating prevalence of ID, assessing dementia and aging-related cognitive declines, and diagnosis of ID in forensic cases involving a possible death penalty.

  2. Direct and Indirect Effects of IQ, Parental Help, Effort, and Mathematics Self-Concept on Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Abu-Hilal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the structural relationships among cognitive constructs (intelligence and achievement and affective constructs (perceived parental help, effort and self-concept. It was proposed that the relationships are not invariant across gender. The sample consisted of 219 boys and 133 girls from elementary and preparatory public schools in Al Ain in the United Arab Emirates. Intelligence (IQ was measured by the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI and parental help was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Effort was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Self-concept (SC was measured by 8-Likert-type items taken from the SDQ I (Abu-Hilal, 2000. Mathematic Achievement was the scores of students in mathematics from school records. The structural model assumed that IQ would have an effect on parental help, effort, SC and achievement. Parental help would have an effect on effort, SC and achievement. Also, effort would have an effect on SC and achievement. Finally, SC would have an effect on achievement. The structural model was tested for invariance across gender. The measurement model proved to be invariant across gender and so was the structural model. The non-constrained model indicated that the structural relationships among the variables do vary according to gender. For example, boys benefited from parental help by exerting more effort while girls did not. Boys with high IQ exerted more effort than boys with low IQ; but girls with high IQ exerted the same amount of effort as girls with low IQ. The model explained 45% and 39% of the variance in math scores for boys and girls, respectively.

  3. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lynch, John W.; Smithers, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into ‘easy’ and ‘difficult’. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637

  5. Why are women so intelligent? The effect of maternal IQ on childhood mortality may be a relevant evolutionary factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    Humans are an unusual species because they exhibit an economic division of labour. Most theories concerning the evolution of specifically human intelligence have focused either on economic problems or sexual selection mechanisms, both of which apply more to men than women. Yet while there is evidence for men having a slightly higher average IQ, the sexual dimorphism of intelligence is not obvious (except at unusually high and low levels). However, a more female-specific selection mechanism concerns the distinctive maternal role in child care during the offspring's early years. It has been reported that increasing maternal intelligence is associated with reducing child mortality. This would lead to a greater level of reproductive success for intelligent women, and since intelligence is substantially heritable, this is a plausible mechanism by which natural selection might tend to increase female intelligence in humans. Any effect of maternal intelligence on improving child survival would likely be amplified by assortative mating for IQ by which people tend to marry others of similar intelligence - combining female maternal and male economic or sexual selection factors. Furthermore, since general intelligence seems to have the functional attribute of general purpose problem-solving and more rapid learning, the advantages of maternal IQ are likely to be greater as the environment for child-rearing is more different from the African hunter-gatherer society and savannah environment in which ancestral humans probably evolved. However, the effect of maternal IQ on child mortality would probably only be of major evolutionary significance in environments where childhood mortality rates were high. The modern situation is that population growth is determined mostly by birth rates; so in modern conditions, maternal intelligence may no longer have a significant effect on reproductive success; the effect of female IQ on reproductive success is often negative. Nonetheless, in the

  6. Current and former marijuana use: preliminary findings of a longitudinal study of effects on IQ in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Peter; Watkinson, Barbara; James, Deborah; Gray, Robert

    2002-04-02

    Assessing marijuana's impact on intelligence quotient (IQ) has been hampered by a lack of evaluation of subjects before they begin to use this substance. Using data from a group of young people whom we have been following since birth, we examined IQ scores before, during and after cessation of regular marijuana use to determine any impact of the drug on this measure of cognitive function. We determined marijuana use for seventy 17- to 20-year-olds through self-reporting and urinalysis. IQ difference scores were calculated by subtracting each person's IQ score at 9-12 years (before initiation of drug use) from his or her score at 17-20 years. We then compared the difference in IQ scores of current heavy users (at least 5 joints per week), current light users (less than 5 joints per week), former users (who had not smoked regularly for at least 3 months) and non-users (who never smoked more than once per week and no smoking in the past two weeks). Current marijuana use was significantly correlated (p marijuana use had a negative effect on global IQ score only in subjects who smoked 5 or more joints per week. A negative effect was not observed among subjects who had previously been heavy users but were no longer using the substance. We conclude that marijuana does not have a long-term negative impact on global intelligence. Whether the absence of a residual marijuana effect would also be evident in more specific cognitive domains such as memory and attention remains to be ascertained.

  7. Sistema integrado de qualidade - IQS: aplicação e analise em processos de fabricação

    OpenAIRE

    Tontini, Gerson

    1991-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro Tecnologico O Brasil devido a sua recente abertura ao mercado externo, necessita urgentemente da difusão de conceitos e técnicas que ajudem a indústria nacional na melhoria de sua qualidade e produtividade. Este trabalho testa um novo conceito de controle de qualidade/processo, o Sistema Integrado de Qualidade (IQS), apresentando as ferramentas necessárias a sua implantação e utilização. O IQS é um sistema abrangente, ...

  8. Blind I/Q imbalance and nonlinear ISI mitigation in Nyquist-SCM direct detection system with cascaded widely linear and Volterra equalizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Ju, Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Nyquist-SCM signal after fiber transmission, direct detection (DD), and analog down-conversion suffers from linear ISI, nonlinear ISI, and I/Q imbalance, simultaneously. Theoretical analysis based on widely linear (WL) and Volterra series is given to explain the relationship and interaction of these three interferences. A blind equalization algorithm, cascaded WL and Volterra equalizer, is designed to mitigate these three interferences. Furthermore, the feasibility of the proposed cascaded algorithm is experimentally demonstrated based on a 40-Gbps data rate 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) virtual single sideband (VSSB) Nyquist-SCM DD system over 100-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission. In addition, the performances of conventional strictly linear equalizer, WL equalizer, Volterra equalizer, and cascaded WL and Volterra equalizer are experimentally evaluated, respectively.

  9. Simulation and RTDS Hardware Implementation of SHAF for Mitigation of Current Harmonics with p-q and Id-Iq Control Strategies Using PI Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Panda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Control strategies for extracting the three-phase reference currents for shunt active power filters are compared, evaluating their performance under different source conditions in MATLAB/Simulink environment and also with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS Hardware. When the supply voltages are balanced and sinusoidal, the two control strategies are converging to the same compensation characteristics but when the supply voltages are distorted and/or un-balanced sinusoidal, these control strategies result in different degrees of compensation in harmonics. The p-q control strategy is unable to yield an adequate solution when source voltages are not ideal. Extensive Simulations are carried out with PI controller for both p-q and Id-Iq control strategies for different voltage conditions and adequate results were presented. The 3-ph 4-wire SHAF system is also implemented on RTDS Hardware to further verify its effectiveness. The detailed simulation and RTDS Hardware results are included.

  10. Playing the game of IQ testing in England and Denmark in the 1950s and 1960s - A Socio-Material perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian; Ørskov, Frederik Forrai

    2018-01-01

    The promotion of performance measurement and international large-scale assessments (ILSAs) is often explained in terms of the rise and expansion of the neoliberal thought collective; in other words, testing constitutes a core component of neoliberal education reform. A less well-known feature...... of the neoliberal regime is its numerous precursors and antecedents - including its testing, numbers, and metrics components - in the 19th and 20th centuries. This article provides a study of such historical precursors in the treatment of children seen as "mentally defective" in two emerging welfare states, namely...... Denmark in the interwar period and England in the immediate post war era. Based on the records of the municipal Educational Psychology Office in Copenhagen and the Birmingham Special Schools After-Care Subcommittee respectively, we argue that IQ testing and other metrics were integral to efforts...

  11. Shear wave velocity measurements for differential diagnosis of solid breast masses: a comparison between virtual touch quantification and virtual touch IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Masahiro; Benson, John; Fan, Liexiang; Isobe, Sachiko

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the diagnostic performance of two shear wave speed measurement techniques in 81 patients with 83 solid breast lesions. Virtual Touch Quantification, which provides single-point shear wave speed measurement capability (SP-SWS), was compared with Virtual Touch IQ, a new 2-D shear wave imaging technique with multi-point shear wave speed measurement capability (2D-SWS). With SP-SWS, shear wave velocity was measured within the lesion ("internal" value) and the marginal areas ("marginal" value). With 2D-SWS, the highest velocity was measured. The marginal values obtained with the SP-SWS and 2D-SWS methods were significantly higher for malignant lesions and benign lesions, respectively (p breast masses. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling antibiotic and cytotoxic effects of the dimeric isoquinoline IQ-143 on metabolism and its regulation in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Xenobiotics represent an environmental stress and as such are a source for antibiotics, including the isoquinoline (IQ) compound IQ-143. Here, we demonstrate the utility of complementary analysis of both host and pathogen datasets in assessing bacterial adaptation to IQ-143, a synthetic analog of the novel type N,C-coupled naphthyl-isoquinoline alkaloid ancisheynine. Results Metabolite measurements, gene expression data and functional assays were combined with metabolic modeling to assess the effects of IQ-143 on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and human cell lines, as a potential paradigm for novel antibiotics. Genome annotation and PCR validation identified novel enzymes in the primary metabolism of staphylococci. Gene expression response analysis and metabolic modeling demonstrated the adaptation of enzymes to IQ-143, including those not affected by significant gene expression changes. At lower concentrations, IQ-143 was bacteriostatic, and at higher concentrations bactericidal, while the analysis suggested that the mode of action was a direct interference in nucleotide and energy metabolism. Experiments in human cell lines supported the conclusions from pathway modeling and found that IQ-143 had low cytotoxicity. Conclusions The data suggest that IQ-143 is a promising lead compound for antibiotic therapy against staphylococci. The combination of gene expression and metabolite analyses with in silico modeling of metabolite pathways allowed us to study metabolic adaptations in detail and can be used for the evaluation of metabolic effects of other xenobiotics. PMID:21418624

  13. Does IQ predict total and cardiovascular disease mortality as strongly as other risk factors? Comparison of effect estimates using the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Gale, C R

    2008-01-01

    To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.......To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality....

  14. Intellectual Functioning in In-Patients with Substance Use Disorders: Preliminary Results from a Clinical Mediation Study of Factors Contributing to IQ Variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatveit, Kirsten J; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Hove, Oddbjørn

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the direct effect of different childhood difficulties on adult intelligence coefficient (IQ) and their possible indirect effect through the mediating pathways of education and severity substance use. Ninety in-patients aged 19-64. The participants had abstained from substance use for at least 6 weeks and had different substance use profiles. Substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric illnesses were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition criteria. IQ was measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition. Childhood difficulties, severity of substance use and level of education were assessed through a self-report questionnaire. Mean full scale IQ for the studied population was 87.3. Learning and attention deficit/hyperactivity difficulties in childhood were directly related to adult IQ. Education had a mediating effect between childhood learning difficulties/conduct problems and the verbal comprehension index. There was no significant difference in IQ due to the specific substance used or severity of substance use. IQ variance in in-treatment individuals with SUD was related to childhood functioning alone or through the mediator of education. Substance-related factors did not contribute to IQ variance. The results fit a normal theory of IQ development with commonly known risk factors and no disturbing effect of substance use. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in a Resource-Poor Setting in India--Part 1: Association with Age, Sex, Severity of Intellectual Disabilities and IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Kishore, M. Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems are most common in people with intellectual disabilities. Nature of behaviour problems can vary depending upon the age, sex and intellectual level (IQ). Objectives: This study examined the distribution of behaviour problems across intellectual disability categories and their association with IQ age and sex in…

  16. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age, and later cancer mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R

    2009-01-01

    (i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation....

  17. Effects of sucrose and cornstarch on 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced colon and liver carcinogenesis in F344 rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Poulsen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of sucrose and cornstarch on colon and liver carcinogenesis induced by 0.02% of the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in the feed. Male F344 rats were allocated to four groups. Two groups were fed diets...... high in either cornstarch (68%) or sucrose (34% sucrose/34% cornstarch) and were initiated with IQ. The remaining two groups received the same two diets but did not receive any IQ. In both liver and colon, administration of IQ resulted in a higher level of DNA adducts. In animals not dosed with IQ......, sucrose increased the adduct level in both organs but to a lower level than IQ. However, simultaneous administration of IQ and sucrose did not further increase the adduct level. Both IQ and sucrose increased the expression of the DNA-repair enzyme ERCC1 in the liver. In the colon, the number of large...

  18. Average State IQ, State Wealth and Racial Composition as Predictors of State Health Statistics: Partial Support for "g" as a Fundamental Cause of Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Basalik, Debra

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which differences in average IQ across the 50 states was associated with differences in health statistics independent of differences in wealth, health care expenditures and racial composition. Results show that even after controlling for differences in state wealth and health care expenditures, average IQ had…

  19. Coefficients of Correlation of IQ's on the WAIS-R with Standard Age Scores on the Stanford-Binet, 4th Edition for Previously Identified Mentally Handicapped Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John C.

    This paper presents a study regarding the correlation of the Stanford-Binet: 4th Edition Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ scores for the purpose of improving the identification process for educable mentally handicapped (EMH) school age adolescents and young adults. The sample included…

  20. Intelligence in Bali--A Case Study on Estimating Mean IQ for a Population Using Various Corrections Based on Theory and Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; te Nijenhuis, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A high-quality estimate of the mean IQ of a country requires giving a well-validated test to a nationally representative sample, which usually is not feasible in developing countries. So, we used a convenience sample and four corrections based on theory and empirical findings to arrive at a good-quality estimate of the mean IQ in Bali. Our study…

  1. Relationship between the Short-Term Visual Memory and IQ in the Right-and Left-Handed Subjects Trained in Different Educational Programs: I-General Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yavuz; Yetkin, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between mean intelligence quotient (IQ), hand preferences and visual memory (VM) were investigated on (N = 612) males and females students trained in different educational programs in viewpoint of laterality. IQ was assessed by cattle's culture Fair intelligence test-A (CCFIT-A). The laterality of the one side of the body was…

  2. IQCJ-SCHIP1, a novel fusion transcript encoding a calmodulin-binding IQ motif protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A.; Carson, Andrew R.; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of transcripts that span two adjacent, independent genes is considered rare in the human genome. This study characterizes a novel human fusion gene named IQCJ-SCHIP1. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is the longest isoform of a complex transcriptional unit that bridges two separate genes that encode distinct proteins, IQCJ, a novel IQ motif containing protein and SCHIP1, a schwannomin interacting protein that has been previously shown to interact with the Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) protein. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is located on the chromosome 3q25 and comprises a 1692-bp transcript encompassing 11 exons spanning 828 kb of the genomic DNA. We show that IQCJ-SCHIP1 mRNA is highly expressed in the brain. Protein encoded by the IQCJ-SCHIP1 gene was localized to cytoplasm and actin-rich regions and in differentiated PC12 cells was also seen in neurite extensions

  3. To work or not to work: motivation (not low IQ) determines symptom validity test findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Michael D; Prentkowski, Erica; Rao, Aparna

    2011-06-01

    Social Security Disability Determinations Service (DDS) claimants are seeking compensation for an inability to work (Chafetz, 2010). These usually low-functioning claimants fail Symptom Validity Tests (SVTs) at high rates (Chafetz, 2008), typically over 40%. In contrast, claimants for the Rehabilitation Service in Louisiana (LRS) are seeking to work. Individuals referred by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) are seeking reunification with their children. All three groups consisted of equivalently low-IQ claimants when considering only those who passed SVTs. Only the DDS group failed SVTs at high rates, whereas LRS claimants failed at minimal rates and DCFS claimants did not fail. Thus, intrinsic motivation explains effort in this particular study of low-functioning claimants: those seeking to work or to look good to reunify with their children pass SVTs at high rates.

