WorldWideScience

Sample records for performance based adjustment

  1. Energy-Saving Performance of Flap-Adjustment-Based Centrifugal Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genglin Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper mainly focuses on finding a more appropriate way to enhance the fan performance at off-design conditions. The centrifugal fan (CF based on flap-adjustment (FA has been investigated through theoretical, experimental, and finite element methods. To obtain a more predominant performance of CF from the different adjustments, we carried out a comparative analysis on FA and leading-adjustment (LA in aerodynamic performances, which included the adjusted angle of blades, total pressure, efficiency, system-efficiency, adjustment-efficiency, and energy-saving rate. The contribution of this paper is the integrated performance curve of the CF. Finally, the results showed that the effects of FA and LA on economic performance and energy savings of the fan varied with the blade angles. Furthermore, FA was feasible, which is more sensitive than LA. Moreover, the CF with FA offered a more extended flow-range of high economic characteristic in comparison with LA. Finally, when the operation flow-range extends, energy-saving rate of the fan with FA would have improvement.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Electronic Inductor-Based Adjustable Speed Drives with Respect to Line Current Interharmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Inductor (EI)-based front-end rectifiers have a large potential to become the prominent next generation of Active Front End (AFE) topology used in many applications including Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) for systems having unidirectional power flow. The EI-based ASD is mostly...... attractive due to its improved harmonic performance compared to a conventional ASD. In this digest, the input currents of the EI-based ASD are investigated and compared with the conventional ASDs with respect to interharmonics, which is an emerging power quality topic. First, the main causes...... of the interharmonic distortions in the ASD applications are analyzed under balanced and unbalanced load conditions. Thereafter, the key role of the EI at the DC stage is investigated in terms of high impedance and current harmonics transfer. Obtained experiments and simulations for both EI-based and conventional ASD...

  3. Performance evaluation of inpatient service in Beijing: a horizontal comparison with risk adjustment based on Diagnosis Related Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Weiyan; Huang, Yinmin; Hu, Mu; Zhang, Xiumei

    2009-04-30

    The medical performance evaluation, which provides a basis for rational decision-making, is an important part of medical service research. Current progress with health services reform in China is far from satisfactory, without sufficient regulation. To achieve better progress, an effective tool for evaluating medical performance needs to be established. In view of this, this study attempted to develop such a tool appropriate for the Chinese context. Data was collected from the front pages of medical records (FPMR) of all large general public hospitals (21 hospitals) in the third and fourth quarter of 2007. Locally developed Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) were introduced as a tool for risk adjustment and performance evaluation indicators were established: Charge Efficiency Index (CEI), Time Efficiency Index (TEI) and inpatient mortality of low-risk group cases (IMLRG), to reflect respectively work efficiency and medical service quality. Using these indicators, the inpatient services' performance was horizontally compared among hospitals. Case-mix Index (CMI) was used to adjust efficiency indices and then produce adjusted CEI (aCEI) and adjusted TEI (aTEI). Poisson distribution analysis was used to test the statistical significance of the IMLRG differences between different hospitals. Using the aCEI, aTEI and IMLRG scores for the 21 hospitals, Hospital A and C had relatively good overall performance because their medical charges were lower, LOS shorter and IMLRG smaller. The performance of Hospital P and Q was the worst due to their relatively high charge level, long LOS and high IMLRG. Various performance problems also existed in the other hospitals. It is possible to develop an accurate and easy to run performance evaluation system using Case-Mix as the tool for risk adjustment, choosing indicators close to consumers and managers, and utilizing routine report forms as the basic information source. To keep such a system running effectively, it is necessary to

  4. Premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Marshall L; Mavrolefteros, George; Close, David

    2002-01-01

    To examine the relationship between premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological deficit in schizophrenia, this report examined retrospective ratings of social and school adjustment during three age epochs (childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) as predictors of neurocognitive performance in 61 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized schizophrenia outpatients. Results indicated greater cognitive deficits when premorbid adjustment was unfavorable, particularly for measures of attention and executive functions. Premorbid number and quality of peer relationships and psychosocial adaptation to the school environment were more closely related to neuropsychological performance during adulthood than were premorbid withdrawal and premorbid academic performance. Early onset of poor premorbid adjustment rather than deterioration from childhood to adolescence was associated with greater neuropsychological disturbance in adulthood. It is suggested that childhood onset of premorbid deficits in selective areas of social and academic adjustment appears to influence the cognitive performance seen in adult schizophrenia. This study is consistent with findings from other related reports; it extends these findings to a larger and clinically stabilized sample.

  5. Adjusting the specificity of an engine map based on the sensitivity of an engine control parameter relative to a performance variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-10-28

    Methods and systems for engine control optimization are provided. A first and a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected. An initial value is identified for a first and a second engine control parameter corresponding to a combination of the detected operating conditions according to a first and a second engine map look-up table. The initial values for the engine control parameters are adjusted based on a detected engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target value. A first and a second sensitivity of the engine performance variable are determined in response to changes in the engine control parameters. The first engine map look-up table is adjusted when the first sensitivity is greater than a threshold, and the second engine map look-up table is adjusted when the second sensitivity is greater than a threshold.

  6. Risk adjustment of health-care performance measures in a multinational register-based study: A pragmatic approach to a complicated topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tron Anders Moger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health-care performance comparisons across countries are gaining popularity. In such comparisons, the risk adjustment methodology plays a key role for meaningful comparisons. However, comparisons may be complicated by the fact that not all participating countries are allowed to share their data across borders, meaning that only simple methods are easily used for the risk adjustment. In this study, we develop a pragmatic approach using patient-level register data from Finland, Hungary, Italy, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Data on acute myocardial infarction patients were gathered from health-care registers in several countries. In addition to unadjusted estimates, we studied the effects of adjusting for age, gender, and a number of comorbidities. The stability of estimates for 90-day mortality and length of stay of the first hospital episode following diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction is studied graphically, using different choices of reference data. Logistic regression models are used for mortality, and negative binomial models are used for length of stay. Results: Results from the sensitivity analysis show that the various models of risk adjustment give similar results for the countries, with some exceptions for Hungary and Italy. Based on the results, in Finland and Hungary, the 90-day mortality after acute myocardial infarction is higher than in Italy, Norway, and Sweden. Conclusion: Health-care registers give encouraging possibilities to performance measurement and enable the comparison of entire patient populations between countries. Risk adjustment methodology is affected by the availability of data, and thus, the building of risk adjustment methodology must be transparent, especially when doing multinational comparative research. In that case, even basic methods of risk adjustment may still be valuable.

  7. Enhancing the performance of blue GaN-based light emitting diodes with carrier concentration adjusting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yao; Huang, Yang; Wang, Junxi; Wang, Guohong [R& D Center for Semiconductor Lighting, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083,P. R. China (China); Liu, Zhiqiang, E-mail: lzq@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: spring@semi.ac.cn; Yi, Xiaoyan, E-mail: lzq@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: spring@semi.ac.cn; Li, Jinmin [R& D Center for Semiconductor Lighting, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083,P. R. China (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid State Lighting, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center for the 3rd Generation Semiconductor Materials and Application, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, a novel carrier concentration adjusting insertion layer for InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes was proposed to mitigate the efficiency droop and improve optical output properties at high current density. The band diagrams and carrier distributions were investigated numerically and experimentally. The results indicate that due to the newly formed electron barrier and the adjusted built-in field near the active region, the hole injection has been improved and a better radiative recombination can be achieved. Compared to the conventional LED, the light output power of our new structure with the carrier concentration adjusting layers is enhanced by 127% at 350 mA , while the efficiency only droops to be 88.2% of its peak efficiency.

  8. The Persistence of Risk-Adjusted Mutual Fund Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Elton, Edwin J; Gruber, Martin J; Blake, Christopher R

    1996-01-01

    The authors examine predictability for stock mutual funds using risk-adjusted returns. They find that past performance is predictive of future risk-adjusted performance. Applying modern portfolio theory techniques to past data improves selection and allows the authors to construct a portfolio of funds that significantly outperforms a rule based on past rank alone. In addition, they can form a combination of actively managed portfolios with the same risk as a portfolio of index funds but with ...

  9. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  10. On performing of interference technique based on self-adjusting Zernike filters (SA-AVT method) to investigate flows and validate 3D flow numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Al. A.; Shevchenko, A. M.; Khotyanovsky, D. V.; Pavlov, A. A.; Shmakov, A. S.; Golubev, M. P.

    2017-10-01

    We present a method for and results of determination of the field of integral density in the structure of flow corresponding to the Mach interaction of shock waves at Mach number M = 3. The optical diagnostics of flow was performed using an interference technique based on self-adjusting Zernike filters (SA-AVT method). Numerical simulations were carried out using the CFS3D program package for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Quantitative data on the distribution of integral density on the path of probing radiation in one direction of 3D flow transillumination in the region of Mach interaction of shock waves were obtained for the first time.

  11. Measurement Of Shariah Stock Performance Using Risk Adjusted Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhairan Y Yunan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the shariah stock performance using risk adjusted performance method. There are three parameters to measure the stock performance i.e. Sharpe, Treynor, and Jensen. This performance’s measurements calculate the return and risk factor from shariah stocks. The data that used on this research is using the data of stocks at Jakarta Islamic Index. Sampling method that used on this paper is purposive sampling. This research is using ten companies as a sample. The result shows that from three parameters, the stock that have a best performance are AALI, ANTM, ASII, CPIN, INDF, KLBF, LSIP, and UNTR.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i1.1364

  12. Risk-adjusted payment and performance assessment for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Arlene S; Ellis, Randall P

    2012-08-01

    Many wish to change incentives for primary care practices through bundled population-based payments and substantial performance feedback and bonus payments. Recognizing patient differences in costs and outcomes is crucial, but customized risk adjustment for such purposes is underdeveloped. Using MarketScan's claims-based data on 17.4 million commercially insured lives, we modeled bundled payment to support expected primary care activity levels (PCAL) and 9 patient outcomes for performance assessment. We evaluated models using 457,000 people assigned to 436 primary care physician panels, and among 13,000 people in a distinct multipayer medical home implementation with commercially insured, Medicare, and Medicaid patients. Each outcome is separately predicted from age, sex, and diagnoses. We define the PCAL outcome as a subset of all costs that proxies the bundled payment needed for comprehensive primary care. Other expected outcomes are used to establish targets against which actual performance can be fairly judged. We evaluate model performance using R(2)'s at patient and practice levels, and within policy-relevant subgroups. The PCAL model explains 67% of variation in its outcome, performing well across diverse patient ages, payers, plan types, and provider specialties; it explains 72% of practice-level variation. In 9 performance measures, the outcome-specific models explain 17%-86% of variation at the practice level, often substantially outperforming a generic score like the one used for full capitation payments in Medicare: for example, with grouped R(2)'s of 47% versus 5% for predicting "prescriptions for antibiotics of concern." Existing data can support the risk-adjusted bundled payment calculations and performance assessments needed to encourage desired transformations in primary care.

  13. Anticipatory synergy adjustments reflect individual performance of feedforward force control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Shunta; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2016-10-06

    We grasp and dexterously manipulate an object through multi-digit synergy. In the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis, multi-digit synergy is defined as the coordinated control mechanism of fingers to stabilize variable important for task success, e.g., total force. Previous studies reported anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) that correspond to a drop of the synergy index before a quick change of the total force. The present study compared ASA's properties with individual performances of feedforward force control to investigate a relationship of those. Subjects performed a total finger force production task that consisted of a phase in which subjects tracked target line with visual information and a phase in which subjects produced total force pulse without visual information. We quantified their multi-digit synergy through UCM analysis and observed significant ASAs before producing total force pulse. The time of the ASA initiation and the magnitude of the drop of the synergy index were significantly correlated with the error of force pulse, but not with the tracking error. Almost all subjects showed a significant increase of the variance that affected the total force. Our study directly showed that ASA reflects the individual performance of feedforward force control independently of target-tracking performance and suggests that the multi-digit synergy was weakened to adjust the multi-digit movements based on a prediction error so as to reduce the future error. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. University support, motivation to learn, emotional adjustment, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanti, T.I.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Setiadi, B.N.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine relationships between university support and academic performance, as mediated by motivation to learn and emotional adjustment among freshmen of X University. Data were collected from 327 X University's freshmen at the end of their first year. Results

  15. Performance of an Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschalk, Stephen C; Kangas, Kenneth; Spencer, Cherrill M; Volk, James T

    2005-01-01

    An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic centerline and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic centerline stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic centerline. Calibration procedures as well as centerline measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.

  16. The risk-adjusted performance of companies with female directors: A South African case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkhethwa Mkhize

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to examine the effects of female directors on the risk-adjusted performance of firms listed on the JSE Securities Exchange of South Africa (the JSE. The theoretical underpinning for the relationship between representation of female directors and the risk-adjusted performance of companies was based on institutional theory. The hypothesis that there is no difference between the risk-adjusted performance of companies with female directors and that of companies without female directors was rejected. Implications of the results are discussed and suggestions for future research presented.

  17. Aqua/Aura Updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver Performance Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver (IAM) performance prediction model that was developed for Aqua and Aura following the 2017 IAM series. This updated model uses statistical regression methods to identify potential long-term trends in maneuver parameters, yielding improved predictions when re-planning past maneuvers. The presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager.

  18. Neither here, nor there: impression management does not predict expatriate adjustment and job performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANNAH JACKSON FOLDES

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Social desirability scale scores reflect substantive individual differences related to personality. The objective of the current study was to examine whether social desirability, and impression management specifically (a component of social desirability, is predictive of adjustment and job performance for expatriates. Based on theoretical considerations, it was proposed that impression management might be linked to expatriate job performance in a predictive and mediated relationship through adjustment. Job performance ratings provided by host country national co-workers were obtained for 308 expatriates on assignment in Turkey. Expatriates responded to a measure of personality and cross cultural adjustment. It was found that impression management scale scores were not related to either adjustment or job performance. These results are discussed in the broader context of research on social desirability, expatriate job performance, and expatriate research in general.

  19. Ants avoid superinfections by performing risk-adjusted sanitary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Matthias; Pull, Christopher D; Metzler, Sina; Seif, Katharina; Naderlinger, Elisabeth; Grasse, Anna V; Cremer, Sylvia

    2018-03-13

    Being cared for when sick is a benefit of sociality that can reduce disease and improve survival of group members. However, individuals providing care risk contracting infectious diseases themselves. If they contract a low pathogen dose, they may develop low-level infections that do not cause disease but still affect host immunity by either decreasing or increasing the host's vulnerability to subsequent infections. Caring for contagious individuals can thus significantly alter the future disease susceptibility of caregivers. Using ants and their fungal pathogens as a model system, we tested if the altered disease susceptibility of experienced caregivers, in turn, affects their expression of sanitary care behavior. We found that low-level infections contracted during sanitary care had protective or neutral effects on secondary exposure to the same (homologous) pathogen but consistently caused high mortality on superinfection with a different (heterologous) pathogen. In response to this risk, the ants selectively adjusted the expression of their sanitary care. Specifically, the ants performed less grooming and more antimicrobial disinfection when caring for nestmates contaminated with heterologous pathogens compared with homologous ones. By modulating the components of sanitary care in this way the ants acquired less infectious particles of the heterologous pathogens, resulting in reduced superinfection. The performance of risk-adjusted sanitary care reveals the remarkable capacity of ants to react to changes in their disease susceptibility, according to their own infection history and to flexibly adjust collective care to individual risk.

  20. Lifespan changes in global and selective stopping and performance adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Van De Laar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined stopping and performance adjustments in four age groups (M ages: 8, 12, 21, and 76 years. All participants performed on three tasks, a standard two-choice task and the same task in which stop-signal trials were inserted requiring either the suppression of the response activated by the choice stimulus (global stop task or the suppression of the response when one stop signal was presented but not when the other stop signal occurred (selective stop task. The results showed that global stopping was faster than selective stopping in all age groups. Global stopping matured more rapidly than selective stopping. The developmental gain in stopping was considerably more pronounced compared to the loss observed during senescence. All age groups slowed the response on trials without a stop signal in the stop task compared to trials in the choice task, the elderly in particular. In addition, all age groups slowed on trials following stop-signal trials, except the elderly who did not slow following successful inhibits. By contrast, the slowing following failed inhibits was disproportionally larger in the elderly compared to young adults. Finally, sequential effects did not alter the pattern of performance adjustments. The results were interpreted in terms of developmental change in the balance between proactive and reactive control.

  1. Lifespan Changes in Global and Selective Stopping and Performance Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Laar, Maria C.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; van Boxtel, Geert J. M.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined stopping and performance adjustments in four age groups (M ages: 8, 12, 21, and 76 years). All participants performed on three tasks, a standard two-choice task and the same task in which stop-signal trials were inserted requiring either the suppression of the response activated by the choice stimulus (global stop task) or the suppression of the response when one stop-signal was presented but not when the other stop-signal occurred (selective stop task). The results showed that global stopping was faster than selective stopping in all age groups. Global stopping matured more rapidly than selective stopping. The developmental gain in stopping was considerably more pronounced compared to the loss observed during senescence. All age groups slowed the response on trials without a stop-signal in the stop task compared to trials in the choice task, the elderly in particular. In addition, all age groups slowed on trials following stop-signal trials, except the elderly who did not slow following successful inhibits. By contrast, the slowing following failed inhibits was disproportionally larger in the elderly compared to young adults. Finally, sequential effects did not alter the pattern of performance adjustments. The results were interpreted in terms of developmental change in the balance between proactive and reactive control. PMID:22180746

  2. Improving the Performances of Random Copolymer Based Organic Solar Cells by Adjusting the Film Features of Active Layers Using Mixed Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel random copolymer based on donor–acceptor type polymers containing benzodithiophene and dithienosilole as donors and benzothiazole and diketopyrrolopyrrole as acceptors was designed and synthesized by Stille copolymerization, and their optical, electrochemical, charge transport, and photovoltaic properties were investigated. This copolymer with high molecular weight exhibited broad and strong absorption covering the spectra range from 500 to 800 nm with absorption maxima at around 750 nm, which would be very conducive to obtaining large short-circuits current densities. Unlike the general approach using single solvent to prepare the active layer film, mixed solvents were introduced to change the film feature and improve the morphology of the active layer, which lead to a significant improvement of the power conversion efficiency. These results indicate that constructing random copolymer with multiple donor and acceptor monomers and choosing proper mixed solvents to change the characteristics of the film is a very promising way for manufacturing organic solar cells with large current density and high power conversion efficiency.

  3. Risk-adjusted Outcomes of Clinically Relevant Pancreatic Fistula Following Pancreatoduodenectomy: A Model for Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Matthew T; Soi, Sameer; Asbun, Horacio J; Ball, Chad G; Bassi, Claudio; Beane, Joal D; Behrman, Stephen W; Berger, Adam C; Bloomston, Mark; Callery, Mark P; Christein, John D; Dixon, Elijah; Drebin, Jeffrey A; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-Del; Fisher, William E; Fong, Zhi Ven; House, Michael G; Hughes, Steven J; Kent, Tara S; Kunstman, John W; Malleo, Giuseppe; Miller, Benjamin C; Salem, Ronald R; Soares, Kevin; Valero, Vicente; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Vollmer, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate surgical performance in pancreatoduodenectomy using clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) occurrence as a quality indicator. Accurate assessment of surgeon and institutional performance requires (1) standardized definitions for the outcome of interest and (2) a comprehensive risk-adjustment process to control for differences in patient risk. This multinational, retrospective study of 4301 pancreatoduodenectomies involved 55 surgeons at 15 institutions. Risk for CR-POPF was assessed using the previously validated Fistula Risk Score, and pancreatic fistulas were stratified by International Study Group criteria. CR-POPF variability was evaluated and hierarchical regression analysis assessed individual surgeon and institutional performance. There was considerable variability in both CR-POPF risk and occurrence. Factors increasing the risk for CR-POPF development included increasing Fistula Risk Score (odds ratio 1.49 per point, P ratio 3.30, P performance outliers were identified at the surgeon and institutional levels. Of the top 10 surgeons (≥15 cases) for nonrisk-adjusted performance, only 6 remained in this high-performing category following risk adjustment. This analysis of pancreatic fistulas following pancreatoduodenectomy demonstrates considerable variability in both the risk and occurrence of CR-POPF among surgeons and institutions. Disparities in patient risk between providers reinforce the need for comprehensive, risk-adjusted modeling when assessing performance based on procedure-specific complications. Furthermore, beyond inherent patient risk factors, surgical decision-making influences fistula outcomes.

  4. Parallax adjustment algorithm based on Susan-Zernike moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zhang, Kun; Shen, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Huiyun

    2018-02-01

    Precise parallax detection through definition evaluation and the adjustment of the assembly position of the objective lens or the reticle are important means of eliminating the parallax of the telescope system, so that the imaging screen and the reticle are clearly focused at the same time. An adaptive definition evaluation function based on Susan-Zernike moments is proposed. First, the image is preprocessed by the Susan operator to find the potential boundary edge. Then, the Zernike moments operator is used to determine the exact region of the reticle line with sub-pixel accuracy. The image definition is evaluated only in this related area. The evaluation function consists of the gradient difference calculated by the Zernike moments operator. By adjusting the assembly position of the objective lens, the imaging screen and the reticle will be simultaneously in the state of maximum definition, so the parallax can be eliminated. The experimental results show that the definition evaluation function proposed in this paper has the advantages of good focusing performance, strong anti-interference ability compared with the other commonly used definition evaluation functions.

  5. Health-Based Capitation Risk Adjustment in Minnesota Public Health Care Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Gregory A.; Edwards, Kevan R.; Knutson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This article documents the history and implementation of health-based capitation risk adjustment in Minnesota public health care programs, and identifies key implementation issues. Capitation payments in these programs are risk adjusted using an historical, health plan risk score, based on concurrent risk assessment. Phased implementation of capitation risk adjustment for these programs began January 1, 2000. Minnesota's experience with capitation risk adjustment suggests that: (1) implementation can accelerate encounter data submission, (2) administrative decisions made during implementation can create issues that impact payment model performance, and (3) changes in diagnosis data management during implementation may require changes to the payment model. PMID:25372356

  6. Neither here, nor there: impression management does not predict expatriate adjustment and job performance

    OpenAIRE

    HANNAH JACKSON FOLDES; DENIZ S. ONES; HANDAN KEPIR SINANGIL

    2006-01-01

    Social desirability scale scores reflect substantive individual differences related to personality. The objective of the current study was to examine whether social desirability, and impression management specifically (a component of social desirability), is predictive of adjustment and job performance for expatriates. Based on theoretical considerations, it was proposed that impression management might be linked to expatriate job performance in a predictive and mediated relationship through ...

  7. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Cheng Chiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA, which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods.

  8. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  9. AUTOMATIC ADJUSTMENT OF WIDE-BASE GOOGLE STREET VIEW PANORAMAS

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    E. Boussias-Alexakis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issue of sparse matching in cases of extremely wide-base panoramic images such as those acquired by Google Street View in narrow urban streets. In order to effectively use affine point operators for bundle adjustment, panoramas must be suitably rectified to simulate affinity. To this end, a custom piecewise planar projection (triangular prism projection is applied. On the assumption that the image baselines run parallel to the street façades, the estimated locations of the vanishing lines of the façade plane allow effectively removing projectivity and applying the ASIFT point operator on panorama pairs. Results from comparisons with multi-panorama adjustment, based on manually measured image points, and ground truth indicate that such an approach, if further elaborated, may well provide a realistic answer to the matching problem in the case of demanding panorama configurations.

  10. Engine control system having fuel-based adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Martin L [Dunlap, IL; Fiveland, Scott B [Metamora, IL; Montgomery, David T [Edelstein, IL; Gong, Weidong [Dunlap, IL

    2011-03-15

    A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve configured to affect a fluid flow of the cylinder, an actuator configured to move the engine valve, and an in-cylinder sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of a characteristic of fuel entering the cylinder. The control system also has a controller in communication with the actuator and the sensor. The controller is configured to determine the characteristic of the fuel based on the signal and selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve based on the characteristic of the fuel.

  11. Size-Adjustable Microdroplets Generation Based on Microinjection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microinjection is a promising tool for microdroplet generation, while the microinjection for microdroplets generation still remains a challenging issue due to the Laplace pressure at the micropipette opening. Here, we apply a simple and robust substrate-contacting microinjection method to microdroplet generation, presenting a size-adjustable microdroplets generation method based on a critical injection (CI model. Firstly, the micropipette is adjusted to a preset injection pressure. Secondly, the micropipette is moved down to contact the substrate, then, the Laplace pressure in the droplet is no longer relevant and the liquid flows out in time. The liquid constantly flows out until the micropipette is lifted, ending the substrate-contacting situation, which results in the recovery of the Laplace pressure at the micropipette opening, and the liquid injection is terminated. We carry out five groups of experiments whereupon 1600 images are captured within each group and the microdroplet radius of each image is detected. Then we determine the relationship among microdroplet radius, radius at the micropipette opening, time, and pressure, and, two more experiments are conducted to verify the relationship. To verify the effectiveness of the substrate-contacting method and the relationship, we conducted two experiments with six desired microdroplet radii are set in each experiment, by adjusting the injection time with a given pressure, and adjusting the injection pressure with a given time. Then, six arrays of microdroplets are obtained in each experiment. The results of the experiments show that the standard errors of the microdroplet radii are less than 2% and the experimental errors fall in the range of ±5%. The average operating speed is 20 microdroplets/min and the minimum radius of the microdroplets is 25 μm. This method has a simple experimental setup that enables easy manipulation and lower cost.

  12. NDVI saturation adjustment: a new approach for improving cropland performance estimates in the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Daniel M.; Phuyal, Khem P.; Ji, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new approach that adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pixel values that were near saturation to better characterize the cropland performance (CP) in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB), USA. The relationship between NDVI and the ratio vegetation index (RVI) at high NDVI values was investigated, and an empirical equation for estimating saturation-adjusted NDVI (NDVIsat_adjust) based on RVI was developed. A 10-year (2000–2009) NDVIsat_adjust data set was developed using 250-m 7-day composite historical eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. The growing season averaged NDVI (GSN), which is a proxy for ecosystem performance, was estimated and long-term NDVI non-saturation- and saturation-adjusted cropland performance (CPnon_sat_adjust, CPsat_adjust) maps were produced over the GPRB. The final CP maps were validated using National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) crop yield data. The relationship between CPsat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.78, 113 samples) is stronger than the relationship between CPnon_sat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.67, 113 samples), indicating that the new CPsat_adjust map reduces the NDVI saturation effects and is in good agreement with the corn yield ground observations. Results demonstrate that the NDVI saturation adjustment approach improves the quality of the original GSN map and better depicts the actual vegetation conditions of the GPRB cropland systems.

  13. Public Reporting of Primary Care Clinic Quality: Accounting for Sociodemographic Factors in Risk Adjustment and Performance Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Douglas R; Finch, Michael; Kreiger, Rob; Reeves, David

    2018-01-03

    Performance measurement and public reporting are increasingly being used to compare clinic performance. Intended consequences include quality improvement, value-based payment, and consumer choice. Unintended consequences include reducing access for riskier patients and inappropriately labeling some clinics as poor performers, resulting in tampering with stable care processes. Two analytic steps are used to maximize intended and minimize unintended consequences. First, risk adjustment is used to reduce the impact of factors outside providers' control. Second, performance categorization is used to compare clinic performance using risk-adjusted measures. This paper examines the effects of methodological choices, such as risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors in risk adjustment and accounting for patients clustering by clinics in performance categorization, on clinic performance comparison for diabetes care, vascular care, asthma, and colorectal cancer screening. The population includes all patients with commercial and public insurance served by clinics in Minnesota. Although risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors has a significant effect on quality, it does not explain much of the variation in quality. In contrast, taking into account the nesting of patients within clinics in performance categorization has a substantial effect on performance comparison.

  14. Bullying, psychosocial adjustment, and academic performance in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, Gwen M; Fan, Ming-Yu; Katon, Wayne; Rivara, Frederick P; Kernic, Mary A

    2005-11-01

    Over the past decade, concerns about bullying and its role in school violence, depression, and health concerns have grown. However, no large studies in the United States have examined the prevalence of bullying during elementary school or its association with objective measures of school attendance and achievement. To determine the prevalence of bullying during elementary school and its association with school attendance, academic achievement, disciplinary actions, and self-reported feelings of sadness, safety, and belonging. Cross-sectional study using 2001-2002 school data. Urban, West Coast public school district. Three thousand five hundred thirty (91.4%) third, fourth, and fifth grade students. Self-reported involvement in bullying. Twenty-two percent of children surveyed were involved in bullying either as a victim, bully, or both. Victims and bully-victims were more likely to have low achievement than bystanders (odds ratios [ORs], 0.8 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-0.9] and 0.8 [95% CI, 0.6-1.0], respectively). All 3 bullying-involved groups were significantly more likely than bystanders to feel unsafe at school (victims, OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.1-4.2]; bullies, OR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.5-4.1]; bully-victims, OR, 5.0 [95% CI, 1.9-13.6]). Victims and bully-victims were more likely to report feeling that they don't belong at school (ORs, 4.1 [95% CI, 2.6-6.5] and 3.1 [95% CI, 1.3-7.2], respectively). Bullies and victims were more likely than bystanders to feel sad most days (ORs 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2-1.9] and 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2-2.8], respectively). Bullies and bully-victims were more likely to be male (ORs, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2-1.9] and 3.0 [95% CI, 1.3-7.0], respectively). The prevalence of frequent bullying among elementary school children is substantial. Associations between bullying involvement and school problems indicate this is a serious issue for elementary schools. The research presented herein demonstrates the need for evidence-based antibullying curricula in the

  15. Consequences of self-handicapping: effects on coping, academic performance, and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, M; Kieffer, S C; Knee, C R

    1998-06-01

    Self-handicappers erect impediments to performance to protect their self-esteem. The impediments may interfere with the ability to do well and, as such, may result in poor adjustment. Using a longitudinal design, the present studies examined prospective effects of self-handicapping on coping, academic performance, and several adjustment-related variables (e.g., self-esteem). It was found that, compared to low self-handicappers, high self-handicappers reported higher usage of coping strategies implying withdrawal and negative focus. High self-handicappers performed less well academically, an effect that was mediated in part by poor study habits. Finally, high self-handicapping resulted in poorer adjustment over time, and poorer adjustment resulted in higher self-handicapping over time. These relations are consistent with the idea of a vicious cycle in which self-handicapping and poor adjustment reinforce one another.

  16. Preliminary assessment of adjuster system performance in CANDU-6 RUFIC core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Young; Suk, Ho Chun

    2002-07-01

    Four operational transients in CANDU-6 RUFIC core have been simulated to assess the adjuster system performance. These transients included startup after a short shutdown, startup after a poison-out shutdown, shim mode operation, and a stepback to 60% full power. Also, an alternative adjuster-banking scheme has been assessed in this report. The alternative adjuster-banking scheme involves rods in Bank 1 and Bank 7 being re-distributed within the two banks. In the alternative adjuster-banking scheme, Bank 1 becomes the heaviest one. The results of the preliminary assessment indicated that the adjuster system as currently designed and installed in the NU core will adequately meet the functional requirements in the RUFIC core. Comparing to the adjuster system performance in the NU core, the total worth of the adjuster in the RUFIC core is reduced, leading to less xenon override capability and shimming capability. However, the overall performance is expected to still be satisfactory. The overall results from the transient studied indicated that the alternative banking scheme does show some better performance characteristics and merits further detailed studies

  17. Ensemble of trees approaches to risk adjustment for evaluating a hospital's performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Traskin, Mikhail; Lorch, Scott A; George, Edward I; Small, Dylan

    2015-03-01

    A commonly used method for evaluating a hospital's performance on an outcome is to compare the hospital's observed outcome rate to the hospital's expected outcome rate given its patient (case) mix and service. The process of calculating the hospital's expected outcome rate given its patient mix and service is called risk adjustment (Iezzoni 1997). Risk adjustment is critical for accurately evaluating and comparing hospitals' performances since we would not want to unfairly penalize a hospital just because it treats sicker patients. The key to risk adjustment is accurately estimating the probability of an Outcome given patient characteristics. For cases with binary outcomes, the method that is commonly used in risk adjustment is logistic regression. In this paper, we consider ensemble of trees methods as alternatives for risk adjustment, including random forests and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART). Both random forests and BART are modern machine learning methods that have been shown recently to have excellent performance for prediction of outcomes in many settings. We apply these methods to carry out risk adjustment for the performance of neonatal intensive care units (NICU). We show that these ensemble of trees methods outperform logistic regression in predicting mortality among babies treated in NICU, and provide a superior method of risk adjustment compared to logistic regression.

  18. Controlling chaos based on an adaptive adjustment mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the ideas and techniques developed by Huang [Huang W. Stabilizing nonlinear dynamical systems by an adaptive adjustment mechanism. Phys Rev E 2000;61:R1012-5] for controlling discrete-time chaotic system using adaptive adjustment mechanism to continuous-time chaotic system. Two control approaches, namely adaptive adjustment mechanism (AAM) and modified adaptive adjustment mechanism (MAAM), are investigated. In both case sufficient conditions for the stabilization of chaotic systems are given analytically. The simulation results on Chen chaotic system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed techniques

  19. Color adjustable LED driver design based on PWM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiying; Yu, Caideng; Que, Longcheng; Zhou, Yun; Lv, Jian

    2012-10-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) is a liquid cold source light source that rapidly develops in recent years. The merits of high brightness efficiency, long duration, high credibility and no pollution make it satisfy our demands for consumption and natural life, and gradually replace the traditional lamp-house-incandescent light and fluorescent light. However, because of the high cost and unstable drive circuit, the application range is restricted. To popularize the applications of the LED, we focus on improving the LED driver circuit to change this phenomenon. Basing on the traditional LED drive circuit, we adopt pre-setup constant current model and introduce pulse width modulation (PWM) control method to realize adjustable 256 level-grays display. In this paper, basing on human visual characteristics and the traditional PWM control method, we propose a new PWM control timing clock to alter the duty cycle of PWM signal to realize the simple gamma correction. Consequently, the brightness can accord with our visual characteristics.

