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Sample records for performance blood urea

  1. Blood Urea Nitrogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to affect the kidneys, such as diabetes or high blood pressure , then creatinine and BUN tests may be used to monitor ... the diet. High-protein diets may cause abnormally high BUN levels while very low-protein diets can cause an abnormally low BUN. A wide variety ... a health practitioner will look at ...

  2. In vitro studies on the effect of physical cross-linking on the biological performance of aliphatic poly(urethane urea) for blood contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V; Kumari, T V; Jayabalan, M

    2001-01-01

    The effect of physical cross-linking in candidate cycloaliphatic and hydrophobic poly(urethane urea) (4,4'-methylenebis(cyclohexylisocyanate), H(12)MDI/hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene, HTPBD/hexamethylenediamine, HDA) and poly(ether urethane urea)s (H(12)MDI/HTPBD-PTMG/HDA) on the in vitro calcification and blood-material interaction was studied. All the candidate poly(urethane urea)s and poly(ether urethane urea)s elicit acceptable hemolytic activity, cytocompatibility, calcification, and blood compatibility in vitro. The studies on blood-material interaction reveal that the present poly(urethane urea)s are superior to polystyrene microtiter plates which were used for the studies on blood-material interaction. The present investigation reveals the influence of physical cross-link density on biological interaction differently with poly(urethane urea) and poly(ether urethane urea)s. The higher the physical cross-link density in the poly(urethane urea)s, the higher the calcification and consumption of WBC in whole blood. On the other hand, the higher the physical cross-link density in the poly(ether urethane urea)s, the lesser the calcification and consumption of WBC in whole blood. However a reverse of the above trend has been observed with the platelet consumption in the poly(urethane urea)s and poly(ether urethane urea)s.

  3. Effects of polymer-coated slow-release urea on performance, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolites in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Delfino Calomeni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment was to quantify the effects of feeding polymer-coated slow-release urea on nutrient intake and total tract digestion, milk yield and composition, nutrient balances, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and blood parameters in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (580±20 kg of live weight (mean ± standard deviation; 90 to 180 days in milk (DIM; and 28 kg/d of average milk yield were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. The animals were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to receive one of the following experimental diets: 1 control (without urea addition; urea (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis; polymer-coated slow release urea 1 (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis; and polymer-coated slow release urea 2 (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis. All diets contained corn silage as forage source and a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Milk and protein yield, production of volatile fatty acids, and propionate decreased when cows were fed diets containing urea. Addition of urea decreased nitrogen efficiency and nitrogen excreted in the feces. However, the diets did not change the cows' microbial protein synthesis, ruminal pH, or ammonia concentration. The inclusion of urea in cow diets decreases milk and protein yield due to lower production of volatile fatty acids. No advantages are observed with supplementation of polymer-coated slow-release urea when compared with feed-grade urea.

  4. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen): MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bunbloodureanitrogen.html BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Test? A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen ...

  5. Pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen concentration and reproductive performance of Bonsmara heifers within different management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshuma, Takula; Holm, Dietmar Erik; Fosgate, Geoffrey Theodore; Lourens, Dirk Cornelius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the association between pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and reproductive performance of beef heifers within different management systems in South Africa. Bonsmara heifers (n = 369) from five herds with different estimated levels of nitrogen intake during the month prior to the commencement of the breeding season were sampled in November and December 2010 to determine BUN concentrations. Body mass, age, body condition score (BCS) and reproductive tract score (RTS) were recorded at study enrolment. Trans-rectal ultrasound and/or palpation was performed 4-8 weeks after a 3-month breeding season to estimate the stage of pregnancy. Days to pregnancy (DTP) was defined as the number of days from the start of the breeding season until the estimated conception date. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards survival analysis were performed to estimate the association of pre-breeding BUN concentration with subsequent pregnancy and DTP, respectively. After stratifying for herd and adjusting for age, heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration took longer to become pregnant when compared to those with relatively lower BUN concentration (P = 0.011). In the herd with the highest estimated nitrogen intake (n = 143), heifers with relatively higher BUN were less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.013) and if they did, it was only later during the breeding season (P = 0.017), after adjusting for body mass. These associations were not present in the herd (n = 106) with the lowest estimated nitrogen intake (P > 0.500). It is concluded that Bonsmara heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration, might be at a disadvantage because of this negative impact on reproductive performance, particularly when the production system includes high levels of nitrogen intake.

  6. Transfer of blood urea into the goat colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Hinderer, S.

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of blood urea to the temporarily isolated and perfused colon of conscious goats was measured. Simultaneously, total urea turnover was estimated using 14 C-labelled urea. Three animals in the weight range 50-70 k were used, with appropriately placed cannulae. The entry of blood urea into the total gastrointestinal tract was estimated from the difference between total urea turnover renal urea excretion. When experimental conditions remained constant, such as the permeability of the gastrointestinal tract wall, blood urea diffusion into the colon depended on plasma urea concentration. Results of varying feeding conditions demonstrated that changes in permeability of the gastrointestinal tract will have a more pronounced influence on the amounts of blood urea entering the gastrointestinal tract than differences in plasma urea concentration

  7. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Llamas were provided with a large rumen fistula, and the transfer of blood urea into the temporarily isolated rumen, cleaned and filled with test solution was measured. Plasma urea clearance due to transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall should indicate changes in its permeability to urea. Clearance values were highest with CO 2 or with high concentrations of butyric acid. Permeability was low when food was with-held and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. The permeability of the rumen wall to blood urea can be altered significantly. These changes can affect blood urea transfer more extensively than changes in the plasma urea concentration within physiological ranges

  8. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of body urea into the temporarily isolated rumen cleaned and filled with a test solution was measured in the llama. Simultaneously urea recirculation into the total gastro-intestinal tract (GI-tract) was estimated using 14 C-urea. The permeability of the rumen wall to urea could be changed significantly. With CO 2 or butyric acid in the test solution, permeability was highest, it was low when food was withheld and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. Changes in the permeability can affect the transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall more extensively than changes in plasma urea concentrations. (author)

  9. Association between Blood Levels of Glucose and Urea and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osman

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... Normal blood glucose and urea levels in dairy cows vary within breeds, ..... prolapse, and postpartum uterine haemorrhage, the effect of metabolic stress, ... and the effect of efficiency of heat detection on the average days to.

  10. Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the comparative changes in the monthly blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, total protein (TP) concentration in blood serum and the body condition score of Nguni cows and heifers raised on sweetveld. Twenty-four clinically healthy animals in different parities, namely Parity ...

  11. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39.8±4.70kg/d and 90±3.9 d in milk). Treatments consisted of 4 primed continuous intravenous urea infusions of 0, 5, 10, and 15g of urea/h. Boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea were injected in cistern milk at 20, 60, and 100 min before the 1700h milking. Milk was collected in portions of approximately 2 L at the 1700h milking. Milk samples were analyzed for urea and enrichment of (15)N-urea. Results from one cow were discarded because of leakage of milk from the teats after injection of boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Increasing urea infusion rate linearly increased PUN from 11.4 (0g of urea/h) to 25.9mg/dL (15g of urea/h) and MUN from 10.3 (0g of urea/h) to 23.5 (15g of urea/h) mg of N/dL. The percentage of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea recovered from milk at the time of injection was not affected by urea infusion rate and varied between 65.1 and 73.0%, indicating that a substantial portion of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea was not accounted for by collected milk. The estimated fractional disappearance rate of (15)N-urea from milk to blood (Kurea; per hour) linearly increased from 0.429 (0g of urea/h) to 0.641 per hour (15g of urea/h). Cistern injected [(15)N(15)N]urea diffused within 20 min after injection toward alveoli milk. Calculations with the average Kurea estimated in this

  12. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed

  13. Analysis of the stability of urea in dried blood spots collected and stored on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Rizwana; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ashok Kumar; Jailkhani, Bansi Lal

    2013-05-01

    The ability to use dry blood spots (DBSs) on filter paper for the analysis of urea levels could be an important diagnostic tool for areas that have limited access to laboratory facilities. We developed a method for the extraction and quantification of urea from DBSs that were stored on 3M Whatman filter paper and investigated the effect of long-term storage on the level of urea in DBSs. DBSs of 4.5 mm in diameter were used for our assay, and we determined the urea levels in blood using a commercially available enzymatic kit (UV GLDH-method; Randox laboratories Ltd., UK). The DBSs on filter discs were stored at 4℃ or at 37℃ for 120 days. The mean intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variance for our method of urea extraction from dried blood was 4.2% and 6.3%, respectively. We collected 75 fresh blood samples and compared the urea content of each fresh sample with the urea content of DBSs taken from corresponding fresh blood samples. Regression analysis reported a regression coefficient (r) value of 0.97 and a recovery of urea from dried spots was 102.2%. Urea concentrations in DBSs were stable for up to 120 and 90 days when stored at 4℃ and 37℃, respectively. Our results show that urea can be stored and quantitatively recovered from small volumes of blood that was collected on filter paper.

  14. Influence of various levels of milk by-products in weaner diets on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen, diarrhea incidence, and pork quality of weaning to finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate various levels of milk by-product in weaning pig diet on growth performance, blood profiles, carcass characteristics and economic performance for weaning to finishing pigs. Methods A total of 160 weaning pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc), average 7.01±1.32 kg body weight (BW), were allotted to four treatments by BW and sex in 10 replications with 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed each treatment diet with various levels of milk by-product (Phase 1: 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, Phase 2: 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively). During weaning period (0 to 5 week), weaning pigs were fed experimental diets and all pigs were fed the same commercial feed during growing-finishing period (6 to 14 week). Results In the growth trial, BW, average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in the nursery period (5 weeks) increased as the milk by-product level in the diet increased (linear, pby-product in weaner diet decreased crude protein (quadratic, p = 0.05) and crude ash (Linear, p = 0.05) of Longissimus muscle. In addition, cooking loss and water holding capacity increased with increasing milk product levels in the weaner diets (linear, pby-product treatment had higher feed cost per weight gain compared to non-milk by-products treatment (linear, p = 0.01). Conclusion Supplementation of 10% to 5% milk by-products in weaning pig diet had results equivalent to the 30% to 15% milk treatment and 0% milk by-product supplementation in the diet had no negative influence on growth performance of finishing pigs. PMID:29103280

  15. Transfer of blood urea into the goat colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Hinderer, S.

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of body urea into the temporarily isolated and perfused colon of conscious goats was measured. Simultaneously total urea turnover was estimated using 14 C-urea. The transfer of urea into the total gastrointestinal tract (total turnover minus renal excretion) was four times higher with the high-energy - low-protein diet (sugar pulp plus straw) compared with control feeding (hay ad lib.). The transfer of urea into the colon was 8% of the transfer into the total GI tract during control feeding, 14% when food was withheld for 48 hours and 1% during sugar pulp feeding. The transfer into the colon depends mainly on the plasma urea concentration, whereas in the proximal part of the GI tract changes in the permeability of the GI tract wall have a more pronounced influence than plasma urea concentration. (author)

  16. Short communication: Assessing urea transport from milk to blood in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Bannink, A.

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of urea in milk (MUC) has emerged as a potentially useful tool to predict urinary N excretion. Various factors may affect the relationship between MUC and urinary N excretion, including transport characteristics of urea from blood to milk and vice versa. The main objective of this

  17. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  18. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  19. Blood ammonia and glutamine as predictors of hyperammonemic crises in patients with urea cycle disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brendan; Diaz, George A; Rhead, William; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Feigenbaum, Annette; Berry, Susan A; Le Mons, Cindy; Bartley, James A; Longo, Nicola; Nagamani, Sandesh C; Berquist, William; Gallagher, Renata; Bartholomew, Dennis; Harding, Cary O; Korson, Mark S; McCandless, Shawn E; Smith, Wendy; Cederbaum, Stephen; Wong, Derek; Merritt, J Lawrence; Schulze, Andreas; Vockley, Jerry; Vockley, Gerard; Kronn, David; Zori, Roberto; Summar, Marshall; Milikien, Douglas A; Marino, Miguel; Coakley, Dion F; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Scharschmidt, Bruce F

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine predictors of ammonia exposure and hyperammonemic crises in patients with urea cycle disorders. The relationships between fasting ammonia, daily ammonia exposure, and hyperammonemic crises were analyzed in >100 patients with urea cycle disorders. Fasting ammonia correlated strongly with daily ammonia exposure (r = 0.764; P 200% (P urea cycle disorder subtype, dietary protein intake, or blood urea nitrogen. Fasting glutamine correlated weakly with daily ammonia exposure assessed as 24-hour area under the curve and was not a significant predictor of hyperammonemic crisis. Fasting ammonia correlates strongly and positively with daily ammonia exposure and with the risk and rate of hyperammonemic crises, suggesting that patients with urea cycle disorder may benefit from tight ammonia control.

  20. Diagnostic value of blood urea and bilirubin levels determination in patients with gastroduodenal zone diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Zhakun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of relationships of urea and bilirubin blood levels in patients with Helicobacter pylori associated gastroduodenal pathology (HP-aGDP has the considerable relevance for clinicians, since these indicators represent the status and function of the gastroduodenal zone. The aim of this study was to estimate changes of bilirubin and urea blood levels in patients with HP-aGDP before and after treatment. Materials and methods. Our study has included 59 patients of the main group with different HP-aGDP and 40 patients of the control group with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Results. In patients with HP-aGDP the doubly severe reduction of urea concentration was observed in significantly greater number of patients, while half of the patients in the controls had an increase of its level by 10.4 %. The bilirubin concentration decrease was more pronounced (37.1 % vs. 3.5 % and significant (p < 0.05 in patients with HP-aGDP. Its rate depended on the dynamics of urea exactly in patients with HP-aGDP and it was more pronounced in case of urea reduction (p < 0.05. Thus, the revealed association of bilirubin and urea levels changes, namely their decrease owing to the treatment, was inherent only to patients with HP-aGDP unlike to the patients with CAD. We also determined the involvement of lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, electrolytes, composition of blood in the processes of local and systemic inflammation caused by HP and its relationship with adaptive reactions, which generally depended on other individual characteristics of patients in the study group (age, duration of disease, ulcer size, etc.. Conclusions. The monitoring of urea and bilirubin blood levels in patients especially with HP-aGDP during the eradication has a specific diagnostic and prognostic value. The bilirubin level in such cases reflects the severity of cholestasis, inflammatory lesions of the duodenal mucosa, comorbid hepatobiliary disease, while the urea level

  1. The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bata

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30.  The total intake of  dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented  and soyabean cake waste with dry matter  ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant  (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999   Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

  2. The effect of urea and urea-modified halloysite on performance of PCL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khunová, V.; Kelnar, Ivan; Kristóf, J.; Dybal, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Kaprálková, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2015), s. 1283-1291 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PCL * urea * halloysite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.781, year: 2015

  3. Effect of dietary protein sources of on blood or milk urea nitrogen of native cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, N R; Huque, K S; Asaduzzaman, M. [Animal Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)], E-mail: nathusarker@yahoo.com

    2009-07-01

    When feed protein metabolism in ruminants produces urea in the liver and recycles or blood urea (BUN) filters into milk urea nitrogen (MUN), an indicator of protein status in diets or feeding urea as one of the non-protein nitrogen sources for ruminants is scientifically acceptable throughout the world; a section of environmentalists, policy makers or even professionals often raise question of residual effects in milk and/or meat of fattening and/or dairy cattle fed with diets containing urea. Keeping their views in consideration, a feeding trial on 30 Pabna milking cows of 2 to 4 parities dividing equally into 5 groups was arranged to determine the effect of feeding of different sources of protein on BUN and MUN, and milk yield or protein content. To achieve the objectives, a group of cows was fed a diet of rice straw and concentrate as the control (T{sub 0}), two out of the rests was fed either with urea-molasses straw (UMS) (T{sub 1}) or Matikalai (Vigna mungo) hay ( T{sub 2}) as sources of basal roughage. The rest two groups of cows were fed the control diet replacing % of feed protein by the amount of urea and molasses fed to UMS group. The amount of urea and molasses was fed daily either in two meals (T{sub 3}) or fed to cows mixing with other concentrate feed (T{sub 4}). In addition, a concentrate mixture containing 45 % wheat bran, 24% Khesari bran, 12% Til oil cake, 12% soybean meal, 4% fishmeal, 2.0% oyster-shell, 0.5% DCP and 0.5% common salt, was supplied twice daily. Having adjusted the cows with the diets for 20 d, a 20 d feeding trial was conducted, when feed intake and samples of blood and milk were collected. Milk samples were collected from individual cow after feeding the experimental diets in the morning and evening milking. Samples were collected from milk bucket after complete milking and mixing thoroughly. Samples were analyzed for milk urea content (MUN) using a Colorimetric p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) method as described by Bector et

  4. Association of serum uric acid with blood urea and serum creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.U.; Ahmad, Z.; Rehman, J.U.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia can cause serious health problems including renal insufficiency. Hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases including Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Obesity. Objective of the present study was to study the Association of Serum Uric Acid with Blood Urea and Serum Creatinine. Methods: Eighty subjects, aged above 40, having blood urea more than 40 mg/dl and serum Creatinine more than 1.3 mg/dl were selected. 52.5 % subjects were male. Eighty subjects were selected as control group matching the age and sex with study group with normal blood urea and serum Creatinine. Results: Serum Uric Acid was found to be raised in 33 patients. Mean Serum Uric Acid value was 6.98+-2.021 in males (p<0.05) and 5.054+-2.324 in females (p<0.05). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid is raised in patients with impaired renal function (p<0.05). Levels of increased Serum Uric Acid were not significantly associated with the cause of renal disease. (author)

  5. The permeability of red blood cells to chloride, urea and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahm, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This study extends permeability (P) data on chloride, urea and water in red blood cells (RBC), and concludes that the urea transporter (UT-B) does not transport water. P of chick, duck, Amphiuma means, dog and human RBC to (36)Cl(-), (14)C-urea and (3)H2O was determined under self....... Temperature dependence, as measured by apparent activation energy, EA, of PCl is 117.8 (duck), 74.9 (Amphiuma) and 89.6 kJ mol(-1) (dog). The EA of Purea is 69.6 (duck) and 53.3 kJ mol(-1) (Amphiuma), and that of Pd is 34.9 (duck) and 32.1 kJ mol(-1) (Amphiuma). The present and previous RBC studies indicate......-exchange conditions. At 25°C and pH 7.2-7.5, PCl is 0.94×10(-4)-2.15×10(-4) cm s(-1) for all RBC species at [Cl]=127-150 mmol l(-1). In chick and duck RBC, Purea is 0.84×10(-6) and 1.65×10(-6) cm s(-1), respectively, at [urea]=1-500 mmol l(-1). In Amphiuma, dog and human RBC, Purea is concentration dependent (1...

  6. A simple apparatus for measuring the blood urea, manufactured by Dr. Luigj Benusi in 1943 in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Tartari, Flamur; Buzo, Stiliano; Vyshka, Gentian

    2009-01-01

    The apparatus invented by Dr. Luigj Benusi in 1943, in Tirana, was a practical application of the Kowarsky technique and Ambard laws, helping in determining blood urea levels and very important to a variety of diseases, mainly kidney disorders. The apparatus was invented and prepared from very simple laboratory materials, such as glasses, test tubes, corks and volumetric cylinders. Technologically, it was based upon the determination of blood urea through hypobromite, and, among the advantage...

  7. Tailoring of analytical performances of urea biosensors using nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouira, W; Barhoumi, H; Maaref, A; Renault, N Jaffrézic; Siadat, M

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the study of enzymatic sensors based on nanoparticles of iron oxide (FeNPs). Urease enzyme was immobilized on FeNPs using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method. FeNPs were first coated with polyelectrolytes (PE): Poly (allylamine hydrochloride), PAH and Poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), PSS for enzyme immobilization and then with enzyme. It has been confirmed through zeta potential measurements of FeNPs that the enzyme is immobilized on the surface. We evaluated the sensitivity of biosensors for urea by potentiometric and capacitive measurements on silicon / silica / FeNP-LBL-urease structures. The recorded capacity-potential curves (C-V) show a significant shift of flat band potential towards negative potentials in the presence of urea, the observed values of sensitivity vary between 30 and 40 mV/p[urea]. It has been shown that the proposed method for the immobilization of urease can increase the dynamic range of urea detection (10 −4 M to 10 −1 M) compared to the immobilization of urease without FeNP (10 −3.5 M to 10 −2.5 M). When the number of PAH-PSS layers was increased the sensitivity of detection was modified. This effect is due to partial inhibition of the enzyme in presence of FeNPs, which was shown by measurements in homogeneous phase.

  8. Reference Ranges of Serum Blood Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine Concentration and Ultrasonographic Measurement of the Kidneys in Term Healthy Newborns in the Neonatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Kader

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute kidney injury is an important problem in neonates. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study to determine normal serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine reference ranges and ranges of ultrasonographic measurement of kidneys in healthy term newborns. Study Design: Blood samples were collected from total 357 healthy newborns at birth (n=45, 1st (n=30, 3rd (n=61, 7th (n=34, 10th (n=132, 14th (n=36, and 28th (n=19 days of life. Renal ultrasonographic was performed by the same two radiologists on 81 newborns aged 10 days. Results: Serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations have reached to the highest level at the first day of life and have returned to cord level at the third day of life. There were gradually decrease in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels after the first day of life. There were significant difference in both right and left renal length, width, and volumes in terms of gender and these parameters were statistically higher in boys than girls (p<0.05. Birth weight of the boys (3548±539g was statistically higher than girls (3307±405 g (p=0.028. There was a positive correlation between birth weight and right (r=0.38, p=0.000 and left kidney volumes (r=0.44, p=0.000. Conclusion: Our findings showed that measured blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels changed in accordance with postnatal days and there was a positive correlation between kidney volume and birth weight of newborns. We concluded that these findings are important for evaluation of acute kidney injury and for screening of for urinary tract anomalies in neonates

  9. Effect of delayed wrapping and wrapping source on nitrogen balance and blood urea nitrogen in gestating sheep offered alfalfa silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposing ensiled forage to oxygen can result in DM deterioration and reduce silage intake by animals. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on N balance and blood urea N in gestating sheep offered alfalfa si...

  10. A simple apparatus for measuring the blood urea, manufactured by Dr. Luigj Benusi in 1943 in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, Flamur; Buzo, Stiliano; Vyshka, Gentian

    2009-01-01

    The apparatus invented by Dr. Luigj Benusi in 1943, in Tirana, was a practical application of the Kowarsky technique and Ambard laws, helping in determining blood urea levels and very important to a variety of diseases, mainly kidney disorders. The apparatus was invented and prepared from very simple laboratory materials, such as glasses, test tubes, corks and volumetric cylinders. Technologically, it was based upon the determination of blood urea through hypobromite, and, among the advantages of the apparatus of Benusi, were its extreme simplicity, the smaller amount of blood needed for producing results (2 milliliters), as well as an easiest way to clean up and to manage the apparatus from a practical point of everyday use.

  11. First-time urea breath tests performed at home by 36,629 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlerup, Søren; Andersen, Rikke Charlotte; Nielsen, Birgitte Sperling Wilms

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was (1) to describe the use of a (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) that was performed by patients at their homes as a part of a test-and-treat strategy in primary care and (2) to investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients taking a first...

  12. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Serum Creatinine Can Predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Lin, Suhan; Zippi, Maddalena; Geng, Wujun; Stock, Simon; Zimmer, Vincent; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2017-01-01

    Early prediction of disease severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) would be helpful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care and intervention. The aim of the study was to develop a model able to predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 647 patients with AP were enrolled. The demographic data, hematocrit, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) determinant at time of admission, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Scr) determinant at time of admission and 24 hrs after hospitalization were collected and analyzed statistically. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours (hrs) were independently associated with SAP. A logistic regression function (LR model) was developed to predict SAP as follows: -2.25-0.06 HDL-C (mg/dl) at admission + 0.06 BUN (mg/dl) at 24 hours + 0.66 Scr (mg/dl) at 24 hours. The optimism-corrected c-index for LR model was 0.832 after bootstrap validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LR model for the prediction of SAP was 0.84. The LR model consists of HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours, representing an additional tool to stratify patients at risk of SAP.

  13. Relations between 15N excretion in feces after oral intake of 15N-urea and urea concentration in the blood dependent on the crude fiber intake of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, H.; Tegtmeier, B.

    1985-01-01

    9 pigs (33 kg live weight at the beginning of the experiment) received in 3 consecutive series of experiments (3 animals/group) a basic barley ration of 1.0 - 1.2 kg per animal and day. In groups 1 to 9 the following supplements were given: (1) without N supplement, (2) 10.5 g urea, (3) 79 g dried skim milk, (4) 11 g urea, (5) without N supplement, (6) 110 g horse bean coarse meal, (7) without N supplement, (8) 95 g dried skim milk, (9) 120 g horse bean coarse meal. In groups 1 - 6 rations were supplemented with 150 - 165 g dry matter of partly hydrolyzed straw meal per animal and day. After 20 days the animals received a single dosis of 0.5 g/kg/sup 0.75/ 15 N-urea (72.1 atom-% 15 N excess) with the morning meal of the first day of the experiment. During the four days of the experiment groups 1 - 6, due to the straw meal supplement, excreted significantly higher N amounts than the corresponding groups 7 - 9. In comparison with the first day of the experiment (1 h after the morning meal) the urea concentration in the blood decreased to the following percentage in the order of the groups 1 - 9: 64; 65; 77; 54; 64; 73; 82; 88; 84 on the second day of the experiment (1 h before the evening meal). Between the excretion of 15 N excess in feces (y = mg) during the four days of the experiment and the concentration of urea in the blood (x = mmol/l) there was the following significant negative correlation: y = -40.1 x + 340. Urea elimination by means of urea inflow into the large intestine and subsequent bacterial protein synthesis (in the presence of fermentable crude fiber) significantly decreased urea concentration in the blood. (author)

  14. Blood urea nitrogen/creatinine index is a predictor of prerenal damage in preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidajet Paçarizi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preeclampsia is a disease whose etiology is not very clearly explained. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of blood urea nitrogen (BUN/creatinine ratio in diagnosing preeclampsiaand evaluating prognosis.Methods: The patients in this research were examined and diagnosed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Clinical Centre of Kosovo. Control group included 25 pregnant women with a normalblood pressure and with a gestational age of more than 20 weeks, whereas the investigation group included 25 women diagnosed with preeclampsia. The patients were not administered therapy four days before the examination. For the determination of biochemical parameters we used end point bichromatic enzymatic rate and enzymatic conductivity rate.Results: BUN/Creatinine index in the preeclamptic group was 19±7.7, uric acid 280±70 μmol/L, lactate dehydrogenase198±63 U/L, while the number of platelets was 195±5061 x 109/L. In control group BUN/Creatinine index was 12±3, lactate dehydrogenase was 165±57 U/L, uric acid 197±79 μmol/La and the platelet numberwas 243±61 x109/L. Albumin/Globulin index in the preeclamptic group was 0.8±0.12, whereas in the control group it was 0.9±0.16.Conclusions: BUN/Creatinine ratio in pregnant women with preeclampsia was significantly increased (t=-4.14; p=0.00013 in comparison to the control group. It indicates the prerenal source of azotemia. This indexcan be important for the evaluation of preeclampsia severity.

  15. Transfer of blood urea nitrogen to cecal microbial nitrogen is increased by fructo-oligosaccharide feeding in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kiyonori; Min, Xiao; Li, Xiao; Hasegawa, Ena; Sakaguchi, Ei

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which nitrogen (N) availability is improved by fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) in guinea pigs. Adult male guinea pigs were fed a commercial pellet diet (50 g/day) with either 5% glucose or 5% FOS for 7 days in individual metabolism cages. After 7 days of feeding the diet, (15) N-urea was administered intravenously 1 h before slaughter under anesthesia. The amount and concentration of total, protein, bacterial, ammonia and urea N and the (15) N atom % excess were measured in blood, liver, gut contents and urine. The (15) N atom % excess of total and protein N, and the amount of total, protein and bacteria N and (15) N in the cecum were significantly increased by the consumption of FOS. Furthermore, the concentration and amount of short-chain fatty acids were significantly increased by the consumption of FOS. In contrast, the amount of urinary (15) N was significantly decreased by the consumption of FOS. These results suggest that consumption of FOS increases transfer of blood urea N into the large intestine for bacterial N synthesis, which is subsequently re-absorbed by cecotrophy, and contributes to the increase of N utilization in guinea pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Profile of Rumen Fermentation and Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentration of Kacang Goat Fed Total Mixed Ration Vs. Roughage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiwinarti, R.; Kustantinah; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Rusman; Indarto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Kacang goat is usually reared traditionally fed natural grass and having inferior performance. Many researches had been done to improve the performance. Total mixed ration (TMR) containing soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) could increase the performance of Kacang goat, but the profile of rumen fermentation has not been published. Therefore, this study investigated the profile of rumen fermentation and blood urea Nitrogen concentration (BUN) in Kacang goat fed natural grass (roughage) and TMR. Twelve yearling Kacang buck, 15.2-19.6 kg were arranged in completely randomized design. The treatments were NG (natural grass), FM (TMR containing FM), and SBM (TMR containing SBM). The TMR were formulated containing 15% crude protein and 56-58% TDN. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Rumen pH 6 hours after feeding of NG (7.4) was higher (P<0.01) than that of FM (6.2) and SBM (6.4). This lowering pH of TMR was caused by increasing volatile fatty acids (VFA). The VFA total of FM (129.7 mmol/l) and SBM (153.1 mmol/l) were higher than that of NG (86.4 mmol/l). At 3 and 6 hours after feeding, ammonia in the rumen of SBM was higher than that of NG and FM, indicating higher degraded protein. The BUN at 3 hours after feeding of SBM was higher than that of NG. It can be concluded that protein in SBM was degraded higher than others and the lower pH in rumen of TMR goats was caused by higher VFA produced by TMR goats compared to NG goats.

  17. Development and study the performance of PBA cladding modified fiber optic intrinsic biosensor for urea detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botewad, S. N.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India-444602 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The fabrication and study of a cladding modified fiber optic intrinsic urea biosensor based on evanescent wave absorbance has been presented. The sensor was prepared using cladding modification technique by removing a small portion of cladding of an optical fiber and modifying with an active cladding of porous polyaniline-boric acid (PBA) matrix to immobilize enzyme-urease through cross-linking via glutaraldehyde. The nature of as-synthesized and deposited PBA film on fiber optic sensing element was studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The performance of the developed sensor was studied for different urea concentrations in solutions prepared in phosphate buffer.

  18. Correlation between dietary nitrogen, level of plasma urea and urea excretion in urine of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 6 male buffalo calves of Murrah breed, aged 1.5 years, to determine whether blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in urine were associated with protein intake. The animals were fed different amounts of crude protein in their diet. The levels of urea-N in the blood, excretion of 14 C from urea and urea-N in the urine were estimated. Close relationships were observed between nitrogen intake, blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in the urine. The observations indicated that blood urea-N and urea excretion in urine could be quantitated with the protein intake. (author)

  19. Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%, T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%, T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%, of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75 and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05. Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05, while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05 in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

  20. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Hibbard, G; Kitts, S E

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers....

  1. Influence of Body Condition Score, blood ammonia and serum urea levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zicarelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In buffaloes, an optimal BCS at calving time improves reproductive efficiency (Baruselli et al., 2001 therefore shortening the calving/conception period and lowering the number of services/conception. In buffalo cows in negative energy balance a delayed ovulation and a reduced percentage of large follicles were found (Campanile et al., 2001. In buffaloes naturally mated protein degradability in the rumen did not influence reproductive activity (Campanile et al., 2003. It is possible that, independently of the Blood Area (BU, a lower diffusion of ammonia occurs in the uterus, reducing the detrimental effect on reproductive efficiency. The aim in the present study was to determine the influence of BCS, urea e ammonia blood levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes synchronised and mated by AI in mid-winter which coincided with transition to the seasonal nadir in reproductive activity.

  2. BLOOD AMMONIA AND GLUTAMINE AS PREDICTORS OF HYPERAMMONEMIC CRISES IN UREA CYCLE DISORDER PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brendan; Diaz, George A.; Rhead, William; Lichter-Konecki, U.; Feigenbaum, Annette; Berry, Susan A.; Le Mons, C.; Bartley, James A; Longo, Nicola; Nagamani, Sandesh C.; Berquist, William; Gallagher, Renata; Bartholomew, Dennis; Harding, Cary O.; Korson, Mark S.; McCandless, Shawn E.; Smith, Wendy; Cederbaum, Stephen; Wong, Derek; Merritt, J. Lawrence; Schulze, A.; Vockley, Gerard.; Kronn, David; Zori, Roberto; Summar, Marshall; Milikien, D.A.; Marino, M.; Coakley, D.F.; Mokhtarani, M.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine predictors of ammonia exposure and hyperammonemic crises (HAC) in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Methods The relationships between fasting ammonia, daily ammonia exposure, and HACs were analyzed in >100 UCD patients. Results Fasting ammonia correlated strongly with daily ammonia exposure (r=0.764, p200% (purea nitrogen. Fasting glutamine correlated weakly with AUC0-24 and was not a significant predictor of HACs. Conclusions Fasting ammonia correlates strongly and positively with daily ammonia exposure and with the risk and rate of HACs, suggesting that UCD patients may benefit from tight ammonia control. PMID:25503497

  3. The performance of growing goats fed urea treated rice straw supplemented with Incum (Klienhovia hospita foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh, S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of locally available forages such as agricultural by-products and native trees is the crucial thing for goat farmers to obtain good quality feed and to reduce cost of feeding. A study was conducted to investigate the performance of crossbred goats fed urea treated rice straw supplemented with different levels of Klienhovia hospita foliage, in particular to determine the nutrient feeding value of experimental feed diets, evaluate the growth performance, feed intake and digestibility of the diets by goats. The feeding trial conducted was divided into two sections: digestibility and animal performance. The digestibility test was performed using total faecal collection method. The treatment diets were based on urea treated rice straw (RS supplemented with commercial concentrate (C and Klienhovia hospita (KH herbage: T1 with 85% RS and 15% C, T2 with 85% RS and 5% KH and 10% C, T3 with 85% RS, 10% KH and 5% C, and T4 with 85% RS and 15% KH. The feeding trial used 12 6-mo old crossbred male goats divided into 4 groups with the diets offered ad libitum and had access to clean drinking water. The left over feed was removed and weighed daily to determine voluntary DM intake. The initial average body weight of goats used ranged between 20.14�1.03 kg and 20.29�0.18 kg. The animals were placed in individual metabolic crates on slatted floor of 0.8 m above ground for 100 consecutive d. The results showed that there was no significant difference observed on body weight of goats among the treatments. ADG of goats was significantly higher in goats on diets T3 and T4 than those on control diet. Significant higher feed intake was observed in goats fed diet containing KH foliage than those fed with diet T1. Results for ASH, CP and ADF digestibility among different treatments were not significantly different whereas NDF digestibility was significantly higher in T2 treatment in comparison with T1, T3 and T4. The dry matter digestibility values of T1

  4. Relationship among antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, blood urea nitrogen and complement in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tamihiro; Kimura, Satoko; Takeuchi, Sora; Soma, Yoshinao

    2013-07-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, is an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis characterized by a history of asthma, hypereosinophilia. The prevalence of ANCA in EGPA is less common than in other ANCA-associated vasculitis. Increasing evidence of complement activation in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis has been provided by studies in animal models. We examined EGPA patients with cutaneous manifestations as an initial sign and investigated the correlations among clinical, serological and histopathological findings. We focused on differences among ANCA, blood urea nitrogen and complement levels such as complement 3 (C3), C4 and total complement hemolytic activity (CH50). We retrospectively investigated the records of 22 patients (11 male and 11 female) with EGPA admitted to our hospital from 1997-2012. Ten of the 22 patients (46%) were positive for serum myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA. In contrast, all the patients were negative for serum proteinase 3 ANCA. There was a significantly positive correlation between serum CH50 and C4 levels in patients with EGPA. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels differed significantly between MPO-ANCA-positive and -negative patients. Serum CH50 levels were higher in MPO-ANCA-positive patients compared to negative patients. Serum BUN levels were higher in elevated CH50 patients compared to normal and low CH50-negative patients. We propose that positive findings for MPO-ANCA with CH50 high activity may be a risk factor for developing renal insufficiency. Assuming there are correlations between the presence of ANCA and complements, earlier diagnosis based on initial efficacious treatment for EGPA. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Role of urea in controlling radiation-induced changes in some amino acids level and protein end products in blood serum of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kashef, H.S.; Saada, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    In previous studies (Helen Saada, 1982), urea could successfully act as a good radio-protector. It helps the recovery from changes induced by gamma irradiation in soluble protein contents, and percentage of protein fractions as well as some enzymatic activity. In the present study, it has been found that urea acts also as adequate radioprotector against radiation induced changes in the level of free and tied amino acids, glucosamine,free ammonia and urea concentration in the blood serum of white rats. The radioprotective role of urea was very clear on the first day after irradiation as manifested by the levels of free amino acids and protein end products (urea and ammonia). While in the case of tied amino acids, the action of urea as a radioprotector could be noticed lately, on the third post-irradiation day. The recovery from radiation hazards depended not only on the time lapse after irradiation but also on the chemical structure of the molecule which presents or constitutes the biological matter.2 tab.,1 fig

  6. Urea recycling in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshiaki; Niibayashi, Tsunekazu

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of blood urea into the alimentary tract of goats, as ruminants, was studied by the use of 15 N-urea, 15 N-ammonium chloride and physiological experimental techniques. Blood urea after an intravenous injection of 15 N-urea appeared in the first rumen via two routes, the saliva (approximately 60% of the serum urea concentration) and idrect diffusion from the wall of the first rumen, both as the ammonium-form N. The serum urea levels from diets containing different protein levels were paralleled with the protein levels, the ammonium level in the first rumen being similar to that of the serum urea. The transfer of low protein into the NH 3 pool of the first rumen was 56% of the total NH 3 in the entire alimentary tract, and the quantitative ratio of salivary secretion of diffusion in the first rumen was 1:9. The transfer of high protein was 14% in the entire alimentary tract, and the ratio of saliva to diffusion in the first rumen was 6:1. Thus, when protein uptake was large, salivary secretion was the primary route to the first rumen. Approximately 50% of the entire quantity of blood urea in the alimentary tract appeared in the first rumen, and 35%, in the lower alimentary tract, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum. (Chiba, N.)

  7. The risk of death associated with proteinuria in heart failure is restricted to patients with an elevated blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisco, Meredith A.; Zile, Michael R.; ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Hanberg, Jennifer S.; Wilson, F. Perry; Parikh, Chirag; Testani, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal dysfunction (RD) is associated with reduced survival in HF; however, not all RD is mechanistically or prognostically equivalent. Notably, RD associated with "pre-renal" physiology, as identified by an elevated blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr), identifies a

  8. ABO Blood Group And Reproductive Performance | Gharoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABO Blood Group And Reproductive Performance. ... Blood group A phenotype constituted 22.48%, while AB, B, and O blood groups made up 1.94, 15.28 and 60.3 percent respectively. The mean age of the ... Keywords: ABO Blood Group, Reproductive performance, population mapping, gene frequency. Journal of Mining ...

  9. Plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentrations after whole blood administration via the gastrointestinal tract in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E

    2007-06-01

    To determine if blood administered to pigeons by gavage tube would simulate gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a noncarnivorous avian model, be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequently alter concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid, blood from common peacocks (Pavo cristatus) was administered by gavage tube to 5 healthy domestic pigeons (Columba livia) at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 ml/kg. No significant difference in plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid was seen 4-6 hours after gavage. The findings did not support or rule out the presence of gastrointestinal blood in pigeons as a model for hemorrhage in noncarnivorous avian species.

  10. Interrelationship of βeta-2 microglobulin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in streptozotocin -induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Javadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of serum creatinine (Cr and blood urea nitrogen (BUN are used as indicators of glomerular filtration rate. The increased levels of these biomarkers are usually detectable at advanced stages of kidney complications. The aim of this study was to find the interrelationship of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M, BUN and Cr in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (IP injection of 65 mg kg-1 of STZ in rabbits. The levels of serum insulin, glucose and three above mentioned biomarkers were measured one day before (day -1 and on days 1-3 after injection of STZ and continued weekly to the end of the experiment (12 weeks. A statistically significant increase of serum β2M, BUN, Cr and glucose levels, and a significant decrease of insulin levels were observed in diabetic animals. However, β2M levels increased as early as one day after STZ injection compared to Cr and BUN that elevated at day two, suggesting a probable diagnostic advantage of β2M over currently used biomarkers in diabetic related kidney complications.

  11. [Determination of urea in canned foods by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection coupled with precolumn derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Dunming; Zhang, Zhigang; Ke, Zhicheng

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of urea residue in canned foods by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) coupled with precolumn derivatization was established. The sample (5.0 g), including canned edible fungi, fruit, vegetable, fish, and meat was extracted with 20 mL 1% (v/v) acetic acid solution. The extract was centrifuged, filtrated, and then derivatized with xanthydrol. The analysis was completed with HPLC-FLD. A good linear relationship was obtained in the range of 0.1-500 mg/L with the correlation coefficients more than 0.9995. The average recoveries of urea spiked at 0.001-30 g/kg levels in five kinds of canned foods ranged from 80.2% to 109.7% with the RSDs of 2.05%-6.53%. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 mg/kg, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.0 mg/kg. The proposed procedure was then applied to the analysis of 168 real samples collected from Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. The existence of urea was found in three pork cans with contents of 10.6, 62.1 and 2.6 mg/kg, respectively. The method is stable, reliable, simple and suitable for the determination of urea in canned foods, and has great potential for routine analysis in foodstuffs.

  12. Amino substituted nitrogen heterocycle ureas as kinase insert domain containing receptor (KDR inhibitors: Performance of structure–activity relationship approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR study was performed on a set of amino-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic urea derivatives. Two novel approaches were applied: (1 the simplified molecular input-line entry systems (SMILES based optimal descriptors approach; and (2 the fragment-based simplex representation of molecular structure (SiRMS approach. Comparison with the classic scheme of building up the model and balance of correlation (BC for optimal descriptors approach shows that the BC scheme provides more robust predictions than the classic scheme for the considered pIC50 of the heterocyclic urea derivatives. Comparison of the SMILES-based optimal descriptors and SiRMS approaches has confirmed good performance of both techniques in prediction of kinase insert domain containing receptor (KDR inhibitory activity, expressed as a logarithm of inhibitory concentration (pIC50 of studied compounds.

  13. Blood metabolomics analysis identifies abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Noriko; Futamura, Takashi; Kakumoto, Keiji; Salehi, Alireza M; Sellgren, Carl M; Holmén-Larsson, Jessica; Jakobsson, Joel; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and debilitating psychiatric disorder. However, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. We performed a metabolomics analysis to discover novel peripheral biomarkers for BD. We quantified serum levels of 116 metabolites in mood-stabilized male BD patients (n = 54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n = 39). After multivariate logistic regression, serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, α-ketoglutarate, and arginine were significantly higher in BD patients than in healthy controls. Conversely, serum levels of β-alanine, and serine were significantly lower in BD patients than in healthy controls. Chronic (4-weeks) administration of lithium or valproic acid to adult male rats did not alter serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, or arginine, but lithium administration significantly increased serum levels of α-ketoglutarate. The metabolomics analysis demonstrated altered serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, and arginine in BD patients. The present findings suggest that abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism play a role in the pathogenesis of BD.

  14. Effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrient intake and growth performance in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntiranyibagira Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of urea in camels has beneficial and negative effects. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance, feed efficiency and economics in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets. In the present study, eighteen growing camels with an average live body weight of 306.17 ± 2.05 kg were randomly assigned in three treatments: T1 = roughage complete pellet diet without urea, T2 = T1 plus 1% urea, and T3 = T1 plus 2% urea. The results showed that the urea supplementation significantly affected average daily feed and nutrient intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P  0.05. Similarly, digestion coefficient of DM, CP, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF and ADF was influenced by increasing urea level (P  0.05. The intake of digestive nutrients was similar among all treatment groups. Total body live weight gain and average daily gain were significantly higher in urea supplemented groups (P < 0.05 than in the control group. The supplementation of urea at 1% in low quality roughage complete pellet diets significantly improved (P < 0.05 the feed efficiency. In conclusion, these results indicated that the incorporation of urea at 1% in roughage based complete pellet diets could positively improve nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of growing camels.

  15. Performance of composite boards from long strand oil palm trunk bonded by isocyanate and urea formaldehyde adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanto, Indra; Massijaya, M. Y.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, the obtained long strand were produced from the outer part of oil palm trunk and then hot-prepressed. The three-ply composite boards were made from hot-prepressed long strand and use bonded by isocyanate and urea formaldehyde adhesives with a glue spread variation of 150 g/m2, 225 g/m2, and 300 g/m2. The board target density was 0.65 g/cm3, face and back layers orientation is the same and the core layer was perpendicular to the face and back layers. The research results showed that : (1) composite boards bonded by isocyanate performed better physical and mechanical properties compared to those of bonded by urea formaldehyde, (2) utilization of higher glue spread level would improve the physical and mechanical properties of the composite board. (3) composite boards bonded by isocyanate and urea formaldehyde adhesives at glue spread of 225 g/m2, 300 g/m2, respectively were enough to fulfill the JIS A 5908 (2003) standard.

  16. Effect of Tree Leaves on Rumen Fermentation, Microbial Count and Blood Urea Nitrogen of West African Dwarf Goats

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    Adelusi, O. O.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to assess the effect of Azadirachta indica, Newbouldia laevis and Spondias mombin leaves on rumen fermentation, microbial count and blood urea nitrogen (BUN of West African Dwarf (WAD goats. Sixteen WAD bucks (11.6 ? 0.9 kg in body weight were allocated to 4 treatments: 1 Control and 2 40 g/day of Azadirachta indica, 3 40 g/day of Newbouldia laevis and 4 40 g/day of Spondias mombin leaves arranged in a completely randomised design. The ground leaves were included in concentrate diets served on dry matter basis at 2% of body weight while Panicum maximum was fed ad libitum. The control diet had no tree leaves. Data were collected on chemical composition, rumen fermentation and microbial ecology, and BUN. Saponin was highest (P < 0.05 in S. mombin (8.14% while A. indica and N. laevis had 5.78% and 1.56%, respectively. Rumen ammonia nitrogen was least (P < 0.05 in goats fed A. indica (8.35 mg/dL while the highest (P < 0.05 total volatile fatty acid (TVFA was obtained from goats fed S. mombin with 125.51 mM. Goats fed N. laevis yielded the highest (P < 0.05 acetate with 70.65 mol/100 mol while propionate production was highest (P < 0.05 in the rumen of goats fed S. mombin (27.15 mol/100 mol. Viable bacteria count was lowest (P < 0.05 in rumen of goats fed A. indica (3.95?1012 cfu/ml while the least (P < 0.05 protozoa population was obtained from the rumen of bucks fed S. mombin (4.18?109 cfu/ml. All goats in the treatments containing tree leaves had higher (P < 0.05 and a rapid increase in BUN between 0 and 6 h post feeding when compared with the Control. It is concluded that feeding ground leaves of S. mombin to goats increases rumen total volatile fatty acid and propionate production and reduces the protozoa population.

  17. Milk yield and blood urea nitrogen in crossbred cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in a silvopastoral system in the Mexican tropics

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    Maria B. Bottini-Luzardo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess milk yields, estimate the intake of crude protein (CP and determine the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN in early post-partum crossbred cows grazing irrigated Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena in a silvopastoral system relative to those in an irrigated grass monoculture.  Twenty-four multiparous cows were randomly allotted at calving on the basis of previous milk yields to 2 grazing treatments: grass monoculture system (MS of Cynodon nlemfuensis (n=12; and an intensive silvopastoral system (ISS composed of leucaena and C. nlemfuensis (n=12.  Cows were supplemented with sorghum grain (ISS or a conventional concentrate (MS during milking to ensure availability of metabolizable energy (ME and CP required for milk production.  Mean estimated intake of leucaena was 5.1±1.3 kg DM/d and estimated CP intakes were 1,479±3.3 and 1,258±3.3 g/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05, while estimated intakes of ME were 161±1.3 and 131±1.4 MJ/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P<0.05.  Milk yields were 13.5 and 14.5 kg/cow/d for cows on ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05.  Concentrations of BUN were 19.1 mg/dL for cows in ISS and 15.3 mg/dL for cows in MS (P<0.05.  We conclude that intake of leucaena and sorghum grain in an irrigated silvopastoral system was sufficient to substitute for expensive concentrate in the diets of lactating cows grazing irrigated grass monoculture.  However, the higher levels of BUN found in ISS suggest a lower efficiency of N utilization in this treatment.  Restricting consumption of leucaena might be a means of improving efficiency of its use and this warrants investigation. Keywords: Cattle, crude protein, Cynodon nlemfuensis, leucaena, tropical pasturesDOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4159-167

  18. Ground Juniperus pinchotii and urea in supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs: I. Feedlot growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, T R

    2017-08-01

    Ground woody products and urea are low-cost roughage and N sources. Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48, 6 lambs/treatment; initial BW = 42 kg ± 3.8) were used to evaluate effects of using ground (juniper) and urea in supplements on feedlot lamb growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics. In a randomized complete block design (40 d), lambs were individually fed an ad libitum basal sorghum-Sudangrass hay diet, which was fed separate from 1 of 8 supplemental diets (6 lambs/diet; 533 g of supplement/d, as-fed basis). Treatment structure was a 4 × 2 factorial: 4 concentrations of ground juniper (JN: 15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 concentrations of urea (UR: 1 or 3% of DM). Lamb growth traits were evaluated on d 0, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, and 40; blood serum was evaluated on d 6 to 8, 20 to 22, and 34 (at h 3 and 6), and feces was evaluated on d 35. Compared to lambs fed all of the other treatments, lambs fed JN60UR1 or JN60UR3 had reduced supplement DMI (negative quadratic, = 0.007). Hay and total DMI were variable across day (JN × UR × day, 0.10). A JN × day interaction was detected ( 0.17) ADG and G:F. Lamb G:F fluctuated across day (JN × day, = 0.007), but the JN × day quadratic trend ( urea N quadratically increased ( urea N resulted from a greater decline from 3 to 6 h after feeding in lambs supplemented with UR1 vs. UR3. Increasing JN concentration tended to quadratically increase ( = 0.09) fecal DM and linearly decrease ( = 0.002) fecal N, but an effect due to dietary UR was not detected ( > 0.34). Results indicated that daily supplement DMI was restricted only by using JN60. However, a 60% JN-based supplement will not make an effective rangeland supplement for growing ewe lambs, and using 3% UR should not be considered, especially since daily UR intake was not restricted enough to be considered safe.

  19. Uniformity index measurement technology using thermocouples to improve performance in urea-selective catalytic reduction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangki; Oh, Jungmo

    2018-05-01

    The current commonly used nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction techniques employ hydrocarbons (HCs), urea solutions, and exhaust gas emissions as the reductants. Two of the primary denitrification NOx (DeNOx) catalyst systems are the HC-lean NOx trap (HC-LNT) catalyst and urea-selective catalytic reduction (urea-SCR) catalyst. The secondary injection method depends on the type of injector, injection pressure, atomization, and spraying technique. In addition, the catalyst reaction efficiency is directly affected by the distribution of injectors; hence, the uniformity index (UI) of the reductant is very important and is the basis for system optimization. The UI of the reductant is an indicator of the NOx conversion efficiency (NCE), and good UI values can reduce the need for a catalyst. Therefore, improving the UI can reduce the cost of producing a catalytic converter, which are expensive due to the high prices of the precious metals contained therein. Accordingly, measurement of the UI is an important process in the development of catalytic systems. Two of the commonly used methods for measuring the reductant UI are (i) measuring the exhaust emissions at many points located upstream/downstream of the catalytic converter and (ii) acquisition of a reductant distribution image on a section of the exhaust pipe upstream of the catalytic converter. The purpose of this study is to develop a system and measurement algorithms to measure the exothermic response distribution in the exhaust gas as the reductant passes through the catalytic converter of the SCR catalyst system using a set of thermocouples downstream of the SCR catalyst. The system is used to measure the reductant UI, which is applied in real-time to the actual SCR system, and the results are compared for various types of mixtures for various engine operating conditions and mixer types in terms of NCE.

  20. Effect of bacterial root symbiosis and urea as source of nitrogen on performance of soybean plants grown hydroponically for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is traditionally grown in soil, where root symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum can supply nitrogen (N), by means of bacterial fixation of atmospheric N2. Nitrogen fertilizers inhibit N-fixing bacteria. However, urea is profitably used in soybean cultivation in soil, where urease enzymes of telluric microbes catalyze the hydrolysis to ammonium, which has a lighter inhibitory effect compared to nitrate. Previous researches demonstrated that soybean can be grown hydroponically with recirculating complete nitrate-based nutrient solutions. In Space, urea derived from crew urine could be used as N source, with positive effects in resource procurement and waste recycling. However, whether the plants are able to use urea as the sole source of N and its effect on root symbiosis with B. japonicum is still unclear in hydroponics. We compared the effect of two N sources, nitrate and urea, on plant growth and physiology, and seed yield and quality of soybean grown in closed-loop Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) in growth chamber, with or without inoculation with B. japonicum. Urea limited plant growth and seed yield compared to nitrate by determining nutrient deficiency, due to its low utilization efficiency in the early developmental stages, and reduced nutrients uptake (K, Ca, and Mg) throughout the whole growing cycle. Root inoculation with B. japonicum did not improve plant performance, regardless of the N source. Specifically, nodulation increased under fertigation with urea compared to nitrate, but this effect did not result in higher leaf N content and better biomass and seed production. Urea was not suitable as sole N source for soybean in closed-loop NFT. However, the ability to use urea increased from young to adult plants, suggesting the possibility to apply it during reproductive phase or in combination with nitrate in earlier developmental stages. Root symbiosis did not contribute significantly to N nutrition and did not enhance the plant ability to use

  1. Both free indole-3-acetic acid and the photosynthetic performance are important players in the response of Medicago truncatula to urea and ammonium nutrition under axenic conditions

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    RAQUEL eEsteban

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the early stress response and plant performance of Medicago truncatula growing in axenic medium with ammonium or urea as the sole source of nitrogen with respect to nitrate based nutrition through biomass measurements, auxin contents analyses, root system architecture response analyses, and physiological determinations. Both ammonium and ureic nutrition severely affected the root system architecture, resulting in changes in the main elongation rate, lateral root development and insert position from the base. The auxin content decreased in both urea- and ammonium- treated roots; however, only the ammonium- treated plants were affected at the shoot level. The analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients showed that ammonium affected photosystem II, but urea did not impair photosynthetic activity. Superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in the plastids were moderately affected by urea and ammonium in the roots. Overall, our results showed that low N doses from different sources had no remarkable effects on M. truncatula, with the exception of the differential phenotypic root response. High dose of both ammonium and urea caused great changes at plant length, auxin content and physiological determinations. The interesting correlations found between the shoot auxin pool, the plant length, and the parameter performance index, obtained from the chlorophyll a fluorescence rise kinetics measurements, indicated that both IAA pool and performance index are an important part of the response of M. truncatula under ammonium or urea as a sole N source.