  4. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    of intelligence, executive functions, memory, attention and processing speed was global or specific. First-episode psychotic adolescents (N = 39) between the ages 11 and 17 years were included, 18 of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 21 with other non-organic, non-affective psychoses, using ICD-10...... of attention, executive functions, reaction time, and memory in the schizophrenic and psychotic adolescent groups. However, analyses of WISC-III factor profiles suggested that early onset schizophrenia patients may have more global IQ deficits than non-organic, non-affective psychoses when examined recently...... the profile and severity of cognitive impairments in first-episode early onset psychotic patients who received the schizophrenia diagnosis to those diagnosed with other non-organic, non-affective psychotic disorders. The secondary purpose was to examine whether the profile of cognitive deficits, in terms...

  5. Measuring social capital through multivariate analyses for the IQ-SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Borges, Carolina Marques; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elisangela; Lucas, Simone Dutra; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia

    2015-01-20

    Social capital can be viewed as a societal process that works toward the common good as well as toward the good of the collective based on trust, reciprocity, and solidarity. Our study aimed to present two multivariate statistical analyses to examine the formation of latent classes of social capital using the IQ-SC and to identify the most important factors in building an indicator of individual social capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among working adolescents supported by a Brazilian NGO. The sample consisted of 363 individuals, and data were collected using the World Bank Questionnaire for measuring social capital. First, the participants were grouped by a segmentation analysis using the Two Step Cluster method based on the Euclidian distance and the centroid criteria as the criteria for aggregate answers. Using specific weights for each item, discriminant analysis was used to validate the cluster analysis in an attempt to maximize the variance among the groups with respect to the variance within the clusters. "Community participation" and "trust in one's neighbors" contributed significantly to the development of the model with two distinct discriminant functions (p < 0.001). The majority of cases (95.0%) and non-cases (93.1%) were correctly classified by discriminant analysis. The two multivariate analyses (segmentation analysis and canonical discriminant analysis), used together, can be considered good choices for measuring social capital. Our results indicate that it is possible to form three social capital groups (low, medium and high) using the IQ-SC.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Joint Protection in Collagen-Induced Arthritis after Treatment with IQ-1S, a Selective c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Hammaker, Deepa; Kochetkova, Irina; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Lyakhov, Sergey A; Firestein, Gary S; Quinn, Mark T

    2015-06-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) participate in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including inflammatory diseases. We recently synthesized the sodium salt of IQ-1S (11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one oxime) and demonstrated that it is a high-affinity JNK inhibitor and inhibits murine delayed-type hypersensitivity. Here we show that IQ-1S is highly specific for JNK and that its neutral form is the most abundant species at physiologic pH. Molecular docking of the IQ-1S syn isomer into the JNK1 binding site gave the best pose, which corresponded to the position of cocrystallized JNK inhibitor SP600125 (1,9-pyrazoloanthrone). Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of IQ-1S showed that it inhibited matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 3 gene expression induced by interleukin-1β in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes and significantly attenuated development of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Treatment with IQ-1S either before or after induction of CIA resulted in decreased clinical scores, and joint sections from IQ-1S-treated CIA mice exhibited only mild signs of inflammation and minimal cartilage loss compared with those from control mice. Collagen II-specific antibody responses were also reduced by IQ-1S treatment. By contrast, the inactive ketone derivative 11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one had no effect on CIA clinical scores or collagen II-specific antibody titers. IQ-1S treatment also suppressed proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in joints and lymph node cells. Finally, treatment with IQ-1S increased the number of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in lymph nodes. Thus, IQ-1S can reduce inflammation and cartilage loss associated with CIA and can serve as a small-molecule modulator for mechanistic studies of JNK function in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  8. IQ at Age 12 Following a History of Institutional Care: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Young children removed from institutions and placed into foster care or adoptive homes have been shown to experience significant gains in IQ relative to children who remain in institutions. Less is known about the long-term impact of severe early deprivation on development in late childhood. Data are presented from a follow-up of children at 12…

  9. The Score Reliability of Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test (DAP: IQ) for Rural Malawi Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…

  10. Comparison of the Relationship between Words Retained and Intelligence for Three Instructional Strategies among Students with Below-Average IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Boice, Christina H.

    2009-01-01

    The current study replicated MacQuarrie, Tucker, Burns, and Hartman (2002) with a sample of 20 students who had been identified with a disability and had an IQ score that was between 1 and 3 standard deviations below the normative mean. Each student was taught 27 words from the Esperanto International Language with the following conditions: (a)…

  11. Prevalence of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in Average-IQ Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Marín, Jorge; Rodríguez-Franco, Montserrat Alviani; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita; Magán Maganto, María; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Canal Bedia, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Since their separation as independent diagnostics, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) have been conceptualized as mutually exclusive disorders. Similarities between both disorders can lead to misdiagnosis, especially when it comes to average-IQ adults who were not identified during childhood. The aim of this…

  12. Expanding the g-Nexus: Further Evidence Regarding the Relations among National IQ, Religiosity and National Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study seeks to better understand how religiosity and health are positioned within the g-nexus. Specifically, the degree to which differences in average IQ across nations is associated with differences in national religiosity (i.e., belief rate) and national health statistics independent of differences in national wealth is examined.…

  13. An Exploratory Analysis of American Indian Children's Cultural Engagement, Fluid Cognitive Skills, and Standardized Verbal IQ Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsethlikai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory cross-sectional study examined fluid cognitive skills and standardized verbal IQ scores in relation to cultural engagement amongst Tohono O'odham children (N = 99; ages 7 to 12 years). Guardians with higher socioeconomic status engaged their children in more cultural activities, and participation in more cultural activities…

  14. Are Cross-National Differences in IQ Profiles Stable? A Comparison of Finnish and U.S. WAIS Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2013-01-01

    To study the concept of national IQ profile, we compared U.S. and Finnish WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS III nonverbal and working memory subtest norms. The U.S. standardization samples had consistently higher scores on the Coding and Digit span subtests, while the Finnish samples had higher scores on the Block design subtest. No stable cross-national…

  15. Comorbidity/Overlapping between ADHD and PTSD in Relation to IQ among Children of Traumatized/Non-Traumatized Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Atia; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and PTSD in relation to IQ among refugee children of traumatized parents (TP) and non-traumatized parents (NTP). Method: The study compares 80 refugee children, 40 with TP with 40 with NTP. ADHD and PTSD are assessed using DICA. Children's cognitive functions are measured by…

  16. Aging IQ Intervention with Older Korean Americans: A Comparison of Internet-Based and In-Class Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…

  17. National IQs: A Review of Their Educational, Cognitive, Economic, Political, Demographic, Sociological, Epidemiological, Geographic and Climatic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…

  18. Aetiology for the covariation between combined type ADHD and reading difficulties in a family study: the role of IQ.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, C.H.; Wood, A.C.; Paloyelis, Y.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Miranda, A.; Mulas, F.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Asherson, P.; Kuntsi, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Twin studies using both clinical and population-based samples suggest that the frequent co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading ability/disability (RD) is largely driven by shared genetic influences. While both disorders are associated with lower IQ,

  19. Aetiology for the covariation between combined type ADHD and reading difficulties in a family study: the role of IQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, C.H.M.; Wood, A.C.; Paloyelis, Y.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Miranda, A.; Mulas, F.; Rommelse, N.N.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Faraone, S.V.; Asherson, P.; Kuntsi, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Twin studies using both clinical and population-based samples suggest that the frequent co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading ability/disability (RD) is largely driven by shared genetic influences. While both disorders are associated with lower IQ,

  20. Toxicokinetics of the food-toxin IQ in human placental perfusion is not affected by ABCG2 or xenobiotic metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, E; Kummu, M; Petsalo, A

    2010-01-01

    Metabolizing enzymes and transporters affect toxicokinetics of foreign compounds (e.g. drugs and carcinogens) in human placenta. The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a food-borne carcinogen being metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, especial...

  1. Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Network Analysis of Cerebellum with Respect to Crystallized IQ and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezoulas, Vasileios C; Zervakis, Michalis; Michelogiannis, Sifis; Klados, Manousos A

    2017-01-01

    During the last years, it has been established that the prefrontal and posterior parietal brain lobes, which are mostly related to intelligence, have many connections to cerebellum. However, there is a limited research investigating cerebellum's relationship with cognitive processes. In this study, the network of cerebellum was analyzed in order to investigate its overall organization in individuals with low and high crystallized Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were selected from 136 subjects in resting-state from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) database and were further separated into two IQ groups composed of 69 low-IQ and 67 high-IQ subjects. Cerebellum was parcellated into 28 lobules/ROIs (per subject) using a standard cerebellum anatomical atlas. Thereafter, correlation matrices were constructed by computing Pearson's correlation coefficients between the average BOLD time-series for each pair of ROIs inside the cerebellum. By computing conventional graph metrics, small-world network properties were verified using the weighted clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length for estimating the trade-off between segregation and integration. In addition, a connectivity metric was computed for extracting the average cost per network. The concept of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) was adopted and implemented in order to avoid methodological biases in graph comparisons and retain only the strongest connections per network. Subsequently, six global and three local metrics were calculated in order to retrieve useful features concerning the characteristics of each MST. Moreover, the local metrics of degree and betweenness centrality were used to detect hubs, i.e., nodes with high importance. The computed set of metrics gave rise to extensive statistical analysis in order to examine differences between low and high-IQ groups, as well as between all possible gender-based group combinations. Our results reveal that

  2. Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Network Analysis of Cerebellum with Respect to Crystallized IQ and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios C. Pezoulas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, it has been established that the prefrontal and posterior parietal brain lobes, which are mostly related to intelligence, have many connections to cerebellum. However, there is a limited research investigating cerebellum's relationship with cognitive processes. In this study, the network of cerebellum was analyzed in order to investigate its overall organization in individuals with low and high crystallized Intelligence Quotient (IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were selected from 136 subjects in resting-state from the Human Connectome Project (HCP database and were further separated into two IQ groups composed of 69 low-IQ and 67 high-IQ subjects. Cerebellum was parcellated into 28 lobules/ROIs (per subject using a standard cerebellum anatomical atlas. Thereafter, correlation matrices were constructed by computing Pearson's correlation coefficients between the average BOLD time-series for each pair of ROIs inside the cerebellum. By computing conventional graph metrics, small-world network properties were verified using the weighted clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length for estimating the trade-off between segregation and integration. In addition, a connectivity metric was computed for extracting the average cost per network. The concept of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST was adopted and implemented in order to avoid methodological biases in graph comparisons and retain only the strongest connections per network. Subsequently, six global and three local metrics were calculated in order to retrieve useful features concerning the characteristics of each MST. Moreover, the local metrics of degree and betweenness centrality were used to detect hubs, i.e., nodes with high importance. The computed set of metrics gave rise to extensive statistical analysis in order to examine differences between low and high-IQ groups, as well as between all possible gender-based group combinations. Our

  3. Activity of the novel BCR kinase inhibitor IQS019 in preclinical models of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balsas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacological inhibition of B cell receptor (BCR signaling has recently emerged as an effective approach in a wide range of B lymphoid neoplasms. However, despite promising clinical activity of the first Bruton’s kinase (Btk and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitors, a small fraction of patients tend to develop progressive disease after initial response to these agents. Methods We evaluated the antitumor activity of IQS019, a new BCR kinase inhibitor with increased affinity for Btk, Syk, and Lck/Yes novel tyrosine kinase (Lyn, in a set of 34 B lymphoid cell lines and primary cultures, including samples with acquired resistance to the first-in-class Btk inhibitor ibrutinib. Safety and efficacy of the compound were then evaluated in two xenograft mouse models of B cell lymphoma. Results IQS019 simultaneously engaged a rapid and dose-dependent de-phosphorylation of both constitutive and IgM-activated Syk, Lyn, and Btk, leading to impaired cell proliferation, reduced CXCL12-dependent cell migration, and induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Accordingly, B cell lymphoma-bearing mice receiving IQS019 presented a reduced tumor outgrowth characterized by a decreased mitotic index and a lower infiltration of malignant cells in the spleen, in tight correlation with downregulation of phospho-Syk, phospho-Lyn, and phospho-Btk. More interestingly, IQS019 showed improved efficacy in vitro and in vivo when compared to the first-in-class Btk inhibitor ibrutinib, and was active in cells with acquired resistance to this latest. Conclusions These results define IQS019 as a potential drug candidate for a variety of B lymphoid neoplasms, including cases with acquired resistance to current BCR-targeting therapies.

  4. Relationship between IQ, cultural intelligence and self-monitoring in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Esmaeili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Intelligence quotient (IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring are among important and influential parameters in learning-teaching process of students. Thus, the current study examined the relationship between these parameters in the students of Birjand University of Medical Science. Materials and Methods: The present study was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional type. The study population included all the students at Birjand University of Medical Sciences, selected through stratified randomized sampling method. In order to study IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring parameters R & B Cattell scale (Scale III, Erli’s Cultural Intelligence Inventory, and Snyder’s Self-monitoring Test were applied, respectively. The obtained data was fed into SPSS (V:21 software using Pearson correlation test, ANOVA, and t-test at the significant level of P≤0.05. Results: From a total of 171 subjects participating in the study, 53.2% were female. The average age of the participants was 21.3±2.7 years. The average IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring scores were 106±10.44, 85.73±17.31, and 12.35±3.20, respectively. There was a significant correlation between cultural intelligence and self-monitoring (P<0.000; r=0/37. However, there were no significant associations between cultural intelligence and IQ scores as well as between self-monitoring and IQ scores. Conclusion: Regarding the unfavorable cultural intelligence’ skills and abilities ;and their acquirable nature, it is suggested that University consider a significant position for educational and cultural programs in order to enhance cultural intelligence.