  20. Case-mix adjustment and the comparison of community health center performance on patient experience measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M Laura; Rodriguez, Hector P; Solorio, M Rosa

    2010-06-01

    To assess the effect of case-mix adjustment on community health center (CHC) performance on patient experience measures. A Medicaid-managed care plan in Washington State collected patient survey data from 33 CHCs over three fiscal quarters during 2007-2008. The survey included three composite patient experience measures (6-month reports) and two overall ratings of care. The analytic sample includes 2,247 adult patients and 2,859 adults reporting for child patients. We compared the relative importance of patient case-mix adjusters by calculating each adjuster's predictive power and variability across CHCs. We then evaluated the impact of case-mix adjustment on the relative ranking of CHCs. Important case-mix adjusters included adult self-reported health status or parent-reported child health status, adult age, and educational attainment. The effects of case-mix adjustment on patient reports and ratings were different in the adult and child samples. Adjusting for race/ethnicity and language had a greater impact on parent reports than adult reports, but it impacted ratings similarly across the samples. The impact of adjustment on composites and ratings was modest, but it affected the relative ranking of CHCs. To ensure equitable comparison of CHC performance on patient experience measures, reports and ratings should be adjusted for adult self-reported health status or parent-reported child health status, adult age, education, race/ethnicity, and survey language. Because of the differential impact of case-mix adjusters for child and adult surveys, initiatives should consider measuring and reporting adult and child scores separately.

  1. Regression Trees Identify Relevant Interactions: Can This Improve the Predictive Performance of Risk Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Florian; Wasem, Jürgen; Schillo, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Risk equalization formulas have been refined since their introduction about two decades ago. Because of the complexity and the abundance of possible interactions between the variables used, hardly any interactions are considered. A regression tree is used to systematically search for interactions, a methodologically new approach in risk equalization. Analyses are based on a data set of nearly 2.9 million individuals from a major German social health insurer. A two-step approach is applied: In the first step a regression tree is built on the basis of the learning data set. Terminal nodes characterized by more than one morbidity-group-split represent interaction effects of different morbidity groups. In the second step the 'traditional' weighted least squares regression equation is expanded by adding interaction terms for all interactions detected by the tree, and regression coefficients are recalculated. The resulting risk adjustment formula shows an improvement in the adjusted R 2 from 25.43% to 25.81% on the evaluation data set. Predictive ratios are calculated for subgroups affected by the interactions. The R 2 improvement detected is only marginal. According to the sample level performance measures used, not involving a considerable number of morbidity interactions forms no relevant loss in accuracy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Adjustable wideband reflective converter based on cut-wire metasurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linbo; Zhou, Peiheng; Chen, Haiyan; Lu, Haipeng; Xie, Jianliang; Deng, Longjiang

    2015-01-01

    We present the design, analysis, and measurement of a broadband reflective converter using a cut-wire (CW) metasurface. Based on the characteristics of LC resonances, the proposed reflective converter can rotate a linearly polarized (LP) wave into its cross-polarized wave at three resonance frequencies, or convert the LP wave to a circularly polarized (CP) wave at two other resonance frequencies. Furthermore, the broad-band properties of the polarization conversion can be sustained when the incident wave is a CP wave. The polarization states can be adjusted easily by changing the length and width of the CW. The measured results show that a polarization conversion ratio (PCR) over 85% can be achieved from 6.16 GHz to 16.56 GHz for both LP and CP incident waves. The origin of the polarization conversion is interpreted by the theory of microwave antennas, with equivalent impedance and electromagnetic (EM) field distributions. With its simple geometry and multiple broad frequency bands, the proposed converter has potential applications in the area of selective polarization control. (paper)

  3. design and implementation of a microcontroller-based adjustable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    1, DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA ... ICs, to design a user friendly charger circuit that manually adjusts the voltage .... the multivibrator integrated circuit does it.

  4. Adjustable ETHD lubrication applied to the improvement of dynamic performance of flexible rotors supported by active TPJB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the dynamic study of a flexible rotor-bearing test rig which resembles a large overhung centrifugal compressor. The rotor is supported by an active tilting pad journal bearing (TPJB) able to perform the adjustable lubrication regime. Such a regime is obtained by injecting...... pressurized oil directly into the bearing clearance through a nozzle placed in a radial bore at the middle of the pad and connected to a high pressure supply unit by servovalves. The theoretical model is based on a finite element model, where the active TPJB with adjustable lubrication is included using...... and the experimental results are obtained. The improvements are obtained when the system response amplitudes in a bounded speed range is reduced by applying the adjustable lubrication. Results are in agreement with the established fact that a significant improvement of the rotor-bearing system dynamic performance can...

  5. Base Station Performance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  6. Data analysis-based autonomic bandwidth adjustment in software defined multi-vendor optical transport networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Xiaosong; Jing, Ruiquan

    2017-11-27

    Network operators generally provide dedicated lightpaths for customers to meet the demand for high-quality transmission. Considering the variation of traffic load, customers usually rent peak bandwidth that exceeds the practical average traffic requirement. In this case, bandwidth provisioning is unmetered and customers have to pay according to peak bandwidth. Supposing that network operators could keep track of traffic load and allocate bandwidth dynamically, bandwidth can be provided as a metered service and customers would pay for the bandwidth that they actually use. To achieve cost-effective bandwidth provisioning, this paper proposes an autonomic bandwidth adjustment scheme based on data analysis of traffic load. The scheme is implemented in a software defined networking (SDN) controller and is demonstrated in the field trial of multi-vendor optical transport networks. The field trial shows that the proposed scheme can track traffic load and realize autonomic bandwidth adjustment. In addition, a simulation experiment is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. We also investigate the impact of different parameters on autonomic bandwidth adjustment. Simulation results show that the step size and adjustment period have significant influences on bandwidth savings and packet loss. A small value of step size and adjustment period can bring more benefits by tracking traffic variation with high accuracy. For network operators, the scheme can serve as technical support of realizing bandwidth as metered service in the future.

  7. Diagnosis-Based Risk Adjustment for Medicare Capitation Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P.; Pope, Gregory C.; Iezzoni, Lisa I.; Ayanian, John Z.; Bates, David W.; Burstin, Helen; Ash, Arlene S.

    1996-01-01

    Using 1991-92 data for a 5-percent Medicare sample, we develop, estimate, and evaluate risk-adjustment models that utilize diagnostic information from both inpatient and ambulatory claims to adjust payments for aged and disabled Medicare enrollees. Hierarchical coexisting conditions (HCC) models achieve greater explanatory power than diagnostic cost group (DCG) models by taking account of multiple coexisting medical conditions. Prospective models predict average costs of individuals with chronic conditions nearly as well as concurrent models. All models predict medical costs far more accurately than the current health maintenance organization (HMO) payment formula. PMID:10172666

  8. Singularity-sensitive gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment methods for urban hydrological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-P. Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment techniques have been widely used to improve the applicability of radar rainfall estimates to large-scale hydrological modelling. However, their use for urban hydrological applications is limited as they were mostly developed based upon Gaussian approximations and therefore tend to smooth off so-called "singularities" (features of a non-Gaussian field that can be observed in the fine-scale rainfall structure. Overlooking the singularities could be critical, given that their distribution is highly consistent with that of local extreme magnitudes. This deficiency may cause large errors in the subsequent urban hydrological modelling. To address this limitation and improve the applicability of adjustment techniques at urban scales, a method is proposed herein which incorporates a local singularity analysis into existing adjustment techniques and allows the preservation of the singularity structures throughout the adjustment process. In this paper the proposed singularity analysis is incorporated into the Bayesian merging technique and the performance of the resulting singularity-sensitive method is compared with that of the original Bayesian (non singularity-sensitive technique and the commonly used mean field bias adjustment. This test is conducted using as case study four storm events observed in the Portobello catchment (53 km2 (Edinburgh, UK during 2011 and for which radar estimates, dense rain gauge and sewer flow records, as well as a recently calibrated urban drainage model were available. The results suggest that, in general, the proposed singularity-sensitive method can effectively preserve the non-normality in local rainfall structure, while retaining the ability of the original adjustment techniques to generate nearly unbiased estimates. Moreover, the ability of the singularity-sensitive technique to preserve the non-normality in rainfall estimates often leads to better reproduction of the urban

  9. Singularity-sensitive gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment methods for urban hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-P.; Ochoa-Rodríguez, S.; Onof, C.; Willems, P.

    2015-09-01

    Gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment techniques have been widely used to improve the applicability of radar rainfall estimates to large-scale hydrological modelling. However, their use for urban hydrological applications is limited as they were mostly developed based upon Gaussian approximations and therefore tend to smooth off so-called "singularities" (features of a non-Gaussian field) that can be observed in the fine-scale rainfall structure. Overlooking the singularities could be critical, given that their distribution is highly consistent with that of local extreme magnitudes. This deficiency may cause large errors in the subsequent urban hydrological modelling. To address this limitation and improve the applicability of adjustment techniques at urban scales, a method is proposed herein which incorporates a local singularity analysis into existing adjustment techniques and allows the preservation of the singularity structures throughout the adjustment process. In this paper the proposed singularity analysis is incorporated into the Bayesian merging technique and the performance of the resulting singularity-sensitive method is compared with that of the original Bayesian (non singularity-sensitive) technique and the commonly used mean field bias adjustment. This test is conducted using as case study four storm events observed in the Portobello catchment (53 km2) (Edinburgh, UK) during 2011 and for which radar estimates, dense rain gauge and sewer flow records, as well as a recently calibrated urban drainage model were available. The results suggest that, in general, the proposed singularity-sensitive method can effectively preserve the non-normality in local rainfall structure, while retaining the ability of the original adjustment techniques to generate nearly unbiased estimates. Moreover, the ability of the singularity-sensitive technique to preserve the non-normality in rainfall estimates often leads to better reproduction of the urban drainage system

  10. Improving behavioral performance under full attention by adjusting response criteria to changes in stimulus predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Steffen; Treue, Stefan; Busse, Laura

    2012-09-04

    One of the key features of active perception is the ability to predict critical sensory events. Humans and animals can implicitly learn statistical regularities in the timing of events and use them to improve behavioral performance. Here, we used a signal detection approach to investigate whether such improvements in performance result from changes of perceptual sensitivity or rather from adjustments of a response criterion. In a regular sequence of briefly presented stimuli, human observers performed a noise-limited motion detection task by monitoring the stimulus stream for the appearance of a designated target direction. We manipulated target predictability through the hazard rate, which specifies the likelihood that a target is about to occur, given it has not occurred so far. Analyses of response accuracy revealed that improvements in performance could be accounted for by adjustments of the response criterion; a growing hazard rate was paralleled by an increasing tendency to report the presence of a target. In contrast, the hazard rate did not affect perceptual sensitivity. Consistent with previous research, we also found that reaction time decreases as the hazard rate grows. A simple rise-to-threshold model could well describe this decrease and attribute predictability effects to threshold adjustments rather than changes in information supply. We conclude that, even under conditions of full attention and constant perceptual sensitivity, behavioral performance can be optimized by dynamically adjusting the response criterion to meet ongoing changes in the likelihood of a target.

  11. Adjusted Wald Confidence Interval for a Difference of Binomial Proportions Based on Paired Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Douglas G.; Price, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Adjusted Wald intervals for binomial proportions in one-sample and two-sample designs have been shown to perform about as well as the best available methods. The adjusted Wald intervals are easy to compute and have been incorporated into introductory statistics courses. An adjusted Wald interval for paired binomial proportions is proposed here and…

  12. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  13. Effects of Individual Characteristics on Expatriates' Adjustment and Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have been focusing on the predictors of expatriates' adjustment and job performance at different levels (individual level, organizational level and societal level), but still some of the predictors have been ignored or unclear in the expatriate literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework…

  14. "Effect of Anxiety Reduction on Children's School Performance and Social Adjustment": Correction to Wood (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Effect of anxiety reduction on children's school performance and social adjustment" by Jeffrey Wood (Developmental Psychology, 2006[Mar], Vol 42[2], 345-349). The byline and author note should have included the author's middle initial, J. Thus, the byline and author note should refer to "Jeffrey J. Wood." The correction is…

  15. Adjustment to University and Academic Performance: Brief Report of a Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Il-haam; Louw, Johann; Dumont, Kitty; Malope, Nomxolisi

    2010-01-01

    This study presents data that extend an earlier analysis of predictors of academic performance from one to three years. None of the adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help-seeking, academic motivation, self-esteem, perceived stress and perceived academic overload) could predict success at university at the end of three years of study.…

  16. Spoken language identification based on the enhanced self-adjusting extreme learning machine approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiun, Sabrina; AL-Dhief, Fahad Taha; Sammour, Mahmoud A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Spoken Language Identification (LID) is the process of determining and classifying natural language from a given content and dataset. Typically, data must be processed to extract useful features to perform LID. The extracting features for LID, based on literature, is a mature process where the standard features for LID have already been developed using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Shifted Delta Cepstral (SDC), the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ending with the i-vector based framework. However, the process of learning based on extract features remains to be improved (i.e. optimised) to capture all embedded knowledge on the extracted features. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is an effective learning model used to perform classification and regression analysis and is extremely useful to train a single hidden layer neural network. Nevertheless, the learning process of this model is not entirely effective (i.e. optimised) due to the random selection of weights within the input hidden layer. In this study, the ELM is selected as a learning model for LID based on standard feature extraction. One of the optimisation approaches of ELM, the Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (SA-ELM) is selected as the benchmark and improved by altering the selection phase of the optimisation process. The selection process is performed incorporating both the Split-Ratio and K-Tournament methods, the improved SA-ELM is named Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (ESA-ELM). The results are generated based on LID with the datasets created from eight different languages. The results of the study showed excellent superiority relating to the performance of the Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine LID (ESA-ELM LID) compared with the SA-ELM LID, with ESA-ELM LID achieving an accuracy of 96.25%, as compared to the accuracy of SA-ELM LID of only 95.00%. PMID:29672546

  17. Spoken language identification based on the enhanced self-adjusting extreme learning machine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albadr, Musatafa Abbas Abbood; Tiun, Sabrina; Al-Dhief, Fahad Taha; Sammour, Mahmoud A M

    2018-01-01

    Spoken Language Identification (LID) is the process of determining and classifying natural language from a given content and dataset. Typically, data must be processed to extract useful features to perform LID. The extracting features for LID, based on literature, is a mature process where the standard features for LID have already been developed using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Shifted Delta Cepstral (SDC), the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ending with the i-vector based framework. However, the process of learning based on extract features remains to be improved (i.e. optimised) to capture all embedded knowledge on the extracted features. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is an effective learning model used to perform classification and regression analysis and is extremely useful to train a single hidden layer neural network. Nevertheless, the learning process of this model is not entirely effective (i.e. optimised) due to the random selection of weights within the input hidden layer. In this study, the ELM is selected as a learning model for LID based on standard feature extraction. One of the optimisation approaches of ELM, the Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (SA-ELM) is selected as the benchmark and improved by altering the selection phase of the optimisation process. The selection process is performed incorporating both the Split-Ratio and K-Tournament methods, the improved SA-ELM is named Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (ESA-ELM). The results are generated based on LID with the datasets created from eight different languages. The results of the study showed excellent superiority relating to the performance of the Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine LID (ESA-ELM LID) compared with the SA-ELM LID, with ESA-ELM LID achieving an accuracy of 96.25%, as compared to the accuracy of SA-ELM LID of only 95.00%.

  18. Neutron metrology file NMF-90. An integrated database for performing neutron spectrum adjustment calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Neutron Metrology File NMF-90 is an integrated database for performing neutron spectrum adjustment (unfolding) calculations. It contains 4 different adjustment codes, the dosimetry reaction cross-section library IRDF-90/NMF-G with covariances files, 6 input data sets for reactor benchmark neutron fields and a number of utility codes for processing and plotting the input and output data. The package consists of 9 PC HD diskettes and manuals for the codes. It is distributed by the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA on request free of charge. About 10 MB of diskspace is needed to install and run a typical reactor neutron dosimetry unfolding problem. (author). 8 refs

  19. FLC based adjustable speed drives for power quality enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Darly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a new approach based on fuzzy algorithm to suppress the current harmonic contents in the output of an inverter. Inverter system using fuzzy controllers provide ride-through capability during voltage sags, reduces harmonics, improves power factor and high reliability, less electromagnetic interference noise, low common mode noise and extends output voltage range. A feasible test is implemented by building a model of three-phase impedance source inverter, which is designed and controlled on the basis of proposed considerations. It is verified from the practical point of view that these new approaches are more effective and acceptable to minimize the harmonic distortion and improves the quality of power. Due to the complex algorithm, their realization often calls for a compromise between cost and performance. The proposed optimizing strategies may be applied in variable-frequency dc-ac inverters, UPSs, and ac drives.

  20. EKF-GPR-Based Fingerprint Renovation for Subset-Based Indoor Localization with Adjusted Cosine Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junhua; Li, Yong; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Yang; Liu, Chenxi

    2018-01-22

    Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) localization using fingerprint has become a prevailing approach for indoor localization. However, the fingerprint-collecting work is repetitive and time-consuming. After the original fingerprint radio map is built, it is laborious to upgrade the radio map. In this paper, we describe a Fingerprint Renovation System (FRS) based on crowdsourcing, which avoids the use of manual labour to obtain the up-to-date fingerprint status. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) in FRS are combined to calculate the current state based on the original fingerprinting radio map. In this system, a method of subset acquisition also makes an immediate impression to reduce the huge computation caused by too many reference points (RPs). Meanwhile, adjusted cosine similarity (ACS) is employed in the online phase to solve the issue of outliers produced by cosine similarity. Both experiments and analytical simulation in a real Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) environment indicate the usefulness of our system to significant performance improvements. The results show that FRS improves the accuracy by 19.6% in the surveyed area compared to the radio map un-renovated. Moreover, the proposed subset algorithm can bring less computation.

  1. EKF–GPR-Based Fingerprint Renovation for Subset-Based Indoor Localization with Adjusted Cosine Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junhua; Li, Yong; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Yang; Liu, Chenxi

    2018-01-01

    Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) localization using fingerprint has become a prevailing approach for indoor localization. However, the fingerprint-collecting work is repetitive and time-consuming. After the original fingerprint radio map is built, it is laborious to upgrade the radio map. In this paper, we describe a Fingerprint Renovation System (FRS) based on crowdsourcing, which avoids the use of manual labour to obtain the up-to-date fingerprint status. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) in FRS are combined to calculate the current state based on the original fingerprinting radio map. In this system, a method of subset acquisition also makes an immediate impression to reduce the huge computation caused by too many reference points (RPs). Meanwhile, adjusted cosine similarity (ACS) is employed in the online phase to solve the issue of outliers produced by cosine similarity. Both experiments and analytical simulation in a real Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) environment indicate the usefulness of our system to significant performance improvements. The results show that FRS improves the accuracy by 19.6% in the surveyed area compared to the radio map un-renovated. Moreover, the proposed subset algorithm can bring less computation. PMID:29361805

  2. Dynamic probability control limits for risk-adjusted CUSUM charts based on multiresponses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Loda, Justin B; Woodall, William H

    2017-07-20

    For a patient who has survived a surgery, there could be several levels of recovery. Thus, it is reasonable to consider more than two outcomes when monitoring surgical outcome quality. The risk-adjusted cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart based on multiresponses has been developed for monitoring a surgical process with three or more outcomes. However, there is a significant effect of varying risk distributions on the in-control performance of the chart when constant control limits are applied. To overcome this disadvantage, we apply the dynamic probability control limits to the risk-adjusted CUSUM charts for multiresponses. The simulation results demonstrate that the in-control performance of the charts with dynamic probability control limits can be controlled for different patient populations because these limits are determined for each specific sequence of patients. Thus, the use of dynamic probability control limits for risk-adjusted CUSUM charts based on multiresponses allows each chart to be designed for the corresponding patient sequence of a surgeon or a hospital and therefore does not require estimating or monitoring the patients' risk distribution. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Capital adjustment cost and bias in income based dynamic panel models with fixed effects

    OpenAIRE

    Yoseph Yilma Getachew; Keshab Bhattarai; Parantap Basu

    2012-01-01

    The fixed effects (FE) estimator of "conditional convergence" in income based dynamic panel models could be biased downward when capital adjustment cost is present. Such a capital adjustment cost means a rising marginal cost of investment which could slow down the convergence. The standard FE regression fails to take into account of this capital adjustment cost and thus it could overestimate the rate of convergence. Using a Ramsey model with long-run adjustment cost of capital, we characteriz...

  4. Measuring performance in health care: case-mix adjustment by boosted decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anke; Holstein, Josiane; Le Gall, Jean-Roger; Lepage, Eric

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the suitability of boosted decision trees for the case-mix adjustment involved in comparing the performance of various health care entities. First, we present logistic regression, decision trees, and boosted decision trees in a unified framework. Second, we study in detail their application for two common performance indicators, the mortality rate in intensive care and the rate of potentially avoidable hospital readmissions. For both examples the technique of boosting decision trees outperformed standard prognostic models, in particular linear logistic regression models, with regard to predictive power. On the other hand, boosting decision trees was computationally demanding and the resulting models were rather complex and needed additional tools for interpretation. Boosting decision trees represents a powerful tool for case-mix adjustment in health care performance measurement. Depending on the specific priorities set in each context, the gain in predictive power might compensate for the inconvenience in the use of boosted decision trees.

  5. 10 km running performance predicted by a multiple linear regression model with allometrically adjusted variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Cesar C C; Barros, Ronaldo V; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Gagliardi, João F L; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Lambert, Mike I; Pires, Flavio O

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the power of VO 2max , peak treadmill running velocity (PTV), and running economy (RE), unadjusted or allometrically adjusted, in predicting 10 km running performance. Eighteen male endurance runners performed: 1) an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO 2max and PTV; 2) a constant submaximal run at 12 km·h -1 on an outdoor track for RE determination; and 3) a 10 km running race. Unadjusted (VO 2max , PTV and RE) and adjusted variables (VO 2max 0.72 , PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 ) were investigated through independent multiple regression models to predict 10 km running race time. There were no significant correlations between 10 km running time and either the adjusted or unadjusted VO 2max . Significant correlations (p 0.84 and power > 0.88. The allometrically adjusted predictive model was composed of PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 and explained 83% of the variance in 10 km running time with a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 1.5 min. The unadjusted model composed of a single PVT accounted for 72% of the variance in 10 km running time (SEE of 1.9 min). Both regression models provided powerful estimates of 10 km running time; however, the unadjusted PTV may provide an uncomplicated estimation.

  6. Capacitance-Based Frequency Adjustment of Micro Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method.

  7. Capacitance-based frequency adjustment of micro piezoelectric vibration generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinhua; He, Qing; Li, Hong; Chu, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method.

  8. An in-depth assessment of a diagnosis-based risk adjustment model based on national health insurance claims: the application of the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Group case-mix system in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Jonathan P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis-based risk adjustment is becoming an important issue globally as a result of its implications for payment, high-risk predictive modelling and provider performance assessment. The Taiwanese National Health Insurance (NHI programme provides universal coverage and maintains a single national computerized claims database, which enables the application of diagnosis-based risk adjustment. However, research regarding risk adjustment is limited. This study aims to examine the performance of the Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG case-mix system using claims-based diagnosis information from the Taiwanese NHI programme. Methods A random sample of NHI enrollees was selected. Those continuously enrolled in 2002 were included for concurrent analyses (n = 173,234, while those in both 2002 and 2003 were included for prospective analyses (n = 164,562. Health status measures derived from 2002 diagnoses were used to explain the 2002 and 2003 health expenditure. A multivariate linear regression model was adopted after comparing the performance of seven different statistical models. Split-validation was performed in order to avoid overfitting. The performance measures were adjusted R2 and mean absolute prediction error of five types of expenditure at individual level, and predictive ratio of total expenditure at group level. Results The more comprehensive models performed better when used for explaining resource utilization. Adjusted R2 of total expenditure in concurrent/prospective analyses were 4.2%/4.4% in the demographic model, 15%/10% in the ACGs or ADGs (Aggregated Diagnosis Group model, and 40%/22% in the models containing EDCs (Expanded Diagnosis Cluster. When predicting expenditure for groups based on expenditure quintiles, all models underpredicted the highest expenditure group and overpredicted the four other groups. For groups based on morbidity burden, the ACGs model had the best performance overall. Conclusions Given the

  9. An in-depth assessment of a diagnosis-based risk adjustment model based on national health insurance claims: the application of the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Group case-mix system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Yen; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2010-01-18

    Diagnosis-based risk adjustment is becoming an important issue globally as a result of its implications for payment, high-risk predictive modelling and provider performance assessment. The Taiwanese National Health Insurance (NHI) programme provides universal coverage and maintains a single national computerized claims database, which enables the application of diagnosis-based risk adjustment. However, research regarding risk adjustment is limited. This study aims to examine the performance of the Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG) case-mix system using claims-based diagnosis information from the Taiwanese NHI programme. A random sample of NHI enrollees was selected. Those continuously enrolled in 2002 were included for concurrent analyses (n = 173,234), while those in both 2002 and 2003 were included for prospective analyses (n = 164,562). Health status measures derived from 2002 diagnoses were used to explain the 2002 and 2003 health expenditure. A multivariate linear regression model was adopted after comparing the performance of seven different statistical models. Split-validation was performed in order to avoid overfitting. The performance measures were adjusted R2 and mean absolute prediction error of five types of expenditure at individual level, and predictive ratio of total expenditure at group level. The more comprehensive models performed better when used for explaining resource utilization. Adjusted R2 of total expenditure in concurrent/prospective analyses were 4.2%/4.4% in the demographic model, 15%/10% in the ACGs or ADGs (Aggregated Diagnosis Group) model, and 40%/22% in the models containing EDCs (Expanded Diagnosis Cluster). When predicting expenditure for groups based on expenditure quintiles, all models underpredicted the highest expenditure group and overpredicted the four other groups. For groups based on morbidity burden, the ACGs model had the best performance overall. Given the widespread availability of claims data and the superior explanatory

  10. The Impact of Capital Structure on Economic Capital and Risk Adjusted Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Porteous, Bruce; Tapadar, Pradip

    2008-01-01

    The impact that capital structure and capital asset allocation have on financial services firm economic capital and risk adjusted performance is considered. A stochastic modelling approach is used in conjunction with banking and insurance examples. It is demonstrated that gearing up Tier 1 capital with Tier 2 capital can be in the interests of bank Tier 1 capital providers, but may not always be so for insurance Tier 1 capital providers. It is also shown that, by allocating a bank or insuranc...

  11. Risk-adjusted performance evaluation in three academic thoracic surgery units using the Eurolung risk models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Cecilia; Shargall, Yaron; Decaluwe, Herbert; Moons, Johnny; Chari, Madhu; Brunelli, Alessandro

    2018-01-03

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3 thoracic surgery centres using the Eurolung risk models for morbidity and mortality. This was a retrospective analysis performed on data collected from 3 academic centres (2014-2016). Seven hundred and twenty-one patients in Centre 1, 857 patients in Centre 2 and 433 patients in Centre 3 who underwent anatomical lung resections were analysed. The Eurolung1 and Eurolung2 models were used to predict risk-adjusted cardiopulmonary morbidity and 30-day mortality rates. Observed and risk-adjusted outcomes were compared within each centre. The observed morbidity of Centre 1 was in line with the predicted morbidity (observed 21.1% vs predicted 22.7%, P = 0.31). Centre 2 performed better than expected (observed morbidity 20.2% vs predicted 26.7%, P models were successfully used as risk-adjusting instruments to internally audit the outcomes of 3 different centres, showing their applicability for future quality improvement initiatives. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. 5 CFR 9901.312 - Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary. 9901.312 Section 9901.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES....312 Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary. (a) Subject to § 9901.105, the Secretary may...

  13. The hidden cost of investment. The impact of adjustment costs on firm performance measurement and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick, Sebastian; Wetzel, Heike

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we address a major problem in the measurement of firm performance and the regulation of natural monopolies, namely the intertemporal character of long-term investment decisions. In specific, we focus on the impact of adjustment costs of investments on estimates of firms' technical and cost inefficiency. We apply nonparametric dynamic data envelopment analysis to investigate the dynamic inefficiency of electricity distribution and transmission companies in the US during the years 2004 to 2011 and compare our results with their static counterparts. Our empirical findings reveal that ignoring long-term investments and their corresponding adjustment costs does significantly distort both firm-specific and industrial inefficiency estimates and may thus create misleading incentives for the regulated firms to cut investments.

  14. Block adjustment of airborne InSAR based on interferogram phase and POS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xijuan; Zhao, Yinghui; Han, Chunming; Dou, Changyong

    2015-12-01

    High-precision surface elevation information in large scale can be obtained efficiently by airborne Interferomatric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) system, which is recently becoming an important tool to acquire remote sensing data and perform mapping applications in the area where surveying and mapping is difficult to be accomplished by spaceborne satellite or field working. . Based on the study of the three-dimensional (3D) positioning model using interferogram phase and Position and Orientation System (POS) data and block adjustment error model, a block adjustment method to produce seamless wide-area mosaic product generated from airborne InSAR data is proposed in this paper. The effect of 6 parameters, including trajectory and attitude of the aircraft, baseline length and incline angle, slant range, and interferometric phase, on the 3D positioning accuracy is quantitatively analyzed. Using the data acquired in the field campaign conducted in Mianyang county Sichuan province, China in June 2011, a mosaic seamless Digital Elevation Model (DEM) product was generated from 76 images in 4 flight strips by the proposed block adjustment model. The residuals of ground control points (GCPs), the absolute positioning accuracy of check points (CPs) and the relative positioning accuracy of tie points (TPs) both in same and adjacent strips were assessed. The experimental results suggest that the DEM and Digital Orthophoto Map (DOM) product generated by the airborne InSAR data with sparse GCPs can meet mapping accuracy requirement at scale of 1:10 000.

  15. Development and Performance Evaluation of Light Shelves Using Width-Adjustable Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heangwoo Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in the consumption of energy for lighting purposes, which has led to an increase in the number of studies being conducted on this subject. Most studies have focused on light shelves, which are daylighting systems used for reducing the lighting energy required for the interiors of buildings. However, the existing light shelves cannot actively deal with external environmental factors, which often lead to an infringement of the right to light during the night when the performance of the light shelf deteriorates. Therefore, in this study, we propose a light shelf with a width-adjustable reflector and verify its validity using a testbed. The reflector of the proposed light shelf system is modularized so that the length can be adjusted in stages. The optimum width of the light shelf is calculated in terms of the energy reduction and uniformity ratio improvement, and the obtained optimum width is varied depending on the season. We find that the width-adjustable reflector can save 20% and 21.6% more lighting energy than light shelves with fixed reflector widths of 0.3 m and 0.6 m, respectively.

  16. National Comparison of Hospital Performances in Lung Cancer Surgery: The Role Of Casemix Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Naomi; Hoeijmakers, Fieke; van der Willik, Esmee M; Heineman, David J; Braun, Jerry; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Schreurs, Wilhelmina H; Wouters, Michel W J M

    2018-04-03

    When comparing hospitals on outcome indicators, proper adjustment for casemix (a combination of patient- and disease characteristics) is indispensable. This study examines the need for casemix adjustment in evaluating hospital outcomes for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) surgery. Data from the Dutch Lung Cancer Audit for Surgery was used to validate factors associated with postoperative 30-day mortality and complicated course with multivariable logistic regression models. Between-hospital variation in casemix was studied by calculating medians and interquartile ranges for separate factors on hospital level and the 'expected' outcomes per hospital as a composite measure. 8040 patients, distributed over 51 Dutch hospitals were included for analysis. Mean observed postoperative mortality and complicated course were 2.2% and 13.6% respectively. Age, ASA-classification, ECOG performance score, lung function, extent of resection, tumor stage and postoperative histopathology were individual significant predictors for both outcomes of postoperative mortality and complicated course. A considerable variation of these casemix factors between hospital-populations was observed, with the expected mortality and complicated course per hospital ranging from 1.4 to 3.2% and 11.5 to 17.1%. The between-hospital variation in casemix of patients undergoing surgery for NSCLC emphasizes the importance of proper adjustment when comparing hospitals on outcome indicators. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. NWP-Based Adjustment of IMERG Precipitation for Flood-Inducing Complex Terrain Storms: Evaluation over CONUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxuan Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the use of precipitation forecasts from a numerical weather prediction (NWP model for near-real-time satellite precipitation adjustment based on 81 flood-inducing heavy precipitation events in seven mountainous regions over the conterminous United States. The study is facilitated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR real-time ensemble forecasts (called model, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG near-real-time precipitation product (called raw IMERG and the Stage IV multi-radar/multi-sensor precipitation product (called Stage IV used as a reference. We evaluated four precipitation datasets (the model forecasts, raw IMERG, gauge-adjusted IMERG and model-adjusted IMERG through comparisons against Stage IV at six-hourly and event length scales. The raw IMERG product consistently underestimated heavy precipitation in all study regions, while the domain average rainfall magnitudes exhibited by the model were fairly accurate. The model exhibited error in the locations of intense precipitation over inland regions, however, while the IMERG product generally showed correct spatial precipitation patterns. Overall, the model-adjusted IMERG product performed best over inland regions by taking advantage of the more accurate rainfall magnitude from NWP and the spatial distribution from IMERG. In coastal regions, although model-based adjustment effectively improved the performance of the raw IMERG product, the model forecast performed even better. The IMERG product could benefit from gauge-based adjustment, as well, but the improvement from model-based adjustment was consistently more significant.