  2. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation and passive cycling movements on blood pressure and removal of urea and phosphate during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farese, Stefan; Budmiger, Raphael; Aregger, Fabienne; Bergmann, Ivo; Frey, Felix J; Uehlinger, Dominik E

    2008-10-01

    Intradialytic exercise has been described to improve blood pressure stability and dialysis efficacy. However, comorbid conditions in the dialysis population often preclude the widespread use of active intradialytic exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effect of intradialytic transcutaneous muscle stimulation (TEMS) and passive cycling movements (PCMs) on blood pressure and dialysis efficacy in patients. Prospective, controlled, randomized, crossover investigation. Ten patients were randomly allocated to TEMS, PCMs, or no intervention (NI) for 9 consecutive dialysis sessions. Participants were studied with NI, PCMs using a motor-driven ergometer, and bilateral TEMS of the leg musculature. Individual dialysis prescriptions were unchanged during the investigation. The effect of TEMS and PCMs on blood pressure and dialysis efficacy in patients was assessed. Mean blood pressure increased from 121/64 +/- 21/15 mm Hg with NI to 132/69 +/- 21/15 mm Hg (P TEMS. Urea and phosphate removal during dialysis were significantly (P TEMS (19.4 +/- 3.7 g/dialysis and 1,197 +/- 265 mg/dialysis) or PCMs (20.1 +/- 3.4 g/dialysis and 1,172 +/- 315 mg/dialysis) than with NI (15.1 +/- 3.9 g/dialysis and 895 +/- 202 mg/dialysis). Body weight, ultrafiltration, Kt/V, and increases in hemoglobin and albumin levels during dialysis did not differ among the NI, PCMs, and TEMS groups. The study design does not allow extension of the findings to prolonged treatment. Future studies during longer observation periods will have to prove the persistence of these acute findings. Both TEMS and PCMs deserve future investigations in dialysis patients because they increase intradialytic blood pressure and facilitate urea and phosphate removal when applied short term.

  3. Simultaneous determination of ethyl carbamate and urea in Korean rice wine by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyeong-Hweon; Bang, Dae-Young; Lim, Jung-Hoon; Yoon, Seok-Min; Yea, Myeong-Jai; Chi, Young-Min

    2017-10-15

    In this study, a rapid method for simultaneous detection of ethyl carbamate (EC) and urea in Korean rice wine was developed. To achieve quantitative analysis of EC and urea, the conditions for Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) detection were first optimized. Under the established conditions, the detection limit, relative standard deviation and linear range were 2.83μg/L, 3.75-5.96%, and 0.01-10.0mg/L, respectively, for urea; the corresponding values were 0.17μg/L, 1.06-4.01%, and 1.0-50.0μg/L, respectively, for EC. The correlation between the contents of EC and its precursor urea was determined under specific pH (3.5 and 4.5) and temperature (4, 25, and 50°C) conditions using the developed method. As a result, EC content was increased with greater temperature and lower pH. In Korean rice wine, urea was detected 0.19-1.37mg/L and EC was detected 2.0-7.7μg/L. The method developed in this study, which has the advantages of simplified sample preparation, low detection limits, and good selectivity, was successfully applied for the rapid analysis of EC and urea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Deposits from Creams Containing 20% (w/w) Urea and Suppression of Crystallization (Part 2): Novel Analytical Methods of Urea Accumulated in the Stratum Corneum by Tape stripping and Colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Norio; Morita, Yutaka; Terada, Katsuhide

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of urea from a urea formulation to the stratum corneum varies with the formulation base and form, and impacts the formulation's therapeutic effect. Consequently, determining the amount of urea transferred is essential for developing efficient formulations. This study assessed a simple method for measuring the amount of urea accumulated in the stratum corneum. Conventional methods rely on labeling urea used in the formulation with radiocarbon ((14)C) or other radioactive isotopes (RIs), retrieving the transferred urea from the stratum corneum by tape stripping, then quantitating the urea. The handling and use of RIs, however, is subject to legal regulation and can only be performed in sanctioned facilities, so methods employing RIs are neither simple nor convenient. We therefore developed a non-radiolabel method "tape stripping-colorimetry (T-C)" that combines tape stripping with colorimetry (urease-glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH)) for the quantitative measurement of urea. Urea in the stratum corneum is collected by tape stripping and measured using urease-GLDH, which is commonly used to measure urea nitrogen in blood tests. The results indicate that accurate urea measurement by the T-C method requires the application of 1400 mg (on hairless rats) of a 20% urea solution on a 50 cm(2) (5×10 cm) area. Further, we determined the amount of urea accumulated in the stratum corneum using formulations with different urea concentrations, and the time course of urea accumulation from formulations differing in the rate of urea crystallization. We demonstrate that the T-C method is simple and convenient, with no need for (14)C or other RIs.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862....1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to measure urea nitrogen (an end-product of nitrogen metabolism) in whole blood, serum, plasma, and urine...

  6. Utilization of dietary urea in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S J; Dabrowski, K R; Dabrowska, H; Olah, E; Luquet, P

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the potential utilization of dietary urea by rainbow trout. A control diet and two diets supplemented with 1 and 3% of urea were fed to fish. Postprandial levels of urea and ammonia in blood plasma, and postprandial excretion of these metabolites were followed during 24 h. Apparent digestibility of urea in rainbow trout was very high (greater than 98%). Maximum values of urea levels in plasma were reached 6 h (32.3 +/- 10.2 micrograms/ml) after a meal in the control fish and respectively 6 h (83.4 +/- 18.4 micrograms/ml) and 8 h (250.3 +/- 96.1 micrograms/ml) after a meal in trout fed 1 and 3% urea diets. Peaks of urea excretion rates appeared 7-9 h after meal, coinciding with the highest circulating urea concentration. Total daily urea excretion amounted to 5.53, 10.43 and 33.80 mg urea N/100 mg N intake in trout fed the control, 1 and 3% urea diets, respectively. It is concluded that the dietary urea is readily absorbed in the digestive tract of trout but is totally excreted thus leading to no beneficial effect on nitrogen balance. This excretion of urea also takes place passively without any increase in energy demands.

  7. Studies on the effect of virtual crosslinking on the hydrolytic stability of novel aliphatic polyurethane ureas for blood contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V; Jayabalan, M

    2001-07-01

    The effect of virtual crosslinking on the hydrolytic stability of completely aliphatic novel poly(urethane ureas), HFL9-PU1 (hard-segment content 57.5%) and HFL13-PU2 (hard-segment content 67.9%) based on 4,4'-methylene bis(cyclohexyl isocyanate) (H(12)MDI)-hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene-1,6-hexamethylene diamine, was studied. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance and wide-angle X-ray diffraction studies revealed hydrogen-bonding interaction and microphase separation and formation of crystallites by short- and long-range ordering in hard-segment domains. Three-dimensional networks from hydrogen bonding in the present polymers lead to virtually crosslinking and insolubility. These polymers were noncytotoxic to L929 fibroblast cells. The hemolytic potential is below the accepted limit. The studies on in vitro biostability in Ringer's solution, phosphate buffered saline, and papain enzyme revealed no weight loss. The infrared spectral studies revealed changes in the surface, especially on HFL9-PU1 aged in Ringer's solution and phosphate buffered saline, and no changes when aged in papain. The marginal changes noticed in tensile properties were attributed to the changes in degree of hydrogen bonding and associated rearrangement of molecular structure in the bulk. The results revealed that the lesser the crosslinking in virgin polymer, the higher the crosslinking in aged polymer and vice versa. Increased crosslinking during aging provided increased tensile properties in the aged polymer over the virgin polymer and vice versa. For comparison, an aliphatic polyetherurethane urea (HFL16-PU3) was also synthesized using poly(oxy tetra methylene glycol) in addition to the above reactants. Though both HFL9-PU1 and HFL16-PU3 contained the same hard-segment content, the aged sample of the latter showed decreased tensile properties with increased crosslinking during aging in contrast to the former. This was attributed to less microphase separation in the

  8. Isotopic studies of urea metabolism in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoeczi, E.; Irons, L.; Koj, A.; McFarlane, A. S.

    1965-01-01

    1. The half-life of [15N]urea was found to be significantly longer than that of [14C]urea injected at the same time, the differences being due to endogenous catabolism of urea, which is accompanied by little or no reutilization of 14C but is approx. 20% for 15N. [15N]Urea therefore appears to be valueless as an indicator of nitrogen metabolism unless the extents of endogenous catabolism of urea and of fractional reutilization of 15N can be separately estimated. 2. Though measurements of the radioactivity of expired 14CO2 confirmed the existence of considerable urea catabolism these could not be used for quantitative assessments. 3. Alternative graphical methods based on [14C]urea specific activities in plasma and urine samples were used to calculate the fraction of urea production that is excreted. Values by the two methods were in good agreement and showed that some animals excrete less than half the urea that they produce. 4. Specific activity differences between simultaneous samples of urinary and plasma urea reflect the presence of a pool of urea in the kidney that is not in equilibrium with the body urea pool. Calculations indicate the presence of urea in the kidney that in some cases may represent as much as 15% of the body pool, and in two animals in which post-mortem renal analyses were performed the masses of urea found agreed closely with the calculated values. 5. A model for urea metabolism is proposed that includes this pool in the excretory pathway. The related theory is shown to be adequate to explain the shape of the specific activity curves of urinary urea from the time of injection and the constant delay of the specific activity of urinary urea, relative to that of plasma urea, that is observed after a short preliminary equilibration period. 6. The body urea pool was calculated from the activity retained at 1·5hr. by excluding renal activity and the corrected specific activity of plasma urea at the same time. The urea pool was calculated to be

  9. Blood and Books: Performing Code Switching

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    Jeff Friedman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Code switching is a linguistic term that identifies ways individuals use communication modes and registers to negotiate difference in social relations. This essay suggests that arts-based inquiry, in the form of choreography and performance, provides a suitable and efficacious location within which both verbal and nonverbal channels of code switching can be investigated. Blood and Books, a case study of dance choreography within the context of post-colonial Maori performance in Aotearoa/New Zealand, is described and analyzed for its performance of code switching. The essay is framed by a discussion of how arts-based research within tertiary higher education requires careful negotiation in the form of code switching, as performed by the author's reflexive use of vernacular and formal registers in the essay. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802462

  10. The Kinetics of Urea in the Body after Liver Resection in the Experiment

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    P. N. Savilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study urea kinetics in the body after liver resection in the experiment.Material and Methods. Experiments were carried out on 45 white female rats weighing between 180 g and 220 g. Liver resection (LR was performed under ester anesthesia, wherein 15—20% of the organ weight was removed. Urea content was studied in biological fluids (arterial blood, venous — v.porta, v.hepatica, v.renalis — blood, choledochal bile, urine, and tissues of visceral organs (the thyroid gland, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, stomach, intestine on days 3, 7, and 14 after LR. Results. LR, while reducing the urea content in the v. hepatica blood, does not lead to similar changes in the arterial blood. This is accompanied by increased urea reabsorption in kidneys and higher v.porta blood urea content, which, depending on the postoperative time, results either from reduced urea excretion into the small intestine lumen or from its greater production by enterocytes followed by metabolite intake into the portal blood flow. The urea intake from hepatocytes into the hepatic bile ducts did not change on day 3 after LR; however, it increased on day 7 and slowed down on day 14. LR caused no changes in the gastric tissues urea content; never theless, it led to its increased content in the duodenal and colonic tissues. Without affecting the cardiac muscleurea content, LR entailed its increase in the lungs and thyroid gland on postoperative days 3, 7, and 14. At the background of absence of similar changes in the arterial blood data indicates promotion of urea production by the cells of these organs or metabolite retention therein.Conclusions. LR not only changes urea kinetics in the portal system organs, but also activates extrahepatic mechanisms aimed at preventing development of the arterial blood urea deficit because of its abnormal intake from the resected organ into the central blood flow.

  11. Predicting mortality among older adults hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia: an enhanced confusion, urea, respiratory rate and blood pressure score compared with pneumonia severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abisheganaden, John; Ding, Yew Yoong; Chong, Wai-Fung; Heng, Bee-Hoon; Lim, Tow Keang

    2012-08-01

    Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) predicts mortality better than Confusion, Urea >7 mmol/L, Respiratory rate >30/min, low Blood pressure: diastolic blood pressure blood pressure 65 years (CURB-65) for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) but is more cumbersome. The objective was to determine whether CURB enhanced with a small number of additional variables can predict mortality with at least the same accuracy as PSI. Retrospective review of medical records and administrative data of adults aged 55 years or older hospitalized for CAP over 1 year from three hospitals. For 1052 hospital admissions of unique patients, 30-day mortality was 17.2%. PSI class and CURB-65 predicted 30-day mortality with area under curve (AUC) of 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.80) and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.74) respectively. When age and three co-morbid conditions (metastatic cancer, solid tumours without metastases and stroke) were added to CURB, the AUC improved to 0.80 (95% CI: 0.77-0.83). Bootstrap validation obtained an AUC estimate of 0.78, indicating negligible overfitting of the model. Based on this model, a clinical score (enhanced CURB score) was developed that had possible values from 5 to 25. Its AUC was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.76-0.83) and remained similar to that of PSI class. An enhanced CURB score predicted 30-day mortality with at least the same accuracy as PSI class did among older adults hospitalized for CAP. External validation of this score in other populations is the next step to determine whether it can be used more widely. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. Risk Stratification of Acute Kidney Injury Using the Blood Urea Nitrogen/Creatinine Ratio in Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Yoichi; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Goto, Yoichi; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kawano, Yuhei

    2015-01-01

    Risk stratification of acute kidney injury (AKI) is important for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical markers, such as the blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr) or BUN or creatinine values alone, stratify the risk of AKI for mortality. In all, 371 consecutive ADHF patients were enrolled in the study. AKI was defined as serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dl or a 1.5-fold increase in serum creatinine levels within 48 h. During ADHF therapy, AKI occurred in 99 patients; 55 patients died during the 12-month follow-up period. Grouping patients according to AKI and a median BUN/Cr at admission of 22.1 (non-AKI+low BUN/Cr, non-AKI+high BUN/Cr, AKI+low BUN/Cr, and AKI+high BUN/Cr groups) revealed higher mortality in the AKI+high BUN/Cr group (log-rank test, Phigh BUN/Cr and mortality, whereas the association with AKI+low BUN/Cr did not reach statistical significance. When patients were grouped according to AKI and median BUN or creatinine values at admission, AKI was associated with mortality, regardless of BUN or creatinine. The combination of AKI and elevated BUN/Cr, but not BUN or creatinine individually, is linked with an increased risk of mortality in ADHF patients, suggesting that the BUN/Cr is useful for risk stratification of AKI.

  13. Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gunun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS, urea-treated (5%, long form rice straw (5% ULRS, urea-treated (2.5%, long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS and urea-treated (2.5%, chopped (4 cm rice straw (2.5% UCRS. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p0.05, whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01 by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05 and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05, thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05 in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05, while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01. From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows.

  14. Blood metabolomics analysis identifies abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimi, Noriko; Futamura, Takashi; Kakumoto, Keiji; Salehi, Alireza M.; Sellgren, Carl M.; Holmén-Larsson, Jessica; Jakobsson, Joel; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and debilitating psychiatric disorder. However, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. We performed a metabolomics analysis to discover novel peripheral biomarkers for BD. Methods: We quantified serum levels of 116 metabolites in mood-stabilized male BD patients (n = 54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n = 39). Results: After multivariate logistic regression, serum levels of pyruvate, N-acet...

  15. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancing biogas production from vinasse in sugarcane biorefineries: Effects of urea and trace elements supplementation on process performance and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Batista, Karla; Silva, Witan; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen, phosphate and trace elements supplementation were investigated in a semi-continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system to enhance process stability and biogas production from sugarcane vinasse. Phosphate in form of KH2PO4 induced volatile fatty acids accumulation possibly due to potassium inhibition of the methanogenesis. Although nitrogen in form of urea increased the reactor's alkalinity, the process was overloaded with an organic loading rate of 6.1gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 3.6days. However, by supplementing urea and trace elements a stable operation even at an organic loading rate of 9.6gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 2.5days was possible, resulting in 79% higher methane production rate with a stable specific methane production of 239mLgCOD(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. comparative performance between whole blood and dried blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance characteristics ... In 2007, 33% of pregnant women in low and middle-income countries were ..... Health (MDH) HIV and AIDS care and treatment program supported this work.

  18. Effects of nitrogen supply on inter-organ fluxes of urea-N and renal urea-N kinetics in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Theil, Peter Kappel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    The effects of decreasing ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in rumen degradable protein on inter-organ urea-N fluxes, epithelial urea-N extraction, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Eight Danish Holstein cows fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels and the gastrosplenic vein were used. The cows were randomly allocated to a triplicate incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous ventral ruminal infusion of water, 4.1 g of feed urea/kg of dry...... matter intake, and 8.5 g of feed urea/kg of dry matter intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. Arterial blood urea-N and ruminal ammonia concentrations decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. In absolute amounts, the urea-N recycling did...

  19. Urea functionalized surface-bonded sol-gel coating for on-line hyphenation of capillary microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillani, Shehzada Muhammad Sajid; Alhooshani, Khalid

    2018-03-30

    Sol-gel urea functionalized-[bis(hydroxyethyl)amine] terminated polydimethylsiloxane coating was developed for capillary microextraction-high performance liquid chromatographic analysis from aqueous samples. A fused silica capillary is coated from the inside with surface bonded coating material and is created through in-situ sol-gel reaction. The urea-functionalized coating was immobilized to the inner surface of the capillary by the condensation reaction of silanol groups of capillary and sol-solution. The characterization of the coating material was successfully done by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. To make a setup of online capillary microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography, the urea functionalized capillary was installed in the HPLC manual injection port. The analytes of interest were pre-concentrated in the coated sampling loop, desorbed by the mobile phase, chromatographically separated on C-18 column, and analyzed by UV detector. Sol-gel coated capillaries were used for online extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of phenols, ketones, aldehydes, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This newly developed coating showed excellent extraction for a variety of analytes ranging from highly polar to non-polar in nature. The analysis using sol-gel coating showed excellent overall sensitivity in terms of lower detection limits (S/N = 3) for the analytes (0.10 ng mL -1 -14.29 ng mL -1 ) with acceptable reproducibility that is less than 12.0%RSD (n = 3). Moreover, the capillary to capillary reproducibility of the analysis was also tested by changing the capillary of the same size. This provided excellent%RSD of less than 10.0% (n = 3). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Urea metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Urea in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Projectsatbangalore

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, portable instrument using CO2 and NH3 gas sensor technology to quantify and differentiate milk samples containing excess urea. Milk containing urea, in presence of urease enzyme hydrolyses urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide.

  2. Time course for the recovery of physical performance, blood hemoglobin, and ferritin content after blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Andreas K; Grand, Johannes; Stangerup, Ida

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that blood donation negatively affects endurance performance, but data on physical recovery after a standard blood donation are scarce. This study aimed to elucidate the temporary impact of blood donation on endurance performance, measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO......2peak ) and time trial (TT) performance. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: VO2peak , TT performance, blood, iron, and anthropometric variables were determined before (baseline) and 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after blood donation in 19 healthy men. RESULTS: VO2peak was reduced by 6.5% from 49.7 ± 2 m......L/kg/min at baseline to 46.3 ± 2 mL/kg/min on Day 3 (p donation. Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration declined 7.9% from 9.3 ± 0.11 mmol...

  3. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick.

  4. Influence of ABO blood group on sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Gandini, Giorgio; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Skafidas, Spyros; Festa, Luca; Danese, Elisa; Montagnana, Martina; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Tarperi, Cantor; Schena, Federico

    2017-06-01

    Despite being a recessive trait, the O blood group is the most frequent worldwide among the ABO blood types. Since running performance has been recognized as a major driver of evolutionary advantage in humans, we planned a study to investigate whether the ABO blood group may have an influence on endurance running performance in middle-aged recreational athletes. The study population consisted of 52 recreational, middle-aged, Caucasian athletes (mean age: 49±13 years, body mass index, 23.4±2.3 kg/m 2 ), regularly engaged in endurance activity. The athletes participated to a scientific event called "Run for Science" (R4S), entailing the completion of a 21.1 km (half-marathon) run under competing conditions. The ABO blood type status of the participants was provided by the local Service of Transfusion Medicine. In univariate analysis, running performance was significantly associated with age and weekly training, but not with body mass index. In multiple linear regression analysis, age and weekly training remained significantly associated with running performance. The ABO blood group status was also found to be independently associated with running time, with O blood type athletes performing better than those with non-O blood groups. Overall, age, weekly training and O blood group type explained 62.2% of the total variance of running performance (age, 41.6%; training regimen, 10.5%; ABO blood group, 10.1%). The results of our study show that recreational athletes with O blood group have better endurance performance compared to those with non-O blood group types. This finding may provide additional support to the putative evolutionary advantages of carrying the O blood group.

  5. Environmental factors influencing milk urea nitrogen in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    following fixed effects model, in matrix notation, was used for the ANOVA: .... Estimation of genetic parameters for milk urea nitrogen and its ... urea nitrogen concentration: Heritability and genetic correlations with reproductive performance and.

  6. Hierarchically porous nitrogen-doped carbon derived from the activation of agriculture waste by potassium hydroxide and urea for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kaixiang; Deng, Yuanfu; Chen, Juping; Qian, Yunqian; Yang, Yuewang; Li, Yingwei; Chen, Guohua

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon with an ultra-high specific surface area and a hierarchically interconnected porous structure is synthesized in large scale from a green route, that is, the activation of bagasse via a one-step method using KOH and urea. KOH and urea play a synergistic effect for the enhancement of the specific surface area and the modification of pore size of the as-prepared material. Benefiting from the multiple synergistic roles originated from an ultra-high specific area (2905.4 m2 g-1), a high porous volume (2.05 mL g-1 with 75.6 vol% micropores, which is an ideal proportion of micropores for obtaining high specific capacitance), a suitable nitrogen content (2.63 wt%), and partial graphitization, the hierarchically interconnected porous N-doped carbon exhibits an excellent electrochemical performance with a high specific capacitance (350.8, 301.9, and 259.5 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 in acidic, alkaline, and neutral electrolytes, respectively), superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability (almost no capacitance loss up to 5000 cycles). Furthermore, the symmetric device assembled by this material achieves high energy densities of 39.1 and 23.5 Wh kg-1 at power densities of 1.0 and 20 kW kg-1, respectively, and exhibits an excellent long-term cycling stability (with capacitance retention above 95.0% after 10 000 cycles).

  7. 10491 PERFORMANCE, CARCASS, HAEMATOLOGY AND BLOOD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such studies is the health assessment impact of unconventional feedstuff ... investigate the performance, carcass, haematology and serum metabolites of hybro .... muscular work required to process these former diets which were relatively ...

  8. Influence of dietary slow-release urea on growth performance, organ development and serum biochemical parameters of mutton sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S K; Zhang, F; Sun, Y K; Deng, K D; Wang, B; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Jiang, C G; Wang, S Q; Diao, Q Y

    2017-10-01

    Eighty Dorper × thin-tailed Han cross-bred non-castrated male lambs [mean body weight (BW), 25.87 ± 1.06 kg] were randomly allocated to one of five different concentrations of slow-release urea (urea phosphate, UP). The feed consisted of an equal amount of concentrate diet and roughage; the concentrate feed was formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenic and contained 0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% UP (UP0.0, UP1.0, UP2.0, UP4.0 and UP8.0, respectively) as a replacement for soya bean meal. Feed intake, BW, average daily gain (ADG), feed utilisation efficiency (FUE), absolute and relative organ weights and biochemical and histopathological parameters were measured. Feed intake, BW, ADG and FUE significantly decreased in the group receiving UP8.0 (p  0.05). Quadratic equations were developed between the UP dosage in the concentrate feed and ADG or FUE (r 2  = 0.973 for ADG and r 2  = 0.761 for FUE) to determine the appropriate dosage of UP given the desire to maximise either ADG or FUE, the appropriate dosage (feed concentration) was calculated as 2.01% UP to achieve the greatest ADG or 2.13% UP to achieve the best FUE. The relative weight of the liver (% BW) in the UP2.0 groups was significantly greater than that of UP0.0 (p  0.05). The UP8.0 treatment significantly increased serum phosphorus levels (p < 0.05) and decreased the levels of alkaline phosphatase, glucose and calcium (Ca) compared with the lower UP dosage (p < 0.05). No histopathological differences were found in either hepatic tissues or renal tissues among treatments. Dietary UP as a replacement for soya bean in concentrate feeds for mutton sheep should not exceed 4%, as higher dosing may cause malnutrition and mineral disorders. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Urea metabolism in Barbari kids d on urea molasses diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, M.; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    The entry rates of urea into the body pool of urea were estimated in Barbari kids using a single injection isotope dilution technique using 14 C-urea. The excretion rates of urea were calculated by estimating total urine output over 24 h and urea content. (M.G.B.)

  10. Growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with one hundred and twenty (120) day-old marshal chicks to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation of corn bran based diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers in an eight weeks experiment. Four experimental ...

  11. Can salivary creatinine and urea levels be used to diagnose chronic kidney disease in children as accurately as serum creatinine and urea levels? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Rahime

    2017-11-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop many metabolic changes in blood that often necessitate frequent biochemical analysis. Serum analysis is an invasive and painful procedure. It would be highly beneficial if a noninvasive alternative process to serum analysis in children were identified. Saliva can be collected noninvasively, repeatedly, and without the use of healthcare personnel. The aims of this study were to compare serum and salivary urea and creatinine levels in children with CKD and healthy controls, and to determine if salivary creatinine and urea levels can be used to diagnose CKD in children as accurately as serum creatinine and urea levels. This case-control study included 35 children with CKD and 28 healthy children as controls. Saliva and blood samples were collected for measurement of urea and creatinine levels. The urea and creatinine levels in serum and saliva in the CKD and control groups were compared using the independent samples Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between the serum and salivary urea and creatinine levels were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of salivary creatinine and cutoff values were identified. In the CKD group, the mean salivary creatinine level was 0.45 mg/dL and the mean salivary urea level was 0.11 mg/dL, versus 28.83 mg/dL and 21.78 mg/dL, respectively, in the control group. Stage 4 and 5 CKD patients had a mean salivary urea level of 31.35 mg/dL, as compared to 17.78 mg/dL in the control group. Serum urea and creatinine, and salivary creatinine were significantly higher in the CKD patients (regardless of disease stage) than in the controls (p creatinine. The area under the curve for salivary creatinine was 0.805. The cutoff value for salivary creatinine was 0.125 mg/dL, with a sensitivity of 82.9% and specificity of 78.6%. Based on the positive correlation between the serum and saliva

  12. Blood biochemistry, thyroid hormones, and performance in broilers with ascites caused by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamely, Mohammad; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban

    2016-11-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that caffeine, a natural alkaloid, stimulates increased incidences of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites) in broilers. The present study was designed to evaluate the ergogenic effects of caffeine on broiler performance and blood parameters. One-hundred-and-ninety-two Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned at one d of age to 16 pens with 4 treatment groups. On d 3, the drinking water was supplemented with caffeine at levels of zero, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW/day. Caffeine supplementation linearly improved (P caffeine (P > 0.05). On d 28, increasing caffeine supplementation caused linear reductions in plasma albumin, total protein, globulin, and triglyceride concentrations, and caffeine supplementation increased plasma uric acid concentrations (P caffeine did not consistently affect plasma albumin, globulin, triglyceride, total protein, uric acid, or urea concentrations (P > 0.05), whereas plasma glucose concentrations increased linearly with increasing caffeine levels (P caffeine (P > 0.05), but plasma T 3 concentrations were reduced by caffeine supplementation on d 28 and 42 (P caffeine supplementation on d 42. Skin temperature was not influenced by caffeine supplementation (P > 0.05). There was a negative correlation between thyroid hormone concentrations and BW on d 42 (P caffeine supplementation at the levels of 12.5 to 25 mg/kg BW/day increased BWG, decreased FCR and T 3 , and significantly altered blood biochemistry parameters. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Urea, a true uremic toxin: the empire strikes back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wei Ling; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2017-01-01

    Blood levels of urea rise with progressive decline in kidney function. Older studies examining acute urea infusion suggested that urea was well-tolerated at levels 8-10× above normal values. More recent in vitro and in vivo work argue the opposite and demonstrate both direct and indirect toxicities of urea, which probably promote the premature aging phenotype that is pervasive in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated urea at concentrations typically encountered in uremic patients induces disintegration of the gut epithelial barrier, leading to translocation of bacterial toxins into the bloodstream and systemic inflammation. Urea induces apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells as well as endothelial dysfunction, thus directly promoting cardiovascular disease. Further, urea stimulates oxidative stress and dysfunction in adipocytes, leading to insulin resistance. Finally, there are widespread indirect effects of elevated urea as a result of the carbamylation reaction, where isocyanic acid (a product of urea catabolism) alters the structure and function of proteins in the body. Carbamylation has been linked with renal fibrosis, atherosclerosis and anaemia. In summary, urea is a re-emerging Dark Force in CKD pathophysiology. Trials examining low protein diet to minimize accumulation of urea and other toxins suggest a clinical benefit in terms of slowing progression of CKD. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Urea recycling from the renal pelvis in sheep: A study with [14C]urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirio, A.; Boivin, R.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that urea can be recycled from the renal pelvis, [14C]urea diluted in native urine (1 microCi/ml) was perfused (0.5 ml/min) into one of the pelvises of sheep fed either normal (NP) or low (LP)-protein diets. Blood samples were obtained from the ipsilateral renal vein and from the carotid artery throughout the perfusions. 14C activity determinations in urine and plasma demonstrated a flux of [14C]urea from the pelvis to renal vein blood (40,000 in NP and 130,000 disintegrations/min in LP sheep, P less than 0.01). The corresponding flux of native urea was only 1.5 times higher in NP than in LP sheep (6.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.9 mumol/min, not significant) despite their 8 times higher urinary concentration of urea. The fraction of filtered urea that was reabsorbed in the pelvis was larger in LP sheep (7.5 +/- 3.7 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7% in NP sheep, P less than 0.05). A fraction of urea is thus actually recycled from the renal pelvis in sheep, and this pelvic retention is enhanced in LP animals. The importance of this phenomenon in the nitrogen economy is discussed

  15. Study of furfural-urea grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of raw materials, formulation and performance of furfural-urea grout is given. Characteristics of the grout slurry, mechanism of stabilization and examples of shaft sinking with grouting in quicksand are summarized.

  16. Studies investigating the excretion of acetyl urea in the milk of dairy cows receiving oral doses of 14C acetyl urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, H.; Kijora, C.; Goersch, R.

    1976-01-01

    2 experimental cows were fed acetyl urea several weeks before the trial was started. The first cow received a daily amount of 200 g and the second cow 855 g. On the first day of experiment both cows were given 5 mCi of 14 C acetyl urea intraruminally. Up to 6 hrs after the beginning of the experiment acetyl urea in blood plasma was shown to contain a higher proportion of 14 C activity than urea. 0.21 g urea and 0.18 g acetyl urea were contained in 1 kg of milk from cow No 1 while 1 kg of milk from cow No 2 contained 0.18 g urea and 0.12 g acetyl urea. The feeding of acetyl urea to dairy cows is not recommended on the basis of the fact that any further contamination of human nutrition with foreign substances should be possibly avoided. (author)

  17. Studies investigating the excretion of acetyl urea in the milk of dairy cows receiving oral doses of /sup 14/C acetyl urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, H; Kijora, C; Goersch, R [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1976-01-01

    2 experimental cows were fed acetyl urea several weeks before the trial was started. The first cow received a daily amount of 200 g and the second cow 855 g. On the first day of experiment both cows were given 5 mCi of /sup 14/C acetyl urea intraruminally. Up to 6 hrs after the beginning of the experiment acetyl urea in blood plasma was shown to contain a higher proportion of /sup 14/C activity than urea. 0.21 g urea and 0.18 g acetyl urea were contained in 1 kg of milk from cow No 1 while 1 kg of milk from cow No 2 contained 0.18 g urea and 0.12 g acetyl urea. The feeding of acetyl urea to dairy cows is not recommended on the basis of the fact that any further contamination of human nutrition with foreign substances should be possibly avoided.

  18. Hydration of urea and alkylated urea derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo

    2018-01-01

    Compressibility data and broadband dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions of urea and some of its alkylated derivatives have been evaluated to yield their numbers Nh of hydration water molecules per molecule of solute. Nh values in a broad range of solute concentrations are discussed and are compared to hydration numbers of other relevant molecules and organic ions. Consistent with previous results, it is found that urea differs from other solutes in its unusually small hydration number, corresponding to just one third of the estimated number of nearest neighbor molecules. This remarkable hydration behavior is explained by the large density φH of hydrogen bonding abilities offered by the urea molecule. In terms of currently discussed models of reorientational motions and allied dynamics in water and related associating liquids, the large density φH causes a relaxation time close to that of undisturbed water with most parts of water encircling the solute. Therefore only a small part of disturbed ("hydration") water is left around each urea molecule. Adding alkyl groups to the basic molecule leads to Nh values which, within the series of n-alkylurea derivatives, progressively increase with the number of methyl groups per solute. With n-butylurea, Nh from dielectric spectra, in conformity with many other organic solutes, slightly exceeds the number of nearest neighbors. Compared to such Nh values, hydration numbers from compressibility data are substantially smaller, disclosing incorrect assumptions in the formula commonly used to interpret the experimental compressibilities. Similar to other series of organic solutes, effects of isomerization have been found with alkylated urea derivatives, indicating that factors other than the predominating density φH of hydrogen bond abilities contribute also to the hydration properties.

  19. Urea ammoniation compared to urea supplementation as a method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urea ammoniation compared to urea supplementation as a method of improving the nutritive value of wheat straw for sheep. S.W.P. Cloete, N.M. Kritzinger. Winter Rainfall Region, Eisenburg. The ammoniation of wheat straw by urea in a stack method was in- vestigated and compared to urea supplemented and untreated ...

  20. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  1. Reverse iontophoresis of urea in health and chronic kidney disease: a potential diagnostic and monitoring tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebah, Leonard M; Read, Ian; Sayce, Andrew; Morgan, Jane; Chaloner, Christopher; Brenchley, Paul; Mitra, Sandip

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) need regular monitoring, usually by blood urea and creatinine measurements, needing venepuncture, frequent attendances and a healthcare professional, with significant inconvenience. Noninvasive monitoring will potentially simplify and improve monitoring. We tested the potential of transdermal reverse iontophoresis of urea in patients with CKD and healthy controls. Methods Using a MIC 2® Iontophoresis Controller, reverse iontophoresis was applied on the forearm of five healthy subjects (controls) and 18 patients with CKD for 3–5 h. Urea extracted at the cathode was measured and compared with plasma urea. Results Reverse iontophoresis at 250 μA was entirely safe for the duration. Cathodal buffer urea linearly correlated with plasma urea after 2 h (r = 0·82, P urea (y) from cathodal urea after 2 and 3 h, respectively. Cathodal urea concentration in controls was significantly lower than in patients with CKD after a minimum current application of 2 h (P urea cut-off of 30 μM gave a sensitivity of 83·3% and positive predictive value of 87% CKD. During haemodialysis, the fall in cathodal urea was able to track that of blood urea. Conclusion Reverse iontophoresis is safe, can potentially discriminate patients with CKD and healthy subjects and is able to track blood urea changes on dialysis. Further development of the technology for routine use can lead to an exciting opportunity for its use in diagnostics and monitoring. PMID:22409780

  2. Effects of probiotics on growth performance, blood parameters, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ziyanda Dlamini

    2017-09-25

    Sep 25, 2017 ... During this phase, the piglets have to cope with ... Pigs were kept individually in a temperature-controlled building in flat deck type ... Dilutions were subsequently plated in triplicate on selective agar media for enumeration of target bacterial ..... inactivated cells on the performance, microflora and blood ...

  3. Performance characteristics and blood profile of West African dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve week trial was investigated to evaluate performance and blood profile of West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed malted sorghum sprout with pineapple waste (MSPW) based diet. The malted sorghum sprout and pineapple waste was at ratio 1:2 (weight/weight) respectively. Sixteen WAD goats with average initial ...

  4. Performance of Gram staining on blood cultures flagged negative by an automated blood culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, A; Isakovich, N; Pastukh, N; Koifman, A; Glyatman, T; Brodsky, D

    2015-08-01

    Blood is one of the most important specimens sent to a microbiology laboratory for culture. Most blood cultures are incubated for 5-7 days, except in cases where there is a suspicion of infection caused by microorganisms that proliferate slowly, or infections expressed by a small number of bacteria in the bloodstream. Therefore, at the end of incubation, misidentification of positive cultures and false-negative results are a real possibility. The aim of this work was to perform a confirmation by Gram staining of the lack of any microorganisms in blood cultures that were identified as negative by the BACTEC™ FX system at the end of incubation. All bottles defined as negative by the BACTEC FX system were Gram-stained using an automatic device and inoculated on solid growth media. In our work, 15 cultures that were defined as negative by the BACTEC FX system at the end of the incubation were found to contain microorganisms when Gram-stained. The main characteristic of most bacteria and fungi growing in the culture bottles that were defined as negative was slow growth. This finding raises a problematic issue concerning the need to perform Gram staining of all blood cultures, which could overload the routine laboratory work, especially laboratories serving large medical centers and receiving a large number of blood cultures.

  5. [Hemolysis Performance Analysis of the Centrifugal Maglev Blood Pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Yuan; Dong, Baichuan; Zhou, Liang

    2016-05-01

    In order to analyze and study the hemolysis performance of the centrifugal maglev blood pump, which was designed by ourselves, this paper built the mathematical model and computational fluid dynamics analyzed it using Fluent. Then we set up the in vitro hemolysis experiment platform, in case of the design condition, the content of free hemoglobin and hematocrit in plasma were measured in a certain time interval, and calculated the normalized index of hemolysis of the blood pump. The numerical simulation results show the internal static pressure distribution is smooth inside the pump, the wal shear stress inside the pump is less than 150 Pa. Therefore, the red blood cel damage and exposure time is independent. The normalized index of hemolysis is (0.002 9±0.000 7) mg/L, which is in accordance with human physiological requirement.

  6. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David A

    2015-08-31

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland-Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per μCi/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 μs, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for 18 F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs

  8. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  9. UREA BREATH TEST – ITS ROLE IN DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Osredkar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Each year many patients visit their physicians complaining of digestive symptoms, most commonly functional dyspepsia (»indigestion« or gastroesophageal reflux (»heartburn«. However, many patients with abdominal discomfort are actually suffering from gastric or duodenal ulcers that are commonly caused by H. pylori and thus are curable. Clearing the infection usually heals the ulcer and prevents relapse, so an accurate diagnosis is important. There are several options for diagnosing H. pylori infection: serology to detect antibodies against the bacterium; endoscopic biopsy for urease testing (H. pylori produce a urease that breaks down urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide; histology with special stains; or culture. Unfortunately, these procedures are invasive, expensive and not always accurate. Serological tests require a blood sample and tell only that a patient has been exposed to H. pylori at some time in the past, but not whether the patient is currently infected. Endoscopy and biopsy can detect current infection — the CLO test urease test allows rapid detection of H. pylori in gastric biopsy specimens — but endoscopy and biopsy are unpleasant medical procedures.Recently, noninvasive, sensitive, specific, easy to perform and patient’s well accepted methods had been developed known as urea breath test (UBT. When an infected person swallows a dose of urea labeled with an isotope of carbon — carbon-13 (13C or carbon-14 (14C – H. pylori in the gastric mucosa break down the labeled urea to form ammonia and labeled carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted via the lungs. The patient then exhales into a device that measures the level of carbon dioxide. The urea breath test is specific for H. pylori (it detects only urease-producing bacteria, it is sensitive (the labeled urea reaches a large area of the stomach and thus reflects total gastric urease activity and the results can be

  10. Effects of feeding wheat or corn-wheat dried distillers grains with solubles in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal function, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and performance in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisa, G E; Mutsvangwa, T

    2013-10-01

    . Feeding the low-CP compared with the high-CP diet also resulted in lower endogenous urea-N production, urea-N recycled to the gastrointestinal tract, and urea-N excretion in urine. In summary, our results indicate that both W-DDGS and B-DDGS can be included as the major protein sources in dairy cow diets without compromising nutrient supply and production performance. However, feeding the low-CP diet lowered omasal flows of microbial protein and metabolizable protein, which, in turn, resulted in lower milk production compared with feeding the high-CP diet. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Urea thermolysis and NOx reduction with and without SCR catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Howard L.; DaCosta, Herbert F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been a leading contender for removal of nitrogen oxides (deNO x ) from diesel engine emissions. Despite its advantages, the SCR technology faces some critical detriments to its catalytic performance such as catalyst surface passivation (caused by deposit formation) and consequent stoichiometric imbalance of the urea consumption. Deposit formation deactivates catalytic performance by not only consuming part of the ammonia produced during urea decomposition but also degrading the structural and thermal properties of the catalyst surface. We have characterized the urea thermolysis with and without the urea-SCR catalyst using both spectroscopic (DRIFTS and Raman) and thermal techniques (thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)) to identify the deposit components and their corresponding thermal properties. Urea thermolysis exhibits two decomposition stages, involving ammonia generation and consumption, respectively. The decomposition after the second stage leads to the product of melamine complexes, (HNC=NH) x (HNCO) y , that hinder catalytic performance. The presence of catalyst accompanied with a good spray of the urea solution helps to eliminate the second stage. In this work, kinetics of the direct reduction of NO x by urea is determined and the possibility of using additives to the urea solution in order to rejuvenate the catalyst surface and improve its performance will be discussed

  12. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm ( larva on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01, average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 and average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.01. During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08. In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01, ADFI (p<0.05 and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07 during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05. In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05 and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03 were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses.

  13. The urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Guy; Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-07-01

    The urea cycle is the primary nitrogen-disposal pathway in humans. It requires the coordinated function of six enzymes and two mitochondrial transporters to catalyze the conversion of a molecule of ammonia, the α-nitrogen of aspartate, and bicarbonate into urea. Whereas ammonia is toxic, urea is relatively inert, soluble in water, and readily excreted by the kidney in the urine. Accumulation of ammonia and other toxic intermediates of the cycle lead to predominantly neurologic sequelae. The disorders may present at any age from the neonatal period to adulthood, with the more severely affected patients presenting earlier in life. Patients are at risk for metabolic decompensation throughout life, often triggered by illness, fasting, surgery and postoperative states, peripartum, stress, and increased exogenous protein load. Here the authors address neurologic presentations of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in detail, the most common of the urea cycle disorders, neuropathology, neurophysiology, and our studies in neuroimaging. Special attention to late-onset presentations is given. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Living with urea stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intracellular organic osmolytes are present in certain organisms adapted to harsh environments. These osmolytes protect intracellular macromolecules against denaturing environmental stress. In contrast to the usually benign effects of most organic osmolytes, the waste product urea is a well-known perturbant of ...

  15. Measurement of synovial fluid volume using urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, V B; Stabler, T V; Kong, S Y; Varju, G; McDaniel, G

    2007-10-01

    To examine the utility of using urea concentrations for determining Synovial Fluid (SF) joint volume in effused and non-effused joints. Knee joint SF was aspirated from 159 human study participants with symptomatic osteoarthritis of at least one knee either directly (165 knees) or by lavage (110 knees). Serum was obtained immediately prior to SF aspiration. Participants were asked to rate individual knee pain, aching or stiffness. SF and serum urea levels were determined using a specific enzymatic method run on an automated CMA600 analyzer. Cell counts were performed on direct SF aspirates when volume permitted. The formula for calculating SF joint volume was as follows: V(j)=C(D)(V(I))/(C-C(D)) with V(j)=volume of SF in entire joint, C(D)=concentration of urea in diluted (lavage) SF, V(I)=volume of saline injected into joint, and C=concentration of urea in undiluted (neat) SF derived below where C=0.897(C(S)) and C(s)=concentration of urea in serum. There was an excellent correlation (r(2)=0.8588) between SF and serum urea in the direct aspirates with a ratio of 0.897 (SF/serum). Neither urea levels nor the SF/serum ratio showed any correlation with Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade, or cell count. While urea levels increased with age there was no change in the ratio. Intraarticular SF volumes calculated for the lavaged knees ranged from 0.555 to 71.71ml with a median volume of 3.048ml. There was no correlation of SF volume to KL grade but there was a positive correlation (P=0.001) between SF volume and self-reported individual knee pain. Our urea results for direct aspirates indicate an equilibrium state between serum and SF with regard to the water fraction. This equilibrium exists regardless of disease status (KL grade), inflammation (cell count), or age, making it possible to calculate intraarticular volume of lavaged joints based upon this urea method. Most of the joint volumes we calculated fell within the previously reported range for normal knees of 0.5-4.0ml

  16. Utilization of urea-nitrogen-15 in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda, K.; Varady, J.; Havassy, I.

    1976-01-01

    In Merino sheep a series of experiments were carried out investigating exogenous and endogenous urea utilization. On the experimental sheep with isolated jejunum, rumen and intestine fistula, re-entral intestine cannulae, and after intra-ruminal or intra-intestinal 15 N-urea administration it was found that urea- 15 N takes part in the nitrogen recycling, and is utilized in the nitrogen pool. In experiments with synthetic protein-free diet, low protein diet and high nitrogen diet, after the intravenous administration of 15 N-urea the following findings were made: The results of experiments with synthetic diet, where the only nitrogen source was perorally (for 3-6 months) and then intravenously (for 3 months) administered urea, indicated the ability of ruminants to replace fully the nitrogen in the feed under certain conditions by increased endogenous urea recirculation. The results of the experiments with various nitrogen intakes showed that considerable amounts of urea- 15 N (44-96% from the given dose) were retained. Nitrogen compounds synthetized from blood urea- 15 N were recycled through the alimentary tract. Its secretion predominated in the forestomachs, abomasum and duodenum, and its reabsorption took place in the intestinal tract. From the 15 N incorporated into the nitrogenous substances which passed through the duodenum, 73-84% was reabsorbed. The retained 15 N was incorporated into the microbial and plasma proteins and its amide-N. On the basis of these results it is concluded that in addition to the rumeno-hepatal circulation, the entero-hepatal circulation of nitrogenous substances, including endogenous nitrogen, also plays an important role quantitatively and perhaps qualitatively in the process of re-utilizing the blood urea N for proteosynthesis and synthesis of other N-metabolites in ruminants. The hydrolysis of endogenous urea in the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants and its utilization is a natural process indispensable for the maintenance of

  17. Rhabdomyolysis After Performing Blood Flow Restriction Training: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Shogo; Suzuki, Yukio; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-07-01

    Tabata, S, Suzuki, Y, Azuma, K, and Matsumoto, H. Rhabdomyolysis after performing blood flow restriction training: a case report. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2064-2068, 2016-Rhabdomyolysis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition related to resistance training. Despite numerous reports of low-intensity blood flow restriction (BFR) training inducing muscle hypertrophy and increasing strength, few reports of rhabdomyolysis related to BFR training have been published. Here, we report a 30-year-old obese Japanese man admitted to our hospital the day after his first BFR training session with complaints of severe muscle pain in his upper and lower extremities, high fever, and pharyngeal pain. He was diagnosed with acute rhabdomyolysis based on a serum creatine phosphokinase level of 56,475 U·L and a urine myoglobin level of >3,000 ng·ml, and with acute tonsillitis based on a white blood cell count of 17,390 and C-reactive protein level of 10.43 mg·dl. A number of factors are suspected to be related to the onset and exacerbation of rhabdomyolysis, including excessive muscular training with BFR, bacterial infection, and medication. After 10 days of hospitalization with intravenous fluids and antibacterial drugs, he recovered without complications. This case indicates that BFR training should be conducted with careful consideration of the physical condition and strength of the individual to prevent serious complications, such as rhabdomyolysis.

  18. Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tarabany, A.A.; Teama, F.E.I.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

  19. Urea utilization in protein deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Noriko

    1982-01-01

    Three experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism of urea utilization and the nutritional roles of intestinal flora on the utilization of urea by rats fed with a protein deficient diet. Ammonia content in the small intestine in LPD(low protein diet) group fed with a low protein diet for 2 or 5 weeks was about three of five times higher than that of control group fed with SPD(standard protein diet) after administration of urea (0.2gN/100gB.W.). The 15 N incorporation into plasma protein of LPD group was significantly higher than that of the control group two hours after the administration of 15 N-urea (10 mg/100gB.W.) and higher level of 15 N concentration in plasma protein in LPD group was maintained thereafter. The 15 N incorporation into the amino acids of plasma protein was higher in LPD group than in control group. The 15 N incorporation into the amino acids in portal plasma seemed to be higher in LPD group than in control group one hour after the administration of 15 N-urea (10mg/100gB.W.). However, the 15 N incorporation into each free amino acids was suppressed considerably by the administration of antibiotic mixture. it follows that amino acids may be synthesized from urea in the intestine by intestinal-bacterial action and absorbed from portal vein. From these results, it may be concluded that the ammonia nitrogen converted from urea by the action of intestinal-bacterial urease in the intestine is utilized for the synthesis of essential and nonessential amino acids in protein deficient rats and transfered to the liver through portal vein and utilized for protein synthesis. (J.P.N.)

  20. Urea utilization in protein deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, N [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    Three experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism of urea utilization and the nutritional roles of intestinal flora on the utilization of urea by rats fed with a protein deficient diet. Ammonia content in the small intestine in LPD(low protein diet) group fed with a low protein diet for 2 or 5 weeks was about three of five times higher than that of control group fed with SPD(standard protein diet) after administration of urea (0.2gN/100gB.W.). The /sup 15/N incorporation into plasma protein of LPD group was significantly higher than that of the control group two hours after the administration of /sup 15/N-urea (10 mg/100gB.W.) and higher level of /sup 15/N concentration in plasma protein in LPD group was maintained thereafter. The /sup 15/N incorporation into the amino acids of plasma protein was higher in LPD group than in control group. The /sup 15/N incorporation into the amino acids in portal plasma seemed to be higher in LPD group than in control group one hour after the administration of /sup 15/N-urea (10mg/100gB.W.). However, the /sup 15/N incorporation into each free amino acids was suppressed considerably by the administration of antibiotic mixture. it follows that amino acids may be synthesized from urea in the intestine by intestinal-bacterial action and absorbed from portal vein. From these results, it may be concluded that the ammonia nitrogen converted from urea by the action of intestinal-bacterial urease in the intestine is utilized for the synthesis of essential and nonessential amino acids in protein deficient rats and transfered to the liver through portal vein and utilized for protein synthesis.

  1. Determination of urea 13C in urea 13C mixed powder by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jianguo; Song Tianqi

    2006-01-01

    A HPLC method is developed for determination of Urea 13 C in Urea 13 C Mixed Powder. A Alltech Econosphere NH2 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm)is used as stationary phrase, a mixture of V(acetonitrile): V(methanol): V(water) = 900 : 100: 10 is used as mobile phase and the flow rate is l mL·min -1 , UV detection wavelength is performed at 200 nm. The calibration curve shows good linearity in the range of 0.2-1.0 g·L -1 of Urea 13 C, y=2.548 x 10 6 x + 4.005 x 10 4 , r=0.9999, and the averaged recovery is 100.6%. The method is simple and accurate, and can be used for the quality control of Urea 13C Mixed Powder. (authors)

  2. Structural properties and sensing performance of high-k Nd2TiO5 thin layer-based electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor for pH detection and urea biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tung-Ming; Lin, Jian-Chi; Wu, Min-Hsien; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2009-05-15

    For high sensitive pH sensing, an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) device with Nd(2)TiO(5) thin layers fabricated on Si substrates by means of reactive sputtering and the subsequent post-deposition annealing (PDA) treatment was proposed. In this work, the effect of thermal annealing (600, 700, 800, and 900 degrees C) on the structural characteristics of Nd(2)TiO(5) thin layer was investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The observed structural properties were then correlated with the resulting pH sensing performances. For enzymatic field-effect-transistors-based urea biosensing, a hybrid configuration of the proposed Nd(2)TiO(5) thin layer with urease-immobilized alginate film attached was established. Within the experimental conditions investigated, the EIS device with the Nd(2)TiO(5) thin layer annealed at 800 degrees C exhibited a higher pH detection sensitivity of 57.2 mV/pH, a lower hysteresis voltage of 2.33 mV, and a lower drift rate of 1.80 mV/h compared to those at other annealing temperatures. These results are attributed to the formation of a thinner low-k interfacial layer at the oxide/Si interface and the higher surface roughness occurred at this annealing temperature. Furthermore, the presented urea biosensor was also proved to be able to detect urea with good linearity (R(2)=0.99) and reasonable sensitivity of 9.52 mV/mM in the urea concentration range of 3-40 mM. As a whole, the present work has provided some fundamental data for the use of Nd(2)TiO(5) thin layer for EIS-based pH detection and the extended application for biosensing.

  3. Development of melamine modified urea formaldehyde resins based o nstrong acidic pH catalyzed urea formaldehyde polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    To upgrade the performance of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin bonded particleboards, melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins based on strong acidic pH catalyzed UF polymers were investigated. The study was conducted in a series of two experiments: 1) formulation of MUF resins based on a UF polymer catalyzed with strong acidic pH and 2) determination of the...

  4. PERFORMANCE OF COLD-BLOODED HORSES IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JURAJ MLYNEK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding program is based on an assessment of their exterior, and is largely influenced by the performance. The objective of the work was to analyze the performance characteristics of cold-blooded horses in Slovakia using test of performance characteristics through carriage race. By evaluating the higher forms of utility control we concluded that scores in individual disciplines were very balanced during 2005-2008, which was due to a steady track of the horses involved and the carriagers. By increasing the number of new horses and new competitors in 2009 the average value of scores marked substantial deterioration, but this cannot be seen as degradation of performance of studied horses. By analysis of the factors affecting the score we found out, that gender as the only factor, did not have any significant impact on the studied disciplines of utility control. Carriager and the year of competition were amongst the factors mostly influencing the score. As the most successful line, whose representatives were most frequently and best ranked on the carriage races, we can choose the line of Bayard de Heredia. Its seven representatives participated in the period 2005-2011 altogether for 141-times and their average ranking ranged from 2.2 to 5.4.

  5. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, John E

    2004-02-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful.

  6. Remote calorimetric detection of urea via flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddes, David E; Demirel, Melik C; Reeves, W Brian; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2015-12-07

    The design and development of a calorimetric biosensing system enabling relatively high throughput sample analysis are reported. The calorimetric biosensor system consists of a thin (∼20 μm) micromachined Y-cut quartz crystal resonator (QCR) as a temperature sensor placed in close proximity to a fluidic chamber packed with an immobilized enzyme. Layer by layer enzyme immobilization of urease is demonstrated and its activity as a function of the number of layers, pH, and time has been evaluated. This configuration enables a sensing system where a transducer element is physically separated from the analyte solution of interest and is thereby free from fouling effects typically associated with biochemical reactions occuring on the sensor surface. The performance of this biosensing system is demonstrated by detection of 1-200 mM urea in phosphate buffer via a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. Miniaturized fluidic systems were used to provide continuous flow through a reaction column. Under this configuration the biosensor has an ultimate resolution of less than 1 mM urea and showed a linear response between 0-50 mM. This work demonstrates a sensing modality in which the sensor itself is not fouled or contaminated by the solution of interest and the enzyme immobilized Kapton® fluidic reaction column can be used as a disposable cartridge. Such a system enables reuse and reliability for long term sampling measurements. Based on this concept a biosensing system is envisioned which can perform rapid measurements to detect biomarkers such as glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, urea and lactate in urine and blood continuously over extended periods of time.