  5. Relationship between IQ, cultural intelligence and self-monitoring in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Esmaeili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Intelligence quotient (IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring are among important and influential parameters in learning-teaching process of students. Thus, the current study examined the relationship between these parameters in the students of Birjand University of Medical Science. Materials and Methods: The present study was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional type. The study population included all the students at Birjand University of Medical Sciences, selected through stratified randomized sampling method. In order to study IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring parameters R & B Cattell scale (Scale III, Erli’s Cultural Intelligence Inventory, and Snyder’s Self-monitoring Test were applied, respectively. The obtained data was fed into SPSS (V:21 software using Pearson correlation test, ANOVA, and t-test at the significant level of P≤0.05. Results: From a total of 171 subjects participating in the study, 53.2% were female. The average age of the participants was 21.3±2.7 years. The average IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring scores were 106±10.44, 85.73±17.31, and 12.35±3.20, respectively. There was a significant correlation between cultural intelligence and self-monitoring (P<0.000; r=0/37. However, there were no significant associations between cultural intelligence and IQ scores as well as between self-monitoring and IQ scores. Conclusion: Regarding the unfavorable cultural intelligence’ skills and abilities ;and their acquirable nature, it is suggested that University consider a significant position for educational and cultural programs in order to enhance cultural intelligence.

  6. Measurement of mental attention: Assessing a cognitive component underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests

    OpenAIRE

    Steven J. Howard; Janice Johnson; Juan Pascual-Leone

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of standardized IQ tests to measure human intelligence, problems with such measures have led some to suggest that better indices may derive from measurement of cognitive processes underlying performance on IQ tests (e.g., working memory capacity). However, measures from both approaches may exhibit performance biases in favour of majority groups, due to the influence of prior learning and experience. Mental attentional (M-) capacity is proposed to be a causal factor ...

  7. Estimating the inbreeding depression on cognitive behavior: a population based study of child cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fareed

    Full Text Available Cognitive ability tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ scores and later mental health problems. Very few epidemiologic studies have been done to demonstrate the relationship between familial inbreeding and modest cognitive impairments in children.We aimed to estimate the effect of inbreeding on children's cognitive behavior in comparison with non-inbred children.A cohort of 408 children (6 to 15 years of age was selected from inbred and non-inbred families of five Muslim populations of Jammu region. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC was used to measure the verbal IQ (VIQ, performance IQ (PIQ and full scale IQ (FSIQ. Family pedigrees were drawn to access the family history and children's inbred status in terms of coefficient of inbreeding (F.We found significant decline in child cognitive abilities due to inbreeding and high frequency of mental retardation among offspring from inbred families. The mean differences (95% C.I. were reported for the VIQ, being -22.00 (-24.82, -19.17, PIQ -26.92 (-29.96, -23.87 and FSIQ -24.47 (-27.35,-21.59 for inbred as compared to non-inbred children (p<0.001 [corrected].The higher risk of being mentally retarded was found to be more obvious among inbred categories corresponding to the degree of inbreeding and the same accounts least for non-inbred children (p<0.0001. We observed an increase in the difference in mean values for VIQ, PIQ and FSIQ with the increase of inbreeding coefficient and these were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. The regression analysis showed a fitness decline (depression for VIQ (R2 = 0.436, PIQ (R2 = 0.468 and FSIQ (R2 = 0.464 with increasing inbreeding coefficients (p<0.01.Our comprehensive assessment provides the evidence for inbreeding depression on cognitive abilities among children.

  8. Information processing speed as a predictor of IQ in children with and without specific language impairment in grades 3 and 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisook; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Miller, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether nonlinguistic processing speed predicts nonverbal IQ in TD children and children with SLI and (2) if the proposed relationship is different at two time points. The participants consisted of a subset of a longitudinal dataset, 55 typically developing children and 55 children with SLI. Children completed four nonverbal speed tasks and four subtests of the WISC-III. The WISC-III subtests requiring timed and untimed responses were examined separately. Linear mixed model analyses indicated that in both groups, processing speed predicted nonverbal IQ subtests that reward speedy responses, but not IQ subtests that do not. The relationships between processing speed and IQ with speed bonuses did not differ at grades 3 and 8, and these relationships also were not significantly different in children with SLI and their TD peers. The results suggest that the presence of processing speed limitations in many children with SLI raises questions about the utility of timed nonverbal IQ measures as tools for diagnosis of SLI. Future studies should investigate other cognitive assessments that could be used as inclusionary criteria for SLI. The reader will be able to (1) describe the relationship between processing speed and nonverbal IQ in children with TD and SLI and (2) discuss problems using an IQ criterion to diagnose children as having SLI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and child's IQ at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bonilla

    Full Text Available Vitamin B-12 is essential for the development and maintenance of a healthy nervous system. Brain development occurs primarily in utero and early infancy, but the role of maternal vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy on offspring cognitive function is unclear. In this study we assessed the effect of vitamin B-12 status in well-nourished pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring in a UK birth cohort (ALSPAC. We then examined the association of SNPs in maternal genes FUT2 (rs492602 and TCN2 (rs1801198, rs9606756 that are related to plasma vitamin B-12, with offspring IQ. Observationally, there was a positive association between maternal vitamin B-12 intake and child's IQ that was markedly attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (mean difference in offspring IQ score per doubling of maternal B-12 intake, before adjustment: 2.0 (95% CI 1.3, 2.8; after adjustment: 0.7 (95% CI -0.04, 1.4. Maternal FUT2 was weakly associated with offspring IQ: mean difference in IQ per allele was 0.9 (95% CI 0.1, 1.6. The expected effect of maternal vitamin B-12 on offspring IQ, given the relationships between SNPs and vitamin B-12, and SNPs and IQ was consistent with the observational result. Our findings suggest that maternal vitamin B-12 may not have an important effect on offspring cognitive ability. However, further examination of this issue is warranted.

  10. Development of "material-specific" hemispheric specialization from beginning to end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Benjamin; Braun, Claude M J

    2018-07-01

    Disparity of verbal and performance intelligence (VIQ, PIQ) on the Wechsler scales of intelligence is a conceptually cluttered and empirically weak measure of hemispheric specialization (HS). However, in the context of life span research, it is the only measure that can be exploited meta-analytically with the lesion method from prenatal life to late senescence. We assembled 1917 cases with a unilateral cortical focal brain lesion occurring at all ages and a post-lesion VIQ and PIQ. Lesion locus, volume and side were documented for each case, as well as age at lesion onset, age at first symptoms and age at the IQ test, presence/absence of epilepsy, lesion aetiology, gender, date of publication or of transfer of medical file. With and without covariate adjustment, HS was significant across the life span though its pattern changed. HS increased linearly and highly significantly until late senescence. Only in early adulthood did VIQ appear to vacate the right temporal lobe and occupy the left and PIQ vacate the left parietal lobe and occupy the right until late senescence. Biomaturational factors are more important in the ontogeny of material-specific HS over the whole life span than previously established.

  11. SU-F-T-419: Evaluation of PlanIQ Feasibility DVH as Planning Objectives for Skull Base SBRT Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, W [School of Medicine, Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong (China); Wang, H; Chi, P [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: PlanIQ(Sun Nuclear Corporation) can provide feasibility measures on organs-at-risk(OARs) around the target based on depth, local anatomy density and energy of radiation beam used. This study is to test and evaluate PlanIQ feasibility DVHs as optimization objectives in the treatment planning process, and to investigate the potential to use them in routine clinical cases to improve planning efficiency. Methods: Two to three arcs VMAT Treatment plans were generated in Pinnacle based on PlanIQ feasibility DVH for six skull base patients who previously treated with SBRT. The PlanIQ feasibility DVH for each OAR consists of four zones – impossible (at 100% target coverage), difficult, challenging and probable. Constrains to achieve DVH in difficult zone were used to start plan optimization. Further adjustment was made to improve coverage. The plan DVHs were compared to PlanIQ feasibility DVH to assess the dose received by 0%(D0), 5%(D5), 10%(D10) and 50%(D50) of the OAR volumes. Results: A total of 90 OARs were evaluated for 6 patients (mean 15 OARs, range 11–18 OARs). We used >98% PTV coverage as planning goal since it’s difficult to achieve 100% target coverage. For the generated plans, 96.7% of the OARs achieved D0 or D5 within difficult zone or impossible zone (ipsilateral OARs 93.5%, contralateral OARs 100%), while 90% and 65.6% of the OARs achieved D10 and D50 within difficult zone, respectively. Seventeen of the contralateral and out of field OARs achieved DVHs in impossible zone. For OARs adjacent or overlapped with target volume, the D0 and D5 are challenging to be optimized into difficult zone. All plans were completed within 2–4 adjustments to improve target coverage and uniformity. Conclusion: PlanIQ feasibility tool has the potential to provide difficult but achievable initial optimization objectives and therefore reduce the planning time to obtain a well optimized plan.

  12. Estimating premorbid general cognitive functioning for children and adolescents using the American Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition: demographic and current performance approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; Saklofske, Donald H

    2007-04-01

    Neuropsychologic evaluation requires current test performance be contrasted against a comparison standard to determine if change has occurred. An estimate of premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) is often used as a comparison standard. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is a commonly used intelligence test. However, there is no method to estimate premorbid IQ for the WISC-IV, limiting the test's utility for neuropsychologic assessment. This study develops algorithms to estimate premorbid Full Scale IQ scores. Participants were the American WISC-IV standardization sample (N = 2172). The sample was randomly divided into 2 groups (development and validation). The development group was used to generate 12 algorithms. These algorithms were accurate predictors of WISC-IV Full Scale IQ scores in healthy children and adolescents. These algorithms hold promise as a method to predict premorbid IQ for patients with known or suspected neurologic dysfunction; however, clinical validation is required.

  13. A novel transmitter IQ imbalance and phase noise suppression method utilizing pilots in PDM CO-OFDM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoyuan; Ma, Xiurong; Li, Pengru

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel pilot structure to suppress transmitter in-phase and quadrature (Tx IQ) imbalance, phase noise and channel distortion for polarization division multiplexed (PDM) coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems. Compared with the conventional approach, our method not only significantly improves the system tolerance of IQ imbalance as well as phase noise, but also provides higher transmission speed. Numerical simulations of PDM CO-OFDM system is used to validate the theoretical analysis under the simulation conditions: the amplitude mismatch 3 dB, the phase mismatch 15°, the transmission bit rate 100 Gb/s and 560 km standard signal-mode fiber transmission. Moreover, the proposed method is 63% less complex than the compared method.

  14. Relation between intelligence, emotional intelligence, and academic performance among medical interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Nath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of research on the correlation between emotional quotient (EQ and intelligence quotient (IQ, and specifically among medical students and interns. So, we in our study aim to find out the correlation between these two variants of intelligence, and their relation to academic performance among medical interns as well as the gender differences between EQ, IQ, and academic performance. Methodology: EQ Test Questionnaire developed by Chadha and Singh was used for testing the EQ of the participants (n=50; males=34, females=16; mean age=24.1 years. IQ was tested by an experienced clinical psychologist using Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Test. The academic achievement was determined from the percentage of marks secured in tenth standard, 12th standard, and Final MBBS. GraphPad InStat version 3.05 was used for data entry and analysis. Results: A statistically high significant negative correlation was found between EQ and IQ of our total study sample as well as among the male participants. The mean EQ was higher among females and mean IQ among males. The females were academically better than the males and this difference was statistically highly significant. No significant correlation of EQ and IQ to academic performance was found in the total sample group. Conclusion: EQ and IQ are negatively correlated to each other, and there is no significant correlation of EQ and IQ to academic performance. Based on the current findings, further studies need to be built in larger samples. Limitation of the study is a small sample population.

  15. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

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    Koushik Bhowal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among  300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years  studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations.  Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.

  16. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Bhowal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among  300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years  studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations.  Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.

  17. Childhood IQ and cardiovascular disease in adulthood: prospective observational study linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, C.L.; Taylor, M.D.; Davey Smith, G.; Whalley, L.J.; Starr, J.M.; Hole, D.J.; Wilson, V.; Deary, I.J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of childhood IQ on the relationships between risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in adulthood. Participants were from the Midspan prospective cohort studies which were conducted on adults in Scotland in the 1970s. Data on risk factors were collected from a questionnaire and at a screening examination, and participants were followed up for 25 years for hospital admissions and mortality. 938 Midspan partici...

  18. Early childhood adversity potentiates the adverse association between prenatal organophosphate pesticide exposure and child IQ: The CHAMACOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Lauren J; Gunier, Robert B; Harley, Kim; Kogut, Katherine; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have observed an adverse association between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticide (OPs) and child cognition, but few studies consider the potential role of social stressors in modifying this relationship. We seek to explore the potential role of early social adversities in modifying the relationship between OPs and child IQ in an agricultural Mexican American population. Participants from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a prospective longitudinal pre-birth cohort study, include 329 singleton infants and their mothers followed from pregnancy through age 7. Dialkyl phosphate metabolite concentrations (DAPs), a biomarker of organophosphate pesticide exposure, were measured in maternal urine collected twice during pregnancy and averaged. Child cognitive ability was assessed at 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition. Demographic characteristics and adversity information were collected during interviews and home visits at numerous time points from pregnancy until age 7. Among low-income Latina mothers and their children in the Salinas Valley, total adversity and specific domains of adversity including poor learning environment and adverse parent-child relationships were negatively associated with child cognition. Adverse associations between DAP concentrations and IQ were stronger in children experiencing greater adversity; these associations varied by child sex. For example, the association between prenatal OP exposure and Full-Scale IQ is potentiated among boys who experienced high adversity in the learning environment (β=-13.3; p-value child IQ differently among male and female children. These findings emphasize the need to consider plausible interactive pathways between social adversities and environmental exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring Academic Performance: Looking beyond Numerical Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Sanz, Noemy; Rodrigo, Inés G.; Izquierdo García, Cristina; Ajenjo Pastrana, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Academic performance has always been associated to the evaluation tests results, which are those corresponding to student's IQ, and leaving aside other personal characteristics. Among such characteristics, the importance of emotional intelligence is worth highlighting (management, facilitation, understanding and perception), dimensions associated…

  20. Dietary low-dose sucrose modulation of IQ-induced genotoxicity in the colon and liver of Big Blue((TM)) rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Hansen, Max; Autrup, H.

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that sucrose increases 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced aberrant crypt foci in the colon. In this study, we investigated the role of sucrose in IQ-induced genotoxicity of the colon mucosa and liver. Big Blue(TM) rats were fed with IQ (20 ppm...... in feed) and/or sucrose (3.45 or 6.85 wt.% in feed) for 3 weeks. IQ increased DNA strand breaks in the colon, whereas the mutation frequency was increased in the liver. The level of IQ-induced DNA adducts was elevated in both colon mucosa cells and liver. In the liver, high sucrose intake increased...... the level of DNA adducts above that of IQ and low sucrose intake. Oxidative DNA damage detected in terms of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine by HPLC-EC, or endonuclease HI or formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sensitive sites were unaltered in the colon and liver. Expression of ERCC1 and OGG1 mRNA levels...