  18. A STUDY ON THE RISK-ADJUSTED PERFORMANCE OF MUTUAL FUNDS INDUSTRY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Agarwal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Investing through mutual funds has gained interest in recent years as it offers optimal risk adjusted returns to investors. The Indian market is no exception and has witnessed a multifold growth in mutual funds over the years. As of 2016, the Indian market is crowded with over two thousand mutual fund schemes, each promising higher returns compared to their peers. This comes as a challenge for an ordinary investor to select the best portfolio to invest making it critical to analyse the performance of these funds. While understanding and analysing the historical performance of mutual funds do not guarantee future performance, however, this may give an idea of how the fund is likely to perform in different market conditions. In this research we address multiple research issues. These include measuring the performance of selected mutual schemes on the basis of risk and return and compare the performance of these selected schemes with benchmark index to see whether the scheme is outperforming or underperforming the benchmark. We also rank funds on the basis of performance and suggest strategies to invest in a mutual fund and therefore, our findings have significant relevance for investing public.

  19. Risk adjustment methods for Home Care Quality Indicators (HCQIs based on the minimum data set for home care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirdes John P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increasing interest in enhancing accountability in health care. As such, several methods have been developed to compare the quality of home care services. These comparisons can be problematic if client populations vary across providers and no adjustment is made to account for these differences. The current paper explores the effects of risk adjustment for a set of home care quality indicators (HCQIs based on the Minimum Data Set for Home Care (MDS-HC. Methods A total of 22 home care providers in Ontario and the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA in Manitoba, Canada, gathered data on their clients using the MDS-HC. These assessment data were used to generate HCQIs for each agency and for the two regions. Three types of risk adjustment methods were contrasted: a client covariates only; b client covariates plus an "Agency Intake Profile" (AIP to adjust for ascertainment and selection bias by the agency; and c client covariates plus the intake Case Mix Index (CMI. Results The mean age and gender distribution in the two populations was very similar. Across the 19 risk-adjusted HCQIs, Ontario CCACs had a significantly higher AIP adjustment value for eight HCQIs, indicating a greater propensity to trigger on these quality issues on admission. On average, Ontario had unadjusted rates that were 0.3% higher than the WRHA. Following risk adjustment with the AIP covariate, Ontario rates were, on average, 1.5% lower than the WRHA. In the WRHA, individual agencies were likely to experience a decline in their standing, whereby they were more likely to be ranked among the worst performers following risk adjustment. The opposite was true for sites in Ontario. Conclusions Risk adjustment is essential when comparing quality of care across providers when home care agencies provide services to populations with different characteristics. While such adjustment had a relatively small effect for the two regions, it did

  20. Risk adjustment methods for Home Care Quality Indicators (HCQIs) based on the minimum data set for home care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Dawn M; Hirdes, John P; Fries, Brant E

    2005-01-01

    Background There has been increasing interest in enhancing accountability in health care. As such, several methods have been developed to compare the quality of home care services. These comparisons can be problematic if client populations vary across providers and no adjustment is made to account for these differences. The current paper explores the effects of risk adjustment for a set of home care quality indicators (HCQIs) based on the Minimum Data Set for Home Care (MDS-HC). Methods A total of 22 home care providers in Ontario and the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA) in Manitoba, Canada, gathered data on their clients using the MDS-HC. These assessment data were used to generate HCQIs for each agency and for the two regions. Three types of risk adjustment methods were contrasted: a) client covariates only; b) client covariates plus an "Agency Intake Profile" (AIP) to adjust for ascertainment and selection bias by the agency; and c) client covariates plus the intake Case Mix Index (CMI). Results The mean age and gender distribution in the two populations was very similar. Across the 19 risk-adjusted HCQIs, Ontario CCACs had a significantly higher AIP adjustment value for eight HCQIs, indicating a greater propensity to trigger on these quality issues on admission. On average, Ontario had unadjusted rates that were 0.3% higher than the WRHA. Following risk adjustment with the AIP covariate, Ontario rates were, on average, 1.5% lower than the WRHA. In the WRHA, individual agencies were likely to experience a decline in their standing, whereby they were more likely to be ranked among the worst performers following risk adjustment. The opposite was true for sites in Ontario. Conclusions Risk adjustment is essential when comparing quality of care across providers when home care agencies provide services to populations with different characteristics. While such adjustment had a relatively small effect for the two regions, it did substantially affect the

  1. Performance-Based Funding Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A number of states have made progress in implementing performance-based funding (PFB) and accountability. This policy brief summarizes main features of performance-based funding systems in three states: Tennessee, Ohio, and Indiana. The brief also identifies key issues that states considering performance-based funding must address, as well as…

  2. Feasibility of CBCT-based dose calculation: Comparative analysis of HU adjustment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotina, Irina; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Stock, Markus; Steininger, Thomas; Lütgendorf-Caucig, Carola; Georg, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this work was to compare the accuracy of different HU adjustments for CBCT-based dose calculation. Methods and materials: Dose calculation was performed on CBCT images of 30 patients. In the first two approaches phantom-based (Pha-CC) and population-based (Pop-CC) conversion curves were used. The third method (WAB) represents override of the structures with standard densities for water, air and bone. In ROI mapping approach all structures were overridden with average HUs from planning CT. All techniques were benchmarked to the Pop-CC and CT-based plans by DVH comparison and γ-index analysis. Results: For prostate plans, WAB and ROI mapping compared to Pop-CC showed differences in PTV D median below 2%. The WAB and Pha-CC methods underestimated the bladder dose in IMRT plans. In lung cases PTV coverage was underestimated by Pha-CC method by 2.3% and slightly overestimated by the WAB and ROI techniques. The use of the Pha-CC method for head–neck IMRT plans resulted in difference in PTV coverage up to 5%. Dose calculation with WAB and ROI techniques showed better agreement with pCT than conversion curve-based approaches. Conclusions: Density override techniques provide an accurate alternative to the conversion curve-based methods for dose calculation on CBCT images.

  3. Veterans Affairs facility performance on Washington Circle indicators and casemix-adjusted effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex H S; Humphreys, Keith; Finney, John W

    2007-12-01

    Self-administered Addiction Severity Index (ASI) data were collected on 5,723 patients who received substance abuse treatment in 1 of 110 programs located at 73 Veterans Affairs facilities. The associations between each of three Washington Circle (WC) performance indicator scores (identification, initiation, and engagement) and their casemix-adjusted facility-level improvement in ASI drug and alcohol composites 7 months after intake were estimated. Higher initiation rates were not associated with facility-level improvement in ASI alcohol composite scores but were modestly associated with greater improvements in ASI drug composite scores. Identification and engagement rates were unrelated to 7-month outcomes. WC indicators focused on the early stages of treatment may tap necessary but insufficient processes for patients with substance use disorder to achieve good posttreatment outcomes. Ideally, the WC indicators would be supplemented with other measures of treatment quality.

  4. Uncertainty study of the PWR pressure vessel fluence. Adjustment of the nuclear data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.A.

    1994-01-01

    The code system devoted to the calculation of the sensitivity and uncertainty of of the neutron flux and reaction rates calculated by the transport codes, has been developed. Adjustment of the basic data to experimental results can be performed as well. Various sources of uncertainties can be taken into account, such as those due to the uncertainties in the cross-sections, response functions, fission spectrum and space distribution of neutron source, geometry and material composition uncertainties... One -As well as two- dimensional analysis can be performed. Linear perturbation theory is applied. The code system is sufficiently general to be used for various analysis in the fields of fission and fusion. The principal objective of our studies concerns the capsule dosimetry study realized in the framework of the 900 MWe PWR pressure vessel surveillance program. The analysis indicates that the present calculations, performed by the code TRIPOLI-2, using the ENDF/B-IV based, non-perturbed neutron cross-section library in 315 energy groups, allows to estimate the neutron flux and the reaction rates in the surveillance capsules and in the most calculated and measured reaction rates permits to reduce these uncertainties. The results obtained with the adjusted iron cross-sections, response functions and fission spectrum show that the agreement between the calculation and the experiment was improved to become within 10% approximately. The neutron flux deduced from the experiment is then extrapolated from the capsule to the most exposed pressure vessel location using the calculated lead factor. The uncertainty in this factor was estimated to be about 7%. (author). 39 refs., 52 figs., 30 tabs

  5. Dimensions of physical punishment and their associations with children's cognitive performance and school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Cage, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how a range of physical punishment measures, ranging from mild corporal punishment to physical abuse, are associated with cognitive performance, school engagement, and peer isolation over a 3- year span among 658 children initially observed between the ages of 8 and 14. Physical punishment was captured in three groups: mild corporal punishment, harsh corporal punishment, and physical abuse, and both caregiver- and child-reported punishment measures were considered. After accounting for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, only Ninitial exposure to physical abuse was significantly associated with declines in cognitive performance. However, all forms of physical punishment were associated with declines in school engagement, and harsh corporal punishment was associated with increased peer isolation. Our findings were relatively consistent regardless of whether physical punishment was reported by the child or caregiver. Overall, our findings suggest that the prevention of physical abuse may enhance children's cognitive performance, but that alone may not be sufficient to ensure children are engaged and well-adjusted in school. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Specifications for adjusted cross section and covariance libraries based upon CSEWG fast reactor and dosimetry benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbin, C.R.; Marable, J.H.; Collins, P.J.; Cowan, C.L.; Peelle, R.W.; Salvatores, M.

    1979-06-01

    The present work proposes a specific plan of cross section library adjustment for fast reactor core physics analysis using information from fast reactor and dosimetry integral experiments and from differential data evaluations. This detailed exposition of the proposed approach is intended mainly to elicit review and criticism from scientists and engineers in the research, development, and design fields. This major attempt to develop useful adjusted libraries is based on the established benchmark integral data, accurate and well documented analysis techniques, sensitivities, and quantified uncertainties for nuclear data, integral experiment measurements, and calculational methodology. The adjustments to be obtained using these specifications are intended to produce an overall improvement in the least-squares sense in the quality of the data libraries, so that calculations of other similar systems using the adjusted data base with any credible method will produce results without much data-related bias. The adjustments obtained should provide specific recommendations to the data evaluation program to be weighed in the light of newer measurements, and also a vehicle for observing how the evaluation process is converging. This report specifies the calculational methodology to be used, the integral experiments to be employed initially, and the methods and integral experiment biases and uncertainties to be used. The sources of sensitivity coefficients, as well as the cross sections to be adjusted, are detailed. The formulae for sensitivity coefficients for fission spectral parameters are developed. A mathematical formulation of the least-square adjustment problem is given including biases and uncertainties in methods

  7. A study on performance of adjuster rod system and banking scheme in operational transient of CANDU-6 RUFIC core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Young; Suk, Ho Chun

    2002-01-01

    The performance of adjuster rod system in four operational transients of CANDU-6 RUFIC (Recovered Uranium Fuel In CANDU) core was preliminarily assessed, where the operational transients include startup after a short shutdown, startup after a poison-out shutdown, shim mode operation, and a stepback to 60% full power. The results of the preliminary assessment indicated that the adjuster rod system as currently designed and installed in the CANDU-6 NU (Natural Uranium) core will adequately meet the functional requirements in the RUFIC core. Comparing to the performance of adjuster rod system in the NU core, the total worth of the adjuster system in the RUFIC core is reduced, leading to less xenon override capability and shimming capability. In spite of the reduction of total worth, however, the overall performance of adjuster rod system in the operation transient of the RUFIC core is expected to still be satisfied. An alternative adjuster-banking scheme is also included in the assessment. The alternative adjuster-banking scheme involves rods in Bank 1 and Bank 7 being re-distributed within the two banks. The overall results from the transients studied indicated that the alternative banking scheme does show some better performance characteristics and merits

  8. Internet-Based Self-Help Intervention for ICD-11 Adjustment Disorder: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimontas, Jonas; Rimsaite, Zivile; Gegieckaite, Goda; Zelviene, Paulina; Kazlauskas, Evaldas

    2018-06-01

    Adjustment disorder is one of the most diagnosed mental disorders. However, there is a lack of studies of specialized internet-based psychosocial interventions for adjustment disorder. We aimed to analyze the outcomes of an internet-based unguided self-help psychosocial intervention BADI for adjustment disorder in a two armed randomized controlled trial with a waiting list control group. In total 284 adult participants were randomized in this study. We measured adjustment disorder as a primary outcome, and psychological well-being as a secondary outcome at pre-intervention (T1) and one month after the intervention (T2). We found medium effect size of the intervention for the completer sample on adjustment disorder symptoms. Intervention was effective for those participants who used it at least one time in 30-day period. Our results revealed the potential of unguided internet-based self-help intervention for adjustment disorder. However, high dropout rates in the study limits the generalization of the outcomes of the intervention only to completers.

  9. Controlling the morphology and performance of FO membrane via adjusting the atmosphere humidity during casting procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao-Ran; Cao, Gui-Ping; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Huan-Huan; Song, Chen-Chen; Fang, Xu; Wang, Tao

    2018-03-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has received great interest for its considerable potential in a wide range of fields. In this work, the morphology and performance of FO membrane were regulated by adjusting the atmosphere humidity (HC) of casting procedure. The polysulfone support layer was casted under various atmosphere humidity levels ranging from 40% to 80%. By multi-techniques such as SEM, AFM, and XPS, it was proved that the atmosphere humidity had modified the surface morphology and thickness of the skin layer in support layer, which contributed up to 90% of the structure parameter, resulting in distinct morphology, thickness, and cross-linking degree of active layer. The active layer with sparse bead-like wrinkles on the smooth surface of support layer casted at HC = 65% showed the highest water permeability [26.9 (L/m2 h MPa)] and considerable low salt permeability [0.0390 (L/m2 h)]. It was found that the water flux of FO-65 was 27% and 46% higher than that of FO-80 in AL-DS and AL-FS mode, respectively, and the salt rejection was as high as 98%. Our work highlighted the importance of considering the effect of atmosphere humidity during casting when design an FO membrane for appropriate performance.

  10. 48 CFR 52.232-32 - Performance-Based Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contracting Officer, such excess shall be credited as a reduction in the unliquidated performance-based... adjustments. (e) Reduction or suspension of performance-based payments. The Contracting Officer may reduce or... sound and generally accepted accounting principles and practices: (i) Parts, materials, inventories, and...

  11. Presumed cultural similarity paradox : Expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, P.; van Engen, M.L.; Mol, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and research

  12. Presumed cultural similarity paradox: expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, P.; van Engen, M.; Mol, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - To introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and

  13. Adjustment to University and Academic Performance among Disadvantaged Students in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Il-haam; Louw, Johann; Dumont, Kitty

    2009-01-01

    Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help-seeking, academic motivation, self-esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and…

  14. Adjustment and long-run economic performance in 18 African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha

    2015-01-01

    trajectories of the introduction of adjustment programs. The analysis reveals that only few countries have shown positive and sustained results. The traditional (first-generation) Fund-Bank adjustment package is linked with sustained increase in Gross Domestic Product, export and investment growth rates only...

  15. Distribution transformer with automatic voltage adjustment - performance; Transformador de distribucion con ajuste automatico de tension - desempeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Ruiz, Gustavo A.; Delgadillo Bocanegra, Alfonso; Betancourt Ramirez, Enrique [PROLEC-GE, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mail: gustavo1.hernandez@ge.com; alfonso.delgadillobocanegra@ge.com; enrique.betancourt@ge.com; Ramirez Arredondo, Juan M. [CINVESTAV-Guadalajara, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)]. E-mail: jramirez@gdl.cinvestav.mx

    2010-11-15

    In the electric power distribution systems, the power quality is strongly linked with the service stability voltage. In the radial kind systems, it is virtually impossible to achieve a flat voltage along the lines, so it is desirable to count with transformers that can adjust automatically the turns ratio. In this work, it is described the development and the performance of a transformer with an integrated electronic tap changer, that allows to change the turns ratio along the standard range of +/-5%, and it was identified the application limits of the technology. [Spanish] En los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica, la calidad del suministro de energia esta fuertemente ligada con la estabilidad del voltaje de servicio. En sistemas de tipo radial, es virtualmente imposible mantener uniforme la tension a lo largo de las lineas, por lo que se hace deseable contar con transformadores que puedan ajustar automaticamente la relacion de transformacion. En este trabajo, se describe el desarrollo y desempeno de un transformador con switch electronico integrado, que permite variar la relacion de transformacion dentro del rango estandarizado de +/-5%, y se identifican los limites de aplicacion de la tecnologia.

  16. Molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: Does adjustment for total bacterial load or human cellular content improve diagnostic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, E L; Garland, S M; Bradshaw, C S; Law, M G; Vodstrcil, L A; Hocking, J S; Fairley, C K; Tabrizi, S N

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the utility of quantitative PCR assays for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and found that while the best model utilized bacterial copy number adjusted for total bacterial load (sensitivity=98%, specificity=93%, AUC=0.95[95%CI=0.93,0.97]), adjusting for total bacterial or human cell load did not consistently increase the diagnostic performance of the assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. "Symptom-based insulin adjustment for glucose normalization" (SIGN) algorithm: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce Yu-Chia; Tsou, Keith; Lim, Jiahui; Koh, Feaizen; Ong, Sooim; Wong, Sabrina

    2012-12-01

    Lack of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) records in actual practice settings continues to create therapeutic challenges for clinicians, especially in adjusting insulin therapy. In order to overcome this clinical obstacle, a "Symptom-based Insulin adjustment for Glucose Normalization" (SIGN) algorithm was developed to guide clinicians in caring for patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who have few to no SMBG records. This study examined the clinical outcome and safety of the SIGN algorithm. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin usage, and insulin-related adverse effects of a total of 114 patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who refused to use SMBG or performed SMBG once a day for less than three times per week were studied 3 months prior to the implementation of the algorithm and prospectively at every 3-month interval for a total of 6 months after the algorithm implementation. Patients with type 1 diabetes, nonadherence to diabetes medications, or who were not on insulin therapy at any time during the study period were excluded from this study. Mean HbA1c improved by 0.29% at 3 months (P = 0.015) and 0.41% at 6 months (P = 0.006) after algorithm implementation. A slight increase in HbA1c was observed when the algorithm was not implemented. There were no major hypoglycemic episodes. The number of minor hypoglycemic episodes was minimal with the majority of the cases due to irregular meal habits. The SIGN algorithm appeared to offer a viable and safe approach when managing uncontrolled patients with type 2 diabetes who have few to no SMBG records.

  18. Group-based parent training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Bergman, Hanna; Kornør, Hege; Wei, Yinghui; Bennett, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    Emotional and behavioural problems in children are common. Research suggests that parenting has an important role to play in helping children to become well-adjusted, and that the first few months and years are especially important. Parenting programmes may have a role to play in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of infants and toddlers, and this review examined their effectiveness with parents and carers of young children. 1. To establish whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of young children (maximum mean age of three years and 11 months); and2. To assess whether parenting programmes are effective in the primary prevention of emotional and behavioural problems. In July 2015 we searched CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE, Embase (Ovid), and 10 other databases. We also searched two trial registers and handsearched reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. Two reviewers independently assessed the records retrieved by the search. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of group-based parenting programmes that had used at least one standardised instrument to measure emotional and behavioural adjustment in children. One reviewer extracted data and a second reviewer checked the extracted data. We presented the results for each outcome in each study as standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate, we combined the results in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. We used the GRADE (Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach to assess the overall quality of the body of evidence for each outcome. We identified 22 RCTs and two quasi-RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of group-based parenting programmes in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of children aged up to three years and 11 months (maximum mean age three years 11 months

  19. PV Array Driven Adjustable Speed Drive for a Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, Alexander, Jr.; Buchh, Tariq Aslam

    1995-01-01

    A study of various aspects of Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD) is presented. A summary of the relative merits of different ASD systems presently in vogue is discussed. The advantages of using microcomputer based ASDs is now widely understood and accepted. Of the three most popular drive systems, namely the Induction Motor Drive, Switched Reluctance Motor Drive and Brushless DC Motor Drive, any one may be chosen. The choice would depend on the nature of the application and its requirements. The suitability of the above mentioned drive systems for a photovoltaic array driven ASD for an aerospace application are discussed. The discussion is based on the experience of the authors, various researchers and industry. In chapter 2 a PV array power supply scheme has been proposed, this scheme will have an enhanced reliability in addition to the other known advantages of the case where a stand alone PV array is feeding the heat pump. In chapter 3 the results of computer simulation of PV array driven induction motor drive system have been included. A discussion on these preliminary simulation results have also been included in this chapter. Chapter 4 includes a brief discussion on various control techniques for three phase induction motors. A discussion on different power devices and their various performance characteristics is given in Chapter 5.

  20. Predicting Couples’ Happiness Based on Spiritual Intelligence and Lovemaking Styles: The Mediating Role of Marital adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHRA KERMANI MAMAZANDI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to predict couples’ happiness based on spiritual intelligence and lovemaking styles with the mediating role of marital adjustment. Therefore 360 male and female, married students living in Tehran University dormitory were randomly selected and were asked to answer the items of Sternberg’s Love Questionnaire, King’s Spiritual Intelligence Scale, Oxford’s Happiness Questionnaire and Spanier’s Marital Adjustment Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (path analysis was used for data analysis. The results  of path analysis showed  that spiritual intelligence and lovemaking styles have direct effects on couples’ happiness, and the spiritual intelligence did not have an indirect effect on couples’ happiness whereas lovemaking styles had indirect effects on couples’ happiness through martial satisfaction. Altogether the results of this research show that marital adjustment has a mediating role in predicting couples’ happiness based on spiritual intelligence and lovemaking styles.

  1. Performance of Comorbidity, Risk Adjustment, and Functional Status Measures in Expenditure Prediction for Patients With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Fihn, Stephan D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?To compare the ability of generic comorbidity and risk adjustment measures, a diabetes-specific measure, and a self-reported functional status measure to explain variation in health care expenditures for individuals with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?This study included a retrospective cohort of 3,092 diabetic veterans participating in a multisite trial. Two comorbidity measures, four risk adjusters, a functional status measure, a diabetes complication count, and baseline ex...

  2. Method Based on Confidence Radius to Adjust the Location of Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Fernández, Juan Antonio; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Fernández-Navarro, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    The present paper details a technique for adjusting in a smart manner the position estimates of any user equipment given by different geolocation/positioning methods in a wireless radiofrequency communication network based on different strategies (observed time difference of arrival , angle of ar...

  3. Prior use of durable medical equipment as a risk adjuster for health-based capitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. van Kleef (Richard); R.C.J.A. van Vliet (René)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines a new risk adjuster for capitation payments to Dutch health plans, based on the prior use of durable medical equipment (DME). The essence is to classify users of DME in a previous year into clinically homogeneous classes and to apply the resulting classification as a

  4. Adjustments of microwave-based measurements on coal moisture using natural radioactivity techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto-Fernandez, I.; Luengo-Garcia, J.C.; Alonso-Hidalgo, M.; Folgueras-Diaz, B. [University of Oviedo, Gijon (Spain)

    2006-01-07

    The use of nonconventional on-line measurements of moisture and ash content in coal is presented. The background research is briefly reviewed. The possibilities of adjusting microwave-based moisture measurements using natural radioactive techniques, and vice versa, are proposed. The results obtained from the simultaneous analysis of moisture and ash content as well as the correlation improvements are shown.

  5. Performance Management or Performance Based Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina PROTOPOPESCU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present some considerations about performance and performance management. Starting with the challenge of defining the performance concept, we intend to establish if „performance management” can be a new management system or it is just a sophisticated term for a HR strategy in order to improve the performance of teams and individuals. We also try to discuss the conection between performance management and management by objectives. Whether or not it is exageratted to talk about...

  6. Droop Control with an Adjustable Complex Virtual Impedance Loop based on Cloud Model Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Shuai, Zhikang; Xu, Qinming

    2016-01-01

    Droop control framework with an adjustable virtual impedance loop is proposed in this paper, which is based on the cloud model theory. The proposed virtual impedance loop includes two terms: a negative virtual resistor and an adjustable virtual inductance. The negative virtual resistor term...... sometimes. The cloud model theory is applied to get online the changing line impedance value, which relies on the relevance of the reactive power responding the changing line impedance. The verification of the proposed control strategy is done according to the simulation in a low voltage microgrid in Matlab....

  7. Health-based risk adjustment: is inpatient and outpatient diagnostic information sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, L M

    Adequate risk adjustment is critical to the success of market-oriented health care reforms in many countries. Currently used risk adjusters based on demographic and diagnostic cost groups (DCGs) do not reflect expected costs accurately. This study examines the simultaneous predictive accuracy of inpatient and outpatient morbidity measures and prior costs. DCGs, pharmacy cost groups (PCGs), and prior year's costs improve the predictive accuracy of the demographic model substantially. DCGs and PCGs seem complementary in their ability to predict future costs. However, this study shows that the combination of DCGs and PCGs still leaves room for cream skimming.

  8. On the Performance of Maximum Likelihood versus Means and Variance Adjusted Weighted Least Squares Estimation in CFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauducel, Andre; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck

    2006-01-01

    This simulation study compared maximum likelihood (ML) estimation with weighted least squares means and variance adjusted (WLSMV) estimation. The study was based on confirmatory factor analyses with 1, 2, 4, and 8 factors, based on 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 cases, and on 5, 10, 20, and 40 variables with 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 categories. There was no…

  9. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment for Performance of Musical Compositions by Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 381 [Docket No. 2013-9 CRB NCEB COLA] Cost... announce a cost of living adjustment (COLA) of 2% in the royalty rates that colleges, universities, and... change in the cost of living for the rate codified at Sec. 381.5(c)(3) relating to compositions in the...

  10. 76 FR 74703 - Cost of Living Adjustment for Performance of Musical Compositions by Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 381 [Docket No. 2011-9 CRB NCEB COLA] Cost... announce a cost of living adjustment (``COLA'') of 3.5% in the royalty rates that colleges, universities... Judges shall publish a notice of the change in the cost of living as determined by the Consumer Price...

  11. Node Depth Adjustment Based Target Tracking in UWSNs Using Improved Harmony Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiqin Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs can provide a promising solution to underwater target tracking. Due to the limited computation and bandwidth resources, only a small part of nodes are selected to track the target at each interval. How to improve tracking accuracy with a small number of nodes is a key problem. In recent years, a node depth adjustment system has been developed and applied to issues of network deployment and routing protocol. As far as we know, all existing tracking schemes keep underwater nodes static or moving with water flow, and node depth adjustment has not been utilized for underwater target tracking yet. This paper studies node depth adjustment method for target tracking in UWSNs. Firstly, since a Fisher Information Matrix (FIM can quantify the estimation accuracy, its relation to node depth is derived as a metric. Secondly, we formulate the node depth adjustment as an optimization problem to determine moving depth of activated node, under the constraint of moving range, the value of FIM is used as objective function, which is aimed to be minimized over moving distance of nodes. Thirdly, to efficiently solve the optimization problem, an improved Harmony Search (HS algorithm is proposed, in which the generating probability is modified to improve searching speed and accuracy. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify performance of our scheme.

  12. Price adjustment for traditional Chinese medicine procedures: Based on a standardized value parity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyin; Jin, Chunlin; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-11-20

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of China's medical system. Due to the prolonged low price of TCM procedures and the lack of an effective mechanism for dynamic price adjustment, the development of TCM has markedly lagged behind Western medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the need to enhance the development of alternative and traditional medicine when creating national health care systems. The establishment of scientific and appropriate mechanisms to adjust the price of medical procedures in TCM is crucial to promoting the development of TCM. This study has examined incorporating value indicators and data on basic manpower expended, time spent, technical difficulty, and the degree of risk in the latest standards for the price of medical procedures in China, and this study also offers a price adjustment model with the relative price ratio as a key index. This study examined 144 TCM procedures and found that prices of TCM procedures were mainly based on the value of medical care provided; on average, medical care provided accounted for 89% of the price. Current price levels were generally low and the current price accounted for 56% of the standardized value of a procedure, on average. Current price levels accounted for a markedly lower standardized value of acupuncture, moxibustion, special treatment with TCM, and comprehensive TCM procedures. This study selected a total of 79 procedures and adjusted them by priority. The relationship between the price of TCM procedures and the suggested price was significantly optimized (p based on a standardized value parity model is a scientific and suitable method of price adjustment that can serve as a reference for other provinces and municipalities in China and other countries and regions that mainly have fee-for-service (FFS) medical care.

  13. Multidirectional flexible force sensors based on confined, self-adjusting carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-I.; Pyo, Soonjae; Kim, Min-Ook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive force sensor based on self-adjusting carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. Aligned CNT arrays are directly synthesized on silicon microstructures by a space-confined growth technique which enables a facile self-adjusting contact. To afford flexibility and softness, the patterned microstructures with the integrated CNTs are embedded in polydimethylsiloxane structures. The sensing mechanism is based on variations in the contact resistance between the facing CNT arrays under the applied force. By finite element analysis, proper dimensions and positions for each component are determined. Further, high sensitivities up to 15.05%/mN of the proposed sensors were confirmed experimentally. Multidirectional sensing capability could also be achieved by designing multiple sets of sensing elements in a single sensor. The sensors show long-term operational stability, owing to the unique properties of the constituent CNTs, such as outstanding mechanical durability and elasticity.

  14. Contact angle adjustment in equation-of-state-based pseudopotential model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anjie; Li, Longjian; Uddin, Rizwan; Liu, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The single component pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model has been widely applied in multiphase simulation due to its simplicity and stability. In many studies, it has been claimed that this model can be stable for density ratios larger than 1000. However, the application of the model is still limited to small density ratios when the contact angle is considered. The reason is that the original contact angle adjustment method influences the stability of the model. Moreover, simulation results in the present work show that, by applying the original contact angle adjustment method, the density distribution near the wall is artificially changed, and the contact angle is dependent on the surface tension. Hence, it is very inconvenient to apply this method with a fixed contact angle, and the accuracy of the model cannot be guaranteed. To solve these problems, a contact angle adjustment method based on the geometry analysis is proposed and numerically compared with the original method. Simulation results show that, with our contact angle adjustment method, the stability of the model is highly improved when the density ratio is relatively large, and it is independent of the surface tension.

  15. Economic analysis of coal price-electricity price adjustment in China based on the CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.X.; Zhang, S.L.; Yang, L.Y.; Wang, Y.J.; Wang, J.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, coal price has risen rapidly, which has also brought a sharp increase in the expenditures of thermal power plants in China. Meantime, the power production price and power retail price have not been adjusted accordingly and a large number of thermal power plants have incurred losses. The power industry is a key industry in the national economy. As such, a thorough analysis and evaluation of the economic influence of the electricity price should be conducted before electricity price adjustment is carried out. This paper analyses the influence of coal price adjustment on the electric power industry, and the influence of electricity price adjustment on the macroeconomy in China based on computable general equilibrium models. The conclusions are as follows: (1) a coal price increase causes a rise in the cost of the electric power industry, but the influence gradually descends with increase in coal price; and (2) an electricity price increase has an adverse influence on the total output, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Electricity price increases have a contractionary effect on economic development and, consequently, electricity price policy making must consequently consider all factors to minimize their adverse influence.

  16. Adjustable Parameter-Based Distributed Fault Estimation Observer Design for Multiagent Systems With Directed Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Peng

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel adjustable parameter (AP)-based distributed fault estimation observer (DFEO) is proposed for multiagent systems (MASs) with the directed communication topology. First, a relative output estimation error is defined based on the communication topology of MASs. Then a DFEO with AP is constructed with the purpose of improving the accuracy of fault estimation. Based on H ∞ and H 2 with pole placement, multiconstrained design is given to calculate the gain of DFEO. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed DFEO design with AP.

  17. Online dynamic equalization adjustment of high-power lithium-ion battery packs based on the state of balance estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shunli; Shang, Liping; Li, Zhanfeng; Deng, Hu; Li, Jianchao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel concept (SOB, State of Balance) is proposed for the LIB pack equalization. • Core parameter detection and filtering is analyzed to identify the LIB pack behavior. • The electrical UKF model is adopted for the online dynamic estimation. • The equalization target model is built based on the optimum preference. • Comprehensive imbalance state calculation is implemented for the adjustment. - Abstract: A novel concept named as state of balance (SOB) is proposed and its online dynamic estimation method is presented for the high-power lithium-ion battery (LIB) packs, based on which the online dynamic equalization adjustment is realized aiming to protect the operation safety of its power supply application. The core parameter detection method based on the specific moving average algorithm is studied because of their identical varying characteristics on the individual cells due to the manufacturing variability and other factors, affecting the performance of the high-power LIB pack. The SOB estimation method is realized with the detailed deduction, in which a dual filter consisting of the Unscented Kalman filter (UKF), equivalent circuit model (ECM) and open circuit voltage (OCV) is used in order to predict the SOB state. It is beneficial for the energy operation and the energy performance state can be evaluated online prior to the adjustment method based on the terminal voltage consistency. The energy equalization is realized that is based on the credibility reasoning together with the equalization model building process. The experiments including the core parameter detection, SOB estimation and equalization adjustment are done and the experimental results are analyzed. The experiment results show that the numerical Coulomb efficiency is bigger than 95%. The cell voltage measurement error is less than 5 mV and the terminal voltage measurement error of the LIB pack is less than 1% FS. The measurement error of the battery discharge and charge

  18. Risk-based performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarm, M.A.; Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.; Lofgren, E.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of risk-based indicators is to monitor plant safety. Safety is measured by monitoring the potential for core melt (core-melt frequency) and the public risk. Targets for these measures can be set consistent with NRC safety goals. In this process, the performance of safety systems, support systems, major components, and initiating events can be monitored using measures such as unavailability, failure or occurrence frequency. The changes in performance measures and their trends are determined from the time behavior of monitored measures by differentiation between stochastical and actual variations. Therefore, degradation, as well as improvement in the plant safety performance, can be determined. The development of risk-based performance indicators will also provide the means to trace a change in the safety measures to specific problem areas which are amenable to root cause analysis and inspection audits. In addition, systematic methods will be developed to identify specific improvement policies using the plant information system for the identified problem areas. The final product of the performance indicator project will be a methodology, and an integrated and validated set of software packages which, if properly interfaced with the logic model software of a plant, can monitor the plant performance as plant information is provided as input

  19. Falling with Style: Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations by Adjusting Wing Inertia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila J Bergou

    Full Text Available The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Bats have evolved an impressive capacity to control their flight, in large part due to their ability to modulate wing shape, area, and angle of attack through many independently controlled joints. Bat wings, however, also contain many bones and relatively large muscles, and thus the ratio of bats' wing mass to their body mass is larger than it is for all other extant flyers. Although the inertia in bat wings would typically be associated with decreased aerial maneuverability, we show that bat maneuvers challenge this notion. We use a model-based tracking algorithm to measure the wing and body kinematics of bats performing complex aerial rotations. Using a minimal model of a bat with only six degrees of kinematic freedom, we show that bats can perform body rolls by selectively retracting one wing during the flapping cycle. We also show that this maneuver does not rely on aerodynamic forces, and furthermore that a fruit fly, with nearly massless wings, would not exhibit this effect. Similar results are shown for a pitching maneuver. Finally, we combine high-resolution kinematics of wing and body movements during landing and falling maneuvers with a 52-degree-of-freedom dynamical model of a bat to show that modulation of wing inertia plays the dominant role in reorienting the bat during landing and falling maneuvers, with minimal contribution from aerodynamic forces. Bats can, therefore, use their wings as multifunctional organs, capable of sophisticated aerodynamic and inertial dynamics not previously observed in other flying animals. This may also have implications for the control of aerial robotic vehicles.