  7. Speed associated with plasma pH, oxygen content, total protein and urea in an 80 km race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Hess, T M; Williams, C A; Kronfeld, D S; Griewe-Crandell, K M; Waldron, J E; Graham-Thiers, P M; Gay, L S; Splan, R K; Saker, K E; Harris, P A

    2002-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that endurance performance may be related quantitatively to changes in blood, we measured selected blood variables then determined their reference ranges and associations with speed during an 80 km race. The plan had 46 horses in a 2 x 2 factorial design testing a potassium-free electrolyte mix and a vitamin supplement. Blood samples were collected before the race, at 21, 37, 56 and 80 km, and 20 min after finishing, for assay of haematocrit, plasma pH, pO2, pCO2, [Na+], [K+], [Ca++], [Mg++], [Cl-], lactate, glucose, urea, cortisol, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, creatine kinase, aspartate amino transferase, lipid hydroperoxides, total protein, albumin and creatinine, and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Data from 34 finishers were analysed statistically. Reference ranges for resting and running horses were wide and overlapping and, therefore, limiting with respect to evaluation of individual horses. Speed correlations were most repeatable, with variables reflecting blood oxygen transport (enabling exercise), acidity and electrolytes (limiting exercise) and total protein (enabling then, perhaps, limiting). Stepwise regressions also included plasma urea concentration (limiting). The association of speed with less plasma acidity and urea suggests the potential for fat adaptation and protein restriction in endurance horses, as found previously in Arabians performing repeated sprints. Conditioning horses fed fat-fortified and protein-restricted diets may not only improve performance but also avoid grain-associated disorders.

  8. Construction of ferrocene modified conducting polymer based amperometric urea biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Dervisevic, Esma; Senel, Mehmet; Cevik, Emre; Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir; Camurlu, Pınar

    2017-07-01

    Herein, an electrochemical urea sensing bio-electrode is reported that has been constructed by firstly electropolymerizing 4-(2,5-Di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline monomer (SNS-Aniline) on Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE), then modifying the polymer coated electrode surface with di-amino-Ferrocene (DAFc) as the mediator, and lastly Urease enzyme through glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The effect of pH, temperature, polymer thickness, and applied potential on the electrode current response was investigated besides performing storage and operational stability experiments with the interference studies. The resulting urea biosensor's amperometric response was linear in the range of 0.1-8.5mM with the sensitivity of 0.54μA/mM, detection limit of 12μM, and short response time of 2s. The designed bio-electrode was tested with real human blood and urine samples where it showed excellent analytical performance with insignificant interference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Urea transporters and sweat response to uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Raymond W; Bailey, James L; Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-06-01

    In humans, urea is excreted in sweat, largely through the eccrine sweat gland. The urea concentration in human sweat is elevated when compared to blood urea nitrogen. The sweat urea nitrogen (UN) of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is increased when compared with healthy humans. The ability to produce sweat is maintained in the overwhelming majority of ESRD patients. A comprehensive literature review found no reports of sweat UN neither in healthy rodents nor in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study measured sweat UN concentrations in healthy and uremic rats. Uninephrectomy followed by renal artery ligation was used to remove 5/6 of renal function. Rats were then fed a high-protein diet to induce uremia. Pilocarpine was used to induce sweating. Sweat droplets were collected under oil. Sweat UN was measured with a urease assay. Serum UN was measured using a fluorescent ortho-pthalaldehyde reaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was accomplished with a horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine technique. Sweat UN in uremic rats was elevated greater than two times compared to healthy pair-fed controls (220 ± 17 and 91 ± 15 mmol/L, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between male and female uremic sweat UN (279 ± 38 and 177 ± 11 mmol/L, respectively.) IHC shows, for the first time, the presence of the urea transporters UT-B and UT-A2 in both healthy and uremic rat cutaneous structures. Future studies will use this model to elucidate how rat sweat UN and other solute excretion is altered by commonly prescribed diuretics. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  10. Effects of adding nano-clay (montmorillonite) on performance of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives in Carapa guianensis, a tropical species

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ana; Vega-Baudrit, José; Alvarez, Vera; Moya-Roque, Roger

    2015-01-01

    http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84923601829&partnerID=40&md5=5c91a6df9afec4f33b7be09b86735a75 The aim of this study was to improve the bond strength resistance of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives modified with nano-clay (montmorillonite) with a tropical species of wood known to exhibit adhesion related problems. These adhesives were evaluated with 1.0 and 1.5 wt% nano-clay concentrations with lap shear strength (SS), and the percentage of woo...

  11. Relationship between plasma uridine and urinary urea excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Tuneyoshi; Inokuchi, Taku; Tamada, Daisuke; Suda, Michio; Tsutsumi, Zenta; Okuda, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Asako; Takahashi, Sumio; Moriwaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-03-01

    To investigate whether the concentration of uridine in plasma is related to the urinary excretion of urea, 45 healthy male subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure were studied after providing informed consent. Immediately after collection of 24-hour urine, blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast except for water. The contents of ingested foods during the 24-hour urine collection period were described by the subjects and analyzed by a dietician. Simple regression analysis showed that plasma uridine was correlated with the urinary excretions of urea (R = 0.41, P urea. These results suggest that an increase in de novo pyrimidine synthesis leads to an increased concentration of uridine in plasma via nitrogen catabolism in healthy subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biochemical markers and neuropsychological functioning in distal urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbren, Susan E; Cuthbertson, David; Burgard, Peter; Holbert, Amy; McCarter, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen

    2018-02-08

    Urea cycle disorders often present as devastating metabolic conditions, resulting in high mortality and significant neuropsychological damage, despite treatment. The Urea Cycle Disorders Longitudinal Study is a natural history study that collects data from regular clinical follow-up and neuropsychological testing. This report examines links between biochemical markers (ammonia, glutamine, arginine, citrulline) and primary neuropsychological endpoints in three distal disorders, argininosuccinic acid synthetase deficiency (ASD or citrullinemia type I), argininosuccinic acid lyase deficiency (ASA or ALD), and arginase deficiency (ARGD). Laboratory results and test scores from neuropsychological evaluations were assessed in 145 study participants, ages 3 years and older, with ASD (n = 64), ASA (n = 65) and ARGD (n = 16). Mean full scale IQ was below the population mean of 100 ± 15 for all groups: (ASD = 79 ± 24; ASA = 71 ± 21; ARGD = 65 ± 19). The greatest deficits were noted in visual performance and motor skills for all groups. While ammonia levels remain prominent as prognostic biomarkers, other biomarkers may be equally valuable as correlates of neuropsychological functioning. Cumulative exposure to the biomarkers included in the study proved to be highly sensitive indicators of neuropsychological outcomes, even when below the cut-off levels generally considered toxic. Blood levels of biomarkers obtained on the day of neuropsychological evaluations were not correlated with measures of functioning for any disorder in any domain. The importance of cumulative exposure supports early identification and confirms the need for well-controlled management of all biochemical abnormalities (and not just ammonia) that occur in urea cycle disorders.

  13. Assessment of Health Effects of Exogenous Urea: Summary and Key Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Aisha S; Lee, Janice S; Keshava, Channa; Hotchkiss, Andrew; Persad, Amanda S

    2018-05-01

    Urea has been utilized as a reductant in diesel fuels to lower emission of nitrogen oxides, igniting interest in probable human health hazards associated with exposure to exogenous urea. Here, we summarize and update key findings on potential health effects of exogenous urea, including carcinogenicity. No definitive target organs for oral exposure were identified; however, results in animal studies suggest that the liver and kidney could be potential target organs of urea toxicity. The available human-subject literature suggests that the impact on lung function is minimal. Based on the literature on exogenous urea, we concluded that there was inadequate information to assess the carcinogenic potential of urea, or perform a quantitative assessment to derive reference values. Given the limited information on exogenous urea, additional research to address gaps for exogenous urea should include long-term cancer bioassays, two-generation reproductive toxicity studies, and mode-of-action investigations.

  14. Hydrogen bonding of formamide, urea, urea monoxide and their thio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ab initio and DFT methods have been employed to study the hydrogen bonding ability of formamide, urea, urea monoxide, thioformamide, thiourea and thiourea monoxide with one water molecule and the homodimers of the selected molecules. The stabilization energies associated with themonohydrated adducts and ...

  15. Effect of urea treatment on the nutritive value of local sorghum and millet straw: a comparative study on growing performance of Djallonke rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Kanwe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two tons of and chopped millet and sorghum straws have been treated with an urea solution at 5% (100 kg of straw, sprinkled with 50 lt. of solution. Treated straws were used as basic diet (900 g day associated to 100 g of cotton cake for 24 growing Djallonke rams in comparison to non treated straws. Four groups of animals were fed for 98 days with: urea treated sorghum (UTSS, not treated sorghum straw (NTSS, treated millet (UTMS, non treated millet straw (NTMS. Treated straws presented an increase of NDF of about 9%, of total nitrogen from 2 to 3 times while digestibility of dry matter increased respectively by 8,8% and 23,0% respectively in treated sorghum and millet. Also dry matter intake increased by 4,5% and 15,5% for treated sorghum and millet respectively compared to non treated. Mean weekly weight gain were significantly higher (P<0.05 for UTSS e UTMS compared to NTSS e NTMS. While the weekly weight gain, did not differed between UTSS vs. UTMS and NTSS vs. NTMS. At the end of the trial the UTSS and UTMS group presented a weight gain of about 40% and 38.7%, of their initial weight; while the gain for both NTSS and NTMS was respectively of 31.1% and 29.5%.

  16. National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urea cycle disorders. Donate Now To End Urea Cycle Disorders © 2005-2017 NUCDF. All rights reserved. This site may be freely linked to but not copied or duplicated in any fashion without the Foundation's consent. Make A Donation in ...

  17. Neurological implications of urea cycle disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summar, M.; Leonard, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The urea cycle disorders constitute a group of rare congenital disorders caused by a deficiency of the enzymes or transport proteins required to remove ammonia from the body. Via a series of biochemical steps, nitrogen, the waste product of protein metabolism, is removed from the blood and converted into urea. A consequence of these disorders is hyperammonaemia, resulting in central nervous system dysfunction with mental status changes, brain oedema, seizures, coma, and potentially death. Both acute and chronic hyperammonaemia result in alterations of neurotransmitter systems. In acute hyperammonaemia, activation of the NMDA receptor leads to excitotoxic cell death, changes in energy metabolism and alterations in protein expression of the astrocyte that affect volume regulation and contribute to oedema. Neuropathological evaluation demonstrates alterations in the astrocyte morphology. Imaging studies, in particular 1H MRS, can reveal markers of impaired metabolism such as elevations of glutamine and reduction of myoinositol. In contrast, chronic hyperammonaemia leads to adaptive responses in the NMDA receptor and impairments in the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway, leading to alterations in cognition and learning. Therapy of acute hyperammonaemia has relied on ammonia-lowering agents but in recent years there has been considerable interest in neuroprotective strategies. Recent studies have suggested restoration of learning abilities by pharmacological manipulation of brain cGMP with phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Thus, both strategies are intriguing areas for potential investigation in human urea cycle disorders. PMID:18038189

  18. Urea-formaldehyde resins: production, application, and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, A.; Risnasari, I.; Sucipto, T.; Heri Iswanto, A.; Rosmala Dewi, R.

    2017-07-01

    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin, one of the most important formaldehyde resin adhesives, is a polymeric condensation product of formaldehyde with urea, and being widely used for the manufacture of wood-based composite panels, such as plywood, particleboard, and fiberboard. In spite of its benefits such as fast curing, good performance in the panels (colorless), and lower cost; formaldehyde emission (FE) originated from either UF resin itself or composite products bonded by UF resins is considered a critical drawback as it affects human health particularly in indoor environment. In order to reduce the FE, lowering formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio in the synthesis of the UF resin was done. In this study, synthesis of UF resins was carried out following the conventional alkaline-acid two-step reaction with a second addition of urea, resulting in F/U mole ratio around 1.0, namely 0.95; 1.05, and 1.15. The UF resins produced were used as binder for particleboard making. The board was manufactured in the laboratory using shaving type particle of Gmelina wood, 8% UF resin based on oven dry particle, and 1% NH4Cl (20%wt) as hardener for the resin. The target of the thickness was 10 mm and the dimension was 25 cm x 25 cm. The resulted particleboard then was evaluated the physical and the mechanical properties by Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Further, the resulted particleboard also was used for the mice cage’s wall in order to mimic the real living environment. After four weeks exposure in the cages, the mice then were evaluated their mucous organs as well as their blood. The experiment results were as follows: 1) It was possible to synthesis UF resins with low F/U mole ratio; 2) However, the particleboard bonded UF resins with low F/U mole ratio showed poor properties, particularly on the thickness swelling and modulus of elasticity; 3) There was no significant differences among the mucous organs of the mice after a month exposure FE originated from

  19. Effect of a short period whole body vibration with 10 Hz on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of whole blood were drawn for biochemical analysis of the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, glucose, CPK, albumin, alkaline phosphates, TGP, TGO, γGT, lipase, amylase, urea and creatinine. Results: White blood cell count and a platelet-hemogram were also performed. Significant ...

  20. Temporary impact of blood donation on physical performance and hematologic variables in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Ida; Kramp, Nana L.; Ziegler, Andreas K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUNDNo former studies have examined how blood donation influences physical performance in women, who due to menstruation may have a slower recovery of performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify how VO2peak, time trial (TT) performance, and hematologic variables are affected...... in 18 iron-sufficient (plasma ferritin [P-ferritin] > 30 µg/L) women after a standard 450-mL blood donation. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODSVO2peak, TT performance, and blood variables were measured at baseline and 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after blood donation in 18 iron-sufficient women. Anthropometrics were...

  1. comparative studies on the mineralization of furfural urea and urea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... In this research, laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural urea as a slow release N ... regarding groundwater pollution ( Myrold, 2008). The ... The plastic pots containing the treated soil sample and.

  2. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  3. Performance of the biomerieux DBS puncher and dried blood spots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The latest World Health Organization recommendations request viral load (VL) testing, if possible, for monitoring HIV-1 infections. However, the use of plasma is an obstacle to realize this test in sub-Saharan Africa. In this context, the dried blood spot (DBS) is an interesting tool for sample collections.

  4. Production of granules of urea, urea-ammonium sulphate and urea-potassium chloride enriched with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendassolli, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Using a pearling tower it was possible to produce granulated urea, and granulated mixtures of ammonium sulphate and urea, potassium chloride and urea, Labelled in 15 N. Granulated urea with 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm of diameter was obtained using a system with a heating controller. A low concentration of biuret was observed in the granules produced ( 15 N-Labelled ( 15 NH 4' 15 NH 2 ) with variable proportion of ammonium sulphate and urea. (author)

  5. Productive performance and blood parameters of bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran and whole or ground corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of corn milling and the inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB on productive performance, digestibility of dietary nutrients, and blood parameters of dairy crossbred (Holstein-Gyr bulls finished in confinement. Twenty-four bulls were fed four different experimental diets, containing two levels of inclusion of BMB (0 and 41.24% and corn supplied in two different forms (ground and whole, for 98 days (77 days of data collection and 21 days of adaptation. The intakes and digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM and nutrients were determined. There were no significant interaction effects of the BMB inclusion level and the form of corn used on the performance and digestibility variables. The intakes of DM, crude protein (CP, and neutral detergent fibre (NDF increased with the inclusion of BMB in the diets. However, the inclusion of BMB in the diets decreased the ether extract intake, the NDF apparent digestibility, and the feed efficiency of DM and CP. Dry matter and NDF intakes also increased with the use of ground corn in the diet, which promoted an increase in the intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN, digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates, and average daily gain. However, the supply of ground corn reduced the feed efficiency of TDN. The remaining measured variables did not vary with the tested diets. The levels of plasma protein and albumin remained normal, but glucose concentrations were always high, irrespective of the tested diet. The form of corn supplied and the level of BMB inclusion had a significant interaction effect on the levels of triglycerides, urea, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Babassu mesocarp bran can be included up to 41.24% in the diet of confined bulls without a negative effect on the animal weight gain. Corn should be supplied ground because this form improves the performance of crossbred bulls

  6. Active Recovery between Interval Bouts Reduces Blood Lactate While Improving Subsequent Exercise Performance in Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutiun M. Nalbandian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the blood lactate and blood pH kinetics during high-intensity interval training. Seventeen well-trained athletes exercised on two different occasions. Exercises consisted of three 30 s bouts at a constant intensity (90% of peak power with 4 min recovery between bouts followed by a Wingate test (WT. The recoveries were either active recovery (at 60% of the lactate threshold intensity or passive recovery (resting at sitting position. During the exercise, blood samples were taken to determine blood gasses, blood lactate, and blood pH, and peak and average power were calculated for the WT. When performing the active recovery trials, blood pH was significantly higher (p < 0.01 and blood lactate was significantly lower (p < 0.01 compared with the passive recovery trials. WT performance was significantly higher in the active recovery trials: peak power was 671 ± 88 and 715 ± 108 watts, and average power was 510 ± 70 and 548 ± 73 watts (passive and active respectively; p < 0.01. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the increased pH and the increased performance in the active recovery trials. These results suggest that active recovery performed during high-intensity interval exercise favors the performance in a following WT. Moreover, the blood pH variations associated with active recovery did not explain the enhanced performance.

  7. Salivary creatinine and urea analysis in patients with chronic kidney disease: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Taye Jemilat; Raji, Yemi Raheem; Salako, Babatunde Lawal

    2016-01-16

    Many metabolic changes develop in patients with chronic kidney disease which often necessitate frequent biochemical analysis of blood. Saliva analysis as an alternative to blood has many advantages. The aims of this study were to evaluate levels of salivary creatinine and urea in patients with chronic kidney disease in comparison to healthy individuals; to determine correlation between salivary creatinine/urea and blood creatinine/urea and to evaluate the diagnostic potential of saliva. A case control study, involving 50 patients with late stage chronic kidney disease and 49 healthy individuals as control. Blood and saliva samples were analyzed for urea and creatinine levels. Data are presented as median with interquartile range and compared using Independent Samples Mann Whitney U test. Correlation between plasma and salivary creatinine as well as urea was determined using Spearman's correlation test. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was done to determine the diagnostic ability of salivary creatinine and urea and cut-off values were established. Median salivary creatinine levels were 2.60 mg/dl and 0.20 mg/dl while median salivary urea levels were 92.00 mg/dl and 20.50 mg/dl in patients with chronic kidney disease and controls respectively. Salivary levels of creatinine and urea were significantly elevated in chronic kidney disease patients (p creatinine as well as urea levels. Total areas under the curve for salivary creatinine and urea were 0.97 and 0.89 respectively. Cut-off values for salivary creatinine and urea were 0.55 mg/dl and 27.50 mg/dl respectively which gave sensitivity and specificity of 94 % and 85 % for creatinine; as well as 86 % and 93 % for urea. Findings of this study suggest that analysis of salivary creatinine and urea in patients with chronic kidney disease reflects their levels in blood. Hence, salivary creatinine and urea could be used as diagnostic biomarkers of chronic kidney disease.

  8. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X. H.; Heo, P. S.; Hong, J. S.; Kim, N. J.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses. PMID:27282974

  9. Influence of Rapeseed Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Nutrient Digestibility and Economic Benefit of Growing-finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary rapeseed meal (RSM on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility and economic benefit of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace] ×Duroc with an initial body weight (BW 29.94±0.06 kg were used in this experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design and 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were divided by dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12% in growing-finishing diets. A linear decrease (p<0.05 of BW and average daily gain (ADG were observed at 13th wk of finishing and overall periods of pigs. Additionally, gain-to-feed ratio (G/F tended to decrease by dietary RSM supplementation in growing-finishing diets (linear, p = 0.07 and quadratic, p = 0.08. Concentrations of serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not influenced by dietary RSM treatments whereas thyroid gland and liver weight were increased at 13th wk of finishing period (linear, p<0.05; p<0.01 by increasing dietary RSM supplementation level. In blood profiles, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not differed by dietary treatments at 13th wk of finishing period whereas concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was affected by the supplementation level of RSM, resulting in a linear RSM level responses (p<0.05. Serum blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to decrease (linear, p = 0.07; p = 0.08 at 6th wk of growing and 13th wk of finishing periods and digestibility of dry matter tended to decrease by dietary RSM (linear, p = 0.09. Crude protein, crude fat and nitrogen retention, whereas, were not affected by dietary RSM supplementation level. In the economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain was numerically decreased when RSM was provided up to 9%. Consequently, RSM could be supplemented to growing-finishing diets up to 9

  10. Effects of high-protein or conventional canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, C K; Liu, Y; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of 2 high-protein canola meals (canola meal A [CMA]: 45.69% CP and canola meal B [CMB]: 46.97% CP) and a conventional canola meal (CM-CV: 35.10% CP) on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood parameters of weanling pigs. Inclusion rates of canola meal (CM) in the diets were 10, 20, 30, or 40% for CMA and CM-CV, whereas inclusions were 10, 20, or 30% for CMB. A control diet containing no CM was also formulated. Therefore, 12 diets were used in this experiment. A total of 420 pigs (initial BW: 9.8 ± 1.1 kg) were divided into 3 blocks and randomly allotted to 1 of the 12 diets with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 4 or 5 pigs per pen. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated, and at the conclusion of the experiment, 1 pig in each pen was euthanized to allow measurements of organ weights, collection of blood, and collection of the third and fourth metacarpals from the left foot. Results indicate that ADFI was linearly (P ash percentage in the metacarpals. Inclusion of CMA or CM-CV linearly (P < 0.05) decreased concentrations of serum triiodothyronine, and the inclusion of CMA also linearly (P < 0.05) decreased serum thyroxine concentrations. No differences were observed for complete blood counts or blood urea nitrogen if CM was added to the diets. In conclusion, up to 20% high-protein CM or CM-CV may be included in diets for weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning without reducing growth performance or negatively affecting organ, bone, or blood parameters. In some instances, it may also be possible to use greater inclusion rates.

  11. Performance of arthroscopic irrigation systems assessed with automatic blood detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, G. J. M.; de Vaal, M. M.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Blankevoort, L.; van der List, M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    During arthroscopies, bleeding episodes occur as a result of tissue damage. Irrigation systems assist in minimizing these disturbances. The performance of three arthroscopic irrigation systems in clearing bleeding episodes was evaluated objectively. One surgeon performed 99 shoulder arthroscopies

  12. Reduction in slow intercompartmental clearance of urea during dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, D.J.; Krejcie, T.C.; Avram, M.J.; Chow, M.J.; Del Greco, F.; Atkinson, A.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of urea and inulin were analyzed in five anesthetized dogs during sequential 2-hour periods before, during, and after hemodialysis. The distribution of both compounds after simultaneous intravenous injection was characterized by three-compartment models, and the total volumes of urea (0.66 +/- 0.05 L/kg) and inulin (0.19 +/- 0.01 L/kg) distribution were similar to expected values for total body water and extravascular space, respectively. Intercompartmental clearances calculated before dialysis were used to estimate blood flows to the fast and slow equilibrating compartments. In agreement with previous results, the sum of these flows was similar to cardiac output, averaging 101% of cardiac output measured before dialysis (range 72% to 135%). Dialysis was accompanied by reductions in the slow intercompartmental clearances of urea (81%) and inulin (47%), which reflected a 90% attenuation in blood flow supplying the slow equilibrating compartments. This was estimated to result in a 10% average reduction in the efficiency with which urea was removed by dialysis (range 2.0% to 16.4%). Mean arterial pressure fell by less than 5% during dialysis, but total peripheral resistance increased by 47% and cardiac output fell by 35%. In the postdialysis period, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output returned toward predialysis values, but blood flow to the slow equilibrating peripheral compartment was still reduced by 80%. These changes parallel activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but further studies are required to establish causality

  13. Effects of simulated altitude on blood glucose meter performance: implications for in-flight blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olateju, Tolu; Begley, Joseph; Flanagan, Daniel; Kerr, David

    2012-07-01

    Most manufacturers of blood glucose monitoring equipment do not give advice regarding the use of their meters and strips onboard aircraft, and some airlines have blood glucose testing equipment in the aircraft cabin medical bag. Previous studies using older blood glucose meters (BGMs) have shown conflicting results on the performance of both glucose oxidase (GOX)- and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-based meters at high altitude. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of four new-generation BGMs at sea level and at a simulated altitude equivalent to that used in the cabin of commercial aircrafts. Blood glucose measurements obtained by two GDH and two GOX BGMs at sea level and simulated altitude of 8000 feet in a hypobaric chamber were compared with measurements obtained using a YSI 2300 blood glucose analyzer as a reference method. Spiked venous blood samples of three different glucose levels were used. The accuracy of each meter was determined by calculating percentage error of each meter compared with the YSI reference and was also assessed against standard International Organization for Standardization (ISO) criteria. Clinical accuracy was evaluated using the consensus error grid method. The percentage (standard deviation) error for GDH meters at sea level and altitude was 13.36% (8.83%; for meter 1) and 12.97% (8.03%; for meter 2) with p = .784, and for GOX meters was 5.88% (7.35%; for meter 3) and 7.38% (6.20%; for meter 4) with p = .187. There was variation in the number of time individual meters met the standard ISO criteria ranging from 72-100%. Results from all four meters at both sea level and simulated altitude fell within zones A and B of the consensus error grid, using YSI as the reference. Overall, at simulated altitude, no differences were observed between the performance of GDH and GOX meters. Overestimation of blood glucose concentration was seen among individual meters evaluated, but none of the results obtained would have resulted in

  14. Effect of dietary nitrogen content and intravenous urea infusion on ruminal and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, N B; Storm, A C; Larsen, M

    2010-06-01

    Urea extraction across ruminal and portal-drained visceral (PDV) tissues were investigated using 9 rumen-cannulated and multi-catheterized lactating dairy cows adapted to low-N (12.9% crude protein) and high-N (17.1% crude protein) diets in a crossover design. The interaction between adaptation to dietary treatments and blood plasma concentrations of urea was studied by dividing samplings into a 2.5-h period without urea infusion followed by a 2.5-h period with primed continuous intravenous infusion of urea (0.493+/-0.012 mmol/kg of BW per h). Cows were sampled at 66+/-14 and 68+/-12 d in milk and produced 42+/-1 and 36+/-1 kg of milk/d with the high-N and low-N diets, respectively. The arterial blood urea concentration before urea infusion was 1.37 and 4.09+/-0.18 mmol/L with low-N and high-N, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect the urea infusion-induced increase in arterial urea concentration (1.91+/-0.13 mmol/L). Arterial urea extraction across the PDV and rumen increased from 2.7 to 5.4+/-0.5% and from 7.1 to 23.8+/-2.1% when cows were changed from high-N to low-N, respectively. Urea infusion did not decrease urea extractions, implying that urea transport rates were proportional to arterial urea concentrations. Urea extraction increased more across the rumen wall than across the total PDV for low-N compared with high-N, which implies that a larger proportion of total PDV uptake of arterial urea is directed toward the rumen with decreasing N intake. The ruminal vein - arterial (RA) concentration difference for ammonia increased instantly (first sampling 15 min after initiation of infusion) to the primed intravenous infusion when cows were adapted to the low-N diet. The RA difference for ammonia correlated poorly to the ventral ruminal concentration of ammonia (r=0.55). Relating the RA difference for ammonia to a function of both ruminal ammonia concentration and the RA difference for urea markedly improved the fit (r=0.85), indicating that a large

  15. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  16. Feeding different dietary protein to energy ratios to Holstein heifers: effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Zhang, W B; Zhang, N F; Tu, Y; Diao, Q Y

    2017-02-01

    Eighteen Chinese Holstein heifers average age 230 ± 14 days were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) to metabolizable energy (ME) ratios to examine the effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters with 90-days experiment. Three different dietary CP:ME ratios were targeted based on the formulation of dietary CP contents of 10.85%, 12.78% and 14.63% on dry matter (DM) basis with similar ME contents (10.42 MJ/kg DM), which were categorized as low, medium and high dietary CP:ME ratios. The actual CP:ME ratios obtained in this study significantly increased from low to high CP:ME ratio groups with a value of 10.59, 11.83 and 13.38 g/MJ respectively. Elevated CP:ME ratios significantly increased CP intake (kg/day) and feed efficiency (FE) which was defined as dry matter intake as a proportion of average daily gain (ADG), whereas little difference was observed in body weight (kg), ADG (kg/day), DM intake (kg/day) and ME intake (MJ/day) among the three different CP:ME ratio groups. Increasing dietary CP to ME ratios significantly increased CP digestibility, whereas digestibility of DM and gross energy remained constant in the current experiment. Blood urea nitrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 linearly increased with increasing dietary CP:ME ratios. There was significantly dietary treatment effect on rumen fermentation parameters including acetate, propionate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids. Therefore, this study indicated that increasing dietary CP levels with similar energy content contributed to increased protein intake and its digestibility, as well as FE. Holstein heifers between 200 and 341 kg subjected to 13.38 dietary CP:ME ratio showed improved feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, some blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics for 0.90 kg/day rate of gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Synthesis of 15N-labelled urea and methylenediurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, T.P.; Jones, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique was developed for the large-scale synthesis of 15 N-labelled urea at low enrichment levels. The synthesis is based on nucleophilic displacement of the phenoxide ion from phenyl carbonate and uses anhydrous ammonia as the nucleophile. In previous reports a copper catalyst was used; however, in this study it was found that the copper resulted in product decomposition and tar formation, which makes product purification difficult. A novel set of reaction conditions was developed: no catalyst was used, and no product decomposition or tar formation occurred. The reaction product was easily purified, and consistently high yields of 15 N-labelled urea were obtained. 15 N-labelled methylenediurea was prepared by the dilute solution reaction of formalin with 15 N-labelled urea. The methodology developed for the reclamation of unreacted urea resulted in minimum loss of labelled urea. High performance liquid chromatography has been used to determine the chemical purity of both urea and methylenediurea. (author)

  18. INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF BEEF CATTLE RECEIVING DIETS CONTAINING UREA IN DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS CONSUMO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DOS NUTRIENTES E DESEMPENHO DE BOVINOS DE CORTE RECEBENDO DIETAS COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE URÉIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, daily gain, feed conversion and the carcass yield in beef cattle receiving diets containing 0; 0.5; 1.0 e 1.5% of urea in total dry matter were evaluated. Twenty four crossed steers Holstein x Zebu (HxZ, castrated, with initial mean body weight of 290 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. Sorghum silage was used as roughage adopting relation roughage:concentrate of 70:30 in dry matter basis. In order to determine the fecal excretion, indigestible acid detergent fiber was used as a marker. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were not influenced (P>0.05 by the proportions of urea in the diets. For intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, mean values of 8.42 kg/day or 2.33% of BW and 64.52% were registered, respectively. Mean daily gain (1.05kg, feed conversion (8.07 and carcass yield (48.72% were not influenced (P>0.05 by the proportions of urea in the diets. Levels of 1.5% of urea in dry matter of total diet can be used in the preparation of diets for finishing beef cattle (HxZ, without compromising intake and digestibility of nutrients and the animal performance as well.

    KEY WORDS: Carcass yield, feed conversion, feedlot, sorghum silage.

    Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça em bovinos de corte recebendo dietas contendo 0%; 0,5%; 1,0% e 1,5% de uréia na matéria seca total. Foram utilizados 24 animais mestiços Holandês x Zebu (HxZ, castrados, com peso vivo inicial médio de 290 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Utilizou-se a silagem de sorgo como volumoso numa relação volumoso:concentrado de 70:30, com base na matéria seca. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível como indicador. O consumo e a

  19. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Rodrigo C; Moënne-Loccoz, Cristóbal; Maldonado, Pedro E

    2017-01-01

    Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT), a flanker task (FT) and a counting task (CT). Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s) were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  20. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Vergara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT, a flanker task (FT and a counting task (CT. Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  1. Comparative studies on the mineralization of furfural urea and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural urea as a slow release N fertilizer in an alfisol of Nigeria Savanna in the year 2009/2010 season. Incubation studies revealed that released N through mineralizatoin and microbial activities had confirmed that the compound may stay longer ...

  2. The effect of supplementing untreated, urea-supplemented and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3x2x2 factorial experiment, involving an intake and in vivo digestibility trial with 48 adult S.A. Mutton Merino wethers. Straw dry matter (OM) intake on ammoniated wheat-straw diets was 27 and 22% higher (P ';;0,01) than on untreated and urea-supplemented diets, respectively. No significant difference was found between ...

  3. Influence of the washing program on the blood processing performance of a continuous autotransfusion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chiyul; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Jung Chan; Ko, Sung Ho; Ahn, Wonsik; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-03-01

    The continuous autotransfusion system has been widely used in surgical operations. It is known that if oil is added to blood, and this mixture is then processed by an autotransfusion device, the added oil is removed and reinfusion of fat is prevented by the device. However, there is no detailed report on the influence of the particular washing program selected on the levels of blood components including blood fat after continuous autotransfusion using such a system. Fresh bovine blood samples were processed by a commercial continuous autotransfusion device using the "emergency," "quality," and "high-quality" programs, applied in random order. Complete blood count (CBC) and serum chemistry were analyzed to determine how the blood processing performance of the device changes with the washing program applied. There was no significant difference in the CBC results obtained with the three washing programs. Although all of the blood lipids in the processed blood were decreased compared to those in the blood before processing, the levels of triglyceride, phospholipid, and total cholesterol after processing via the emergency program were significantly higher than those present after processing via the quality and high-quality programs. Although the continuous autotransfusion device provided consistent hematocrit quality, the levels of some blood lipid components showed significant differences among the washing programs.

  4. Effects of various additives to enhance growth performance, blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina van Heerden

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... It was assigned to three pigs/pen and five pens/treatment. ... Essential oils have been demonstrated to improve performance and reduce .... were detected using Gastec GV-110S gas detection machine and tube namely, NH3 ...

  5. Effects of oxidised oil and vitamin E on performance and some blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxidised dietary oil and vitamin E supplementation could be determined on the performance, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defence system and some blood and meat quality traits of broilers. Broilers were fed grower diets containing fresh or oxidised ...

  6. Muscle and Blood Metabolites during a Soccer Game: Implications for Sprint Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni; Steensberg, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: To examine muscle and blood metabolites during soccer match play and relate it to possible changes in sprint performance. Methods: Thirty-one Danish fourth division players took part in three friendly games. Blood samples were collected frequently during the game, and muscle......, muscle pH, or total glycogen content. Conclusion: Sprint performance is reduced both temporarily during a game and at the end of a soccer game. The latter finding may be explained by low glycogen levels in individual muscle fibers. Blood lactate is a poor indicator of muscle lactate during soccer match...

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    Urea cycle disorder (UCD) is an inborn error of the metabolic pathway producing urea from ammonia, which occurs primarily in the liver. Decreased excretion of nitrogen in the urea cycle due to deficiency of carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPSI), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthase (ASS), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and N-acetyl glutamate synthase (NAGS) causes hyperammonemia. We examined the clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of 177 patients with UCD from January 1999 to March 2009 in Japan. Compared with a previous study conducted in Japan, a larger number of patients survived without mental retardation, even when the peak blood ammonia was >360 μmol/L. In those with peak blood ammonia >360 μmol/L, an indicator of poor prognosis, the frequency of convulsions, mental retardation, brain abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging, hemodialysis, liver transplantation, and intake of non-protein formulas was significantly higher than in those with peak blood ammonia <360 μmol/L. In this article, we have reported the current state of UCD to evaluate prognosis and its relationship with peak blood ammonia and hemodialysis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. The effect of urea on the corrosion behavior of different dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckili, Onur; Bilhan, Hakan; Bilgin, Tayfun; Anthony von Fraunhofer, J

    2012-01-01

    Intraoral corrosion of dental alloys has biological, functional, and esthetic consequences. Since it is well known that the salivary urea concentrations undergo changes with various diseases, the present study was undertaken to determine the effect of salivary urea concentrations on the corrosion behavior of commonly used dental casting alloys. Three casting alloys were subjected to polarization scans in synthetic saliva with three different urea concentrations. Cyclic polarization clearly showed that urea levels above 20 mg/100 ml decreased corrosion current densities, increased the corrosion potentials and, at much higher urea levels, the breakdown potentials. The data indicate that elevated urea levels reduced the corrosion susceptibility of all alloys, possibly through adsorption of organics onto the metal surface. This study indicates that corrosion testing performed in sterile saline or synthetic saliva without organic components could be misleading.

  9. /sup 15/N study on dietary urea utility in young pigs fed with a low protein diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niiyama, M; Kagota, K; Iwase, T; Namioka, S [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1978-10-01

    To investigate effect of a low protein diet on urea utilization, a tracer study was conducted with /sup 15/N-urea on pigs fed a low protein diet (DCP 5.7%) with 2% urea (group B), and on pigs fed and optimal protein diet (DCP 13.3%) with 2% urea (group A). /sup 15/N was incorporated into protein of liver, serum and muscle, which were obtained 8 days after the last administration of /sup 15/N-urea. The /sup 15/N incorporation rate into the tissue protein tended to be higher in group B than in group A. Approximately 70% of /sup 15/N, however, was excreted into urine within 48 hours in group B. A comparison was made on growth and urea level in blood and urine to evaluate efficacy of the administered urea on growth between group B pigs and pigs fed the same low protein diet without urea supplementation (group C). Since group B pigs always maintained a higher level of blood urea, they were considered to have had more ammonia nitrogen which was available for protein synthesis than group C animals. A similar amount of urea to ingested dose, however, was excessively eliminated in urine. The increased ammonia nitrogen by urea ingestion may be excreted in form of urinary urea in group B pigs. There was no difference in growth between group B and group C animals; therefore, poor efficacy of administered urea on growth may have resulted not only from its loss into urine in early stage after ingestion, but also to poor utility of ammonia for protein synthesis.

  10. A 15N study on dietary urea utility in young pigs fed with a low protein diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiyama, Masayoshi; Kagota, Katsumoto; Iwase, Toshio; Namioka, Shigeo

    1978-01-01

    To investigate effect of a low protein diet on urea utilization, a tracer study was conducted with 15 N-urea on pigs fed a low protein diet (DCP 5.7%) with 2% urea (group B), and on pigs fed and optimal protein diet (DCP 13.3%) with 2% urea (group A). 15 N was incorporated into protein of liver, serum and muscle, which were obtained 8 days after the last administration of 15 N-urea. The 15 N incorporation rate into the tissue protein tended to be higher in group B than in group A. Approximately 70% of 15 N, however, was excreted into urine within 48 hours in group B. A comparison was made on growth and urea level in blood and urine to evaluate efficacy of the administered urea on growth between group B pigs and pigs fed the same low protein diet without urea supplementation (group C). Since group B pigs always maintained a higher level of blood urea, they were considered to have had more ammonia nitrogen which was available for protein synthesis than group C animals. A similar amount of urea to ingested dose, however, was excessively eliminated in urine. The increased ammonia nitrogen by urea ingestion may be excreted in form of urinary urea in group B pigs. There was no difference in growth between group B and group C animals; therefore, poor efficacy of administered urea on growth may have resulted not only from its loss into urine in early stage after ingestion, but also to poor utility of ammonia for protein synthesis. (author)

  11. Effects of Different Level and Source of Sulfur Supplement in Close-up diets of Dairy Cows on Blood Metabolites, Colostrums Composition and Liver Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Manidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24 maltiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated in a completely randomized design to study the effects of different level and source of sulfur supplement in close-up diets on blood metabolites, colostrums composition and liver performance. The mean body weight of the cows was 687.9 kg and the mean days until expected calving date was 21.8 d. The first treatment (T1 has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis, the second treatment (T2 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied entirely through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through a combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur (Mepran. The DMI for pre-calving (P < 0.001 was affected by treatments and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Colostrums yield, protein, DM and ash significantly decreased in inorganic sulfur supplemented treatment (P < 0.05. Among the blood metabolites, calcium, copper and glucose were decreased in T2 compared with two other treatments (P < 0.05. However, BHBA, NEFA and urea were increased in T2 (P < 0.05. Urine pH was affected with different treatments (P < 0.0001. The both liver enzymes (i.e. AST and CPK were increased supplementing inorganic sulfur showing that inorganic sulfur has potential to decrease liver performance in dairy cows. The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate (inorganic source has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and organic source of sulfur could have positive effects on dry matter intake, blood metabolites and liver health in dairy cows.

  12. Leaching of dieldrin, permethrin, phenyl urea and 4-CL phenyl urea pesticides from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, G.

    1978-01-01

    Leaching of four 14 C-labelled pesticides (dieldrin, permethrin, phenyl urea and 4-Cl phenyl urea) were investigated. It was found that dieldrin and permethrin were not leached from soil but adsorbed by the soil; phenyl urea and 4-CL phenyl urea were leached to a 7.5 cm depth

  13. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9928 - Urea, tetraethyl-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urea, tetraethyl-. 721.9928 Section... Substances § 721.9928 Urea, tetraethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as urea, tetraethyl- (PMN P-94-1017; CAS No. 1187-03-7) is...

  15. A numerical performance assessment of a commercial cardiopulmonary by-pass blood heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Filippo; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Pelosi, Alessandra; Reggiani, Stefano; Redaelli, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    We developed a numerical model, based on multi-physics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, to assist the design process of a plastic hollow-fiber bundle blood heat exchanger (BHE) integrated within the INSPIRE(TM), a blood oxygenator (OXY) for cardiopulmonary by-pass procedures, recently released by Sorin Group Italia. In a comparative study, we analyzed five different geometrical design solutions of the BHE module. Quantitative geometrical-dependent parameters providing a comprehensive evaluation of both the hemo- and thermo-dynamics performance of the device were extracted to identify the best-performing prototypical solution. A convenient design configuration was identified, characterized by (i) a uniform blood flow pattern within the fiber bundle, preventing blood flow shunting and the onset of stagnation/recirculation areas and/or high velocity pathways, (ii) an enhanced blood heating efficiency, and (iii) a reduced blood pressure drop. The selected design configuration was then prototyped and tested to experimentally characterize the device performance. Experimental results confirmed numerical predictions, proving the effectiveness of CFD modeling as a reliable tool for in silico identification of suitable working conditions of blood handling medical devices. Notably, the numerical approach limited the need for extensive prototyping, thus reducing the corresponding machinery costs and time-to-market. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  17. Performance IQ in children is associated with blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Bo-Eun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 119 children whose mothers underwent testing of blood cadmium during early pregnancy. All children were evaluated using the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between IQ in children and maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy, after adjustment for covariates. Maternal blood cadmium concentration during early pregnancy was inversely associated with performance IQ, after adjustment for covariates such as sex, educational levels of both parents, family income, and maternal BMI. Maternal blood cadmium concentration, however, was not associated with cognitive IQ. Performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Urea-nitrate combustion synthesis of MgO/MgAl2O4 nanocatalyst used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil: Influence of fuel ratio on catalytic properties and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani Vahid, Behgam; Haghighi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: As a base catalyst for biodiesel production, MgAl 2 O 4 spinel was successfully synthesized by combustion method with MgO, as the active phase, dispersed on the catalyst surface. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. Analyzing the effect of fuel ratio on the combustion synthesized MgAl 2 O 4 , it was revealed that the synthesized base catalyst with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was of the best specifications for biodiesel production process. Future researches may investigate the catalyst reusability and mild reaction conditions, so as to achieve more economical production of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Efficient synthesis of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel by solution combustion method. • Improvement of catalytic activity and stability by optimum ratio fuel. • Enhanced dispersion of MgO over MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. • Production of biodiesel over MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 at relatively mild reaction conditions. - Abstract: MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 nanocatalyst was synthesized by a simple, cost-effective and rapid method and used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil. MgAl 2 O 4 was synthesized by combustion method at different fuel ratios and then active phase of MgO was dispersed on the samples by impregnation method. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. The physicochemical properties of the nanocatalyst confirmed the sample synthesized with fuel ratio of 1.5 has high surface area, effective morphology and texture properties. Finally, in order to evaluate catalytic activity of the samples in biodiesel production, the transesterification reaction was performed. The results indicated the catalyst prepared by combustion synthesis with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was optimum specifications for biodiesel production. Using this

  19. Treating agent for urea containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Maki, Kentaro.

    1973-01-01

    Object: To add a coagulant into urea containing radioactive material to precipitate and remove the radioactive material in the urea. Structure: Iodosalt is added into urea and next, a mixed reagent in which silver ion or silver acetic ion and iron hydroxide precipitation or ferrite ion coexist is added therein. The urea is treated to have a sufficient alkaline, after which it is introduced into a basket type centrifuge formed with a filter layer in combination of an upper glass fiber layer and a lower active carbon layer. The treating agent can uniformly remove radioactive ion and radioactive chelate within urea containing inorganic salt and various metabolites. (Nakamura, S.)

  20. The effect of Health, Safety and Environment Management System (HSE-MS on the improvement of safety performance indices in Urea and Ammonia Kermanshah Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Poursoleiman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related accidents may cause damage to people, environment and lead to waste of time and money. Health, Safety and Environment Management System has been developed in order to reduce accidents. This study aimed to investigate the effect of implementation of this system on reduction of the accidents and its consequences and also on the safety performance indices in Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Material and Method: In this study, records of accidents were collected by OSHA incident report form 301 over 4 years. Following, the mean annual accidents and its consequences and safety performance indices were calculated and reported. Then, using statistical analysis, the impacts of two years implementation of this system on the accidents and its consequences and safety performance indices were evaluated. Result: The results showed that the implementation of HSE system was significantly correlated with Frequency Severity Indicator, Accident Severity Rate, lost days, minor accidents and total incidents (P-value 0.05. Conclusion: The implementation of Health, Safety and the Environment Management System caused a reduction in accidents and its consequences and most of the safety performance indices in the entire process cycle of Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Overall, safety condition has been improved considerably.

  1. The effect of Health, Safety and Environment Management System (HSE-MS on the improvement of safety performance indices in Urea and Ammonia Kermanshah Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Poursoleiman

    2015-09-01

    .Conclusion: The implementation of Health, Safety and the Environment Management System caused a reduction in accidents and its consequences and most of the safety performance indices in the entire process cycle of Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Overall, safety condition has been improved considerably.

  2. Omics insights into rumen ureolytic bacterial community and urea metabolism in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Di

    2017-01-01

    Urea has been used in the diets of ruminants as a non-protein nitrogen source. Ureolytic bacteria are key organisms in the rumen producing urease enzymes to catalyze the breakdown of urea to ammonia (NH3), and the NH3 is used as nitrogen for microbial protein synthesis. In the rumen, hydrolysis of urea to NH3 occurs at a greater rate than NH3 can be utilized by rumen bacteria, and excess ammonia absorbed into blood may be harmful to the animals. Nowadays, little is known about the information...

  3. The emerging physiological roles of the SLC14A family of urea transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, urea is the main nitrogenous breakdown product of protein catabolism and is produced in the liver. In certain tissues, the movement of urea across cell membranes is specifically mediated by a group of proteins known as the SLC14A family of facilitative urea transporters. These proteins are derived from two distinct genes, UT-A (SLC14A2) and UT-B (SLC14A1). Facilitative urea transporters play an important role in two major physiological processes – urinary concentration and urea nitrogen salvaging. Although UT-A and UT-B transporters both have a similar basic structure and mediate the transport of urea in a facilitative manner, there are a number of significant differences between them. UT-A transporters are mainly found in the kidney, are highly specific for urea, have relatively lower transport rates and are highly regulated at both gene expression and cellular localization levels. In contrast, UT-B transporters are more widespread in their tissue location, transport both urea and water, have a relatively high transport rate, are inhibited by mercurial compounds and currently appear to be less acutely regulated. This review details the fundamental research that has so far been performed to investigate the function and physiological significance of these two types of urea transporters. PMID:21449978

  4. Impact of Oral Ubiquinol on Blood Oxidative Stress and Exercise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 plays an important role in bioenergetic processes and has antioxidant activity. Fifteen exercise-trained individuals (10 men and 5 women; 30–65 years received reduced CoQ10 (Kaneka QH ubiquinol; 300 mg per day or a placebo for four weeks in a random order, double blind, cross-over design (3 week washout. After each four-week period, a graded exercise treadmill test and a repeated cycle sprint test were performed (separated by 48 hours. Blood samples were collected before and immediately following both exercise tests and analyzed for lactate, malondialdehyde, and hydrogen peroxide. Resting blood samples were analyzed for CoQ10 (ubiquinone and ubiquinol profile before and after each treatment period. Treatment with CoQ10 resulted in a significant increase in total blood CoQ10 (138%; P=0.02 and reduced blood CoQ10 (168%; P=0.02, but did not improve exercise performance (with the exception of selected individuals or impact oxidative stress. The relationship between the percentage change in total blood CoQ10 and the cycle sprint total work (R2=0.6009 was noted to be moderate to strong. We conclude that treatment with CoQ10 in healthy, exercise-trained subjects increases total and reduced blood CoQ10, but this increase does not translate into improved exercise performance or decreased oxidative stress.

  5. Effect of urea additive on the thermal decomposition kinetics of flame retardant greige cotton nonwoven fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunghyun Nam; Brian D. Condon; Robert H. White; Qi Zhao; Fei Yao; Michael Santiago Cintrón

    2012-01-01

    Urea is well known to have a synergistic action with phosphorus-based flame retardants (FRs) in enhancing the FR performance of cellulosic materials, but the effect of urea on the thermal decomposition kinetics has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the activation energy (Ea) for the thermal decomposition of greige...

  6. Urea cycle disorders: brain MRI and neurological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bireley, William R; Van Hove, Johan L K; Gallagher, Renata C; Fenton, Laura Z

    2012-04-01

    Urea cycle disorders encompass several enzyme deficiencies that can result in cerebral damage, with a wide clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to severe. The goal of this study was to correlate brain MRI abnormalities in urea cycle disorders with clinical neurological sequelae to evaluate whether MRI abnormalities can assist in guiding difficult treatment decisions. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with urea cycle disorders and symptomatic hyperammonemia. Brain MRI images were reviewed for abnormalities that correlated with severity of clinical neurological sequelae. Our case series comprises six urea cycle disorder patients, five with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and one with citrullinemia type 1. The observed trend in distribution of brain MRI abnormalities as the severity of neurological sequelae increased was the peri-insular region first, extending into the frontal, parietal, temporal and, finally, the occipital lobes. There was thalamic restricted diffusion in three children with prolonged hyperammonemia. Prior to death, this site is typically reported to be spared in urea cycle disorders. The pattern and extent of brain MRI abnormalities correlate with clinical neurological outcome in our case series. This suggests that brain MRI abnormalities may assist in determining prognosis and helping clinicians with subsequent treatment decisions.

  7. Urea cycle disorders: brain MRI and neurological outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bireley, William R. [University of Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Van Hove, Johan L.K. [University of Colorado, Department of Genetics and Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Aurora, CO (United States); Gallagher, Renata C. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Genetics and Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Aurora, CO (United States); Fenton, Laura Z. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Urea cycle disorders encompass several enzyme deficiencies that can result in cerebral damage, with a wide clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to severe. The goal of this study was to correlate brain MRI abnormalities in urea cycle disorders with clinical neurological sequelae to evaluate whether MRI abnormalities can assist in guiding difficult treatment decisions. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with urea cycle disorders and symptomatic hyperammonemia. Brain MRI images were reviewed for abnormalities that correlated with severity of clinical neurological sequelae. Our case series comprises six urea cycle disorder patients, five with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and one with citrullinemia type 1. The observed trend in distribution of brain MRI abnormalities as the severity of neurological sequelae increased was the peri-insular region first, extending into the frontal, parietal, temporal and, finally, the occipital lobes. There was thalamic restricted diffusion in three children with prolonged hyperammonemia. Prior to death, this site is typically reported to be spared in urea cycle disorders. The pattern and extent of brain MRI abnormalities correlate with clinical neurological outcome in our case series. This suggests that brain MRI abnormalities may assist in determining prognosis and helping clinicians with subsequent treatment decisions. (orig.)

  8. Urea cycle disorders: brain MRI and neurological outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bireley, William R.; Van Hove, Johan L.K.; Gallagher, Renata C.; Fenton, Laura Z.

    2012-01-01

    Urea cycle disorders encompass several enzyme deficiencies that can result in cerebral damage, with a wide clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to severe. The goal of this study was to correlate brain MRI abnormalities in urea cycle disorders with clinical neurological sequelae to evaluate whether MRI abnormalities can assist in guiding difficult treatment decisions. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with urea cycle disorders and symptomatic hyperammonemia. Brain MRI images were reviewed for abnormalities that correlated with severity of clinical neurological sequelae. Our case series comprises six urea cycle disorder patients, five with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and one with citrullinemia type 1. The observed trend in distribution of brain MRI abnormalities as the severity of neurological sequelae increased was the peri-insular region first, extending into the frontal, parietal, temporal and, finally, the occipital lobes. There was thalamic restricted diffusion in three children with prolonged hyperammonemia. Prior to death, this site is typically reported to be spared in urea cycle disorders. The pattern and extent of brain MRI abnormalities correlate with clinical neurological outcome in our case series. This suggests that brain MRI abnormalities may assist in determining prognosis and helping clinicians with subsequent treatment decisions. (orig.)

  9. Does the adequacy parameter Kt/V(urea reflect uremic toxin concentrations in hemodialysis patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Eloot

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis aims at removing uremic toxins thus decreasing their concentrations. The present study investigated whether Kt/V(urea, used as marker of dialysis adequacy, is correlated with these concentrations. Predialysis blood samples were taken before a midweek session in 71 chronic HD patients. Samples were analyzed by colorimetry, HPLC, or ELISA for a broad range of uremic solutes. Solute concentrations were divided into four groups according to quartiles of Kt/V(urea, and also of different other parameters with potential impact, such as age, body weight (BW, Protein equivalent of Nitrogen Appearance (PNA, Residual Renal Function (RRF, and dialysis vintage. Dichotomic concentration comparisons were performed for gender and Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Analysis of Variance in quartiles of Kt/V(urea did not show significant differences for any of the solute concentrations. For PNA, however, concentrations showed significant differences for urea (P<0.001, uric acid (UA, p-cresylsulfate (PCS, and free PCS (all P<0.01, and for creatinine (Crea and hippuric acid (HA (both P<0.05. For RRF, concentrations varied for β₂-microglobulin (P<0.001, HA, free HA, free indoxyl sulfate, and free indole acetic acid (all P<0.01, and for p-cresylglucuronide (PCG, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF, free PCS, and free PCG (all P<0.05. Gender and body weight only showed differences for Crea and UA, while age, vintage, and diabetes mellitus only showed differences for one solute concentration (UA, UA, and free PCS, respectively. Multifactor analyses indicated a predominant association of concentration with protein intake and residual renal function. In conclusion, predialysis concentrations of uremic toxins seem to be dependent on protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance and residual renal function, and not on dialysis adequacy as assessed by Kt/V(urea. Efforts to control intestinal load of uremic toxin precursors by dietary or other

  10. Relationship Between Blood Flow and Performance Recovery: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borne, Rachel; Hausswirth, Christophe; Bieuzen, François

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of different limb blood-flow levels on cycling-performance recovery, blood lactate concentration, and heart rate. Thirty-three high-intensity intermittent-trained athletes completed two 30-s Wingate anaerobic test sessions, 3 × 30-s (WAnT 1-3) and 1 × 30-s (WAnT 4), on a cycling ergometer. WAnT 1-3 and WAnT 4 were separated by a randomly assigned 24-min recovery intervention selected from among blood-flow restriction, passive rest, placebo stimulation, or neuromuscular electrical-stimulation-induced blood flow. Calf arterial inflow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography at regular intervals throughout the recovery period. Performance was measured in terms of peak and mean power output during WAnT 1 and WAnT 4. After the recovery interventions, a large (r = .68 [90% CL .42; .83]) and very large (r = .72 (90% CL .49; .86]) positive correlation were observed between the change in calf arterial inflow and the change in mean and peak power output, respectively. Calf arterial inflow was significantly higher during the neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation recovery intervention than with the blood-flow-restriction, passive-rest, and placebo-stimulation interventions (P .05). No recovery effect was linked to heart rate or blood lactate concentration levels. For the first time, these data support the existence of a positive correlation between an increase in blood flow and performance recovery between bouts of high-intensity exercise. As a practical consideration, this effect can be obtained by using neuromuscular electrical stimulation-induced blood flow since this passive, simple strategy could be easily applied during short-term recovery.