  1. Association of Childhood Infection With IQ and Adult Nonaffective Psychosis in Swedish Men: A Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort and Co-relative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Golam M; Dalman, Christina; Kappelmann, Nils; Stochl, Jan; Dal, Henrik; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Jones, Peter B; Karlsson, Håkan

    2018-04-01

    Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association. Population-based longitudinal cohort study using linkage of Swedish national registers. The risk set included all Swedish men born between 1973 and 1992 and conscripted into the military until the end of 2010 (n = 771 698). We included 647 515 participants in the analysis. Hospitalization with any infection from birth to age 13 years. Hospitalization with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of NAP until the end of 2011. At conscription around age 18 years, IQ was assessed for all participants. At the end of follow-up, the mean (SD) age of participants was 30.73 (5.3) years. Exposure to infections, particularly in early childhood, was associated with lower IQ (adjusted mean difference for infection at birth to age 1 year: -1.61; 95% CI, -1.74 to -1.47) and with increased risk of adult NAP (adjusted hazard ratio for infection at birth to age 1 year: 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33). There was a linear association between lower premorbid IQ and adult NAP, which persisted after excluding prodromal cases (adjusted hazard ratio per 1-point increase in IQ: 0.976; 95% CI, 0.974 to 0.978). The infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations were similar in the general population and in full-sibling pairs discordant for exposure. The association between infection and NAP was both moderated (multiplicative, β = .006; SE = 0.002; P = .02 and additive, β = .008; SE = 0.002; P

  2. Identification and in vitro pharmacological characterization of a novel and selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, Br-IQ17B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing-shu; Xie, Bing-xue; Bian, Xi-ling; Xue, Yu; Wei, Ning-ning; Zhou, Jing-heng; Hao, Yu-chen; Li, Gang; Zhang, Liang-ren; Wang, Ke-wei

    2015-07-01

    Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is a ligand-gated Ca(2+)-permeable ion channel implicated in cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders. Activation of α7 nAChR improves learning, memory, and sensory gating in animal models. To identify novel α7 nAChR agonists, we synthesized a series of small molecules and characterized a representative compound, Br-IQ17B, N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]oct-3-yl]-5-bromoindolizine-2-carboxamide, which specifically activates α7 nAChR. Two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) recordings were primarily used for screening in Xenopus oocytes expressing human α7 nAChR. Assays, including radioisotope ligand binding, Western blots, whole-cell recordings of hippocampal culture neurons, and spontaneous IPSC recordings of brain slices, were also utilized to evaluate and confirm the specific activation of α7 nAChR by Br-IQ17B. Br-IQ17B potently activates α7 nAChR with an EC50 of 1.8±0.2 μmol/L. Br-IQ17B is selective over other subtypes such as α4β2 and α3β4, but it blocks 5-HT3A receptors. Br-IQ17B displaced binding of the α7 blocker [(3)H]-MLA to hippocampal crude membranes with a Ki of 14.9±3.2 nmol/L. In hippocampal neurons, Br-IQ17B evoked α7-like currents that were inhibited by MLA and enhanced in the presence of the α7 PAM PNU-120596. In brain slice recordings, Br-IQ17B enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission in CA1 neurons. Mechanistically, Br-IQ17B increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was MLA-sensitive. We identified the novel, potent, and selective α7 agonist Br-IQ17B, which enhances synaptic transmission. Br-IQ17B may be a helpful tool to understand new aspects of α7 nAChR function, and it also has potential for being developed as therapy for schizophrenia and cognitive deficits.

  3. Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning difficulties in adult males: self- and parent-reported autism, attention and executive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD--broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis.

  4. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration as a reflection of fluoride exposure and its impact on IQ level and BMI of children of Laxmisagar, Simlapal Block of Bankura District, W.B., India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kousik; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2016-04-01

    There has been growing public concern about intellectual performance of children at high levels of fluoride exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Simlapal Block of Bankura District, West Bengal, to find out the relationship between fluoride (F) exposure as exposure dose (ED) with dental fluorosis (DF), urinary fluoride concentration (UF), intelligence quotient (IQ) and body mass index (BMI). Fifty groundwater samples were collected from the target area. One hundred forty-nine children belonging to age group 6 to 18 years were considered for this study. Experimental results reveal that mean F(-) concentration of that area is 2.11 mg/L (±SD 1.64). On the basis of F concentration in groundwater and water consumption pattern, ED was calculated to explore the impact of F(-) on DF, UF, IQ, and BMI. Paired t test results suggest that exposure rate of F does not show any significant differences ( severe > mild > very mild > questionable > normal conditions. The highest UF concentration was recorded as 17 mg/L, but the status of DF in the affected children was recorded as moderate. The results also reveal that ED has a positive correlation with DF (r = 0.299, P fluoride toxicity.

  5. Surveying the Effectiveness of the Drama Therapy on Increasing of Motor Skills and the Hearing Memory of the Persons with Mentally Disabeled with an I.Q 55-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fakhri

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Survey on the effectiveness of drama therapy on increasing of motor skills and hearing skills of Male intellectual disabled with an I.Q between 55-70 in the Age Range of 10-15 years. Materials & Methods: The statistical community consisted of intellectual disabled students wich are the coverage exceptional training within an education organization in Tehran in school year of 2004-5 with an IQ between 55-70 in the age range of 10-15. Research sample that were selected randomly consisted of two groups, an experimental and a control group in number of 20 persons in each group. Research tool used in this study was Bruininks oseretsky motor perception skills test and along with hearing-oral memory reinforcement (sequence tests. The averages obtained from the two experimental and control group were compared by the T test. Results: Investigation of pretest scores and posttest scores in two experimental and control group showed a statistical significance difference. Conclusion: Results of this survey with a statistical significance at an alpha level of 0.05 and 95% reliability coefficient showed that drama therapy performance for the target group can cause the increased perception skills and hearing memory reinforcement.

  6. IQ and mental health are vital predictors of work drop out and early mortality. Multi-state analyses of Norwegian male conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Stein Atle; Tveito, Torill H; Reme, Silje E; Eriksen, Hege R

    2017-01-01

    Disability benefits and sick leave benefits represents huge costs in western countries. The pathways and prognostic factors for receiving these benefits seen in recent years are complex and manifold. We postulate that mental health and IQ, both alone and concurrent, influence subsequent employment status, disability benefits and mortality. A cohort of 918 888 Norwegian men was followed for 16 years from the age of 20 to 55. Risk for health benefits, emigration, and mortality were studied. Indicators of mental health and IQ at military enrolment were used as potential risk factors. Multi-state models were used to analyze transitions between employment, sick leave, time limited benefits, disability benefits, emigration, and mortality. During follow up, there were a total of 3 908 397 transitions between employment and different health benefits, plus 12 607 deaths. Men with low IQ (below 85), without any mental health problems at military enrolment, had an increased probability of receiving disability benefits before the age of 35 (HRR = 4.06, 95% CI: 3.88-4.26) compared to men with average IQ (85 to 115) and no mental health problems. For men with both low IQ and mental health problems, there was an excessive probability of receiving disability benefits before the age of 35 (HRR = 14.37, 95% CI: 13.59-15.19), as well as an increased probability for time limited benefits and death before the age of 35 compared to men with average IQ (85 to 115) and no mental health problems. Low IQ and mental health problems are strong predictors of future disability benefits and early mortality for young men.

  7. IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 promotes the malignant phenotype of invasive ductal breast carcinoma via canonical Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huan-Yu; Han, Yang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Lian-He; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Du, Jiang; Wu, Guang-Ping; Wang, En-Hua

    2017-06-01

    IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 is a scaffolding protein with multidomain which plays a role in modulating dishevelled (Dvl) nuclear translocation in canonical Wnt pathway. However, the biological function and mechanism of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) remain unknown. In this study, we found that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 expression was elevated in invasive ductal carcinoma, which was positively correlated with tumor grade, lymphatic metastasis, and poor prognosis. Coexpression of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 and Dvl in the nucleus and cytoplasm of invasive ductal carcinoma was significantly correlated but not in the membrane. Postoperative survival in the patients with their coexpression in the nucleus and cytoplasm was obviously lower than that without coexpression. The positive expression rates of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly higher in the patients with nuclear coexpression of Dvl and IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 than that with cytoplasmic coexpression, correlating with poor prognosis. IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation and invasion in invasive ductal carcinoma cell lines by interacting with Dvl in cytoplasm to promote Dvl nuclear translocation so as to upregulate the expression of c-myc and cyclin D1. Collectively, our data suggest that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 may promote the malignant phenotype of invasive ductal carcinoma via canonical Wnt signaling, and it could be used as a potential prognostic biomarker for breast cancer patients.

  8. Prenatal Internal Locus of Control Is Positively Associated with Offspring IQ, Mediated through Parenting Behavior, Prenatal Lifestyle and Social Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Golding

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Locus of control (LOC is a measure that identifies the likelihood as to whether an individual considers what happens to him is largely a matter of luck or fate (known as externally oriented or whether it is something that the individual can influence (internality. Here we have used data collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC to determine the associations between the mothers’ LOC orientation before the birth of the child and her child’s cognition measured at age 8. Using results from 6801 children we show that maternal internal LOC is associated with increased ability in offspring IQ, as measured using the WISC, with children of internally oriented mothers having an advantage of approximately 7 IQ points at age 8. As a sensitivity analysis we used the IQ test results of a sample of 986 preschool children tested using the WPSSI at age 4. A similar advantage was found among the offspring of the internally oriented mothers. We investigated mechanistic explanations for these results firstly by determining the extent to which three separate sets of factors known to be influenced by the LOC orientation might explain these findings. We showed that (a perinatal life-style exposures, (b parenting attitudes and strategies and (c socio-economic circumstances, largely explain the mechanism through which the internality of the mother influences the cognition of the child. Similar effects were found using the smaller sample tested at age 4. The results indicate that efforts made to foster internality in adolescents and young adults prior to parenthood may result in improvements in the cognitive development of the next generation. Intervention studies are urgently needed.

  9. Prenatal Internal Locus of Control Is Positively Associated with Offspring IQ, Mediated through Parenting Behavior, Prenatal Lifestyle and Social Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Jean; Gregory, Steven; Ellis, Genette L; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Nowicki, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Locus of control (LOC) is a measure that identifies the likelihood as to whether an individual considers what happens to him is largely a matter of luck or fate (known as externally oriented) or whether it is something that the individual can influence (internality). Here we have used data collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to determine the associations between the mothers' LOC orientation before the birth of the child and her child's cognition measured at age 8. Using results from 6801 children we show that maternal internal LOC is associated with increased ability in offspring IQ, as measured using the WISC, with children of internally oriented mothers having an advantage of approximately 7 IQ points at age 8. As a sensitivity analysis we used the IQ test results of a sample of 986 preschool children tested using the WPSSI at age 4. A similar advantage was found among the offspring of the internally oriented mothers. We investigated mechanistic explanations for these results firstly by determining the extent to which three separate sets of factors known to be influenced by the LOC orientation might explain these findings. We showed that (a) perinatal life-style exposures, (b) parenting attitudes and strategies and (c) socio-economic circumstances, largely explain the mechanism through which the internality of the mother influences the cognition of the child. Similar effects were found using the smaller sample tested at age 4. The results indicate that efforts made to foster internality in adolescents and young adults prior to parenthood may result in improvements in the cognitive development of the next generation. Intervention studies are urgently needed.

  10. Low IQ has become less important as a risk factor for early disability pension. A longitudinal population-based study across two decades among Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnehed, Nina; Rasmussen, Finn; Modig, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Low IQ has been shown to be an important risk factor for disability pension (DP) but whether the importance has changed over time remains unclear. It can be hypothesised that IQ has become more important for DP over time in parallel with a more demanding working life. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative risk of low IQ on the risk of DP before age 30 between 1971 and 2006. This study covered the entire Swedish male population born between 1951 and 1976, eligible for military conscription. Information about the study subjects was obtained by linkage of national registers. Associations between IQ and DP over time were analysed by descriptive measures (mean values, proportions, etc) and by Cox proportional hazards regressions. Analyses were adjusted for educational level. The cohort consisted of 1 229 346 men. The proportion that received DP before the age of 30 increased over time, from 0.68% in the cohort born between 1951 and 1955 to 0.95% in the cohort born between 1971 and 1976. The relative risk of low IQ (adjusted for education) in relation to high IQ decreased from 5.68 (95% CI 4.71 to 6.85) in the cohort born between 1951 and 1955 to 2.62 (95% CI 2.25 to 3.05) in the cohort born between 1971 and 1976. Our results gave no support to the idea that the importance of low IQ for the risk of DP has increased in parallel with increasing demands in working life. In fact, low IQ has become less important as a risk factor for DP compared with high IQ between the early 1970s and 1990s. An increased educational level over the same time period is likely to be part of the explanation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. A structural equation modeling of executive functions, IQ and mathematical skills in primary students: Differential effects on number production, mental calculus and arithmetical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arán Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud, María Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Though the relationship between executive functions (EFs) and mathematical skills has been well documented, little is known about how both EFs and IQ differentially support diverse math domains in primary students. Inconsistency of results may be due to the statistical techniques employed, specifically, if the analysis is conducted with observed variables, i.e., regression analysis, or at the latent level, i.e., structural equation modeling (SEM). The current study explores the contribution of both EFs and IQ in mathematics through an SEM approach. A total of 118 8- to 12-year-olds were administered measures of EFs, crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) intelligence, and math abilities (i.e., number production, mental calculus and arithmetical problem-solving). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) offered support for the three-factor solution of EFs: (1) working memory (WM), (2) shifting, and (3) inhibition. Regarding the relationship among EFs, IQ and math abilities, the results of the SEM analysis showed that (i) WM and age predict number production and mental calculus, and (ii) shifting and sex predict arithmetical problem-solving. In all of the SEM models, EFs partially or totally mediated the relationship between IQ, age and math achievement. These results suggest that EFs differentially supports math abilities in primary-school children and is a more significant predictor of math achievement than IQ level.

  12. PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ and the squat jump (SJ measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05. In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05, in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p<0.05. The dynamic resistance warm-up method was found to cause changes in the kinematics of jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely.

  13. Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J; Dundas, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this ......The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance...

  14. Spectral Inverse Quantum (Spectral-IQ Method for Modeling Mesoporous Systems: Application on Silica Films by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work advances the inverse quantum (IQ structural criterion for ordering and characterizing the porosity of the mesosystems based on the recently advanced ratio of the particle-to-wave nature of quantum objects within the extended Heisenberg uncertainty relationship through employing the quantum fluctuation, both for free and observed quantum scattering information, as computed upon spectral identification of the wave-numbers specific to the maximum of absorption intensity record, and to left-, right- and full-width at the half maximum (FWHM of the concerned bands of a given compound. It furnishes the hierarchy for classifying the mesoporous systems from more particle-related (porous, tight or ionic bindings to more wave behavior (free or covalent bindings. This so-called spectral inverse quantum (Spectral-IQ particle-to-wave assignment was illustrated on spectral measurement of FT-IR (bonding bands’ assignment for samples synthesized within different basic environment and different thermal treatment on mesoporous materials obtained by sol-gel technique with n-dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and of their combination as cosolvents. The results were analyzed in the light of the so-called residual inverse quantum information, accounting for the free binding potency of analyzed samples at drying temperature, and were checked by cross-validation with thermal decomposition techniques by endo-exo thermo correlations at a higher temperature.