  20. [The motive force of evolution based on the principle of organismal adjustment evolution.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia-Shu

    2010-08-01

    From the analysis of the existing problems of the prevalent theories of evolution, this paper discussed the motive force of evolution based on the knowledge of the principle of organismal adjustment evolution to get a new understanding of the evolution mechanism. In the guide of Schrodinger's theory - "life feeds on negative entropy", the author proposed that "negative entropy flow" actually includes material flow, energy flow and information flow, and the "negative entropy flow" is the motive force for living and development. By modifying my own theory of principle of organismal adjustment evolution (not adaptation evolution), a new theory of "regulation system of organismal adjustment evolution involved in DNA, RNA and protein interacting with environment" is proposed. According to the view that phylogenetic development is the "integral" of individual development, the difference of negative entropy flow between organisms and environment is considered to be a motive force for evolution, which is a new understanding of the mechanism of evolution. Based on such understanding, evolution is regarded as "a changing process that one subsystem passes all or part of its genetic information to the next generation in a larger system, and during the adaptation process produces some new elements, stops some old ones, and thereby lasts in the larger system". Some other controversial questions related to evolution are also discussed.

  1. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  2. Demography-adjusted tests of neutrality based on genome-wide SNP data

    KAUST Repository

    Rafajlović, Marina

    2014-08-01

    Tests of the neutral evolution hypothesis are usually built on the standard model which assumes that mutations are neutral and the population size remains constant over time. However, it is unclear how such tests are affected if the last assumption is dropped. Here, we extend the unifying framework for tests based on the site frequency spectrum, introduced by Achaz and Ferretti, to populations of varying size. Key ingredients are the first two moments of the site frequency spectrum. We show how these moments can be computed analytically if a population has experienced two instantaneous size changes in the past. We apply our method to data from ten human populations gathered in the 1000 genomes project, estimate their demographies and define demography-adjusted versions of Tajima\\'s D, Fay & Wu\\'s H, and Zeng\\'s E. Our results show that demography-adjusted test statistics facilitate the direct comparison between populations and that most of the differences among populations seen in the original unadjusted tests can be explained by their underlying demographies. Upon carrying out whole-genome screens for deviations from neutrality, we identify candidate regions of recent positive selection. We provide track files with values of the adjusted and unadjusted tests for upload to the UCSC genome browser. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Inclusion of Highest Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Component Score in Mortality Risk Adjustment for Benchmarking of Trauma Center Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, David; Byrne, James P; Alali, Aziz S; Xiong, Wei; Hoeft, Chris; Neal, Melanie; Subacius, Harris; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-12-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used measure of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity. Currently, the arrival GCS motor component (mGCS) score is used in risk-adjustment models for external benchmarking of mortality. However, there is evidence that the highest mGCS score in the first 24 hours after injury might be a better predictor of death. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of including the highest mGCS score on the performance of risk-adjustment models and subsequent external benchmarking results. Data were derived from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program analytic dataset (January 2014 through March 2015) and were limited to the severe TBI cohort (16 years or older, isolated head injury, GCS ≤8). Risk-adjustment models were created that varied in the mGCS covariates only (initial score, highest score, or both initial and highest mGCS scores). Model performance and fit, as well as external benchmarking results, were compared. There were 6,553 patients with severe TBI across 231 trauma centers included. Initial and highest mGCS scores were different in 47% of patients (n = 3,097). Model performance and fit improved when both initial and highest mGCS scores were included, as evidenced by improved C-statistic, Akaike Information Criterion, and adjusted R-squared values. Three-quarters of centers changed their adjusted odds ratio decile, 2.6% of centers changed outlier status, and 45% of centers exhibited a ≥0.5-SD change in the odds ratio of death after including highest mGCS score in the model. This study supports the concept that additional clinical information has the potential to not only improve the performance of current risk-adjustment models, but can also have a meaningful impact on external benchmarking strategies. Highest mGCS score is a good potential candidate for inclusion in additional models. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Research on Environmental Adjustment of Cloud Ranch Based on BP Neural Network PID Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinzhi; Xiang, Wei; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Jianbo; Huang, Lianzhen; Tu, Qinggang; Zhao, Heming

    2018-01-01

    In order to make the intelligent ranch management mode replace the traditional artificial one gradually, this paper proposes a pasture environment control system based on cloud server, and puts forward the PID control algorithm based on BP neural network to control temperature and humidity better in the pasture environment. First, to model the temperature and humidity (controlled object) of the pasture, we can get the transfer function. Then the traditional PID control algorithm and the PID one based on BP neural network are applied to the transfer function. The obtained step tracking curves can be seen that the PID controller based on BP neural network has obvious superiority in adjusting time and error, etc. This algorithm, calculating reasonable control parameters of the temperature and humidity to control environment, can be better used in the cloud service platform.

  5. Remote Sensing-based Methodologies for Snow Model Adjustments in Operational Streamflow Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, S.; Miller, W. P.; Bernard, B.; Stokes, M.; Oaida, C. M.; Painter, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Water management agencies rely on hydrologic forecasts issued by operational agencies such as NOAA's Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). The CBRFC has partnered with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under funding from NASA to incorporate research-oriented, remotely-sensed snow data into CBRFC operations and to improve the accuracy of CBRFC forecasts. The partnership has yielded valuable analysis of snow surface albedo as represented in JPL's MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) data, across the CBRFC's area of responsibility. When dust layers within a snowpack emerge, reducing the snow surface albedo, the snowmelt rate may accelerate. The CBRFC operational snow model (SNOW17) is a temperature-index model that lacks explicit representation of snowpack surface albedo. CBRFC forecasters monitor MODDRFS data for emerging dust layers and may manually adjust SNOW17 melt rates. A technique was needed for efficient and objective incorporation of the MODDRFS data into SNOW17. Initial development focused in Colorado, where dust-on-snow events frequently occur. CBRFC forecasters used retrospective JPL-CBRFC analysis and developed a quantitative relationship between MODDRFS data and mean areal temperature (MAT) data. The relationship was used to generate adjusted, MODDRFS-informed input for SNOW17. Impacts of the MODDRFS-SNOW17 MAT adjustment method on snowmelt-driven streamflow prediction varied spatially and with characteristics of the dust deposition events. The largest improvements occurred in southwestern Colorado, in years with intense dust deposition events. Application of the method in other regions of Colorado and in "low dust" years resulted in minimal impact. The MODDRFS-SNOW17 MAT technique will be implemented in CBRFC operations in late 2015, prior to spring 2016 runoff. Collaborative investigation of remote sensing-based adjustment methods for the CBRFC operational hydrologic forecasting environment will continue over the next several years.

  6. Effects of Increasing Space Allowance by Removing a Pig or Gate Adjustment on Finishing Pig Growth Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Corey B; Holder, Cheyenne J; Wu, Fanghou; Woodworth, Jason C; DeRouchey, Joel M; Tokach, Mike D; Goodband, Robert D; Dritz, Steve S

    2018-05-03

    A total of 256 pigs (initially 55.9 ± 4.88 kg) were used in a 71-d study to determine the effects of increasing space allowance and pig removal on pig growth performance. Pens of pigs were blocked by body weight (BW) and allotted to one of four space allowance treatments, initially with 8 pigs per pen and 8 pens per treatment. First two treatments included pens with 0.91 m2 per pig or 0.63 m2 per pig for the entire study; two additional treatments initially provided 0.63 m2 per pig, but either a gate was adjusted on d 28, 45, and 62 or the heaviest pig in the pen was removed from the pen on d 28 and 45 to provide more space and keep pigs in accordance with their predicted minimum space requirement [(m2) = 0.0336 × (BW, kg)0.67]. From d 0 to 14 (56 to 69 kg), there was no effect of stocking density observed for average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed (G:F). From d 14 to 28 (69 to 83 kg), pigs provided 0.91 m2 had increased (P space adjustment treatments had greater (P space adjustments intermediate. In summary, pigs with 0.91 m2 grew faster and consumed more feed than pigs restricted in space. As pigs reached the critical k value, gate adjustments and pig removals affected growth similarly. As pigs grew to the predicted space requirement and were subsequently allowed more space, performance was greater than those provided 0.63 m2 but less than those allowed 0.91 m2. It appears that the industry accepted critical k value, 0.0336, may not be adequate for optimal pig performance across multiple BW ranges.

  7. An Efficient Bundle Adjustment Model Based on Parallax Parametrization for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Sun, Y. Y.; Lei, Y.

    2017-12-01

    With the rapid development of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), more and more research fields have been successfully equipped with this mature technology, among which is environmental monitoring. One difficult task is how to acquire accurate position of ground object in order to reconstruct the scene more accurate. To handle this problem, we combine bundle adjustment method from Photogrammetry with parallax parametrization from Computer Vision to create a new method call APCP (aerial polar-coordinate photogrammetry). One impressive advantage of this method compared with traditional method is that the 3-dimensional point in space is represented using three angles (elevation angle, azimuth angle and parallax angle) rather than the XYZ value. As the basis for APCP, bundle adjustment could be used to optimize the UAS sensors' pose accurately, reconstruct the 3D models of environment, thus serving as the criterion of accurate position for monitoring. To verity the effectiveness of the proposed method, we test on several UAV dataset obtained by non-metric digital cameras with large attitude angles, and we find that our methods could achieve 1 or 2 times better efficiency with no loss of accuracy than traditional ones. For the classical nonlinear optimization of bundle adjustment model based on the rectangular coordinate, it suffers the problem of being seriously dependent on the initial values, making it unable to converge fast or converge to a stable state. On the contrary, APCP method could deal with quite complex condition of UAS when conducting monitoring as it represent the points in space with angles, including the condition that the sequential images focusing on one object have zero parallax angle. In brief, this paper presents the parameterization of 3D feature points based on APCP, and derives a full bundle adjustment model and the corresponding nonlinear optimization problems based on this method. In addition, we analyze the influence of convergence and

  8. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5-30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10-20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2-3 km away.

  9. Time synchronization algorithm of distributed system based on server time-revise and workstation self-adjust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shumin; Sun Yamin; Tang Bin

    2007-01-01

    In order to enhance the time synchronization quality of the distributed system, a time synchronization algorithm of distributed system based on server time-revise and workstation self-adjust is proposed. The time-revise cycle and self-adjust process is introduced in the paper. The algorithm reduces network flow effectively and enhances the quality of clock-synchronization. (authors)

  10. Interpreting Mini-Mental State Examination Performance in Highly Proficient Bilingual Spanish-English and Asian Indian-English Speakers: Demographic Adjustments, Item Analyses, and Supplemental Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Lisa H; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Corcoran, Chris D; Damele, Deanna M

    2018-04-17

    Performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), among the most widely used global screens of adult cognitive status, is affected by demographic variables including age, education, and ethnicity. This study extends prior research by examining the specific effects of bilingualism on MMSE performance. Sixty independent community-dwelling monolingual and bilingual adults were recruited from eastern and western regions of the United States in this cross-sectional group study. Independent sample t tests were used to compare 2 bilingual groups (Spanish-English and Asian Indian-English) with matched monolingual speakers on the MMSE, demographically adjusted MMSE scores, MMSE item scores, and a nonverbal cognitive measure. Regression analyses were also performed to determine whether language proficiency predicted MMSE performance in both groups of bilingual speakers. Group differences were evident on the MMSE, on demographically adjusted MMSE scores, and on a small subset of individual MMSE items. Scores on a standardized screen of language proficiency predicted a significant proportion of the variance in the MMSE scores of both bilingual groups. Bilingual speakers demonstrated distinct performance profiles on the MMSE. Results suggest that supplementing the MMSE with a language screen, administering a nonverbal measure, and/or evaluating item-based patterns of performance may assist with test interpretation for this population.

  11. Relation of Home Chaos to Cognitive Performance and Behavioral Adjustment of Pakistani Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamama-tus-Sabah, Syeda; Gilani, Nighat; Wachs, Theodore D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings from Western developed countries have linked home chaos to children's cognitive performance and behavioral problems. In the present paper we test whether the same pattern of associations can be replicated in a non-Western developing country. Our sample was 203 Pakistani primary school children. To assess home chaos the Confusion,…

  12. Context-Sensitive Adjustment of Cognitive Control in Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Gottschalk, Caroline; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-01-01

    Performing 2 highly similar tasks at the same time requires an adaptive regulation of cognitive control to shield prioritized primary task processing from between-task (cross-talk) interference caused by secondary task processing. In the present study, the authors investigated how implicitly and explicitly delivered information promotes the…

  13. Strategic Adjustment Capacity, Sustained Competitive Advantage, and Firm Performance: An Evolutionary Perspective on Bird Flocking and Firm Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Imitating the positioning rules in the bird flocking system, the strategic adjustment capacity is decomposed into three aspects, which are the organizational learning capacity from the top firms, the extent to which firms maintain or rely on the best operational capacity vector in history, and the ability to overcome the disadvantage while maintaining the advantage of the operational capacity vector from the previous years, respectively. Financial vectors are constructed to represent the results of corporate strategic adjustment and listed firms in the China A stock are chosen as the samples. As empirical analysis reveals, there is a positive correlation between the organizational learning capacity from the top firms and the firm performance and a U-shaped relation between the learning capability from the previous best operational capacity vector and the firm performance. However, no significant correlation between the inertia control ability of the current operational capacity vector of the firms and their performance improvement can be observed. This study verifies that the issue of corporate competitiveness and performance can be investigated by utilizing the principles of competition in nature. Moreover, a firm can obtain a sustainable competitive advantage by improving its ability to learn from top firms in the industry.

  14. The Adjustment of spouses and expatriates and its relationship with expatriate’s performance in international assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Tristão Simonelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of an expatriate is a function of several factors and family issues have been identified as potential influencers in the process. However, little is known about the effect of the existing role of the spouse in the adaptation of the expatriate. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the adjustment of expatriates and their spouses with the performance of the expatriate. It is a quantitative study with 217 couples in which one member of the couple occupied the expatriate position. The results showed no significant relationship between the adjustment of the spouse and the performance of the expatriate, but revealed that the adaptation of expatriate moderates the relationship between these variables. These results suggest that the adaptation of the spouse can have an indirect relationship on expatriate performance, via the expatriate’s adaptation. These findings support the idea that companies should invest in organizational support to facilitate a better fit of the expatriate and his spouse to the host country culture and to promote a higher individual performance.

  15. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable......Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling...... overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5–30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall...

  16. Evaluation of two dairy herd reproductive performance indicators that are adjusted for voluntary waiting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löf Emma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall reproductive performance of dairy herds is monitored by various indicators. Most of them do not consider all eligible animals and do not consider different management strategies at farm level. This problem can be alleviated by measuring the proportion of pregnant cows by specific intervals after their calving date or after a fixed time period, such as the voluntary waiting period. The aim of this study was to evaluate two reproductive performance indicators that consider the voluntary waiting period at the herd. The two indicators were: percentage of pregnant cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (PV30 and percentage of inseminated cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (IV30. We wanted to assess how PV30 and IV30 perform in a simulation of herds with different reproductive management and physiology and to compare them to indicators of reproductive performance that do not consider the herd voluntary waiting period. Methods To evaluate the reproductive indicators we used the SimHerd-program, a stochastic simulation model, and 18 scenarios were simulated. The scenarios were designed by altering the reproductive management efficiency and the status of reproductive physiology of the herd. Logistic regression models, together with receiver operating characteristics (ROC, were used to examine how well the reproductive performance indicators could discriminate between herds of different levels of reproductive management efficiency or reproductive physiology. Results The logistic regression models with the ROC analysis showed that IV30 was the indicator that best discriminated between different levels of management efficiency followed by PV30, calving interval, 200-days not-in calf-rate (NotIC200, in calf rate at100-days (IC100 and a fertility index. For reproductive physiology the ROC analysis showed that the fertility index was the indicator that best discriminated

  17. A threshold auto-adjustment algorithm of feature points extraction based on grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zili; Li, Jun; Dong, Gaojie

    2018-02-01

    When dealing with high-resolution digital images, detection of feature points is usually the very first important step. Valid feature points depend on the threshold. If the threshold is too low, plenty of feature points will be detected, and they may be aggregated in the rich texture regions, which consequently not only affects the speed of feature description, but also aggravates the burden of following processing; if the threshold is set high, the feature points in poor texture area will lack. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a threshold auto-adjustment method of feature extraction based on grid. By dividing the image into numbers of grid, threshold is set in every local grid for extracting the feature points. When the number of feature points does not meet the threshold requirement, the threshold will be adjusted automatically to change the final number of feature points The experimental results show that feature points produced by our method is more uniform and representative, which avoids the aggregation of feature points and greatly reduces the complexity of following work.

  18. Bundle Block Adjustment of Airborne Three-Line Array Imagery Based on Rotation Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of the rapid developments in electronic instruments and remote sensing technologies, airborne three-line array sensors and their applications are being widely promoted and plentiful research related to data processing and high precision geo-referencing technologies is under way. The exterior orientation parameters (EOPs, which are measured by the integrated positioning and orientation system (POS of airborne three-line sensors, however, have inevitable systematic errors, so the level of precision of direct geo-referencing is not sufficiently accurate for surveying and mapping applications. Consequently, a few ground control points are necessary to refine the exterior orientation parameters, and this paper will discuss bundle block adjustment models based on the systematic error compensation and the orientation image, considering the principle of an image sensor and the characteristics of the integrated POS. Unlike the models available in the literature, which mainly use a quaternion to represent the rotation matrix of exterior orientation, three rotation angles are directly used in order to effectively model and eliminate the systematic errors of the POS observations. Very good experimental results have been achieved with several real datasets that verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed adjustment models.

  19. Experimental study on the performance of single screw expanders by gap adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Yu-ting; Ma, Chong-fang; Xia, Guo-dong; Wang, Jing-fu

    2013-01-01

    Improving thermodynamic efficiency of prime movers is the key issue for efficient utilization of low-temperature heat resources. Single screw expander may be a good candidate because of its many good characteristics. Precisions in manufacture and assembly are very important factors to the performance of single screw expanders. In this paper, the shaft efficiency, volumetric efficiency and gas consumption rate of the single screw expander prototypes were tested and discussed. We have manufactured three prototypes with different gaps to investigate their performance. The first prototype (A) has the largest gap, and the second one (B) has the smallest gap, the third prototype (C) has the medium gap configuration. Experimental result of the prototypes was obtained. From the experimental data of prototype A, the power output was about 5 kW, the gas consumption rate was above 105 kg/kWh and the volumetric efficiency was below 20%, the shaft efficiency was only 34%. From experimental data of prototype B, the mass flow rate was significantly decreased. The power output was only 1.4 kW and the volumetric efficiency was slightly lower than prototype A. The gas consumption rate was much more than that of prototype A. From the experimental data of prototype C, the power output was about 4.5 kW, but the mass flow rate was sharply decreased. The gas consumption rate was about 65 kg/kWh, the maximum volumetric efficiency was about 66%, and the shaft efficiency was about 60%. The experimental results indicated that prototype C of single screw expanders had the best overall performance, which may be further improved by optimizing its configuration. - Highlights: • The experiment for three single screw expander prototypes at different gaps was carried out. • Maximum shaft efficiency is about 60%. • Minimum gas consumption rate is about 65 kg/kWh. • Maximum volumetric efficiency is about 66%. • Leaked gas still has part of working capability

  20. Predictive analytics tools to adjust and monitor performance metrics for the ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Having information such as an estimation of the processing time or possibility of system outage (abnormal behaviour) helps to assist to monitor system performance and to predict its next state. The current cyber-infrastructure presents computing conditions in which contention for resources among high-priority data analysis happens routinely, that might lead to significant workload and data handling interruptions. The lack of the possibility to monitor and to predict the behaviour of the analysis process (its duration) and system’s state itself caused to focus on design of the built-in situational awareness analytic tools.

  1. Physical injury assessment of male versus female chiropractic students when learning and performing various adjustive techniques: a preliminary investigative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Laura L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of musculoskeletal injuries that some chiropractic students experienced while in the role of adjustor became increasingly evident and developed into the basis of this study. The main objective of this study was to survey a select student population and identify, by gender, the specific types of musculoskeletal injuries they experienced when learning adjustive techniques in the classroom, and performing them in the clinical setting. Methods A survey was developed to record musculoskeletal injuries that students reported to have sustained while practicing chiropractic adjustment set-ups and while delivering adjustments. The survey was modeled from similar instruments used in the university's clinic as well as those used in professional practice. Stratified sampling was used to obtain participants for the study. Data reported the anatomical areas of injury, adjustive technique utilized, the type of injury received, and the recovery time from sustained injuries. The survey also inquired as to the type and area of any past physical injuries as well as the mechanism(s of injury. Results Data obtained from the study identified injuries of the shoulder, wrist, elbow, neck, low back, and mid-back. The low back was the most common injury site reported by females, and the neck was the most common site reported by males. The reported wrist injuries in both genders were 1% male complaints and 17% female complaints. A total of 13% of female respondents reported shoulder injuries, whereas less than 1% of male respondents indicated similar complaints. Conclusion The data collected from the project indicated that obtaining further information on the subject would be worthwhile, and could provide an integral step toward developing methods of behavior modification in an attempt to reduce and/or prevent the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries.

  2. A New Approach to Performing Bundle Adjustment for Time Series UAV Images 3D Building Change Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhuo Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful change detection in multi-temporal images relies on high spatial co-registration accuracy. However, co-registration accuracy alone cannot meet the needs of change detection when using several ground control points to separately geo-reference multi-temporal images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. This letter reports on a new approach to perform bundle adjustment—named united bundle adjustment (UBA—to solve this co-registration problem for change detection in multi-temporal UAV images. In UBA, multi-temporal UAV images are matched with each other to construct a unified tie point net. One single bundle adjustment process is performed on the unified tie point net, placing every image into the same coordinate system and thus automatically accomplishing spatial co-registration. We then perform change detection using both orthophotos and three-dimensional height information derived from dense image matching techniques. Experimental results show that UBA co-registration accuracy is higher than the accuracy of commonly-used approaches for multi-temporal UAV images. Our proposed preprocessing method extends the capacities of consumer-level UAVs so they can eventually meet the growing need for automatic building change detection and dynamic monitoring using only RGB band images.

  3. Predictive analytics tools to adjust and monitor performance metrics for the ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Every scientific workflow involves an organizational part which purpose is to plan an analysis process thoroughly according to defined schedule, thus to keep work progress efficient. Having such information as an estimation of the processing time or possibility of system outage (abnormal behaviour) will improve the planning process, provide an assistance to monitor system performance and predict its next state. The ATLAS Production System is an automated scheduling system that is responsible for central production of Monte-Carlo data, highly specialized production for physics groups, as well as data pre-processing and analysis using such facilities as grid infrastructures, clouds and supercomputers. With its next generation (ProdSys2) the processing rate is around 2M tasks per year that is more than 365M jobs per year. ProdSys2 evolves to accommodate a growing number of users and new requirements from the ATLAS Collaboration, physics groups and individual users. ATLAS Distributed Computing in its current stat...

  4. Case mix adjustment of health outcomes, resource use and process indicators in childbirth care: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesterton, Johan; Lindgren, Peter; Ekenberg Abreu, Anna; Ladfors, Lars; Lilja, Monica; Saltvedt, Sissel; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis

    2016-05-31

    Unwarranted variation in care practice and outcomes has gained attention and inter-hospital comparisons are increasingly being used to highlight and understand differences between hospitals. Adjustment for case mix is a prerequisite for meaningful comparisons between hospitals with different patient populations. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify maternal characteristics that impact a set of important indicators of health outcomes, resource use and care process and which could be used for case mix adjustment of comparisons between hospitals. In this register-based study, 139 756 deliveries in 2011 and 2012 were identified in regional administrative systems from seven Swedish regions, which together cover 67 % of all deliveries in Sweden. Data were linked to the Medical birth register and Statistics Sweden's population data. A number of important indicators in childbirth care were studied: Caesarean section (CS), induction of labour, length of stay, perineal tears, haemorrhage > 1000 ml and post-partum infections. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics deemed relevant for case mix adjustment of outcomes and resource use were identified based on previous literature and based on clinical expertise. Adjustment using logistic and ordinary least squares regression analysis was performed to quantify the impact of these characteristics on the studied indicators. Almost all case mix factors analysed had an impact on CS rate, induction rate and length of stay and the effect was highly statistically significant for most factors. Maternal age, parity, fetal presentation and multiple birth were strong predictors of all these indicators but a number of additional factors such as born outside the EU, body mass index (BMI) and several complications during pregnancy were also important risk factors. A number of maternal characteristics had a noticeable impact on risk of perineal tears, while the impact of case mix factors was less pronounced for

  5. Localization of an Underwater Control Network Based on Quasi-Stable Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinhua; Zhang, Hongmei; Feng, Jie

    2018-01-01

    There exists a common problem in the localization of underwater control networks that the precision of the absolute coordinates of known points obtained by marine absolute measurement is poor, and it seriously affects the precision of the whole network in traditional constraint adjustment. Therefore, considering that the precision of underwater baselines is good, we use it to carry out quasi-stable adjustment to amend known points before constraint adjustment so that the points fit the network shape better. In addition, we add unconstrained adjustment for quality control of underwater baselines, the observations of quasi-stable adjustment and constrained adjustment, to eliminate the unqualified baselines and improve the results’ accuracy of the two adjustments. Finally, the modified method is applied to a practical LBL (Long Baseline) experiment and obtains a mean point location precision of 0.08 m, which improves by 38% compared with the traditional method. PMID:29570627

  6. Optimal Scheme Selection of Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment - Based on DEA Model; Punjab (Pakistan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun; Muhammad Abdullah; Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq; Majid Lateef; Imran Khan

    2015-01-01

    This paper used the modern evaluation method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) to assess the comparative efficiency and then on the basis of this among multiple schemes chose the optimal scheme of agricultural production structure adjustment. Based on the results of DEA model, we dissected scale advantages of each discretionary scheme or plan. We examined scale advantages of each discretionary scheme, tested profoundly a definitive purpose behind not-DEA efficient, which elucidated the system and methodology to enhance these discretionary plans. At the end, another method had been proposed to rank and select the optimal scheme. The research was important to guide the practice if the modification of agricultural production industrial structure was carried on.

  7. A novel micro-accelerometer with adjustable sensitivity based on resonant tunnelling diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji-Jun, Xiong; Wen-Dong, Zhang; Kai-Qun, Wang; Hai-Yang, Mao

    2009-01-01

    Resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs) have negative differential resistance effect, and the current-voltage characteristics change as a function of external stress, which is regarded as meso-piezoresistance effect of RTDs. In this paper, a novel micro-accelerometer based on AlAs/GaAs/In 0.1 Ga 0.9 As/GaAs/AlAs RTDs is designed and fabricated to be a four-beam-mass structure, and an RTD-Wheatstone bridge measurement system is established to test the basic properties of this novel accelerometer. According to the experimental results, the sensitivity of the RTD based micro-accelerometer is adjustable within a range of 3 orders when the bias voltage of the sensor changes. The largest sensitivity of this RTD based micro-accelerometer is 560.2025 mV/g which is about 10 times larger than that of silicon based micro piezoresistive accelerometer, while the smallest one is 1.49135 mV/g. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. [Motion control of moving mirror based on fixed-mirror adjustment in FTIR spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-bing; Xu, Xian-ze; Le, Yi; Xu, Feng-qiu; Li, Jun-wei

    2012-08-01

    The performance of the uniform motion of the moving mirror, which is the only constant motion part in FTIR spectrometer, and the performance of the alignment of the fixed mirror play a key role in FTIR spectrometer, and affect the interference effect and the quality of the spectrogram and may restrict the precision and resolution of the instrument directly. The present article focuses on the research on the uniform motion of the moving mirror and the alignment of the fixed mirror. In order to improve the FTIR spectrometer, the maglev support system was designed for the moving mirror and the phase detection technology was adopted to adjust the tilt angle between the moving mirror and the fixed mirror. This paper also introduces an improved fuzzy PID control algorithm to get the accurate speed of the moving mirror and realize the control strategy from both hardware design and algorithm. The results show that the development of the moving mirror motion control system gets sufficient accuracy and real-time, which can ensure the uniform motion of the moving mirror and the alignment of the fixed mirror.

  9. Voltage adjusting characteristics in terahertz transmission through Fabry-Pérot-based metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallic electric split-ring resonators (SRRs with featured size in micrometer scale, which are connected by thin metal wires, are patterned to form a periodically distributed planar array. The arrayed metallic SRRs are fabricated on an n-doped gallium arsenide (n-GaAs layer grown directly over a semi-insulating gallium arsenide (SI-GaAs wafer. The patterned metal microstructures and n-GaAs layer construct a Schottky diode, which can support an external voltage applied to modify the device properties. The developed architectures present typical functional metamaterial characters, and thus is proposed to reveal voltage adjusting characteristics in the transmission of terahertz waves at normal incidence. We also demonstrate the terahertz transmission characteristics of the voltage controlled Fabry-Pérot-based metamaterial device, which is composed of arrayed metallic SRRs. To date, many metamaterials developed in earlier works have been used to regulate the transmission amplitude or phase at specific frequencies in terahertz wavelength range, which are mainly dominated by the inductance-capacitance (LC resonance mechanism. However, in our work, the external voltage controlled metamaterial device is developed, and the extraordinary transmission regulation characteristics based on both the Fabry-Pérot (FP resonance and relatively weak surface plasmon polariton (SPP resonance in 0.025-1.5 THz range, are presented. Our research therefore shows a potential application of the dual-mode-resonance-based metamaterial for improving terahertz transmission regulation.

  10. ADJUSTMENT OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF WATER BASINS BASED ON DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasil'nikov Vitaliy Mikhaylovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that effective use of water resources requires accurate morphometric characteristics of water basins. Accurate parameters are needed to analyze their condition, and to assure their appropriate control and operation. Today multiple water basins need their morphometric characteristics to be adjusted and properly stored. The procedure employed so far is based on plane geometric horizontals depicted onto topographic maps. It is described in the procedural guidelines issued in respect of the «Application of water resource regulations governing the operation of waterworks facilities of power plants». The technology described there is obsolete due to the availability of specialized software. The computer technique is based on a digital terrain model. The authors provide an overview of the technique implemented at Rybinsk and Gorkiy water basins in this article. Thus, the digital terrain model generated on the basis of the field data is used at Gorkiy water basin, while the model based on maps and charts is applied at Rybinsk water basin. The authors believe that the software technique can be applied to any other water basin on the basis of the analysis and comparison of morphometric characteristics of the two water basins.

  11. Development and Testing of a Decision Making Based Method to Adjust Automatically the Harrowing Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Ayala, Victor; Weis, Martin; Keller, Martina; Andújar, Dionisio; Gerhards, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Harrowing is often used to reduce weed competition, generally using a constant intensity across a whole field. The efficacy of weed harrowing in wheat and barley can be optimized, if site-specific conditions of soil, weed infestation and crop growth stage are taken into account. This study aimed to develop and test an algorithm to automatically adjust the harrowing intensity by varying the tine angle and number of passes. The field variability of crop leaf cover, weed density and soil density was acquired with geo-referenced sensors to investigate the harrowing selectivity and crop recovery. Crop leaf cover and weed density were assessed using bispectral cameras through differential images analysis. The draught force of the soil opposite to the direction of travel was measured with electronic load cell sensor connected to a rigid tine mounted in front of the harrow. Optimal harrowing intensity levels were derived in previously implemented experiments, based on the weed control efficacy and yield gain. The assessments of crop leaf cover, weed density and soil density were combined via rules with the aforementioned optimal intensities, in a linguistic fuzzy inference system (LFIS). The system was evaluated in two field experiments that compared constant intensities with variable intensities inferred by the system. A higher weed density reduction could be achieved when the harrowing intensity was not kept constant along the cultivated plot. Varying the intensity tended to reduce the crop leaf cover, though slightly improving crop yield. A real-time intensity adjustment with this system is achievable, if the cameras are attached in the front and at the rear or sides of the harrow. PMID:23669712

  12. Development and Testing of a Decision Making Based Method to Adjust Automatically the Harrowing Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Gerhards

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Harrowing is often used to reduce weed competition, generally using a constant intensity across a whole field. The efficacy of weed harrowing in wheat and barley can be optimized, if site-specific conditions of soil, weed infestation and crop growth stage are taken into account. This study aimed to develop and test an algorithm to automatically adjust the harrowing intensity by varying the tine angle and number of passes. The field variability of crop leaf cover, weed density and soil density was acquired with geo-referenced sensors to investigate the harrowing selectivity and crop recovery. Crop leaf cover and weed density were assessed using bispectral cameras through differential images analysis. The draught force of the soil opposite to the direction of travel was measured with electronic load cell sensor connected to a rigid tine mounted in front of the harrow. Optimal harrowing intensity levels were derived in previously implemented experiments, based on the weed control efficacy and yield gain. The assessments of crop leaf cover, weed density and soil density were combined via rules with the aforementioned optimal intensities, in a linguistic fuzzy inference system (LFIS. The system was evaluated in two field experiments that compared constant intensities with variable intensities inferred by the system. A higher weed density reduction could be achieved when the harrowing intensity was not kept constant along the cultivated plot. Varying the intensity tended to reduce the crop leaf cover, though slightly improving crop yield. A real-time intensity adjustment with this system is achievable, if the cameras are attached in the front and at the rear or sides of the harrow.