  11. Do the venous blood samples replicate malaria parasite densities found in capillary blood? A field study performed in naturally-infected asymptomatic children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeu, Maurice M; Bayibéki, Albert N; Tchioffo, Majoline T; Abate, Luc; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H; Nsango, Sandrine E; Diallo, Diadier; Berry, Antoine; Texier, Gaétan; Morlais, Isabelle

    2017-08-17

    The measure of new drug- or vaccine-based approaches for malaria control is based on direct membrane feeding assays (DMFAs) where gametocyte-infected blood samples are offered to mosquitoes through an artificial feeder system. Gametocyte donors are identified by the microscopic detection and quantification of malaria blood stages on blood films prepared using either capillary or venous blood. However, parasites are known to sequester in the microvasculature and this phenomenon may alter accurate detection of parasites in blood films. The blood source may then impact the success of mosquito feeding experiments and investigations are needed for the implementation of DMFAs under natural conditions. Thick blood smears were prepared from blood obtained from asymptomatic children attending primary schools in the vicinity of Mfou (Cameroon) over four transmission seasons. Parasite densities were determined microscopically from capillary and venous blood for 137 naturally-infected gametocyte carriers. The effect of the blood source on gametocyte and asexual stage densities was then assessed by fitting cumulative link mixed models (CLMM). DMFAs were performed to compare the infectiousness of gametocytes from the different blood sources to mosquitoes. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages among asymptomatic children aged from 4 to 15 years was 51.8% (2116/4087). The overall prevalence of P. falciparum gametocyte carriage was 8.9% and varied from one school to another. No difference in the density of gametocyte and asexual stages was found between capillary and venous blood. Attempts to perform DMFAs with capillary blood failed. Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite densities do not differ between capillary and venous blood in asymptomatic subjects for both gametocyte and trophozoite stages. This finding suggests that the blood source should not interfere with transmission efficiency in DMFAs.

  12. Resistance exercise performed with repetitions until failure affects nocturnal blood pressure decreases in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia de Almeida Correia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that resistance exercise reduces 24-hour blood pressure to levels below resting values, although this is not a universal finding. The number of repetitions has been shown to influence this response. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the effects of resistance exercise performed until failure (UF on 24-hour blood pressure in hypertensive women. Thirteen hypertensive women underwent three experimental sessions in random order: UF, resistance exercise with repetitions before concentric failure (BF and control (C. Prior to and up to 24 hours after the sessions, cardiovascular variables, as well as the nocturnal fall in blood pressure, the morning surge, and the presence or absence of a blood pressure dip pattern were established using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. In both wakefulness and sleep there was no significant difference among the three groups. However, after UF and C fewer patients presented a dip in blood pressure (46% and 38%, respectively compared BF (77%, p=0.047. In conclusion, the UF attenuated blood pressure dips at night in hypertensive patients.

  13. Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E S; Slettenaar, M; vd Meer, N; Transler, C; Jans, L; Quadt, F; Berry, M

    2011-10-24

    The combination of theobromine and caffeine, methylxanthines found in chocolate, has previously been shown to improve mood and cognition. However, it is unknown whether these molecules act synergistically. This study tested the hypothesis that a combination of caffeine and theobromine has synergistic effects on cognition, mood and blood pressure in 24 healthy female subjects. The effects of theobromine (700 mg), caffeine (120 mg) or the combination of both, or placebo were tested on mood (the Bond-Lader visual analog scale), psychomotor performance (the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)) and blood pressure before and at 1, 2 and 3 h after administration. Theobromine alone decreased self-reported calmness 3h after ingestion and lowered blood pressure relative to placebo 1 h after ingestion. Caffeine increased self-reported alertness 1, 2 and 3h after ingestion and contentedness 1 and 2 h after ingestion, and increased blood pressure relative to placebo (at 1 h). The combination of caffeine+theobromine had similar effects as caffeine alone on mood, but with no effect on blood pressure. There was no treatment effect on DSST performance. Together these results suggest that theobromine and caffeine could have differential effects on mood and blood pressure. It was tentatively concluded that caffeine may have more CNS-mediated effects on alertness, while theobromine may be acting primarily via peripheral physiological changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, G; Brimioulle, S; Genette, F; Mockel, J

    1980-07-01

    Recent data have shown the role of urea in the urinary concentrating mechanism. We studied the effects of exogenous urea administration in hyponatremia associated with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). In 20 patients with SIADH, we observed a positive correlation between serum sodium and blood urea levels (r = 0.65; p less than 0.01). In one patient with an oat cell carcinoma and SIADH-induced hyponatremia, we observed the same positive correlation (r = 0.80; p less than 0.01) but also a negative one between the excreted fraction of filtered sodium and urinary urea (r = -0.67; p less than 0.001). The short-term administration of low doses of urea (4 to 10 g) resulted in correcting the "salt-losing" tendency of this patient. Longer term administration of high doses of urea (30 g/day) was attempted with the same patient as well as with a healthy volunteer subject with Pitressin-induced SIADH. in both patients, urea treatment lowered urinary sodium excretion as long as hyponatremia was significant (less than 130 meq/liter). Urea treatment also induced a persistent osmotic diuresis, allowing a normal daily intake of water despite SIADH. This was clearly shown during the long-term treatment of a third patient with SIADH who was taking 30 g urea/day during 11 weeks. It is concluded that urea is a good alternative in the treatment of patients with SIADH who presented with persistent hyponatremia despite the restriction of water intake.

  15. [Liver transplantation for the treatment of hyperammonemia due to urea cycle disorder: report of four cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhijun; Sun, Liying; Wei, Lin; Qu, Wei; Zeng, Zhigui; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Liang; He, Enhui; Wang, Dong

    2015-02-01

    To analyze clinical efficacy and prognosis of liver transplantation in children with hyperammonemia caused by urea cycle disorders. A retrospective analysis was performed on the occurrence of disease, operation and the follow-up post liver transplantation in 4 patients with urea cycle disorders who underwent liver transplantation during June 2001 to May 2014. Four girls were diagnosed with ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency by genetic test. They had the clinical onset at the age of 1.5 to 3.0 years. Liver transplantation had been performed at their age of 53.9 months, 40.6 months, 40.3 months and 22.8 months, respectively. The grafts of case 1 and case 2 were from left lateral lobe of liver of cadaveric donor, the graft of case 3 was from left lateral lobe of liver of a living donor, the graft of case 4 was a whole liver of a dead child. The liver function of 4 patients gradually returned to normal, blood ammonia levels were normal and restored the normal diet, 4 children were discharged on postoperative 25-30 days. Regular follow-up was done, the liver function, biochemical features and growth status have been followed up for 162.2 months, 124.2 months, 12.0 months and 4.8 months after liver transplantation, respectively. Now, all the four cases are healthy and growth is normal. Liver transplantation is an important way to the patients with severe hyperammonemia caused by urea cycle disorders. In this study, the patients with ornithine carbamoyl transferase defect got satisfactory long-term outcome after liver transplantation.

  16. Kinetics on cocondensation between phenol and urea through formaldehyde I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunori Yoshida; Bunchiro Tomita; Chung-Yun Hse

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of methylolphenols and urea were investigated using 2- and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a reverse-phase column gave a clear separation between methylolphenols and hydroxybenzylureas. The molar ratios of hydroxybenzylureas to the corresponding methylolphenols in reaction mixtures were...

  17. Pengaruh Suplementasi Baking Soda dalam Pakan terhadap Urea Darah dan Urea Susu Sapi Perah Laktasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Harjanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to assess the effect of suplementation of sodium bicarbonate in feed rations on the concentration of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN and Milk Urea Nitrogen (MUN of lactating dairy cattle. The materials used were 12 lactating Friesian Holstein cattle in the 1th lactation period and the month lactation of 5 and 6th. The experiment used a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The experimental treatmens were basal ration (T0, and basal ration supplemented with 0,8 % (T0 and 1 % (T2 of sodium bicarbonate, on a dry matter (DM basis. The parameters determined were crude protein intake (CPI and the concentration of BUN and MUN. The data were analyzed using variance the F-test. The result showed that the CPI, and the concentration of BUN and MUN were not affected by the treatments. The CPI were 2.097,43 ; 2.079,19 and 2.053,17 g/d. The concentration of BUN were 14,04 ; 13,05 and 12,75 mg/dl, whereas the concentration of MUN were 12,43 ; 10,01 and 10,07 mg/dl for T0, T1 dan T2 respectively. Overall, 0,8 and 1% of sodium bicarbonate supplementations into feed ration was not found to significantly alter the quantity of crude protein intake and the concentration of BUN and MUN in lactating dairy cattle in the present study.

  18. Sealing performance of a magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Kano, Kentaro; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya; Higuchi, Taka-Aki

    2009-09-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) for a rotary blood pump seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and, hence, has excellent durability. The performance of a MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We have developed a MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Under the condition of continuous flow, the MF seal remained in perfect condition against a pressure of 298 mm Hg (pump flow rate: 3.96 L/min). The seal was also perfect against a pressure of 170 mm Hg in a continuous flow of 3.9 L/min for 275 days. We have developed a MF seal that works in liquid against clinically used pressures. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  19. Balancing Model Performance and Simplicity to Predict Postoperative Primary Care Blood Pressure Elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B; Dai, Feng; Brandt, Cynthia A; Burg, Matthew M

    2015-09-01

    Because of uncertainty regarding the reliability of perioperative blood pressures and traditional notions downplaying the role of anesthesiologists in longitudinal patient care, there is no consensus for anesthesiologists to recommend postoperative primary care blood pressure follow-up for patients presenting for surgery with an increased blood pressure. The decision of whom to refer should ideally be based on a predictive model that balances performance with ease-of-use. If an acceptable decision rule was developed, a new practice paradigm integrating the surgical encounter into broader public health efforts could be tested, with the goal of reducing long-term morbidity from hypertension among surgical patients. Using national data from US veterans receiving surgical care, we determined the prevalence of poorly controlled outpatient clinic blood pressures ≥140/90 mm Hg, based on the mean of up to 4 readings in the year after surgery. Four increasingly complex logistic regression models were assessed to predict this outcome. The first included the mean of 2 preoperative blood pressure readings; other models progressively added a broad array of demographic and clinical data. After internal validation, the C-statistics and the Net Reclassification Index between the simplest and most complex models were assessed. The performance characteristics of several simple blood pressure referral thresholds were then calculated. Among 215,621 patients, poorly controlled outpatient clinic blood pressure was present postoperatively in 25.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25.5%-25.9%) including 14.2% (95% CI, 13.9%-14.6%) of patients lacking a hypertension history. The most complex prediction model demonstrated statistically significant, but clinically marginal, improvement in discrimination over a model based on preoperative blood pressure alone (C-statistic, 0.736 [95% CI, 0.734-0.739] vs 0.721 [95% CI, 0.718-0.723]; P for difference 1 of 4 patients (95% CI, 25

  20. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  1. Exercise performance, red blood cell deformability, and lipid peroxidation: effects of fish oil and vitamin E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G. S.; Mensink, R. P.; Hardeman, M. R.; de Vries, T.; Brouns, F.; Hornstra, G.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell (RBC) deformability, which may improve exercise performance. Exercise alone, or in combination with an increase in fatty acid unsaturation, however, may enhance lipid peroxidation. Effects of a bicycle time trial

  2. Performance on Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and cerebral blood flow in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'haeseleer, M.; Steen, C.; Hoogduin, J. M.; van Osch, M. J. P.; Fierens, Y.; Cambron, M.; Koch, M. W.; De Keyser, J.

    BackgroundTo assess the relationship between performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and axonal metabolic integrity in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) of the centrum semiovale in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). MethodsNormal

  3. The relation between the blood benzodiazepine concentration and performance in suspected impaired drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, B.E.; Lusthof, K.J.; de Gier, J.J.; Uges, D.R.; Egberts, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several experimental studies have shown a negative influence of benzodiazepines on driving skills. The objective of this study is to study the relationship between the blood concentration of benzodiazepines and the influence on performance in field sobriety tests. A retrospective case file

  4. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone, and pyrimethamine in filter paper blood spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Lemnge, M M; Angelo, H R

    1995-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous analysis of dapsone (DDS), the major metabolite of DDS, monoacetyldapsone (MADDS), and pyrimethamine (PYR) was modified for capillary blood samples obtained by finger prick and dried on filter paper. Limit of quantitation using...

  5. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein (RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance, health status and selected blood metabolites. Twenty-one female Holstein dairy calves (body weight=39.6±2.3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=7 each: i starter concentrate with 25% SBM [control (CTR]; ii starter concentrate with 17.5% SBM +7.5% XSBM (7.5XSBM; and iii starter concentrate with 12.5% SBM+12.5% XSBM (12.5XSBM. Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily, with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning (d 56. Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples collected on d 4, 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose, total protein (TP, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Starter intake (560, 400, and 420 g/d for CTR, 7.5XSBM, and 12.5XSBM, respectively, average daily gain (0.67, 0.6 and 0.57 kg/d, and feed to gain ratio (0.83, 0.67, and 0.74 were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Hearth girth, height at withers, body length, rectal temperature, faecal score, and respiratory score did not differ among treatments. Mean plasma glucose and TP were not affected by treatments, whereas PUN in the 12.5XSBM group was lower than in the other groups (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that partial replacement of SBM by XSBM may improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in pre-weaned calves, which warrants further studies.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1923 - Urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urea. 184.1923 Section 184.1923 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1923 Urea. (a) Urea (CO(NH2)2, CAS Reg. No. 57-13-6) is the diamide of...

  7. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  8. Effect of cold water immersion on repeated cycling performance and limb blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaile, J; O'Hagan, C; Stefanovic, B; Walker, M; Gill, N; Askew, C D

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) and active recovery (ACT) on resting limb blood flow, rectal temperature and repeated cycling performance in the heat. Ten subjects completed two testing sessions separated by 1 week; each trial consisted of an initial all-out 35-min exercise bout, one of two 15-min recovery interventions (randomised: CWI or ACT), followed by a 40-min passive recovery period before repeating the 35-min exercise bout. Performance was measured as the change in total work completed during the exercise bouts. Resting limb blood flow, heart rate, rectal temperature and blood lactate were recorded throughout the testing sessions. There was a significant decline in performance after ACT (mean (SD) -1.81% (1.05%)) compared with CWI where performance remained unchanged (0.10% (0.71%)). Rectal temperature was reduced after CWI (36.8°C (1.0°C)) compared with ACT (38.3°C (0.4°C)), as was blood flow to the arms (CWI 3.64 (1.47) ml/100 ml/min; ACT 16.85 (3.57) ml/100 ml/min) and legs (CW 4.83 (2.49) ml/100 ml/min; ACT 4.83 (2.49) ml/100 ml/min). Leg blood flow at the end of the second exercise bout was not different between the active (15.25 (4.33) ml/100 ml/min) and cold trials (14.99 (4.96) ml/100 ml/min), whereas rectal temperature (CWI 38.1°C (0.3°C); ACT 38.8°C (0.2°C)) and arm blood flow (CWI 20.55 (3.78) ml/100 ml/min; ACT 23.83 (5.32) ml/100 ml/min) remained depressed until the end of the cold trial. These findings indicate that CWI is an effective intervention for maintaining repeat cycling performance in the heat and this performance benefit is associated with alterations in core temperature and limb blood flow.

  9. Spectroscopic and MD simulation studies on unfolding processes of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA induced by urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Danish; Prakash, Amresh; Haque, Md Anzarul; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VA (CAVA) is primarily expressed in the mitochondria and involved in numerous physiological processes including lipogenesis, insulin secretion from pancreatic cells, ureagenesis, gluconeogenesis and neuronal transmission. To understand the biophysical properties of CAVA, we carried out a reversible urea-induced isothermal denaturation at pH 7.0 and 25°C. Spectroscopic probes, [θ]222 (mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm), F344 (Trp-fluorescence emission intensity at 344 nm) and Δε280 (difference absorption at 280 nm) were used to monitor the effect of urea on the structure and stability of CAVA. The urea-induced reversible denaturation curves were used to estimate [Formula: see text], Gibbs free energy in the absence of urea; Cm, the mid-point of the denaturation curve, i.e. molar urea concentration ([urea]) at which ΔGD = 0; and m, the slope (=∂ΔGD/∂[urea]). Coincidence of normalized transition curves of all optical properties suggests that unfolding/refolding of CAVA is a two-state process. We further performed 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation of CAVA to see the dynamics at different urea concentrations. An excellent agreement was observed between in silico and in vitro studies.

  10. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  11. Blood pressure interacts with APOE ε4 to predict memory performance in a midlife sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Lauren E; Manuck, Stephen B; Gianaros, Peter J; Ferrell, Robert E; Muldoon, Matthew F; Jennings, J Richard; Flory, Janine D; Erickson, Kirk I

    2015-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure and the Apolipoprotein ε4 allele (APOE ε4) are independent risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether the combined presence of the APOE ε4 allele and elevated blood pressure is associated with lower cognitive performance in cognitively healthy middle-aged adults. A total of 975 participants aged 30-54 (mean age = 44.47) were genotyped for APOE. Cardiometabolic risk factors including blood pressure, lipids, and glucose were assessed and cognitive function was measured using the Trail Making Test and the Visual Reproduction and Logical Memory subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale. Multivariable regression analysis showed that the association between APOE ε4 and episodic memory performance varied as a function of systolic blood pressure (SBP), such that elevated SBP was predictive of poorer episodic memory performance only in APOE ε4 carriers (β = -.092; t = -2.614; p = .009). Notably, this association was apparent at prehypertensive levels (≥130 mmHg), even after adjusting for physical activity, depression, smoking, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. The joint presence of APOE ε4 and elevated SBP, even at prehypertensive levels, is associated with lower cognitive performance in healthy, middle-aged adults. Results of this study suggest that the combination of APOE ε4 and elevated SBP may synergistically compromise memory function well before the appearance of clinically significant impairments. Interventions targeting blood pressure control in APOE ε4 carriers during midlife should be studied as a possible means to reduce the risk of cognitive decline in genetically susceptible samples. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Performance Analysis of Fuzzy-PID Controller for Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jyoti; Rani, Asha; Singh, Vijander

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy-PID (FPID) control scheme for a blood glucose control of type 1 diabetic subjects. A new metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is utilized to optimize the gains of FPID controller. CSA provides fast convergence and is capable of handling global optimization of continuous nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and optimization which may provide an efficient solution for complex problems like blood glucose control. The task is to maintain normal glucose levels in the shortest possible time with minimum insulin dose. The glucose control is achieved by tuning the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) and FPID controller with the help of Genetic Algorithm and CSA for comparative analysis. The designed controllers are tested on Bergman minimal model to control the blood glucose level in the facets of parameter uncertainties, meal disturbances and sensor noise. The results reveal that the performance of CSA-FPID controller is superior as compared to other designed controllers.

  13. Design optimization of flow channel and performance analysis for a new-type centrifugal blood pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, J. J.; Luo, X. W.; Y Wu, Q.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a new-type centrifugal blood pump, whose impeller is suspended inside a pump chamber with hydraulic bearings, is presented. In order to improve the hydraulic performance of the pump, an internal flow simulation is conducted to compare the effects of different geometrical parameters of pump flow passage. Based on the numerical results, the pumps can satisfy the operation parameters and be free of hemolysis. It is noted that for the pump with a column-type supporter at its inlet, the pump head and hydraulic efficiency decreases compared to the pump with a step-type support structure. The performance drop is caused by the disturbed flow upstream impeller inlet. Further, the unfavorable flow features such as reverse flow and low velocity in the pump may increases the possibility of thrombus. It is also confirmed that the casing shape can little influence pump performance. Those results are helpful for design optimization in blood pump development.

  14. Performance of a new test strip for freestyle blood glucose monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, John Paul; Brazg, Ronald; Bernstein, Robert M; Taylor, Elizabeth; Patel, Mona; Ward, Jeanne; Alva, Shridhara; Chen, Ting; Welsh, Zoë; Amor, Walter; Bhogal, Claire; Ng, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    a new strip, designed to enhance the ease of use and minimize interference of non-glucose sugars, has been developed to replace the current FreeStyle (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) blood glucose test strip. We evaluated the performance of this new strip. laboratory evaluation included precision, linearity, dynamic range, effects of operating temperature, humidity, altitude, hematocrit, interferents, and blood reapplication. System accuracy, lay user performance, and ease of use for finger capillary blood testing and accuracy for venous blood testing were evaluated at clinics. Lay users also compared the speed and ease of use between the new strip and the current FreeStyle strip. for glucose concentrations blood glucose results obtained by lay users fell within ± 5, 10, and 15 mg/dL, respectively, of the reference. For glucose concentrations ≥75 mg/dL, 68%, 95%, 99%, and 99% of the lay user results fell within  ±  5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively, of the reference. Comparable accuracy was obtained in the venous blood study. Lay users found the new test strip easy to use and faster and easier to use than the current FreeStyle strip. The new strip maintained accuracy under various challenging conditions, including high concentrations of various interferents, sample reapplication up to 60 s, and extremes in hematocrit, altitude, and operating temperature and humidity. our results demonstrated excellent accuracy of the new FreeStyle test strip and validated the improvements in minimizing interference and enhancing ease of use.

  15. Intellectual, Adaptive, and Behavioral Functioning in Children with Urea Cycle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivitzky, Lauren; Babikian, Talin; Lee, HyeSeung; Thomas, Nina Hattiangadi; Burk-Paull, Karen L.; Batshaw, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Inborn errors of urea synthesis lead to an accumulation of ammonia in blood and brain, and result in high rates of mortality and neurodevelopmental disability. The current study seeks to characterize the cognitive, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning of children with Urea Cycle Disorders (UCDs). These domains were measured through testing and parent questionnaires in 92 children with UCDs (33 neonatal onset, 59 late onset). Results indicate that children who present with neonatal onset have poorer outcome than those who present later in childhood. Approximately half of the children with neonatal onset performed in the range of intellectual disability (ID), including a substantial number (~30%) who were severely impaired. In comparison, only a quarter of the late onset group were in the range of ID. There is also evidence that the UCD group has difficulties in aspects of emotional/behavioral and executive skills domains. In conclusion, children with UCDs present with a wide spectrum of cognitive outcomes. Children with neonatal onset disease have a much higher likelihood of having an intellectual disability, which becomes even more evident with increasing age. However, even children with late onset UCDs demonstrate evidence of neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, particularly in aspects of attention and executive functioning. PMID:19287347

  16. Dietary Flavanols: A Review of Select Effects on Vascular Function, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dashti, Yousef A; Holt, Roberta R; Stebbins, Charles L; Keen, Carl L; Hackman, Robert M

    2018-05-02

    An individual's diet affects numerous physiological functions and can play an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that dietary flavanols can be an important modulator of vascular risk. Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure, especially in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Flavanols may act in part through signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors. During exercise, flavanols have been reported to modulate metabolism and respiration (e.g., maximal oxygen uptake, O 2 cost of exercise, and energy expenditure), and reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting in increased skeletal muscle efficiency and endurance capacity. Flavanol-induced reductions in blood pressure during exercise may decrease the work of the heart. Collectively, these effects suggest that flavanols can act as an ergogenic aid to help delay the onset of fatigue. More research is needed to better clarify the effects of flavanols on vascular function, blood pressure regulation, and exercise performance and establish safe and effective levels of intake. Flavanol-rich foods and food products can be useful components of a healthy diet and lifestyle program for those seeking to better control their blood pressure or to enhance their physical activity. Key teaching points • Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that dietary flavanols can reduce the risk of vascular disease. • Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure and improve exercise performance in humans. • Mechanisms by which flavanols may reduce blood pressure function include alterations in signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxation and constriction factors.

  17. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Vakili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY and cinnamon (CIN essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive, 2-THY (5 g/d/calf and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf. Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  18. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  19. Urea-SCR Temperature Investigation for NOx Control of Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SCR (selective catalytic reduction system is continuously being analyzed by many researchers worldwide on various concerns due to the stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions legislation for heavy-duty diesel engines. Urea-SCR includes AdBlue as urea source, which subsequently decomposes to NH3 (ammonia being the reducing agent. Reaction temperature is a key factor for the performance of urea-SCR system, as urea decomposition rate is sensitive to a specific temperature range. This particular study was directed to investigate the temperature of the SCR system in diesel engine with the objective to confirm that whether the appropriate temperature is attained for occurrence of urea based catalytic reduction or otherwise and how the system performs on the prescribed temperature range. Diesel engine fitted with urea-SCR exhaust system has been operated on European standard cycle for emission testing to monitor the temperature and corresponding nitrogen oxides (NOx values on specified points. Moreover, mathematical expressions for approximation of reaction temperature are also proposed which are derived by applying energy conservation principal and gas laws. Results of the investigation have shown that during the whole testing cycle system temperature has remained in the range where urea-SCR can take place with best optimum rate and the system performance on account of NOx reduction was exemplary as excellent NOx conversion rate is achieved. It has also been confirmed that selective catalytic reduction (SCR is the best suitable technology for automotive engine-out NOx control.

  20. The crystal structure of urea nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.

    1969-01-01

    The structure of urea nitrate has been solved, by the use of three-dimensional X-ray data. Data were collected using Cu Ke and Mo K0~ radiations. The structure consists of layers with urea and nitrate groups held together by hydrogen bonds. The positions of all hydrogen atoms were found. The final R

  1. Urea synthesis in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J

    2001-01-01

    Up-regulation of urea synthesis by amino acids and dietary protein intake may be impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) due to the reduced glucagon secretion. Conversely, urea synthesis may be increased as a result of the chronic inflammation. The aims of the study were to determine...

  2. Experimental studies on urea degradation in seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A.; Joseph, T.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    polluted waters, resulting in the accumulation of ammonia. The urea decomposing bacteria varied between 7 and 40% among the total heterotrophic bacteria in Velsao Bay, while these were from 15 to 22% near Mormugao. The rate for biological oxidation of urea...

  3. Cook and Chill: Effect of Temperature on the Performance of Nonequilibrated Blood Glucose Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Sherine; Steele, Dominic; Clarke, Sarah; Gribben, Cathryn; Bexley, Anne-Marie; Laan, Remmert; Kerr, David

    2015-08-20

    Exposure to extreme temperature can affect the performance of blood glucose monitoring systems. The aim was to determine the non-equilibrated performance of these systems at extreme high and low temperatures that can occur in daily life. The performances of 5 test systems, (1) Abbott FreeStyle Freedom Lite, (2) Roche AccuChek Aviva, (3) Bayer Contour, (4) LifeScan OneTouch Verio, and (5) Sanofi BG Star, were compared after "cooking" (50°C for 1 hour) or "chilling" (-5°C for 1 hour) with room temperature controls (23°C) using whole blood with glucose concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/dl. The equilibration period (time from the end of incubation to when the test system is operational) was between 1 and 8 minutes, and each test system took between 15 and 30 minutes after incubation to obtain stable measurements at room temperature. Incubating the strips at -5°C or 50°C had little effect on the glucose measurement, whereas incubating the meters introduced bias in performance between 0 and 15 minutes but not subsequently, compared to room temperature controls and at all 3 glucose levels. Compensating technologies embedded within blood glucose monitoring systems studied here perform well at extreme temperatures. People with diabetes need to be alerted to this feature to avoid perceptions of malperformance of their devices and the possible inability to get blood glucose readings on short notice (eg, during time of suspected rapid change or before an unplanned meal). © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. A stochastic model for an urea decomposition system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VSS Yadavalli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability is an important measure in describing the performance of a system. The availability of a decomposition process in an urea production system in the fertilizer industry is considered in this paper. The system contains four subsystems and is supported by a standby unit. An estimation study of the steady state availability of the system is performed and illustrated by means of a numerical example.

  5. Effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk urea concentration in crossbred Karan-Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Sirohi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk ureaconcentration. Six multiparous crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian ✕ Tharparkar cows were blocked into threegroups of nearly equal body weight, DIM, milk yield and milk fat content and were randomized into a 3 ✕ 3 Latin squaredesign with 3-week period. Three experimental diets were fed to the animals. Composition of these diets were: Diet 1green maize, wheat straw and concentrate mixture; Diet 2 green maize, wheat straw, concentrate mixture (urea supplementedand molasses; Diet 3 green maize (4 % of total DM, 4 % urea treated wheat straw and concentrate mixture.Intake of DM and CP did not vary across the diets. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP was found significantlyhigher in diet 2, while ME and NEL intakes were found significantly lower in diet 3 but did not differ between diets 1and 2. Average milk and plasma urea concentrations (mg dl-1 were found 29.2 ± 2.6, 45.3 ± 0.9, 34.5 ± 2.3 and 28.9± 2.4, 36.6 ± 1.4, 33.9 ± 2.2, respectively in diet 1, diet 2 and diet 3. Urea concentrations in morning milk sampleswere found significantly lower than noon or evening samples in all the three diets. Concentrations of urea in milk andplasma were found closely correlated (r = 0.94 and the regression equation developed was, plasma urea = 8.90 (.89+ .79 (.02 milk urea. Intake (g of DCP than CP, per unit (MCal of ME was found more closely associated with milk ureaconcentration. The study revealed that urea supplementation and urea treated straw based diet increased urea concentrationsignificantly in milk and plasma. Morning milk urea values that estimated at a time gap of 15 hr since last majorfeeding may be considered as the lowest level and can be used for interpretation to monitor feeding adequacy or reproductiveperformances in dairy cows.

  6. Utilization of 15N-labelled urea in laying hens. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Hennig, A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the utilization of urea in poultry, 3 colostomized laying hybrids were orally supplied with a traditional ration supplemented with 1% 15 N'-labelled urea with a 15 N excess ( 15 N') of 96.06 atom-% over a period of 6 days. After another 2 days on which the hens received the same ration with unlabelled urea, they were killed. The atom-% 15 N' of the blood on an average of the 3 hens was 0.64, of the plasma 1.40 and of the corpuscles 0.47. The TCA-soluble fraction of the blood had an average 15 N' of 1.14 atom-%; the 15 N amount was 9.7% of the total amount of 15 N in the blood. The amount of 15 N' in the urea in the blood was 6.8 atom-%. This shows that the absorbed urea is decomposed very slowly. The quota of 15 N' in the basic amino acids from the total 15 N' of the blood plasma was only 0.3% and that of the corpuscles 2.2%. The average 15 N' of the mature follicles was 2.39 atom-% whereas the smallest and the remaining ovary contain 1.12 atom-%. The labelling level of lysine in mature egg cells was, in contrast to this, only 0.08 atom-% 15 N' and in infantile follicles 0.04 atom-% 15 N'. 1% of the 15 N' quota was in the follicles and the remaining ovary. Of the basic amino acids, histidine is most strongly labelled. The lower incorporation of the 15 N' from urea into the basic amino acids shows that the nitrogen of this compound can be used for the synthesis of the essential amino acids to a low degree only. (author)

  7. Highly sensitive enzymatic determination of urea based on the pH-dependence of the fluorescence of graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Taili; Zhang, Ping; Zhuo, Shujuan; Zhu, Changqing; Tang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    We report on a nanoparticle-based fluorescent sensing scheme for urea. It is based on the finding that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) display pH-sensitive green fluorescence if photoexcited at 460 nm. Fluorescence is gradually quenched due to an increase in the local pH value as a result of the hydrolysis of urea as catalyzed by urease. The effect was used to quantify urea in the 0.1–100 mM concentration range, with a limit of detection of 0.01 mM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of urea in human serum samples. The method is simple, effective, and therefore holds promise as a platform for sensing urea in blood. (author)

  8. A magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps: Long-term performance in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Amari, Shuichi; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya

    A magnetic fluid (MF) seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and hence has excellent durability. The performance of a MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We have developed a MF seal that has a 'shield' mechanism and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. The seal was perfect against a pressure of 150 mmHg in a continuous flow of 4.0 L/min for 275 days and against a pressure of 175 mmHg in a continuous flow of 3.9 L/min for 217 days. We have developed a MF seal that works in liquid against pressure mostly used clinically. The magnetic fluid seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  9. Investigation of some urea derivatives under in vitro conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goersch, R.; Bergner, H.

    1978-01-01

    The protein synthesis from urea, isobutylidene diurea (IBDU), acetyl urea and urea phosphate was investigated in vitro under standardized conditions. The 35 S incorporation into the trichloroacetic acid precipitable fraction of the fermentation mixture and the NH 3 level served as test criteria. If rumen juice of donor animals adapted to urea was used (test 1), only IBDU made possible a protein synthesis comparable to the urea preparation. Under conditions of IBDU adaption of the donor animals (test 2), urea, IBDU and urea phosphate proved to be of equal value. Acetyl urea showed considerably lower incorporation ratios, irrespective of the adaption of the donor animals. (author)

  10. Investigation of some urea derivatives under in vitro conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goersch, R; Bergner, H [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1978-10-01

    The protein synthesis from urea, isobutylidene diurea (IBDU), acetyl urea and urea phosphate was investigated in vitro under standardized conditions. The /sup 35/S incorporation into the trichloroacetic acid precipitable fraction of the fermentation mixture and the NH/sub 3/ level served as test criteria. If rumen juice of donor animals adapted to urea was used (test 1), only IBDU made possible a protein synthesis comparable to the urea preparation. Under conditions of IBDU adaption of the donor animals (test 2), urea, IBDU and urea phosphate proved to be of equal value. Acetyl urea showed considerably lower incorporation ratios, irrespective of the adaption of the donor animals.

  11. Validation of the salivary urea and creatinine tests as screening methods of chronic kidney disease in Vietnamese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy Anh Vu

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this case control study were to correlate the serum and salivary urea as well as creatinine levels; and to evaluate salivary urea and creatinine as noninvasive alternatives to serum for creatinine estimation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 112 CKD patients and 108 subjects without CKD for quantitative analysis of urea and creatinine. Spearman's correlation coefficients between salivary and serum urea as well as creatinine were obtained. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was done to assess the diagnostic tests of salivary urea and creatinine. Cut-off values were determined based on the best trade-off between the sensitivity and specificity for both salivary urea and creatinine. Salivary urea and creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in CKD patients than those in control subjects; and increased by the stages of the severity of the disease. The positive correlation was significantly found between salivary and serum creatinine (r  =  0.90) and between salivary and serum urea (r  =  0.73). Area under the curve for salivary urea was 0.76 and a cut-off value of 14.25 mmol/L gave a sensitivity of 82.9% and specificity of 57.8%. Area under the curve for salivary creatinine was 0.92 and a cut-off value of 0.24 mg/dL gave a sensitivity of 86.5% and specificity of 87.2%. Both salivary urea and creatinine have a high capacity for serum creatinine estimation. Salivary urea and creatinine tests can be used as low-cost, easily accessible and noninvasive tools for screening, diagnosing, monitoring treatment outcomes and ascertaining prognosis of chronic kidney disease.

  12. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  13. Influence of partial pressure of oxygen in blood samples on measurement performance in glucose-oxidase-based systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: oxygen sensitive. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Urea kinetics during sustained low-efficiency dialysis in critically ill patients requiring renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mark R; Golper, Thomas A; Shaver, Mary J; Alam, Muhammad G; Chatoth, Dinesh K

    2002-03-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapies have practical and theoretical advantages compared with conventional intermittent hemodialysis in hemodynamically unstable or severely catabolic patients with acute renal failure (ARF). Sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) is a hybrid modality introduced July 1998 at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences that involves the application of a conventional hemodialysis machine with reduced dialysate and blood flow rates for 12-hour nocturnal treatments. Nine critically ill patients with ARF were studied during a single SLED treatment to determine delivered dialysis dose and the most appropriate model for the description of urea kinetics during treatment. Five patients were men, mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 28.9 and mean weight was 92.5 kg. Kt/V was determined by the reference method of direct dialysate quantification (DDQ) combined with an equilibrated postdialysis plasma water urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration and four other methods that were either blood or dialysate based, single or double pool, or model independent (whole-body kinetic method). Solute removal indices (SRIs) were determined from net urea removal and urea distribution volume supplied from DDQ (reference method) and by mass balance using variables supplied from blood-based formal variable-volume single-pool (VVSP) urea kinetic modeling. Equivalent renal urea clearances (EKRs) were calculated from urea generation rates and time-averaged concentrations for PUN based on weekly mass balance with kinetic variables supplied by either DDQ (reference method) or formal blood-based VVSP modeling. Mean Kt/V determined by the reference method was 1.40 and not significantly different when determined by formal VVSP modeling, DDQ using an immediate postdialysis PUN, or the whole-body kinetic method. Correction of single-pool Kt/V by a Daugirdas rate equation did not yield plausible results. Mean SRI and EKR by the

  15. Emergency medical technician-performed point-of-care blood analysis using the capillary blood obtained from skin puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsun; Kim, Hansol

    2017-12-09

    Comparing a point-of-care (POC) test using the capillary blood obtained from skin puncture with conventional laboratory tests. In this study, which was conducted at the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital in April-July 2017, 232 patients were enrolled, and three types of blood samples (capillary blood from skin puncture, arterial and venous blood from blood vessel puncture) were simultaneously collected. Each blood sample was analyzed using a POC analyzer (epoc® system, USA), an arterial blood gas analyzer (pHOx®Ultra, Nova biomedical, USA) and venous blood analyzers (AU5800, DxH2401, Beckman Coulter, USA). Twelve parameters were compared between the epoc and reference analyzers, with an equivalence test, Bland-Altman plot analysis and linear regression employed to show the agreement or correlation between the two methods. The pH, HCO 3 , Ca 2+ , Na + , K + , Cl - , glucose, Hb and Hct measured by the epoc were equivalent to the reference values (95% confidence interval of mean difference within the range of the agreement target) with clinically inconsequential mean differences and narrow limits of agreement. All of them, except pH, had clinically acceptable agreements between the two methods (results within target value ≥80%). Of the remaining three parameters (pCO 2, pO 2 and lactate), the epoc pCO 2 and lactate values were highly correlated with the reference device values, whereas pO 2 was not. (pCO 2 : R 2 =0.824, y=-1.411+0.877·x; lactate: R 2 =0.902, y=-0.544+0.966·x; pO 2 : R 2 =0.037, y=61.6+0.431·x). Most parameters, except only pO 2 , measured by the epoc were equivalent to or correlated with those from the reference method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ammonia volatilization from coated urea forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is a major component of the cost of agricultural production, due to the high cost and low efficiency of fertilizers. In the case of urea, the low efficiency is mainly due to losses by volatilization, which are more pronounced in cultivation systems in which plant residues are left on the soil. The objective of this work was to compare the influence of urea coated with sulfur or boric acid and copper sulfate with conventional N fertilizers on N volatilization losses in sugar cane harvested after stubble burning. The sources urea, sulfur-coated urea, urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate, as well as nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were tested at amounts containing N rates of 120 kg ha-1 N. The integration of new technologies in urea fertilization can reduce N losses by volatilization. These losses were most reduced when using nitrate and ammonium sulfate. The application of a readily acidified substance (boric acid to urea was more efficient in reducing volatilization losses and nutrient removal by sugar cane than that of a substance with gradual acidification (elemental sulfur.

  17. Urea metabolism in cattle and buffaloes fed diets containing NPN salts, usin g urea radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhiman, T.R.; Arora, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    Urea metabolism studies were conducted using isotope dilution techniques. Animals in groups 1 and 3 were fed basal diet (S, 0.11%) supplemented with urea (test diet 1) and those of groups 2 and 4 supplemented urea plus ammonium sulphate (test diet 2) containing 0.22% S. A single injection of a mixture of 15 N-urea and 14 C-urea was given intravenously and 51 Cr-EDTA was given as a single infusion intraruminally. The pattern of release of ammonia, mean ruminal ammonia, plasma urea, rumen fluid outflow rate, rumen ammonia pool size and ammonia outflow from rumen remained unaffected due to different dietary treatments. On an average, 73.3% of plasma urea synthesized was excreted in urine with test diet 1 and showing 26.6% degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, whereas 68.8% was excreted with test diet 2 and showing 31.3% degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. At 24 hr, 18.33 to 20.93% of nitrogen entering the ruminal ammonia pool was derived from plasma urea in calves of groups 1 and 2 and 24.22 to 27.49 in buffalo calves of groups 3 and 4 respectively. Sulphur supplementation through ammonium sulphate (N : S, 10 :1) resulted in better utilization of nitrogen with test diet 2 by lowering urea excretion rate and increasing urea recycling rate in both the species. (author). 5 tabs., 16 refs

  18. Phosphate, urea and creatinine clearances: haemodialysis adequacy assessed by weekly monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Malgorzata; Wojcik-Zaluska, Alicja; Ksiazek, Andrzej; Zaluska, Wojciech; Waniewski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The specific distribution of phosphate and the control mechanisms for its plasma level makes phosphate kinetics during haemodialysis (HD) considerably different from those of urea and creatinine and makes the quantitative evaluation of adequacy of phosphate removal difficult. We propose the application of equivalent continuous clearance (ECC) as a phosphate adequacy parameter and compare it with ECC for creatinine and urea. Three consecutive dialysis sessions were evaluated for 25 patients on maintenance HD. Concentrations of phosphate, urea and creatinine in plasma were measured every 1h during the treatment and 45 min after, and every 30 min in dialysate. ECC was calculated using the removed solute mass assessed in dialysate and weekly solute profile in plasma. Similar calculations were performed also for the midweek dialysis session only. Different versions of the reference concentration for ECC were applied. ECC with peak average reference concentration was 5.4 ± 1.0 for phosphate, 7.0 ± 1.0 for urea and 4.7 ± 1.0 mL/min for creatinine. ECC for urea and creatinine were well correlated in contrast to the correlations of ECC for phosphate versus urea and creatinine. Midweek ECC were higher than weekly ECC, but they were well correlated for urea and creatinine, but only weakly for phosphate. HD adequacy monitoring for phosphate may be performed using ECC, but it is less predictable than similar indices for urea and creatinine. The values of ECC for phosphate are within the range expected for its molecular size compared with those for urea and creatinine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. Can Red Blood Cell Distribution Width be a Potential Marker in the Decision to Perform Tonsillectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kilic, Korhan; Kars, Ayhan; Kara, Mustafa; Gozeler, Mustafa Sitki

    2018-02-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed at ear, nose, and throat clinics. Chronic recurrent tonsillitis, obstructive tonsillitis, and halitosis are among the most common indications for surgery. Determining whether the infection is chronic and the patient's annual number of infections are important in estimating the necessity for surgery to be performed due to infectious causes. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a numerical value present in normal complete blood count that provides information about erythrocytes and their dimensions. Studies in recent years have shown that RDW increases in chronic infections, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. This study investigated the changes in RDW in patients with chronic tonsillitis and the effect tonsillectomy has on this value by comparing RDW between patients scheduled for tonsillectomy and normal population and examining preoperative and postoperative changes in RDW. Sixty-three patients scheduled for tonsillectomy due to recurrent tonsillitis aged 4-14 years were included in the study. The control group consisted of 60 subjects comparable in terms of age and sex. Hemoglobin level and RDW were recorded by collecting 2 mlof blood before surgery and at 4 months postoperatively from all patients. Preoperative RDW was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. Comparison of patients' preoperative and postoperative RDW revealed a significant decrease in RDW after surgery. As a biomarker showing chronic infection in patients with tonsillitis, RDW can provide support to the clinician in deciding on surgery. However, this has to be confirmed in further studies with greater participation.

  20. Effect of passion fruit seed meal on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinello, Marcelise Regina; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Moreira, Ivan; Carvalho, Paulo Levi Oliveira; Castilha, Leandro Dalcin; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Esteves, Lucas Antonio Costa; Huepa, Laura Marcela Diaz

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out in Paraná State, Brazil, to evaluate the nutritional value of passion fruit seed meal (PFM) and to study the effect of PFM on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs (Topigs 20 × Tybor). In experiment 1, 25 castrated males, averaging 19.1-kg body weight, were individually fed in a completely randomized block design, consisting of five treatments and five replicates and an experimental period that lasted 14 days. In experiment 2, a total of 60 pigs (30 females and 30 castrated males) were distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments, six replications, and two animals per experimental unit and 90 days of experimentation. For both experiments, the same PFM inclusion rates were used in the experimental diets, namely, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 %. The metabolizable energy of PFM was estimated to be 15.0 MJ/kg. Inclusion of PFM at any level did not affect average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, and plasma or blood components. It is concluded that passion fruit seed meal for swine in the starting phase can be added at a rate of up to 16 % in the diet without any negative effects on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter commercial line pigs.

  1. Modeling analysis of urea direct injection on the NOx emission reduction of biodiesel fueled diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H.; Yang, W.M.; Li, J.; Zhou, D.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of urea direct injection on NO x emissions reduction was investigated. • Aqueous urea solution was proposed to be injected after the fuel injection process. • The optimized injection strategy achieved a reduction efficiency of 58%. • There were no severe impacts on the CO emissions and BSFC. - Abstract: In this paper, a numerical simulation study was conducted to explore the possibility of an alternative approach: direct aqueous urea solution injection on the reduction of NO x emissions of a biodiesel fueled diesel engine. Simulation studies were performed using the 3D CFD simulation software KIVA4 coupled with CHEMKIN II code for pure biodiesel combustion under realistic engine operating conditions of 2400 rpm and 100% load. The chemical behaviors of the NO x formation and urea/NO x interaction processes were modeled by a modified extended Zeldovich mechanism and urea/NO interaction sub-mechanism. To ensure an efficient NO x reduction process, various aqueous urea injection strategies in terms of post injection timing, injection angle, and injection rate and urea mass fraction were carefully examined. The simulation results revealed that among all the four post injection timings (10 °ATDC, 15 °ATDC, 20 °ATDC and 25 °ATDC) that were evaluated, 15 °ATDC post injection timing consistently demonstrated a lower NO emission level. The orientation of the aqueous urea injection was also shown to play a critical role in determining the NO x removal efficiency, and 50 degrees injection angle was determined to be the optimal injection orientation which gave the most NO x reduction. In addition, both the urea/water ratio and aqueous urea injection rate demonstrated important roles which affected the thermal decomposition of urea into ammonia and the subsequent NO x removal process, and it was suggested that 50% urea mass fraction and 40% injection rate presented the lowest NO emission levels. At last, with the optimized injection

  2. The effect of yeast β-glucan on the amount of albumin, globulin, urea and total protein of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali kargarirezapour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucans derived from yeast cell wall are promising alternatives to antibiotics, as they have been shown to improve growth performance and stimulate the immune system of immature broilers. In this study we evaluated the effect of different levels of yeast beta-glucan (YBG on some blood parametrs of broiler chickens. In a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (the first factor: YBG levels: 0, 0.04 and 0.08% of basal diet and sex as a second factor 144 day old chicks (72 male and 72 female were selected and allocated to different treatments (three replicates of each treatment. The overall experimental period was 34 days. At the end of study, two birds from each pen were randomly selected as a sample. The level of albumin, globulin, urea and total protein was measured on blood samples. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the YBG had no significant effect on albumin, globulin, urea and total protein level. But the amount of plasma albumin and total protein in female chicks was significantly higher than male chicks (p

  3. Cerebral blood flow, fatigue, mental effort, and task performance in offices with two different pollution loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishihara, Naoe; Wargocki, Pawel; Tanabe, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of indoor air quality on symptoms, perceptions, task performance, cerebral blood flow, fatigue, and mental effort of individuals working in an office were investigated. Twenty-four right-handed Danish female subjects in an office were exposed in groups of two at a time to two air...... pollution levels created by placing or removing a pollution source (i.e. a used carpet) behind a screen. During the exposure, the subjects performed four different office tasks presented on a computer monitor. The tasks were performed at two paces: normal and maximum. When the pollution source was present...... any effects caused by modifying pollution exposure, they were well correlated with increased mental effort when the tasks were performed at maximum pace and subjectively reported fatigue, which increased during the course of exposure, respectively....

  4. Urease inhibitor (NBPT and efficiency of single or split application of urea in wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide, a urease inhibitor, has been reported as one of the most promising compounds to maximize urea nitrogen use in agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of irrigated wheat fertilized with urea or urea + NBPT as single or split application. The experiment was conducted from June to October 2006 in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The experimental design followed a 2×2 factorial scheme, in which urea or urea + NBPT were combined with two modes of application: full dose at sowing (60kg ha-1 or split (20kg ha-1 at sowing + 40kg ha-1 as topdressing at tillering, in randomized blocks with ten replications. The split application of nitrogen fertilization does not improve the yield wheat under used conditions. The use of urease inhibitor improves the grain yield of wheat crop when urea is applied in topdressing at tillering, but its use does not promote difference when urea is applied in the furrow at planting.

  5. Slow release coating remedy for nitrogen loss from conventional urea: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2016-03-10

    Developing countries are consuming major part of the global urea production with an anticipated nitrogen use efficiency of 20 to 35%. The release of excess nitrogen in the soil is not only detrimental to the environment but also lessens the efficiency of the conventional urea. The urea performance can be enhanced by encapsulating it with slow release coating materials and synchronizing the nutrients' release with the plant up-taking. However, the present cost of most of the coated fertilizers is considerably higher than the conventional fertilizers. The high cost factor prevents their widespread use in mainstream agriculture. This paper documents a review of literature related to the global urea market, issues pertaining to the conventional urea use, natural and synthetic materials for slow release urea and fluidized bed spray coating process. The aim of the current review is to develop technical understanding of the conventional and non-conventional coating materials and associated spray coating mechanism for slow release urea production. The study also investigated the potential of starch as the coating material in relation to the coatings tested previously for controlled release fertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of test performance profile for blood tests of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Philippe; Bacq, Yannick; De Muret, Anne; Penaranda, Guillaume; Bourliere, Marc; Ouzan, Denis; Tran, Albert; Botta, Danielle; Renou, Christophe; Bréchot, Marie-Claude; Degott, Claude; Paradis, Valérie

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated the test performance profile (TPP) of blood tests of liver fibrosis. Three hundred and fifty-six patients with C chronic hepatitis were included in two centers. Metavir staging of liver specimens by two independent pathologists and the following tests were evaluated: Fibrotest (FT), APRI, FibroMeter (FM), and Hepascore (HS). Metavir stages were: F0: 4%, F1: 55%, F2: 26%, F3: 11%, and F4: 4%. The AUROCs were not significantly different, respectively, FT, FM, APRI, HS: >or=F2: 0.79, 0.78, 0.76, >or=0.76; F3: 0.81, 0.85, 0.81, 0.81; and F4: 0.86, 0.94, 0.92, 0.89. The TPP relies on the paired comparison of blood-test misclassification based on liver specimen, e.g. FT vs FM, respectively: F0+1: 18 vs 28% (p=0.0003), >or=F2: 43 vs 31% (p=0.004). There was no center effect. In those populations, the four blood tests had a similar performance for significant fibrosis (F>or=2), lying in the lower range of published results which is attributable to a low >or=F2 prevalence, and for >or=F3 and F4. However, FM and FT had performance profiles significantly different as a function of fibrosis stages or diagnostic target (fibrosis cut-off). This has to be considered during the interpretation process. Moreover, the performance should be reported with different diagnostic targets.

  7. Repetition Performance And Blood Lactate Responses Adopting Different Recovery Periods Between Training Sessions In Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; de Freitas Maia, Marianna; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; de Souza, João A A A; Simão, Roberto; de Araújo Farias, Déborah; Willardson, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-08

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different recovery periods (24h, 48h, and 72h) between repeated resistance training (RT) sessions for the upper body muscles on repetition performance and blood lactate responses in trained men. Sixteen recreationally trained men (age: 26.1 ± 3.1 years; height: 179 ± 4.5 cm; body mass: 82.6 ± 4.0 kg, 4.5 ± 2.2 years of RT experience) participated in this study. Eight-repetition maximum (8-RM) loads were determined for the bench press (BP), 30° incline bench press (BP30), and 45° incline bench press (BP45) exercises. To assess the effects of different recovery periods between repeated training sessions, three protocols were performed in randomized order, including: 24 hours (P24); 48 hours (P48); and 72 hours (P72). Each RT session consisted of performing four repetition maximum sets of BP, BP30, and BP45 with 8-RM loads and 2-minute rest intervals between sets. Blood lactate levels were measured pre-session (PRE), immediately post-session (POST), 3 minutes post-session (P3), and 5 minutes post-session (P5). For the P24 protocol, significant decreases in repetition performance were found between sessions for the BP, BP30, and BP45 exercises, respectively. When considering session 2 only, the total work (repetition x sets) was significantly higher in P48 and P72 versus P24 for the BP30 and BP45 exercises. Blood lactate levels (i.e. POST, P3, and P5) significantly increased for session 2 under the P24 compared to the P48 and P72 protocols, respectively. Therefore, coaches and practitioners who need to accomplish a higher training volume for the upper body muscles should adopt recovery periods longer than 24 hours between sessions that train the same or similar muscle groups.

  8. Blood lactate recovery measurements, training, and performance during a 23-week period of competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, P; Mujika, I; Sidney, M; Chatard, J C

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate measurements of blood lactate concentration, performance during a maximal anaerobic lactic test (MANLT) and training loads during a 23-week swimming season. Six elite 200-m freestyle male swimmers [mean age 19.5 (SD 1.6) years, height 184 (SD 5) cm and body mass 77.7 (SD 9.0) kg], participated in the study. The MANLT consisted of four all-out 50-m swims interspersed with 10-s recovery periods. Blood lactate concentrations were determined at 3 and 12-min post-exercise and were performed on weeks 2,6,10,14,18 and 21. Swimmers participated in 200-m freestyle competitions on weeks 1,7,13 and 23 (national championships). During weeks 1-10, training mostly involved aerobic exercise, while during weeks, 11-23, it involved anaerobic exercise. At 3-min and 12-min post-MANLT lactate concentrations varied throughout the season [range from 14.9 (SD 1.2) to 18.7 (SD 1.0) mmol.l-1] but demonstrated non-systematic variations. In contrast, the percentage of mean blood lactate decrease (% [La-]recovery) between min 3 and min 12 of the passive recovery post-MANLT increased from week 2 to 10 with aerobic training and decreased from week 10 to 21 with anaerobic training. The MANLT performance improved continuously throughout the season, while competition performance improved during the first three competitions but declined in the final championships, coinciding with the lowest % [La-]recovery and signs of overtraining, such as bad temper and increased sleeping heart rate. The results of this study indicated that % [La-]recovery could be an efficient marker for monitoring the impact of aerobic and anaerobic training and avoiding overtraining in elite 200-m swimmers.