  15. Apo calmodulin binding to the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.2 IQ peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Luyun; Myatt, Daniel; Kitmitto, Ashraf

    2007-01-01

    The influx of calcium through the L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) is the trigger for the process of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) from the sarcoplasmic recticulum, an essential step for cardiac contraction. There are two feedback mechanisms that regulate LTCC activity: calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF), both of which are mediated by calmodulin (CaM) binding. The IQ domain (aa 1645-1668) housed within the cytoplasmic domain of the LTCC Ca v 1.2 subunit has been shown to bind both calcium-loaded (Ca 2+ CaM ) and calcium-free CaM (apoCaM). Here, we provide new data for the structural basis for the interaction of apoCaM with the IQ peptide using NMR, revealing that the apoCaM C-lobe residues are most significantly perturbed upon complex formation. In addition, we have employed transmission electron microscopy of purified LTCC complexes which shows that both apoCaM and Ca 2+ CaM can bind to the intact channel

  16. Pluri-IQ: Quantification of Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency through an Image-Based Analysis Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Perestrelo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Image-based assays, such as alkaline phosphatase staining or immunocytochemistry for pluripotent markers, are common methods used in the stem cell field to assess pluripotency. Although an increased number of image-analysis approaches have been described, there is still a lack of software availability to automatically quantify pluripotency in large images after pluripotency staining. To address this need, we developed a robust and rapid image processing software, Pluri-IQ, which allows the automatic evaluation of pluripotency in large low-magnification images. Using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC as a model, we combined an automated segmentation algorithm with a supervised machine-learning platform to classify colonies as pluripotent, mixed, or differentiated. In addition, Pluri-IQ allows the automatic comparison between different culture conditions. This efficient user-friendly open-source software can be easily implemented in images derived from pluripotent cells or cells that express pluripotent markers (e.g., OCT4-GFP and can be routinely used, decreasing image assessment bias.

  17. Impairment of intellectual functions after surgery and posterior fossa irradiation in children with ependymoma is related to age and neurologic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, Katja von; Kieffer, Virginie; Habrand, Jean-Louis; Kalifa, Chantal; Dellatolas, Georges; Grill, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the neuropsychological outcome of children treated with surgery and posterior fossa irradiation for localized infratentorial ependymoma. 23 patients (age 0.3 – 14 years at diagnosis) who were treated with local posterior fossa irradiation (54 Gy) underwent one (4 patients) or sequential (19 patients) neuropsychologic evaluation. The last evaluation was performed at a median of 4.5 (1 to 15.5) years after RT. Mean last full scale IQ (FSIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and PIQ were 89.1, 94.0, and 86.2 respectively. All patients had difficulties with reading, and individual patients showed deficits in visuospatial, memory and attentional tasks. There was no trend for deterioration of intellectual outcome over time. All 5 children with IQ scores ≤ 75 were under the age of four at diagnosis. There was a significant association between the presence of cerebellar deficits and impaired IQ (72.0 vs 95.2, p < 0,001). The absence of hydrocephalus was an indicator of better neuropsychologic outcome (mean FSIQ of 102.6 vs 83.9, p = 0.025). Within the evaluated cohort, intellectual functions were moderately impaired. Markedly reduced IQ scores were only seen with early disease manifestation and treatment, and postoperative neurological deficits had a strong impact on intellectual outcome

  18. Impairment of intellectual functions after surgery and posterior fossa irradiation in children with ependymoma is related to age and neurologic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalifa Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the neuropsychological outcome of children treated with surgery and posterior fossa irradiation for localized infratentorial ependymoma. Methods 23 patients (age 0.3 – 14 years at diagnosis who were treated with local posterior fossa irradiation (54 Gy underwent one (4 patients or sequential (19 patients neuropsychologic evaluation. The last evaluation was performed at a median of 4.5 (1 to 15.5 years after RT. Results Mean last full scale IQ (FSIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ and PIQ were 89.1, 94.0, and 86.2 respectively. All patients had difficulties with reading, and individual patients showed deficits in visuospatial, memory and attentional tasks. There was no trend for deterioration of intellectual outcome over time. All 5 children with IQ scores ≤ 75 were under the age of four at diagnosis. There was a significant association between the presence of cerebellar deficits and impaired IQ (72.0 vs 95.2, p Conclusion Within the evaluated cohort, intellectual functions were moderately impaired. Markedly reduced IQ scores were only seen with early disease manifestation and treatment, and postoperative neurological deficits had a strong impact on intellectual outcome.

  19. Prebiotics and age, but not probiotics affect the transformation of 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) by fecal microbiota - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Adriana; Czyżowska, Agata; Huben, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Kuberski, Sławomir; Otlewska, Anna; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens which are formed in meat cooked using high-temperature methods. The human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining health in humans of different ages, and especially in the elderly. However, the GI microbiota, whose metabolism and composition changes with age, may also be responsible for the activation of mutagenic substances reaching the colon with diet. Probiotics and prebiotics are promising in terms of reducing the destructive effects of HAAs. The aim of the study was to determine if fecal microbiota derived from the feces of 27 volunteers: infants (up to 18 months), adults (aged 23-39 years), the sub-elderly (aged 64-65 years), and the elderly (aged 76-87 years), and the presence of probiotics or prebiotics, affected the transformation of IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) to 7-OH-IQ (2-amino-3,6-dihydro-3-methyl-7H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline-7-one). The compounds were identified using LC-MS(n), NMR, and FTIR. Their genotoxicity was compared in the comet assay. Individual strains capable of IQ transformation were also identified. 7-OH-IQ was detected in six persons (two children and four elderly individuals). The degree of IQ conversion ranged from 26% (4-month-old girl) to 94% (81-year-old woman) of the initial quantity. Four Enterococcus isolates: two Enterococcus faecium and two Enterococcus faecalis strains, as well as one Clostridium difficile strain (LOCK 1030, from the culture collection) converted IQ to 7-OH-IQ. The genotoxicity of samples containing 7-OH-IQ was even three times higher (P < 0.05) than those with IQ and was correlated with the degree of IQ conversion and 7-OH-IQ concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does growth mindset improve children’s IQ, educational attainment or response to setbacks? Active-control interventions and data on children’s own mindsets

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yue; Bates, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Mindset theory predicts that children’s IQ and school grades are positively linked to their belief that basic ability is malleable rather than fixed. We test this prediction in three experimental studies (total n = 624 individually-tested 10-12-year-olds). Two studies included active-control conditions to test effects of fixed-ability beliefs independent of motivation. In addition, we tested whether children’s own mindsets relate to real-life IQ, educational attainment in longitudinal analyse...

  1. The Influence of Performance on Bargaining and Distribution of Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Samuel B.

    Performance variables were manipulated to elicit differential outcomes of success and failure for dyad members in an attempt to investigate resultant bargaining and distribution of rewards. Seventy, 10-12-year old children (36 female, 34 males) were placed into dyads controlling for age, sex, I.Q., and friendship choices. Self-allocations were…

  2. Characteristics of images of angiographically proven normal coronary arteries acquired by adenosine-stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT/CT-IQ[Symbol: see text]SPECT with CT attenuation correction changed stepwise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Haruki; Kozono, Nami; Tanakamaru, Yoshiki; Idei, Naomi; Ohashi, Norihiko; Ohtsubo, Hideki; Okada, Takenori; Yasunobu, Yuji; Kaseda, Shunichi

    2015-04-01

    Although several studies have shown the diagnostic and prognostic value of CT-based attenuation correction (AC) of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD), this issue remains a matter of debate. To clarify the characteristics of CT-AC SPECT images that might potentially improve diagnostic performance, we analyzed images acquired using adenosine-stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT/CT equipped with IQ[Symbol: see text]SPECT (SPECT/CT-IQ[Symbol: see text]SPECT) from patients with angiographically proven normal coronary arteries after changing the CT attenuation correction (CT-AC) in a stepwise manner. We enrolled 72 patients (Male 36, Female 36) with normal coronary arteries according to findings of invasive coronary angiography or CT-angiography within three months after a SPECT/CT study. Projection images were reconstructed at CT-AC values of (-), 40, 60, 80 and 100 % using a CT number conversion program according to our definition and analyzed using polar maps according to sex. CT attenuation corrected segments were located from the mid- and apical-inferior spread through the mid- and apical-septal regions and finally to the basal-anterior and basal- and mid-lateral regions in males, and from the mid-inferior region through the mid-septal and mid-anterior, and mid-lateral regions in females as the CT-AC values increased. Segments with maximal mean counts shifted from the apical-anterior to mid-anterolateral region under both stress and rest conditions in males, whereas such segments shifted from the apical-septal to the mid-anteroseptal region under both stress and rest conditions in females. We clarified which part of the myocardium and to which degree CT-AC affects it in adenosine-stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT/CT-IQ[Symbol: see text]SPECT images by changing the CT-AC value stepwise. We also identified sex-specific shifts of segments with maximal mean counts that changed as

  3. A 1.5 V 7.656 GHz PLL with I/Q outputs for a UWB synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pufeng; Zhang Haiying; Ye Tianchun

    2010-01-01

    A fully integrated CMOS phase-locked loop (PLL) which can synthesize a quadrature output frequency of 7.656 GHz is presented. The proposed PLL can be employed as a building block for an MB-OFDM UWB frequency synthesizer. To achieve fast loop settling, integer- N architecture operating with 66 MHz reference frequency and wideband QVCO are implemented. I/Q carriers are generated by two bottom-series cross-coupled LC VCOs. Realized in 0.18 μm CMOS technology, this PLL consumes 16 mA current (including buffers) from a 1.5 V supply and the phase noise is -109.6 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The measured oscillation frequency shows that the QVCO has a range of 6.95 to 8.73 GHz. The core circuit occupies an area of 1 x 0.5 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. A 1.5 V 7.656 GHz PLL with I/Q outputs for a UWB synthesizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Pufeng; Zhang Haiying; Ye Tianchun, E-mail: chenpufeng@ime.ac.c [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A fully integrated CMOS phase-locked loop (PLL) which can synthesize a quadrature output frequency of 7.656 GHz is presented. The proposed PLL can be employed as a building block for an MB-OFDM UWB frequency synthesizer. To achieve fast loop settling, integer- N architecture operating with 66 MHz reference frequency and wideband QVCO are implemented. I/Q carriers are generated by two bottom-series cross-coupled LC VCOs. Realized in 0.18 {mu}m CMOS technology, this PLL consumes 16 mA current (including buffers) from a 1.5 V supply and the phase noise is -109.6 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The measured oscillation frequency shows that the QVCO has a range of 6.95 to 8.73 GHz. The core circuit occupies an area of 1 x 0.5 mm{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Gender, g, gender identity concepts, and self-constructs as predictors of the self-estimated IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storek, Josephine; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    In all 102 participants completed 2 intelligence tests, a self-estimated domain-masculine (DMIQ) intelligence rating (which is a composite of self-rated mathematical-logical and spatial intelligence), a measure of self-esteem, and of self-control. The aim was to confirm and extend previous findings about the role of general intelligence and gender identity in self-assessed intelligence. It aimed to examine further correlates of the Hubris-Humility Effect that shows men believe they are more intelligent than women. The DMIQ scores were correlated significantly with gender, psychometrically assessed IQ, and masculinity but not self-esteem or self-control. Stepwise regressions indicated that gender and gender role were the strongest predictors of DMIQ accounting for a third of the variance.

  6. Gender, g, Gender Identity Concepts, and Self-Constructs as Predictors of the Self-Estimated IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storek, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    In all 102 participants completed 2 intelligence tests, a self-estimated domain-masculine (DMIQ) intelligence rating (which is a composite of self-rated mathematical–logical and spatial intelligence), a measure of self-esteem, and of self-control. The aim was to confirm and extend previous findings about the role of general intelligence and gender identity in self-assessed intelligence. It aimed to examine further correlates of the Hubris–Humility Effect that shows men believe they are more intelligent than women. The DMIQ scores were correlated significantly with gender, psychometrically assessed IQ, and masculinity but not self-esteem or self-control. Stepwise regressions indicated that gender and gender role were the strongest predictors of DMIQ accounting for a third of the variance. PMID:24303578

  7. DUF1220 copy number is linearly associated with increased cognitive function as measured by total IQ and mathematical aptitude scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathon M.; Searles, Veronica B.; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.; Kennedy, Martin A.; Giedd, Jay

    2014-01-01

    DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6–11 (R2 = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26–33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R2 = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts. PMID:25287832

  8. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle-age and later coronary heart disease mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G; Shipley, Martin; Mortensen, Laust

    2008-01-01

    was eliminated (1.05; 0.73, 1.52). A similar pattern of association was apparent when cardiovascular disease was the outcome of interest. CONCLUSION: High IQ may lead to educational success, well remunerated and higher prestige employment, and this pathway may confer cardio-protection....

  9. The intellectual profile of abused and neglected children in the Philippines: An analysis of SB5 IQ scores of sexually abused, physically abused and neglected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengwasan, Peejay D

    2018-05-24

    Child abuse and neglect have been associated with cognitive deficits, among other effects on child development. This study explores the prediction that child abuse and neglect has an impact on Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 5th Edition (SB5) IQ scores, in relation to gender, age and type of abuse experienced. 300 children with experiences of abuse and neglect were included in the study, comprising 100 sexually abused, 100 physically abused and 100 neglected children. Overall, all scores on the SB5 were found to be significantly lower than the minimum average scores on the test. Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores were likewise found to be significantly lower than Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) scores. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores did not reveal heterogeneity when gender was factored in. Age and type of abuse (with a moderate effect size) on the other hand, showed significant differences among groups. Statistical analyses of SB5 Factor Index Scores revealed that abused children, in general, have significantly higher Visual-Spatial Processing (VS) and Quantitative Reasoning (QR) scores and lower scores in Knowledge (KN). There was a large effect size found in such an analysis. Age (with a large effect size), gender and type of abuse (with moderate effect sizes) give significant variations to this obtained profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Institutional Care and Iron Deficiency Increase ADHD Symptomology and Lower IQ 2.5-5 Years Post-Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring…

  11. IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f ]quinoline) – induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumour development in rats fed two different carbohydrate diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, A. M.; Meyer, Otto A.; Kristiansen, E.

    2001-01-01

    associated with enhanced development of ACF and colorectal cancer in humans. The present study was designed as an integrated part of our earlier published ACF study and follows the animals until tumour development. The aim of the study was to investigate (1) the effect of a refined carbohydrate-rich diet...... on the development of IQ-induced ACF over time and (2) possible correlation between early and late ACF and/or colorectal tumour development. The study showed that a feeding regimen with continuous doses of 0.03% IQ in the diet for 14 weeks, followed by 32 weeks without IQ was able to induce tumours in the rat colon......In most aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumour studies, chemical carcinogens not normally found in food have been used as initiators. In the present study the food-related compound, IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), has been used. A diet high in refined carbohydrates has been...