  13. Shaft adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  14. Development of the adjusted nuclear cross-section library based on JENDL-3.2 for large FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, Makoto; Numata, Kazuyuki

    1999-04-01

    JNC (and PNC) had developed the adjusted nuclear cross-section library in which the results of the JUPITER experiments were reflected. Using this adjusted library, the distinct improvement of the accuracy in nuclear design of FBR cores had been achieved. As a recent research, JNC develops a database of other integral data in addition to the JUPITER experiments, aiming at further improvement for accuracy and reliability. In 1991, the adjusted library based on JENDL-2, JFS-3-J2 (ADJ91R), was developed, and it has been used on the design research for FBR. As an evaluated nuclear library, however, JENDL-3.2 is recently used. Therefore, the authors developed an adjusted library based on JENDL-3.2 which is called JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98). It is known that the adjusted library based on JENDL-2 overestimated the sodium void reactivity worth by 10-20%. It is expected that the adjusted library based on JENDL-3.2 solve the problem. The adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) was produced with the same method as the adjusted library JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R) and used more integral parameters of JUPITER experiments than the adjusted library JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R). This report also describes the design accuracy estimation on a 600 MWe class FBR with the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98). Its main nuclear design parameters (multiplication factor, burn-up reactivity loss, breeding ratio, etc.) except the sodium void reactivity worth which are calculated with the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) are almost the same as those predicted with JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R). As for the sodium void reactivity, the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) estimates about 4% smaller than the JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R) because of the change of the basic nuclear library from JENDL-2 to JENDL-3.2. (author)

  15. Do diagnosis-related group-based payments incentivise hospitals to adjust output mix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li-Lin

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates whether the diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based payment method motivates hospitals to adjust output mix in order to maximise profits. The hypothesis is that when there is an increase in profitability of a DRG, hospitals will increase the proportion of that DRG (own-price effects) and decrease those of other DRGs (cross-price effects), except in cases where there are scope economies in producing two different DRGs. This conjecture is tested in the context of the case payment scheme (CPS) under Taiwan's National Health Insurance programme over the period of July 1999 to December 2004. To tackle endogeneity of DRG profitability and treatment policy, a fixed-effects three-stage least squares method is applied. The results support the hypothesised own-price and cross-price effects, showing that DRGs which share similar resources appear to be complements rather substitutes. For-profit hospitals do not appear to be more responsive to DRG profitability, possibly because of their institutional characteristics and bonds with local communities. The key conclusion is that DRG-based payments will encourage a type of 'product-range' specialisation, which may improve hospital efficiency in the long run. However, further research is needed on how changes in output mix impact patient access and pay-outs of health insurance. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Risk-adjusted econometric model to estimate postoperative costs: an additional instrument for monitoring performance after major lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Salati, Michele; Refai, Majed; Xiumé, Francesco; Rocco, Gaetano; Sabbatini, Armando

    2007-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a risk-adjusted model to estimate individual postoperative costs after major lung resection and to use it for internal economic audit. Variable and fixed hospital costs were collected for 679 consecutive patients who underwent major lung resection from January 2000 through October 2006 at our unit. Several preoperative variables were used to develop a risk-adjusted econometric model from all patients operated on during the period 2000 through 2003 by a stepwise multiple regression analysis (validated by bootstrap). The model was then used to estimate the postoperative costs in the patients operated on during the 3 subsequent periods (years 2004, 2005, and 2006). Observed and predicted costs were then compared within each period by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Multiple regression and bootstrap analysis yielded the following model predicting postoperative cost: 11,078 + 1340.3X (age > 70 years) + 1927.8X cardiac comorbidity - 95X ppoFEV1%. No differences between predicted and observed costs were noted in the first 2 periods analyzed (year 2004, $6188.40 vs $6241.40, P = .3; year 2005, $6308.60 vs $6483.60, P = .4), whereas in the most recent period (2006) observed costs were significantly lower than the predicted ones ($3457.30 vs $6162.70, P model may be used as a methodologic template for economic audit in our specialty and complement more traditional outcome measures in the assessment of performance.

  17. Technical Performance and Clinical Effectiveness of Drop Type With Adjustable Concentrator-Cell Free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Harada, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Akinori; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Chino, Takashi; Minowa, Takashi; Kosuge, Takashi; Tsukada, Wataru; Hashimoto, Koji; Kamijo, Yuji

    2017-12-01

    Cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) is a very useful treatment method for refractory ascites but is difficult for many hospitals to employ due to its need for specialized equipment. We have therefore developed drop-type with adjustable concentrator CART (DC-CART) that uses a drop-type filtration mechanism and requires only a simple pump and pressure monitor for its concentration process. Easy adjustment of ascites concentration is possible through a recirculation loop, and filter membrane washing is aided by DC-CART's external pressure-type filtration to enable the processing of any quality or quantity of ascites. Moreover, the absence of a roller pump before filtration avoids inflammatory substance release from compressed cells. A total of 268 sessions of DC-CART using ascites from 98 patients were performed with good clinical results at our hospitals between January 2012 and June 2016. This report presents the detailed methods of DC-CART and summarizes its clinical effectiveness using patient ascites and blood data obtained from 59 sessions between March 2015 and February 2016. This novel technique successfully processed refractory ascites in numerous diseases with no serious adverse events. DC-CART could concentrate large amounts of ascites (from median weight: 4900 g [max: 20 200 g] to median weight: 695 g; median concentration ratio: 7.4), and a high amount of protein (median weight: 73 g [max: 294 g]) could be reinfused. Serum albumin levels were significantly increased (P = 0.010) and kidney function and systemic hemodynamics were well maintained in treated subjects. Additional concentration of ascites and adjustment of ascites volume were easily performed by recirculation (from median weight: 615 g to median weight: 360 g; median concentration ratio: 1.5). Time was needed during DC-CART for filter membrane cleaning, especially for viscous ascites. Overall, DC-CART represents a safe and useful treatment method for various forms

  18. A Pre-Detection Based Anti-Collision Algorithm with Adjustable Slot Size Scheme for Tag Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Kuo LIANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the research areas in RFID systems is a tag anti-collision protocol; how to reduce identification time with a given number of tags in the field of an RFID reader. There are two types of tag anti-collision protocols for RFID systems: tree based algorithms and slotted aloha based algorithms. Many anti-collision algorithms have been proposed in recent years, especially in tree based protocols. However, there still have challenges on enhancing the system throughput and stability due to the underlying technologies had faced different limitation in system performance when network density is high. Particularly, the tree based protocols had faced the long identification delay. Recently, a Hybrid Hyper Query Tree (H2QT protocol, which is a tree based approach, was proposed and aiming to speedup tag identification in large scale RFID systems. The main idea of H2QT is to track the tag response and try to predict the distribution of tag IDs in order to reduce collisions. In this paper, we propose a pre-detection tree based algorithm, called the Adaptive Pre-Detection Broadcasting Query Tree algorithm (APDBQT, to avoid those unnecessary queries. Our proposed APDBQT protocol can reduce not only the collisions but the idle cycles as well by using pre-detection scheme and adjustable slot size mechanism. The simulation results show that our proposed technique provides superior performance in high density environments. It is shown that the APDBQT is effective in terms of increasing system throughput and minimizing identification delay.

  19. Quantifying Averted Disability-Adjusted Life Years as a Performance Indicator for Water Quality Interventions: A Review of Current Methodologies and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy M. Anderson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable access to safe drinking water protects against infectious disease and promotes overall health. Despite considerable progress toward increasing water access, safe water quality and reliable service delivery remain a challenge. Traditional financing strategies pay implementers based on inputs and activities, with minimal incentives for water quality monitoring and sustained service operation. Pay-for-performance offers an alternative financing strategy that delivers all or a portion of payment based on performance indicators of desired outputs or outcomes. A pay-for-performance approach in the water sector could quantify and incentivize health impact. Averted disability-adjusted life years (ADALYs have been used as a performance indicator to measure the burden of disease averted due to environmental health interventions. Water-related disease burden can be measured for application as an ADALYs performance indicator following either comparative risk assessment or quantitative microbial risk assessment. Comparative risk assessment models disease burden using water source type as a proxy indicator of microbial water quality, while quantitative microbial risk assessment models disease burden using concentrations of indicator pathogens. This paper compares these risk assessment methodologies, and summarizes the limitations of applying these approaches toward quantifying ADALYs as a performance indicator for water quality interventions.

  20. Is Weight-Based Adjustment of Automatic Exposure Control Necessary for the Reduction of Chest CT Radiation Dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Priyanka; Gilman, Matthew D.; Shepard, Jo-Anne O.; Digumarthy, Subba R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of radiation dose reduction in the chest CT using a weight-based adjustment of the automatic exposure control (AEC) technique. Materials and Methods With Institutional Review Board Approval, 60 patients (mean age, 59.1 years; M:F = 35:25) and 57 weight-matched patients (mean age, 52.3 years, M:F = 25:32) were scanned using a weight-adjusted AEC and non-weight-adjusted AEC, respectively on a 64-slice multidetector CT with a 0.984:1 pitch, 0.5 second rotation time, 40 mm table feed/rotation, and 2.5 mm section thickness. Patients were categorized into 3 weight categories; 90 kg (n = 48). Patient weights, scanning parameters, CT dose index volumes (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded, while effective dose (ED) was estimated. Image noise was measured in the descending thoracic aorta. Data were analyzed using a standard statistical package (SAS/STAT) (Version 9.1, SAS institute Inc, Cary, NC). Results Compared to the non-weight-adjusted AEC, the weight-adjusted AEC technique resulted in an average decrease of 29% in CTDIvol and a 27% effective dose reduction (p 91 kg weight groups, respectively, compared to 20.3, 27.9 and 32.8 mGy, with non-weight-adjusted AEC. No significant difference was observed for objective image noise between the chest CT acquired with the non-weight-adjusted (15.0 ± 3.1) and weight-adjusted (16.1 ± 5.6) AEC techniques (p > 0.05). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that AEC should be tailored according to patient weight. Without weight-based adjustment of AEC, patients are exposed to a 17 - 43% higher radiation-dose from a chest CT. PMID:20046494

  1. Performance-based planning and programming guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    "Performance-based planning and programming (PBPP) refers to the application of performance management principles within the planning and programming processes of transportation agencies to achieve desired performance outcomes for the multimodal tran...

  2. Spatial Analysis of Land Adjustment as a Rehabilitation Base of Mangrove in Indramayu Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodikin; Sitorus, S. R. P.; Prasetyo, L. B.; Kusmana, C.

    2018-02-01

    Indramayu Regency is the area that has the largest mangrove in West Java. According to the environment and forestry ministry of Indramayu district will be targeted to be the central area of mangrove Indonesia. Mangroves in the regency from the 1990s have experienced a significant decline caused by the conversion of mangrove land into ponds and settlements. To stop the mangrove decline that continues to occur, it is necessary to rehabilitate mangroves in the area. The rehabilitation of mangrove should be in the area suitable for mangrove growth and what kind of vegetation analysis is appropriate to plant the area, so the purpose of this research is to analyze the suitability of land for mangrove in Indramayu Regency. This research uses geographic information system with overlay technique, while the data used in this research is tidal map of sea water, salintas map, land ph map, soil texture map, sea level rise map, land use map, community participation level map, and Map of organic soil. Then overlay and adjusted to matrix environmental parameters for mangrove growth. Based on the results of the analysis is known that in Indramayu District there are 5 types of mangroves that fit among others Bruguera, Soneratia, Nypah, Rhizophora, and Avicennia. The area of each area is Bruguera with an area of 6260 ha, 2958 ha, nypah 1756 ha, Rhizophora 936, and Avicennia 433 ha.

  3. Study on Electricity Business Expansion and Electricity Sales Based on Seasonal Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Han, Xueshan; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Li; Yang, Guangsen; Sun, Donglei; Wang, Bolun

    2017-05-01

    [1] proposed a novel analysis and forecast method of electricity business expansion based on Seasonal Adjustment, we extend this work to include the effect the micro and macro aspects, respectively. From micro aspect, we introduce the concept of load factor to forecast the stable value of electricity consumption of single new consumer after the installation of new capacity of the high-voltage transformer. From macro aspects, considering the growth of business expanding is also stimulated by the growth of electricity sales, it is necessary to analyse the antecedent relationship between business expanding and electricity sales. First, forecast electricity consumption of customer group and release rules of expanding capacity, respectively. Second, contrast the degree of fitting and prediction accuracy to find out the antecedence relationship and analyse the reason. Also, it can be used as a contrast to observe the influence of customer group in different ranges on the prediction precision. Finally, Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is accurate to help determine the value of expanding capacity and electricity consumption.

  4. A Newly Designed Fiber-Optic Based Earth Pressure Transducer with Adjustable Measurement Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Zhen Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel fiber-optic based earth pressure sensor (FPS with an adjustable measurement range and high sensitivity is developed to measure earth pressures for civil infrastructures. The new FPS combines a cantilever beam with fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors and a flexible membrane. Compared with a traditional pressure transducer with a dual diaphragm design, the proposed FPS has a larger measurement range and shows high accuracy. The working principles, parameter design, fabrication methods, and laboratory calibration tests are explained in this paper. A theoretical solution is derived to obtain the relationship between the applied pressure and strain of the FBG sensors. In addition, a finite element model is established to analyze the mechanical behavior of the membrane and the cantilever beam and thereby obtain optimal parameters. The cantilever beam is 40 mm long, 15 mm wide, and 1 mm thick. The whole FPS has a diameter of 100 mm and a thickness of 30 mm. The sensitivity of the FPS is 0.104 kPa/με. In addition, automatic temperature compensation can be achieved. The FPS’s sensitivity, physical properties, and response to applied pressure are extensively examined through modeling and experiments. The results show that the proposed FPS has numerous potential applications in soil pressure measurement.

  5. POSITIONING BASED ON INTEGRATION OF MUTI-SENSOR SYSTEMS USING KALMAN FILTER AND LEAST SQUARE ADJUSTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omidalizarandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor fusion is to combine different sensor data from different sources in order to make a more accurate model. In this research, different sensors (Optical Speed Sensor, Bosch Sensor, Odometer, XSENS, Silicon and GPS receiver have been utilized to obtain different kinds of datasets to implement the multi-sensor system and comparing the accuracy of the each sensor with other sensors. The scope of this research is to estimate the current position and orientation of the Van. The Van's position can also be estimated by integrating its velocity and direction over time. To make these components work, it needs an interface that can bridge each other in a data acquisition module. The interface of this research has been developed based on using Labview software environment. Data have been transferred to PC via A/D convertor (LabJack and make a connection to PC. In order to synchronize all the sensors, calibration parameters of each sensor is determined in preparatory step. Each sensor delivers result in a sensor specific coordinate system that contains different location on the object, different definition of coordinate axes and different dimensions and units. Different test scenarios (Straight line approach and Circle approach with different algorithms (Kalman Filter, Least square Adjustment have been examined and the results of the different approaches are compared together.

  6. An adjustable multi-scale single beam acoustic tweezers based on ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Lam, Kwok Ho; Chen, Ruimin; Chen, Zeyu; Yu, Ping; Chen, Zhongping; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the fabrication, characterization, and microparticle manipulation capability of an adjustable multi-scale single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) that is capable of flexibly changing the size of "tweezers" like ordinary metal tweezers with a single-element ultrahigh frequency (UHF) ultrasonic transducer. The measured resonant frequency of the developed transducer at 526 MHz is the highest frequency of piezoelectric single crystal based ultrasonic transducers ever reported. This focused UHF ultrasonic transducer exhibits a wide bandwidth (95.5% at -10 dB) due to high attenuation of high-frequency ultrasound wave, which allows the SBAT effectively excite with a wide range of excitation frequency from 150 to 400 MHz by using the "piezoelectric actuator" model. Through controlling the excitation frequency, the wavelength of ultrasound emitted from the SBAT can be changed to selectively manipulate a single microparticle of different sizes (3-100 μm) by using only one transducer. This concept of flexibly changing "tweezers" size is firstly introduced into the study of SBAT. At the same time, it was found that this incident ultrasound wavelength play an important role in lateral trapping and manipulation for microparticle of different sizes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2637-2647. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Computer-aided system of evaluation for population-based all-in-one service screening (CASE-PASS): from study design to outcome analysis with bias adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Duffy, Stephen W; Tabar, Laszlo; Lin, Wen-Chou; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2010-10-01

    Population-based routine service screening has gained popularity following an era of randomized controlled trials. The evaluation of these service screening programs is subject to study design, data availability, and the precise data analysis for adjusting bias. We developed a computer-aided system that allows the evaluation of population-based service screening to unify these aspects and facilitate and guide the program assessor to efficiently perform an evaluation. This system underpins two experimental designs: the posttest-only non-equivalent design and the one-group pretest-posttest design and demonstrates the type of data required at both the population and individual levels. Three major analyses were developed that included a cumulative mortality analysis, survival analysis with lead-time adjustment, and self-selection bias adjustment. We used SAS AF software to develop a graphic interface system with a pull-down menu style. We demonstrate the application of this system with data obtained from a Swedish population-based service screen and a population-based randomized controlled trial for the screening of breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer, and one service screening program for cervical cancer with Pap smears. The system provided automated descriptive results based on the various sources of available data and cumulative mortality curves corresponding to the study designs. The comparison of cumulative survival between clinically and screen-detected cases without a lead-time adjustment are also demonstrated. The intention-to-treat and noncompliance analysis with self-selection bias adjustments are also shown to assess the effectiveness of the population-based service screening program. Model validation was composed of a comparison between our adjusted self-selection bias estimates and the empirical results on effectiveness reported in the literature. We demonstrate a computer-aided system allowing the evaluation of population-based service screening

  8. ADJUST: An automatic EEG artifact detector based on the joint use of spatial and temporal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mognon, Andrea; Jovicich, Jorge; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Buiatti, Marco

    2011-02-01

    A successful method for removing artifacts from electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings is Independent Component Analysis (ICA), but its implementation remains largely user-dependent. Here, we propose a completely automatic algorithm (ADJUST) that identifies artifacted independent components by combining stereotyped artifact-specific spatial and temporal features. Features were optimized to capture blinks, eye movements, and generic discontinuities on a feature selection dataset. Validation on a totally different EEG dataset shows that (1) ADJUST's classification of independent components largely matches a manual one by experts (agreement on 95.2% of the data variance), and (2) Removal of the artifacted components detected by ADJUST leads to neat reconstruction of visual and auditory event-related potentials from heavily artifacted data. These results demonstrate that ADJUST provides a fast, efficient, and automatic way to use ICA for artifact removal. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. An internet-based intervention for adjustment disorder (TAO): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachyla, Iryna; Pérez-Ara, Marian; Molés, Mar; Campos, Daniel; Mira, Adriana; Botella, Cristina; Quero, Soledad

    2018-05-31

    Adjustment Disorder (AjD) is a common and disabling mental health problem. The lack of research on this disorder has led to the absence of evidence-based interventions for its treatment. Moreover, because the available data indicate that a high percentage of people with mental illness are not treated, it is necessary to develop new ways to provide psychological assistance. The present study describes a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) aimed at assessing the effectiveness and acceptance of a linear internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) intervention for AjD. A two-armed RCT was designed to compare an intervention group to a waiting list control group. Participants from the intervention group will receive TAO, an internet-based program for AjD composed of seven modules. TAO combines CBT and Positive Psychology strategies in order to provide patients with complete support, reducing their clinical symptoms and enhancing their capacity to overcome everyday adversity. Participants will also receive short weekly telephone support. Participants in the control group will be assessed before and after a seven-week waiting period, and then they will be offered the same intervention. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of the 2 groups. Measurements will be taken at five different moments: baseline, post-intervention, and three follow-up periods (3-, 6- and 12-month). BDI-II and BAI will be used as primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes will be symptoms of AjD, posttraumatic growth, positive and negative affect, and quality of life. The development of ICBT programs like TAO responds to a need for evidence-based interventions that can reach most of the people who need them, reducing the burden and cost of mental disorders. More specifically, TAO targets AjD and will entail a step forward in the treatment of this prevalent but under-researched disorder. Finally, it should be noted that this is the first RCT focusing on an internet-based

  10. Short term load forecasting technique based on the seasonal exponential adjustment method and the regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Jianzhou; Lu, Haiyan; Dong, Yao; Lu, Xiaoxiao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The seasonal and trend items of the data series are forecasted separately. ► Seasonal item in the data series is verified by the Kendall τ correlation testing. ► Different regression models are applied to the trend item forecasting. ► We examine the superiority of the combined models by the quartile value comparison. ► Paired-sample T test is utilized to confirm the superiority of the combined models. - Abstract: For an energy-limited economy system, it is crucial to forecast load demand accurately. This paper devotes to 1-week-ahead daily load forecasting approach in which load demand series are predicted by employing the information of days before being similar to that of the forecast day. As well as in many nonlinear systems, seasonal item and trend item are coexisting in load demand datasets. In this paper, the existing of the seasonal item in the load demand data series is firstly verified according to the Kendall τ correlation testing method. Then in the belief of the separate forecasting to the seasonal item and the trend item would improve the forecasting accuracy, hybrid models by combining seasonal exponential adjustment method (SEAM) with the regression methods are proposed in this paper, where SEAM and the regression models are employed to seasonal and trend items forecasting respectively. Comparisons of the quartile values as well as the mean absolute percentage error values demonstrate this forecasting technique can significantly improve the accuracy though models applied to the trend item forecasting are eleven different ones. This superior performance of this separate forecasting technique is further confirmed by the paired-sample T tests

  11. A Measurement Study of BLE iBeacon and Geometric Adjustment Scheme for Indoor Location-Based Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyeup Paek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE and the iBeacons have recently gained large interest for enabling various proximity-based application services. Given the ubiquitously deployed nature of Bluetooth devices including mobile smartphones, using BLE and iBeacon technologies seemed to be a promising future to come. This work started off with the belief that this was true: iBeacons could provide us with the accuracy in proximity and distance estimation to enable and simplify the development of many previously difficult applications. However, our empirical studies with three different iBeacon devices from various vendors and two types of smartphone platforms prove that this is not the case. Signal strength readings vary significantly over different iBeacon vendors, mobile platforms, environmental or deployment factors, and usage scenarios. This variability in signal strength naturally complicates the process of extracting an accurate location/proximity estimation in real environments. Our lessons on the limitations of iBeacon technique lead us to design a simple class attendance checking application by performing a simple form of geometric adjustments to compensate for the natural variations in beacon signal strength readings. We believe that the negative observations made in this work can provide future researchers with a reference on how well of a performance to expect from iBeacon devices as they enter their system design phases.

  12. 41 CFR 102-85.190 - Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies? 102-85.190 Section 102-85.190... perform or contract for such services must be obtained in advance by the customer agency from the... of Service § 102-85.190 Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by...

  13. Q-learning-based adjustable fixed-phase quantum Grover search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ying; Shi Wensha; Wang Yijun; Hu, Jiankun

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that the rotation phase can be suitably chosen to increase the efficiency of the phase-based quantum search algorithm, leading to a dynamic balance between iterations and success probabilities of the fixed-phase quantum Grover search algorithm with Q-learning for a given number of solutions. In this search algorithm, the proposed Q-learning algorithm, which is a model-free reinforcement learning strategy in essence, is used for performing a matching algorithm based on the fraction of marked items λ and the rotation phase α. After establishing the policy function α = π(λ), we complete the fixed-phase Grover algorithm, where the phase parameter is selected via the learned policy. Simulation results show that the Q-learning-based Grover search algorithm (QLGA) enables fewer iterations and gives birth to higher success probabilities. Compared with the conventional Grover algorithms, it avoids the optimal local situations, thereby enabling success probabilities to approach one. (author)

  14. On-board adaptive model for state of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on Kalman filter with proportional integral-based error adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingwen; Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of battery-powered electric vehicles, the lithium-ion battery plays a critical role in the reliability of vehicle system. In order to provide timely management and protection for battery systems, it is necessary to develop a reliable battery model and accurate battery parameters estimation to describe battery dynamic behaviors. Therefore, this paper focuses on an on-board adaptive model for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a first-order equivalent circuit battery model is employed to describe battery dynamic characteristics. Then, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide good initial values of model parameters to ensure filter stability and reduce the convergence time. Thirdly, an extended-Kalman-filter (EKF) is applied to on-line estimate battery SOC and model parameters. Considering that the EKF is essentially a first-order Taylor approximation of battery model, which contains inevitable model errors, thus, a proportional integral-based error adjustment technique is employed to improve the performance of EKF method and correct model parameters. Finally, the experimental results on lithium-ion batteries indicate that the proposed EKF with proportional integral-based error adjustment method can provide robust and accurate battery model and on-line parameter estimation.

  15. TH-CD-209-06: LET-Based Adjustment of IMPT Plans Using Prioritized Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, J; Giantsoudi, D; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Botas, P [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, DE (Germany); Qin, N; Jia, X [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Ctr, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In-vitro experiments suggest an increase in proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) towards the end of range. However, proton treatment planning and dose reporting for clinical outcome assessment has been based on physical dose and constant RBE. Therefore, treatment planning for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is unlikely to transition radically to pure RBE-based planning. We suggest a hybrid approach where treatment plans are initially created based on physical dose constraints and prescriptions, and are subsequently altered to avoid high linear energy transfer (LET) in critical structures while limiting the degradation of the physical dose distribution. Methods: To allow fast optimization based on dose and LET we extended a GPU-based Monte-Carlo code towards providing dose-averaged LET in addition to dose for all pencil beams. After optimizing an initial IMPT plan based on physical dose, a prioritized optimization scheme is used to modify the LET distribution while constraining the physical dose objectives to values close to the initial plan. The LET optimization step is performed based on objective functions evaluated for the product of physical dose and LET (LETxD). To first approximation, LETxD represents a measure of the additional biological dose that is caused by high LET. Regarding optimization techniques, LETxD has the advantage of being a linear function of the pencil beam intensities. Results: The method is applicable to treatments where serial critical structures with maximum dose constraint are located in or near the target. We studied intra-cranial tumors (high-grade meningiomas, base-of-skull chordomas) where the target (CTV) overlaps with the brainstem and optic structures. Often, high LETxD in critical structures can be avoided while minimally compromising physical dose planning objectives. Conclusion: LET-based re-optimization of IMPT plans represents a pragmatic approach to bridge the gap between purely physical dose-based

  16. A Flexure-Based Mechanism for Precision Adjustment of National Ignition Facility Target Shrouds in Three Rotational Degrees of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.-J.; Gibson, C. R.; Hollaway, J. R.; Espinoza-Loza, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the design of a flexure-based mount allowing adjustment in three rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) through high-precision set-screw actuators. The requirements of the application called for small but controlled angular adjustments for mounting a cantilevered beam. The proposed design is based on an array of parallel beams to provide sufficiently high stiffness in the translational directions while allowing angular adjustment through the actuators. A simplified physical model in combination with standard beam theory was applied to estimate the deflection profile and maximum stresses in the beams. A finite element model was built to calculate the stresses and beam profiles for scenarios in which the flexure is simultaneously actuated in more than one DOF.

  17. Transmission History Based Distributed Adaptive Contention Window Adjustment Algorithm Cooperating with Automatic Rate Fallback for Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masakatsu; Hiraguri, Takefumi; Nishimori, Kentaro; Takaya, Kazuhiro; Murakawa, Kazuo

    This paper proposes and investigates a distributed adaptive contention window adjustment algorithm based on the transmission history for wireless LANs called the transmission-history-based distributed adaptive contention window adjustment (THAW) algorithm. The objective of this paper is to reduce the transmission delay and improve the channel throughput compared to conventional algorithms. The feature of THAW is that it adaptively adjusts the initial contention window (CWinit) size in the binary exponential backoff (BEB) algorithm used in the IEEE 802.11 standard according to the transmission history and the automatic rate fallback (ARF) algorithm, which is the most basic algorithm in automatic rate controls. This effect is to keep CWinit at a high value in a congested state. Simulation results show that the THAW algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms in terms of the channel throughput and delay, even if the timer in the ARF is changed.

  18. Is Weight-Based Adjustment of Automatic Exposure Control Necessary for the Reduction of Chest CT Radiation Dose?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Priyanka; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gilman, Matthew D.; Shepard, Jo Anne O.; Digumarthy, Subba R. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2010-02-15

    To assess the effects of radiation dose reduction in the chest CT using a weight-based adjustment of the automatic exposure control (AEC) technique. With Institutional Review Board Approval, 60 patients (mean age, 59.1 years; M:F = 35:25) and 57 weight-matched patients (mean age, 52.3 years, M:F = 25:32) were scanned using a weight-adjusted AEC and nonweight- adjusted AEC, respectively on a 64-slice multidetector CT with a 0.984:1 pitch, 0.5 second rotation time, 40 mm table feed/rotation, and 2.5 mm section thickness. Patients were categorized into 3 weight categories; < 60 kg (n = 17), 60-90 kg (n = 52), and > 90 kg (n = 48). Patient weights, scanning parameters, CT dose index volumes (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded, while effective dose (ED) was estimated. Image noise was measured in the descending thoracic aorta. Data were analyzed using a standard statistical package (SAS/STAT) (Version 9.1, SAS institute Inc, Cary, NC). Compared to the non-weight-adjusted AEC, the weight-adjusted AEC technique resulted in an average decrease of 29% in CTDIvol and a 27% effective dose reduction (p < 0.0001). With weight-adjusted AEC, the CTDIvol decreased to 15.8, 15.9, and 27.3 mGy for the < 60, 60-90 and > 91 kg weight groups, respectively, compared to 20.3, 27.9 and 32.8 mGy, with non-weight adjusted AEC. No significant difference was observed for objective image noise between the chest CT acquired with the non-weight-adjusted (15.0 {+-} 3.1) and weight-adjusted (16.1 {+-} 5.6) AEC techniques (p > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that AEC should be tailored according to patient weight. Without weight-based adjustment of AEC, patients are exposed to a 17 - 43% higher radiation-dose from a chest CT.

  19. A unit root test based on smooth transitions and nonlinear adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Hepsag, Aycan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new unit root testing procedure which considers jointly for structural breaks and nonlinear adjustment. The structural breaks are modelled by means of a logistic smooth transition function and nonlinear adjustment is modelled by means of an ESTAR model. The empirical size of test is quite close to the nominal one and in terms of power; the new unit root test is generally superior to the alternative test. The new unit root test presents good size properties and does...

  20. Seat Adjustment Design of an Intelligent Robotic Wheelchair Based on the Stewart Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Er Hsu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A wheelchair user makes direct contact with the wheelchair seat, which serves as the interface between the user and the wheelchair, for much of any given day. Seat adjustment design is of crucial importance in providing proper seating posture and comfort. This paper presents a multiple-DOF (degrees of freedom seat adjustment mechanism, which is intended to increase the independence of the wheelchair user while maintaining a concise structure, light weight, and intuitive control interface. This four-axis Stewart platform is capable of heaving, pitching, and swaying to provide seat elevation, tilt-in-space, and sideways movement functions. The geometry and types of joints of this mechanism are carefully arranged so that only one actuator needs to be controlled, enabling the wheelchair user to adjust the seat by simply pressing a button. The seat is also equipped with soft pressure-sensing pads to provide pressure management by adjusting the seat mechanism once continuous and concentrated pressure is detected. Finally, by comparing with the manual wheelchair, the proposed mechanism demonstrated the easier and more convenient operation with less effort for transfer assistance.

  1. Motor models and transient analysis for high-temperature, superconductor switch-based adjustable speed drive applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    New high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) technology may allow development of an energy-efficient power electronics switch for adjustable speed drive (ASD) applications involving variable-speed motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage systems, and other power conversion equipment. This project developed a motor simulation module for determining optimal applications of HTSC-based power switches in ASD systems

  2. Psychological adjustment to amputation: variations on the bases of sex, age and cause of limb loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Haider, S.K.F.