  9. Quantification of urea in serum by isotope dilution HPLC/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwa Shim; Park, Sang Ryoul

    2005-01-01

    Urea in blood has been measured as an effective marker for diagnosis of renal function. Urea which is the end-product of nitrogen containing metabolites such as proteins is filtered through glomeruli of kidneys and then excreted as urine. If the renal function is deteriorated, the urea concentration in blood will be increased, from which the healthiness of renal function is judged. In order to improve the confidence of diagnosis results, the results must keep traceability chain to certified reference materials, which was certified by primary reference method. In this study, we proposed Isotope Dilution-Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (ID-LC/MS) as a candidate primary method, in which 15 N 2 -urea is used as an internal reference material. The developed method is highly accurate in principle and is convenient as it does not require cumbersome derivatization 0.1 mmol/L ammonium chloride was selected as a mobile phase for HPLC because it provide low interference in MS analysis of relatively low molecular weighted urea. HPLC and MS were connected with an ElectroSpry Ionization(ESI) interface of positive mode, which provided high sensitivity and reproducibility. The developed method was validated with internationally recognized reference materials, and we have obtained satisfactory results in an international ring trial. The expanded uncertainty calculated according to ISO guide was 1.8% at 95% confidence interval. The developed method is being used as a primary reference measurement method such as for certification of serum Certified Reference Materials (CRMs)

  10. Crystallization of urea from an evaporative aqueous solution sessile droplet at sub-boiling temperatures and surfaces with different wettability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, J.; Zarikos, I.; Terzis, A.; Roth, N.; Weigand, B.

    The injection of urea-water-solution sprays in the exhaust pipe of modern diesel engines eliminates NOx emissions in a very great extent. However, as water evaporates from the solution, urea is crystallized and causes walldeposit formations hindering the performance of selective-catalytic-reaction.

  11. RENAL FUNCTION TEST ON THE BASIS OF SERUM CREATININE AND UREA IN TYPE-2 DIABETICS AND NONDIABETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type-2 diabetes mellitus has quickly become a global health problem due to rapidly increasing population growth, aging, urbanization and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of chronic renal failure. Both serum urea and creatinine are widely used to assess the function of kidney. This study was conducted to observe the impaired renal function in type 2 diabetics and compare with non-diabetics controls. Method: To determine the incidence of renal dysfunction in diabetics in Nepalgunj medical college and Hospital , Nepalgunj , Banke, Nepal , blood samples from 100 diabetic subjects and 100 non-diabetic controls were taken between the period 1st February  , 2012  to  31st January , 2013 for investigation of  plasma glucose fasting(FPG, blood urea and serum creatinine. These biochemical parameters were determined by using a fully automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: Our findings showed that the level of blood urea (P<0.0001, 95%Cl and serum creatinine (P≈0.0004,95%Cl were significantly higher in type 2 diabetics as compared to non-diabetics in both male and female. There was no significant difference between diabetic male and female. 15 out of 100 diabetes samples have high urea level whereas 7 out of 100 had increased creatinine level. In control only 3 samples had high urea value and 1 had high creatinine level. There was statistical significant increased in urea level with increased in blood sugar level. Conclusion: Blood urea and creatinine is widely accepted to assess the renal functions. Good control of blood glucose level is absolute requirement to prevent progressive renal impairment.

  12. Modeling of flux, binding and substitution of urea molecules in the urea transporter dvUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Tian; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Tao; Sang, Jian-Ping; Zou, Xian-Wu; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2017-09-01

    Urea transporters (UTs) are transmembrane proteins that transport urea molecules across cell membranes and play a crucial role in urea excretion and water balance. Modeling the functional characteristics of UTs helps us understand how their structures accomplish the functions at the atomic level, and facilitates future therapeutic design targeting the UTs. This study was based on the crystal structure of Desulfovibrio vulgaris urea transporter (dvUT). To model the binding behavior of urea molecules in dvUT, we constructed a cooperative binding model. To model the substitution of urea by the urea analogue N,N'-dimethylurea (DMU) in dvUT, we calculated the occupation probability of DMU along the urea pore and the ratio of the occupation probabilities of DMU at the external (S ext ) and internal (S int ) binding sites, and we established the mutual substitution rule for binding and substitution of urea and DMU. Based on these calculations and modelings, together with the use of the Monte Carlo (MC) method, we further modeled the urea flux in dvUT, equilibrium urea binding to dvUT, and the substitution of urea by DMU in the dvUT. Our modeling results are in good agreement with the existing experimental functional data. Furthermore, the modelings have discovered the microscopic process and mechanisms of those functional characteristics. The methods and the results would help our future understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the diseases associated with impaired UT functions and rational drug design for the treatment of these diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, M., E-mail: m.donnelly-2@sms.ed.ac.uk; Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Erskine Williamson Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Bull, C. L. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Klotz, S. [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Université P and M Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  14. Does fasting during Ramadan alter body composition, blood constituents and physical performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, J

    2002-01-01

    To study the effect of Ramadan fast (RF) on body composition, plasma constituents, hematology, and cardiorespiratory responses to constant submaximal exercise. Sixteen sedentary healthy Kuwaiti adult males were included in the study. The subjects were tested under thermo-neutral conditions during a spring-like month of Ramadan and 2 months thereafter. They were tested during the week before RF (Pre1); the last 3 days of RF (End1); the week before a non-Ramadan month (Pre2), and the last 3 days of the non-Ramadan month (End2). The following measurements were made: body composition, cellular and biochemical constituents of blood, heart rate, ventilatory responses and blood pressure. No significant changes were observed in body composition, cellular and biochemical constituents of blood. The heart rate and ventilatory responses to the moderately intense bouts of submaximal aerobic exercise ( approximately 70% of VO(2max)) were significantly reduced (p Ramadan fasting had no adverse effect on the subjects when performing aerobic exercise at submaximal level. The mild changes in cardiorespiratory responses could be due to dehydration, abstention from consumption of substances with negative inotropy and circadian rhythms. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  16. Metabolism of urea in kids fed different levels of urea molasses diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, M.; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Urea entry rates were measured in the body pool of Barbari kids using a single injection isotope dilution technique. The kids were divided into five groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 ) and they were fed different levels of urea molasses viz., 10, 25, 35, 40 and 0 percent to meet their DCP requirement along with concentrate mixture and oat hay as per A.R.C. recommendation. Urea entry rate was significantly higher (P 1 and the control group (T 5 without urea in their diets) than that of T 2 , T 3 and T 4 which were not significantly different from each other. (author)

  17. Urea hydrolysis and ammonia volatilization from some urea based fertilizers applied to rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, C.; Jena, D.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Schepers, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out in replicated microplots (1 m x 1 m) with rice (cv. Pathara) to study urea hydrolysis using several urea based N-fertilizer sources. Results indicated highly significant urea based N-fertilizers, among which urea super granule (USG) and prilled urea (PU) (applied in two splits) could be rated as the most efficient sources of N. Based on measured ammonia volatilization loss, NH 2 -N concentration in flood water and soil solution (following fertilizer application); urea hydrolysis was observed to be faster in the case of PU, USG, PU + ECC (encapsulated calcium carbide) and UNP (urea nitro phosphate) (19-19-0) than in the case of GCU (gypsum coated urea) and UNP (27-9-0) treatments. Based on the 15 N tagged prilled urea experiment, it is observed that about 24 per cent of fertilizer nitrogen was utilized by the crop in closed system as compared to 18 per cent in natural free system. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  18. The incidence of urea cycle disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Summar, Marshall L.; Koelker, Stefan; Freedenberg, Debra; Le Mons, Cynthia; Haberle, Johannes; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kirmse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6. million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35000 births presenting about 113 new patients per ...

  19. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røjen, B A; Larsen, M; Kristensen, N B

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abomasal infusion of oligofructose in lactating dairy cows on the relationship between hindgut fermentation and N metabolism, and its effects on NH(3) absorption and transfer of blood urea-N across the portal-drained viscera versus ruminal epithelia were investigated. Nine lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used in an unbalanced crossover design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of water or 1,500 g/d of oligofructose. The same basal diet was fed with both treatments. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and ruminal vein blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5h before the morning feeding and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 h after feeding. It was hypothesized that an increased supply of fermentable substrate to the hindgut would increase the uptake of urea-N from blood to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake to the forestomach. The study showed that abomasal oligofructose infusion decreased the total amount of urea-N transferred from the blood to the gut, NH(3) absorption, and arterial blood urea-N concentration. Subsequently, hepatic NH(3) uptake and urea-N production also decreased with oligofructose infusion. Additionally, urea-N concentration in milk and urinary N excretion decreased with oligofructose treatment. The oligofructose infusion did not affect ruminal NH(3) concentrations or any other ruminal variables, nor did it affect ruminal venous - arterial concentration differences for urea-N and NH(3). The oligofructose treatment did not affect milk yield, but did decrease apparent digestibility of OM, N, and starch. Nitrogen excreted in the feces was greater with the oligofructose infusion. In conclusion, the present data suggest that increased hindgut fermentation did not upregulate urea-N transfer to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake by the rumen, and the observed reduction

  20. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  1. Influence of some probiotics on blood components, productive and reproductive performance of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; El-Barkouky, E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails on productive and reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness. A total number of 500 one day old, unsexed Japanese quail chicks were used. Five experimental groups were assigned in the present study, where the 1st group (G1) was provided with protexin at 5 g/litre (5 days weekly). The 2nd group (G2) contained medi stress of 0.75 g/litre (5 days weekly), the 3rd group (G3) was fed a basal diet contained bioaction at 5g/kg, the 4th group (G4) involved a basal diet with active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 0.1 g/kg daily and group 5 were fed the basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control). The results showed that the average body weight, egg production and egg weight were significantly increased due to adding probiotics and 0.1g/kg yeast into diets. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were improved significantly and the most improvement was recorded at 1.0% yeast and protexin. Similar improvement was recorded for hatch ability and hatching weight. There were reductions in intestinal wall thickness due to adding 0.1 g/kg yeast or protexin. The values of HI titer against sheep RBCs were increased significantly as compared to the control, which may lead to an enhancement of immune response of Japanese quails. Blood protein, globulin and FSH hormone were increased significantly. In conclusion, adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails improved productive, reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness

  2. Influence of some probiotics on blood components, productive and reproductive performance of japanese quails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Taleb, A M; Ezzat, I E; El-Barkouky, E [Biological Applications Department, Radioisotope Applications Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails on productive and reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness. A total number of 500 one day old, unsexed Japanese quail chicks were used. Five experimental groups were assigned in the present study, where the 1st group (G1) was provided with protexin at 5 g/litre (5 days weekly). The 2nd group (G2) contained medi stress of 0.75 g/litre (5 days weekly), the 3rd group (G3) was fed a basal diet contained bioaction at 5g/kg, the 4th group (G4) involved a basal diet with active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 0.1 g/kg daily and group 5 were fed the basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control). The results showed that the average body weight, egg production and egg weight were significantly increased due to adding probiotics and 0.1g/kg yeast into diets. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were improved significantly and the most improvement was recorded at 1.0% yeast and protexin. Similar improvement was recorded for hatch ability and hatching weight. There were reductions in intestinal wall thickness due to adding 0.1 g/kg yeast or protexin. The values of HI titer against sheep RBCs were increased significantly as compared to the control, which may lead to an enhancement of immune response of Japanese quails. Blood protein, globulin and FSH hormone were increased significantly. In conclusion, adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails improved productive, reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness.

  3. Hepatic urea biosynthesis in the euryhaline elasmobranch Carcharhinus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W Gary; Good, Jonathan P; Pillans, Richard D; Hazon, Neil; Franklin, Craig E

    2005-10-01

    Plasma urea levels and hepatic urea production in the euryhaline bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, acclimated to freshwater and seawater environments were measured. It was found that plasma urea concentration increased with salinity and that this increase was, in part, the result of a significant increase in hepatic production of urea. This study provides direct evidence that hepatic production of urea plays an important role in the osmoregulatory strategy of C. leucas. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Rumen Fermentation, Blood Metabolites, and Performance of Sheep Fed Tropical Browse Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Astuti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro study was designed to evaluate total gas production, dry matter degradability (DMD, and VFA profile; while in vivo study was designed to evaluate nutrient intakes, blood metabolites, and performance of sheep fed native grass mixed with Calliandra calothyrrus (CC, Leucaena leucochepala (LL, Moringa oleifera (MO, Gliricidea sepium (GS, and Artocarpus heterophyllus (AH. The best three from the in vitro results were used to formulate diets in in vivo study. Sixteen male growing sheep (average BW 20 kg were fed 100% native grass (NG as control; 70% NG + 30% GS; 70% NG + 30% MO; and 70% NG + 30% AH. Nutrient consumptions, DMD, blood metabolites, and sheep performances were analyzed by using Completely Randomized Design. The in vitro results showed that the total gas production and DMD of CC and LL were the lowest (P<0.05 while the highest was found in GS, MO, and AH treatments (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the in vivo results showed that nutrient intakes (DM, CP, and CF of GS and AH rations were the highest. The ADG, concentration of albumin, and globulin in all treatments were similar, while total serum protein, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in MO and AH rations were higher than others. Serum cholesterol concentration in MO ration was the lowest, meanwhile the concentration of IgG was the highest (P<0.05. Supplementation of 30% MO was the best choice for optimum rumen fermentation and maintaining health status of local sheep.

  5. Effect of lower limb compression on blood flow and performance in elite wheelchair rugby athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaile, Joanna; Stefanovic, Brad; Askew, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of compression socks worn during exercise on performance and physiological responses in elite wheelchair rugby athletes. In a non-blinded randomized crossover design, participants completed two exercise trials (4 × 8 min bouts of submaximal exercise, each finishing with a timed maximal sprint) separated by 24 hr, with or without compression socks. National Sports Training Centre, Queensland, Australia. Ten national representative male wheelchair rugby athletes with cervical spinal cord injuries volunteered to participate. Participants wore medical grade compression socks on both legs during the exercise task (COMP), and during the control trial no compression was worn (CON). The efficacy of the compression socks was determined by assessments of limb blood flow, core body temperature, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion, perceived thermal strain, and physical performance. While no significant differences between conditions were observed for maximal sprint time, average lap time was better maintained in COMP compared to CON (Pbenefit may be associated with an augmentation of upper limb blood flow.

  6. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPL de Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r broilers, with 161±1g average weight, were used. At eight days of age, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement with eight replicates of 20 broiler each. Treatments corresponded to reduction of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, amino acids and energy, or reduction of Ca, P, amino acids and energy; supplementation or not of phytase; and a positive control treatment. Broiler fed the diet with reduced Ca and P levels and phytase supplementation presented the best performance of all groups. The diet with reduced amino acid and energy levels and phytase addition reduced gizzard and proventriculus pH. Dietary Ca and P reduction increased relative liver and heart weights, as well as albumin blood levels. The bones of broilers fed phytase-supplemented diets presented higher ash content.

  7. Long-term outcome and intervention of urea cycle disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Jun; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Ohura, Toshihiro; Takayanagi, Masaki; Matsuo, Masafumi; Yoshino, Makoto; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yorifuji, Tohru; Kasahara, Mureo; Horikawa, Reiko; Endo, Fumio

    2012-09-01

    Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are one of the most frequently inherited metabolic diseases in Japan, with an estimated prevalence of 1 per 50,000 live births. Here, we investigated the clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of 177 patients with UCDs who were evaluated and treated from January 1999 to March 2009. These included 77 cases of neonatal-onset UCDs and 91 cases of late-onset UCDs. The most common UCD was ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), which accounted for 116 out of 177 patients. This result is similar to a previous study performed between 1978 and 1995 in Japan: OTCD accounted for about two-thirds of the total number of UCD cases. We studied the relationship between prognosis and the peak blood ammonia level at the onset in 151 UCD patients. Compared with a previous survey conducted in Japan, we found that a greater number of patients survived without any mental retardation despite their peak blood ammonia levels being greater than 360 μmol/l. The 5-year survival rate of patients with OTCD improved to 86% for those with the neonatal-onset type and to 92% for those with the late-onset type. We hypothesize that the increased survival rate is due to early diagnosis and better treatments that are now available in Japan. It is very important to diagnose and treat UCDs, especially OTCD, when the blood ammonia levels in patients are low. The outcome in patients with low blood ammonia levels was better than that in patients with high blood ammonia levels.

  8. Standardization of the TRUE Test imidazolidinyl urea and diazolidinyl urea patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Björkner, B

    2001-01-01

    The preservatives imidazolidinyl urea (IMID, Germall 115) and diazolidinyl urea (DU, Germall II) are commonly used in cosmetic products and are well-known sensitizers. The aim of the present study was to establish the optimal patch test concentration in hydrophilic dried-in vehicle (TRUE Test...

  9. Substitution of lucerne hay by untreated, urea-enriched and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat straw was left untreated (WS), enriched with 1.5% urea (UWS), or ammoniated with 5.5% urea in a stack for 8 .... nitrogen concentration for maximal microbial synthesis is in ... faeces and urine samples were taken daily and pooled for.

  10. Thermoplastic poly(urethane urea)s from novel, bio-based amorphous polyester diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, D.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Sablong, R.J.; Koning, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, two novel, bio-based, amorphous polyester diols, namely poly(1,2-dimethylethylene adipate) (PDMEA) and poly(1,2-dimethylethylene succinate) (PDMES) are used to prepare thermoplastic poly(urethane urea)s (TPUUs). Interestingly, the TPUUs based on PDMEA show similar thermal and

  11. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  12. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from urea and methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, M.; Kalevaru, V.N.; Martin, A. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Leibniz Institute for Catalysis; Mueller, K.; Arlt, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Strautmann, J.; Kruse, D. [Evonik Industries AG, Marl (Germany). Creavis Technologies and Innovation

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholation of urea with methanol to produce dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is an interesting approach from both the ecological and economical points of view because the urea synthesis usually occurs by the direct use of carbon dioxide. Literature survey reveals that metal oxide catalysts for instance MgO, ZnO, etc. or polyphosphoric acids are mostly used as catalysts for this reaction. In this contribution, we describe the application of ZnO, MgO, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts for the above mentioned reaction. The catalytic activity of different metal oxides towards DMC synthesis was checked and additionally a comparison of achieved conversions with that of predictions made by thermodynamic calculations was also carried out. The achieved conversions are in good agreement with those of calculated ones. The test results reveal that the reaction pressure and temperature have a strong influence on the formation of DMC. Higher reaction pressure improved the yield of DMC. Among different catalysts investigated, ZnO displayed the best performance. The conversion of urea in most cases is close to 100 % and methyl carbamate MC is the major product of the reaction. A part of MC is subsequently converted to DMC, which however depends upon the reaction conditions applied and nature of catalyst used. From the best case, a DMC yield of ca. 8 % could be successfully achieved over ZnO catalyst. (orig.)

  13. Implementing DBS methodology for the determination of Compound A in monkey blood: GLP method validation and investigation of the impact of blood spreading on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Leimin; Lee, Jacob; Hall, Jeffrey; Tolentino, Edward J; Wu, Huaiqin; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol

    2011-06-01

    This article describes validation work for analysis of an Abbott investigational drug (Compound A) in monkey whole blood with dried blood spots (DBS). The impact of DBS spotting volume on analyte concentration was investigated. The quantitation range was between 30.5 and 10,200 ng/ml. Accuracy and precision of quality controls, linearity of calibration curves, matrix effect, selectivity, dilution, recovery and multiple stabilities were evaluated in the validation, and all demonstrated acceptable results. Incurred sample reanalysis was performed with 57 out of 58 samples having a percentage difference (versus the mean value) less than 20%. A linear relationship between the spotting volume and the spot area was drawn. The influence of spotting volume on concentration was discussed. All validation results met good laboratory practice acceptance requirements. Radial spreading of blood on DBS cards can be a factor in DBS concentrations at smaller spotting volumes.

  14. Analysis of air temperature changes on blood pressure and heart rate and performance of undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Joseana C F; da Silva, Luiz Bueno; Coutinho, Antônio S; Rodrigues, Rafaela M

    2017-01-01

    The increase in air temperature has been associated with human deaths, some of which are related to cardiovascular dysfunctions, and with the reduction of physical and cognitive performance in humans. To analyze the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) and the cognitive performance of students who were submitted to temperature changes in classrooms. The university students answered a survey that was adapted from the Battery of Reasoning Tests over 3 consecutive days at different air temperatures while their thermal state and HR were measured. During those 3 days, BP and HR were evaluated before and after the cognitive test. The average and final HR increased at high temperatures; the tests execution time was reduced at high temperatures; and the cognitive tests was related to Mean BP at the beginning of the test, the maximum HR during the test and the air temperature. The cognitive performance of undergraduate students in the field of engineering and technology will increase while performing activities in a learning environment with an air temperature of approximately 23.3°C (according to their thermal perception), if students have an initial MBP of 93.33 mmHg and a 60 bpm HRmax.

  15. Urea concentration in sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Havranek

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator for controlling supply of proteins to organisms, as well as the relationship of energy and protein in the food, thus it is finding more and more ways of practical use. The concentration of urea in milk, along with the feeding process, is influenced by a number of other factors such as: breed, stage and sequence of lactation, body mass, daily production and chemical structure of milk, number of somatic cells, season, milking.The goal of the research was to establish the influence of the breed (Island of Krk, East Frisian, lactation stage (beginning, middle and the end and the herd (3 to the concentration of urea in milk during lactation.For each breed there has been established daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in milk.Statistical analysis of data was conducted by using General Linear Models procedure, SAS program system (1999.The breed of sheep considerably (P<0.001 influenced daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in the milk.East Frisian sheep produced on average almost double the daily quantities of milk (1070 mL compared to the Krk sheep (588 mL.Protein share and the urea concentration in Krk sheep milk were higher (5.99 % and 35.97 mg/100 mL then in the milk of East Frisian sheep (5.12 % and 33.31 mg/100 mL.For both breeds the significant influence of lactation stage to the daily milk quantity has been established (0.001, that is also for the urea concentration in the milk of Krk sheep (0.001, as well as protein share in the milk of East Frisian sheep (0.001.Herd influence significantly affected daily milk quantities (0.001 and concentration of urea in the milk (0.05.The defining of the urea concentration in sheep milk should be occasionally carried out in the Republic of Croatia to establish the standard physiological values typical for the particular sheep breed.

  16. Photoluminescence of urea- and urea/rhodamine B-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo-Juan, I., E-mail: gonzalo@materials.tu-darmstadt.de; Macé, L.; Tengeler, S.; Mosallem, A.; Nicoloso, N.; Riedel, R.

    2016-07-01

    Urea- and rhodamine B (RhB)-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared by solvothermal synthesis and characterized by HRTEM, XRD, FTIR, XPS, optical absorption and photoemission. The urea and urea/RhB ligands are capped to the surface of the TiO{sub 2} NPs for the first time through carbamate bonding. The band gap of TiO{sub 2} is slightly reduced from 3.1 eV to 3.0 eV in the urea capped TiO{sub 2} NPs (TU) and 2.9 eV for the NPs capped with urea/RhB (TUR). The generation of new trapping states in TU and TUR at the conduction band edges (surface oxygen vacancies) has been confirmed by the Urbach law providing tail state energies of 180 meV and 270 meV, respectively. These tail states are considered to be responsible for the strong reduction of the photoluminescence at ≈400 nm and the increased emission at ≈600 nm in TU and TUR. The findings suggest that urea- and RhB-capped TiO{sub 2} NPs could have potential applications as photocatalysts, opto-electronic devices, sensors, biological labels and anti-bacterial agents. - Highlights: • Urea- and urea/rhodamine B (RhB)-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles preparation. • Characterization of optical properties of urea- and urea/rhodamine B (RhB)-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • The recombination of electrons and holes is significantly reduced in the capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, in comparison with TiO{sub 2}.

  17. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrin, N S Ahmad; Ibrahim, N

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model

  18. A large response range reflectometric urea biosensor made from silica-gel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Raj, A S Santhana; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-07-22

    A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol-gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50-500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors.

  19. A Large Response Range Reflectometric Urea Biosensor Made from Silica-Gel Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Raj, A.S. Santhana; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol–gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50–500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors. PMID:25054632

  20. Ionic effect investigation of a potentiometric sensor for urea and surface morphology observation of entrapped urease/polypyrrole matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Mei-Jywan; Chang, Yu-Sung

    2009-04-15

    Potentio-dynamic polymerization of buffered urease and pyrrole monomer onto carbon papers was conducted to fabricate an immobilized urease electrode for measuring the urea concentration. To use carbon paper as the substrate for the electro-growth of polypyrrole matrix not only created sufficient adhesion of the conducting polymer layer but also provided superior entrapment of urease enzymes. The potentiometric response corresponding to ammonia, the product formed from the urease catalyzed urea reaction, was employed for the urea concentration measurement. Scanning electron microscopic photographs showed that the polypyrrole matrix deposited on the carbon papers appeared to be of a cylindrical nanotube shape. The charge density applied in the polymerization was found to affect the potentiometric response while the potential-scanning rate showed minor influence. The composite electrodes had high sensitivity in urea detection, showing a response linear to the logarithm of the urea concentration in the range of 10(-3) to 10 mM. The detection of urea solution prepared in water and buffer was also compared. Ionic effect on the sensing of urea solution was investigated. By comparing the data reported in literature, the urease/polypyrrole/carbon paper electrode developed in this work showed superior long-term stability and reusability. The detection of urea in serum was also well performed.

  1. Advances in urea cycle neuroimaging: Proceedings from the 4th International Symposium on urea cycle disorders, Barcelona, Spain, September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Fricke, Stanley; VanMeter, John; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    Our previous imaging research performed as part of a Urea Cycle Rare Disorders Consortium (UCRDC) grant, has identified specific biomarkers of neurologic injury in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, OTCD. While characterization of mutations can be achieved in most cases, this information does not necessarily predict the severity of the underlying neurological syndrome. The biochemical consequences of any mutation may be modified additionally by a large number of factors, including contributions of other enzymes and transport systems that mediate flux through the urea cycle, diet and other environmental factors. These factors likely vary from one patient to another, and they give rise to heterogeneity of clinical severity. Affected cognitive domains include non-verbal learning, fine motor processing, reaction time, visual memory, attention, and executive function. Deficits in these capacities may be seen in symptomatic patients, as well as asymptomatic carriers with normal IQ and correlate with variances in brain structure and function in these patients. Using neuroimaging we can identify biomarkers that reflect the downstream impact of UCDs on cognition. This manuscript is a summary of the presentation from the 4th International Consortium on urea cycle disorders held in, Barcelona, Spain, September 2, 2014. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Coriander Essential Oil on the Performance, Blood Characteristics, Intestinal Microbiota and Histological of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ghazanfari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplementation of coriander oil on broiler performance, blood characteristics, microbiota, and small intestine morphology measurements. A number of one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocated to five treatments, with four replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD. Birds were offered either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control, or the basal diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg of a flavophospholipol antibiotic, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg coriander essential oil. At 42 days of age, two birds per replicate were selected for blood collection, slaughtered, and its intestinal microbiota and morphology were investigated. The results indicated that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio significantly improved by the dietary inclusion of the coriander oil and antibiotic compared with the control treatment (p0.05. Birds fed the coriander oil and antibiotic diets had lower populations of Escherichia coli than control group in cecum (p<0.05. The dietary treatments influenced the morphology of small intestinal villi. Birds fed antibiotic and coriander essential oil presented higher villus height and crypt depth compared with those in the control treatment (p<0.01. Coriander essential oil supplementation significantly decreased epithelial thickness and the number of goblet cell of the small intestinal compared with the control treatment (p<0.0001. In conclusion, coriander oil was shown to be an efficient growth promoter. The intestinal health improvement obtained with coriander oil was associated with improvements in broiler growth performance.

  3. High performance of a unique mesoporous polystyrene-based adsorbent for blood purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Han, Wenyan; Chen, Jie; Zong, Wenhui; Wang, Weichao; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Guanghui; Li, Chunran; Ou, Lailiang; Yu, Yaoting

    2017-02-01

    A multi-functional polystyrene based adsorbent (NKU-9) with a unique mesoporous and a high surface area was prepared by suspension polymerization for removal of therapeutic toxins in blood purification. The adsorbent produced had an almost equal amount of mesopore distribution in the range from 2 to 50 nm. The adsorption of serum toxins with different molecular weights were examined by in vitro adsorption assays and compared with some clinical currently used adsorbents such as HA-330, Cytosorb and BL-300 which are produced by China, America and Japan, respectively. Test results indicated that the adsorption rate for pentobarbital by NKU-9 was 81.24% which is nearly as high as HA-330 (81.44%). The latter adsorbent is currently used for acute detoxification treatment in China. To reach adsorption equilibrium, NKU-9 was faster than HA-330, which implies short treatment time. For the removal of middle molecular toxins such as β2-microglobulin (98.88%), NKU-9 performed better adsorptive selectivity than Cytosorb (92.80%). In addition, NKU-9 showed high performance for the removal of albumin-bound toxins (e.g., bilirubin), and its adsorption rate for total bilirubin (80.79%) in plasma was 8.4% higher than that of anion exchange resin BL-300 which is currently used to eliminate bilirubin in clinic. Therefore, our results indicate that the newly developed adsorbent with a wide distribution and almost equal amount of mesopores is a multifunctional adsorbent for high efficient removal of serum toxins with different molecular weights which might be an excellent blood purification adsorbent especially to treat diseases that conventional medical methods are low or not efficient.

  4. Limiting the testing of urea: Urea along with every plasma creatinine test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gao-Ming; Guo, Xu-Xiao; Zhang, Guo-Ming

    2017-09-01

    We found that it is not necessary to simultaneously detect both creatinine (CREA) and urea until the concentration of CREA is lower than the certain level. To reduce urea testing, we suggest measuring urea only when CREA or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) exceeds a predetermined limit. CREA and urea data were analyzed consisting of almost all of people age above 65 years old check-up (n=95441) in Shuyang countryside, and inpatients (n=101631), outpatients (n=18474) and Routine Health Check-up (n=20509) in Shuyang People's Hospital. The proportions of elevated urea were derived. The data used in this study was generated from people more than 13 years old in both outpatients and inpatients. When the limits for initiating urea testing were used at 85 μmol/L CREA and 120 mL/min/1.73 m 2 eGFR, the percentage of unnecessary urea test are 94.5% and 64.7% (elderly health check-up), 67.9% and 84.5% (outpatients), 88.5% and 73.2% (inpatients), 92.2% and 81.7% (routine health check-up). The missing rate of urea are 1%, 2.5%, 4.6% and 9.2%, 0.1%, 0.4%, 0.9% and 1.8%, 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.4%, and 2.5%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 1.1%, and 0.8% of ureas exceeding 9.28 mmol/L and 8.3 mmol/L in above each group, respectively. If the CREA≤85 μmol/L or eGFR≥90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , there is 97.5% urea urea missed is 2.5%. We suggest that the initiating urea testing should be based on the upper limit of Reference Intervals serum CREA of females or a 120 mL/min/1.73 m 2 eGFR limit. Conservatively, the urea testing would be reduced by 65% at least. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. HERBAL METHIONINE (METHIOREP® IMPROVES GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKENS WITHOUT AFFECTING CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND BLOOD INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Makinde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Methiorep®, an herbal methionine premix, which is reported to contain herbal ingredients that mimic the activity of Methionine such as SAMe (S-Adenosyl Methionine and phosphatidyl choline, have recently introduced to Nigeria animal feed industry. An experiment was conducted with 120, one-week-old broilers to evaluate the effect of herbal methionine (methiorep® as substitute for synthetic methionine on growth performance of broiler chickens. Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated and Diet 1 (control, comprised of 0.25% methionine (NRC, 1994 while diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 comprised of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% Methiorep® as substitute for methionine in the diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five experimental treatments, each treatment was replicated three times with eight birds per pen in a completely randomized design. The study lasted 49-days. The results of growth performance revealed that body weight gain, average feed intake and feed conversion ratio at both starter and finisher phases were not  influenced by dietary treatments (P>0.05. However cost per kg feed decreased as the level of Methiorep® increased in the diets (P0.05 by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that Methiorep® can completely substitute for Methionine in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass yield of birds.

  6. Further Relationships Between Blood Chemical Values and College Student Performance and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Richard H.; And Others

    Blood serum uric acid and cholesterol levels in the blood were studied in relation to inner drive and external pressures of college students in the U.S.A. and in Sweden. Subjects for the study included 210 American and 78 Swedish male and female college students and 138 college football players. The blood chemicals were measured by Technicon…

  7. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L(-1) urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L(-1) with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L(-1) mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L(-1)) to those of urea (175 mmol L(-1)), urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  8. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Wood

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L−1 urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L−1 with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L−1 mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L−1 to those of urea (175 mmol L−1, urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  9. Metabolically based liver damage pathophysiology in patients with urea cycle disorders - A new hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, Ivan; Ješić, Miloš; Ivanovski, Ana; Garavelli, Livia; Ivanovski, Petar

    2017-11-28

    The underlying pathophysiology of liver dysfunction in urea cycle disorders (UCDs) is still largely elusive. There is some evidence that the accumulation of urea cycle (UC) intermediates are toxic for hepatocyte mitochondria. It is possible that liver injury is directly caused by the toxicity of ammonia. The rarity of UCDs, the lack of checking of iron level in these patients, superficial knowledge of UC and an underestimation of the metabolic role of fumaric acid, are the main reasons that are responsible for the incomprehension of the mechanism of liver injury in patients suffering from UCDs. Owing to our routine clinical practice to screen for iron overload in severely ill neonates, with the focus on the newborns suffering from acute liver failure, we report a case of citrullinemia with neonatal liver failure and high blood parameters of iron overload. We hypothesize that the key is in the decreased-deficient fumaric acid production in the course of UC in UCDs that causes several sequentially intertwined metabolic disturbances with final result of liver iron overload. The presented hypothesis could be easily tested by examining the patients suffering from UCDs, for liver iron overload. This could be easily performed in countries with a high population and comprehensive national register for inborn errors of metabolism. Providing the hypothesis is correct, neonatal liver damage in patients having UCD can be prevented by the supplementation of pregnant women with fumaric or succinic acid, prepared in the form of iron supplementation pills. After birth, liver damage in patients having UCDs can be prevented by supplementation of these patients with zinc fumarate or zinc succinylate, as well.

  10. Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibanda M

    2015-03-29

    Mar 29, 2015 ... Twenty-four clinically healthy animals in different parities, namely Parity 1 ..... In the dry spell there is low protein intake because of high fibrous diets from dry forage materials. (MacDonald .... Prentice Hall, Malaysia. Mapekula ...

  11. Haematological Indices and Blood Urea Nitrogen of Yankasa Ram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reaction (Tanis and Naylor, 1968), while total proteins were estimated by Biuret method as described by. Henry and Stobel (1957). Albumin was determined by. Bromo Cresol ... means observed in the values of packed cell volume. (PCV) ...

  12. A coupled-enzyme equilibrium method for measuring urea in serum: optimization and evaluation of the AACC study group on urea candidate reference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, E J; Baird, M A; Burtis, C A; Smith, E M; Witte, D L; Bayse, D D

    1980-06-01

    We describe a coupled-enzyme equilibrium method for measuring urea in serum, which is performed on supernates prepared by treating each specimen with Ba(OH)2 and ZnSO4 (Somogyi reagent). Analytical recovery of [14C]urea added to a variety of matrices was essentially complete (mean, 100.6%) for the supernates after precipitation. Nine variables were univariately examined in arriving at the reaction conditions for the method: glutamate dehydrogenase, urease, 2-oxoglutarate, ADP, Tris . HCI, NADH, EDTA, pH, and temperature. The reagent is stable for at least 48 days at--20 degrees C and for 23 days at 4 degrees C. Mean analytical recovery of urea (14 mmol/L) added to seven different specimens (three different matrices) was 100.8%. The analytical linear range of the method extends to 30 mmol of urea per liter. Of 22 potential interferents, only bilirubin at 1 mmol/L (580 mg/L), hemoglobin at 10 g/L, and hydroxyurea at 6 mmol/L showed more than 2% interference. We discuss precision and effects of specimen dilution, and compare results for 100 human serum specimens with those measured for the same specimens with four other urea methods. We examined the effects of measuring a blank, consisting of sample and reagent without urease, with each specimen.

  13. The incidence of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summar, Marshall L; Koelker, Stefan; Freedenberg, Debra; Le Mons, Cynthia; Haberle, Johannes; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kirmse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs, argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency, are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35,000 births presenting about 113 new patients per year across all age groups. © 2013.

  14. Role of thin descending limb urea transport in renal urea handling and the urine concentrating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Lei; Layton, Anita T.; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Xuejian; Bankir, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-B are expressed in epithelia of thin descending limb of Henle's loop and in descending vasa recta, respectively. To study their role and possible interaction in the context of the urine concentration mechanism, a UT-A2 and UT-B double knockout (UT-A2/B knockout) mouse model was generated by targeted deletion of the UT-A2 promoter in embryonic stem cells with UT-B gene knockout. The UT-A2/B knockout mice lacked detectable UT-A2 and UT-B transcripts and proteins and showed normal survival and growth. Daily urine output was significantly higher in UT-A2/B knockout mice than that in wild-type mice and lower than that in UT-B knockout mice. Urine osmolality in UT-A2/B knockout mice was intermediate between that in UT-B knockout and wild-type mice. The changes in urine osmolality and flow rate, plasma and urine urea concentration, as well as non-urea solute concentration after an acute urea load or chronic changes in protein intake suggested that UT-A2 plays a role in the progressive accumulation of urea in the inner medulla. These results suggest that in wild-type mice UT-A2 facilitates urea absorption by urea efflux from the thin descending limb of short loops of Henle. Moreover, UT-A2 deletion in UT-B knockout mice partially remedies the urine concentrating defect caused by UT-B deletion, by reducing urea loss from the descending limbs to the peripheral circulation; instead, urea is returned to the inner medulla through the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts. PMID:21849488

  15. Automated monosegmented flow analyser. Determination of glucose, creatinine and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo Júnior, I M; Pasquini, C

    1997-10-01

    An automated monosegmented flow analyser containing a sampling valve and a reagent addition module and employing a laboratory-made photodiode array spectrophotometer as detection system is described. The instrument was controlled by a 386SX IBM compatible microcomputer through an IC8255 parallel port that communicates with the interface which controls the sampling valve and reagent addition module. The spectrophotometer was controlled by the same microcomputer through an RS232 serial standard interface. The software for the instrument was written in QuickBasic 4.5. Opto-switches were employed to detect the air bubbles limiting the monosegment, allowing precise sample localisation for reagent addition and signal reading. The main characteristics of the analyser are low reagent consumption and high sensitivity which is independent of the sample volume. The instrument was designed to determine glucose, creatinine or urea in blood plasma and serum without hardware modification. The results were compared against those obtained by the Clinical Hospital of UNICAMP using commercial analysers. Correlation coefficients among the methods were 0.997, 0.982 and 0.996 for glucose, creatinine and urea, respectively.

  16. PLATELET ADHESION TO POLYURETHANE UREA UNDER PULSATILE FLOW CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navitsky, Michael A.; Taylor, Joshua O.; Smith, Alexander B.; Slattery, Margaret J.; Deutsch, Steven; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Manning, Keefe B.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet adhesion to a polyurethane urea surface is a precursor to thrombus formation within blood-contacting cardiovascular devices, and platelets have been found to adhere strongly to polyurethane surfaces below a shear rate of approximately 500 s−1. The aim of the current work is to determine platelet adhesion properties to the polyurethane urea surface as a function of time varying shear exposure. A rotating disk system is used to study the influence of steady and pulsatile flow conditions (e.g. cardiac inflow and sawtooth waveforms) for platelet adhesion to the biomaterial surface. All experiments retain the same root mean square angular rotation velocity (29.63 rad/s) and waveform period. The disk is rotated in platelet rich bovine plasma for two hours with adhesion quantified by confocal microscopy measurements of immunofluorescently labeled bovine platelets. Platelet adhesion under pulsating flow is found to exponentially decay with increasing shear rate. Adhesion levels are found to depend upon peak platelet flux and shear rate regardless of rotational waveform. In combination with flow measurements, these results may be useful for predicting regions susceptible to thrombus formation within ventricular assist devices. PMID:24721222

  17. Performance and safety of femoral central venous catheters in pediatric autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura; Hoffmann, Sandra; Webb, Dawn; Yamada, Chisa; Davenport, Robertson; Choi, Sung Won

    2017-12-01

    Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell collection (A-HPCC) in children typically requires placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) for venous access. There is scant published data regarding the performance and safety of femoral CVCs in pediatric A-HPCC. Seven-year, retrospective study of A-HPCC in pediatric patients collected between 2009 and January 2017. Inclusion criteria were an age ≤ 21 years and A-HPCC using a femoral CVC for venous access. Femoral CVC performance was examined by CD34 collection rate, inlet rate, collection efficiency (MNC-FE, CD34-FE), bleeding, flow-related adverse events (AE), CVC removal, and product sterility testing. Statistical analysis and graphing were performed with commercial software. A total of 75/119 (63%) pediatric patients (median age 3 years) met study criteria. Only 16% of children required a CVC for ≥ 3 days. The CD34 collect rate and CD34-FE was stable over time whereas MNC-FE decreased after day 4 in 80% of patients. CD34-FE and MNC-FE showed inter- and intra-patient variability over time and appeared sensitive to plerixafor administration. Femoral CVC showed fewer flow-related AE compared to thoracic CVC, especially in pediatric patients (6.7% vs. 37%, P = 0.0005; OR = 0.12 (95%CI: 0.03-0.45). CVC removal was uneventful in 73/75 (97%) patients with hemostasis achieved after 20-30 min of pressure. In a 10-year period, there were no instances of product contamination associated with femoral CVC colonization. Femoral CVC are safe and effective for A-HPCC in young pediatric patients. Femoral CVC performance was maintained over several days with few flow-related alarms when compared to thoracic CVCs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. "Learning" Can Improve the Blood Glucose Control Performance for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youqing; Zhang, Jinping; Zeng, Fanmao; Wang, Na; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Dong; Yang, Wenying; Cobelli, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A learning-type artificial pancreas has been proposed to exploit the repetitive nature in the blood glucose dynamics. We clinically evaluated the efficacy of the learning-type artificial pancreas. We conducted a pilot clinical study in 10 participants of mean age 36.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 12.7; range 16-58) with type 1 diabetes. Each trial was conducted for eight consecutive mornings. The first two mornings were open-loop to obtain the individualized parameters. Then, the following six mornings were closed-loop, during which a learning-type model predictive control algorithm was employed to calculate the insulin infusion rate. To evaluate the algorithm's robustness, each participant took exercise or consumed alcohol on the fourth or sixth closed-loop day and the order was determined randomly. The primary outcome was the percentage of time spent in the target glucose range of 3.9-8.0 mmol/L between 0900 and 1200 h. The percentage of time with glucose spent in target range was significantly improved from 51.6% on day 1 to 71.6% on day 3 (mean difference between groups 17.9%, confidence interval [95% CI] 3.6-32.1; P = 0.020). There were no hypoglycemic episodes developed on day 3 compared with two episodes on day 1. There was no difference in the percentage of time with glucose spent in target range between exercise day versus day 5 and alcohol day versus day 5. The learning-type artificial pancreas system achieved good glycemic regulation and provided increased effectiveness over time. It showed a satisfactory performance even when the blood glucose was challenged by exercise or alcohol.

  19. Fetal blood gas values during fetoscopic myelomeningocele repair performed under carbon dioxide insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschat, Ahmet A; Ahn, Edward S; Murphy, Jamie; Miller, Jena L

    2018-05-10

    Fetoscopic myelomeningocele (MMC) repair is performed with intrauterine carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation. While lamb experiments have shown significant fetal acidemia following CO 2 insufflation corresponding information for human pregnancies is not available. We performed umbilical venous cord blood sampling in three patients during fetoscopic MMC repair at 25+1, 25+3 and 24+1 weeks gestation. Fetal venous pH at the beginning of CO 2 insufflation were 7.36, 7.46 and 7.37; repeat values were 7.28, 7.35, 7.36 after 181, 159 and 149 minutes respectively. The partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide was maintained in the normal range at these times and pH decrease was less in patient 3 receiving humidified CO2 insufflation. Our observations suggest that in contrast to sheep experiments, CO2 insufflation during fetoscopic myelomeningocele repair does not cause fetal acidemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup......The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided......-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily...

  1. Influence of Partial Pressure of Oxygen in Blood Samples on Measurement Performance in Glucose-Oxidase-Based Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Background Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Methods Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: pO2 ~70 mmHg, which is considered to be similar to pO2 in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG result at pO2 pO2 pO2 ≥150 mmHg. For both pO2 levels, relative differences of all tested GOx systems were significant (p pO2 values pO2 variations lead to clinically relevant BG measurement deviations in GOx systems, even in GOx systems that are not labeled as being oxygen sensitive. PMID:24351177

  2. Suplementasi Urea Molasis Blok untuk Meningkatkan Penampilan Kambing Peranakan Etawah yang Diberi Pakan Hijauan Gamal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of urea molasses block for increasing performance of ettawah crossbred goats fed diet containing gliricidia spium green forage ABSTRACT. The aimed of this experiment to study the supplementation of urea molasses block for performance increased of ettawah crossbred goats fed diet containing Gliricidia spium green forage has been conducted at Tabanan regency and Animal Nutrition Laboratory. The Latin Square Design which four treatments and four replicates was used in this experiment. The four treatments were the levels of urea molasses block : 0, 50, 100 and 150g respectively. The animal access to ad libitum Gliricidia spium green forage and drink water. The animal fed twice a day urea molasses block at the morning and at the afternoon. The variables which were observed including feed consumption, nutrient digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The result of this experiment showed dry matter feed consumption, drink water, nutrient digestibility of the four treatments is not significantly different (P >0.05. The body weight gain at treatment C was significantly higher (P <0.05, but feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly lower (P <0.05 than treatments A, B and D. From the results in this experiment it can be concluded that the used of urea molasses block 100g on the effect to increased the performance of ettawah crossbred goats with basal diet Gliricidia spium green forage.

  3. Association of tracheal mucus or blood and airway neutrophilia with racing performance in Thoroughbred horses in an Australian racing yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salz, R O; Ahern, B J; Boston, R; Begg, L M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the variation of tracheal mucus scores, tracheal blood scores and transendoscopic tracheal wash (TW) cytology in a population of Thoroughbred (TB) racehorses and assess their association with racing performance. A total of 220 endoscopic examinations were performed and TWs obtained from 155 TB racehorses. Samples were collected 60-120 min following gallop work. Tracheal mucus score, tracheal blood score and TW cytology were analysed and their association with racing performance assessed. Of the total examinations and samples, 194 from 135 horses fitted the criteria for inclusion. The overall prevalence of visible tracheal mucus was 2.5% (5/194) and of increased tracheal mucus was 0%. The prevalence of visible tracheal blood was 8.8% (17/194) and of increased tracheal blood was 4.6% (9/194). A total of 36% (70/194) of TWs contained elevated percentages of neutrophils and of these, 96% (67/70) occurred in the absence of any visible tracheal mucus. There was no significant association between tracheal mucus score or TW cytology and subsequent racing performance. There was a statistically significant association (P = 0.004) between increased tracheal blood scores and poor racing performance. Visible tracheal blood seen after strenuous exercise in clinically normal TB racehorses was a risk factor for poor racing performance, but the presence of airway neutrophilia was not. No horses in this study were found to have increased tracheal mucus, so the association of increased tracheal mucus with racing performance could not be assessed. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Measurement of urea kinetics in vivo by means of a constant tracer infusion of di-15N-urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    We have assessed the feasibility of studying urea metabolism in vivo in both steady state and nonsteady state situations by means of the primed constant infusion of di-15N-urea and the analysis of the resulting enrichment in plasma urea. Both hepatectomized dogs with known rates of urea infusion and intact dogs were studied. The enrichment of the bistrimethylsilyl derivative of urea was determined on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Selected ion monitoring was set for m/e 189 (M - 15), m/e 190 (A + 1), and m/e 191 (A + 2), thus enabling the calculation of the rate of urea production from nonrecycled NH3 (from A + 2 data) (Ra N), the rate of recycling of NH3 into urea (Ra R) (from A + 1 data), and thus the total rate of urea production (Ra N + Ra R). When urine collections were made, the incorporation of urea-N into protein was estimated from the difference between Ra N and urea excretion. We found that, in the steady state in a hepatectomized dog, the rate of appearance of urea can be determined accurately. In the nonsteady state in both hepatectomized and intact dogs, urea appearance could be estimated within +/- 20% in most situations. The only situation in which this was not the case was when we attempted to measure rapid changes in Ra R. Thus, within limits, this can be a useful technique enabling the quantitation of various aspects of urea metabolism

  5. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  6. Disorders of urea cycle: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Álvarez

    2017-08-01

    Discussion: Urea cycle disorders are part of innate errors in ammonia detoxification or arginine synthesis, secondary to defects in the enzymes involved in this cycle. Clinical manifestations are secondary to elevated levels of serum ammonia. The treatment is composed of an acute and chronic phase.

  7. Blood metabolite markers of cognitive performance and brain function in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Brittany N; Kim, Min; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Beason-Held, Lori; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa; Kraut, Michael; Lirette, Seth T; Windham, B Gwen; Griswold, Michael E; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Thambisetty, Madhav

    2016-07-01

    We recently showed that Alzheimer's disease patients have lower plasma concentrations of the phosphatidylcholines (PC16:0/20:5; PC16:0/22:6; and PC18:0/22:6) relative to healthy controls. We now extend these findings by examining associations between plasma concentrations of these PCs with cognition and brain function (measured by regional resting state cerebral blood flow; rCBF) in non-demented older individuals. Within the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging neuroimaging substudy, participants underwent cognitive assessments and brain (15)O-water positron emission tomography. Plasma phosphatidylcholines concentrations (PC16:0/20:5, PC16:0/22:6, and PC18:0/22:6), cognition (California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Trail Making Test A&B, the Mini-Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention, Card Rotation, and Fluencies-Category and Letter), and rCBF were assessed. Lower plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations were associated with lower baseline memory performance (CVLT long delay recall task-PC16:0/20:5: -2.17-1.39-0.60 p = 0.001 (β with 95% confidence interval subscripts)) and lower rCBF in several brain regions including those associated with memory performance and higher order cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that lower plasma concentrations of PC16:0/20:5, PC16:0/22:6, and PC18:0/22:6 are associated with poorer memory performance as well as widespread decreases in brain function during aging. Dysregulation of peripheral phosphatidylcholine metabolism may therefore be a common feature of both Alzheimer's disease and age-associated differences in cognition. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Cerebral blood flow in hypothyroidism: Response to therapy and associated cognitive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgin, N.; Akdemir, U.O.; Yetkin, I.; Eroglu, A.

    2002-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is often associated with defective memory, psychomotor slowing and depression. However, the relationship between thyroid status, related cognitive state and associated cerebral circulatory and/or metabolic abnormalities have not been elucidated. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate pre-and post-therapy brain perfusion patterns in 9 hypothyroid patients presenting with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Method: Patients were referred on the basis of abnormal levels of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal antibodies, hypothyroidism and symptoms of cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive performance was tested using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and Bender Gestalt Test. Functional evaluation of the brain was also performed via the methods of electroencephalography (EEG) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT). An initial SPECT study was carried out after I.V. injection of Tc99m-HMPAO and semiquantitative rCBF analysis was performed by drawing irregular regions of interest (ROIs) in three slices. A total number of 12 sector regions of interest placed on the two hemispheres and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined using cortical region/cerebellum ratios obtained in each hemisphere. A repeat SPECT study was undertaken in 5 subjects 3-6 months after the initiation of medical therapy. Results: Pre-therapy perfusion data in four patients showed that the cortical ratios were globally depressed at the levels of 0.65-0.85 where these ratios improved quickly to the near normal-above normal levels (range of rCBF improvement as % difference from baseline 25%-45%) within 3-4 months of therapy. Conclusion: These results indicate that brain activity was globally decreased in severe hypothyroidism of short duration which normalized steadily as the hypothyroid state is corrected

  9. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in recreational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Diagnostic performance of dark-blood T2-weighted CMR for evaluation of acute myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Lath, Narayan; Babb, James; Axel, Leon; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We compared the image quality and diagnostic performance of 2 fat-suppression methods for black-blood T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), which are as follows: (a) short T1 inversion recovery (STIR; FSE-STIR) and (b) spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR; FSE-SPAIR), for detection of acute myocardial injury. Edema-sensitive T2-weighted FSE cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is useful in detecting acute myocardial injury but may experience reduced myocardial signal and signal dropout. The SPAIR pulse aims to eliminate artifacts associated with the STIR pulse. A total of 65 consecutive patients referred for CMR evaluation of myocardial structure and function underwent FSE-STIR and FSE-SPAIR, in addition to cine and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR. T2-weighted FSE images were independently evaluated by 2 readers for image quality and artifacts (Likert scale of 1-5; best-worst) and presence of increased myocardial signal suggestive of edema. In addition, clinical CMR interpretation, incorporating all CMR sequences available, was recorded for comparison. Diagnostic performance of each T2-weighted sequence was measured using recent (T2, and wall motion. There was a statistically significant difference in sensitivity between the clinical interpretation and each of the T2-weighted sequences but not between each T2-weighted sequence. Although FSE-SPAIR demonstrated significantly improved image quality and decreased artifacts, isolated interpretations of each T2-weighted technique demonstrated high specificity but overall low sensitivity for the detection of myocardial injury, with no difference in accuracy between the techniques. However, real-world interpretation in combination with cine and LGE CMR methods significantly improves the overall sensitivity and diagnostic performance.

  11. Quantitative aspect of the endogenous urea cycle in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Yu

    1975-01-01

    The turnover of plasma urea was studied in goats fed rations with different protein contents by using 14 C- and 15 N-urea as tracers. The biological half-life time of urea determined with 15 N-urea was always longer than that determined with 14 C-urea, reflecting the difference in the metabolic pathway between the urea hydrolysates, ammonia and carbon dioxide. It was roughly estimated from the turnover studies that more than a half the quantity of urea synthesized might be transferred to the alimentary canal, including the rumen, where it underwent dissociation, with a decrease in the protein content of the ration, the percentage of transfer and dissociation increased. The 14 C-urea discharged into the urine was less than 57% of the administered dose. It decreased to 3.9% in goats fed rations with a low protein content. The rate of urea turnover determined with 15 N-urea was nearly consistent with the rate of urea discharge into the urine in goats fed higher protein rations. In goats fed lower protein rations, on the other hand, the rate of urea discharge decreased and its consistency with the rate of turnover determined with 15 N-urea was upset. This was caused by assimilation of urea-nitrogen in rumen microorganisms, as was convinced by studying the incorporation of urea- 15 N into the fraction of rumen microorganisms. It was assumed that in goats fed lower protein rations the bulk of urea synthesized might have entered the endogenous recycling system within the body and assimilated by rumen microorganisms. (auth.)