  12. Relationship between the IQ of People with Prader-Willi Syndrome and that of Their Siblings: Evidence for Imprinted Gene Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, J.; Holland, A.; Webb, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetic disorders occasionally provide the means to uncover potential mechanisms linking gene expression and physical or cognitive characteristics or behaviour. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is one such genetic disorder in which differences between the two main genetic subtypes have been documented (e.g. higher verbal IQ in one vs.…

  13. Can PEP-3 Provide a Cognitive Profile in Children with ASD? A Comparison between the Developmental Ages of PEP-3 and IQ of Leiter-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Cristella, Arcangelo; Terenzio, Vanessa; Buttiglione, Maura; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The assessment of the intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important to plan a detailed therapeutic-educative programme. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) to estimate the general cognitive development of children with ASD.…

  14. A Comparison of Low IQ Scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphress, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index…

  15. Diagnostic value of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion IQ-SPECT without and with computed tomography-based attenuation correction to predict clinically significant and insignificant fractional flow reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Haruki; Takahashi, Teruyuki; Ohashi, Norihiko; Tanaka, Koichi; Okada, Takenori; Kihara, Yasuki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify the predictive value of fractional flow reserve (FFR) determined by myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using thallium (Tl)-201 IQ-SPECT without and with computed tomography-based attenuation correction (CT-AC) for patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We assessed 212 angiographically identified diseased vessels using adenosine-stress Tl-201 MPI-IQ-SPECT/CT in 84 consecutive, prospectively identified patients with stable CAD. We compared the FFR in 136 of the 212 diseased vessels using visual semiquantitative interpretations of corresponding territories on MPI-IQ-SPECT images without and with CT-AC. FFR inversely correlated most accurately with regional summed difference scores (rSDS) in images without and with CT-AC (r = −0.584 and r = −0.568, respectively, both P system can predict FFR at an optimal cut-off of <0.80, and we propose a novel application of CT-AC to MPI-IQ-SPECT for predicting clinically significant and insignificant FFR even in nonobese patients. PMID:29390486

  16. Stability of cognitive performance in children with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Oskar G; Fintelmann, Sylvia; Caflisch, Jon; Latal, Beatrice; Rousson, Valentin; Chaouch, Aziz

    2015-05-01

    Longitudinal studies that have examined cognitive performance in children with intellectual disability more than twice over the course of their development are scarce. We assessed population and individual stability of cognitive performance in a clinical sample of children with borderline to mild non-syndromic intellectual disability. Thirty-six children (28 males, eight females; age range 3-19y) with borderline to mild intellectual disability (Full-scale IQ [FSIQ] 50-85) of unknown origin were examined in a retrospective clinical case series using linear mixed models including at least three assessments with standardized intelligence tests. Average cognitive performance remained remarkably stable over time (high population stability, drop of only 0.38 IQ points per year, standard error=0.39, p=0.325) whereas individual stability was at best moderate (intraclass correlation of 0.58), indicating that about 60% of the residual variation in FSIQ scores can be attributed to between-child variability. Neither sex nor socio-economic status had a statistically significant impact on FSIQ. Although intellectual disability during childhood is a relatively stable phenomenon, individual stability of IQ is only moderate, likely to be caused by test-to-test reliability (e.g. level of child's cooperation, motivation, and attention). Therefore, clinical decisions and predictions should not rely on single IQ assessments, but should also consider adaptive functioning and previous developmental history. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  17. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C; Bhattacharya, Manojeet

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter

  18. A population-based longitudinal study of suicide risk in male schizophrenia patients: Proximity to hospital discharge and the moderating effect of premorbid IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Mark; Kapra, Ori; Werbeloff, Nomi; Goldberg, Shira; Fenchel, Daphna; Reichenberg, Abraham; Yoffe, Rinat; Ginat, Keren; Fruchter, Eyal; Davidson, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death in schizophrenia. Identifying factors which increase the risk of suicide among schizophrenia patients might help focus prevention efforts. This study examined risk of suicide in male schizophrenia patients using population-based data, examining the timing of suicide in relation to the last hospital discharge, and the effect of premorbid IQ on risk of suicide. Data on 930,000 male adolescents from the Israeli military draft board were linked with data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry and vital statistics from the Israeli Ministry of Health. The relationship between premorbid IQ and risk for suicide was examined among 2881 males hospitalized with schizophrenia and compared to a control group of 566,726 males from the same cohort, who were not hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder, using survival analysis methods. Over a mean follow-up period of 9.9 years (SD=5.8, range: 0-22 years), 77/3806 males with schizophrenia died by suicide (a suicide rate of 204.4 per 100,000 person-years). Approximately 48% of the suicides occurred within a year of discharge from the last hospital admission for schizophrenia. Risk of suicide was higher in male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ (HR=4.45, 95% CI=1.37-14.43) compared to those with normal premorbid IQ. These data indicate that male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ are at particularly high risk of suicide, and the time of peak risk is during the first year after the last hospitalization discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SU-F-T-116: Predicting IQ and the Risk of Hearing Loss Following Proton Versus Photon Radiotherapy for Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, D; Sharpe, M; Laperriere, N; Hodgson, D; Ng, A; Tsang, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The increased sparing of normal tissues in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared to photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in brain tumor treatments should translate into improved neurocognitive outcomes. Models were used to estimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the risk of hearing loss 5 years post radiotherapy and to compare outcomes of proton against photon in pediatric brain tumors. Methods: Patients who had received radical IMRT were randomly selected from our retrospective database: 10 cases each of craniopharyngioma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma, and 20 cases of glioma. The existing planning CT and contours were used to generate IMPT plans. The RBE-corrected dose to brain structures and cochleas were calculated for both IMPT and IMRT. A model was applied to estimate IQ using a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. The reported incidence of hearing loss as a function of cochlear dose was used to estimate the rate of occurrence. Results: The average brain dose was less in all IMPT plans compared to IMRT: ranging from a 6.7% reduction (P=0.003) in the case of medulloblastoma to 38% (P=0.007) for craniopharyngioma. This dose reduction translated into a gain in IQ of 1.9 points on average for protons vs photons for the whole cohort at 5 years post-treatment (P=0.011). In terms of specific diseases, the gains in IQ ranged from 0.8 points for medulloblastoma, to 2.7 points for craniopharyngioma. Hearing loss probability was evaluated on a per-ear-basis and was found to be systematically less for proton versus photon: overall 2.9% versus 7.2% (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A novel method was developed to predict neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric brain tumor patients on a case-by-case basis. A modest gain in IQ was systematically observed for proton in all patients. Given the uncertainties within the model used and our reinterpretation, these gains may be underestimated.

  20. SU-F-T-116: Predicting IQ and the Risk of Hearing Loss Following Proton Versus Photon Radiotherapy for Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, D; Sharpe, M; Laperriere, N; Hodgson, D [UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ng, A [UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tsang, D [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The increased sparing of normal tissues in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared to photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in brain tumor treatments should translate into improved neurocognitive outcomes. Models were used to estimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the risk of hearing loss 5 years post radiotherapy and to compare outcomes of proton against photon in pediatric brain tumors. Methods: Patients who had received radical IMRT were randomly selected from our retrospective database: 10 cases each of craniopharyngioma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma, and 20 cases of glioma. The existing planning CT and contours were used to generate IMPT plans. The RBE-corrected dose to brain structures and cochleas were calculated for both IMPT and IMRT. A model was applied to estimate IQ using a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. The reported incidence of hearing loss as a function of cochlear dose was used to estimate the rate of occurrence. Results: The average brain dose was less in all IMPT plans compared to IMRT: ranging from a 6.7% reduction (P=0.003) in the case of medulloblastoma to 38% (P=0.007) for craniopharyngioma. This dose reduction translated into a gain in IQ of 1.9 points on average for protons vs photons for the whole cohort at 5 years post-treatment (P=0.011). In terms of specific diseases, the gains in IQ ranged from 0.8 points for medulloblastoma, to 2.7 points for craniopharyngioma. Hearing loss probability was evaluated on a per-ear-basis and was found to be systematically less for proton versus photon: overall 2.9% versus 7.2% (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A novel method was developed to predict neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric brain tumor patients on a case-by-case basis. A modest gain in IQ was systematically observed for proton in all patients. Given the uncertainties within the model used and our reinterpretation, these gains may be underestimated.

  1. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children’s Intelligence at 8–11 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence supporting a link between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive problems among children is mounting, but inconsistent. Objectives: We examined the relationship between ETS exposure, measured using urine cotinine, and IQ scores in Korean school-aged children. Methods: The participants were 996 children 8–11 years of age recruited from five administrative regions in South Korea. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of urinary cotinine concentrations and IQ scores obtained using the abbreviated form of a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, and estimates were derived with and without adjustment for mother’s Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) score. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and developmental covariates, urinary cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), vocabulary, math, and block design scores. Following further adjustment for maternal IQ, only the VIQ scores remained significantly associated with urinary cotinine concentration (B = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.03 for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed urine cotinine concentration; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Urine cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with children’s VIQ scores before and after adjusting for maternal IQ. Further prospective studies with serial measurements of cotinine are needed to confirm our findings. Citation: Park S, Cho SC, Hong YC, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Han DH, Cheong JH, Kim BN. 2014. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s intelligence at 8–11 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:1123–1128; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307088 PMID:24911003

  2. Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

  3. A census of membrane-bound and intracellular signal transduction proteins in bacteria: bacterial IQ, extroverts and introverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael Y

    2005-06-14

    Analysis of complete microbial genomes showed that intracellular parasites and other microorganisms that inhabit stable ecological niches encode relatively primitive signaling systems, whereas environmental microorganisms typically have sophisticated systems of environmental sensing and signal transduction. This paper presents results of a comprehensive census of signal transduction proteins--histidine kinases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis receptors, Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases, adenylate and diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases--encoded in 167 bacterial and archaeal genomes, sequenced by the end of 2004. The data have been manually checked to avoid false-negative and false-positive hits that commonly arise during large-scale automated analyses and compared against other available resources. The census data show uneven distribution of most signaling proteins among bacterial and archaeal phyla. The total number of signal transduction proteins grows approximately as a square of genome size. While histidine kinases are found in representatives of all phyla and are distributed according to the power law, other signal transducers are abundant in certain phylogenetic groups but virtually absent in others. The complexity of signaling systems differs even among closely related organisms. Still, it usually can be correlated with the phylogenetic position of the organism, its lifestyle, and typical environmental challenges it encounters. The number of encoded signal transducers (or their fraction in the total protein set) can be used as a measure of the organism's ability to adapt to diverse conditions, the 'bacterial IQ', while the ratio of transmembrane receptors to intracellular sensors can be used to define whether the organism is an 'extrovert', actively sensing the environmental parameters, or an 'introvert', more concerned about its internal homeostasis. Some of the microorganisms with the highest IQ, including the current leader Wolinella succinogenes

  4. A census of membrane-bound and intracellular signal transduction proteins in bacteria: Bacterial IQ, extroverts and introverts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galperin Michael Y

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of complete microbial genomes showed that intracellular parasites and other microorganisms that inhabit stable ecological niches encode relatively primitive signaling systems, whereas environmental microorganisms typically have sophisticated systems of environmental sensing and signal transduction. Results This paper presents results of a comprehensive census of signal transduction proteins – histidine kinases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis receptors, Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases, adenylate and diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases – encoded in 167 bacterial and archaeal genomes, sequenced by the end of 2004. The data have been manually checked to avoid false-negative and false-positive hits that commonly arise during large-scale automated analyses and compared against other available resources. The census data show uneven distribution of most signaling proteins among bacterial and archaeal phyla. The total number of signal transduction proteins grows approximately as a square of genome size. While histidine kinases are found in representatives of all phyla and are distributed according to the power law, other signal transducers are abundant in certain phylogenetic groups but virtually absent in others. Conclusion The complexity of signaling systems differs even among closely related organisms. Still, it usually can be correlated with the phylogenetic position of the organism, its lifestyle, and typical environmental challenges it encounters. The number of encoded signal transducers (or their fraction in the total protein set can be used as a measure of the organism's ability to adapt to diverse conditions, the 'bacterial IQ', while the ratio of transmembrane receptors to intracellular sensors can be used to define whether the organism is an 'extrovert', actively sensing the environmental parameters, or an 'introvert', more concerned about its internal homeostasis. Some of the microorganisms with the

  5. Selective Attention to Emotional Stimuli: What IQ and Openness Do, and Emotional Intelligence Does Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Marina; Antonakis, John

    2012-01-01

    We examined how general intelligence, personality, and emotional intelligence--measured as an ability using the MSCEIT--predicted performance on a selective-attention task requiring participants to ignore distracting emotion information. We used a visual prime in which participants saw a pair of faces depicting emotions; their task was to focus on…

  6. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development.

  7. Full-duplex relaying under I/Q imbalance using improper Gaussian signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the benefits of employing improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) in full duplex relaying (FDR) suffering from in-phase and quadrature imbalance (IQI). Different from the traditional symmetric signaling scheme, proper Gaussian signaling (PGS), that is parametrized by its variance, IGS needs additional statistical-quantity called the pseudo-variance to be fully described. The cooperative system under consideration suffers from two types of interferences, the residual self-interference (RSI) and IQI. To evaluate the system performance gain using IGS, first we express the end-to-end achievable rate for different IQI. Then, we optimize the pseudo-variance to compensate the interferences impact and improve the end-to-end achievable rate. Interestingly, IGS-based scheme outperforms its counterpart PGS-based scheme, especially at higher interference-to-noise ratio. Our findings reveal that using single-user detection with asymmetric signaling can compensate both RSI and IQI and improve the system performance.

  8. Full-duplex relaying under I/Q imbalance using improper Gaussian signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah

    2017-06-20

    In this paper, we study the benefits of employing improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) in full duplex relaying (FDR) suffering from in-phase and quadrature imbalance (IQI). Different from the traditional symmetric signaling scheme, proper Gaussian signaling (PGS), that is parametrized by its variance, IGS needs additional statistical-quantity called the pseudo-variance to be fully described. The cooperative system under consideration suffers from two types of interferences, the residual self-interference (RSI) and IQI. To evaluate the system performance gain using IGS, first we express the end-to-end achievable rate for different IQI. Then, we optimize the pseudo-variance to compensate the interferences impact and improve the end-to-end achievable rate. Interestingly, IGS-based scheme outperforms its counterpart PGS-based scheme, especially at higher interference-to-noise ratio. Our findings reveal that using single-user detection with asymmetric signaling can compensate both RSI and IQI and improve the system performance.