    2017-01-01

    Amputation is the removal of a limb or part of a limb by a surgical procedure in order to save the life of a person. The underlying reasons behind the occurrence of this tragic incidence may be varied. However, irrespective of its cause limb loss is associated with wide range of life challenges. The study was done to investigate the psychological sequel of an individual after losing a limb and to know the level of strain and pressure they experience after this traumatic event. It also attempts to examine the moderating role of some demographic traits such as age, sex and cause of limb loss in psychosocial adjustment to amputation. Methods: The study includes 100 adult amputees of both genders and the data was collected from major government and private hospitals of Peshawar district. Demographic data sheet was constructed in order to know the demographics traits of amputees and a standardize Psychological Adjustment Scale developed by Sabir (1999) was used to find out the level of psychological adjustment after limb loss. Results: Nearly all the amputees' exhibit signs of psychological maladjustment at varying degrees. Males showed much greater signs of maladjustment than women and young adults were much psychologically shattered and disturbed as a result of limb loss. Amputation caused by planned medical reasons leads to less adjustment issues as compared to unplanned accidental amputation in which patient were not mentally prepare to accept this loss. Conclusion: Psychological aspect of amputation is an important aspect of limb loss which needs to be addressed properly in order to rehabilitate these patients and helps them to adjust successfully to their limb loss. (author)

  3. Subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory for nonvolatile operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, In; Cheon, Woo Young; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-04-01

    A subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory (SAT RAM) has been proposed and fabricated for low-power nonvolatile memory applications. The proposed SAT RAM cell demonstrates adjustable subthreshold swing (SS) depending on stored information: small SS in the erase state ("1" state) and large SS in the program state ("0" state). Thus, SAT RAM cells can achieve low read voltage (Vread) with a large memory window in addition to the effective suppression of ambipolar behavior. These unique features of the SAT RAM are originated from the locally stored charge, which modulates the tunneling barrier width (Wtun) of the source-to-channel tunneling junction.

  4. Cognitive performance modeling based on general systems performance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V

    2010-01-01

    General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies involving two complex tasks (i.e., driving and performing laparoscopic surgery) and incorporating measures that are clearly related to cognitive performance (information processing speed and short-term memory capacity) were revisited. A GSPT-derived method of task analysis and performance prediction termed Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis (NCRA) was employed to determine the demand on basic cognitive performance resources required to support different levels of complex task performance. This approach is presented as a means to determine a cognitive workload profile and the subsequent computation of a single number measure of cognitive workload (CW). Computation of CW may be a viable alternative to measuring it. Various possible "more basic" performance resources that contribute to cognitive system performance are discussed. It is concluded from this preliminary exploration that a GSPT-based approach can contribute to defining cognitive performance models that are useful for both individual subjects and specific groups (e.g., military pilots).

  5. Using Web-Based Quizzing to Improve Exam Performance: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, David B.; Broida, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the utility of Web-based quizzing. We assigned 3 classes to a no-quiz, in-class quiz, or Web-based quiz condition. Midsemester results demonstrated a positive effect for in-class quizzing but not Web-based quizzing. After several adjustments in quiz presentation and duration, the Web-based group increased exam performance to a…

  6. Sensitivity analysis for missing dichotomous outcome data in multi-visit randomized clinical trial with randomization-based covariance adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siying; Koch, Gary G; Preisser, John S; Lam, Diana; Sanchez-Kam, Matilde

    2017-01-01

    Dichotomous endpoints in clinical trials have only two possible outcomes, either directly or via categorization of an ordinal or continuous observation. It is common to have missing data for one or more visits during a multi-visit study. This paper presents a closed form method for sensitivity analysis of a randomized multi-visit clinical trial that possibly has missing not at random (MNAR) dichotomous data. Counts of missing data are redistributed to the favorable and unfavorable outcomes mathematically to address possibly informative missing data. Adjusted proportion estimates and their closed form covariance matrix estimates are provided. Treatment comparisons over time are addressed with Mantel-Haenszel adjustment for a stratification factor and/or randomization-based adjustment for baseline covariables. The application of such sensitivity analyses is illustrated with an example. An appendix outlines an extension of the methodology to ordinal endpoints.

  7. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  8. Estimating the potential intensification of global grazing systems based on climate adjusted yield gap analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    We report here a first-of-its-kind analysis of the potential for intensification of global grazing systems. Intensification is calculated using the statistical yield gap methodology developed previously by others (Mueller et al 2012 and Licker et al 2010) for global crop systems. Yield gaps are estimated by binning global pasture land area into 100 equal area sized bins of similar climate (defined by ranges of rainfall and growing degree days). Within each bin, grid cells of pastureland are ranked from lowest to highest productivity. The global intensification potential is defined as the sum of global production across all bins at a given percentile ranking (e.g. performance at the 90th percentile) divided by the total current global production. The previous yield gap studies focused on crop systems because productivity data on these systems is readily available. Nevertheless, global crop land represents only one-third of total global agricultural land, while pasture systems account for the remaining two-thirds. Thus, it is critical to conduct the same kind of analysis on what is the largest human use of land on the planet—pasture systems. In 2013, Herrero et al announced the completion of a geospatial data set that augmented the animal census data with data and modeling about production systems and overall food productivity (Herrero et al, PNAS 2013). With this data set, it is now possible to apply yield gap analysis to global pasture systems. We used the Herrero et al data set to evaluate yield gaps for meat and milk production from pasture based systems for cattle, sheep and goats. The figure included with this abstract shows the intensification potential for kcal per hectare per year of meat and milk from global cattle, sheep and goats as a function of increasing levels of performance. Performance is measured as the productivity achieved at a given ranked percentile within each bin.We find that if all pasture land were raised to their 90th percentile of

  9. Profiles of dyadic adjustment for advanced prostate cancer to inform couple-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; Scott, Jennifer L; Monsour, Michael; Nuwayhid, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe from a relational perspective, partners' psychological adjustment, coping and support needs for advanced prostate cancer. A mixed methods design was adopted, employing triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data, to produce dyadic profiles of adjustment for six couples recruited from the urology clinics of local hospitals in Tasmania, Australia. Dyads completed a video-taped communication task, semi-structured interview and standardised self-report questionnaires. Themes identified were associated with the dyadic challenges of the disease experience (e.g. relationship intimacy, disease progression and carer burden). Couples with poor psychological adjustment profiles had both clinical and global locus of distress, treatment side-effects, carer burden and poor general health. Resilient couples demonstrated relationship closeness and adaptive cognitive and behavioural coping strategies. The themes informed the adaption of an effective program for couples coping with women's cancers (CanCOPE, to create a program for couples facing advanced prostate cancer (ProCOPE-Adv). Mixed method results inform the development of psychological therapy components for couples coping with advanced prostate cancer. The concomitance of co-morbid health problems may have implications for access and engagement for older adult populations in face-to-face intervention.

  10. Adjustment of serum HE4 to reduced glomerular filtration and its use in biomarker-based prediction of deep myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chovanec, Josef; Selingerova, Iveta; Greplova, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    based on single-institution data from 120 EC patients and validated against multicentric data from 379 EC patients. Results: In non-cancer individuals, serum HE4 levels increase log-linearly with reduced glomerular filtration of eGFR = 90 ml/min/1.73 m2. HE4ren, adjusting HE4 serum levels to decreased e...... levels to reduced eGFR that enables quantification of time-dependent changes in HE4 production and elimination irrespective of age and renal function in women. Utilizing HE4ren improves performance of biomarker-based models for prediction of dMI in endometrial cancer patients....

  11. TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation

  12. Adjustable Two-Tier Cache for IPTV Based on Segmented Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chun Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet protocol TV (IPTV is a promising Internet killer application, which integrates video, voice, and data onto a single IP network, and offers viewers an innovative set of choices and control over their TV content. To provide high-quality IPTV services, an effective strategy is based on caching. This work proposes a segment-based two-tier caching approach, which divides each video into multiple segments to be cached. This approach also partitions the cache space into two layers, where the first layer mainly caches to-be-played segments and the second layer saves possibly played segments. As the segment access becomes frequent, the proposed approach enlarges the first layer and reduces the second layer, and vice versa. Because requested segments may not be accessed frequently, this work further designs an admission control mechanism to determine whether an incoming segment should be cached or not. The cache architecture takes forward/stop playback into account and may replace the unused segments under the interrupted playback. Finally, we conduct comprehensive simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The results show that our approach can yield higher hit ratio than previous work under various environmental parameters.

  13. Effects of thermal barrier coating on gas emissions and performance of a LHR engine with different injection timings and valve adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueyuekkaya, Ekrem; Engin, Tahsin; Cerit, Muhammet

    2006-01-01

    Tests were performed on a six cylinder, direct injection, turbocharged Diesel engine whose pistons were coated with a 350 μm thickness of MgZrO 3 over a 150 μm thickness of NiCrAl bond coat. CaZrO 3 was employed as the coating material for the cylinder head and valves. The working conditions for the standard engine (uncovered) and low heat rejection (LHR) engine were kept exactly the same to ensure a realistic comparison between the two configurations of the engine. Comparisons between the standard engine and its LHR version were made based on engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, injection timing and valve adjustment. The results showed that 1-8% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption could be achieved by the combined effect of the thermal barrier coating (TBC) and injection timing. On the other hand, NO x emissions were obtained below those of the base engine by 11% for 18 o BTDC injection timing

  14. Simply Adjustable Sinusoidal Oscillator Based on Negative Three-Port Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sotner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with sinusoidal oscillator employing two controlled second-generation negative-current conveyors and two capacitors. The proposed oscillator has a simple circuit configuration. Electronic (voltage adjusting of the oscillation frequency and condition of oscillation are possible. The presented circuit is verified in PSpice utilizing macro models of commercially available negative current conveyors. The circuit is also verified by experimental measurements. Important characteristics and drawbacks of the proposed circuit and influences of real active elements in the designed circuit are discussed in detail.

  15. Adaptive Kalman Filter Based on Adjustable Sampling Interval in Burst Detection for Water Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Yong Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been developed in accordance with the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems and the establishment of district meter areas (DMAs. Nonetheless, no consideration has been given to how frequently a flow meter measures and transmits data for predicting breaks and leaks in pipes. This paper analyzes the effect of sampling interval when an adaptive Kalman filter is used for detecting bursts in a WDS. A new sampling algorithm is presented that adjusts the sampling interval depending on the normalized residuals of flow after filtering. The proposed algorithm is applied to a virtual sinusoidal flow curve and real DMA flow data obtained from Jeongeup city in South Korea. The simulation results prove that the self-adjusting algorithm for determining the sampling interval is efficient and maintains reasonable accuracy in burst detection. The proposed sampling method has a significant potential for water utilities to build and operate real-time DMA monitoring systems combined with smart customer metering systems.

  16. A Water Hammer Protection Method for Mine Drainage System Based on Velocity Adjustment of Hydraulic Control Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Kou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer analysis is a fundamental work of pipeline systems design process for water distribution networks. The main characteristics for mine drainage system are the limited space and high cost of equipment and pipeline changing. In order to solve the protection problem of valve-closing water hammer for mine drainage system, a water hammer protection method for mine drainage system based on velocity adjustment of HCV (Hydraulic Control Valve is proposed in this paper. The mathematic model of water hammer fluctuations is established based on the characteristic line method. Then, boundary conditions of water hammer controlling for mine drainage system are determined and its simplex model is established. The optimization adjustment strategy is solved from the mathematic model of multistage valve-closing. Taking a mine drainage system as an example, compared results between simulations and experiments show that the proposed method and the optimized valve-closing strategy are effective.

  17. Excel-Based Tool for Pharmacokinetically Guided Dose Adjustment of Paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraff, Stefanie; Lindauer, Andreas; Joerger, Markus; Salamone, Salvatore J; Jaehde, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Neutropenia is a frequent and severe adverse event in patients receiving paclitaxel chemotherapy. The time above a paclitaxel threshold concentration of 0.05 μmol/L (Tc > 0.05 μmol/L) is a strong predictor for paclitaxel-associated neutropenia and has been proposed as a target pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter for paclitaxel therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adaptation. Up to now, individual Tc > 0.05 μmol/L values are estimated based on a published PK model of paclitaxel by using the software NONMEM. Because many clinicians are not familiar with the use of NONMEM, an Excel-based dosing tool was developed to allow calculation of paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 μmol/L and give clinicians an easy-to-use tool. Population PK parameters of paclitaxel were taken from a published PK model. An Alglib VBA code was implemented in Excel 2007 to compute differential equations for the paclitaxel PK model. Maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimates of the PK parameters were determined with the Excel Solver using individual drug concentrations. Concentrations from 250 patients were simulated receiving 1 cycle of paclitaxel chemotherapy. Predictions of paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 μmol/L as calculated by the Excel tool were compared with NONMEM, whereby maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimates were obtained using the POSTHOC function. There was a good concordance and comparable predictive performance between Excel and NONMEM regarding predicted paclitaxel plasma concentrations and Tc > 0.05 μmol/L values. Tc > 0.05 μmol/L had a maximum bias of 3% and an error on precision of 0.05 μmol/L values between both programs was 1%. The Excel-based tool can estimate the time above a paclitaxel threshold concentration of 0.05 μmol/L with acceptable accuracy and precision. The presented Excel tool allows reliable calculation of paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 μmol/L and thus allows target concentration intervention to improve the benefit-risk ratio of the drug. The easy use facilitates therapeutic drug monitoring in

  18. Performance-based regulation. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, Robert; Bier, Vicki M.; Bukowski, Richard W.; Prasad Kadambi, N.; Koonce, James F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Performance-based regulation is a part of the NRC's Strategic Plan and is realizing steady progress in conceptual development for actual applications. For example, high-level, conceptual guidelines have been proposed that would apply to reactors, materials, and waste areas. Performance-based approaches are also being applied in other regulated industries such as FAA and OSHA. The discussion will include comments from speakers from different parts of the nuclear industry and other industries regarding benefits and weaknesses of performance-based regulation. (authors)

  19. Bicultural identity, bilingualism, and psychological adjustment in multicultural societies: immigration-based and globalization-based acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Harris Bond, Michael

    2008-07-01

    The present investigation examined the impact of bicultural identity, bilingualism, and social context on the psychological adjustment of multicultural individuals. Our studies targeted three distinct types of biculturals: Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong, Filipino domestic workers (i.e., sojourners) in Hong Kong, and Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese college students. Individual differences in Bicultural Identity Integration (BII; Benet-Martínez, Leu, Lee, & Morris, 2002) positively predicted psychological adjustment for all the samples except sojourners even after controlling for the personality traits of neuroticism and self-efficacy. Cultural identification and language abilities also predicted adjustment, although these associations varied across the samples in meaningful ways. We concluded that, in the process of managing multiple cultural environments and group loyalties, bilingual competence, and perceiving one's two cultural identities as integrated are important antecedents of beneficial psychological outcomes.

  20. A Simulation Study on the Performance of the Simple Difference and Covariance-Adjusted Scores in Randomized Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Research by Huck and McLean (1975) demonstrated that the covariance-adjusted score is more powerful than the simple difference score, yet recent reviews indicate researchers are equally likely to use either score type in two-wave randomized experimental designs. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to examine the conditions under which the…

  1. Reduction of peak energy demand based on smart appliances energy consumption adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powroźnik, P.; Szulim, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper the concept of elastic model of energy management for smart grid and micro smart grid is presented. For the proposed model a method for reducing peak demand in micro smart grid has been defined. The idea of peak demand reduction in elastic model of energy management is to introduce a balance between demand and supply of current power for the given Micro Smart Grid in the given moment. The results of the simulations studies were presented. They were carried out on real household data available on UCI Machine Learning Repository. The results may have practical application in the smart grid networks, where there is a need for smart appliances energy consumption adjustment. The article presents a proposal to implement the elastic model of energy management as the cloud computing solution. This approach of peak demand reduction might have application particularly in a large smart grid.

  2. Analysis of separation test for automatic brake adjuster based on linear radon transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zai; Jiang, Wensong; Guo, Bin; Fan, Weijun; Lu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The linear Radon transformation is applied to extract inflection points for online test system under the noise conditions. The linear Radon transformation has a strong ability of anti-noise and anti-interference by fitting the online test curve in several parts, which makes it easy to handle consecutive inflection points. We applied the linear Radon transformation to the separation test system to solve the separating clearance of automatic brake adjuster. The experimental results show that the feature point extraction error of the gradient maximum optimal method is approximately equal to ±0.100, while the feature point extraction error of linear Radon transformation method can reach to ±0.010, which has a lower error than the former one. In addition, the linear Radon transformation is robust.

  3. Adjustment and Prediction of Machine Factors Based on Neural Artificial Intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Amin, E.S.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of x-ray, it is use in examination has become an integral part of medical diagnostic radiology. The use of X-ray is harmful to human beings but recent technological advances and regulatory constraints have made the medical Xray much safer than they were at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the potential benefits of the engineered safety features can not be fully realized unless the operators are aware of these safety features. The aim of this work is to adjust and predict x-ray machine factors (current and voltage) using neural artificial network in order to obtain effective dose within the range of dose limitation system and assure radiological safety.

  4. Adjustment and Prediction of X-Ray Machine Factors Based on Neural Artificial Inculcating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Amin, E.S.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays, their use in examination has become an integral part of medical diagnostic radiology. The use of X-rays is harmful to human beings but recent technological advances and regulatory constraints have made the medical X-rays much safer than they were at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the potential benefits of the engineered safety features can not be fully realized unless the operators are aware of these safety features. The aim of this work is to adjust and predict X-ray machine factors (current and voltage) using neural artificial network in order to obtain effective dose within the range of dose limitation system and assure radiological safety.

  5. Structured Performance Analysis for Component Based Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Salmi , N.; Moreaux , Patrice; Ioualalen , M.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The Component Based System (CBS) paradigm is now largely used to design software systems. In addition, performance and behavioural analysis remains a required step for the design and the construction of efficient systems. This is especially the case of CBS, which involve interconnected components running concurrent processes. % This paper proposes a compositional method for modeling and structured performance analysis of CBS. Modeling is based on Stochastic Well-formed...

  6. Performance of first-trimester combined test for Down syndrome in different maternal age groups: reason for adjustments in screening policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Melanie A. J.; Heijboer, A. C.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; van Vugt, John M. G.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the first-trimester combined test (FCT) in different maternal age groups and to discuss whether adjustments in screening policies should be made. In this retrospective study data (n = 26 274) from a fetal medicine center on FCT (maternal age, fetal NT, free β-human

  7. Adjustment of Serum HE4 to reduced Glomerular filtration and its use in Biomarker-based prediction of deep Myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chovanec, Josef; Selingerova, Iveta; Greplova, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Background: We investigated the efficacy of circulating biomarkers together with histological grade and age to predict deep myometrial invasion (dMI) in endometrial cancer patients. Methods: HE4ren was developed adjusting HE4 serum levels towards decreased glomerular filtration rate as quantified...... levels to reduced eGFR that enables quantification of time-dependent changes in HE4 production and elimination irrespective of age and renal function in women. Utilizing HE4ren improves performance of biomarker-based models for prediction of dMI in endometrial cancer patients....

  8. Performance evaluation of nursing students following competency-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun-Yu; Wang, Yu Hsin; Chao, Li Fen; Jane, Sui-Whi; Hsu, Li-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Competency-based education is known to improve the match between educational performance and employment opportunities. This study examined the effects of competency-based education on the learning outcomes of undergraduate nursing students. The study used a quasi-experimental design. A convenience sample of 312 second-year undergraduate nursing students from northern and southern Taiwan participated in the study. The experimental group (n=163) received competency-based education and the control group received traditional instruction (n=149) in a medical-surgical nursing course. Outcome measures included students' scores on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, Self-Evaluated Core Competencies Scale, Metacognitive Inventory for Nursing Students questionnaire, and academic performance. Students who received competency-based education had significantly higher academic performance in the medical-surgical nursing course and practicum than did the control group. Required core competencies and metacognitive abilities improved significantly in the competency-based education group as compared to the control group after adjusting for covariates. Competency-based education is worth implementing and may close the gap between education and the ever-changing work environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inverted base pavements: construction and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Efthymios

    2017-05-11

    Inverted base pavements involve a well-compacted granular aggregate base built between a thin asphalt concrete layer and a cement-treated base. Inverted base pavements can be constructed using conventional equipment and procedures but require proper quality control. This study reviews the extensive South African experience and case histories in the USA. Accumulating evidence suggests that inverted base pavements are a viable alternative and can outperform conventional pavements at a lower cost. Inverted base pavements rely on the complementary interaction between layers. The cement-treated base provides a stiff foundation for efficient compaction and constrains the deformation of the stress-sensitive granular aggregate base. The thin asphalt surface layer deforms as a membrane and develops low tensile stress. Additional large-scale field tests should be conducted to assess the performance of inverted base pavement designs in a wide range of conditions relevant to the USA.

  10. Procedure for field axes measurement, beam indication adjustment, and figure of convergence determination within performance tests for radiation therapy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, U; Krause, K; Rassow, J [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Klinische Strahlenphysik

    1976-09-01

    A routine measuring procedure for the verification of radiation field axes and figure of convergence within a spatial resolution of +- 0.5 mm is described. Measurements are done in two parallel planes in a certain distance before and behind the presumed isocentre. The used test arrangement permits rapid check and controlled adjustment of the alignment of beam or isocentre indicating devices for all isocentric radiation therapy equipment.

  11. Nitride fuels irradiation performance data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brozak, D.E.; Thomas, J.K.; Peddicord, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    An irradiation performance data base for nitride fuels has been developed from an extensive literature search and review that emphasized uranium nitride, but also included performance data for mixed nitrides [(U,Pu)N] and carbonitrides [(U,Pu)C,N] to increase the quantity and depth of pin data available. This work represents a very extensive effort to systematically collect and organize irradiation data for nitride-based fuels. The data base has many potential applications. First, it can facilitate parametric studies of nitride-based fuels to be performed using a wide range of pin designs and operating conditions. This should aid in the identification of important parameters and design requirements for multimegawatt and SP-100 fuel systems. Secondly, the data base can be used to evaluate fuel performance models. For detailed studies, it can serve as a guide to selecting a small group of pin specimens for extensive characterization. Finally, the data base will serve as an easily accessible and expandable source of irradiation performance information for nitride fuels

  12. Calculation of Credit Valuation Adjustment Based on Least Square Monte Carlo Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Counterparty credit risk has become one of the highest-profile risks facing participants in the financial markets. Despite this, relatively little is known about how counterparty credit risk is actually priced mathematically. We examine this issue using interest rate swaps. This largely traded financial product allows us to well identify the risk profiles of both institutions and their counterparties. Concretely, Hull-White model for rate and mean-reverting model for default intensity have proven to be in correspondence with the reality and to be well suited for financial institutions. Besides, we find that least square Monte Carlo method is quite efficient in the calculation of credit valuation adjustment (CVA, for short as it avoids the redundant step to generate inner scenarios. As a result, it accelerates the convergence speed of the CVA estimators. In the second part, we propose a new method to calculate bilateral CVA to avoid double counting in the existing bibliographies, where several copula functions are adopted to describe the dependence of two first to default times.

  13. The self-adjusting file (SAF) system: An evidence-based update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Current rotary file systems are effective tools. Nevertheless, they have two main shortcomings: They are unable to effectively clean and shape oval canals and depend too much on the irrigant to do the cleaning, which is an unrealistic illusionThey may jeopardize the long-term survival of the tooth via unnecessary, excessive removal of sound dentin and creation of micro-cracks in the remaining root dentin. The new Self-adjusting File (SAF) technology uses a hollow, compressible NiTi file, with no central metal core, through which a continuous flow of irrigant is provided throughout the procedure. The SAF technology allows for effective cleaning of all root canals including oval canals, thus allowing for the effective disinfection and obturation of all canal morphologies. This technology uses a new concept of cleaning and shaping in which a uniform layer of dentin is removed from around the entire perimeter of the root canal, thus avoiding unnecessary excessive removal of sound dentin. Furthermore, the mode of action used by this file system does not apply the machining of all root canals to a circular bore, as do all other rotary file systems, and does not cause micro-cracks in the remaining root dentin. The new SAF technology allows for a new concept in cleaning and shaping root canals: Minimally Invasive 3D Endodontics. PMID:25298639

  14. Control Strategy for Vehicle Inductive Wireless Charging Based on Load Adaptive and Frequency Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging system for electric vehicles is a hot research issue in the world today. Since the existing research on wireless charging is mostly forward-looking aimed at low-power appliances like household appliances, while electric vehicles need a high-power, high-efficiency, and strong coupling wireless charging system. In this paper, we have specifically designed a 6.6 KW wireless charging system for electric vehicles and have proposed a control strategy suitable for electric vehicles according to its power charging characteristics and existing common wired charging protocol. Firstly, the influence of the equivalent load and frequency bifurcation on a wireless charging system is analyzed in this paper. Secondly, an adaptive load control strategy matching the characteristics of the battery, and the charging pile is put forward to meet the constant current and constant voltage charging requirements to improve the system efficiency. In addition, the frequency adjustment control strategy is designed to realize the real-time dynamic optimization of the entire system. It utilizes the improved methods of rapid judgment, variable step length matching and frequency splitting recognition, which are not adopted in early related researches. Finally, the results of 6.6 kW test show that the control strategy works perfectly since system response time can be reduced to less than 1 s, and the overall efficiency of the wireless charging system and the grid power supply module can reach up to 91%.

  15. The self-adjusting file (SAF) system: An evidence-based update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Zvi

    2014-09-01

    Current rotary file systems are effective tools. Nevertheless, they have two main shortcomings: They are unable to effectively clean and shape oval canals and depend too much on the irrigant to do the cleaning, which is an unrealistic illusionThey may jeopardize the long-term survival of the tooth via unnecessary, excessive removal of sound dentin and creation of micro-cracks in the remaining root dentin. The new Self-adjusting File (SAF) technology uses a hollow, compressible NiTi file, with no central metal core, through which a continuous flow of irrigant is provided throughout the procedure. The SAF technology allows for effective cleaning of all root canals including oval canals, thus allowing for the effective disinfection and obturation of all canal morphologies. This technology uses a new concept of cleaning and shaping in which a uniform layer of dentin is removed from around the entire perimeter of the root canal, thus avoiding unnecessary excessive removal of sound dentin. Furthermore, the mode of action used by this file system does not apply the machining of all root canals to a circular bore, as do all other rotary file systems, and does not cause micro-cracks in the remaining root dentin. The new SAF technology allows for a new concept in cleaning and shaping root canals: Minimally Invasive 3D Endodontics.

  16. Adjustable, short focal length permanent-magnet quadrupole based electron beam final focus system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Lim

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced high-brightness beam applications such as inverse-Compton scattering (ICS depend on achieving of ultrasmall spot sizes in high current beams. Modern injectors and compressors enable the production of high-brightness beams having needed short bunch lengths and small emittances. Along with these beam properties comes the need to produce tighter foci, using stronger, shorter focal length optics. An approach to creating such strong focusing systems using high-field, small-bore permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQs is reported here. A final-focus system employing three PMQs, each composed of 16 neodymium iron boride sectors in a Halbach geometry has been installed in the PLEIADES ICS experiment. The field gradient in these PMQs is 560   T/m, the highest ever reported in a magnetic optics system. As the magnets are of a fixed field strength, the focusing system is tuned by adjusting the position of the three magnets along the beam line axis, in analogy to familiar camera optics. This paper discusses the details of the focusing system, simulation, design, fabrication, and experimental procedure in creating ultrasmall beams at PLEIADES.

  17. Real-time bias-adjusted O 3 and PM 2.5 air quality index forecasts and their performance evaluations over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daiwen; Mathur, Rohit; Trivikrama Rao, S.

    2010-06-01

    The National Air Quality Forecast Capacity (NAQFC) system, which links NOAA's North American Mesoscale (NAM) meteorological model with EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, provided operational ozone (O 3) and experimental fine particular matter (PM 2.5) forecasts over the continental United States (CONUS) during 2008. This paper describes the implementation of a real-time Kalman Filter (KF) bias-adjustment technique to improve the accuracy of O 3 and PM 2.5 forecasts at discrete monitoring locations. The operational surface-level O 3 and PM 2.5 forecasts from the NAQFC system were post-processed by the KF bias-adjusted technique using near real-time hourly O 3 and PM 2.5 observations obtained from EPA's AIRNow measurement network. The KF bias-adjusted forecasts were created daily, providing 24-h hourly bias-adjusted forecasts for O 3 and PM 2.5 at all AIRNow monitoring sites within the CONUS domain. The bias-adjustment post-processing implemented in this study requires minimal computational cost; requiring less than 10 min of CPU on a single processor Linux machine to generate 24-h hourly bias-adjusted forecasts over the entire CONUS domain. The results show that the real-time KF bias-adjusted forecasts for both O 3 and PM 2.5 have performed as well as or even better than the previous studies when the same technique was applied to the historical O 3 and PM 2.5 time series from archived AQF in earlier years. Compared to the raw forecasts, the KF forecasts displayed significant improvement in the daily maximum 8-h O 3 and daily mean PM 2.5 forecasts in terms of both discrete (i.e., reduced errors, increased correlation coefficients, and index of agreement) and categorical (increased hit rate and decreased false alarm ratio) evaluation metrics at almost all locations during the study period in 2008.

  18. LC Filter Design for Wide Band Gap Device Based Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    the LC filter with a higher cut off frequency and without damping resistors. The selection of inductance and capacitance is chosen based on capacitor voltage ripple and current ripple. The filter adds a base load to the inverter, which increases the inverter losses. It is shown how the modulation index...

  19. Scale-Adjusted Metrics for Predicting the Evolution of Urban Indicators and Quantifying the Performance of Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz G A Alves

    Full Text Available More than a half of world population is now living in cities and this number is expected to be two-thirds by 2050. Fostered by the relevancy of a scientific characterization of cities and for the availability of an unprecedented amount of data, academics have recently immersed in this topic and one of the most striking and universal finding was the discovery of robust allometric scaling laws between several urban indicators and the population size. Despite that, most governmental reports and several academic works still ignore these nonlinearities by often analyzing the raw or the per capita value of urban indicators, a practice that actually makes the urban metrics biased towards small or large cities depending on whether we have super or sublinear allometries. By following the ideas of Bettencourt et al. [PLoS ONE 5 (2010 e13541], we account for this bias by evaluating the difference between the actual value of an urban indicator and the value expected by the allometry with the population size. We show that this scale-adjusted metric provides a more appropriate/informative summary of the evolution of urban indicators and reveals patterns that do not appear in the evolution of per capita values of indicators obtained from Brazilian cities. We also show that these scale-adjusted metrics are strongly correlated with their past values by a linear correspondence and that they also display crosscorrelations among themselves. Simple linear models account for 31%-97% of the observed variance in data and correctly reproduce the average of the scale-adjusted metric when grouping the cities in above and below the allometric laws. We further employ these models to forecast future values of urban indicators and, by visualizing the predicted changes, we verify the emergence of spatial clusters characterized by regions of the Brazilian territory where we expect an increase or a decrease in the values of urban indicators.

  20. CENTRAL WAVELENGTH ADJUSTMENT OF LIGHT EMITTING SOURCE IN INTERFEROMETRIC SENSORS BASED ON FIBER-OPTIC BRAGG GRATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Aleynik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the investigation of fiber-optic interferometric sensor based on the array of fiber Bragg gratings. Reflection spectra displacement mechanism of the fiber Bragg gratings under the external temperature effects and the static pressure is described. The experiment has shown that reflection spectra displacement of Bragg gratings reduces the visibility of the interference pattern. A method of center wavelength adjustment is proposed for the optical radiation source in accord ance with the current Bragg gratings reflection spectra based on the impulse relative modulation of control signal for the Peltier element controller. The semiconductor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser controlled by a pump driver is used as a light source. The method is implemented by the Peltier element controller regulating and stabilizing the light source temperature, and a programmable logic-integrated circuit monitoring the Peltier element controller. The experiment has proved that the proposed method rendered possible to regulate the light source temperature at a pitch of 0.05 K and adjust the optical radiation source center wavelength at a pitch of 0.05 nm. Experimental results have revealed that the central wavelength of the radiation adjustment at a pitch of 0.005 nm gives the possibility for the capacity of the array consisting of four opticalfiber sensors based on the fiber Bragg gratings. They are formed in one optical fiber under the Bragg grating temperature change from 0° C to 300° C and by the optical fiber mechanical stretching by the force up to 2 N.

  1. Directional variance adjustment: bias reduction in covariance matrices based on factor analysis with an application to portfolio optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bartz

    Full Text Available Robust and reliable covariance estimates play a decisive role in financial and many other applications. An important class of estimators is based on factor models. Here, we show by extensive Monte Carlo simulations that covariance matrices derived from the statistical Factor Analysis model exhibit a systematic error, which is similar to the well-known systematic error of the spectrum of the sample covariance matrix. Moreover, we introduce the Directional Variance Adjustment (DVA algorithm, which diminishes the systematic error. In a thorough empirical study for the US, European, and Hong Kong stock market we show that our proposed method leads to improved portfolio allocation.

  2. Directional variance adjustment: bias reduction in covariance matrices based on factor analysis with an application to portfolio optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Daniel; Hatrick, Kerr; Hesse, Christian W; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lemm, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Robust and reliable covariance estimates play a decisive role in financial and many other applications. An important class of estimators is based on factor models. Here, we show by extensive Monte Carlo simulations that covariance matrices derived from the statistical Factor Analysis model exhibit a systematic error, which is similar to the well-known systematic error of the spectrum of the sample covariance matrix. Moreover, we introduce the Directional Variance Adjustment (DVA) algorithm, which diminishes the systematic error. In a thorough empirical study for the US, European, and Hong Kong stock market we show that our proposed method leads to improved portfolio allocation.

  3. Directional Variance Adjustment: Bias Reduction in Covariance Matrices Based on Factor Analysis with an Application to Portfolio Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Daniel; Hatrick, Kerr; Hesse, Christian W.; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lemm, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Robust and reliable covariance estimates play a decisive role in financial and many other applications. An important class of estimators is based on factor models. Here, we show by extensive Monte Carlo simulations that covariance matrices derived from the statistical Factor Analysis model exhibit a systematic error, which is similar to the well-known systematic error of the spectrum of the sample covariance matrix. Moreover, we introduce the Directional Variance Adjustment (DVA) algorithm, which diminishes the systematic error. In a thorough empirical study for the US, European, and Hong Kong stock market we show that our proposed method leads to improved portfolio allocation. PMID:23844016

  4. Users Guide to SAMINT: A Code for Nuclear Data Adjustment with SAMMY Based on Integral Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobes, Vladimir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leal, Luiz C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Arbanas, Goran [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to couple differential and integral data evaluation in a continuous-energy framework. More specifically, the goal is to use the Generalized Linear Least Squares methodology employed in TSURFER to update the parameters of a resolved resonance region evaluation directly. Recognizing that the GLLS methodology in TSURFER is identical to the mathematical description of the simple Bayesian updating carried out in SAMMY, the computer code SAMINT was created to help use the mathematical machinery of SAMMY to update resolved resonance parameters based on integral data. Minimal modifications of SAMMY are required when used with SAMINT to make resonance parameter updates based on integral experimental data.