  12. Impact of partial pressure of oxygen in blood samples on the performance of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Tesar, Martina; Freckmann, Guido

    2014-03-01

    The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect glucose measurements with oxygen-sensitive systems. In this study, we assessed the influence of different pO2 levels on blood glucose (BG) measurements with five glucose oxidase (GOD) systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. All selected GOD systems were indicated by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased oxygen content of the blood sample. Venous blood samples of 16 subjects (eight women, eight men; mean age, 52 years; three with type 1 diabetes, four with type 2 diabetes, and nine without diabetes) were collected. Aliquots of each sample were adjusted to the following pO2 values: ≤45 mm Hg, approximately 70 mm Hg, and ≥150 mm Hg. For each system, five consecutive measurements on each sample were performed using the same test strip lot. Relative differences between the mean BG value at a pO2 level of approximately 70 mm Hg, which was considered to be similar to pO2 values in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG value at pO2 levels ≤45 mm Hg and ≥150 mm Hg were calculated. The GOD systems showed mean relative differences between 11.8% and 44.5% at pO2 values ≤45 mm Hg and between -14.6% and -21.2% at pO2 values ≥150 mm Hg. For the GDH system, the mean relative differences were -0.3% and -0.2% at pO2 values ≤45 mm Hg and ≥150 mm Hg, respectively. The magnitude of the pO2 impact on BG measurements seems to vary among the tested oxygen-sensitive GOD systems. The pO2 range in which oxygen-sensitive systems operate well should be provided in the product information.

  13. 40 CFR 721.9925 - Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide... Substances § 721.9925 Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aminoethylethylene urea...

  14. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in producing...

  15. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

  16. A field evaluation of coated urea with biodegradable materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... Urease inhibitor and biodegradable polymer coatings are two most suitable startegies to increase urea fertilizer efficiency. Coating of urea with selected inhibitors can increase the crop production by slowing down the hydrolysis process of urea in the soil. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted ...

  17. The effects of urea, guanidinium chloride and sorbitol on porphyrin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper compares the inhibition effect of porphyrin aggregation in the presence of urea, guanidinium chloride (Gdn) and sorbitol by molecular dynamics simulation. It demonstrates that porphyrin aggregation increases in sorbitol, but decreases towards addition of urea and Gdn. It shows that urea, Gdn and sorbitol can ...

  18. A field evaluation of coated urea with biodegradable materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urease inhibitor and biodegradable polymer coatings are two most suitable startegies to increase urea fertilizer efficiency. Coating of urea with selected inhibitors can increase the crop production by slowing down the hydrolysis process of urea in the soil. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the ...

  19. Effect of nitrogen supplementation on urea kinetics and microbial use of recycled urea in steers consuming corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Jones, M L; Anderson, D E

    2010-08-01

    We studied the effects of supplementing N as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) or urea to steers consuming corn-based diets. Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (244 kg) were used in 2 concurrent 3 x 3 Latin squares and fed 1 of 3 corn-based diets: control (10.2% CP), urea (13.3% CP), or DDGS (14.9% CP). Periods were 14 d, with 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and feces. Urinary (15)N(15)N-urea enrichments, resulting from venous infusions of (15)N(15)N-urea, were used to measure urea kinetics. Dry matter intake (6.0 kg/d) was not affected by treatment, but N intake differed (99, 151, and 123 g/d for the control, DDGS, and urea treatments, respectively). Urea-N synthesis tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for DDGS (118 g/d) than for the control treatment (52 g/d), with the urea treatment (86 g/d) being intermediate. Urea-N excreted in the urine was greater (P urea treatments (29 g/d) than for the control treatment (13 g/d). Gastrointestinal entry of urea-N was not statistically different among treatments (P = 0.25), but was numerically greatest for DDGS (83 g/d), intermediate for urea (57 g/d), and least for the control (39 g/d). The amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for the DDGS treatment (47 g/d) than for the urea (27 g/d) or control treatment (16 g/d). The fraction of recycled urea-N that was apparently used for anabolism tended (P = 0.14) to be greater for the control treatment (0.56) than for the DDGS treatment (0.31), with the urea treatment (0.45) being intermediate, but no differences were observed among treatments in the amount of urea-N used for anabolism (P = 0.66). Urea kinetics in cattle fed grain-based diets were largely related to the amount of N consumed. The percentage of urea production that was captured by ruminal bacteria was greater (P urea treatment (22%), but the percentage of duodenal microbial N flow that was derived from recycled urea-N tended (P = 0.10) to

  20. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Performance of Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes in the Clarification of Blood Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Conidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The clarification of blood orange juice by ultrafiltration (UF was investigated by using three hollow fiber membrane modules characterized by different membrane materials (polysulfone (PS and polyacrylonitrile (PAN and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO (50 and 100 kDa. The performance of selected membranes was investigated in terms of productivity and selectivity towards total anthocyanin content (TAC, total phenolic content (TPC, and total antioxidant activity (TAA. All selected membranes allowed a good preservation of antioxidant compounds; however, the most suitable membrane for the clarification of the juice was found to be the PS 100 kDa membrane. In optimized operating conditions this membrane exhibited steady-state fluxes of 7.12 L/m2h, higher than those measured for other investigated membranes. Rejections towards TPC and TAA were of the order of 17.5% and 15%, respectively. These values were lower than those determined for PS 50 kDa and PAN 50 kDa membranes. In addition, the PS 100 kDa membrane exhibited a lower rejection (7.3% towards TAC when compared to the PS 50 kDa membrane (9.2%.

  2. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. An

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet were lower than those of medicated control group (p<0.01. The chicks fed diet with 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract showed a similar BW to that of medicated control group. The relative weight of various organs, such as liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, abdominal fat, and the activities of serum enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments. There were no significant differences in meat color among groups. Whereas, groups fed diets containing onion extract had slightly lower cooking loss and higher shear force value, but not significantly. The concentrations of serum free cholesterol and triacylglycerol in groups fed diet containing onion extract were significantly decreased compared with those of controls (p<0.01. In conclusion, the onion extracts exerted a growth-promoting effect when added in White mini broiler diets, reflecting potential alternative substances to replace antibiotics.

  3. An optimized and simplified method for analysing urea and ammonia in freshwater aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a simple urease method for analysis of ammonia and urea in freshwater aquaculture systems. Urea is hydrolysed into ammonia using urease followed by analysis of released ammonia using the salicylate-hypochlorite method. The hydrolysis of urea is performed at room temperature...... and without addition of a buffer. A number of tests were performed on water samples obtained from a commercial rainbow trout farm to determine the optimal urease concentration and time for complete hydrolysis. One mL of water sample was spiked with 1.3 mL urea at three different concentrations: 50 lg L 1, 100...... lg L 1 and 200 lg L 1 urea-N. In addition, five concentrations of urease were tested, ranging from 0.1 U mL 1 to 4 U mL 1. Samples were hydrolysed for various time periods ranging from 5 to 120 min. A urease concentration of 0.4 U mL 1 and a hydrolysis period of 120 min gave the best results, with 99...

  4. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  5. Species identification of cooked fish by urea isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis : a collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehbein, H.; Kundiger, R.; Yman, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The suitability and reliability of urea IEF and SDS-PAGE for the identification of cooked fish flesh was tested by a collaborative study among nine laboratories. Urea IEF was performed with CleanGels as well as with ImmobilineGels, and ExcelGels were used for SDS-PAGE, enabling all three types...... of gels to be run in the same flat bed electrophoresis chamber. By strictly following optimised standard operation procedures (SOPs), five unknown cooked samples had to be identified with each technique using a set of 10 raw reference samples. With urea IEF, only one out of 35 identifications...

  6. Effect of biotin and pantothenic acid on performance and concentrations of avidin-binding substances in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Brown, Alston N; Teets, Christy L

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that pantothenic acid reduces the absorption of biotin in lactating dairy cows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the plausible interaction between biotin and pantothenic acid on production performance and concentration of avidin-binding substances (ABS), an indicator of biotin concentration, in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diet sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Cows were housed in a freestall barn and fed once daily (0730 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). Treatments consisted of a control diet that contained no B-vitamins, a biotin diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin per kilogram of dry matter (DM), a pantothenic acid diet that contained 21 mg of pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM, and a biotin plus pantothenic acid diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin and 21 mg of calcium pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM. Four different concentrates were prepared in a commercial feed mill. These concentrates were mixed with corn silage and grass hay and delivered ad libitum as a total mixed ration. Biotin supplementation did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk-urea-nitrogen concentrations. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were not affected by treatments. The fat-to-protein ratio was Biotin supplementation did not increase the concentration of ABS in plasma. The supplementation of pantothenic acid did not affect the concentration of ABS in plasma when either supplemented alone or in combination with biotin. Biotin supplementation increased the concentration of ABS in milk relative to control. Contrary to our hypothesis, the supplementation of pantothenic acid did not decrease the concentration of ABS in milk relative to the control. When cows were supplemented with both biotin and pantothenic acid, the concentration of ABS in milk was similar

  7. Effect of High Intensity Interval Training with Blood Restriction on Anaerobic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Behi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Limiting venous blood flow restriction is a new approach of  training aims to improving high level of performance among athletes, which has shown prominent results at muscle hypotrophy and strength. KAATSU[1] is a training system including pressure belt imposed on the proximal part of the upper and lower bodies. The present study aims to investigate the effect of HIIT Kaatsu trainings on anaerobic performance among young athletes. The present quasi experimental research was conducted through a pre-test and post-test and three groups including KAATSU intensive interval exercises (n=11, intense interval exercise (n=9 and a control group (n=10. The exercises included running distances of 20 and 40 meters. In the beginning of the protocol most of the exercises was in short distances and as the sessions proceeded, the number of the sets and repetitions increased and it reached to its highest intensity in the last session. During the exercise protocol, intensity of training was considered to be the highest running speed and based on their abilities each individual tried to run as fast as possible. The exercise load was defined based on repetitions and the sets. In the 20 meters distances, the participants took a ten second rest after each repetition and a one minute rest after each set and in 40 meters distances; Subjects took a 20 second rest after each repetition and 2 minute rest between sets. The control group did not performed any of the mentioned exercises. Moreover, before and after four weeks of training the individuals were given RAST and Anaerobic Biking Wingate Test. Statistical result has been shown, there is a significant change between the maximum anaerobic power in Wingate biking test after four weeks within KAATSU intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 and intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 groups, but no significant change was detected in the control group (P> 0.05.  The statistical analysis of this research has been shown that there is

  8. An efficient model to improve the performance of platelet inventory of the blood banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annista Wijayanayake

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet transfusions are vital for the prevention of fatal hemorrhage. Therefore, a stable inventory of platelets is required for an efficient and effective delivery of services in all the hospitals and medical centers. However, over the past decades, the requirement for platelets seems to be continuously increasing, while the number of potential donors is decreasing. Moreover, due to its very short life span of just five days, a large volume of platelets expires while they are on the shelves, resulting unnecessary shortages of platelets. Furthermore, it is very costly and difficult to get platelets from another blood bank in a short notice. Hence, these unexpected shortages put the life of patients at risk. This study is focused on addressing the issues discussed, by developing an efficient blood inventory management model to reduce the platelet shortages, and wastages, while reducing the related inventory costs. Currently, the blood banks are managing platelet inventory according to their own instincts, which result to shortages and wastages. As a solution, we propose a model to manage the daily supply of platelets by forecasting the daily demand. Three different algorithms were developed using lower bound, average and upper bound values and tested to find the optimal solution that best fits to manage platelet inventory. These models were tested using data for 60 days obtained from two different levels of blood banks in Sri Lanka, namely a General Hospital blood bank and a Base Hospital blood bank. In General hospitals, the demand for blood components including platelets is very high when compared to the Base hospitals. The study was able to come up with two different inventory management models for the two different types of blood banks. The model that best fits the General Hospital blood bank where the demand is high and was able to reduce the shortages by 46.74%, wastage by 89.82% and total inventory level by 39.10% and, the model that

  9. Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Smith, Jessica E; Heatherley, Susan V; Pleydell-Pearce, C W

    2008-01-01

    Although both contain behaviourally significant concentrations of caffeine, tea is commonly perceived to be a less stimulating drink than coffee. At least part of the explanation for this may be that theanine, which is present in tea but not coffee, has relaxing effects. There is also some evidence that theanine affects cognitive performance, and it has been found to reduce blood pressure in hypertensive rats. To study the subjective, behavioural and blood pressure effects of theanine and caffeine administered alone and together, in doses relevant to the daily tea consumption of regular tea drinkers. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy adult participants (n = 48) received either 250-mg caffeine, 200-mg theanine, both or neither of these. They completed ratings of mood, including anxiety, and alertness, and had their blood pressure measured before and starting 40 min after drug administration. Anxiety was also assessed using a visual probe task. Caffeine increased self-rated alertness and jitteriness and blood pressure. Theanine antagonised the effect of caffeine on blood pressure but did not significantly affect jitteriness, alertness or other aspects of mood. Theanine also slowed overall reaction time on the visual probe task. Theanine is a physiologically and behaviourally active compound and, while it is unclear how its effects might explain perceived differences between tea and coffee, evidence suggests that it may be useful for reducing raised blood pressure.

  10. Peak hyperammonemia and atypical acute liver failure: The eruption of an urea cycle disorder during hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicolas; Mochel, Fanny; Rudler, Marika; Demeret, Sophie; Lebray, Pascal; Conti, Filomena; Galanaud, Damien; Ottolenghi, Chris; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Dommergues, Marc; Bernuau, Jacques; Thabut, Dominique

    2017-09-20

    Inborn urea cycle disorders are under-recognised metabolic causes of hyperammonemia in adults. A 28-year-old primigravida, seven weeks pregnant, affected by hyperemesis gravidarum developed acute liver injury (ALI) and then acute liver failure (ALF) in less than 48 h. Because the patient developed atypical features, especially mildly elevated aminotransferases contrasting with very high blood ammonia levels (281 μmol/L), concomitant with normal serum creatinine, an inborn error of metabolism was suspected. We performed emergency metabolic analyses, stopped all protein intake and started with intravenous (i.v.) high caloric intake, nitrogen scavenger drugs and haemodialysis. The neurological and hepatic status of the patient quickly improved together with normalisation of her ammonemia levels. High plasma glutamine and urinary orotic acid, alongside low plasma arginine, citrulline and ornithine were suggestive of an ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, later confirmed by molecular analyses. Foetal sex was female, as determined by foetal DNA analysis in maternal blood, and foetal development was unremarkable throughout the pregnancy. Delivery was induced at 39 weeks with a close monitoring of ammonemia levels and i.v. perfusion of carbohydrates and lipids during labour and immediately post-partum to avoid hypercatabolism. Delivery was uneventful and the patient delivered a healthy female baby. Urea cycle disorders should be contemplated in non-jaundiced patients with ALI or ALF, severe hyperammonemia and normal serum creatinine regardless of serum aminotransferase levels. The prompt recognition of this rare condition and the rapid initiation of adequate metabolic therapy are mandatory to prevent irreversible neurological sequelae and to avoid liver transplantation. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Urine concentrating mechanism: impact of vascular and tubular architecture and a proposed descending limb urea-Na+ cotransporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzler, William H.; Pannabecker, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    We extended a region-based mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney, previously developed by us, to represent new anatomic findings on the vascular architecture in the rat inner medulla (IM). In the outer medulla (OM), tubules and vessels are organized around tightly packed vascular bundles; in the IM, the organization is centered around collecting duct clusters. In particular, the model represents the separation of descending vasa recta from the descending limbs of loops of Henle, and the model represents a papillary segment of the descending thin limb that is water impermeable and highly urea permeable. Model results suggest that, despite the compartmentalization of IM blood flow, IM interstitial fluid composition is substantially more homogeneous compared with OM. We used the model to study medullary blood flow in antidiuresis and the effects of vascular countercurrent exchange. We also hypothesize that the terminal aquaporin-1 null segment of the long descending thin limbs may express a urea-Na+ or urea-Cl− cotransporter. As urea diffuses from the urea-rich papillary interstitium into the descending thin limb luminal fluid, NaCl is secreted via the cotransporter against its concentration gradient. That NaCl is then reabsorbed near the loop bend, raising the interstitial fluid osmolality and promoting water reabsorption from the IM collecting ducts. Indeed, the model predicts that the presence of the urea-Na+ or urea- Cl− cotransporter facilitates the cycling of NaCl within the IM and yields a loop-bend fluid composition consistent with experimental data. PMID:22088433

  12. Effects of ground thyme and probiotic supplements in diets on broiler performance, blood biochemistry and immunological response to sheep red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to study the effects of the aromatic plant thyme, a commercial probiotic (Protexin and avilamycin on broiler performance, blood biochemical parameters and also the antibody response to sheep red blood cells. A total of 750 broilers were assigned into five replicate groups for each of five dietary treatments, namely; control (C, 2.5 mg/kg avilamycin (AB, 0.1 g/kg commercial probiotic (P, 5 g/kg ground thyme (T1, and 7.5 g/kg ground thyme (T2. In general, body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments compared to the control birds (P>0.05. Birds fed the P supplemented treatment had the greatest serum protein levels (P<0.001 and highest albumin levels (P<0.001 when compared with control birds, while the birds fed T2 had the lowest (P<0.001. Dietary supplementation reduced (P<0.001 cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum of broilers, with the effect were more noticeable by P supplements. Moreover, blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in birds fed the P-supplemented diet compared to the birds fed the control diets. This study suggests that probiotic supplementation in particular, and to an intermediate extent ground thyme supplementation in diets of broiler, resulted in chicks with favorably improved blood biochemical parameters and mineral utilization, compared to the birds fed diets supplemented with avilamycin or without any supplementation.

  13. Determination of urea kinetics by isotope dilution with [C-13]urea and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, Wybe; Wolthers, BG; Stellaard, F; Elzinga, H; Tepper, T; deJong, PE; Huisman, RM

    1. Stable urea isotopes can be used to study urea kinetics in humans, The use of stable urea isotopes far studying urea kinetic parameters in humans on a large scale is hampered by the high costs of the labelled material, We devised a urea dilution for measurement of the distribution volume,

  14. When tight blood pressure control is not for everyone: a new model for performance measurement in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael A; Goldstein, Mary K

    2010-04-01

    Many patients with hypertension have legitimate reasons to forego standard blood pressure targets yet are nonetheless included in performance measurement systems. An approach to performance measurement incorporating clinical reasoning was developed to determine which patients to include in a performance measure. A 10-member multispecialty advisory panel refined a taxonomy of situations in which the balance of benefits and harms of anti-hypertensive treatment does not clearly favor tight blood pressure control (measurement for blood pressure control. These included (1) patients who have suffered adverse effects from multiple classes of antihypertensive medications; (2) patients already taking four or more antihypertensive medications; (3) patients with terminal disease, moderate to severe dementia, or other conditions that overwhelmingly dominate the patient's clinical status; and (4) other patient factors, including comfort care orientation and poor medication adherence despite attempts to remedy adherence difficulties. Several general principles also emerged. Performance measurement should focus on patients for whom the benefits of treatment clearly outweigh the harms and should incorporate a longitudinal approach. In addition, the criteria for exempting a patient from performance measurement should be more strict in patients at higher risk of adverse health outcomes from hypertension and more lenient for patients at lower risk. Incorporating "real world" clinical principles and judgment into performance measurement systems may improve targeting of care and, by accounting for patient case mix, allow for better comparison of performance between institutions.

  15. The role of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and blood pressure in diabetes-associated differences in cognitive performance - The Maastricht study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijselaers, Stefan L C; Sep, Simone J S; Claessens, Danny; Schram, Miranda T; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Henry, Ronald M. A.; Verhey, Frans R J; Kroon, Abraham A; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Biessels, Geert Jan; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study to what extent differences in cognitive performance between individuals with different glucose metabolism status are potentially attributable to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and blood pressure-related variables. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used cross-sectional data from

  16. Simultaneous determination of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in whole blood and plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Rønn, A; Flachs, H

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in human whole blood and plasma. The procedure involved extraction of the compounds and the internal standard...

  17. Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of combat training course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deijen, J.B.; Wientjes, C.J.E.; Vullinghs, H.F.M.; Cloin, P.A.; Langeveld, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the amino acid tyrosine on cognitive task performance were studied on a group of 21 cadets during a demanding military combat training course. In addition, the effects on mood, blood pressure and the norepinephrine metabolite MHPG were determined. Ten subjects received five daily doses

  18. Performance of a new meter designed for assisted monitoring of blood glucose and point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrury, Sandra; Srinivasan, Aparna; Mahoney, John J

    2013-03-01

    Blood glucose (BG) meters used for assisted monitoring of blood glucose (AMBG) require different attributes compared with meters designed for home use. These include safety considerations (i.e., minimized risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission), capability for testing multiple blood sample types, and enhanced performance specifications. The OneTouch® Verio™Pro+ BG meter is designed to incorporate all of these attributes. Meter accuracy was assessed in clinical studies with arterial, venous, and capillary blood samples with a hematocrit range of 22.9-59.8%. The effect of interferents, including anticoagulants, on accuracy was evaluated. The meter disinfection protocol was validated, and instructions for use and user acceptance of the system were assessed. A total of 97% (549/566) of BG measures from all blood sample types and 95.5% (191/200) of arterial blood samples were within ±12 mg/dl or 12.5% of reference measurements. The system was unaffected by 4 anticoagulants and 57 of 59 endogenous and exogenous compounds; it was affected by 2 compounds: pralidoxime iodide and xylose. Bleach wipes were sufficient to disinfect the meter. Users felt that the meter's quality control (QC) prompts would help them to comply with regulatory requirements. The meter provided accurate measurements of different blood samples over a wide hematocrit range and was not affected by 57 physiologic and therapeutic compounds. The QC prompts and specific infection-mitigating design further aid to make this meter system practical for AMBG in care facilities. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Milk Urea Dynamics during its Transformation into Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Vintila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our work was to evaluate in what measure milk urea concentration stays in processed yogurt and in what measure urea dose influences its quality. We added known amounts of urea into milk destined to yogurt processing in order to obtain probes with concentrations from 0,5 to 28 mg/ 100 ml milk. Obtained results lead us to the conclusion that milk urea decreases dramatically until the finishing of the process of milk coagulation and its transformation into yogurt. All probes which contained higher amounts of urea than 6 mg/ 100 ml milk, urea totally disappeared from yogurt before 48 hours of keeping. Milk coagulation time and its transformation to yogurt is reduced proportional with urea concentration in milk.

  20. Autonomic Functions Associated with Blood Pressure Regulation and Orthostatic Performance in Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Convertino, Victor

    1997-01-01

    ... in men and women to test the hypothesis that greater orthostatic intolerance in women would be associated with impairment of specific mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. Heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q...

  1. Urea and short-chain fatty acids metabolism in Holstein cows fed a low-nitrogen grass-based diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, B A; Lund, P; Kristensen, N B

    2008-01-01

    Three ruminally cannulated and multicatheterised lactating dairy cows were used to investigate the effect of different supplement strategies to fresh clover grass on urea and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism in a zero-grazing experiment with 24-h blood and ruminal samplings....

  2. Synthesis of 13N and/or 11C single or doubly labelled urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emran, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Utilization of nitrogen by plants encounters two important problems which are denitrification and deficiency or inactivation of certain enzyme. In the first process the fertilizer is affected by certain bacteria to produce nitrogen or its oxides which cannot be utilized by plants. In the second process, transformation of urea nitrogen into forms usable by plants depends on abundance and activity of the enzyme urease. Study of inorganic nitrogen transport has been underway using 13 N-nitrate as a tracer. Behavior of organic nitrogen can be studied using labelled urea. [ 13 N] and/or [ 11 C] single or doubly labelled urea are good tracers for this purpose. Reaction of trace amounts of potassium cyanate with 13 N-ammonium sulfate produced 13 N-ammonium cyanate which was thermally transformed into [ 13 N]-urea with no added carrier. Similarly, [ 11 C]-potassium cyanate reacted with 13 N-ammonium sulfate to produce 13 N/ 11 C-doubly labelled urea. Thin layer and high performance liquid chromatography were used to identify the products and determine the yields

  3. Glycerol and urea can be used to increase skin permeability in reduced hydration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Engblom, Johan; Thuresson, Krister; Sparr, Emma

    2013-12-18

    The natural moisturizing factor (NMF) is a group of hygroscopic molecules that is naturally present in skin and protects from severe drying. Glycerol and urea are two examples of NMF components that are also used in skin care applications. In the present study, we investigate the influence of glycerol and urea on the permeability of a model drug (metronidazole, Mz) across excised pig skin membranes at different hydrating conditions. The degree of skin hydration is regulated by the gradient in water activity across the membrane, which in turn depends on the water activity of the formulation in contact with the skin membrane. Here, we determine the water activity of all formulations employed using an isothermal calorimetric method. Thus, the gradient in water activity is controlled by a novel experimental set-up with well-defined boundary conditions on both sides of the skin membrane. The results demonstrate that glycerol and urea can retain high steady state flux of Mz across skin membranes at dehydrating conditions, which otherwise would decrease the permeability due to dehydration. X-ray diffraction measurements are performed to give insight into the effects of glycerol and urea on SC molecular organization. The novel steady state flux results can be related to the observation that water, glycerol, and urea all affect the structural features of the SC molecular components in a similar manner. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Salivary flow rate, buffer capacity, and urea concentration in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saes Busato, Ivana Maria; Antoni, Carlos Cesar De; Calcagnotto, Thiago; Ignácio, Sérgio Aparecido; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze salivary flow rate, urea concentration, and buffer capacity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in two different stages. This study was performed on adolescents (14-19 years), allocated between two groups: type 1 DM group comprised 32 adolescents with type 1 DM, and non-type 1 DM group comprised 32 nondiabetics. The adolescents in type 1 DM group were evaluated at a baseline (T0) and after 15 months (T1), and those in non-type 1 DM group were only evaluated at T0. Diabetic status was determined by glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) and capillary glucose tests. Measurement of salivary flow was performed by means of stimulated saliva (SSFR) collection. The buffer capacity (BC) was determined, and analysis of urea salivary concentration was performed using the colorimetric method. At T0, there were significant differences between diabetics and nondiabetics for SSFR and BC (pdiabetics, SSFR was 0.790 mL/min in T0 and 0.881 mL/min in T1 (p>0.05). BC at T0 was 4.8, and at T1, it was 3.9 (p=0.000). Urea concentration mean value had a significant decrease at T1 (28.13) compared with T0 (34.88) (p=0.013). There was a negative correlation between SSFR and urea salivary concentration at both T0 (r=-0.426, p≤0.05) and T1 (r=-0.601, p≤0.01). In adolescents with type 1 DM, hyposalivation at T0 was associated with an increase in urea salivary concentration. At T1, hyposalivation was associated with a reduction in BC, and an increase in salivary urea.

  5. Effects of different concentrations of ground oak acorn on growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics of goat kids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froutan, Eisa; Azizi, Osman; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of ground oak acorn on growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics. Twenty-four goat kids averaging 16.93 1.25 kg initial bodyweight were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a comple...... without any adverse effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. At this level of acorns, the goats received low concentrations of hydrolysable tannins (11 g/kg DM) in their diet....

  6. Thienoquinolins exert diuresis by strongly inhibiting UT-A urea transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huiwen; Wang, Yanhua; Xing, Yongning; Ran, Jianhua; Liu, Ming; Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Hong; Li, Runtao; Sands, Jeff M.

    2014-01-01

    Urea transporters (UT) play an important role in the urine concentration mechanism by mediating intrarenal urea recycling, suggesting that UT inhibitors could have therapeutic use as a novel class of diuretic. Recently, we found a thienoquinolin UT inhibitor, PU-14, that exhibited diuretic activity. The purpose of this study was to identify more potent UT inhibitors that strongly inhibit UT-A isoforms in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). Efficient thienoquinolin UT inhibitors were identified by structure-activity relationship analysis. Urea transport inhibition activity was assayed in perfused rat terminal IMCDs. Diuretic activity of the compound was determined in rats and mice using metabolic cages. The results show that the compound PU-48 exhibited potent UT-A inhibition activity. The inhibition was 69.5% with an IC50 of 0.32 μM. PU-48 significantly inhibited urea transport in perfused rat terminal IMCDs. PU-48 caused significant diuresis in UT-B null mice, which indicates that UT-A is the target of PU-48. The diuresis caused by PU-48 did not change blood Na+, K+, or Cl− levels or nonurea solute excretion in rats and mice. No toxicity was detected in cells or animals treated with PU-48. The results indicate that thienoquinolin UT inhibitors induce a diuresis by inhibiting UT-A in the IMCD. This suggests that they may have the potential to be developed as a novel class of diuretics with fewer side effects than classical diuretics. PMID:25298523

  7. Preoperative predictors of blood component transfusion in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Makroo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Extensive bleeding associated with liver transplantation is a major challenge faced by transplant surgeons, worldwide. Aims: To evaluate the blood component consumption and determine preoperative factors that predict the same in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT. Settings and Design: This prospective study was performed for a 1 year period, from March 2010 to February 2011. Materials and Methods: Intra- and postoperative utilization of blood components in 152 patients undergoing LDLT was evaluated and preoperative patient parameters like age, gender, height, weight, disease etiology, hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Hct, platelet count (Plt, total leukocyte count (TLC, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, international normalized ratio (INR, serum bilirubin (T. bilirubin, total proteins (T. proteins, albumin to globulin ratio (A/G ratio, serum creatinine (S. creatinine, blood urea (B. urea, and serum electrolytes were assessed to determine their predictive values. Univariate and stepwise discriminant analysis identified those factors, which could predict the consumption of each blood component. Results: The average utilization of packed red cells (PRCs, cryoprecipitates (cryo, apheresis platelets, and fresh frozen plasma was 8.48 units, 2.19 units, 0.93 units, and 2,025 ml, respectively. Disease etiology and blood component consumption were significantly correlated. Separate prediction models which could predict consumption of each blood component in intra and postoperative phase of LDLT were derived from among the preoperative Hb, Hct, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD score, body surface area (BSA, Plt, T. proteins, S. creatinine, B. urea, INR, and serum sodium and chloride. Conclusions: Preoperative variables can effectively predict the blood component requirements during liver transplantation, thereby allowing blood transfusion services in being better prepared for surgical procedure.

  8. Performance of nucleic acid amplification following extraction of 5 milliliters of whole blood for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, John A; Tuohy, Marion J; Morrissey, Anne B; Ramadhani, Habib O; Njau, Boniface N; Maro, Venance P; Reller, L Barth; Procop, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the performance of a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia, 5-ml aliquots of blood were inoculated into bioMérieux mycobacterial (MB) bottles and incubated, and 5-ml aliquots of blood were extracted and tested by real-time PCR. Of 25 samples from patients with M. tuberculosis bacteremia, 9 (36.0%) were positive and 1 (1.5%) of 66 control samples was positive by NAAT. The NAAT shows promise, but modifications should focus on improving sensitivity.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of 25 Common Pharmaceuticals in Whole Blood Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2012-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of 25 common pharmaceuticals in whole blood. The selected pharmaceuticals represent the most frequently detected drugs in our forensic laboratory with basic properties....../kg depending on the analyte. A good linear behavior was achieved for all analytes in the range from LOQ to 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg blood. The absolute recoveries were between 55-87% for all compounds except norfluoxetine (44%). The method showed acceptable precision and accuracy for almost all analytes. Only unstable...

  10. Reduction of sources of error and simplification of the Carbon-14 urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Carbon-14 urea breath testing is established in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate possible further simplification and identification of error sources in the 14 C urea kit extensively used at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Thirty six patients with validated H. pylon status were tested with breath samples taken at 10,15, and 20 min. Using the single sample value at 15 min, there was no change in the diagnostic category. Reduction or errors in analysis depends on attention to the following details: Stability of absorption solution, (now > 2 months), compatibility of scintillation cocktail/absorption solution. (with particular regard to photoluminescence and chemiluminescence), reduction in chemical quenching (moisture reduction), understanding counting hardware and relevance, and appropriate response to deviation in quality assurance. With this experience, we are confident of the performance and reliability of the RAPID-14 urea breath test kit now available commercially

  11. [Effectiveness of different methods of blood separation in performing plasma- and cytapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhko, V V; Gorodetskiĭ, V M; Rogova, E M

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining of a therapeutic dose of platelets from donors, necessary to stop spontaneous hemorrhage and sufficient enough to correct hemostasis in surgical interventions in patients with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, therapeutic plasmapheresis with the removal of 1.5-2.01 of plasma, effective erythrocytapheresis can be done with the help of refrigerator centrifuges and plastic containers. This method can be also employed for effective leukocytapheresis in patients with the leukocyte level exceeding 100.10(9)/l. It is simple, economical, reliable; several donors (patients) can be involved in the procedure at a time. Blood cell separators can be most effectively used for therapeutic lymphocytoplasmapheresis, massive plasmapheresis with the removal of over 2.51 of plasma, for obtaining a large number of platelets and granulocytes. The CS-3000 blood cell separator ensures automatic control over blood separation and possible complications during a procedure; a constant temperature regimen of blood separation; one-time use of equipment in direct contact with patient's (donor's) blood; a high efficacy and safety of the procedure.

  12. Urea utilization in growing lambs. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.; Nikitin, S.; Geissler, C.; Hoffmann, M.

    1988-01-01

    Lambs aged 2 or 4 months and of an average live weight of 14.7 and 27.4 kg, resp., received rations consisting of 44% cereals, 46% dried sugar beet pulp, 6% wheat starch, 2% urea and 2% mineral-vitamin mixture. The crude protein content was 17.1 and 15.9%, resp., in the dry matter, that of natively crude protein 10.6 and 9.4%, resp. During a 6-day N balance period 8 and 16 g 15 N-urea resp. with a 15 N excess ( 15 N') of 9.26 and 9.40 atom-% were fed orally instead of commercial feeding urea. There were no significant differences between the two age groups with regard to the digestibility of the organic matter and the crude nutrients. The average N balance of 372 ± 85 mg/kg LW 0.75 /day were in the intermediate range of N retention capacity and accounted for 26 ± 5% of the consumed N. N retention in per cent. was slightly lower in younger lambs. Projections of urea utilization in a quasi stationary state resulted in an efficiency of the utilization of 33 ± 4%. The cutting up of the lambs at the end of the main period showed between 0.02 and 0.22 atom-% 15 N' in the total N, TCA precipitable N and amino acid N of the meat. At between 0.24 and 0.38 atom-% 15 N' they were highest in the heart and jaw muscles. The quota of 15 N' amounts found in the total N of the meat were 10.6 ± 3% of the 15 N intake and 20.1 ± 5.1% of the 15 N'amount remaining in the body. The bones contained 7.7 ± 1.7% and the fleece 7.9 ± 3.1% of the 15 N' intake. Total N and urea utilization was slightly lower in younger lambs than in older ones. (author)

  13. Retrospective evaluation of unexpected events during collection of blood donations performed with and without sedation in cats (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolin, Kerry S; Chan, Daniel L; Adamantos, Sophie; Humm, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Describe unexpected events (UEs) that occurred during blood donation in cats with and without sedation. Retrospective observational study (2010-2013). University teaching hospital. Client-owned healthy cats enrolled in a blood donation program. None. Blood collection for transfusion was performed 115 times from 32 cats. Seventy donation events were in unsedated cats and 45 in sedated cats. For each collection, the anticipated blood volume to be collected, actual blood volume collected, sedation protocol, and any UE in the peridonation period were recorded. There were 6 categories of UEs: movement during donation, donor anxiety, inadequate collected blood volume, jugular vessel related UEs, additional sedation requirement, and cardiorespiratory distress. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the frequency of UEs between sedated and unsedated cats. UEs were recorded in 54 of 115 collections. In the donor population, movement was reported as an UE in 0 cats that donated under sedation and 24/70 (34.3%) cats that donated without sedation (P donated under sedation and 14/70 (20.0%) cats that donated unsedated (P = 0.014). Unsedated donation did not increase the likelihood of inadequate donation volume, jugular vessel related UEs, or cardiorespiratory distress. Eight of 45 (17.8%) sedated donations required additional sedation. Movement during donation and signs of donor anxiety were more frequent in unsedated cats. These were considered minor issues, expected in unsedated cats being gently restrained. Blood collection from unsedated feline donors is a viable alternative to sedated donation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  14. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cortón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L−1 and 121.4 mg·L−1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication.

  15. Determination of urea content in urea cream by centrifugal partition chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Qun Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to establish a centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC method for determination of the urea ingredient in urea cream. The mechanism of this method is that urea is determined by UV detector at 430 nm after being extracted from the cream and derivatized on line via Ehrlich reaction in rotor of CPC, where the reaction products dissolve in the mobile phase and the cream matrix retains in the stationary phase. The mixed solvent consisting of n-hexane, methanol, hydrochloric acid and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde with a ratio of 1000 mL:1000 mL:18 mL:2.0 g is used for solvent system of CPC. The CPC method proposed offers good precision and convenience without complex sample pretreatment processes.

  16. Monitoring the enzymatic conversion of urea to ammonium by conventional or microchip capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchert-Shi, Aiping; Hauser, Peter C

    2008-05-15

    Capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection was used to directly quantify the ammonium produced in the enzymatic conversion of urea with urease. This allowed the characterization of the reaction without having to use more elaborate indirect optical methods for quantification. The maximum rate of reaction, V(max), was determined as 5.1 mmol x mL(-1) x min(-1), and the Michaelis-Menten constant, K(m), was determined as 16 mM. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the determination of urea in clinical samples of human blood by using a conventional capillary and a microchip device.

  17. 233 Haematological Characteristics and Blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... nitrogen of Sokoto Red kids fed varying levels of Fore-stomach digesta (FSD) replacing cowpea husk at 0, 10, 20 and 30 ... Haematological Characteristics and Blood Urea Nitrogen of Sokoto Red Goat Kids Fed …… 228. Formulation of ..... significant rise in Hb level in treatment D. This is an indication that ...

  18. Variation of milk urea in dairy cattle : a study on factors that affect the relationship between urea concentration in milk and urea excretion in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to increase the applicability of milk urea nitrogen concentration (MUN) as a predictor of urinary urea nitrogen excretion (UUN) by identifying and quantifying factors that can explain variation in MUN that is not related to UUN. A literature study was conducted in

  19. The effect of pre-exercise ingestion of corinthian currant on endurance performance and blood redox status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Poulios, Athanasios; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Papanikolaou, Konstantinos; Papoutsis, Alexandros; Selemekou, Maria; Karathanos, Vaios T; Draganidis, Dimitris; Tsiokanos, Athanasios; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2018-02-22

    The present study investigated the effect of Corinthian currant pre-exercise supplementation on metabolism, performance and blood redox status during, and after prolonged exercise. Eleven healthy participants (21-45y) performed a 90-min constant-intensity (60-70% VO 2max ) submaximal-trial, plus a time-trial (TT) to exhaustion (95% VO 2max ) after consuming an isocaloric (1.5g CHO/kg BM) amount of randomly assigned Corinthian currant or glucose-drink, or water (control). Blood was drawn at baseline, pre-exercise, 30min, 60min, 90min of submaximal-trial, post-TT, and 1h post-TT. Post-ingestion blood glucose (GLU) under Corinthian currant was higher compared with water, and similar compared with glucose-drink throughout the study. Respiratory quotient under Corinthian currant was similar with glucose-drink and higher than water throughout the submaximal trial. Accordingly, higher CHO and lower fat oxidation were observed under Corinthian currant compared with water. The TT performance was similar between Corinthian currant, glucose-drink and water. Redox status were similar under all three conditions. Reduced glutathione (GSH) declined while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and uric acid increased during exercise. GSH and TAC returned to baseline, while uric acid remained increased the following 1h. Corinthian currant, although did not alter exercise-mediated redox status changes and performance, was equally effective to a glucose-drink in maintaining GLU levels during prolonged cycling.

  20. Performance of Layers Fed Graded Levels of Blood –Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    240 laying hens were fed graded levels of Blood-Rumen content mixture (BRCM) for a period of eight weeks. The study was designed to determine the level of BRCM that layers can tolerate in their diet. Feed intake by birds fed the control and 4% BRCM diets were comparable, but significantly higher (P<0.05) than those ...

  1. Healthcare performance and the effects of the binaural beats on human blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    Binaural beats are the differences in two different frequencies (in the range of 30-1000 Hz). Binaural beats are played through headphones and are perceived by the superior olivary nucleus of each hemisphere of the brain. The brain perceives the binaural beat and resonates to its frequency (frequency following response). Once the brain is in tune with the binaural beat it produces brainwaves of that frequency altering the listener's state of mind. In this experiment, the effects of the beta and theta binaural beat on human blood pressure and pulse were studied. Using headphones, three sounds were played for 7 minutes each to 12 participants: the control,- the sound of a babbling brook (the background sound to the two binaural beats), the beta binaural beat (20 Hz), and the theta binaural beat (7 Hz). Blood pressure and pulse were recorded before and after each sound was played. Each participant was given 2 minutes in-between each sound. The results showed that the control and the two binaural beats did not affect the 12 participant's blood pressure or pulse (p > 0.05). One reason for this may be that the sounds were not played long enough for the brain to either perceive and/or resonate to the frequency. Another reason why the sounds did not affect blood pressure and pulse may be due to the participant's age since older brains may not perceive the binaural beats as well as younger brains.

  2. Performance evaluation of photoacoustic oximetry imaging systems using a dynamic blood flow phantom with tunable oxygen saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, William C.; Zhou, Xuewen; Andriani, Rudy; Wear, Keith A.; Garra, Brian S.; Pfefer, Joshua

    2018-02-01

    Photoacoustic Imaging (PAI) is an emerging technology with strong potential for broad clinical applications from breast cancer detection to cerebral monitoring due to its ability to compute maps of blood oxygen saturation (SO2) distribution in deep tissues using multispectral imaging. However, no well-validated consensus test methods currently exist for evaluating oximetry-specific performance characteristics of PAI devices. We have developed a phantombased flow system capable of rapid SO2 adjustment to serve as a test bed for elucidation of factors impacting SO2 measurement and quantitative characterization of device performance. The flow system is comprised of a peristaltic pump, membrane oxygenator, oxygen and nitrogen gas, and in-line oxygen, pH, and temperature sensors that enable real-time estimation of SO2 reference values. Bovine blood was delivered through breast-relevant tissue phantoms containing vessel-mimicking fluid channels, which were imaged using a custom multispectral PAI system. Blood was periodically drawn for SO2 measurement in a clinical-grade CO-oximeter. We used this flow phantom system to evaluate the impact of device parameters (e.g.,wavelength-dependent fluence corrections) and tissue parameters (e.g. fluid channel depth, blood SO2, spectral coloring artifacts) on oximetry measurement accuracy. Results elucidated key challenges in PAI oximetry and device design trade-offs, which subsequently allowed for optimization of system performance. This approach provides a robust benchtop test platform that can support PAI oximetry device optimization, performance validation, and clinical translation, and may inform future development of consensus test methods for performance assessment of photoacoustic oximetry imaging systems.

  3. Performance during a strenuous swimming session is associated with high blood lactate: pyruvate ratio and hypoglycemia in fasted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, P B; Godoy, G; De Souza, H M; Curi, R; Bazotte, R B

    2018-03-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lactatemia elevation and glycemia reduction on strenuous swimming performance in fasted rats. Three rats were placed in a swimming tank at the same time. The first rat was removed immediately (control group) and the remaining ones were submitted to a strenuous swimming session. After the second rat was exhausted (Exh group), the third one was immediately removed from the water (Exe group). According to the period of time required for exhaustion, the rats were divided into four groups: low performance (3-7 min), low-intermediary performance (8-12 min), high-intermediary performance (13-17 min), and high performance (18-22 min). All rats were removed from the swimming tanks and immediately killed by decapitation for blood collection or anesthetized for liver perfusion experiments. Blood glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations, blood lactate/pyruvate ratio, and liver lactate uptake and its conversion to glucose were evaluated. Exhaustion in low and low-intermediary performance were better associated with higher lactate/pyruvate ratio. On the other hand, exhaustion in high-intermediary and high performance was better associated with hypoglycemia. Lactate uptake and glucose production from lactate in livers from the Exe and Exh groups were maintained. We concluded that there is a time sequence in the participation of lactate/pyruvate ratio and hypoglycemia in performance during an acute strenuous swimming section in fasted rats. The liver had an important participation in preventing hyperlactatemia and hypoglycemia during swimming through lactate uptake and its conversion to glucose.

  4. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  5. The Effect of Annealing Temperature on Nickel on Reduced Graphene Oxide Catalysts on Urea Electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Dean E.; Galvan, Vicente; Prakash, G.K. Surya

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Nickel was reduced on graphene oxide and annealed under argon from 300 to 700 °C. •Nickel was oxidized from the removal of oxygen groups on the graphene oxide. •Higher annealed catalysts displayed decreased urea electrooxidation currents. •Micro direct urea/hydrogen peroxide fuel cells were employed for the first time. •Ni/rGO catalysts displayed enhanced fuel cell performance than the bare nickel. -- Abstract: The annealing temperature effects on nickel on reduced graphene oxide (Ni/rGO) catalysts for urea electrooxidation were investigated. Nickel chloride was directly reduced in an aqueous solution of graphene oxide (GO) followed by annealing under argon at 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 °C, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed an increase in the crystallite size of the nickel nanoparticles while the Raman spectra displayed an increase in the graphitic disorder of the reduced graphene oxide at higher annealing temperatures due to the removal of oxygen functional groups. The Ni/rGO catalysts annealed at higher temperatures displayed oxidized nickel surface characteristics from the Ni 2p X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) due to the oxidation of the nickel from the oxygen functional groups in the graphitic lattice. In the half-cell testing, the onset potential of urea electrooxidation decreased while the urea electrooxidation currents decreased as the annealing temperature was increased. The nickel catalyst annealed at 700 °C displayed a 31% decrease in peak power density while the catalyst annealed at 300 °C displayed a 13% increase compared with the unannealed Ni/rGO catalyst in the micro direct urea/hydrogen peroxide fuel cells tests.

  6. Data from the analytical performance of the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress point of care analyzer in whole blood, serum, and plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Murata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the analytical performance of 14 comprehensive metabolic panel analytes on the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress® Point of Care analyzer in serum, plasma, and whole blood. A method comparison was performed on all three specimen types intended for use on the Piccolo Xpress®: serum, heparinized plasma, and whole blood. This data is also presented in Murata et al. (2015 [1]. This article includes the actual Bland-Altman bias plots of the difference in results obtained for analytes in the comprehensive metabolic panel from the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress and the comparison instrument, the Ortho Vitros. Keywords: Clinical chemistry, Point-of care testing

  7. Impact of Brazilian red propolis extract on blood metabolites, milk production, and lamb performance of Santa Inês ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Amr S; Soltan, Yosra A; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Alencar, Severino M; Abdalla, Adibe L

    2016-06-01

    Twenty Santa Inês ewes used to evaluate effects of oral administration of Brazilian red propolis extract on blood metabolites, milk production, and lamb performance were randomly grouped (n = 10 ewes/group) to control without propolis administration and propolis treated (3 g red propolis extract/ewe/day) 21 days before expected lambing date. Blood samples were collected weekly, and daily milk yield was recorded twice weekly until 7 weeks postpartum. Propolis administration increased (P lamb birth and weaning weights. The prepartum administration of propolis extract supported positively the transition of ewes from pregnancy to lactation with health benefits achieved for both of ewes and lambs performances.

  8. Determination of Efavirenz in Human Dried Blood Spots by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Justin T; Rossi, Steven S; Espina-Quinto, Rowena; Letendre, Scott; Capparelli, Edmund V

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously published methods for determination of efavirenz (EFV) in human dried blood spots (DBS) employ costly and complex liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We describe the validation and evaluation of a simple and inexpensive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for EFV quantification in human DBS and dried plasma spots (DPS), using ultraviolet (UV) detection appropriate for resource-limited settings. Methods 100μl of heparinized whole blood or plasma were spotted onto blood collection cards, dried, punched, and eluted. Eluates are injected onto a C-18 reversed phase HPLC column. EFV is separated isocratically using a potassium phosphate and ACN mobile phase. UV detection is at 245nm. Quantitation is by use of external calibration standards. Following validation, the method was evaluated using whole blood and plasma from HIV-positive patients undergoing EFV therapy. Results Mean recovery of drug from dried blood spots is 91.5%. The method is linear over the validated concentration range of 0.3125 – 20.0μg/mL. A good correlation (Spearman r=0.96) between paired plasma and DBS EFV concentrations from the clinical samples was observed, and hematocrit level was not found to be a significant determinant of the EFV DBS level. The mean observed CDBS/Cplasma ratio was 0.68. A good correlation (Spearman r=0.96) between paired plasma and DPS EFV concentrations from the clinical samples was observed. The mean percent deviation of DPS samples from plasma samples is 1.68%. Conclusions Dried whole blood spot or dried plasma spot sampling is well suited for monitoring EFV therapy in resource limited settings, particularly when high sensitivity is not essential. PMID:23503446

  9. Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Bequette, B J

    2015-10-01

    Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep ( = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, a different group of wether sheep ( = 5; 33.6 ± 3.70 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed, on an isonitrogenous basis, either a control (151 g CP/kg DM and 8.4 MJ ME/kg DM) or sodium propionate-supplemented (139 g CP/kg DM and 8.9 MJ ME/kg DM) diet at 2-h intervals. [N] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine was collected by vacuum and feces were collected by a harness bag. Over the last 12 h, [C]glucose was continuously infused intravenously and hourly blood samples were collected during the last 5 h. Propionate treatments increased ( urea entry (synthesis) rate (UER) in Exp. 1; however, sodium propionate infusion tended ( urea elimination (UUE). In Exp. 2, feeding propionate increased ( urea N/d, leading to a reduction ( urea N/d). Between the 2 experiments, the proportion of UER recycled to the gut was greater with the forage-type diet in Exp. 2 (approximately 60%) compared with the concentrate-type diet in Exp. 1 (approximately 40%), although urea N fluxes across the gut remained unchanged in both experiments. In Exp. 1, glucose entry and gluconeogenesis were greater ( < 0.05) and plasma glucose tended ( < 0.1) to be greater with sodium propionate infusion than with sodium acetate infusion, but there was no difference in Cori cycling. In Exp. 2, glucose entry, gluconeogenesis, Cori cycling, and plasma glucose increased ( < 0

  10. Final report of the safety assessment of Urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Although Urea is officially described as a buffering agent, humectant, and skin-conditioning agent-humectant for use in cosmetic products, there is a report stating that Urea also is used in cosmetics for its desquamating and antimicrobial action. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that Urea was used in 239 formulations. Concentrations of use for Urea ranged from 0.01% to 10%. Urea is generally recognized as safe by FDA for the following uses: side-seam cements for food contact; an inhibitor or stabilizer in pesticide formulations and formulations applied to animals; internal sizing for paper and paperboard and surface sizing and coating of paper and paper board that contact water-in-oil dairy emulsions, low-moisture fats and oils, moist bakery products, dry solids with surface containing no free fats or oil, and dry solids with the surface of fat or oil; and to facilitate fermentation of wine. Urea is the end product of mammalian protein metabolism and the chief nitrogenous compound of urine. Urea concentrations in muscle, liver, and fetuses of rats increased after a subcutaneous injection of Urea. Urea diffused readily through the placenta and into other maternal and fetal organs. The half-life of Urea injected into rabbits was on the order of several hours, and the reutilization rate was 32.2% to 88.8%. Urea given to rats by a bolus injection or continuous infusion resulted in distribution to the following brain regions: frontal lobe, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, thalamus plus hypothalamus, pons and white matter (corpus callosum). The permeability constant after treatment with Urea of whole skin and the dermis of rabbits was 2.37 +/- 0.13 (x 10(6)) and 1.20 +/- 0.09 (x10(3)) cm/min, respectively. The absorption of Urea across normal and abraded human skin was 9.5% +/- 2.3% and 67.9% +/- 5.6%, respectively. Urea increased the skin penetration of other compounds, including hydrocortisone. No toxicity was observed for Urea at levels as high

  11. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  12. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Mercedes L.; Martins Cecilia E.; Pérez-Dueñas Belén; Gómez-López Lilian; Murgui Empar; Fons Carmen; García-Cazorla Ángels; Artuch Rafael M D; Jara Fernando; Arranz José Antonio; Häberle Johannes; Briones Paz; Campistol Jaume M D; Pineda Mercè; Vilaseca María Antònia Antonia

    2010-01-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation attention deficit hyper...

  13. In vivo urea cycle flux distinguishes and correlates with phenotypic severity in disorders of the urea cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brendan; Yu, Hong; Jahoor, Farook; O'Brien, William; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Reeds, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Urea cycle disorders are a group of inborn errors of hepatic metabolism that result in often life-threatening hyperammonemia and hyperglutaminemia. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of partial deficiencies during asymptomatic periods is difficult, and correlation of phenotypic severity with either genotype and/or in vitro enzyme activity is often imprecise. We hypothesized that stable isotopically determined in vivo rates of total body urea synthesis and urea cycle-specific nitrogen flux would correlate with both phenotypic severity and carrier status in patients with a variety of different enzymatic deficiencies of the urea cycle. We studied control subjects, patients, and their relatives with different enzymatic deficiencies affecting the urea cycle while consuming a low protein diet. On a separate occasion the subjects either received a higher protein intake or were treated with an alternative route medication sodium phenylacetate/benzoate (Ucephan), or oral arginine supplementation. Total urea synthesis from all nitrogen sources was determined from [18O]urea labeling, and the utilization of peripheral nitrogen was estimated from the relative isotopic enrichments of [15N]urea and [15N]glutamine during i.v. co-infusions of [5-(amide)15N]glutamine and [18O]urea. The ratio of the isotopic enrichments of 15N-urea/15N-glutamine distinguished normal control subjects (ratio = 0.42 ± 0.06) from urea cycle patients with late (0.17 ± 0.03) and neonatal (0.003 ± 0.007) presentations irrespective of enzymatic deficiency. This index of urea cycle activity also distinguished asymptomatic heterozygous carriers of argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency (0.22 ± 0.03), argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (0.35 ± 0.11), and partial ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (0.26 ± 0.06) from normal controls. Administration of Ucephan lowered, and arginine increased, urea synthesis to the degree predicted from their respective rates of metabolism. The 15N-urea/15N-glutamine ratio

  14. The influence of occupational heat exposure on cognitive performance and blood level of stress hormones: a field study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlomi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Mahmoud Khani, Somayeh; Ansari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    This article aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress on cognitive performance and the blood concentration of stress hormones among workers of a foundry plant. Seventy workers within the exposed (35 people) and unexposed (35 people) groups were studied. The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index was measured for heat stress assessment. The cognitive performance tests were conducted using the Stroop color word test (SCWT) before and during working hours. For the assessment of the serum level of cortisol and the plasma level of adrenaline and noradrenaline, blood samples were taken during working hours from both groups. Only for SCWT III was there a significant relationship between heat stress and test duration, error rate and reaction time. The laboratory test results revealed significantly higher concentrations of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed group. There existed a positive correlation between cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline and WBGT index and also test duration and reaction time of SCWT III, and number of errors of SCWT I, SCWT II and SCWT III during work. Heat stress can lead to an increase in the blood level of stress hormones, resulting in cognitive performance impairment.