  9. Association of childhood blood-lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Many children in the US and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972–73 birth cohort from New Zealand, the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, followed to age 38 years (December, 2012). Exposure Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood-lead levels measured at 11 years. High blood-lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range 40–160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006, (NZSEI-06; range 10=lowest-90=highest). Results Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean blood-lead level at 11 years was 10.99μg/dL (SD=4.63). Among blood-tested participants included at 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (SD=14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (SD=17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5μg/dL higher level of blood-lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95%CI:−2.48, −0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95%CI: −3.14, −1.01) in Perceptual Reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95%CI: −2.38, −0.14) in Working Memory. Lead

  10. Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Cognitive Function and Socioeconomic Status at Age 38 Years and With IQ Change and Socioeconomic Mobility Between Childhood and Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-03-28

    Many children in the United States and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. A prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972-1973 birth cohort from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (until December 2012). Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood lead levels measured at age 11 years. High blood lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at age 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range, 40-160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at age 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006 (NZSEI-06; range, 10 [lowest]-90 [highest]). Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at age 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at age 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean (SD) blood lead level at age 11 years was 10.99 (4.63) µg/dL. Among blood-tested participants included at age 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5-µg/dL higher level of blood lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95% CI, -2.48 to -0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95% CI, -3.14 to -1.01) in perceptual reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95% CI, -2.38 to -0.14) in working memory. Associations of childhood blood lead level with deficits in

  11. Association of maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy with offspring IQ and brain morphology in childhood: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Muetzel, Ryan; Medici, Marco; Chaker, Layal; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Theo J; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Peeters, Robin P

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is involved in the regulation of early brain development. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not fully functional until week 18-20 of pregnancy, neuronal migration and other crucial early stages of intrauterine brain development largely depend on the supply of maternal thyroid hormone. Current clinical practice mostly focuses on preventing the negative consequences of low thyroid hormone concentrations, but data from animal studies have shown that both low and high concentrations of thyroid hormone have negative effects on offspring brain development. We aimed to investigate the association of maternal thyroid function with child intelligence quotient (IQ) and brain morphology. In this population-based prospective cohort study, embedded within the Generation R Study (Rotterdam, Netherlands), we investigated the association of maternal thyroid function with child IQ (assessed by non-verbal intelligence tests) and brain morphology (assessed on brain MRI scans). Eligible women were those living in the study area at their delivery date, which had to be between April 1, 2002, and Jan 1, 2006. For this study, women with available serum samples who presented in early pregnancy (brain MRI scans (done at a median of 8·0 years of age [6·2-10·0]) were obtained. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders including concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin and child thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine. Data for child IQ were available for 3839 mother-child pairs, and MRI scans were available from 646 children. Maternal free thyroxine concentrations showed an inverted U-shaped association with child IQ (p=0·0044), child grey matter volume (p=0·0062), and cortex volume (p=0·0011). For both low and high maternal free thyroxine concentrations, this association corresponded to a 1·4-3·8 points reduction in mean child IQ. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone was not associated with child IQ or brain morphology. All associations remained

  12. Full scale IQ (FSIQ) changes in children treated with whole brain and partial brain irradiation. A review and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M.; Poljanc, K.; Hug, E.B.; Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to assess current knowledge, with focus on correlation with radiation dose, irradiated volume and age. Method: Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) data, representing 1,938 children, were derived from 36 publications and analyzed as to radiation dose, irradiated volume, and age. Results: FSIQ after whole brain irradiation showed a non-linear decline as dosage increased. The dose-effect relationship was age-related, with more pronounced FSIQ decline at younger age. FSIQ test results below the normal level ( 50 Gy. Conclusion: The collected data suggest that whole brain irradiation doses of 18 and 24 Gy have no major impact on intellectual outcome in children older than age 6, but may cause impairment in younger children. Doses >24 Gy comprise a substantial risk for FSIQ decline, even in older children. At equal dose levels, partial brain irradiation is less damaging than whole brain irradiation. The authors are well aware of limitations in the interpretation of data collected for the current review. (orig.) [de

  13. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A; McCurdy, Mark D; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Pritchard, Alison E; Zabel, T Andrew; Mahone, E Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2013-09-01

    We examined the implications of using the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6-16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, second edition (ABAS-II). GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making may be of limited value. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Original article Stability of WISC-R scores in students with borderline intellectual functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Previous studies on the measurement of intelligence in students with learning difficulties indicate low stability of results observed over time. Therefore, careful analysis of changes in intelligence quotient, as well as in results within Verbal and Performance scale subtests, is necessary. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE The aim of the research was to analyze changes in WISC-R scores over time in students with borderline intellectual functioning. Test-retest stability of WISC-R was evaluated for Full, Verbal (VIQ, and Performance (PIQ scales. The study involved 30 students, who were tested three times, when their mean age was 8, 10.8, and 13.6 years old. RESULTS The results showed that Full Scale IQ was fairly stable over time and remained below the average level, between –1.01 and –2.00 standard deviations. Significant changes were observed in the Verbal and Performance scale; VIQ decreased and PIQ increased over time. An initially insignificant statistical difference between the scales grew as time progressed. Furthermore, considerable subtest score fluctuation was observed; over time scores in the Vocabulary subtest significantly decreased whereas in Block Design and Picture Arrangement they increased. CONCLUSIONS The authors argue that delayed acquisition of verbal skills may result from chronic school failure and deficiency of educational support experienced by this group of students. Meanwhile, non-verbal skills, that are less dependent on educational influences and academic knowledge, improve with students’ development through their engagement in everyday life activities.

  15. Health, wealth and IQ in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges facing the 'Savanna Principle' as an explanation for global inequalities in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, George T H

    2007-05-01

    Kanazawa's (2006) national- and individual-level analyses seem to support his hypothesis that: IQ scores are better predictors of health than wealth or inequality, except in 'evolutionarily familiar' sub-Saharan Africa which offers limited selection for intelligence (British Journal of Health Psychology 11: 623-42). However, the present paper exposes the flawed assumptions, questionable data, inappropriate analyses and biased interpretations on which this thesis was based. It questions the assumptions that: IQ scores are markers of adaptive genetic differences in intelligence; humans evolved within a predictable 'environment of evolutionary adaptedness': and this environment characterizes contemporary sub-Saharan Africa, offering little selection for intelligence. It also demonstrates that the macro-level data on which these analyses were based were collected across a range of different years, using a range of different sources, and were significantly intercorrelated. While none of these analyses adjusted for study year or study type, all were susceptible to multicollinearity and the 'ecological fallacy'. These flaws were compounded by the selective presentation and partial interpretation of the analyses, which focused on the absence of an 'independent' relationship between 'national IQ' and health within sub-Saharan Africa, but ignored the fact that this is also true for every other region of the world. Likewise, the individual-level analyses did not explore the relationship between IQ scores, self-reported income and health by race, which would have demonstrated the impact of the ecological fallacy. Instead, Kanazawa (2006) mistook statistical associations for evidence of causality and falsely concluded that populations in sub-Saharan Africa are less healthy because they are unintelligent and not because they are poor.

  16. Utility of an abbreviated version of the stanford-binet intelligence scales (5th ed.) in estimating 'full scale' IQ for young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Conal; O'Connell, Helen; Lillis, Mary; Tarpey, Sarah Louise; O'Reilly, Gary

    2018-03-01

    The fifth edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scales allows 'full scale' IQ (FSIQ) to be estimated using an abridged version of the test-the abbreviated battery IQ (ABIQ). Set within a public early intervention team service, the current cross-sectional study investigated the utility of the ABIQ in estimating FSIQ for 40 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 3-5 years. A strong ABIQ-FSIQ association was yielded (r = 0.89; r 2  = 0.808) and the ABIQ did not over-estimate mean FSIQ above a clinically-relevant threshold; however, clinically significant over-estimation occurred in 17.5% of individual cases. While the findings provide support for the utility of the ABIQ in estimating FSIQ for young children with ASD, caution relating to the over-estimation of FSIQ is warranted. Careful clinical judgment-ideally based on examination of previous cognitive assessment results (if available), thorough interactional observations, and close multi-disciplinary consultation-is necessary to determine the applicability of the ABIQ to individual cases. Autism Res 2018, 11: 503-508. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. We investigated the utility of a shortened version of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales in estimating IQ for 40 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The findings provide qualified support for the instrument: acceptably accurate IQ estimation was achieved for most cases; but not so for a sizeable minority (17.5%). Careful clinical judgment is necessary to determine the applicability of the ABIQ to individual cases. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronfani

    Full Text Available The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES, home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months.The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III. Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale, with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables.Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found.Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development.

  18. Evidence That the Impact of Childhood Trauma on IQ Is Substantial in Controls, Moderate in Siblings, and Absent in Patients With Psychotic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsman, Anne; van Dam, Daniela; Simons, Claudia J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Research suggests that childhood trauma is associated with cognitive alterations, but it is not known whether the cognitive alterations observed in patients with psychotic disorder, and their relatives, is trauma-related. Patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis (n = 1119), siblings of patients (n = 1059) and healthy comparison subjects (HCS; n = 586) were interviewed 3 times over a period of 6 years. Repeated measures of IQ were analyzed as a function of childhood trauma and group, controlling for confounders. There were significant differences in the impact of childhood trauma on IQ across the 3 groups. Exposure in HCS was associated with a nearly 5-point reduction in IQ (−4.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −7.98 to −1.73, P = .002), a lesser reduction in siblings (−2.58; 95% CI: −4.69 to −0.46, P = .017) and no significant reduction in patients (−0.84; 95% CI: −2.78 to 1.10, P = .398). One-fourth of the sibling-control difference in IQ was reducible to childhood trauma, whereas for patients this was only 5%. Over the 6-year follow-up, those with trauma exposure showed significantly less learning effects with repeated cognitive assessments (b = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.80‒1.92, P < .001) than the nonexposed (b = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.92‒2.71, P < .001; P interaction = .001). Although childhood trauma impacts cognitive ability and learning in non-ill people at low and high genetic risk, its effect on the observed cognitive alterations in psychotic disorder may be minor. Twin and family studies on cognitive alterations in psychotic disorder need to take into account the differential impact of trauma on cognition across ill and non-ill, at risk groups. PMID:28177077

  19. Apo-states of calmodulin and CaBP1 control CaV1 voltage-gated calcium channel function through direct competition for the IQ domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Rumpf, Christine; Minor, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, binding of calmodulin (CaM) or calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) to the CaV1 (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channel IQ domain endows the channel with diametrically opposed properties. CaM causes calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and limits calcium entry, whereas CaBP1 blocks CDI and allows sustained calcium influx. Here, we combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with cell-based functional measurements and mathematical modeling to show that these calcium sensors behave in a competitive manner that is explained quantitatively by their apo-state binding affinities for the IQ domain. This competition can be completely blocked by covalent tethering of CaM to the channel. Further, we show that Ca2+/CaM has a sub-picomolar affinity for the IQ domain that is achieved without drastic alteration of calcium binding properties. The observation that the apo-forms of CaM and CaBP1 compete with each other demonstrates a simple mechanism for direct modulation of CaV1 function and suggests a means by which excitable cells may dynamically tune CaV activity. PMID:23811053

  20. Apo states of calmodulin and CaBP1 control CaV1 voltage-gated calcium channel function through direct competition for the IQ domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Rumpf, Christine H; Minor, Daniel L

    2013-09-09

    In neurons, binding of calmodulin (CaM) or calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) to the CaV1 (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channel IQ domain endows the channel with diametrically opposed properties. CaM causes calcium-dependent inactivation and limits calcium entry, whereas CaBP1 blocks calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and allows sustained calcium influx. Here, we combine isothermal titration calorimetry with cell-based functional measurements and mathematical modeling to show that these calcium sensors behave in a competitive manner that is explained quantitatively by their apo-state binding affinities for the IQ domain. This competition can be completely blocked by covalent tethering of CaM to the channel. Further, we show that Ca(2+)/CaM has a sub-picomolar affinity for the IQ domain that is achieved without drastic alteration of calcium-binding properties. The observation that the apo forms of CaM and CaBP1 compete with each other demonstrates a simple mechanism for direct modulation of CaV1 function and suggests a means by which excitable cells may dynamically tune CaV activity. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors Affecting University Entrants' Performance in High-Stakes Tests: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Chin; Manalo, Ronaldo A.; Cabauatan, Ronaldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, students seeking admission to a university are usually required to meet certain entrance requirements, including passing the entrance examinations with questions on IQ and English, mathematics, and science. This paper aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of entrants into business programmes in high-stakes…

  2. Performance on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 by Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, C. Holley; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the performance of 292 4- to 17-year-olds with Williams syndrome (WS) on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 (KBIT-2; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004). Mean IQ Composite, Verbal standard score (SS), and Nonverbal SS were in the borderline range relative to the general population, with variability similar to the general population.…

  3. Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

  4. Associations Between Academic and Motor Performance in a Heterogeneous Sample of Children With Learning Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, Pieter Jelle; Hartman, Esther; Mombarg, Remo; Scherder, Erik; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    A heterogeneous sample of 137 school-aged children with learning disabilities (IQ > 80) attending special needs schools was examined on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). The results show that compared to the available norm scores, 52.6% of the children tested performed below the

  5. The Importance of Intrinsic Motivation for High and Low Ability Readers' Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Medford, Emma; Hughes, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how cognitive and motivational factors predicted reading skill and whether intrinsic reading motivation would explain significantly more variance in low ability readers' reading performance. One hundred and eleven children (aged 9-11) completed assessments of reading comprehension skill, verbal IQ, decoding skill and intrinsic…

  6. Assessment of memory/attention impairment in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Bing; Kong, Fanxing; Peng, Miao; Ma, Hongwei; Liu, Na; Guo, Qiyong

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Assessment of memory/attention impairment and related exploration of the gray matter differential MR density variations between children with and without primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology is the aim of the present study. Methods: A total of 75 right-handed PNE children (M/F = 39:36, average age 10.4 ± 1.3 years) and 72 age-matched, right-handed, healthy controls (M/F = 40:32, 10.0 ± 1.2 years) were recruited for the study. First, intelligence tests were performed using the China-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC) in both PNE and control children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and memory/caution (M/C) factor were measured. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed using high resolution 3 Tesla T1-weighted MR images, processed using VBM5 in the PNE and control children. Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U test were performed to analyze the difference in the gray matter density (GMD) between the PNE and control children. Results: The FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ in the PNE group were within the normal range and did not significantly differ from the control group, though the M/C factor was statistically lower in the PNE group. Compared with normal controls, PNE children exhibited lower GMD in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Impairment in memory/attention was detected in PNE children, and the structural abnormalities of the right DLPFC and left cerebellum are likely to be implicated in these deficits.