  5. Effect of insulin therapy and dietary adjustments on safety and performance during simulated soccer tests in people with type 1 diabetes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Marín, Javier; Torrealba-Acosta, Gabriel; Campbell, Matthew; Gaboury, Jesse; Ali, Ajmol; Chen-Ku, Chih Hao

    2017-07-20

    Despite the reduction in glycemic derangement in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) through dietary and therapeutic adjustments implemented before, during and after continuous exercise, evidence for its effectiveness with intermittent forms of exercise, such as soccer, is still lacking. We designed a study protocol for a randomized, crossover, double-blinded, controlled trial, for the evaluation of the effect that a strategy of dietary and therapeutic modifications may have on safety and performance of persons with T1D in soccer training sessions and cognitive testing. Inclusion criteria comprise: age older than 18 years, more than 2 years since T1D diagnosis, low C-peptide level, a stable insulin regimen, HbA1c less than 9.0% and regular participation in soccer activities. Our primary outcome evaluates safety regarding hypoglycemia events in patients using dietary and therapeutic adjustments, compared with the performance under the implementation of current American Diabetes Association (ADA) usual recommendations for nutritional and pharmacological adjustments for exercise. Additionally, we will evaluate as secondary outcomes: soccer performance, indexed by performance in well-established soccer skill tests, cognitive functions (indexed by Stroop, digital vigilance test (DVT), Corsi block-tapping task (CBP), and rapid visual information processing (RVIP) tests), and glycemic control measured with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). Dietary and insulin adjustments standardized under a 4-step method strategy have never been tested in a clinical trial setting with intermittent forms of exercise, such as soccer. We hypothesize that through this strategy we will observe better performance by persons with T1D in soccer and cognitive evaluations, and more stable control of glycemic parameters before, during and after exercise execution, indexed by CGM measurements. ISRCTN, ISRCTN17447843. Registered on 5 January 2017.

  6. Evaluating the Investment Benefit of Multinational Enterprises' International Projects Based on Risk Adjustment: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the international risks faced by multinational enterprises to understand their impact on the evaluation of investment projects. Moreover, it establishes a 'three-dimensional' theoretical framework of risk identification to analyse the composition of international risk indicators of multinational enterprises based on the theory…

  7. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 3 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Market Risk Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The bank must have a risk control unit that reports directly to senior management and is independent... management systems at least annually. (c) Market risk factors. The bank's internal model must use risk.... Section 4. Internal Models (a) General. For risk-based capital purposes, a bank subject to this appendix...

  8. Age-Adjusted Percentage of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose, United States, 1994–2010 From ... years or older with diagnosed diabetes performing daily self-monitoring of blood glucose increased by 27.9 points, ...

  9. Neural network-based run-to-run controller using exposure and resist thickness adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Shane; Barry, Ronan

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a run-to-run control algorithm using a feedforward neural network, trained using the backpropagation training method. The algorithm is used to predict the critical dimension of the next lot using previous lot information. It is compared to a common prediction algorithm - the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) and is shown to give superior prediction performance in simulations. The manufacturing implementation of the final neural network showed significantly improved process capability when compared to the case where no run-to-run control was utilised.

  10. FEM-based Printhead Intelligent Adjusting Method for Printing Conduct Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiaodan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ink-jet printing circuit board has some advantage, such as non-contact manufacture, high manufacture accuracy, and low pollution and so on. In order to improve the and printing precision, the finite element technology is adopted to model the piezoelectric print heads, and a new bacteria foraging algorithm with a lifecycle strategy is proposed to optimize the parameters of driving waveforms for getting the desired droplet characteristics. Results of numerical simulation show such algorithm has a good performance. Additionally, the droplet jetting simulation results and measured results confirmed such method precisely gets the desired droplet characteristics.

  11. Risk-based plant performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Azarm, M.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Tasked by the 1979 President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island, the U.S. nuclear power industry has put into place a performance indicator program as one means for showing a demonstrable record of achievement. Largely through the efforts of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), plant performance data has, since 1983, been collected and analyzed to aid utility management in measuring their plants' performance progress. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has also developed a set of performance indicators. This program, conducted by NRC's Office for the Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD), is structured to present information on plant operational performance in a manner that could enhance the staff's ability to recognize changes in the safety performance. Both organizations recognized that performance indicators have limitations and could be subject to misinterpretation and misuse with the potential for an adverse impact on safety. This paper reports on performance indicators presently in use, e.g., unplanned automatic scrams, unplanned safety system actuation, safety system failures, etc., which are logically related to safety. But, a reliability/risk-based method for evaluating either individual indicators or an aggregated set of indicators is not yet available

  12. Performance-Based Evaluation and School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Audrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of instructional personnel is standard procedure in our Pre-K-12 public schools, and its purpose is to document educator effectiveness. With Race to the Top and No Child Left Behind waivers, states are required to implement performance-based evaluations that demonstrate student academic progress. This three-year study describes the…

  13. Overview of Performance Based Practical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.13023/KTC.RR.2018.03 State transportation agencies (STAs) have increasingly turned to practical design and performance based practical design(PBPD) to inform project development and implementation and to reduce project cos...

  14. A Performance-Based Instructional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tom E.

    1974-01-01

    The rationale for a performanced- based instructional theory has arisen from significant advances during the past several years in instructional psychology. Four major areas of concern are: analysis of subject-matter content in terms of performance competencies, diagnosis of pre-instructional behavior, formulation of an instructional…

  15. Mixed movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....

  16. Performance-Based Rewards and Work Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganster, Daniel C.; Kiersch, Christa E.; Marsh, Rachel E.; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well understood. We review the literature linking performance-based reward systems to various indicators of employee stress and well-being. Well-controlled experiments in field settings suggest that certain…

  17. Performance-based Pareto optimal design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sariyildiz, I.S.; Bittermann, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach for performance-based design is presented, where Pareto optimality is pursued. Design requirements may contain linguistic information, which is difficult to bring into computation or make consistent their impartial estimations from case to case. Fuzzy logic and soft computing are

  18. Performance-based inspection and maintenance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    Performance-based inspection and maintenance strategies utilize measures of equipment performance to help guide inspection and maintenance activities. A relevant measure of performance for safety system components is component unavailability. The component unavailability can also be input into a plant risk model such as a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to determine the associated plant risk performance. Based on the present and projected unavailability performance, or the present and projected risk performance, the effectiveness of current maintenance activities can be evaluated and this information can be used to plan future maintenance activities. A significant amount of information other than downtimes or failure times is collected or can be collected when an inspection or maintenance is conducted which can be used to estimate the component unavailability. This information generally involves observations on the condition or state of the component or component piecepart. The information can be detailed such as the amount of corrosion buildup or can be general such as the general state of the component described as ' high degradation', ' moderate degradation', or ' low degradation'. Much of the information collected in maintenance logs is qualitative and fuzzy. As part of an NRC Research program on performance-based engineering modeling, approaches have been developed to apply Fuzzy Set Theory to information collected on the state of the component to determine the implied component or component piecepart unavailability. Demonstrations of the applications of Fuzzy Set Theory are presented utilizing information from plant maintenance logs. The demonstrations show the power of Fuzzy Set Theory in translating engineering information to reliability and risk implications

  19. Enhanced TDMA Based Anti-Collision Algorithm with a Dynamic Frame Size Adjustment Strategy for Mobile RFID Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Cheol Shin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of production, manufacturing and supply chain management, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is regarded as one of the most important technologies. Nowadays, Mobile RFID, which is often installed in carts or forklift trucks, is increasingly being applied to the search for and checkout of items in warehouses, supermarkets, libraries and other industrial fields. In using Mobile RFID, since the readers are continuously moving, they can interfere with each other when they attempt to read the tags. In this study, we suggest a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA based anti-collision algorithm for Mobile RFID readers. Our algorithm automatically adjusts the frame size of each reader without using manual parameters by adopting the dynamic frame size adjustment strategy when collisions occur at a reader. Through experiments on a simulated environment for Mobile RFID readers, we show that the proposed method improves the number of successful transmissions by about 228% on average, compared with Colorwave, a representative TDMA based anti-collision algorithm.

  20. Enhanced TDMA Based Anti-Collision Algorithm with a Dynamic Frame Size Adjustment Strategy for Mobile RFID Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang Cheol; Park, Seung Bo; Jo, Geun Sik

    2009-01-01

    In the fields of production, manufacturing and supply chain management, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is regarded as one of the most important technologies. Nowadays, Mobile RFID, which is often installed in carts or forklift trucks, is increasingly being applied to the search for and checkout of items in warehouses, supermarkets, libraries and other industrial fields. In using Mobile RFID, since the readers are continuously moving, they can interfere with each other when they attempt to read the tags. In this study, we suggest a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based anti-collision algorithm for Mobile RFID readers. Our algorithm automatically adjusts the frame size of each reader without using manual parameters by adopting the dynamic frame size adjustment strategy when collisions occur at a reader. Through experiments on a simulated environment for Mobile RFID readers, we show that the proposed method improves the number of successful transmissions by about 228% on average, compared with Colorwave, a representative TDMA based anti-collision algorithm.

  1. Approach to performance based regulation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spogen, L.R.; Cleland, L.L.

    1977-06-01

    An approach to the development of performance based regulations (PBR's) is described. Initially, a framework is constructed that consists of a function hierarchy and associated measures. The function at the top of the hierarchy is described in terms of societal objectives. Decomposition of this function into subordinate functions and their subsequent decompositions yield the function hierarchy. ''Bottom'' functions describe the roles of system components. When measures are identified for the performance of each function and means of aggregating performances to higher levels are established, the framework may be employed for developing PBR's. Consideration of system flexibility and performance uncertainty guide in determining the hierarchical level at which regulations are formulated. Ease of testing compliance is also a factor. To show the viability of the approach, the framework developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for evaluation of material control systems at fixed facilities is presented

  2. On the validity of self-report assessment of cognitive abilities: Attentional control scale associations with cognitive performance, emotional adjustment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paula G; Rau, Holly K; Suchy, Yana; Thorgusen, Sommer R; Smith, Timothy W

    2017-05-01

    Individual differences in attentional control involve the ability to voluntarily direct, shift, and sustain attention. In studies of the role of attentional control in emotional adjustment, social relationships, and vulnerability to the effects of stress, self-report questionnaires are commonly used to measure this construct. Yet, convincing evidence of the association between self-report scales and actual cognitive performance has not been demonstrated. Across 2 independent samples, we examined associations between self-reported attentional control (Attentional Control Scale; ACS), self-reported emotional adjustment, Five-Factor Model personality traits (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) and performance measures of attentional control. Study 1 examined behavioral performance on the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002) and the Modified Switching Task (MST; Suchy & Kosson, 2006) in a large sample (n = 315) of healthy young adults. Study 2 (n = 78) examined behavioral performance on standardized neuropsychological tests of attention, including Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II and subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Third Edition (WAIS-III; Psychological Corporation, 1997) and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). Results indicated that the ACS was largely unrelated to behavioral performance measures of attentional control but was significantly associated with emotional adjustment, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. These findings suggest that although self-reported attentional control may be a useful construct, researchers using the ACS should exercise caution in interpreting it as a proxy for actual cognitive ability or performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Asymmetric adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A method of adjusting a signal processing parameter for a first hearing aid and a second hearing aid forming parts of a binaural hearing aid system to be worn by a user is provided. The binaural hearing aid system comprises a user specific model representing a desired asymmetry between a first ear

  4. Effect of Treatment Education Based on the Roy Adaptation Model on Adjustment of Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacaroglu Vicdan, Ayse; Gulseven Karabacak, Bilgi

    2016-01-01

    The Roy Adaptation Model examines the individual in 4 fields: physiological mode, self-concept mode, role function mode, and interdependence mode. Hemodialysis treatment is associated with the Roy Adaptation Model as it involves fields that might be needed by the individual with chronic renal disease. This research was conducted as randomized controlled experiment with the aim of determining the effect of the education given in accordance with the Roy Adaptation Model on physiological, psychological, and social adaptation of individuals undergoing hemodialysis treatment. This was a random controlled experimental study. The study was conducted at a dialysis center in Konya-Aksehir in Turkey between July 1 and December 31, 2012. The sample was composed of 82 individuals-41 experimental and 41 control. In the second interview, there was a decrease in the systolic blood pressures and body weights of the experimental group, an increase in the scores of functional performance and self-respect, and a decrease in the scores of psychosocial adaptation. In the control group, on the other hand, there was a decrease in the scores of self-respect and an increase in the scores of psychosocial adaptation. The 2 groups were compared in terms of adaptation variables and a difference was determined on behalf of the experimental group. The training that was provided and evaluated for individuals receiving hemodialysis according to 4 modes of the Roy Adaptation Model increased physical, psychological, and social adaptation.

  5. Methodology of mixed load customized bus lines and adjustment based on time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Custom bus routes need to be optimized to meet the needs of a customized bus for personalized trips of different passengers. This paper introduced a customized bus routing problem in which trips for each depot are given, and each bus stop has a fixed time window within which trips should be completed. Treating a trip as a virtual stop was the first consideration in solving the school bus routing problem (SBRP). Then, the mixed load custom bus routing model was established with a time window that satisfies its requirement and the result were solved by Cplex software. Finally, a simple network diagram with three depots, four pickup stops, and five delivery stops was structured to verify the correctness of the model, and based on the actual example, the result is that all the buses ran 124.42 kilometers, the sum of kilometers was 10.35 kilometers less than before. The paths and departure times of the different busses that were provided by the model were evaluated to meet the needs of the given conditions, thus providing valuable information for actual work. PMID:29320505

  6. Experimental Robot Model Adjustments Based on Force–Torque Sensor Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Martinez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The computational complexity of humanoid robot balance control is reduced through the application of simplified kinematics and dynamics models. However, these simplifications lead to the introduction of errors that add to other inherent electro-mechanic inaccuracies and affect the robotic system. Linear control systems deal with these inaccuracies if they operate around a specific working point but are less precise if they do not. This work presents a model improvement based on the Linear Inverted Pendulum Model (LIPM to be applied in a non-linear control system. The aim is to minimize the control error and reduce robot oscillations for multiple working points. The new model, named the Dynamic LIPM (DLIPM, is used to plan the robot behavior with respect to changes in the balance status denoted by the zero moment point (ZMP. Thanks to the use of information from force–torque sensors, an experimental procedure has been applied to characterize the inaccuracies and introduce them into the new model. The experiments consist of balance perturbations similar to those of push-recovery trials, in which step-shaped ZMP variations are produced. The results show that the responses of the robot with respect to balance perturbations are more precise and the mechanical oscillations are reduced without comprising robot dynamics.

  7. Effect- and Performance-Based Auditory Feedback on Interpersonal Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Hun Hwang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When two individuals interact in a collaborative task, such as carrying a sofa or a table, usually spatiotemporal coordination of individual motor behavior will emerge. In many cases, interpersonal coordination can arise independently of verbal communication, based on the observation of the partners' movements and/or the object's movements. In this study, we investigate how social coupling between two individuals can emerge in a collaborative task under different modes of perceptual information. A visual reference condition was compared with three different conditions with new types of additional auditory feedback provided in real time: effect-based auditory feedback, performance-based auditory feedback, and combined effect/performance-based auditory feedback. We have developed a new paradigm in which the actions of both participants continuously result in a seamlessly merged effect on an object simulated by a tablet computer application. Here, participants should temporally synchronize their movements with a 90° phase difference and precisely adjust the finger dynamics in order to keep the object (a ball accurately rotating on a given circular trajectory on the tablet. Results demonstrate that interpersonal coordination in a joint task can be altered by different kinds of additional auditory information in various ways.

  8. Self-Tuning Insulin Adjustment Algorithm for Type 1 Diabetic Patients based on Multi-Doses Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. U. Campos-Delgado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-tuning algorithm is presented for on-line insulin dosage adjustment in type 1 diabetic patients (chronic stage. The algorithm suggested does not need information of the patient insulin–glucose dynamics (model-free. Three doses are programmed daily, where a combination of two types of insulin: rapid/short and intermediate/long acting is injected into the patient through a subcutaneous route. The doses adaptation is performed by reducing the error in the blood glucose level from euglycemics. In this way, a total of five doses are tuned per day: three rapid/short and two intermediate/long, where there is large penalty to avoid hypoglycemic scenarios. Closed-loop simulation results are illustrated using a detailed nonlinear model of the subcutaneous insulin–glucose dynamics in a type 1 diabetic patient with meal intake.

  9. Characterization of the CALIBAN Critical Assembly Neutron Spectra using Several Adjustment Methods Based on Activation Foils Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoli, Pierre; Grégoire, Gilles; Rousseau, Guillaume; Jacquet, Xavier; Authier, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    CALIBAN is a metallic critical assembly managed by the Criticality, Neutron Science and Measurement Department located on the French CEA Center of Valduc. The reactor is extensively used for benchmark experiments dedicated to the evaluation of nuclear data, for electronic hardening or to study the effect of the neutrons on various materials. Therefore CALIBAN irradiation characteristics and especially its central cavity neutron spectrum have to be very accurately evaluated. In order to strengthen our knowledge of this spectrum, several adjustment methods based on activation foils measurements are being studied for a few years in the laboratory. Firstly two codes included in the UMG package have been tested and compared: MAXED and GRAVEL. More recently, the CALIBAN cavity spectrum has been studied using CALMAR, a new adjustment tool currently under development at the CEA Center of Cadarache. The article will discuss and compare the results and the quality of spectrum rebuilding obtained with the UMG codes and with the CALMAR software, from a set of activation measurements carried out in the CALIBAN irradiation cavity.

  10. CO-REGISTRATION AIRBORNE LIDAR POINT CLOUD DATA AND SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL IMAGE REGISTRATION BASED ON COMBINED ADJUSTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim at the problem of co-registration airborne laser point cloud data with the synchronous digital image, this paper proposed a registration method based on combined adjustment. By integrating tie point, point cloud data with elevation constraint pseudo observations, using the principle of least-squares adjustment to solve the corrections of exterior orientation elements of each image, high-precision registration results can be obtained. In order to ensure the reliability of the tie point, and the effectiveness of pseudo observations, this paper proposed a point cloud data constrain SIFT matching and optimizing method, can ensure that the tie points are located on flat terrain area. Experiments with the airborne laser point cloud data and its synchronous digital image, there are about 43 pixels error in image space using the original POS data. If only considering the bore-sight of POS system, there are still 1.3 pixels error in image space. The proposed method regards the corrections of the exterior orientation elements of each image as unknowns and the errors are reduced to 0.15 pixels.

  11. Characterization of the CALIBAN Critical Assembly Neutron Spectra using Several Adjustment Methods Based on Activation Foils Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casoli Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CALIBAN is a metallic critical assembly managed by the Criticality, Neutron Science and Measurement Department located on the French CEA Center of Valduc. The reactor is extensively used for benchmark experiments dedicated to the evaluation of nuclear data, for electronic hardening or to study the effect of the neutrons on various materials. Therefore CALIBAN irradiation characteristics and especially its central cavity neutron spectrum have to be very accurately evaluated. In order to strengthen our knowledge of this spectrum, several adjustment methods based on activation foils measurements are being studied for a few years in the laboratory. Firstly two codes included in the UMG package have been tested and compared: MAXED and GRAVEL. More recently, the CALIBAN cavity spectrum has been studied using CALMAR, a new adjustment tool currently under development at the CEA Center of Cadarache. The article will discuss and compare the results and the quality of spectrum rebuilding obtained with the UMG codes and with the CALMAR software, from a set of activation measurements carried out in the CALIBAN irradiation cavity.

  12. A High Performance COTS Based Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patte, Mathieu; Grimoldi, Raoul; Trautner, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) electronic components for space applications is a long standing idea. Indeed the difference in processing performance and energy efficiency between radiation hardened components and COTS components is so important that COTS components are very attractive for use in mass and power constrained systems. However using COTS components in space is not straightforward as one must account with the effects of the space environment on the COTS components behavior. In the frame of the ESA funded activity called High Performance COTS Based Computer, Airbus Defense and Space and its subcontractor OHB CGS have developed and prototyped a versatile COTS based architecture for high performance processing. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in a first section we will start by recapitulating the interests and constraints of using COTS components for space applications; then we will briefly describe existing fault mitigation architectures and present our solution for fault mitigation based on a component called the SmartIO; in the last part of the paper we will describe the prototyping activities executed during the HiP CBC project.

  13. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  14. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  15. Adjustable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Covic, J.; Leininger, G.

    1981-01-01

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  16. Measurement-based reliability/performability models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Mei-Chen

    1987-01-01

    Measurement-based models based on real error-data collected on a multiprocessor system are described. Model development from the raw error-data to the estimation of cumulative reward is also described. A workload/reliability model is developed based on low-level error and resource usage data collected on an IBM 3081 system during its normal operation in order to evaluate the resource usage/error/recovery process in a large mainframe system. Thus, both normal and erroneous behavior of the system are modeled. The results provide an understanding of the different types of errors and recovery processes. The measured data show that the holding times in key operational and error states are not simple exponentials and that a semi-Markov process is necessary to model the system behavior. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the significance of using a semi-Markov process, as opposed to a Markov process, to model the measured system.

  17. Reduce consumption, improve production. Electronic adjustable speed drives and high performance motors; Consommez moins, produisez mieux. Variateurs electroniques de vitesse et moteurs performants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, A.; Pratmarty, D.; Dessoude, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1995-10-01

    The electric power consumption from electric motors accounts for up to two third of industry`s electric power consumption. When equipped with electronic adjustable speed drives (ASD), energy savings of 10 to 50 percent, with an estimated average of 25 percent, may be achieved for pumps, fans and compressors, which account for 63 percent of motor applications. The advantages of electronic ASD, the installation recommendations which should be applied, the sensibility of ASDs to power cuts and harmonics, the characteristics of high efficiency motors, the energy aspects of motors with or without electronic ASD, and the EDF-ADEME (French energy conservation agency) approach for electricity demand side management, are described

  18. Scalability of a Methodology for Generating Technical Trading Rules with GAPs Based on Risk-Return Adjustment and Incremental Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Cal, E. A.; Fernández, E. M.; Quiroga, R.; Villar, J. R.; Sedano, J.

    In previous works a methodology was defined, based on the design of a genetic algorithm GAP and an incremental training technique adapted to the learning of series of stock market values. The GAP technique consists in a fusion of GP and GA. The GAP algorithm implements the automatic search for crisp trading rules taking as objectives of the training both the optimization of the return obtained and the minimization of the assumed risk. Applying the proposed methodology, rules have been obtained for a period of eight years of the S&P500 index. The achieved adjustment of the relation return-risk has generated rules with returns very superior in the testing period to those obtained applying habitual methodologies and even clearly superior to Buy&Hold. This work probes that the proposed methodology is valid for different assets in a different market than previous work.

  19. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel-based shape-adjustable polyimide films triggered by near-human-body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanqing Cui; Xuemin Du; Juan Wang; Tianhong Tang; Tianzhun Wu

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogel-based shape-adjustable films were successfully fabricated via grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) onto one side of polyimide (PI) films. The prepared PI-g-PNIPAM films exhibited rapid, reversible, and repeatable bending/unbending property by heating to near-human-body temperature (37 °C) or cooling to 25 °C. The excellent property of PI-g-PNIPAM films resulted from a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM at about 32 °C. Varying the thickness of PNIPAM hydrogel layer regulated the thermo-responsive shape bending degree and response speed of PI-g-PNIPAM films. The thermo-induced shrinkage of hydrogel layers can tune the curvature of PI films, which have potential applications in the field of wearable and implantable devices.

  20. Biodegradable and adjustable sol-gel glass based hybrid scaffolds from multi-armed oligomeric building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascholke, Christian; Hendrikx, Stephan; Flath, Tobias; Kuzmenka, Dzmitry; Dörfler, Hans-Martin; Schumann, Dirk; Gressenbuch, Mathias; Schulze, F Peter; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C

    2017-11-01

    Biodegradability is a crucial characteristic to improve the clinical potential of sol-gel-derived glass materials. To this end, a set of degradable organic/inorganic class II hybrids from a tetraethoxysilane(TEOS)-derived silica sol and oligovalent cross-linker oligomers containing oligo(d,l-lactide) domains was developed and characterized. A series of 18 oligomers (Mn: 1100-3200Da) with different degrees of ethoxylation and varying length of oligoester units was established and chemical composition was determined. Applicability of an established indirect rapid prototyping method enabled fabrication of a total of 85 different hybrid scaffold formulations from 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane-functionalized macromers. In vitro degradation was analyzed over 12months and a continuous linear weight loss (0.2-0.5wt%/d) combined with only moderate material swelling was detected which was controlled by oligo(lactide) content and matrix hydrophilicity. Compressive strength (2-30MPa) and compressive modulus (44-716MPa) were determined and total content, oligo(ethylene oxide) content, oligo(lactide) content and molecular weight of the oligomeric cross-linkers as well as material porosity were identified as the main factors determining hybrid mechanics. Cytocompatibility was assessed by cell culture experiments with human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASC). Cell migration into the entire scaffold pore network was indicated and continuous proliferation over 14days was found. ALP activity linearly increased over 2weeks indicating osteogenic differentiation. The presented glass-based hybrid concept with precisely adjustable material properties holds promise for regenerative purposes. Adaption of degradation kinetics toward physiological relevance is still an unmet challenge of (bio-)glass engineering. We therefore present a glass-derived hybrid material with adjustable degradation. A flexible design concept based on degradable multi-armed oligomers was combined with an

  1. Capillary gas chromatographic separation of organic bases using a pH-adjusted basic water stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Ernest; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2016-09-23

    The use of a pH-adjusted water stationary phase for analyzing organic bases in capillary gas chromatography (GC) is demonstrated. Through modifying the phase to typical values near pH 11.5, it is found that various organic bases are readily eluted and separated. Conversely, at the normal pH 7 operating level, they are not. Sodium hydroxide is found to be a much more stable base than ammonium hydroxide for altering the pH due to the higher volatility and evaporation of the latter. In the basic condition, such analytes are not ionized and are observed to produce good peak shapes even for injected masses down to about 20ng. By comparison, analyses on a conventional non-polar capillary GC column yield more peak tailing and only analyte masses of 1μg or higher are normally observed. Through carefully altering the pH, it is also found that the selectivity between analytes can be potentially further enhanced if their respective pKa values differ sufficiently. The analysis of different pharmaceutical and petroleum samples containing organic bases is demonstrated. Results indicate that this approach can potentially offer unique and beneficial selectivity in such analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy Efficient Graphene Based High Performance Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joonwon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2017-07-10

    Graphene (GRP) is an interesting class of nano-structured electronic materials for various cutting-edge applications. To date, extensive research activities have been performed on the investigation of diverse properties of GRP. The incorporation of this elegant material can be very lucrative in terms of practical applications in energy storage/conversion systems. Among various those systems, high performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have become popular due to the recent need for energy efficient and portable devices. Therefore, in this article, the application of GRP for capacitors is described succinctly. In particular, a concise summary on the previous research activities regarding GRP based capacitors is also covered extensively. It was revealed that a lot of secondary materials such as polymers and metal oxides have been introduced to improve the performance. Also, diverse devices have been combined with capacitors for better use. More importantly, recent patents related to the preparation and application of GRP based capacitors are also introduced briefly. This article can provide essential information for future study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. The anchor-based minimal important change, based on receiver operating characteristic analysis or predictive modeling, may need to be adjusted for the proportion of improved patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terluin, Berend; Eekhout, Iris; Terwee, Caroline B

    2017-03-01

    Patients have their individual minimal important changes (iMICs) as their personal benchmarks to determine whether a perceived health-related quality of life (HRQOL) change constitutes a (minimally) important change for them. We denote the mean iMIC in a group of patients as the "genuine MIC" (gMIC). The aims of this paper are (1) to examine the relationship between the gMIC and the anchor-based minimal important change (MIC), determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis or by predictive modeling; (2) to examine the impact of the proportion of improved patients on these MICs; and (3) to explore the possibility to adjust the MIC for the influence of the proportion of improved patients. Multiple simulations of patient samples involved in anchor-based MIC studies with different characteristics of HRQOL (change) scores and distributions of iMICs. In addition, a real data set is analyzed for illustration. The receiver operating characteristic-based and predictive modeling MICs equal the gMIC when the proportion of improved patients equals 0.5. The MIC is estimated higher than the gMIC when the proportion improved is greater than 0.5, and the MIC is estimated lower than the gMIC when the proportion improved is less than 0.5. Using an equation including the predictive modeling MIC, the log-odds of improvement, the standard deviation of the HRQOL change score, and the correlation between the HRQOL change score and the anchor results in an adjusted MIC reflecting the gMIC irrespective of the proportion of improved patients. Adjusting the predictive modeling MIC for the proportion of improved patients assures that the adjusted MIC reflects the gMIC. We assumed normal distributions and global perceived change scores that were independent on the follow-up score. Additionally, floor and ceiling effects were not taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical perspectives on performance-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadmann, Sarah; Johansen, Sarah; Lind, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Performance-based management (PBM) has become a dominant form of governance in health care and there is a need for careful assessment of its function and effects. This article contains a cross-disciplinary literature synthesis of current studies of PBM. Literature was retrieved by database search...... perspectives allows appreciation of otherwise implicit assumptions and potential implications of PBM. Reflections on such differences are important to ensure vigilant appropriation of shifting management tools in health quality governance.......Performance-based management (PBM) has become a dominant form of governance in health care and there is a need for careful assessment of its function and effects. This article contains a cross-disciplinary literature synthesis of current studies of PBM. Literature was retrieved by database searches....... In the functionalist perspective, PBM is perceived as a management tool aimed at improving health care services by means of market-based mechanisms. In the interpretive perspective, the adoption of PBM is understood as consequence of institutional and individual agents striving for public legitimacy. In the post...

  5. Key performance indicators in hospital based on balanced scorecard model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Performance measurement is receiving increasing verification all over the world. Nowadays in a lot of organizations, irrespective of their type or size, performance evaluation is the main concern and a key issue for top administrators. The purpose of this study is to organize suitable key performance indicators (KPIs for hospitals’ performance evaluation based on the balanced scorecard (BSC. Method: This is a mixed method study. In order to identify the hospital’s performance indicators (HPI, first related literature was reviewed and then the experts’ panel and Delphi method were used. In this study, two rounds were needed for the desired level of consensus. The experts rated the importance of the indicators, on a five-point Likert scale. In the consensus calculation, the consensus percentage was calculated by classifying the values 1-3 as not important (0 and 4-5 to (1 as important. Simple additive weighting technique was used to rank the indicators and select hospital’s KPIs. The data were analyzed by Excel 2010 software. Results: About 218 indicators were obtained from a review of selected literature. Through internal expert panel, 77 indicators were selected. Finally, 22 were selected for KPIs of hospitals. Ten indicators were selected in internal process perspective and 5, 4, and 3 indicators in finance, learning and growth, and customer, respectively. Conclusion: This model can be a useful tool for evaluating and comparing the performance of hospitals. However, this model is flexible and can be adjusted according to differences in the target hospitals. This study can be beneficial for hospital administrators and it can help them to change their perspective about performance evaluation.

  6. Robust High Performance Aquaporin based Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus; Zhao, Yichun; Qiu, C.

    2013-01-01

    on top of a support membrane. Control membranes, either without aquaporins or with the inactive AqpZ R189A mutant aquaporin served as controls. The separation performance of the membranes was evaluated by cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO) tests. In RO the ABM achieved a water......Aquaporins are water channel proteins with high water permeability and solute rejection, which makes them promising for preparing high-performance biomimetic membranes. Despite the growing interest in aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes (ABMs), it is challenging to produce robust and defect...... permeability of ~ 4 L/(m2 h bar) with a NaCl rejection > 97% at an applied hydraulic pressure of 5 bar. The water permeability was ~40% higher compared to a commercial brackish water RO membrane (BW30) and an order of magnitude higher compared to a seawater RO membrane (SW30HR). In FO, the ABMs had > 90...

  7. HIGH PERFORMANCE CERIA BASED OXYGEN MEMBRANE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention describes a new class of highly stable mixed conducting materials based on acceptor doped cerium oxide (CeO2-8 ) in which the limiting electronic conductivity is significantly enhanced by co-doping with a second element or co- dopant, such as Nb, W and Zn, so that cerium and the co......-dopant have an ionic size ratio between 0.5 and 1. These materials can thereby improve the performance and extend the range of operating conditions of oxygen permeation membranes (OPM) for different high temperature membrane reactor applications. The invention also relates to the manufacturing of supported...