  15. Effects of Strength Training Sessions Performed with Different Exercise Orders and Intervals on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Sandro; Figueiredo, Tiago; Marques, Silvio; Leite, Thalita; Cardozo, Diogo; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effect of a strength training session performed at different exercise orders and rest intervals on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen trained men performed different upper body exercise sequences [large to small muscle mass (SEQA) and small to large muscle mass (SEQB)] in randomized order with rest intervals between sets and exercises of 40 or 90 seconds. Fifteen repetition maximum loads were tested to control the training intensity and the total volume load. The results showed, significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (SBP) for all sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes; SEQA40 and SEQB40 at 20 minutes and SEQB90 at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. For diastolic blood pressure (DBP), significant reductions were found for three sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 and SEQA40 at 50 and 60 minutes; SEQB40 at 10, 30 and 60 minutes. For HRV, there were significant differences in frequency domain for all sequences compared to baseline. In conclusion, when performing upper body strength training sessions, it is suggested that 90 second rest intervals between sets and exercises promotes a post-exercise hypotensive response in SBP. The 40 second rest interval between sets and exercises was associated with greater cardiac stress, and might be contraindicated when working with individuals that exhibit symptoms of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Urea cycle disorder--argininosuccinic lyase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neeta; Kirk, Pia Chatterjee; Holder, Ray; Precheur, Harry V

    2012-01-01

    An increased level of ammonia in the bloodstream, or hyperammonemia, is a symptom associated with metabolic disorders referred to as inborn errors of metabolism. Urea cycle disorder is a congenital abnormality or absence of one of the six enzymes involved in the elimination of ammonia. Administration of certain medications, high protein diet, excessive exercise, surgical procedures, or trauma can precipitate symptoms of mental confusion, seizure-like activity, and ataxia. This paper reviews the literature with insight into current treatment and management options of the disorder and modification of treatment for the dental patient. © 2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Rapid hemostatic and mild polyurethane-urea foam wound dressing for promoting wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Niu, Yuqing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Nanshan District Key lab for Biopolymers and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Guangdong Research Center for Interfacial Engineering of Functional Materials, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Chen, Kevin C. [Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China); Chen, Shiguo, E-mail: csg@szu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Nanshan District Key lab for Biopolymers and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Guangdong Research Center for Interfacial Engineering of Functional Materials, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2017-02-01

    A novel rapid hemostatic and mild polyurethane-urea foam (PUUF) wound dressing was prepared by the particle leaching method and vacuum freeze-drying method using 4, 4-Methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate), 4,4-diaminodicyclohexylmethane and poly (ethylene glycol) as raw materials. And X-ray diffraction (XRD), tensile test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) were used to its crystallinity, stress and strain behavior, and thermal properties, respectively. Platelet adhesion, fibrinogen adhesion and blood clotting were performed to evaluate its hemostatic effect. And H&E staining and Masson Trichrome staining were used to its wound healing efficacy. The results revealed the pore size of PUUF is 50–130 μm, and its porosity is 71.01%. Porous PUUF exhibited good water uptake that was benefit to adsorb abundant wound exudates to build a regional moist environment beneficial for wound healing. The PUUF wound dressing exhibit better blood coagulation effect than commercial polyurethane dressing (CaduMedi). Though both PUUF and CaduMedi facilitated wound healing generating full re-epithelialization within 13 days, PUUF was milder and lead to more slight inflammatory response than CaduMedi. In addition, PUUF wound dressing exhibited lower cytotoxicity than CaduMedi against NIH3T3 cells. Overall, porous PUUF represents a novel mild wound dressing with excellent water uptake, hemostatic effect and low toxicity, and it can promote wound healing and enhance re-epithelialization. - Highlights: • Rapid hemostatic and mild PUUF wound dressing was fabricated. • Low-toxic PUUF exhibited good water uptake that could build a regional moist environment beneficial for wound healing. • PUUF could promote wound healing and enhance re-epithelialization.

  18. N-Urea Efficiency In Lowland Rice Applied With Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasjid, Havid; Sisworo, E.L.; Wemay, Y.; Sisworo, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Two N-fertilizer experiments have been conducted using urea tablet and prill urea combined with Azolla application. Twelve treatments have been tested using 2 rice varieties namely Atomita-4 and IR-64. To enable the determination of N-urea efficiency 15 N labelled urea was used. The experiments were conducted in the dry and wet season (DS and WS) 1994/1995 at the experimental station, pusaka negara, Subang West Java. Data obtained from the two experiments showed that the highest N-urea efficiency was found in Atomita-4 applied with urea-tablet (DS=46,1%, WS= 35,8%). Letting the Azolla grow during one lowland rice growth period could increase the N-urea prill efficiency (±5%) compared when no azolla was applied. Apparently Atomita-4 could use N-urea more efficiently compared to IR-64, showing higher grain yield (atomita-4 DS=6.2 ton ha -1 WS=5.9 ton ha -1 ) vs IR-64 (DS=5.8 ton ha -1 , WS=5.3 ton ha -1 ). Decreasing the levels of TSP not influence to the urea efficiency at the DS and WS

  19. Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pabrik Pupuk Urea Menggunakan Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi Darmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Limbah cair pabrik pupuk urea terdiri dari urea dan amonium yang masing-masing mempunyai konsentrasi berkisar antara 1500-10000 ppm dan 400-3000 ppm. Konsentrasi urea yang tinggi di dalam badan air dapat menyebabkan blooming algae dalam ekosistem tersebut yang dapat mengakibatkan kehidupan biota air lain terserang penyakit. Peristiwa ini terjadi karena kurangnya nutrisi bagi biota air dan sedikitnya sinar matahari yang dapat menembusi permukaan air. Disamping kedua hal tersebut di atas, algae juga dapat memproduksi senyawa beracun bagi biota air dan manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengolah urea menggunakan oksidasi konvensional (H2O2 dan Advanced Oxidation Processes (kombinasi H2O2-Fe2+ pada pH 5 dengan parameter yang digunakan adalah variasi konsen-trasi awal H2O2  dan konsentrasi Fe2+. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penurunan konsentrasi urea tertinggi diperoleh pada penggunaan reagen fenton (8000 ppm H2O2 dan 500 ppm Fe2+, yaitu dapat menurunkan urea dari konsentrasi awal urea 2566,145 ppm menjadi 0 ppm. Kinetika reaksi dekomposisi urea menjadi amonium dan amonium menjadi nitrit dan nitrat yang diuji mengikuti laju kinetika reaksi orde 1 (satu terhadap urea dan orde satu terhadap amonium dengan konstanta laju reaksi masing-masing k1 = 0,019 dan k2 = 0,022 min-1.

  20. Carcass characteristics of sheep fed diets with slow-release urea replacing conventional urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilton Moura Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding slow-release urea to replace conventional urea in the diet on carcass characteristics of feedlot sheep. We used 20 Santa Ines x SRD rams, with average body weight of 21.1±1.2 kgand average age of 120 days, distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments. The replacement levels used as treatments were 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%, composing diets of about 12% crude protein, with 50 % Tifton-85 hay and 50% concentrate. There was no influence of slow release urea on weight at slaughter (35.17 kg, and on hot (16.75 kg and cold (16.24 kg carcass weight, but the yield of these carcasses showed quadratic trend, revealing lower percentages at 48.5 and 47.63% replacement levels, respectively. The weights and yields of cuts did not change, except for the posterior arm, whose values showed a cubic trend. Objective measures of carcass, loin eye area, and subjective evaluations of conformation, finishing and marbling of carcasses were not affected. The subcutaneous fat thickness decreased linearly (4.25 to2.48 mm. The inclusion of slow release urea in the diet changes the yield and reduces subcutaneous fat, however, it does not influence other carcass characteristics.

  1. Estimating the concentration of urea and creatinine in the human serum of normal and dialysis patients through Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-09-01

    Urea and creatinine are commonly used as biomarkers of renal function. Abnormal concentrations of these biomarkers are indicative of pathological processes such as renal failure. This study aimed to develop a model based on Raman spectroscopy to estimate the concentration values of urea and creatinine in human serum. Blood sera from 55 clinically normal subjects and 47 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis were collected, and concentrations of urea and creatinine were determined by spectrophotometric methods. A Raman spectrum was obtained with a high-resolution dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm). A spectral model was developed based on partial least squares (PLS), where the concentrations of urea and creatinine were correlated with the Raman features. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate dialysis patients from normal subjects. The PLS model showed r = 0.97 and r = 0.93 for urea and creatinine, respectively. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) for the model were 17.6 and 1.94 mg/dL, respectively. PCA showed high discrimination between dialysis and normality (95 % accuracy). The Raman technique was able to determine the concentrations with low error and to discriminate dialysis from normal subjects, consistent with a rapid and low-cost test.

  2. 75 FR 51440 - Solid Urea from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea from the Russian... duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to this review was... solid urea from the Russian Federation. See Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results...

  3. 76 FR 66690 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian... duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to this review was... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. See Solid Urea...

  4. Urea cycle pathway targeted therapeutic action of naringin against ammonium chloride induced hyperammonemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Arumugam; Vijayakumar, Natesan

    2017-10-01

    Ammonia is a well-known neurotoxin that causes liver disease and urea cycle disorder. Excessive ammonia content in the blood leads to hyperammonemic condition and affects both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission including brain edema and coma. Naringin, a plant bioflavonoid present in various citrus fruits and mainly extracted from the grape fruit. This study was designed to assess the protective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitoneal injections (i.p) of NH 4 Cl (100mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks. Hyperammonemic rats were treated with naringin (80mg/kg b.w.) via oral gavage. Naringin administration significantly augmented the level of blood ammonia and plasma urea. Naringin also upregulate the expression of urea cycle enzymes such as carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPS I) and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), arininosuccinate synthase (ASS), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) and arginase I (ARG) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) such as mGluRs I and mGluRs V and down regulate the expression of inflammatory markers like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, to this, the protective effect of naringin was also revealed through the immunohistochemical changes in tissues. Thus our present study result suggest that naringin modulates the expression of proteins involved in urea cycle pathway and suppresses the expression of inflammatory markers and acts as a potential agent to treat condition in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  6. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-01-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study

  7. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-08-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study.

  8. Macrocyclic bis(ureas as ligands for anion complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kretschmer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two macrocyclic bis(ureas 1 and 2, both based on diphenylurea, have been synthesized. Compound 1 represents the smaller ring with two ethynylene groups as linkers and 2 the larger ring with two butadiynylene groups. On thermal treatment to 130 °C molecule 1 splits up into two dihydroindoloquinolinone (3 molecules. Both compounds 1 and 2 form adducts with polar molecules such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and dimethylformamide (DMF and act as complexing agents towards a series of anions (Cl−, Br−, I−, NO3−, HSO4−. The crystal structures of 3, 2·2DMSO, 2·2DMF, and of the complex NEt4[Br·2] have been determined. Quantitative investigations of the complexation equilibria were performed via 1H NMR titrations. While 1 is a rather weak complexing agent, the large ring of 2 binds anions with association constants up to log K = 7.93 for chloride ions.

  9. Effect of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and selenium levels on the performance, carcass yield, and blood changes in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH Hada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, carcass and parts yield, and blood changes in broilers fed different protein, carbohydrate, and lipid levels. Birds were fed a commercial diet until seven days of age. On day 8, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (control diet, low protein diet, low carbohydrate diet or low lipid diet vs. supplementation of 0 or 0.3ppm organic selenium with four replicates of 15 birds each. Broilers fed low protein presented lower body weight, feed intake, and worse feed conversion ratio on day 42, as well as lower carcass and breast yields, higher leg and abdominal fat yields, higher triglyceride and lower uric acid blood levels. Broilers fed the low carbohydrate diets presented low glucose levels on days 14 and 42.Creatine-kinase (CK levels increased as birds aged. The livability of broilers fed the low protein diets improved and of those fed low carbohydrate diets worsened with dietary selenium addition on days 35 and 42. Selenium supplementation increased glucose levels in 42-d-old broilers. Changes in dietary protein caused more impact on broiler performance compared with carbohydrates and lipids. Changes in macronutrients caused metabolic changes in broilers. Selenium affected broiler livability as measured on days 35 and 42, and glucose blood levels.

  10. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  11. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-10-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (pfeed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  12. Increased blood pH but not performance with sodium bicarbonate supplementation in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sonya L; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Brown, Rachel C; Gray, Andrew R; Fairbairn, Kirsty A

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of ingesting 0.3 g/kg body weight (BW) of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on physiological responses, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability, and sprint performance in elite rugby union players. Twenty-five male rugby players, age 21.6 (2.6) yr, participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Sixty-five minutes after consuming 0.3 g/kg BW of either NaHCO₃ or placebo, participants completed a 25-min warm-up followed by 9 min of high-intensity rugby-specific training followed by a rugby-specific repeated-sprint test (RSRST). Whole-blood samples were collected to determine lactate and bicarbonate concentrations and pH at baseline, after supplement ingestion, and immediately after the RSRST. Acute GI discomfort was assessed by questionnaire throughout the trials, and chronic GI discomfort was assessed during the 24 hr postingestion. After supplement ingestion and immediately after the RSRST, blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and pH were higher for the NaHCO₃ condition than for the placebo condition (p < .001). After the RSRST, blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher for the NaHCO₃ than for the placebo condition (p < .001). There was no difference in performance on the RSRST between the 2 conditions. The incidence of belching, stomachache, diarrhea, stomach bloating, and nausea was higher after ingestion of NaHCO₃ than with placebo (all p < .050). The severity of stomach cramps, belching, stomachache, bowel urgency, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach bloating, and flatulence was rated worse after ingestion of NaHCO₃ than with placebo (p < .050). NaHCO₃ supplementation increased blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and attenuated the decline in blood pH compared with placebo during high-intensity exercise in well-trained rugby players but did not significantly improve exercise performance. The higher incidence and greater severity of GI symptoms after ingestion of NaHCO₃ may negatively affect

  13. The effects of apple pulp and probiotic on performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaz Noranian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Apple is one of the most important fruits that is produced in the large amount in Iran. It is a good source of vitamins and minerals and active fiber. Most of the apples that product in Iran are use in food industry for producing different kinds of apple juices. After Juicing, more than 20% of apple, remain as waste. The remained matter contain considerable amount of vitamins and minerals that usually found in fresh apple, moreover it is rich source of pectin and crude fiber. Generally this byproduct discharge to environment and cause some serious environmental problems. It is thought that use of apple pulp as a part of apple waste in laying hens diets not only prevent some environmental problems, but also can improve their performance, egg quality traits, and blood biochemical parameters and reduce the production cost. The current study has been designed to investigate these traits. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out on 192 Hi-line (W36 laying hens in a completely randomized design as (2*2 factorial arrangement with two levels of apple pulp (0 and 4% and two levels of probiotic (protexin (0 and 0.005% in 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 birds per replicate for 12 weeks (65-76 weeks. Results and Discussion Using apple pulp and probiotic in diets improved the egg production performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens (P0.05. Probiotic improved egg weight, egg production percentage, egg mass, feed conversion ratio and Haugh unit. In interaction effects, using apple pulp and probiotic improved the performance and egg quality traits of laying hens. The highest egg weight, egg production, egg mass and the best feed conversion were obtained with diet containing 4% apple pulp and 0.005% probiotic. Also the highest amount of albumin, eggshell thickness and Haugh unit were observed with 4% apple pulp and 0.05% probiotic. Apple pulp decreased the blood levels of triglyceride, cholesterol and albumin

  14. Nonhepatic hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to undiagnosed urea cycle disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Tashfeen; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency is the most common inherited urea cycle disorder. In adults, its phenotypes are diverse. In asymptomatic patients with late presentations, symptom onset is often associated with a precipitating factor. We present a case of a woman with urea cycle disorder diagnosed after an acute peptic ulcer bleed and fasting.

  15. Nonhepatic hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to undiagnosed urea cycle disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tashfeen; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency is the most common inherited urea cycle disorder. In adults, its phenotypes are diverse. In asymptomatic patients with late presentations, symptom onset is often associated with a precipitating factor. We present a case of a woman with urea cycle disorder diagnosed after an acute peptic ulcer bleed and fasting.

  16. 76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record...

  17. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl)

  18. A colorimeter for measurement of picomole quantities of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurek, G G; Knepper, M A

    1982-04-01

    We described a new colorimeter for the measurement of picomole quantities of urea in nanoliter volume fluid samples. The diacetyl monoxime reaction was used to produce a colored product from urea. The method is capable of resolving differences of 10 pmoles between samples containing 0 to 225 pmoles.

  19. Urea production by yeasts other than Saccharomyces in food fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qun; Cui, Kaixiang; Lin, Jianchun; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Urea is an important intermediate in the synthesis of carcinogenic ethyl carbamate in various food fermentations. Identifying urea-producing microorganisms can help control or reduce ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor fermentation as a model system, we identified the yeasts responsible

  20. Preparation and characterization of dialdehyde starch urea (DASU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dialdehyde starch urea (DASU) was prepared by the reaction of dialdehyde starch (DAS) from periodate oxidized cassava starch with urea, which was then used to adsorb Co(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution. Starch modified starches and starch complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared ...

  1. Reference Values for Plasma Electrolytes and Urea in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference values for plasma electrolytes and urea have been defined for Nigerian children and adolescents residing in Abeokuta and its environs, a location in southern Nigeria, by estimating plasma sodium, potassium bicarbonate and urea concentrations in a reference population. The study group comprised three ...

  2. Urea impedimetric biosensor based on reactive RF magnetron sputtered zinc oxide nanoporous transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Rahmanian, Reza; Abedi, Mohammad; Amoli, Hossein Salar

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Application and optimization of reactive RF magnetron sputtering for homogeneous nanoporous ZnO thin film formation. • Exploiting nanoporous ZnO thin film as a good porous framework with large surface area/volume for having stable immobilized enzyme with minimum loss of activity. • Application of impedimetric assessment for urea biosensing due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and repeatability. - Abstract: Uniform sputtered nanoporous zinc oxide (Nano-ZnO) thin film on the conductive fluorinated-tin oxide (FTO) layer was applied to immobilize urease enzyme (Urs) for urea detection. Highly uniform nanoporous ZnO thin film were obtained by reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system at the optimized instrumental deposition conditions. Characterization of the surface morphology and roughness of ZnO thin film by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) exhibits cavities of nanoporous film as an effective biosensing area for enzyme immobilization. Step by step monitoring of FTO/Nano-ZnO/Urs biosensor fabrication were performed using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Fabricated FTO/Nano-ZnO/Urs biosensor was used for urea determination using EIS experiments. The impedimetric results show high sensitivity for urea detection within 0.83–23.24 mM and limit of detection as 0.40 mM

  3. Effect of Microbial Interaction on Urea Metabolism in Chinese Liquor Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Lin, Jianchun; Cui, Kaixiang; Du, Rubin; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-12-20

    Urea is the primary precursor of the carcinogen ethyl carbamate in fermented foods. Understanding urea metabolism is important for controlling ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor as a model system, we used metatranscriptome analysis to investigate urea metabolism in spontaneous food fermentation processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dominant in gene transcription for urea biosynthesis and degradation. Lysinibacillus sphaericus was dominant for urea degradation. S. cerevisiae degraded 18% and L. sphaericus degraded 13% of urea in their corresponding single cultures, whereas they degraded 56% of urea in coculture after 12 h. Compared to single cultures, transcription of CAR1, DAL2, and argA, which are related to urea biosynthesis, decreased by 51, 36, and 69% in coculture, respectively. Transcription of DUR1 and ureA, which are related to urea degradation, increased by 227 and 70%, respectively. Thus, coexistence of the two strains promoted degradation of urea via transcriptional regulation of genes related to urea metabolism.

  4. What is the value of routinely testing full blood count, electrolytes and urea, and pulmonary function tests before elective surgery in patients with no apparent clinical indication and in subgroups of patients with common comorbidities: a systematic review of the clinical and cost-effective literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoski-Murray, C; Lloyd Jones, M; McCabe, C; Claxton, K; Oluboyede, Y; Roberts, J; Nicholl, J P; Rees, A; Reilly, C S; Young, D; Fleming, T

    2012-12-01

    The evidence base which supported the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) published Clinical Guideline 3 was limited and 50% was graded as amber. However, the use of tests as part of pre-operative work-up remains a low-cost but high-volume activity within the NHS, with substantial resource implications. The objective of this study was to identify, evaluate and synthesise the published evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the routine use of three tests, full blood counts (FBCs), urea and electrolytes tests (U&Es) and pulmonary function tests, in the pre-operative work-up of otherwise healthy patients undergoing minor or intermediate surgery in the NHS. The aims of this study were to estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of routine pre-operative testing of FBC, electrolytes and renal function and pulmonary function in adult patients classified as American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grades 1 and 2 undergoing elective minor (grade 1) or intermediate (grade 2) surgical procedures; to compare NICE recommendations with current practice; to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mandating or withdrawing each of these tests in this patient group; and to identify the expected value of information and whether or not it has value to the NHS in commissioning further primary research into the use of these tests in this group of patients. The following electronic bibliographic databases were searched: (1) BIOSIS; (2) Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; (3) Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; (4) Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; (5) EMBASE; (6) MEDLINE; (7) MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; (8) NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; (9) NBS Health Technology Assessment Database; and (10) Science Citation Index. To identify grey and unpublished literature, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, National Research Register Archive

  5. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Mercedes; Martins, Cecilia; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Gómez-López, Lilian; Murgui, Empar; Fons, Carmen; García-Cazorla, Angels; Artuch, Rafael; Jara, Fernando; Arranz, José A; Häberle, Johannes; Briones, Paz; Campistol, Jaume; Pineda, Mercedes; Vilaseca, Maria A

    2010-03-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late-onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late-onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], language disorder, and delirium). Generally, these clinical pictures did not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Conversely, dietary treatment improved the symptoms. Regarding biochemical data, 2 patients showed normal ammonium but high glutamine levels. This study highlights the fact that neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental findings are common among the initial symptomatology of late-onset urea cycle disorders. The authors recommend that unexplained or nonresponsive neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms appearing during childhood or adolescence be followed by a study of ammonia and amino acid plasmatic levels to rule out a urea cycle disorder.

  6. Foliar absorption of 15N labeled urea by tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshina, Tsuguo; Kozai, Shuji; Ishigaki, Kozo

    1978-01-01

    The effect of foliar application on the nitrogen nutrient status of tea shoots has been studied using 15 N labelled urea. Furthermore, the difference in nitrogen utilization by tea plant between foliar applied and top dressed nitrogen was investigated using 15 N labelled urea and ammonium sulfate. The foliar application of urea increased the amount of chlorophyll and total nitrogen in the new shoot, and the foliar application was more effective under shading condition. The urea sprayed upon old leaves prior to the opening of new leaf translocated to the new shoots. However, the foliar application after the opening of new leaf was more effective on nitrogen absorption by new shoots than one prior to that, and rather than top dressing for new shoots. It could be recognized that the foliar application of urea raises the nitrogen nutrient status of tea leaves in summer. (author)

  7. Modeled Urea Distribution Volume and Mortality in the HEMO Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Depner, Thomas A.; Levin, Nathan W.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives In the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study, observed small decreases in achieved equilibrated Kt/Vurea were noncausally associated with markedly increased mortality. Here we examine the association of mortality with modeled volume (Vm), the denominator of equilibrated Kt/Vurea. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Parameters derived from modeled urea kinetics (including Vm) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained monthly in 1846 patients. Case mix–adjusted time-dependent Cox regressions were used to relate the relative mortality hazard at each time point to Vm and to the change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. Mixed effects models were used to relate Vm to changes in intradialytic systolic BP and to other factors at each follow-up visit. Results Mortality was associated with Vm and change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. The association between change in Vm and mortality was independent of vascular access complications. In contrast, mortality was inversely associated with V calculated from anthropometric measurements (Vant). In case mix–adjusted analysis using Vm as a time-dependent covariate, the association of mortality with Vm strengthened after statistical adjustment for Vant. After adjustment for Vant, higher Vm was associated with slightly smaller reductions in intradialytic systolic BP and with risk factors for mortality including recent hospitalization and reductions in serum albumin concentration and body weight. Conclusions An increase in Vm is a marker for illness and mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21511841

  8. Blood glucose responses of type-2 diabetics during and after exercise performed at intensities above and below anaerobic threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolysson C. Hiyane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p8 With the objective of analyzing the blood glucose responses during and after exercise performed at 90 and 110% of anaerobic threshold (AT, 10 type-2 diabetes patients (56.9±11.2years; 80.3±14.4kg performed an incremental test (IT on a cycle ergometer. After an initial IT to identify AT, the volunteers participated in three experimental sessions on three different days: 20 minutes’ of cycling at either 90 or 110% of AT, and a control session (CON. Blood glucose was measured at rest, and at the 10th and 20th minutes of exercise or control condition, as well as every 15 minutes during a 2-hour postexercise recovery period (Rec. One-way ANOVA did not detect significant differences in blood glucose levels between the sessions at 90 and 110% of AT. Compared to CON, a signifi cant decrease was observed at the 20th minute of exercise, and at the 15th and 60th minutes of Rec from the 90% AT session. Significant reductions were also observed at the 10th and 20th minutes of exercise and at the 15th, 30th, 45th, 60th and 90th minutes of Rec from the session at 110% AT. Exercise performed at the higher intensity (110% AT resulted in a tendency of a more pronounced and prolonged hypoglycemic effect during and after exercise, and may be an alternative intensity for glycemic control in type 2 diabetics who do not have cardiovascular complications or other contraindications to exercising at intensities above the AT.

  9. Effect of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on quality of egg, cholesterol level, production performance, serum total protein and blood biochemical parameters were evaluated in laying hens. A total of 300 commercial Lohmann LSL hens (30 weeks of age were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments which consisted of a normal corn diet containing corn–soy and 2 diets containing 5% and 10% sugar syrup. Each treatment was replicated 5 times (n = 20. Egg production, feed intake, body weight and egg weight of laying hens fed different diets were recorded. The experiment lasted for 20 weeks. The Haugh unit scores of hens fed diets with sugar syrup were significantly increased (P < 0.05 compared with the control treatment. The sugar syrup had no significant effect on liver enzymes, total protein, blood glucose and creatinine in all treatments. The eggs laid by hens fed sugar syrup diets had lower cholesterol level (P < 0.05 compared with those laid by hens fed the control diet. Electrophoresis analysis showed that comparable electrophoretic patterns were noticed between serum proteins of treatment groups. From the results, it can be concluded that sugar syrup diets and corn diets have similar effects on feed intake, body weight, production of eggs and blood biochemical parameters in layer hens, which suggests sugar syrup can be used as an energy source for replacing part of corn in poultry layer diets. Keywords: Cholesterol, Sugar syrup diet, Egg, Egg quality, Protein

  10. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1 (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i negative control (NC, ii positive control (PC, NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3 MCT, and iv MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1, 0.32% (phase 2 and 3 MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05 ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05 by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC, white blood cell (WBC, immunoglobulin-G (IgG, lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05 by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05 and better FCR (p<0.05 than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05 by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05 energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G. In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks, but had little effect on the blood characteristics.

  11. SnO(2) quantum dots-reduced graphene oxide composite for enzyme-free ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dipa; Chandra, Sudeshna; Swain, Akshaya K; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2014-06-17

    Most of the urea sensors are biosensors and utilize urease, which limit their use in harsh environments. Recently, because of their exceptional ability to endorse faster electron transfer, carbonaceous material composites and quantum dots are being used for fabrication of a sensitive transducer surface for urea biosensors. We demonstrate an enzyme free ultrasensitive urea sensor fabricated using a SnO2 quantum dots (QDs)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite. Due to the synergistic effect of the constituents, the SnO2 QDs/RGO (SRGO) composite proved to be an excellent probe for electrochemical sensing. The morphology and structure of the composite was characterized by various techniques, and it was observed that SnO2 QDs are decorated on RGO layers. Electrochemical studies were performed to evaluate the characteristics of the sensor toward detection of urea. Amperometry studies show that the SRGO/GCE electrode is sensitive to urea in the concentration range of 1.6 × 10(-14)-3.9 × 10(-12) M, with a detection limit of as low as 11.7 fM. However, this is an indirect measurement for urea wherein the analytical signal is recorded as a decrease in the amperommetric and/or voltammetric current from the solution redox species ferrocyanide. The porous structure of the SRGO matrix offers a very low transport barrier and thus promotes rapid diffusion of the ionic species from the solution to the electrode, leading to a rapid response time (∼5 s) and ultrahigh sensitivity (1.38 μA/fM). Good analytical performance in the presence of interfering agents, low cost, and easy synthesis methodology suggest that SRGO can be quite promising as an electroactive material for effective urea sensing.

  12. Short communication: Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of fattening lambs fed diet replacing corn with orange pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Paya, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with orange pulp (OP) on growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of fattening lambs. Twenty male lambs were placed in individual pens and fed with four levels of replacement...... fiber showed a quadratic effect with the level of replacement. The results of the present study showed that replacement of corn by OP improves DMI of fattening lambs, leading to an enhancement in ADG at the replacement level of 40.3%. Also, total replacement of corn by OP did not have any adverse effect...

  13. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used...

  14. Dispersion Interactions between Urea and Nucleobases Contribute to the Destabilization of RNA by Urea in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasavajhala, Koushik; Bikkina, Swetha; Patil, Indrajit; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Priyakumar, U. Deva

    2015-01-01

    Urea has long been used to investigate protein folding and, more recently, RNA folding. Studies have proposed that urea denatures RNA by participating in stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds with nucleic acid bases. In this study, the ability of urea to form unconventional stacking interactions with RNA bases is investigated using ab initio calculations (RI-MP2 and CCSD(T) methods with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set). A total of 29 stable nucleobase-urea stacked complexes are identified in which the intermolecular interaction energies (up to −14 kcal/mol) are dominated by dispersion effects. Natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations further confirm strong interactions between urea and nucleobases. Calculations on model systems with multiple urea and water molecules interacting with a guanine base lead to a hypothesis that urea molecules along with water are able to form cage-like structures capable of trapping nucleic acid bases in extrahelical states by forming both hydrogen bonded and dispersion interactions, thereby contributing to the unfolding of RNA in the presence of urea in aqueous solution. PMID:25668757

  15. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1 was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2 was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C and minimum (1.0°C indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001 than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001 during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001 during P2 (1.38 kg/d than P1 (1.13 kg/d. Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015 than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.

  16. Simultaneous determination of nikethamide and lidocaine in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Liao, Linchuan; Zuo, Zhong; Yan, Youyi; Yang, Lin; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Yu; Hou, Junhong

    2007-04-11

    Nikethamide and lidocaine are often requested to be quantified simultaneously in forensic toxicological analysis. A simple reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for their simultaneous determination in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The method involves simple protein precipitation sample treatment followed by quantification of analytes using HPLC at 263 nm. Analytes were separated on a 5 microm Zorbax Dikema C18 column (150 mm x 4.60 mm, i.d.) with a mobile phase of 22:78 (v/v) mixture of methanol and a diethylamine-acetic acid buffer, pH 4.0. The mean recoveries were between 69.8 and 94.4% for nikethamide and between 78.9 and 97.2% for lidocaine. Limits of detection (LODs) for nikethamide and lidocaine were 0.008 and 0.16 microg/ml in plasma and 0.007 and 0.14 microg/ml in cerebrospinal fluid, respectively. The mean intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) for both analytes were less than 9.2 and 10.8%, respectively. The developed method was applied to blood sample analyses in eight forensic cases, where blood concentrations of lidocaine ranged from 0.68 to 34.4 microg/ml and nikethamide ranged from 1.25 to 106.8 microg/ml. In six cases cerebrospinal fluid analysis was requested. The values ranged from 20.3 to 185.6 microg/ml of lidocaine and 8.0 to 72.4 microg/ml of nikethamide. The method is simple and sensitive enough to be used in toxicological analysis for simultaneous determination of nikethamide and lidocaine in blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

  17. Acute normovolaemic haemodilution decreases postoperative allogeneic blood transfusion after total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsfanger, D; Fredman, B; Goldstein, B; Shapiro, A; Jedeikin, R

    1997-09-01

    We hypothesized that the success of postoperative blood conservation after acute normovolaemic haemodilution (NVHD) is influenced by the extent of intraoperative bleeding and surgical trauma, and the timing of autologous blood transfusion. As total knee replacement is associated with minimal intraoperative but extensive postoperative blood loss, this procedure is ideally suited to acute NVHD. Therefore, to test our hypothesis, 30 patients undergoing elective total knee replacement were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled study. In groups NVHD-2 and NVHD-6, before induction of anaesthesia patients were bled to a target packed cell volume (PCV) of 28-30%, and in the post-anaesthesia care unit autologous blood was transfused over a 2-h period terminating after operation at 2 and 6 h, respectively. In the control group, NVHD was not performed. After operation, platelets, fibrinogen, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin time, and liver function, urea and electrolytes were measured and compared with preoperative baseline values. Significantly (P conservation strategy. However, there was no difference in allogeneic blood administration between the two NVHD groups. Coagulation and liver function, and urea and electrolyte concentrations were unaffected by treatment.

  18. Vascular toxicity of urea, a new "old player" in the pathogenesis of chronic renal failure induced cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Ida; D'Apolito, Maria; Brownlee, Michael; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Colia, Anna Laura; Sacco, Michele; Ferrara, Pietro; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease in children is an irreversible process that may lead to end-stage renal disease. The mortality rate in children with end-stage renal disease who receive dialysis increased dramatically in the last decade, and it is significantly higher compared with the general pediatric population. Furthermore, dialysis and transplant patients, who have developed end-stage renal disease during childhood, live respectively far less as compared with age/race-matched populations. Different reports show that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in children with end-stage renal disease and in adults with childhood-onset chronic kidney disease, and that children with chronic kidney disease are in the highest risk group for the development of cardiovascular disease. Urea, which is generated in the liver during catabolism of amino acids and other nitrogenous metabolites, is normally excreted into the urine by the kidneys as rapidly as it is produced. When renal function is impaired, increasing concentrations of blood urea will steadily accumulate. For a long time, urea has been considered to have negligible toxicity. However, the finding that plasma urea is the only significant predictor of aortic plaque area fraction in an animal model of chronic renal failure -accelerated atherosclerosis, suggests that the high levels of urea found in chronic dialysis patients might play an important role in accelerated atherosclerosis in this group of patients. The aim of this review was to provide novel insights into the role played by urea in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease in renal failure.

  19. Vascular toxicity of urea, a new “old player” in the pathogenesis of chronic renal failure induced cardiovascular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Apolito, Maria; Brownlee, Michael; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Colia, Anna Laura; Sacco, Michele; Ferrara, Pietro; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease in children is an irreversible process that may lead to end-stage renal disease. The mortality rate in children with end-stage renal disease who receive dialysis increased dramatically in the last decade, and it is significantly higher compared with the general pediatric population. Furthermore, dialysis and transplant patients, who have developed end-stage renal disease during childhood, live respectively far less as compared with age/race-matched populations. Different reports show that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in children with end-stage renal disease and in adults with childhood-onset chronic kidney disease, and that children with chronic kidney disease are in the highest risk group for the development of cardiovascular disease. Urea, which is generated in the liver during catabolism of amino acids and other nitrogenous metabolites, is normally excreted into the urine by the kidneys as rapidly as it is produced. When renal function is impaired, increasing concentrations of blood urea will steadily accumulate. For a long time, urea has been considered to have negligible toxicity. However, the finding that plasma urea is the only significant predictor of aortic plaque area fraction in an animal model of chronic renal failure -accelerated atherosclerosis, suggests that the high levels of urea found in chronic dialysis patients might play an important role in accelerated atherosclerosis in this group of patients. The aim of this review was to provide novel insights into the role played by urea in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease in renal failure. PMID:29483797

  20. Evaluation of the performance of the OneTouch Select Plus blood glucose test system against ISO 15197:2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setford, Steven; Smith, Antony; McColl, David; Grady, Mike; Koria, Krisna; Cameron, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    Assess laboratory and in-clinic performance of the OneTouch Select(®) Plus test system against ISO 15197:2013 standard for measurement of blood glucose. System performance assessed in laboratory against key patient, environmental and pharmacologic factors. User performance was assessed in clinic by system-naïve lay-users. Healthcare professionals assessed system accuracy on diabetes subjects in clinic. The system demonstrated high levels of performance, meeting ISO 15197:2013 requirements in laboratory testing (precision, linearity, hematocrit, temperature, humidity and altitude). System performance was tested against 28 interferents, with an adverse interfering effect only being recorded for pralidoxime iodide. Clinic user performance results fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria. Subjects agreed that the color range indicator clearly showed if they were low, in-range or high and helped them better understand glucose results. The system evaluated is accurate and meets all ISO 15197:2013 requirements as per the tests described. The color range indicator helped subjects understand glucose results and supports patients in following healthcare professional recommendations on glucose targets.

  1. The microdose rapid 14C urea breath test compares well with the original rapid 14 breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, M.S.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Chatterton, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The 14 C urea breath test (CUBT) is a sensitive test used in the detection of H. pylori infection. The rapid 14 CUBT using 185 KBq of 14 C urea showed a sensitivity of 100% when tested in 36 patients. The aim of this study was to compare the results of the 14 CUBT performed following the ingestion of 37KBq microdose 14 C urea capsule (Bicapsule, Trimed) with the earlier method which uses 185 KBq 14 C urea. 19 patients (nine female age 21-52 yrs) were studied. All subjects first underwent a 14 CUBT with the microdose capsule and a single 15 minute post ingestion sample. An hour later the test was repeated but with a dose of 185 KBq 14 C urea in liquid form. A normal result was taken as 2 = 0.92). This is shown above. The Rapid 14 CUBT performed following the microdose capsule whilst reducing patient radiation exposure is an accurate test for the detection of H. pylori. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Secondary amine-initiated three-component synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones and thiones involving alkynes, aldehydes and thiourea/urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Ping Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-component reactions of aldehydes, electron deficient alkynes and ureas/thioureas have been smoothly performed to yield a class of unprecedented 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones and thiones (DHPMs. The reactions are initiated by the key transformation of an enamine-type activation involving the addition of a secondary amine to an alkyne, which enables the subsequent incorporation of aldehydes and ureas/thioureas. This protocol tolerates a broad range of aryl- or alkylaldehydes, N-substituted and unsubstituted ureas/thioureas and alkynes to yield the corresponding DHPMs with specific regioselectivity.

  3. Determination of periplocymarin in human blood and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of periplocymarin in human blood and urine was developed. The digoxin-d3 was used as an internal standard. Periplocymarin and digoxin-d3 (IS were processed with ethyl acetate by liquid-liquid extraction. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODSIII C18 column with a 7 min gradient elution using methanol-ammonium formate (5 mmol/L as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min (65:35, v/v. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using positive-ion mode electrospray ionization in selected reaction monitoring mode. The periplocymarin was well separated from the internal standard. Two calibration curves were linear within the concentration range 0.01-1 μg/mL. The limit of detection and quantification of blood and urine samples were both estimated at 0.005 and 0.01 μg/mL. The interday and intraday precisions, accuracy, and recovery were assessed to verify this method. The results showed that the method was suitable for the determination of periplocymarin in forensic toxicological analysis and clinical diagnosis.

  4. A magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps: effects of seal structure on long-term performance in liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Amari, Shuichi; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya

    2011-03-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and hence has excellent durability. The performance of an MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We developed an MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism, and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Three types of MF seals were used. Seal A was a conventional seal without a shield. Seal B had the same structure as that of Seal A, but the seal was installed at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal C was a seal with a shield and the MF was set at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal A failed after 6 and 11 days. Seal B showed better results (20 and 73 days). Seal C showed long-term durability (217 and 275 days). The reason for different results in different seal structures was considered to be different flow conditions near the magnetic fluid. Fluid dynamics near the MF in the pump were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. We have developed an MF seal with a shield that works in liquid for >275 days. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  5. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H J; Lee, I K; Piao, M Y; Gu, M J; Yun, C H; Kim, H J; Kim, K H; Baik, M

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (pambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.

  6. Brain urea increase is an early Huntington's disease pathogenic event observed in a prodromal transgenic sheep model and HD cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Renee R; Reid, Suzanne J; Brauning, Rudiger; Maclean, Paul; Mears, Emily R; Fourie, Imche; Patassini, Stefano; Cooper, Garth J S; Rudiger, Skye R; McLaughlan, Clive J; Verma, Paul J; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Waldvogel, Henry J; Bawden, C Simon; Faull, Richard L M; Snell, Russell G

    2017-12-26

    The neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease (HD) is typically characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons and the midlife onset of debilitating and progressive chorea, dementia, and psychological disturbance. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin ( HTT ) gene, translating to an elongated glutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. The pathogenic mechanism resulting in cell dysfunction and death beyond the causative mutation is not well defined. To further delineate the early molecular events in HD, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on striatal tissue from a cohort of 5-y-old OVT73 -line sheep expressing a human CAG-expansion HTT cDNA transgene. Our HD OVT73 sheep are a prodromal model and exhibit minimal pathology and no detectable neuronal loss. We identified significantly increased levels of the urea transporter SLC14A1 in the OVT73 striatum, along with other important osmotic regulators. Further investigation revealed elevated levels of the metabolite urea in the OVT73 striatum and cerebellum, consistent with our recently published observation of increased urea in postmortem human brain from HD cases. Extending that finding, we demonstrate that postmortem human brain urea levels are elevated in a larger cohort of HD cases, including those with low-level neuropathology (Vonsattel grade 0/1). This elevation indicates increased protein catabolism, possibly as an alternate energy source given the generalized metabolic defect in HD. Increased urea and ammonia levels due to dysregulation of the urea cycle are known to cause neurologic impairment. Taken together, our findings indicate that aberrant urea metabolism could be the primary biochemical disruption initiating neuropathogenesis in HD.

  7. The relationship between extent of hemoglobin purification and the performance characteristics of a blood-based flocculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole blood is a highly complex substance. Hemoglobin, the most abundant blood protein, can function as a flocculant of colloidal clay; most of the other blood components exhibit poor flocculant activity. For the purpose of processing raw whole blood into a flocculant product, the practical value of...

  8. Effect of urea on protein-ligand association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanian, Lora; Son, Ikbae; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2017-12-01

    We combine experimental and theoretical approaches to investigate the influence of a cosolvent on a ligand-protein association event. We apply fluorescence measurements to determining the affinity of the inhibitor tri-N-acetylglucosamine [(GlcNAc) 3 ] for lysozyme at urea concentrations ranging from 0 to 8M. Notwithstanding that, at room temperature and neutral pH, lysozyme retains its native conformation up to the solubility limit of urea, the affinity of (GlcNAc) 3 for the protein steadily decreases as the concentration of urea increases. We analyze the urea dependence of the binding free energy within the framework of a simplified statistical thermodynamics-based model that accounts for the excluded volume effect and direct solute-solvent interactions. The analysis reveals that the detrimental action of urea on the inhibitor-lysozyme binding originates from competition between the free energy contributions of the excluded volume effect and direct solute-solvent interactions. The free energy contribution of direct urea-solute interactions narrowly overcomes the excluded volume contribution thereby resulting in urea weakening the protein-ligand association. More broadly, the successful application of the simple model employed in this work points to the possibility of its use in quantifying the stabilizing/destabilizing action of individual cosolvents on biochemical folding and binding reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dissolution of lignin in green urea aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Li, Ying; Qiu, Xueqing; Liu, Di; Yang, Dongjie; Liu, Weifeng; Qian, Yong

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution problem is the main obstacle for the value-added modification and depolymerization of industrial lignin. Here, a green urea aqueous solution for complete dissolution of various lignin is presented and the dissolution mechanism is analyzed by AFM, DLS and NMR. The results show that the molecular interaction of lignin decreases from 32.3 mN/m in pure water to 11.3 mN/m in urea aqueous solution. The immobility of 1H NMR spectra and the shift of 17O NMR spectra of urea in different lignin/urea solutions indicate that the oxygen of carbonyl in urea and the hydrogen of hydroxyl in lignin form new hydrogen bonds and break the original hydrogen bonds among lignin molecules. The shift of 1H NMR spectra of lignin and the decrease of interactions in model compound polystyrene indicate that urea also breaks the π-π interactions between aromatic rings of lignin. Lignin dissolved in urea aqueous has good antioxidant activity and it can scavenge at least 63% free radicals in 16 min.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Urea Transport in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Janet D.; Blount, Mitsi A.; Sands, Jeff M.

    2012-01-01

    In the late 1980s, urea permeability measurements produced values that could not be explained by paracellular transport or lipid phase diffusion. The existence of urea transport proteins were thus proposed and less than a decade later, the first urea transporter was cloned. The SLC14A family of urea transporters has two major subgroups, designated SLC14A1 (or UT-B) and Slc14A2 (or UT-A). UT-B and UT-A gene products are glycoproteins located in various extra-renal tissues however, a majority of the resulting isoforms are found in the kidney. The UT-B (Slc14A1) urea transporter was originally isolated from erythrocytes and two isoforms have been reported. In kidney, UT-B is located primarily in the descending vasa recta. The UT-A (Slc14A2) urea transporter yields 6 distinct isoforms, of which 3 are found chiefly in the kidney medulla. UT-A1 and UT-A3 are found in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), while UT-A2 is located in the thin descending limb. These transporters are crucial to the kidney’s ability to concentrate urine. The regulation of urea transporter activity in the IMCD involves acute modification through phosphorylation and subsequent movement to the plasma membrane. UT-A1 and UT-A3 accumulate in the plasma membrane in response to stimulation by vasopressin or hypertonicity. Long term regulation of the urea transporters in the IMCD involves altering protein abundance in response to changes in hydration status, low protein diets, or adrenal steroids. Urea transporters have been studied using animal models of disease including diabetes mellitus, lithium intoxication, hypertension, and nephrotoxic drug responses. Exciting new genetically engineered mouse models are being developed to study these transporters. PMID:23007461

  11. The performance of five different dried blood spot cards for the analysis of six immunosuppressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Remco A; Botma, Rixt; Greijdanus, Ben; Uges, Donald R A; Kosterink, Jos G W; Touw, Daan J; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2015-01-01

    The relation between hematocrit, substance concentration, extraction recovery and spot formation of tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, ascomycin, temsirolimus and cyclosporin A was investigated for Whatman 31 ET CHR, Whatman FTA DMPK-C, Whatman 903, Perkin Elmer 226 and Agilent Bond Elut DMS DBS cards. We found that all DBS cards showed the same hematocrit and concentration-dependent recovery patterns for sirolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus. At high concentrations, the total hematocrit effects were much more pronounced than at low concentrations for tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, ascomycin and temsirolimus. The tested card types showed differences in performance, especially at extreme concentrations and hematocrit values. It may be useful to investigate the performance of different types of DBS cards prior to analytical method validation.

  12. The role of serum and urinary urea in the evaluation of enteral protein intake in adequate and small-for-gestational-age very low birth weight infants

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    Silvana Darcie

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight (VLBW infants have special nutritional needs. There is a current tendency to individualize their protein needs. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of serum and urinary urea as indicators for protein intake in adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA and small-for-gestational-age (SGA VLBW infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the nursery attached to the Maternity Ward of the "Prof. Pedro de Alcântara" Children's Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Seventy-two VLBW infants (mean protein intake = 3.7 mg/kg/day were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in two groups: AGA (n = 34 and SGA (n = 38. Blood samples, six-hour urine (6hUr collections and urine sample tests (STUr were obtained for urea and creatinine assays at three and five weeks of life. Statistical analysis: Student's t test, Pearson correlation and linear regression (p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for serum urea, 6hUr and STUr, or between two assessments within each group. Serum urea correlated with 6hUr in both AGA and SGA, and to STUr in SGA; 6hUr correlated with STUr in both AGA and SGA. There was no correlation between protein intake and serum or urine urea. CONCLUSIONS: Serum and urinary urea did not reflect protein intake when mean intakes of 3.7 g/kg/day were used. Sample tests of urinary urea can be as reliable as urea from urine collected over longer periods.

  13. Facile Synthesis of Polyaniline Nanotubes with Square Capillary Using Urea as Template

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    Shuhua Pang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline nanotubes were successfully synthesized by a facile in situ chemical oxidative polymerization method using urea as soft template. When the urea/aniline molar ratio is 3:1, the as-prepared nanotubular polyaniline (PANI-3 shows regular and uniform square capillaries, which provides a high electrode/electrolyte contact, easy ion diffusion and enhanced electroactive regions during the electrochemical process, leading to weak internal resistance and improved electrochemical performance. The PANI-3 sample exhibits a high specific capacitance of 405 F/g at current density of 0.2 A/g, and PANI only has a specific capacitance of 263 F/g. At current density of 1 A/g, the capacitance of PANI-3 is still 263 F/g (64.9% of the capacitance at 0.2 A/g. Such a PANI-3 nanotube, with regular and uniform capillary, is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of Direct Urea Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in combined heat and power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, F.; Dincer, I.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive steady state modelling and thermodynamic analysis of Direct Urea Solid Oxide Fuel Cell integrated with Gas Turbine power cycle (DU-SOFC/GT). The use of urea as direct fuel mitigates public health and safety risks associated with the use of hydrogen and ammonia. The integration scheme in this study covers both oxygen ion-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC-O) and hydrogen proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC-H). Parametric case studies are carried out to investigate the effects of design and operating parameters on the overall performance of the system. The results reveal that the fuel cell exhibited the highest level of exergy destruction among other system components. Furthermore, the SOFC-O based system offers better overall performance than that with the SOFC-H option mainly due to the detrimental reverse water-gas shift reaction at the SOFC anode as well as the unique configuration of the system.

  15. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others.Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology.The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  16. Influence of compressive gear on powerlifting performance: role of blood flow restriction training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godawa, Travis M; Credeur, Daniel P; Welsch, Michael A

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of powerlifting gear on training volume and performance, defined by the squat, bench press, and deadlift. Eighteen powerlifters (18-26 years) were randomized into either a group that trained and competed using compressive gear (CG) or without the gear (NON). Training volume, volume progression, and powerlifting performance were assessed before and after 10 weeks of training. Training volume increased in the first 4 weeks for both groups. Volume lifted for squat and the totals were greater in the CG. There was an increase in squat (19.05 ± 30.97 lb, p = 0.02), deadlift (19.05 ± 21.17 lb, p = 0.001), and the total score (44.00 ± 60.44 lb, p = 0.005) for both the groups. The improvements in squat (CG = 33.85 vs. NON = 5.74, p = 0.07) and totals (CG = 66.59 vs. NON = 23.67, p = 0.15) were greater in the CG. Both groups showed a significant and similar increase in the Wilks scores (+13.54 points, p = 0.03). There was a trend toward greater volume progression in those wearing CG during the initial stages of training. Both the groups significantly improved performance for the squat, and deadlift, and had higher totals, and Wilks scores, indicating significant strength gains. The greater magnitude of improvements in the squat and totals for the CG lifters suggests an ergogenic potential of training with powerlifting gear.

  17. Desempenho reprodutivo e metabólitos sanguíneos de ovelhas Ile de France sob suplementação com sal orgânico ou sal comum durante a estação de monta Reproductive performance and blood metabolites from Ile de France ewes fed organic or common salt in the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antero de Oliveira Peixoto

    2010-01-01

    +phosphate and receiving organic salt. Biochemical indicators of the nutritional status were analyzed by quantifying the serum albumin, urea, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides of the blood serum. Ewes fed organic mineral had a higher rate of serum urea nitrogen than ewes that received salt in the traditional form (39.00 vs. 35.69 mg/dL, respectively. The others biochemical components evaluated did not differ between treatments. The albumin, urea, glucose and cholesterol serum values differed between the evaluated periods during the breeding season. Serum albumin and urea nitrogen values did not influence the birth rate. Supplementation with organic salt do not improve the reproductive performance of ewes in the breeding season.

  18. Changes in the level of urea, creatine and creatinine in the liver and serum of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kashef, H.S.; Saada, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    This study aims to compare between the susceptibility of two tissues (liver and serum) toγ-radiation with respect to some protein end-products; namely urea, creatine and creatinine. The results indicated that in control rat liver, the concentration of urea, creatine and creatinine ranged between 262-266, 106-108 and 18.86-19.48 μg/g fresh tissue, respectively. In blood serum, the concentration of these end-products were 327-383, 94-97 and 12.36-12.51μg/ml blood serum. Whole body -irradiation at dose 5.5 Gy caused significant changes in the levels of both urea and creatine in the blood serum on the 7th and 14th post irradiation days, while the level of creatinine was not altered. As for the liver of whole body γ -irradiated rats, significant changes were observed in the content of urea at the all post-irradiation days except at the 3 rd day. The creatinine content of the liver was significantly decreased on the 3 rd, 14th and 21st days after irradiation. Similar decrease was noticed in the content of creatine, but on the 7th day, significant increase was observed. The variation in the studied parameters started early in the liver and lated longer, but it started later and lasted shorter in the serum of irradiated rats. It could be suggested that the liver of irradiated rats is more sensitive to the radiation dose 5.5 Gy than the blood.1 fig.,2 tab

  19. A Review of Toxicity and Use and Handling Considerations for Guanidine, Guanidine Hydrochloride, and Urea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertell, Katherine GB

    2006-03-27

    This is a technical report prepared for Oregon Sustainable Energy, LLC, under Agreement 06-19 with PNNL's Office of Small Business Programs. The request was to perform a review of the toxicity and safe handling of guanidine. The request was later amended to add urea. This report summarizes the toxicity data available in the scientific literature and provides an interpretation of the results and recommendations for handling these compounds.

  20. Fixing of various simulated radioactive wastes in urea-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Dahai; Wei Peng

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines the results of the fixing of a variety of simulated radioactive wastes in the urea-formaldehyde resin. The radioactive waste materials fixed include spent ion exchange resin, concentrates of NaNO 3 -NaBO 2 as well as NaBO 2 and sludge. The performance of the fixed products has been improved by means of selecting the synthetic conditions of resin, a suitable hardener and an inorganic additive

  1. Intermittent pneumatic leg compressions enhance muscle performance and blood flow in a model of peripheral arterial insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseguini, Bruno T; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Newcomer, Sean C; Yang, Hsiao T; Terjung, Ronald; Laughlin, M H

    2012-05-01

    Despite the escalating prevalence in the aging population, few therapeutic options exist to treat patients with peripheral arterial disease. Application of intermittent pneumatic leg compressions (IPC) is regarded as a promising noninvasive approach to treat this condition, but the clinical efficacy, as well the mechanistic basis of action of this therapy, remain poorly defined. We tested the hypothesis that 2 wk of daily application of IPC enhances exercise tolerance by improving blood flow and promoting angiogenesis in skeletal muscle in a model of peripheral arterial insufficiency. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bilateral ligation of the femoral artery and randomly allocated to treatment or sham groups. Animals were anesthetized daily and exposed to 1-h sessions of bilateral IPC or sham treatment for 14-16 consecutive days. A third group of nonligated rats was also studied. Marked increases in treadmill exercise tolerance (∼33%, P < 0.05) and improved muscle performance in situ (∼10%, P < 0.05) were observed in IPC-treated animals. Compared with sham-treated controls, blood flow measured with isotope-labeled microspheres during in situ contractions tended to be higher in IPC-treated animals in muscles composed of predominantly fast-twitch white fibers, such as the plantaris (∼93%, P = 0.02). Capillary contacts per fiber and citrate synthase activity were not significantly altered by IPC treatment. Collectively, these data indicate that IPC improves exercise tolerance in a model of peripheral arterial insufficiency in part by enhancing blood flow to collateral-dependent tissues.