  7. Assessment of memory/attention impairment in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bing, E-mail: yubing@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Kong, Fanxing, E-mail: kongfx@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Peng, Miao, E-mail: pengm@sj-hospital.org [Psychological Outpatient Service, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Ma, Hongwei, E-mail: mahongwei1960@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna.916@163.com [Department of Radiology, the People' s Hospital of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China); Guo, Qiyong, E-mail: guoqy@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Assessment of memory/attention impairment and related exploration of the gray matter differential MR density variations between children with and without primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology is the aim of the present study. Methods: A total of 75 right-handed PNE children (M/F = 39:36, average age 10.4 ± 1.3 years) and 72 age-matched, right-handed, healthy controls (M/F = 40:32, 10.0 ± 1.2 years) were recruited for the study. First, intelligence tests were performed using the China-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC) in both PNE and control children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and memory/caution (M/C) factor were measured. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed using high resolution 3 Tesla T1-weighted MR images, processed using VBM5 in the PNE and control children. Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U test were performed to analyze the difference in the gray matter density (GMD) between the PNE and control children. Results: The FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ in the PNE group were within the normal range and did not significantly differ from the control group, though the M/C factor was statistically lower in the PNE group. Compared with normal controls, PNE children exhibited lower GMD in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Impairment in memory/attention was detected in PNE children, and the structural abnormalities of the right DLPFC and left cerebellum are likely to be implicated in these deficits.

  8. IQ as moderator of terminal decline in perceptual and motor speed, spatial, and verbal ability: Testing the cognitive reserve hypothesis in a population-based sample followed from age 70 until death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Johansson, Boo

    2017-03-01

    Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability. We quantified IQ using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test administrated at age 70. We fitted random change point TD models to the data, within a Bayesian framework, conditioned on IQ, age of death, education, and sex. In line with predictions, we found that 1 additional standard deviation on the IQ scale was associated with a delay in onset of TD by 1.87 (95% highest density interval [HDI; 0.20, 4.08]) years on speed, 1.96 (95% HDI [0.15, 3.54]) years on verbal ability, but only 0.88 (95% HDI [-0.93, 3.49]) year on spatial ability. Higher IQ was associated with steeper rate of decline within the TD phase on measures of speed and verbal ability, whereas results on spatial ability were nonconclusive. Our findings provide partial support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis and demonstrate that IQ can be a significant moderator of cognitive change trajectories in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Disentangling the Correlates of Drug Use in a Clinic and Community Sample: A Regression Analysis of the Associations between Drug Use, Years-of-School, Impulsivity, IQ, Working Memory, and Psychiatric Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gene M; Dunn, Brian J; Mignone, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Years-of-school is negatively correlated with illicit drug use. However, educational attainment is positively correlated with IQ and negatively correlated with impulsivity, two traits that are also correlated with drug use. Thus, the negative correlation between education and drug use may reflect the correlates of schooling, not schooling itself. To help disentangle these relations we obtained measures of working memory, simple memory, IQ, disposition (impulsivity and psychiatric status), years-of-school and frequency of illicit and licit drug use in methadone clinic and community drug users. We found strong zero-order correlations between all measures, including IQ, impulsivity, years-of-school, psychiatric symptoms, and drug use. However, multiple regression analyses revealed a different picture. The significant predictors of illicit drug use were gender, involvement in a methadone clinic, and years-of-school. That is, psychiatric symptoms, impulsivity, cognition, and IQ no longer predicted illicit drug use in the multiple regression analyses. Moreover, high risk subjects (low IQ and/or high impulsivity) who spent 14 or more years in school used stimulants and opiates less than did low risk subjects who had spent IQ and years-of-school predicted whether someone ever became a smoker, whereas impulsivity predicted the frequency of drinking bouts, but years-of-school did not. Many subjects reported no use of one or more drugs, resulting in a large number of "zeroes" in the data sets. Cragg's Double-Hurdle regression method proved the best approach for dealing with this problem. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that years-of-school predicts lower levels of illicit drug use after controlling for IQ and impulsivity. This paper also highlights the advantages of Double-Hurdle regression methods for analyzing the correlates of drug use in community samples.

  10. To which extent social withdrawal at the age of 1 year is associated with IQ at 5-6 years old? Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Doukhan, Sarah; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; Peyre, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    The present study aims to determine to which extent social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with the child's IQ at the end of the preschool period. Children (N = 1045) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed for social withdrawal behaviours at 1 year by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives also examined infants' language and motor development at 1 year. At the age 5-6 years, IQ scores were based on the WPPSI-III. Linear regression models were used to determine the association between IQ and ADBB, adjusted for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and for language and motor skills scores at 1 year. After adjusting for environmental factors, children with social withdrawal at 1 years (ADBB ≥5; N = 195) had significantly lower IQ scores at 5-6 years (-2.81 IQ points; p value 0.007) compared to children without social withdrawal (ADBB social withdrawal and IQ at 5-6 years was found. Being socially withdrawn at 1 year is associated with lower IQ scores at 5-6 years. The potential influence of these developmental aspects on each other (withdrawal behaviour and language/motor skills) may occur early in development. Our results improve our understanding of the outcomes of early social withdrawal behaviour and call for early detection of delay in acquisition of language/motor skills among socially withdrawn young children.

  11. Stalking the IQ Quark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    An information-processing framework is presented for understanding intelligence. Two levels of processing are discussed: the steps involved in solving a complex intellectual task, and higher-order processes used to decide how to solve the problem. (MH)

  12. Relationship between SPECT regional cerebral blood flow imaging and cognitive function in school-age children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiangyan; Chen Xuehong; Wang Zhengjiang; Hu Jingui; Feng Jianzhong; Li Yimin; Lu Xiujuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feature of SPECT regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) imaging, the cognitive functions and the relationship between them in school-age children with primary epilepsy. Methods: 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain imaging was performed on 32 school-age children with primary generalized tonic and (or) clonic seizures(GTCS). Cognitive functions were also evaluated in all patients and normal children. Relationship between cognitive function and rCBF was compared. Results: (1) Thirty of 32 (93.8%) patients were abnormal on SPECT imaging. Fifty areas of 29 cases showed decreased rCBF, the percentage of decreased rCBF was (21.07 ± 7.09)%; 2 areas of 1 case showed increased rCBF, the percentage of increased rCBF was (32.22 ± 4.31)%. 92.3% of the epileptic foci were located in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortexes. (2) Verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) and full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) of children with epilepsy were significantly lower than those of the controls, and there were some cognitive skewnesses in children with epilepsy (VIQ >PIQ). (3)There was negative correlation between the number of foci and VIQ, PIQ, FIQ, the correlation coefficients were -0.543 (P=0.002), -0.469 (P=0.009), -0.578 (P=0.001); there was negative correlation between the extent of foci and VIQ, PIQ, FIQ, the correlation coefficients were -0.560 (P=0.003), -0.142 (P=0.016), -0.582 (P=0.001); there was no significant correlation between all the IQ of cognitive test and the percentage of changed rCBF. Conclusions: SPECT rCBF imaging may be useful for the localization of epileptic focus. Some of school-age children with epilepsy have impairment of the cognitive function, its magnitude is negative correlated with the number and extent of epileptic foci. (authors)

  13. Young offspring at genetic risk of adult psychoses: the form of the trajectory of IQ or memory may orient to the right dysfunction at the right time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maziade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive dysfunctions analogous to those of adult patients have been detected in children at risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This led to the following developmental question: Do IQ and memory impairments exhibit different developmental courses from childhood to young adulthood in terms of stability or fluctuations?In a high risk sample, we used a step by step sampling approach to narrow-down the early disease mechanisms. Upstream, we started with a 20-year follow-up of 48 densely affected multigenerational kindreds, including 1500 clinically characterized adult members. We then identified 400 adult members affected by a DSM-IV schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Downstream, we finally focused on 65 offspring (of an affected parent aged 7 to 22, who were administered a neuropsychological battery. We then constructed cross-sectional trajectories that were compared to those of controls.The childhood IQ deficit displayed a stability until young adulthood. The delay in visual memory exhibited a non-linear two-stage trajectory: a lagging period during childhood followed by a recuperation period from adolescence until adulthood, as supported by a significant Group x Age Periods interaction. No data suggested deterioration between 7 and 22.In these offspring at genetic risk, the developmental trajectory of global IQ impairment may not apply to specific domains of cognition such as episodic memory. Different cognitive dysfunctions would mark different developmental courses. The shape of the trajectories might itself have a meaning and provide empirical leads for targeting the right dysfunction at the right time in future prevention research.

  14. Aberrant whole-brain functional connectivity and intelligence structure in children with primary nocturnal enuresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yu

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the potential relationship between intelligence structure abnormalities and whole-brain functional connectivity in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to provide insights into the association between these two seemingly unrelated conditions. METHODS: Intelligence testing and fMRI data were obtained from 133 right-handed children, including 67 PNE children (M/F, 39:28; age, 10.5 ± 1.2 y and 66 age-matched healthy controls (M/F, 37:29; age, 10.1 ± 1.1 y. All intelligence tests were performed using the China-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC. Each subject's full intelligence quotient (FIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ, performance IQ (PIQ, and memory/caution (M/C factor was measured and recorded. Resting state fMRI scans were performed on a 3.0-T MR scanner and post-processed using REST software. Comparisons of z-score correlation coefficients between distinct cerebral regions were used to identify altered functional connectivity in PNE children. RESULTS: The PNE group had normal FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ values, indicating no significant variation from the control group. However, the M/C factor was significantly lower in the PNE group. Compared to the control group, PNE children exhibited overall lower levels of functional connectivity that were most apparent in the cerebello-thalamo-frontal pathway. The M/C factor significantly correlated with z-scores representing connectivity between Cerebellum_Crus1_L and Frontal_Mid_R. CONCLUSION: PNE children exhibit intelligence structure imbalance and attention deficits. Our findings suggest that cerebello-thalamo-frontal circuit abnormalities are likely to be involved in the onset and progression of attention impairment in PNE children.

  15. Childhood IQ of parents related to characteristics of their offspring: linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 to the Midspan Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, C L; Deary, Ian J; Davey Smith, G; Upton, M N; Whalley, Lawrence J; Starr, John M; Hole, D J; Wilson, V; Watt, G C M

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between childhood IQ of parents and characteristics of their adult offspring. It was a prospective family cohort study linked to a mental ability survey of the parents and set in Renfrew and Paisley in Scotland. Participants were 1921-born men and women who took part in the Scottish Mental Survey in 1932 and the Renfrew/Paisley study in the 1970s, and whose,offspring took part in the Midspan Family study in 1996. There were 286 of...

  16. Effort testing in children: can cognitive and symptom validity measures differentiate malingered performances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Philip L; Callahan, Jennifer L; Hogan, Lindsey R; Hullmann, Stephanie; Wrape, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have contributed to significant advances in the detection of malingered performances in adults during cognitive assessment. However, children's ability to purposefully underperform has received relatively little attention. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine children's performances on common intellectual measures, as well as two symptom validity measures: the Test of Memory Malingering and the Dot-Counting Test. This was accomplished through the administration of measures to children ages 6 to 12 years old in randomly assigned full-effort (control) and poor-effort (treatment) conditions. Prior to randomization, children's general intellectual functioning (i.e., IQ) was estimated via administration of the Kaufman Brief Intellectual Battery-Second Edition (KBIT-2). Multivariate analyses revealed that the conditions significantly differed on some but not all administered measures. Specifically, children's estimated IQ in the treatment condition significantly differed from the full-effort IQ initially obtained from the same children on the KBIT-2, as well as from the IQs obtained in the full-effort control condition. These findings suggest that children are fully capable of willfully underperforming during cognitive testing; however, consistent with prior investigations, some measures evidence greater sensitivity than others in evaluating effort.

  17. Data relating to prenatal lead exposure and child IQ at 4 and 8 years old in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Kordas, Katarzyna; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), measures of child IQ were collected by trained psychologists. The Wechsler Pre-school and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised UK edition (WPPSI) was used at age 4 years in a subsample of children enrolled in ALSPAC (the Children in Focus cohort), chosen at random from the last 6 months of ALSPAC births (about 10% of the participants). At age 8 years all children enrolled in the main cohort were invited to complete a short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-III UK . Prenatal blood lead (B-Pb) concentrations were measured by inductively-couple plasma mass spectrometry in samples from women at a median gestation age of 11 weeks. Child blood lead was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in samples from children attending the Children in Focus clinic at age 30 months. Maternal reports at 32 weeks' gestation were used to generate data on a range of potential confounders. The data were used to determine the associations between prenatal exposure to lead and child IQ at 4 and 8 years. The effect of child B-Pb at 3 years as a moderator of these associations was tested. (For results, please see doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2017.07.003 Taylor et al., (2017)). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Refined carbohydrate enhancement of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon induced by the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1996-01-01

    ,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) and azoxymethane (AOM), the use of a diet-related colon cancer initiator, such as the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) formed during meat cooking, would probably give a more relevant insight into diet-related colon carcinogenesis......The aberrant crypt foci (ACF) bioassay has been used extensively to study the early effects of different dietary components on the colonic mucosa of laboratory rodents. ACF are proposed to represent preneoplastic lesions of colon cancer. Compared to the normally used initiators 1....... In the present study it is shown that a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ doses (0.03% in the diet) throughout a study period of 10 weeks has a significant effect on the induction of ACF in the colon of male F344 rats. In addition, the study illustrates that the incidence of the IQ-induced ACF can...

  19. Diagnostic value of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion IQ-SPECT without and with computed tomography-based attenuation correction to predict clinically significant and insignificant fractional flow reserve: A single-center prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Haruki; Takahashi, Teruyuki; Ohashi, Norihiko; Tanaka, Koichi; Okada, Takenori; Kihara, Yasuki

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the predictive value of fractional flow reserve (FFR) determined by myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using thallium (Tl)-201 IQ-SPECT without and with computed tomography-based attenuation correction (CT-AC) for patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).We assessed 212 angiographically identified diseased vessels using adenosine-stress Tl-201 MPI-IQ-SPECT/CT in 84 consecutive, prospectively identified patients with stable CAD. We compared the FFR in 136 of the 212 diseased vessels using visual semiquantitative interpretations of corresponding territories on MPI-IQ-SPECT images without and with CT-AC.FFR inversely correlated most accurately with regional summed difference scores (rSDS) in images without and with CT-AC (r = -0.584 and r = -0.568, respectively, both P system can predict FFR at an optimal cut-off of reserved.

  20. Intelligence after traumatic brain injury: meta-analysis of outcomes and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, M; Engenhorst, P J; Oosterlaan, J

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 54-60 million individuals sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. This meta-analysis aimed to quantify intelligence impairments after TBI and to determine the value of age and injury severity in the prognosis of TBI. An electronic database search identified 81 relevant peer-reviewed articles encompassing 3890 patients. Full-scale IQ (FSIQ), performance IQ (PIQ) and verbal IQ (VIQ) impairments were quantified (Cohen's d) for patients with mild, moderate and severe TBI in the subacute phase of recovery and the chronic phase. Meta-regressions explored prognostic values of age and injury severity measures for intelligence impairments. The results showed that, in the subacute phase, FSIQ impairments were absent for patients with mild TBI, medium-sized for patients with moderate TBI (d = -0.61, P intelligence impairments, where children may have better recovery from mild TBI and poorer recovery from severe TBI than adults. Injury severity measures predict intelligence impairments and do not outperform one another. © 2015 EAN.