  2. Effects of dietary administration of yarrow extract on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    Mahmoud Nafisi Bahabadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical effects and possible side effects of yarrow extract (Achillea millefolium L. as feed additive on biochemical blood parameters and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fishes were treated with 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% of yarrow extract for 30 days. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatine kinase (CK, peroxidase activity, total complement and lysozyme activity, glucose, total protein, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured after 15 and 30 days of yarrow treatment. There were no significant changes in the lysozyme activity and glucose levels. Total protein and globulin levels were significantly higher in the fish fed with diets enriched with 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels was significantly decreased in the fish fed with diets containing 0.5% and 1% yarrow extract on day 30 (P<0.05. LDH, CK and peroxidase activities in the fish fed with diets having 1% yarrow extract were significantly decreased at the end of the experiment (P<0.05. In contrast, a significant increase in AST, ALP and total complement activity was observed in the fish fed with 1% yarrow extract diet, on day 15 (P<0.05. The weight gain and specific growth rate increased and food conversion ratio decreased in in the fish fed 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Condition factor in the fish fed with yarrow extract was significantly higher than control group on 30 day. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of yarrow extract up to 0.5% have not side effect on blood biochemical and clinical parameters of fishes. However, oral administration of 1% of yarrow extract caused cytotoxicity and modifications in blood biochemical parameters of fish.

  3. Effects of bed-rest on urea and creatinine: correlation with changes in fat-free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilancio, Giancarlo; Lombardi, Cinzia; Pisot, Rado; De Santo, Natale G; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Cirillo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Bed-rest experiments are designed for investigation on catabolic effects of hypokinetic conditions and/or for microgravity simulation in on-ground aerospace research. Bed-rest effects include a reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass. Urea and creatinine are catabolites of endogenous protein and of muscular energetic metabolism which are excreted mainly by the kidney. The study investigated on urea, creatinine, and kidney function during bed-rest. Twenty healthy young men underwent a 7-day adaptation period (day-6 to day-0) and a 35-day bed-rest experiment (day1 to day35) during normocaloric diet. Urine were collected from day-3 to day0 (baseline) and from day1 to day35. Blood samples and anthropometrical data were collected at day0 (baseline) and bed-rest days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Bed-rest reduced plasma volume, weight, fat-free mass, and muscle mass (Pcreatinine, and no change in urinary creatinine. The overall integral of changes from day0 to day35 was on average +101.7 mg/dL for plasma urea (95%CI = +43.4/+159.9), +82.2 g/24 h for urinary urea (95%CI = +55.8/+108.7), -2.5 mg/dL for plasma creatinine (95%CI = -3.1/-1.9). Bed-rest reduced plasma cistatyn C also, which was used as mass-independent marker of glomerular filtration rate (-13.1%, P<0.05). Correlations with final reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass were significant for the overall integral of changes in urinary urea from day0 to day35 (R = 0.706, P<0.001) and for early changes in urinary urea and plasma urea from day0 to day7 (R = 0.566, P = 0.009 and R = 0.715, P<0.001, respectively). Study results shows that urea is a marker of catabolic conditions secondary to hypokinetic conditions.

  4. Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2005-07-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to elicit cognitive improvements in healthy young volunteers. The mechanisms by which ginseng improves cognitive performance are not known. However, they may be related to the glycaemic properties of some Panax species. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover design, 30 healthy young adults completed a 10 min test battery at baseline, and then six times in immediate succession commencing 60 min after the day's treatment (placebo, 200mg G115 or 400mg G115). The 10 min battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); then a 'mental fatigue' visual analogue scale. Blood glucose was measured prior to each day's treatment, and before, during and after the post-dose completions of the battery. Both the 200mg and 400mg treatments led to significant reductions in blood glucose levels at all three post-treatment measurements (p 0.005 in all cases). The most notable behavioural effects were associated with 200mg of ginseng and included significantly improved Serial Sevens subtraction task performance and significantly reduced subjective mental fatigue throughout all (with the exception of one time point in each case) of the post-dose completions of the 10 min battery (p 0.05). Overall these data suggest that Panax ginseng can improve performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity. This effect may be related to the acute gluco-regulatory properties of the extract.

  5. Effect of Different Levels of Surplus Date on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Parameters in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J Hosseini Vashan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty-four 26-wk-old white Hy-Line layers (W-36 were fed commercial diets containing 0, 1.5, 3 and 5% surplus date for three period of 28 days each to study the effects of dietary surplus date on hen performance (egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio ‘FCR’ and body weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density. The yolk of eggs extracted and cholesterol content were determined on one egg of each replicate hens in each period. Blood samples were collected in non-heparin zed tubes from six hens in each treatment through brachial vein at the end of experiment. Serum was separated after 8-10 hrs and was stored at – 20 oC for subsequent analysis. Hen performance (egg production, egg mass, feed intake, FCR and weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density were not significantly different among treatments (P>0.05; However in all traits, the control group had numerically lower value, except egg weight that was significantly increased with supplementation of surplus date in diet. The dietary surplus date did not significantly affect egg cholesterol, ND and IBD titre, but the serum cholesterol was significantly reduced in hens fed diets contained 5% surplus date. This study suggested that the surplus date may be used up to 5% in the diet of laying hens to reduce blood cholesterol without any significant adverse effect on performance.

  6. Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid levels and neurocognitive performance in deployed U.S. Servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Daniel T; Deuster, Patricia A; Harris, William S; Macrae, Holden; Dretsch, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    To explore the cross-sectional relationships between blood eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (HSOmega-3 Index(®)) and sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, and neurocognitive performance in Servicemembers deployed to Iraq. Servicemembers with mild-to-moderate depression by the Patient Health Questionnarie-9 from two US military camps were invited to participate in this study. A battery of validated psychosocial (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Zung Depression, Zung Anxiety, Epworth Sleepiness, and Combat Experiences scales) and computerized neurocognitive tests were completed by each participant. Five neurocognitive domain scores were calculated--Processing Speed, Complex Attention, Reaction Time, Cognitive Flexibility (CF), and Executive Function (EF). A drop of blood was also collected on an anti-oxidant-treated filter paper card and sent for HS-Omega-3 Index(®) analysis. An analysis of variance contrast was used to test for linear trends between quartiles of the HS-Omega-3 Index(®) for both EF and CF. The mean HS-Omega-3 Index(®) was 3.5 ± 0.7% (n = 78). The HS-Omega-3 Index(®) was not significantly associated with scores for anxiety, depression, or sleep, whether assessed as continuous or dichotomous variables, but was directly associated with CF and EF (P quality. In those with poor sleep quality (n = 63), EF and CF were higher (P = 0.005) in subjects with Omega-3 levels above versus below the mean. Optimal neurocognitive performance is essential during deployment. Our finding that EF and CF were positively related to HS-Omega-3 Index(®) suggests that improving omega-3 status through an increase in omega-3 intake may improve neurocognitive performance and confer an element of resilience to poor sleep.

  7. Influence of rumen protein degradability on productive and reproductive performance in buffalo cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Di Palo, Rossella; Infascelli, Federico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Zicarelli, Fabio; D'Occhio, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    The present study aimed to ascertain the influence of crude protein (CP) digestibility in the rumen on the quantity and quality of milk production and reproductive performance, blood (BU) and milk (MU) urea, haematological profile and vaginal mucus urea, ammonia and potassium of buffalo cows. Lactating buffaloes (n = 84), 60 days in milk, were randomly subdivided into Group C (control, n = 42) and Group T (fed a diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae, n = 42). In three fistulated buffalo, the diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae showed a decrease (P milk, were used to study the haematological profile and to determine milk urea and ammonia in the vaginal mucus. The animals in Group T1 had higher ammonia values in the blood (P mucus than Group C1. A relationship was found between MU and BU. MU was influenced by CP intake and dry matter intake. No differences between the treatments were observed in reproductive performance and the conception rate and calving interval were 37.9% and 41.4% (90 trial-day) and 449 and 419 days respectively in Groups T and C. Reproductive performance was not influenced by high levels of BU nor by blood ammonia levels, although the latter were higher in the group fed the diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae.

  8. Performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit for Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Quantification in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hee Jae; Park, Jong Eun; Kim, Ji Youn; Yun, Sun Ae; Lee, Myoung Keun; Lee, Nam Yong; Kim, Jong Won; Ki, Chang Seok

    2017-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in standardized and quantitative Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA testing for the management of EBV disease. We evaluated the performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit (BioSewoom, Korea) in whole blood (WB). Nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR were performed by using the MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics, Germany) and 7500 Fast real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, USA), respectively. Assay sensitivity, linearity, and conversion factor were determined by using the World Health Organization international standard diluted in EBV-negative WB. We used 81 WB clinical specimens to compare performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit and artus EBV RG PCR Kit (Qiagen, Germany). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the Real-Q kit were 453 and 750 IU/mL, respectively. The conversion factor from EBV genomic copies to IU was 0.62. The linear range of the assay was from 750 to 10⁶ IU/mL. Viral load values measured with the Real-Q assay were on average 0.54 log₁₀ copies/mL higher than those measured with the artus assay. The Real-Q assay offered good analytical performance for EBV DNA quantification in WB.

  9. Spectral analyses of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability and their association with cognitive performance in elderly hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, W B; Matoso, J M D; Maltez, M; Gonçalves, T; Casanova, M; Moreira, I F H; Lourenço, R A; Monteiro, W D; Farinatti, P T V; Soares, P P; Oigman, W; Neves, M F T; Correia, M L G

    2015-08-01

    Systolic hypertension is associated with cognitive decline in the elderly. Altered blood pressure (BP) variability is a possible mechanism of reduced cognitive performance in elderly hypertensives. We hypothesized that altered beat-to-beat systolic BP variability is associated with reduced global cognitive performance in elderly hypertensive subjects. In exploratory analyses, we also studied the correlation between diverse discrete cognitive domains and indices of systolic BP and heart rate variability. Disproving our initial hypothesis, we have shown that hypertension and low education, but not indices of systolic BP and heart rate variability, were independent predictors of lower global cognitive performance. However, exploratory analyses showed that the systolic BP variability in semi-upright position was an independent predictor of matrix reasoning (B = 0.08 ± .03, P-value = 0.005), whereas heart rate variability in semi-upright position was an independent predictor of the executive function score (B = -6.36 ± 2.55, P-value = 0.02). We conclude that myogenic vascular and sympathetic modulation of systolic BP do not contribute to reduced global cognitive performance in treated hypertensive subjects. Nevertheless, our results suggest that both systolic BP and heart rate variability might be associated with modulation of frontal lobe cognitive domains, such as executive function and matrix reasoning.

  10. Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy for chickens normally includes cereal grains and fat. This innovative study investigated the effect of replacing part of the corn and fat in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of sugar syrup on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soy basal diet alone, or with graded levels of sugar syrup in increments of 5%, 10% and 15%. All starter diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization of chicks fed the control diet alone were not significantly (P < 0.05 different from chicks fed diets supplemented with either 5% or 15% sugar syrup. Supplementation of sugar syrup to broiler diets had no significant effect on blood glucose, creatinine, total protein, or liver enzymes. Adding 5% sugar syrup to broiler rations significantly decreased blood cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens fed the sugar syrup diet compared with birds fed the control diet. In conclusion, the results shows sugar syrup can be used in poultry ration to replace part of the corn as a source of energy. These results allowed the authors to recommend the safe usage of sugar syrup in broiler rations.

  11. Effects of rhythmic exercise performed to music on the rheological properties of blood in women over 60 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Anna; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Teległó, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of motor rehabilitation, in the form of rhythmic exercise to music, on the rheological characteristics of blood in older women. The study included 30 women (65-80 years of age), and the control group was comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month rehabilitation program, in the form of rhythmic exercise performed to music (three 30-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The rehabilitation program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, an improvement of erythrocyte deformability was observed by lower shear stress levels, while no significant changes were noted by the higher shear stress values. The rehabilitation resulted in a marked decrease of the aggregation amplitude while no significant changes were observed in aggregation index and total aggregation half-time. Additionally, the training regimen was reflected by a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in fibrinogen levels were noted.

  12. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  13. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003698.htm Renin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... renin test measures the level of renin in blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  14. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  15. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  16. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  17. Citrulline for urea cycle disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Ohura, Toshihiro; Endo, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    The amino acid l-citrulline is used as a therapeutic agent for urea cycle disorders (UCD) including ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency (CPSD), and N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency. There are few reports, however, on the use of l-citrulline in Japan and little consensus regarding the effects of l-citrulline. We conducted a questionnaire survey of patients undergoing l-citrulline treatment for a UCD to evaluate the current status of this therapy. The survey included patient background, details of l-citrulline treatment, clinical examination data, treatment, frequency of vomiting, and liver transplantation. We retrospectively investigated 43 questionnaire respondents (OTCD, n = 33; CPSD, n = 10). The weight of male OTCD patients improved by +0.79 SD, and the ammonia level decreased by a mean of 44.3 μmol/L in all patients. The protein intake of all patients and of male OTCD patients increased by 0.14 g/kg/day and 0.17 g/kg/day, respectively. l-Citrulline effectively reduced ammonia level, increased protein intake, and improved weight gain in UCD patients. l-Citrulline should be considered a standard therapy in OTCD and CPSD patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Urea utilization in growing lambs. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization quota of NPN and pure feed protein for body protein synthesis was calculated on the basis of N balance experiments with 15 N-labelled urea with the help of model concepts of a 3-pool model and its mathematical usage. In lambs weighing 13 kg the efficiency of amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis in the non-amino acid N pool was 64%. This results in a total utilization quota for NPN and pure protein in the ration of 40% and 60%, resp. Lambs weighing 27 kg showed an efficiency in amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis in the non-AA N pool of 77% and in the AA N pool of 60%. The total utilization quota of NPN was 47% and that of pure protein 56%. The pure protein in the ration was thus about twice as well utilized for total protein synthesis and for protein syntesis for crude protein retention as the NPN compounds in the ration. (author)

  19. Mechanochemical synthesis of thioureas, ureas and guanidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Štrukil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the recent progress in the synthesis of ureas, thioureas and guanidines by solid-state mechanochemical ball milling is highlighted. While the literature is abundant on their preparation in conventional solution environment, it was not until the advent of solvent-free manual grinding using a mortar and pestle and automated ball milling that new synthetic opportunities have opened. The mechanochemical approach not only has enabled the quantitative synthesis of (thioureas and guanidines without using bulk solvents and the generation of byproducts, but it has also been established as a means to develop "click-type" chemistry for these classes of compounds and the concept of small molecule desymmetrization. Moreover, mechanochemistry has been demonstrated as an effective tool in reaction discovery, with emphasis on the reactivity differences in solution and in the solid state. These three classes of organic compounds share some structural features which are reflected in their physical and chemical properties, important for application as organocatalysts and sensors. On the other hand, the specific and unique nature of each of these functionalities render (thioureas and guanidines as the key constituents of pharmaceuticals and other biologically active compounds.

  20. Relationship between blood manganese levels and children's attention, cognition, behavior, and academic performance--a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Yeni; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2013-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic at high concentrations. However, Mn is an essential element that can protect against oxidative damage; thus, extremely low levels of Mn might be harmful. Our aim was to examine whether either high or low environmental Mn exposure is related to academic and attention function development among school-aged children. This cross-sectional study included 1089 children 8-11 years of age living in five representative areas in South Korea. Blood Mn, blood lead, and urine cotinine were measured. We assessed IQ with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; attention with a computerized continuous performance test called the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Diagnostic System (ADS), the Korean version of the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the ADHD Rating Scale; academic functions with the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES); and emotional and behavioral problems with the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We further assessed the presence of ADHD using a highly structured diagnostic interview, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV). The median blood concentration of Mn was 14.14 µg/L. We observed a nonlinear association between the CCTT2 completion time and the CPT commission error (F=3.14, p=0.03 and F=4.05, p=0.01, respectively). We divided the data into three groups: lower (21.453 µg/L) and middle 90th percentile to determine whether a lack or overload of Mn could cause adverse effects. After adjusting for urine cotinine, blood lead, children's IQ, and other potential confounders, the high Mn group showed lower scores in thinking (B=-0.83, p=0.006), reading (B=-0.93, p=0.004), calculations (B=-0.72, p=0.005), and LQ (B=-4.06, p=0.006) in the LDES and a higher commission error in the CPT (B=8.02, p=0.048). The low Mn group showed lower color scores in the Stroop test (B=-3.24, p=0.040). We found that excess Mn in children is

  1. Highly sensitive urea sensing with ion-irradiated polymer foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Dietmar; Muñoz Hernandez, Gerardo; Alfonta, Lital

    2012-01-01

    Recently we prepared urea-sensors by attaching urease to the inner walls of etched ion tracks within thin polymer foil. Here, alternative track-based sensor configurations are examined where the enzyme remained in solution. The conductivities of systems consisting of two parallel irradiated polymer foils and confining different urea/urease mixtures in between were examined. The correlations between conductivity and urea concentration differed strongly for foils with unetched and etched tracks, which points at different sensing mechanisms – tentatively attributed to the adsorption of enzymatic reaction products on the latent track entrances and to the enhanced conductivity of reaction product-filled etched tracks, respectively. All examined systems enable in principle, urea sensing. They point at the possibility of sensor cascade construction for more sensitive or selective sensor systems.

  2. Habit modification of epsomite in the presence of urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingom, S.; Podder, J.; Narayana Kalkura, S.; Bocelli, G.

    2003-01-01

    The pure and urea doped epsomite (MgSO 4·7H 2O) crystals were grown at low temperature by the slow cooling technique. The effect of pH on the growth rate of pure MgSO 4·7H 2O was studied. It was found that the higher pH values increased the growth rate and the size of the crystals. The quantity of urea present in the doped magnesium sulphate crystals was estimated. The incorporation of urea into the mother solution was found to promote the growth rate. The habit of the crystals changed from orthorhombic to tetragonal. Further, there was an increase of microhardness of the crystals on doping of urea.

  3. Isocyanate leading to Guanidines/Urea derivatives formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 6. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides/ Isocyanate leading to Guanidines/Urea derivatives formation. JAYEETA BHATTACHARJEE MITALI SACHDEVA INDRANI BANERJEE TARUN K PANDA. Regular Article Volume 128 ...

  4. Deprotection of oximes using urea nitrate under microwave irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A new mild and efficient method for the cleavage of oximes to carbonyl compounds using readily available urea nitrate in acetonitrile-water (95 : 5), under microwave irradiation within 2 min, in good yields is reported.

  5. 77 FR 64464 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian... published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea... the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from Russia. See Solid Urea From...

  6. Urea levels in multiple supplement for lambs grazing on buffelgrass - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7829 Urea levels in multiple supplement for lambs grazing on buffelgrass - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7829

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Leal Teixeira de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present trial was to evaluate the intake of supplement dry matter, productive performance, carcass traits, and weight and yields of commercial meat cuts of lambs grazing on dormant buffelgrass pastures and receiving multiple supplementation containing different urea levels. Urea levels used were: 5, 8, 11 and 14% on dry matter. Thirty-six male lambs were used, nine animals per treatment, with 18.0 ± 2.0 kg initial body weight, distributed into four groups. The experimental design was completely randomized with nine replications. Urea levels in supplement did not influence productive performance, cold and hot carcass weight and yield and commercial meat cuts weight and yield (leg, shoulder, rib and brisket. Use of multiple supplements containing 11 and 14% of urea levels for lambs in dormant grazing pastures during the dry season may increase bioeconomic performance of this activity, as they promoted lower supplement intake and similar productive performance.The objective of present trial was to evaluate the intake of supplement dry matter, productive performance, carcass traits, and weight and yields of commercial meat cuts of lambs grazing on dormant buffelgrass pastures and receiving multiple supplementation containing different urea levels. Urea levels used were: 5, 8, 11 and 14% on dry matter. Thirty-six male lambs were used, nine animals per treatment, with 18.0 ± 2.0 kg initial body weight, distributed into four groups. The experimental design was completely randomized with nine replications. Urea levels in supplement did not influence productive performance, cold and hot carcass weight and yield and commercial meat cuts weight and yield (leg, shoulder, rib and brisket. Use of multiple supplements containing 11 and 14% of urea levels for lambs in dormant grazing pastures during the dry season may increase bioeconomic performance of this activity, as they promoted lower supplement intake and similar productive performance.

  7. Controlling Bleeding from Proximal and Coronary Ostial Anastomoses by Using Blood Cardioplegia Delivering Antegradely while Performing Bentall Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Şener

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bentall procedure is one of the valved conduit techniques which is used in the treatment of aortic valve diseases accompanied by ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection and it is used commonly around the world. In Bentall procedure, which is a complicated and long surgery, the rate of mortality and morbidity are not only related to the operation itself but also to the complications like major neurological events, myocardial damage and bleeding which take place during the intraoperative and postoperative period. Although the quantity and frequency of bleeding is declined with teflon strips and biological tissue glues, modifications of Bentall procedure are still an important problem. This study was conducted retrospectively with 48 patients in terms of early results of complication of bleeding caused specifically by proximal suture line and coronary ostium anastomosis lines controlled by the method of blood cardioplegia while performing Bentall procedure and supracoronary aort replacement in our clinic.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization, and Sensitivity Analysis of Urea Nitrate (UN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    determined. From the results of the study, UN is safe to store under normal operating conditions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS urea, nitrate , sensitivity, thermal ...HNO3). Due to its simple composition, ease of manufacture, and higher detonation parameters than ammonium nitrate , it has become one of the...an H50 value of 10.054 ± 0.620 inches. 5. Conclusions From the results of the thermal analysis study, it can be concluded that urea nitrate is

  9. INHIBITION OF SWARMING BY UREA AND ITS DIAGNOSTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-swarming property of urea and effects on antibiotic susceptibility among 52 uropathogenic Proteus strains from Lagos, Nigeria were investigated. Urea caused a reduction in swarming and number of swarmed cells at 0.5% (n = 42, DOCZ = 15.5mm), 0.75% (n= 24, DOCZ = 10.7mm), 1% (n = 17, DOCZ = 3.4mm) and ...

  10. Serum urea and creatinine levels in Nigerian human malaria patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum urea and creatinine levels were determined in malaria patients infected with P. falciparum. Serum urea levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) in both mild (4.10 ±1.10 mmol/L) and moderate (4.40 ±1.40 mmol/L) parasitaemia when compared to control subjects (5.50 ±1.40 mmol/L). On the other hand, serum ...

  11. Dynamic flow control strategies of vehicle SCR Urea Dosing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Zhang, Youtong; Asif, Malik

    2015-03-01

    Selective Catalyst Reduction(SCR) Urea Dosing System(UDS) directly affects the system accuracy and the dynamic response performance of a vehicle. However, the UDS dynamic response is hard to keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions. That will lead to low NO X conversion efficiency or NH3 slip. In order to optimize the injection accuracy and the response speed of the UDS in dynamic conditions, an advanced control strategy based on an air-assisted volumetric UDS is presented. It covers the methods of flow compensation and switching working conditions. The strategy is authenticated on an UDS and tested in different dynamic conditions. The result shows that the control strategy discussed results in higher dynamic accuracy and faster dynamic response speed of UDS. The inject deviation range is improved from being between -8% and 10% to -4% and 2% and became more stable than before, and the dynamic response time was shortened from 200 ms to 150 ms. The ETC cycle result shows that after using the new strategy the NH3 emission is reduced by 60%, and the NO X emission remains almost unchanged. The trade-off between NO X conversion efficiency and NH3 slip is mitigated. The studied flow compensation and switching working conditions can improve the dynamic performance of the UDS significantly and make the UDS dynamic response keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions quickly.

  12. The evaluation of right ventricular performance using krypton-81m multiple-gated equilibrium cardiac blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoi, Tsutomu

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-99m first pass angiography and multiple-gated equilibrium blood pool scintigraphy have been used for evaluating right ventricular performance, but both techniques have several methodologic limitations. The activity of kr-81m is exhaled during its transit through the lungs and residual activity in the left heart is negligible. Therefore, right heart study can be performed in the right anterior oblique position with optimal separation between the right ventricle and the right atrium. Thus, the author assessed right ventricular function using Kr-81m multiple-gated equilibrium cardiac blood pool scintigraphy in 40 patients with old myocardial infarction and 9 normal subjects. The patient group included 11 cases of inferior infarction with a significant stenosing lesion proximal to the origin of the right ventricular branch of the right coronary artery (group I), 11 cases of inferior infarction without a significant lesion in the proximal portion of the right coronary artery (group II) and 18 cases of anterior wall infarction (group III). The right ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was 45.6±9.8% in group I, 56.6±5.7% in group II, 55.6±4.4% in group III and 53.7±3.2% in the 9 normal subjects. There were no statistically significant differences among these 4 groups. However, right ventricular EF was significantly reduced in 5 group I patients who had hemodynamic evidence of right ventricular infarction (39.4±9.5%, P<0.01 vs group II, group III and normal subjects). No significant correlation was found between right and left ventricular EF or between right ventricular EF and wall motion abnormality of the interventricular septum. (author)

  13. Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Metabolism and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB on growth performance, nitrogen (N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters were investigated in 2 to 3 months old growing rabbits. A total of 150 growing rabbits of 2 months age were randomly divided into five groups according to average body weight, with 30 rabbits in each group. The DEB levels of the five experimental diets were −154, −3.16, +201, +347, and +500 meq/kg of dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a 7-d adaptation period and a 23-d experimental period. The results showed that the DEB levels had a quadratic affect on the average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.001. The greatest ADFI was achieved when the DEB level was +201 meq/kg DM. Fecal N (FN content linearly decreased (0.047, while digestible N (DN, retained N (RN, efficiency of intake N converted into digestible N (DN/IN and the efficiency of intake N converted into retained N (RN/IN linearly increased with the DEB increase (0.020, 0.004, 0.021, and 0.049, respectively. Serum phosphorus (P ion content linearly increased with the DEB increase (p = 0.036. The DEB had a quadratic relationship with serum anion gap (AG (p = 0.002 and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH content (p = 0.016. The DEB levels quadratically affected base excess (BE in the plasma (p<0.001. In conclusion, the DEB unaffected growth performance but affected feed intake, N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters of growing rabbits.

  14. The evolution of blood pressure and the rise of mankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Kevin; Kunter, Uta; Moeller, Marcus J

    2015-05-01

    Why is it that only human beings continuously perform acts of heroism? Looking back at our evolutionary history can offer us some potentially useful insight. This review highlights some of the major steps in our evolution-more specifically, the evolution of high blood pressure. When we were fish, the first kidney was developed to create a standardized internal 'milieu' preserving the primordial sea within us. When we conquered land as amphibians, the evolution of the lung required a low systemic blood pressure, which explains why early land vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles) are such low performers. Gaining independence from water required the evolution of an impermeable skin and a water-retaining kidney. The latter was accomplished twice with two different solutions in the two major branches of vertebrate evolution: mammals excrete nitrogenous waste products as urea, which can be utilized by the kidney as an osmotic agent to produce more concentrated urine. Dinosaurs and birds have a distinct nitrogen metabolism and excrete nitrogen as water-insoluble uric acid-therefore, their kidneys cannot use urea to concentrate as well. Instead, some birds have developed the capability to reabsorb water from their cloacae. The convergent development of a separate small circulation of the lung in mammals and birds allowed for the evolution of 'high blood-pressure animals' with better capillarization of the peripheral tissues allowing high endurance performance. Finally, we investigate why mankind outperforms any other mammal on earth and why, to this day, we continue to perform acts of heroism on our eternal quest for personal bliss. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin C on Growth Performance and Blood Components in Broiler Chickens under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeisi-Zeydabad S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 and vitamin C (VC on growth performance and blood biochemistry in broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. One of three levels of CoQ10 (0, 20, and 40 mg/kg of diet and one of two levels of VC (0 and 250 mg/kg of diet were supplemented to diets of chicks (from 1-42 d of age in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment had four replicate pens (10 chicks/pen. In order to create chronic heat stress, the house temperature was set at an ambient temperature of 35±2°C for 8 hrs daily (09:00 to 17:00 between 25-42 d of age. Feed intake, body weight gain (BWG, and feed to gain ratio (F:G were recorded at d 10, 25 and 42. At the end of experiment, two chicks/pen were randomly selected to assess blood components. CoQ10 supplementation improved BWG and F:G during 11-25 days, 26-42 days, and the whole period of the experiment (P < 0.05, while VC supplementation improved BWG and F:G only during 11-25 d of age. Blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were reduced (P < 0.05 by addition of CoQ10 to the diet. Both Supplementation of CoQ10 and VC together lowered heterophil (H count but increased lymphocyte (L count, thereby reducing H/L ratio (P < 0.05. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and T4 were positively affected by dietary supplementation of CoQ10 (P < 0.05, but no differences were obtained with addition of VC to the diet. In conclusion, our observations demonstrated that dietary supplementation of 40 mg/kg CoQ10 or 250 mg/kg VC improves the growth performance of broiler chickens under the heat stress.

  16. Urea-induced oxidative damage in Elodea densa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezda; Prasad, M N V

    2015-09-01

    Urea being a fertilizer is expected to be less toxic to plants. However, it was found that urea at 100 mg L(-1) caused the oxidative stress in Elodea leaves due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation that are known to stimulate antioxidant pathway. Urea at a concentration of 500 and 1000 mg L(-1) decreased low-molecular-weight antioxidants. In this case, the antioxidant status of plants was supported by the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. A significant increase in the soluble proteins and -SH groups was observed with high concentrations of urea (30-60 % of control). Thus, the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, low-molecular-weight antioxidants, and induced soluble protein thiols are implicated in plant resistance to oxidative stress imposed by urea. We found that guaiacol peroxidase plays an important role in the removal of the peroxide in Elodea leaves exposed to 1000 mg L(-1)of urea.

  17. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  18. Synthesis of propylene carbonate from urea and propylene glycol over zinc oxide: A homogeneous reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, several metal oxides and zinc salts were used to catalyze propylene carbonate (PC synthesis from urea and propylene glycol (PG. According to the results of catalytic test and characterization, the catalytic pattern of ZnO was different from that of other metal oxides such as CaO, MgO and La2O3, but similar to that of zinc salts. In fact, the leaching of Zn species took place during reaction for ZnO. And ZnO was found to be the precursor of homogenous catalyst for reaction of urea and PG. Thus, the relationship between the amount of dissolved zinc species and the catalytic performance of employed ZnO was revealed. In addition, a possible reaction mechanism over ZnO was discussed based on the catalytic runs and the characterization of XRD, FTIR, and element analysis.

  19. A methodological aspect of the 14C-urea breath test used in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopanski, Z.; Niziol, J.; Micherdzinski, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.; Cienciala, A.; Lasa, J.; Witkowska, B.

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of those investigations was optimisation of the performing time of the breath test with 14 C-labelled urea which reveals Helicobacter pylori infection. It was analysed 117 species, preselected according to endoscopy and histopathology results, 56 of them have suffered from chronic gastritis and 61 from gastric ulcer disease. Using microbiology diagnosis (culture + IFP test) it was found that 86 species were H. pylori infected. This group of patients were next subject to investigations with the breath test with 14 C-labelled urea. Measurements of radioactivity of breathe air have been carried out for 30 minutes. The obtained results allow us to maintain that the optimal time of duration of the test described above is 30 minutes. (author)

  20. Effect of extradural blockage upon glucose and urea kinetics in surgical patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.H.; Galler, L.; Holdaway, I.M.; Holdaway, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    We have determined the metabolic effects induced by the use of extradural blockage with 0.5 per cent bupivacaine hydrochloride in a group of surgical patients. Turnover rates of glucose and urea were determined isotopically using radioisotopes and studies were performed both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition. In the basal state, extradural blockade resulted in a decrease in the turnover rates of both glucose and urea. In addition, when extradural blockade was instituted while the patients were receiving total parenteral nutrition, there was also a significant fall in glucose turnover. We conclude that the use of extradural blockade is effective as a means of conserving bodily resources in surgical patients both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition.

  1. Incorporation of DPW, urea and fish meal with varying molasses levels in cattle feedlot rations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargaard, J.; Van Hierkerk, B.D.H.

    1977-01-01

    The 3 factors investigated consisted of 3 protein sources, 4 molasses levels, and vitamin A injections. Twelve animals were slaughtered to establish initial carcass mass and the remaining 120 animals were used in the feeding trial itself. Fish meal produced significantly superior rates of live plus carcass mass gain and feed conversion rates than either urea or artificially dried poultry (layer) manure (DPW). Urea, in turn gave significantly better results than DPW. The replacement of corn meal by molasses at the 7% and 14% levels, on a dry matter basis, had no effect on the criteria measured, but it caused a highly significant depression in animal performance at the 21% level of replacement. This confirms previous reports that corn and molasses have similar energy values, when expressed on a dry matter basis, provided the molasses inclusion does not exceed 14%. The vitamin A treatment had no effect on any of the criteria under investigation.

  2. Markov modeling and reliability analysis of urea synthesis system of a fertilizer plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anil Kr.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Vikram; Garg, Tarun Kr.

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the Markov modeling and reliability analysis of urea synthesis system of a fertilizer plant. This system was modeled using Markov birth-death process with the assumption that the failure and repair rates of each subsystem follow exponential distribution. The first-order Chapman-Kolmogorov differential equations are developed with the use of mnemonic rule and these equations are solved with Runga-Kutta fourth-order method. The long-run availability, reliability and mean time between failures are computed for various choices of failure and repair rates of subsystems of the system. The findings of the paper are discussed with the plant personnel to adopt and practice suitable maintenance policies/strategies to enhance the performance of the urea synthesis system of the fertilizer plant.

  3. Effect of extradural blockage upon glucose and urea kinetics in surgical patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, J.H.; Galler, L.; Holdaway, I.M.; Holdaway, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have determined the metabolic effects induced by the use of extradural blockage with 0.5 per cent bupivacaine hydrochloride in a group of surgical patients. Turnover rates of glucose and urea were determined isotopically using radioisotopes and studies were performed both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition. In the basal state, extradural blockade resulted in a decrease in the turnover rates of both glucose and urea. In addition, when extradural blockade was instituted while the patients were receiving total parenteral nutrition, there was also a significant fall in glucose turnover. We conclude that the use of extradural blockade is effective as a means of conserving bodily resources in surgical patients both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition

  4. GLUTAMINE AND HYPERAMMONEMIC CRISES IN PATIENTS WITH UREA CYCLE DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.; Diaz, G.A.; Rhead, W.; Lichter-Konecki, U.; Feigenbaum, A.; Berry, S.A.; Le Mons, C.; Bartley, J.; Longo, N.; Nagamani, S.C.; Berquist, W.; Gallagher, R.C.; Harding, C.O.; McCandless, S.E.; Smith, W.; Schulze, A.; Marino, M.; Rowell, R.; Coakley, D.F.; Mokhtarani, M.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    2016-01-01

    Blood ammonia and glutamine levels are used as biomarkers of control in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). This study was undertaken to evaluate glutamine variability and utility as a predictor of hyperammonemic crises (HACs) in UCD patients. Methods The relationships between glutamine and ammonia levels and the incidence and timing of HACs were evaluated in over 100 adult and pediatric UCD patients who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate. Results The median (range) intra-subject 24-hour coefficient of variation for glutamine was 15% (8–29%) as compared with 56% (28%–154%) for ammonia, and the correlation coefficient between glutamine and concurrent ammonia levels varied from 0.17 to 0.29. Patients with baseline (fasting) glutamine values >900 µmol/L had higher baseline ammonia levels (mean [SD]: 39.6 [26.2] µmol/L) than patients with baseline glutamine ≤900 µmol/L (26.6 [18.0] µmol/L). Glutamine values >900 µmol/L during the study were associated with an approximately 2-fold higher HAC risk (odds ratio [OR]=1.98; p=0.173). However, glutamine lost predictive significance (OR=1.47; p=0.439) when concomitant ammonia was taken into account, whereas the predictive value of baseline ammonia ≥ 1.0 upper limit of normal (ULN) was highly statistically significant (OR=4.96; p=0.013). There was no significant effect of glutamine >900 µmol/L on time to first HAC crisis (hazard ratio [HR]=1.14; p=0.813), but there was a significant effect of baseline ammonia ≥ 1.0 ULN (HR=4.62; p=0.0011). Conclusions The findings in this UCD population suggest that glutamine is a weaker predictor of HACs than ammonia and that the utility of the predictive value of glutamine will need to take into account concurrent ammonia levels. PMID:26586473

  5. Potentiometric urea biosensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/silica composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Tarushee; Kumar, D.; Singh, Nahar; Biradar, A.M.; Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    A novel potentiometric urea biosensor has been fabricated with urease (Urs) immobilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) embedded in silica matrix deposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass plate. The enzyme Urs was covalently linked with the exposed free -COOH groups of functionalized MWCNTs (F-MWCNTs), which are subsequently incorporated within the silica matrix by sol-gel method. The Urs/MWCNTs/SiO 2 /ITO composite modified electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The morphologies and electrochemical performance of the modified Urs/MWCNTs/SiO 2 /ITO electrode have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and potentiometric method, respectively. The synergistic effect of silica matrix, F-MWCNTs and biocompatibility of Urs/MWCNTs/SiO 2 made the biosensor to have the excellent electro catalytic activity and high stability. The resulting biosensor exhibits a good response performance to urea detection with a wide linear range from 2.18 x 10 -5 to 1.07 x 10 -3 M urea. The biosensor shows a short response time of 10-25 s and a high sensitivity of 23 mV/decade/cm 2 .

  6. Effects of curative treatment emphasizing endurance training on the performance and blood pressure of hypertensive and normotensives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worms, F.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of normal values of blood pressure after exercise taking into account the blood pressure at the end of the exercise test is discussed. Hypertensives showed a lower working capacity than normotensives. In normotensives, however, systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise correlated well with the working capacity. After the endurance cure submaximal blood pressure was markedly lower in hypertensives with a striking dependence on the level of initial values. Systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise test was not changed significantly. Most probably it is not possible to overcome this malregulation in hypertensives by endurance training alone.

  7. Hyperpolarized 13C-Urea MRI for the assessment of the urea gradient in the porcine kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Stewart, Neil James; Wild, Jim Michael

    Renal anatomical and pathophysiological alterations are directly associated with the fluid and electrolyte balance in the kidney, which is regulated by the extracellular corticomedullary osmolality gradient. We introduce a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to monitor...... treatment resulted in an increased urea accumulation in the cortical space. This work demonstrates intra-renal functional assessment with hyperpolarized 13C-urea MRI in multi-papillary kidneys....

  8. Effect of sodium chloride intake on urine volume, urinary urea excretion, and milk urea concentration in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) has been shown to be related to excretion of urinary urea N (UUN; g of N/d) and total excretion of urinary N (UN; g of N/d) in dairy cows. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that MUN and the relationship between MUN and UUN or UN is affected by urine

  9. A new generation of high flex life polyurethane urea for polymer heart valve--studies on in vivo biocompatibility and biodurability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vinoy; Jayabalan, Muthu

    2009-04-01

    Development of new generation high flex life polyurethane urea (HFL18-PU) with appropriate elastic modulus, biocompatibility, blood compatibility, resistant to calcification, and biodurability for the long-term use as cardiac device is still a challenge. This study reports the development of a fully aliphatic, ether-free physically cross-linked and low elastic modulus (6.841 +/- 0.27 MPa) polyurethane urea having in vivo biostability, in vivo biocompatibility and high flex-life (721 +/- 30 million cycles) that can satisfy the requirements for the fabrication of tri-leaflet heart valve. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Analysis of performance of a PCR-based assay to detect DNA of Aspergillus fumigatus in whole blood and serum: a comparative study with clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Gago, Sara; Buitrago, María J; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    The performance of a real-time PCR-based assay was retrospectively analyzed (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group criteria) in the samples of patients with invasive aspergillosis. A total of 711 serial samples (356 whole-blood and 355 serum samples) from 38 adult patients were analyzed. The Aspergillus fumigatus PCR assay results were positive for 89 of 356 (25%) whole-blood samples and 90 of 355 (25.35%) serum samples. Positive PCR results were seen in 29 of 31 (93.5%) patients for which serum was analyzed and in 31 of 33 (93.9%) cases with whole-blood specimens. Both blood and serum samples were available in 26 cases, and significant differences were not observed in this subgroup of cases. The average number of threshold cycles (C(T)) for positive blood samples was 37.6, and the average C(T) for serum was 37.4. The DNA concentration ranged between 2 and 50 fg per μl of sample, with average DNA concentrations of 10.2 and 11.7 fg in positive blood and serum samples, respectively (P > 0.01). The performance of this PCR-based quantitative assay was similar for both serum and blood samples. We recommend serum samples as the most convenient hematological sample to use for Aspergillus DNA quantification when serial determinations are done.

  11. Efectividad de la pomada de urea en las verrugas plantares Effectiveness of the urea ointment in the feet warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Chacón Eduardo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un ensayo clinicoterapéutico en 60 pacientes atendidos en la consulta de Dermatología del Hospital Provincial Docente “Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany” de Santiago de Cuba, durante el 2008, con el fin evaluar la efectividad de la pomada de urea en las verrugas plantares. Se conformaron 2 grupos (de estudio y control: los primeros recibieron pomada de urea al 20 % y los segundos pomada salicílica al 40 %. La pomada de urea resultó más eficaz para eliminar las manifestaciones clínicas de esa lesión, en un período de 6 a 8 semanas y no hubo reacciones adversas.A clinical therapeutical trial was made in 60 patients assisted at the Dermatology department of "Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany" Teaching Provincial Hospital from Santiago de Cuba, during 2008, aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the urea ointment in the feet warts. They conformed to 2 groups (study and control: the first group received urea ointment at 20% and the second one salicylic ointment at 40%. The urea ointment was more effective to eliminate the clinical manifestations of that lesion, in a period of 6 to 8 weeks and there were not adverse reactions.

  12. Virtual Resting Pd/Pa From Coronary Angiography and Blood Flow Modelling: Diagnostic Performance Against Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafaklis, Michail I; Muramatsu, Takashi; Ishibashi, Yuki; Bourantas, Christos V; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Garcia-Garcia, Héctor M; Escaned, Javier; Serruys, Patrick W; Michalis, Lampros K

    2018-03-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has been established as a useful diagnostic tool. The distal coronary pressure to aortic pressure (Pd/Pa) ratio at rest is a simpler physiologic index but also requires the use of the pressure wire, whereas recently proposed virtual functional indices derived from coronary imaging require complex blood flow modelling and/or are time-consuming. Our aim was to test the diagnostic performance of virtual resting Pd/Pa using routine angiographic images and a simple flow model. Three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) was performed in 139 vessels (120 patients) with intermediate lesions assessed by FFR. The resting Pd/Pa for each lesion was assessed by computational fluid dynamics. The discriminatory power of virtual resting Pd/Pa against FFR (reference: ≤0.80) was high (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve [AUC]: 90.5% [95% CI: 85.4-95.6%]). Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the optimal virtual resting Pd/Pa cut-off (≤0.94) were 84.9%, 90.4% and 81.6%, respectively. Virtual resting Pd/Pa demonstrated superior performance (pvirtual resting Pd/Pa and FFR (r=0.69, pVirtual resting Pd/Pa using routine angiographic data and a simple flow model provides fast functional assessment of coronary lesions without requiring the pressure-wire and hyperaemia induction. The high diagnostic performance of virtual resting Pd/Pa for predicting FFR shows promise for using this simple/fast virtual index in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical composition of solar dried blood and the ruminal content and its effect on performance of Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyotiprabha; Abraham, Robinson J J; Rao, V Appa; Rajini, R Asha; Mishra, B P; Sarangi, N R

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the chemical composition of solar dried blood and rumen content (DBRC) and further ascertain the concentration at which DBRC could be included in Japanese quail diets without any adverse effect on its performance. Feeding trial on the effect of DBRC on performance of Japanese quails was studied up to 5 weeks. 252 numbers of day old (Nandanam Type III breed) Japanese quails were purchased from Poultry Research Station, Madhavaram and divided into 7 batches (control+ six treatments) each consisting of 36 birds. The DBRC was included at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% in diets as control, treatment-1 (T1), treatment-2 (T2), treatment-3 (T3), treatment-4 (T4), treatment-5 (T5) and treatment-6 (T6) respectively in a completely randomized design to replace soybean meal in Japanese quail feed. The birds were provided with ad-labidum feed and drinking water ad-libitum during the entire experimental period. The crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ether extract (EE) and ash contents of DBRC were 35.87%, 17.40%, 3.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The amount of essential amino acids and non-essential amino acid content were found to be 12.98 and 4.87 (g/100 g of feed) respectively in DBRC feed. Result showed that all birds fed DBRC diets performed better than the control group. Mortality was unaffected by dietary treatments. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) observed in weight gain in treatment groups compared to the control. Up to 30% DBRC could be incorporated in the diets of Japanese quails without any adverse effects on its performance.

  14. Performance of modified blood pressure-to-height ratio for identifying hypertension in Chinese and American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Chuanwei; Yang, Lili; Bovet, Pascal; Xi, Bo

    2018-04-06

    Blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) has been reported to perform well for identifying hypertension (HTN) in adolescents but not in young children. Our study was aimed to evaluate the performance of BPHR and modified BPHR (MBPHR) for screening HTN in children. A total of 5268 Chinese children (boys: 53.1%) aged 6-12 years and 5024 American children (boys: 48.1%) aged 8-12 years were included in the present study. BPHR was calculated as BP/height (mmHg/cm). MBPHR7 was calculated as BP/(height + 7*(13-age)). MBPHR3 was calculated as BP/(height + 3*(13-age)). We used receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis to assess the performance of the three ratios for identifying HTN in children as compared to the 2017 U.S. clinical guideline as the "gold standard". The prevalence of HTN in Chinese and American children was 9.4% and 5.4%, respectively, based on the 2017 U.S. guideline. The AUC was larger for MBPHR3 than BPHR and MBPHR7. All three ratios had optimal negative predictive value (~100%). The positive predictive value (PPV) was higher for MBPHR3 than BPHR in both Chinese (43.9% vs. 37.9%) and American (39.1% vs. 26.3%) children. In contrast, the PPV was higher for MBPHR7 than BPHR in Chinese children (47.4% vs. 37.9%) but not in American children (24.8% vs. 26.3%). In summary, MBPHR3 overall performed better than MBPHR7 and BPHR for identifying HTN in children. However, the three ratios had low PPV (<50%) as compared to the 2017 U.S. guidelines, which makes these ratios of limited use for HTN screening in children.

  15. SUPPLEMENTATION OF COFFEE HUSK FERMENTED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus: EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD PROFILE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES INFECTED GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of coffee husk fermented with P.ostreatus as a natural anthelmintic supplement by measuring the performance and blood profile of goat suffered gastrointestinal nematodes infection. Eighteen local male goats of Kacang goat with body weight of 9.23 ± 1.71 kg and aged at ± 10 months were arranged into three treatments in completely randomized design. The treatments were T0 (group without chemical anthelmintic treatment and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk, T1 (without chemical anthelmintic treatment, but supplied with fermented coffee husk and T2 (group with chemical anthelmintic and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk. All goats were offered a basal diet in the ratio of 60% natural grasses along with 40% concentrate. Fermented coffee husk was added in the diet as much as 6% from the dry matter need. The result showed that there were no significant effect to dry matter intake, daily weight gain, PCV value and eosinophil counts (P>0.05. The supplementation of fermented coffee husk (T1 enhanced Hb and red blood cell (RBC value (P<0.05 while no significant difference to T2. There were no nematodes infection in T1 and T2 with the eggs count were zero while the animals in T0 were still infected. This result indicated that fermented coffee husk can be used as a promising natural anthelmintic supplement with the improvement of Hb value, RBC, egg counts and daily weight gain.

  16. Performance characteristics of a novel blood bag in-line closure device and subsequent product quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Katherine; Levin, Elena; Culibrk, Brankica; Weiss, Sandra; Scammell, Ken; Boecker, Wolfgang F; Devine, Dana V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND In high-volume processing environments, manual breakage of in-line closures can result in repetitive strain injury (RSI). Furthermore, these closures may be incorrectly opened causing shear-induced hemolysis. To overcome the variability of in-line closure use and minimize RSI, Fresenius Kabi developed a new in-line closure, the CompoFlow, with mechanical openers. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The consistency of the performance of the CompoFlow closure device was assessed, as was its effect on component quality. A total of 188 RBC units using CompoFlow blood bag systems and 43 using the standard bag systems were produced using the buffy coat manufacturing method. Twenty-six CompoFlow platelet (PLT) concentrates and 10 control concentrates were prepared from pools of four buffy coats. RBCs were assessed on Days 1, 21, and 42 for cellular variables and hemolysis. PLTs were assessed on Days 1, 3, and 7 for morphology, CD62P expression, glucose, lactate, and pH. A total of 308 closures were excised after processing and the apertures were measured using digital image analysis. RESULTS The use of the CompoFlow device significantly improved the mean extraction time with 0.46 ± 0.11 sec/mL for the CompoFlow units and 0.52 ± 0.13 sec/mL for the control units. The CompoFlow closures showed a highly reproducible aperture after opening (coefficient of variation, 15%) and the device always remained opened. PLT and RBC products showed acceptable storage variables with no differences between CompoFlow and control. CONCLUSIONS The CompoFlow closure devices improved the level of process control and processing time of blood component production with no negative effects on product quality. PMID:20529007

  17. Ventricular emptying performance in patients with tetralogy of Fallot; Assessment with Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kan; Maeda, Hisato; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Tsunao; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Matsuda, Akira (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Comparison of emptying patterns between left and right ventricles (LV, RV) was performed with Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool data in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TF). Using global time-activity curves, the phase and amplitude at the first-harmonic component of Fourier series were calculated and emptying patterns of both ventricles were evaluated by phase difference {l brace}D(phase)=RV phase minus LV phase{r brace} and RV/LV amplitude ratio {l brace}R(amp){r brace}. In 20 patients with normal cardiac function, D(phase) was minimal (mean 2.0{plus minus}6.6 degrees) and R(amp) was less than 1.0 (mean 0.60{plus minus}0.19). In 11 patients with TF, D(phase) was significantly larger than normal, with a mean value of 24.3{plus minus}10.0 degrees (p<0.01) and became greater in a reversed proportion to the ratio of the pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow (p<0.01). In all but one cases with TF, R(amp) was greater than 1.0 with a mean value of 1.4{plus minus}0.4, significantly larger than normal (p<0.001). Furthermore, using time-activity curves approximated by terms up to the 3rd-harmonic component, the temporal difference in emptying patterns between both ventricles was investigated. In TF cases, the time from end-diastole to minimum count (T2) was significantly larger in RV than in LV (p<0.001). The elongated T2 interval of RV seemed to play an important role in producing RV phase lag. Thus, this non-invasive method is valuable for pathophysiologic investigation of patients with TF and can be of help in estimating the severity of their disease. (author).

  18. Usefulness of Dried Blood Spots (DBS) to perform hepatitis C virus genotyping in drug users in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, O; Gozlan, J; Diop-Ndiaye, H; Sall, A S; Chapelain, S; Leprêtre, A; Maynart, M; Gueye, M; Lo, G; Thiam, M; Ba, I; Lacombe, K; Girard, P M; Mboup, S; Kane, C T

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotypes circulating in Senegal among Drug User (DUs), using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) as RNA source for molecular assays. Heroin and/or cocaine users (n = 506) were recruited in Dakar from April to July 2011, using a Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method. DBS preparation consisted of five drops of whole blood from finger applied to a Whatman paper card. HCV infection was screened by the detection of anti-HCV antibodies, using a rapid immune-chromatographic test. HCV RNA was quantified on anti-HCV positive DBS, using the Abbott RealTime HCV® Genotyping was performed on DBS with detectable viral load with Versant® HCV Genotype 2.0 Assay (LiPA) and Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay®. Among the 506 participants, 120 were tested as positive for anti-HCV antibodies and their samples were analyzed for HCV RNA viral load and genotype. Out of the 120 DBS tested, HCV RNA was detected on 25 (20.8%). The median viral load was 15,058 IU/ml (ranging from 710 to 766,740 IU/ml). All positive DBS were suitable for the genotyping assay, that showed a predominance of genotype 1 (21/25) including 16 genotypes 1a and 5 genotypes 1b. HCV genotype 1 prevails in a DU population in Dakar. DBS could be useful for HCV RNA genotyping, but optimal storage conditions should required avoiding RNA impairment. Acknowledging this limitation, DBS could be a great interest for detecting and genotyping HCV viremic patients. J. Med. Virol. 89:484-488, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of dietary Centella asiatica (L.) Urban on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood composition in piglets vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneewan, Chamroon; Mekbungwan, Apichai; Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Yamauchi, Kohsho; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of Centella asiatica (L.) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood composition in piglets, 32 nursery pigs were fed 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% dietary C. asiatica (L.) from 15 to 90 kg BW. At 30 kg BW, nutrient digestibility was measured and at 35 kg BW piglets were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Hematological parameters were checked at 40 and 80 kg BW. Compared with the control, growth performance was not affected. The ether extract, ash and calcium digestibility were lower at 0.5%, and dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, phosphorus and energy digestibility were lower at 1.0% (Phyopneumoniae did not differ except that at 40 kg the cholesterol of 0.5% was lower (Phyopneumoniae-specific antibodies tended to be higher with increasing levels of C. asiatica (L.) (Pmycoplasma immunity to M. hyopneumoniae might suggest that C. asiatica (L.) has no function to elevate body weight but has the potential to enhance innate immunity. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Clinical investigation of 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongli; Zhu Ruisen; Ji Hong; Luo Quanyong

    2000-01-01

    To investigate clinical value of 14 C-urea breath test ( 14 C-UBT) for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori(Hp), 70 patients were both performed gastroscopy (taking gastric mucosae biopsy for rapid urease test and histology) and 14 C-UBT (some patients by Hp-IgG or DNAHp test also) within two days. The positive cases of both rapid urease test and histology was defined as 'gold standard' of Hp-positive, whereas the negative cases of both rapid urease test and histology as 'gold standard' of Hp-negative. The sensitivity of 14 C-UBT was 93.2%, the specificity 73.1%, and the diagnostic accuracy 85.7%. The difference (comparing with 'gold standard') was not marked (x 2 = 0.9 0.05(1) 2 = 3.84, P>0.05). But the diagnostic accuracy of 14 C-UBT (85.7%) and Hp-IgG (50%) had a marked difference (x 2 13.80>x 0.01(1) 2 = 6.64, P 14 C-UBT was easy to operate, reliable and suitable for clinical application