  8. Adjusting the operating characteristics to improve the performance of an emulsified palm oil methyl ester run diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, Biplab K.; Sahoo, Niranjan; Saha, Ujjwal K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The oxygenated biodiesel has a lower calorific value and emits higher NO X than diesel. ► The objective is to study the water in palm oil biodiesel emulsion in a diesel engine. ► The tests are performed at higher compression ratio and retarded injection timing. ► The results obtained are compared with a POME run diesel engine. ► Higher efficiency, lower ignition delay and emissions are the outcomes. - Abstract: The popularity of emulsified fuels as alternative to diesel is cumulative. The water in diesel emulsion is the most practiced one. The presence of water in emulsion and its micro-explosion reduces emissions. However, the emulsified biodiesel is not properly explored. The reason may be due to its lesser calorific value that does not augment efficiency. Alongside oxygenated biodiesel generally emits higher NO X than diesel. Therefore, the present investigation targets at finding the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of emulsified biodiesel in a diesel engine at an elevated compression ratio (CR) and retarded injection timing (IT). This is because; at this CR–IT combination emulsified fuel will be injected at the warmer environment, mechanically created inside the cylinder. The objective is to achieve a faster combustion, lower ignition delay (ID), improved performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel used in this work is the palm oil methyl ester (POME). The prepared two-phase water in POME (WIP) emulsion is tested in a variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine at CR = 18 and IT = 20°BTDC. The results obtained are then compared with the POME run engine data under the same CR and IT specifications. Additionally, experiments have also been conducted in the same engine at CR = 17.5 and IT = 23°BTDC to compare its results with those of WIP and POME run engines

  9. Activity based costing the performance breakthrough

    CERN Document Server

    Turney, Peter B B

    1996-01-01

    Activity-based costing is a method of measuring the cost and performance of activities, products and customers. It is increasingly being seen as a more accurate method of costing than conventional costing systems, which are being superseded by the fact that automation means that direct material and labour consumption is now a far less accurate means of apportioning overheads. This practical book outlines why conventional cost systems fail, before going on to cover the advantages of activity-based costing, and describing how to put the system in place successfully, and how to apply the lessons learnt quickly. The book takes the reader step-by-step through the various processes involved, from setting up the system, through its operation, to evaluation of the results.

  10. Melt-processable hydrophobic acrylonitrile-based copolymer systems with adjustable elastic properties designed for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Trescher, K; Kratz, K; Jung, F; Hiebl, B; Lendlein, A

    2010-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-based polymer systems (PAN) are comprehensively explored as versatile biomaterials having various potential biomedical applications, such as membranes for extra corporal devices or matrixes for guided skin reconstruction. The surface properties (e.g. hydrophilicity or charges) of such materials can be tailored over a wide range by variation of molecular parameters such as different co-monomers or their sequence structure. Some of these materials show interesting biofunctionalities such as capability for selective cell cultivation. So far, the majority of AN-based copolymers, which were investigated in physiological environments, were processed from the solution (e.g. membranes), as these materials are thermo-sensitive and might degrade when heated. In this work we aimed at the synthesis of hydrophobic, melt-processable AN-based copolymers with adjustable elastic properties for preparation of model scaffolds with controlled pore geometry and size. For this purpose a series of copolymers from acrylonitrile and n-butyl acrylate (nBA) was synthesized via free radical copolymerisation technique. The content of nBA in the copolymer varied from 45 wt% to 70 wt%, which was confirmed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the P(AN-co-nBA) copolymers determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) decreased from 58 degrees C to 20 degrees C with increasing nBA-content, which was in excellent agreement with the prediction of the Gordon-Taylor equation based on the Tgs of the homopolymers. The Young's modulus obtained in tensile tests was found to decrease significantly with rising nBA-content from 1062 MPa to 1.2 MPa. All copolymers could be successfully processed from the melt with processing temperatures ranging from 50 degrees C to 170 degrees C, whereby thermally induced decomposition was only observed at temperatures higher than 320 degrees C in thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Finally, the melt processed P

  11. Application of Adjusted Canonical Correlation Analysis (ACCA) to study the association between mathematics in Level 1 and Level 2 and performance of engineering disciplines in Level 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, T. S. G.; Nanayakkara, K. A. D. S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematics plays a key role in engineering sciences as it assists to develop the intellectual maturity and analytical thinking of engineering students and exploring the student academic performance has received great attention recently. The lack of control over covariates motivates the need for their adjustment when measuring the degree of association between two sets of variables in Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Thus to examine the individual effects of mathematics in Level 1 and Level 2 on engineering performance in Level 2, two adjusted analyses in CCA: Part CCA and Partial CCA were applied for the raw marks of engineering undergraduates for three different disciplines, at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. The joint influence of mathematics in Level 1 and Level 2 is significant on engineering performance in Level 2 irrespective of the engineering disciplines. The individual effect of mathematics in Level 2 is significantly higher compared to the individual effect of mathematics in Level 1 on engineering performance in Level 2. Furthermore, the individual effect of mathematics in Level 1 can be negligible. But, there would be a notable indirect effect of mathematics in Level 1 on engineering performance in Level 2. It can be concluded that the joint effect of mathematics in both Level 1 and Level 2 is immensely beneficial to improve the overall academic performance at the end of Level 2 of the engineering students. Furthermore, it was found that the impact mathematics varies among engineering disciplines. As partial CCA and partial CCA are not widely explored in applied work, it is recommended to use these techniques for various applications.

  12. High Performance Fe-Co Based SOFC Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent; Hansen, Karin Vels; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of reducing the temperature of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), a new high-performance perovskite cathode has been developed. An area-specific resistance (ASR) as low as 0.12 Ωcm2 at 600 °C was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on symmetrical cells. The cathode...... is a composite between (Gd0.6Sr0.4)0.99Fe0.8Co0.2O3-δ (GSFC) and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO10). Examination of the microstructure of the cathodes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a possibility of further optimisation of the microstructure in order to increase the performance of the cathodes. It also...... seems that an adjustment of the sintering temperature will make a lowering of the ASR value possible. The cathodes were compatible with ceria-based electrolytes but reacted to some extent with zirconia-based electrolytes depending on the sintering temperature....

  13. Achieving optimum diffraction based overlay performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee; Coogans, Martyn; Fuchs, Andreas; Ponomarenko, Mariya; van der Schaar, Maurits; Vanoppen, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) metrology has been shown to have significantly reduced Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) compared to Image Based Overlay (IBO), primarily due to having no measurable Tool Induced Shift (TIS). However, the advantages of having no measurable TIS can be outweighed by increased susceptibility to WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) caused by target damage, process non-uniformities and variations. The path to optimum DBO performance lies in having well characterized metrology targets, which are insensitive to process non-uniformities and variations, in combination with optimized recipes which take advantage of advanced DBO designs. In this work we examine the impact of different degrees of process non-uniformity and target damage on DBO measurement gratings and study their impact on overlay measurement accuracy and precision. Multiple wavelength and dual polarization scatterometry are used to characterize the DBO design performance over the range of process variation. In conclusion, we describe the robustness of DBO metrology to target damage and show how to exploit the measurement capability of a multiple wavelength, dual polarization scatterometry tool to ensure the required measurement accuracy for current and future technology nodes.

  14. The impact of highway base-saturation flow rate adjustment on Kuwait's transport and environmental parameters estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRukaibi, Fahad; AlKheder, Sharaf; Al-Rukaibi, Duaij; Al-Burait, Abdul-Aziz

    2018-03-23

    Traditional transportation systems' management and operation mainly focused on improving traffic mobility and safety without imposing any environmental concerns. Transportation and environmental issues are interrelated and affected by the same parameters especially at signalized intersections. Additionally, traffic congestion at signalized intersections has a major contribution in the environmental problem as related to vehicle emission, fuel consumption, and delay. Therefore, signalized intersections' design and operation is an important parameter to minimize the impact on the environment. The design and operation of signalized intersections are highly dependent on the base saturation flow rate (BSFR). Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) uses a base-saturation flow rate of 1900-passenger car/h/lane for areas with a population intensity greater than or equal to 250,000 and a value of 1750-passenger car/h/lane for less populated areas. The base-saturation flow rate value in HCM is derived from a field data collected in developed countries. The adopted value in Kuwait is 1800passengercar/h/lane, which is the value that used in this analysis as a basis for comparison. Due to the difference in behavior between drivers in developed countries and their fellows in Kuwait, an adjustment was made to the base-saturation flow rate to represent Kuwait's traffic and environmental conditions. The reduction in fuel consumption and vehicles' emission after modifying the base-saturation flow rate (BSFR increased by 12.45%) was about 34% on average. Direct field measurements of the saturation flow rate were used while using the air quality mobile lab to calculate emissions' rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Socioemotional Adjustment as a Mediator of the Association between Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Performance in Low-Income Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Larkby, Cynthia A; Cornelius, Marie D

    2014-07-01

    This study examines whether exposure to community violence is indirectly related to academic performance through anxious/depressed symptoms and delinquent behaviors. Three hundred eighteen mothers and adolescents who participated in a longitudinal investigation were interviewed when adolescents were age 10, 14, and 16. Community violence exposure at age 14 was significantly related to anxious/depressed symptoms and delinquent behaviors. Delinquent behaviors (but not anxious/depressed symptoms) were significantly associated with academic performance at age 16. Exposure to community violence was indirectly related to academic performance through delinquent behaviors. There was no significant indirect effect of exposure to community violence on academic performance through anxious/depressed symptoms. Covariates included sociodemographics and exposure to child abuse. Age 10 anxious/depressed symptoms, age 10 delinquent behaviors, and age 14 academic performance were also included in the model to control for preexisting differences in socioemotional adjustment and academic performance. Results suggest that exposure to community violence may initiate a cascade of problems that spread from behavior problems to declines in academic performance. Our results highlight the need for schools to consider exposure to community violence as one form of trauma and to transform in ways that make them more trauma-sensitive. The use of trauma-sensitive practices that address the effects of violence exposure on youth may help limit the progression of adverse effects from delinquent behavior to other domains of functioning.

  16. 48 CFR 970.1100-1 - Performance-based contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Procurement Policy's Seven Steps to Performance-Based Acquisition located at Web site http://www...) performance standards and objectives and quality assurance surveillance plans; provide performance incentives... planning processes. Measurable performance criteria, objective measures, and where appropriate, performance...

  17. Adjusting for overdispersion in piecewise exponential regression models to estimate excess mortality rate in population-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Belot, Aurélien; Quaresma, Manuela; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P; Rachet, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    In population-based cancer research, piecewise exponential regression models are used to derive adjusted estimates of excess mortality due to cancer using the Poisson generalized linear modelling framework. However, the assumption that the conditional mean and variance of the rate parameter given the set of covariates x i are equal is strong and may fail to account for overdispersion given the variability of the rate parameter (the variance exceeds the mean). Using an empirical example, we aimed to describe simple methods to test and correct for overdispersion. We used a regression-based score test for overdispersion under the relative survival framework and proposed different approaches to correct for overdispersion including a quasi-likelihood, robust standard errors estimation, negative binomial regression and flexible piecewise modelling. All piecewise exponential regression models showed the presence of significant inherent overdispersion (p-value regression modelling, with either a quasi-likelihood or robust standard errors, was the best approach as it deals with both, overdispersion due to model misspecification and true or inherent overdispersion.

  18. Introducing risk adjustment and free health plan choice in employer-based health insurance: Evidence from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilny, Adam; Wübker, Ansgar; Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2017-12-01

    To equalize differences in health plan premiums due to differences in risk pools, the German legislature introduced a simple Risk Adjustment Scheme (RAS) based on age, gender and disability status in 1994. In addition, effective 1996, consumers gained the freedom to choose among hundreds of existing health plans, across employers and state-borders. This paper (a) estimates RAS pass-through rates on premiums, financial reserves, and expenditures and assesses the overall RAS impact on market price dispersion. Moreover, it (b) characterizes health plan switchers and investigates their annual and cumulative switching rates over time. Our main findings are based on representative enrollee panel data linked to administrative RAS and health plan data. We show that sickness funds with bad risk pools and high pre-RAS premiums lowered their total premiums by 42 cents per additional euro allocated by the RAS. Consequently, post-RAS, health plan prices converged but not fully. Because switchers are more likely to be white collar, young and healthy, the new consumer choice resulted in more risk segregation and the amount of money redistributed by the RAS increased over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of CLIC Re-Adjustment System Based on Eccentric Cam Movers One Degree of Freedom Mock-Up

    CERN Document Server

    Kemppinen, J; Lackner, F

    2011-01-01

    Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a 48 km long linear accelerator currently studied at CERN. It is a high luminosity electron-positron collider with an energy range of 0.5-3 TeV. CLIC is based on a two-beam technology in which a high current drive beam transfers RF power to the main beam accelerating structures. The main beam is steered with quadrupole magnets. To reach CLIC target luminosity, the main beam quadrupoles have to be actively pre-aligned within 17 µm in 5 degrees of freedom and actively stabilised at 1 nm in vertical above 1 Hz. To reach the pre-alignment requirement as well as the rigidity required by nano-stabilisation, a system based on eccentric cam movers is proposed for the re-adjustment of the main beam quadrupoles. Validation of the technique to the stringent CLIC requirements was started with tests in one degree of freedom on an eccentric cam mover. This paper describes the dedicated mock-up as well as the tests and measurements carried out with it. Finally, the test results are present...

  20. Adaptive adjustment of interval predictive control based on combined model and application in shell brand petroleum distillation tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Zhang, Chunran; Gu, Xinfeng; Liu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    Constraints of the optimization objective are often unable to be met when predictive control is applied to industrial production process. Then, online predictive controller will not find a feasible solution or a global optimal solution. To solve this problem, based on Back Propagation-Auto Regressive with exogenous inputs (BP-ARX) combined control model, nonlinear programming method is used to discuss the feasibility of constrained predictive control, feasibility decision theorem of the optimization objective is proposed, and the solution method of soft constraint slack variables is given when the optimization objective is not feasible. Based on this, for the interval control requirements of the controlled variables, the slack variables that have been solved are introduced, the adaptive weighted interval predictive control algorithm is proposed, achieving adaptive regulation of the optimization objective and automatically adjust of the infeasible interval range, expanding the scope of the feasible region, and ensuring the feasibility of the interval optimization objective. Finally, feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm is validated through the simulation comparative experiments.

  1. TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs.

  2. TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs

  3. Spectrally adjustable quasi-monochromatic radiance source based on LEDs and its application for measuring spectral responsivity of a luminance meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Juha-Matti; Poikonen, Tuomas; Vaskuri, Anna; Kärhä, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    A spectrally adjustable radiance source based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been constructed for spectral responsivity measurements of radiance and luminance meters. A 300 mm integrating sphere source with adjustable output port is illuminated using 30 thermally stabilized narrow-band LEDs covering the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. The functionality of the measurement setup is demonstrated by measuring the relative spectral responsivities of a luminance meter and a photometer head with cosine-corrected input optics. (paper)

  4. Comparison of the performance of the CMS Hierarchical Condition Category (CMS-HCC) risk adjuster with the Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity measures in predicting mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengxiang; Kim, Michelle M; Doshi, Jalpa A

    2010-08-20

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has implemented the CMS-Hierarchical Condition Category (CMS-HCC) model to risk adjust Medicare capitation payments. This study intends to assess the performance of the CMS-HCC risk adjustment method and to compare it to the Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity measures in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality in Medicare beneficiaries. The study used the 2005-2006 Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) 5% Medicare files. The primary study sample included all community-dwelling fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with a hospital admission between January 1st, 2006 and June 30th, 2006. Additionally, four disease-specific samples consisting of subgroups of patients with principal diagnoses of congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, diabetes mellitus (DM), and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were also selected. Four analytic files were generated for each sample by extracting inpatient and/or outpatient claims for each patient. Logistic regressions were used to compare the methods. Model performance was assessed using the c-statistic, the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and their 95% confidence intervals estimated using bootstrapping. The CMS-HCC had statistically significant higher c-statistic and lower AIC and BIC values than the Charlson and Elixhauser methods in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality across all samples in analytic files that included claims from the index hospitalization. Exclusion of claims for the index hospitalization generally led to drops in model performance across all methods with the highest drops for the CMS-HCC method. However, the CMS-HCC still performed as well or better than the other two methods. The CMS-HCC method demonstrated better performance relative to the Charlson and Elixhauser methods in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality. The CMS-HCC model is preferred over the Charlson and Elixhauser methods

  5. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  6. Controlling the Performance of P-type Cu2O/SnO Bilayer Thin-Film Transistors by Adjusting the Thickness of the Copper Oxide Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jawhari, Hala A.

    2014-11-11

    The effect of copper oxide layer thickness on the performance of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors was investigated. By using sputtered Cu2O films produced at an oxygen partial pressure, Opp, of 10% as the upper layer and 3% Opp SnO films as the lower layer we built a matrix of bottom-gate Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors of different thickness. We found that the thickness of the Cu2O layer is of major importance in oxidation of the SnO layer underneath. The thicker the Cu2O layer, the more the underlying SnO layer is oxidized, and, hence, the more transistor mobility is enhanced at a specific temperature. Both device performance and the annealing temperature required could be adjusted by controlling the thickness of each layer of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors.

  7. Identifying the contents of a type 1 diabetes outpatient care program based on the self-adjustment of insulin using the Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mutsuko; Shindo, Yukari; Kawaharada, Mariko

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the items necessary for an outpatient care program based on the self-adjustment of insulin for type 1 diabetes patients. Two surveys based on the Delphi method were conducted. The survey participants were 41 certified diabetes nurses in Japan. An outpatient care program based on the self-adjustment of insulin was developed based on pertinent published work and expert opinions. There were a total of 87 survey items in the questionnaire, which was developed based on the care program mentioned earlier, covering matters such as the establishment of prerequisites and a cooperative relationship, the basics of blood glucose pattern management, learning and practice sessions for the self-adjustment of insulin, the implementation of the self-adjustment of insulin, and feedback. The participants' approval on items in the questionnaires was defined at 70%. Participants agreed on all of the items in the first survey. Four new parameters were added to make a total of 91 items for the second survey and participants agreed on the inclusion of 84 of them. Items necessary for a type 1 diabetes outpatient care program based on self-adjustment of insulin were subsequently selected. It is believed that this care program received a fairly strong approval from certified diabetes nurses; however, it will be necessary to have the program further evaluated in conjunction with intervention studies in the future. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  8. Mixed Movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. The project experiments with drawing-series as montages of materials and forces, making the drawing appear in its changing character. The moving components are conditioned by different circumstances...... that question each other, working as well with space-time motives as with expressions and techniques. A series poses questions both to the kind of forces it raises as well as to the kind of sensual affects it produces – to how the body resonates with the rhythms and tensions that appear in the drawing....... A drawing-series is then both a machine, a diagram, and an appearance, what we call a resonance-model, creating links between tectonic and drawing constructions, kinaesthetic competences and actual body-movements....

  9. A rainfall disaggregation scheme for sub-hourly time scales: Coupling a Bartlett-Lewis based model with adjusting procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossieris, Panagiotis; Makropoulos, Christos; Onof, Christian; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2018-01-01

    Many hydrological applications, such as flood studies, require the use of long rainfall data at fine time scales varying from daily down to 1 min time step. However, in the real world there is limited availability of data at sub-hourly scales. To cope with this issue, stochastic disaggregation techniques are typically employed to produce possible, statistically consistent, rainfall events that aggregate up to the field data collected at coarser scales. A methodology for the stochastic disaggregation of rainfall at fine time scales was recently introduced, combining the Bartlett-Lewis process to generate rainfall events along with adjusting procedures to modify the lower-level variables (i.e., hourly) so as to be consistent with the higher-level one (i.e., daily). In the present paper, we extend the aforementioned scheme, initially designed and tested for the disaggregation of daily rainfall into hourly depths, for any sub-hourly time scale. In addition, we take advantage of the recent developments in Poisson-cluster processes incorporating in the methodology a Bartlett-Lewis model variant that introduces dependence between cell intensity and duration in order to capture the variability of rainfall at sub-hourly time scales. The disaggregation scheme is implemented in an R package, named HyetosMinute, to support disaggregation from daily down to 1-min time scale. The applicability of the methodology was assessed on a 5-min rainfall records collected in Bochum, Germany, comparing the performance of the above mentioned model variant against the original Bartlett-Lewis process (non-random with 5 parameters). The analysis shows that the disaggregation process reproduces adequately the most important statistical characteristics of rainfall at wide range of time scales, while the introduction of the model with dependent intensity-duration results in a better performance in terms of skewness, rainfall extremes and dry proportions.

  10. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Griffin, Tiffany M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple regression analyses within gender groups indicated that among girls and boys, racial discrimination and gender discrimination predicted higher depressive symptoms and school importance and racial discrimination predicted self-esteem. Racial and gender discrimination were also negatively associated with grade point average among boys but were not significantly associated in girls’ analyses. Significant gender discrimination X racial discrimination interactions resulted in the girls’ models predicting psychological outcomes and in boys’ models predicting academic achievement. Taken together, findings suggest the importance of considering gender- and race-related experiences in understanding academic and psychological adjustment among African American adolescents. PMID:22837794

  11. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogburn, Courtney D; Chavous, Tabbye M; Griffin, Tiffany M

    2011-01-03

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple regression analyses within gender groups indicated that among girls and boys, racial discrimination and gender discrimination predicted higher depressive symptoms and school importance and racial discrimination predicted self-esteem. Racial and gender discrimination were also negatively associated with grade point average among boys but were not significantly associated in girls' analyses. Significant gender discrimination X racial discrimination interactions resulted in the girls' models predicting psychological outcomes and in boys' models predicting academic achievement. Taken together, findings suggest the importance of considering gender- and race-related experiences in understanding academic and psychological adjustment among African American adolescents.

  12. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Monitoring the quality of cardiac surgery based on three or more surgical outcomes using a new variable life-adjusted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Fah Fatt; Tang, Xu; Zhu, Yexin; Lim, Puay Weng

    2017-06-01

    The traditional variable life-adjusted display (VLAD) is a graphical display of the difference between expected and actual cumulative deaths. The VLAD assumes binary outcomes: death within 30 days of an operation or survival beyond 30 days. Full recovery and bedridden for life, for example, are considered the same outcome. This binary classification results in a great loss of information. Although there are many grades of survival, the binary outcomes are commonly used to classify surgical outcomes. Consequently, quality monitoring procedures are developed based on binary outcomes. With a more refined set of outcomes, the sensitivities of these procedures can be expected to improve. A likelihood ratio method is used to define a penalty-reward scoring system based on three or more surgical outcomes for the new VLAD. The likelihood ratio statistic W is based on testing the odds ratio of cumulative probabilities of recovery R. Two methods of implementing the new VLAD are proposed. We accumulate the statistic W-W¯R to estimate the performance of a surgeon where W¯R is the average of the W's of a historical data set. The accumulated sum will be zero based on the historical data set. This ensures that if a new VLAD is plotted for a future surgeon of performance similar to this average performance, the plot will exhibit a horizontal trend. For illustration of the new VLAD, we consider 3-outcome surgical results: death within 30 days, partial and full recoveries. In our first illustration, we show the effect of partial recoveries on surgical results of a surgeon. In our second and third illustrations, the surgical results of two surgeons are compared using both the traditional VLAD based on binary-outcome data and the new VLAD based on 3-outcome data. A reversal in relative performance of surgeons is observed when the new VLAD is used. In our final illustration, we display the surgical results of four surgeons using the new VLAD based completely on 3-outcome data. Full

  14. Hierarchical porous Co3O4 films with size-adjustable pores as Li ion battery anodes with excellent rate performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Xu, Zhanming; Zhang, Li; Sun, Kening

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Template-free synthesis of hierarchical porous Co 3 O 4 films on Ni foams. •Hierarchical porous Co 3 O 4 films with size-adjustable pores. •Excellent rate performances (650 mAh g −1 at 30 C) as Li ion battery anodes. -- Abstract: Constructing hierarchical porous structures on the current collectors is an attractive strategy for improving the rate performance of the Li ion battery electrodes. However, preparing hierarchical porous structures normally requires hard or soft templates to create hollows or pores in different sizes. Rigorous preparation conditions are needed to control the size (especially nanosize) and size distribution of the pores obtained by conventional methods. Herein, we describe a template-free two-step synthesis process to prepare hierarchical porous Co 3 O 4 films on Ni foam substrates. In this synthesis process, free-standing mesoporous precursor flakes are deposited on Ni foams by an electrochemical method. Subsequently, the meosporous precursor flake arrays are calcined to obtain hierarchical porous Co 3 O 4 films. More strikingly, the size of the mesopores in the flakes can be adjusted by altering the calcination temperature. The structure and morphology of the samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurements. The relationship of the in-flake-pore size and the calcinations temperature is proposed here. Electrochemical tests have revealed that the hierarchical porous Co 3 O 4 films demonstrate excellent rate performances (650 mAh g −1 at 30 C) as Li ion battery anodes due to the hierarchical porous structure, which endows fast ion transmission

  15. Research on performance-based seismic design criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢礼立; 马玉宏

    2002-01-01

    The seismic design criterion adopted in the existing seismic design codes is reviewed. It is pointed out that the presently used seismic design criterion is not satisfied with the requirements of nowadays social and economic development. A new performance-based seismic design criterion that is composed of three components is presented in this paper. It can not only effectively control the economic losses and casualty, but also ensure the building(s function in proper operation during earthquakes. The three components are: classification of seismic design for buildings, determination of seismic design intensity and/or seismic design ground motion for controlling seismic economic losses and casualties, and determination of the importance factors in terms of service periods of buildings. For controlling the seismic human losses, the idea of socially acceptable casualty level is presented and the (Optimal Economic Decision Model( and (Optimal Safe Decision Model( are established. Finally, a new method is recommended for calculating the importance factors of structures by adjusting structures service period on the base of more important structure with longer service period than the conventional ones. Therefore, the more important structure with longer service periods will be designed for higher seismic loads, in case the exceedance probability of seismic hazard in different service period is same.

  16. The national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in Spain: a population-based study using disability-adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard

    2015-04-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in the adult population of Spain. Cross-sectional, descriptive population-based study. We calculated the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) metric using country-specific data from national statistics and epidemiological studies to obtain representative outcomes for the Spanish population. DALYs were divided into years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were estimated for the year 2008 by applying demographic structure by sex and age-groups, cause-specific mortality, morbidity data and new disability weights proposed in the recent Global Burden of Disease study. In the base case, neither YLLs nor YLDs were discounted or age-weighted. Uncertainty around DALYs was tested using sensitivity analyses. In Spain, cerebrovascular diseases generated 418,052 DALYs, comprising 337,000 (80.6%) YLLs and 81,052 (19.4%) YLDs. This accounts for 1,113 DALYs per 100,000 population (men: 1,197 and women: 1,033) and 3,912 per 100,000 in those over the age of 65 years (men: 4,427 and women: 2,033). Depending on the standard life table and choice of social values used for calculation, total DALYs varied by 15.3% and 59.9% below the main estimate. Estimates provided here represent a comprehensive analysis of the burden of cerebrovascular diseases at a national level. Prevention and control programmes aimed at reducing the disease burden merit further priority in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. On isocentre adjustment and quality control in linear accelerator based radiosurgery with circular collimators and room lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treuer, H. [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany). E-mail: h.treuer at uni-koeln.de; Hoevels, M.; Luyken, K.; Gierich, A.; Sturm, V. [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Kocher, M.; Mueller, R.-P. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    We have developed a densitometric method for measuring the isocentric accuracy and the accuracy of marking the isocentre position for linear accelerator based radiosurgery with circular collimators and room lasers. Isocentric shots are used to determine the accuracy of marking the isocentre position with room lasers and star shots are used to determine the wobble of the gantry and table rotation movement, the effect of gantry sag, the stereotactic collimator alignment, and the minimal distance between gantry and table rotation axes. Since the method is based on densitometric measurements, beam spot stability is implicitly tested. The method developed is also suitable for quality assurance and has proved to be useful in optimizing isocentric accuracy. The method is simple to perform and only requires a film box and film scanner for instrumentation. Thus, the method has the potential to become widely available and may therefore be useful in standardizing the description of linear accelerator based radiosurgical systems. (author)

  19. On isocentre adjustment and quality control in linear accelerator based radiosurgery with circular collimators and room lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treuer, H.; Kocher, M.; Mueller, R.-P.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a densitometric method for measuring the isocentric accuracy and the accuracy of marking the isocentre position for linear accelerator based radiosurgery with circular collimators and room lasers. Isocentric shots are used to determine the accuracy of marking the isocentre position with room lasers and star shots are used to determine the wobble of the gantry and table rotation movement, the effect of gantry sag, the stereotactic collimator alignment, and the minimal distance between gantry and table rotation axes. Since the method is based on densitometric measurements, beam spot stability is implicitly tested. The method developed is also suitable for quality assurance and has proved to be useful in optimizing isocentric accuracy. The method is simple to perform and only requires a film box and film scanner for instrumentation. Thus, the method has the potential to become widely available and may therefore be useful in standardizing the description of linear accelerator based radiosurgical systems. (author)

  20. The effectiveness of group therapy based on quality of life on marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of Bushehr Male abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yoseph Dehghani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research was to study the The effectiveness of group therapy based on quality of life on marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of Bushehr Male abusers. Materials and Methods: In this study which was a quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test with control group, the sample group was selected by clustering sampling method from the men who referred to Bushehr addiction treatment clinics that among them a total of 30 patients randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 15 individuals. The instrument included short version of the Marital Adjustment Questionnaire, Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and Garnefski Emotional Regulation Scale that was completed by the participants in the pre-test and post-test stages.The experimental group was treated based on group life quality in eight sessions but the control group did not receive any treatment. Multi-variate covariance analysis is used for statistical analysis of data. Results: The results revealed that after intervention there was a significant difference between two groups in terms of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation variables (P<0/001.The rate of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation in experimental group compare with control group and it was significantly higher in post-test.  Conclusion: treatment based on quality of life which have formed from combination of positive psychology and cognitive-behavioral approach can increase marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of abusers.

  1. Population-Based Estimates of Decreases in Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Associated with Unhealthy Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haomiao; Zack, Matthew M; Thompson, William W

    2016-01-01

    Being classified as outside the normal range for body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk for chronic health conditions, poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and premature death. To assess the impact of BMI on HRQOL and mortality, we compared quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) by BMI levels. We obtained HRQOL data from the 1993-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and life table estimates from the National Center for Health Statistics national mortality files to estimate QALE among U.S. adults by BMI categories: underweight (BMI overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)), obese (BMI 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2)), and severely obese (BMI ≥35.0 kg/m(2)). In 2010 in the United States, the highest estimated QALE for adults at 18 years of age was 54.1 years for individuals classified as normal weight. The two lowest QALE estimates were for those classified as either underweight (48.9 years) or severely obese (48.2 years). For individuals who were overweight or obese, the QALE estimates fell between those classified as either normal weight (54.1 years) or severely obese (48.2 years). The difference in QALE between adults classified as normal weight and those classified as either overweight or obese was significantly higher among women than among men, irrespective of race/ethnicity. Using population-based data, we found significant differences in QALE loss by BMI category. These findings are valuable for setting national and state targets to reduce health risks associated with severe obesity, and could be used for cost-effectiveness evaluations of weight-reduction interventions.

  2. Performance of B-10 based detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Mathieu; Anderson, Tom; Johnson, Nathan; Mckinny, Kevin; Mcpheeters, Matthew [GE Measurement and Control - Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, Ohio (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Helium-3 gas-filled detectors have been used in nuclear safeguards applications, in homeland security neutron detection modules and in research for over 30 years. With the current shortage of {sup 3}He gas, GE's Reuter-Stokes business developed a {sup 10}B lined proportional counter and a {sup 10}B hybrid detector, in which a small amount of {sup 3}He is added to a 10B detector to enhance the neutron sensitivity. In 2010, GE's Reuter-Stokes successfully developed a commercial alternative to 3He gas-filled detectors for homeland security neutron detection modules based on 10B lined proportional counters. We will present the concept behind the {sup 10}B neutron detection modules, as drop-in replacement to existing 3He neutron detection modules deployed, and the timeline and development needed to get a fully commercial application. To ensure the highest quality, each {sup 10}B neutron detection unit is put through a series of tests: temperature cycles from -40 deg. C to +55 deg. C, vibration testing at levels up to 2.5 g from 10 Hz to 50 Hz in every direction, neutron sensitivity reaching up to 4.5 cps/(ng {sup 252}CF at 2 m), and gamma insensitivity with field reaching 1 Sv/hr. In 2013, GE's Reuter-Stokes developed the B10Plus+{sup R} detector, in which a small amount of {sup 3}He is added to a {sup 10}B lined proportional counter. Depending on the amount of {sup 3}He added, the B10Plus+{sup R} can more than double the neutron sensitivity compared to a {sup 10}B lined proportional counter. {sup 10}B lined proportional counters and B10Plus+{sup R} have excellent gamma rejection and excellent performance even at very high neutron flux. The gamma rejection and high neutron flux performance of these detectors are comparable, if not better, than traditional {sup 3}He proportional counters. GE's Reuter-Stokes business modelled, designed, built and tested prototype coincidence counters using the {sup 10}B lined detectors and the {sup 10}B hybrid

  3. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  4. Should breast MRI be performed with adjustment for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle? Correlation between mammographic density, age, and background enhancement on breast MRI without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Kasami, Masako; Watanabe, Junichiro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between mammographic density, age, and background enhancement on breast MRI without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle. Material and methods: The background enhancement of bilateral breast MRI and the breast density of mammography in 146 consecutive women without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle were reviewed. The breast density was classified into four categories according to the American College of Radiology the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. The background enhancement was classified into four categories: minimal, mild, moderate, and marked. The correlations of mammographic breast density as well as age with background enhancement on breast MRI were examined. Results: There was a significant correlation between mammographic breast density and background enhancement (p = 0.011). All nine cases with almost completely fat mammographic breast density showed minimal (78%) or mild (12%) background enhancement on breast MRI. There was a significant inverse correlation between age and background enhancement (p < 0.0001). Younger patients with dense breasts were more likely to demonstrate moderate/marked background enhancement. Conclusion: When no adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle, a significant correlation was observed between background enhancement and mammographic density. A significant inverse correlation was also observed between age and background enhancement.

  5. Energy efficiency of China's industry sector: An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis)-based decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingnan; Wang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The process of energy conservation and emission reduction in China requires the specific and accurate evaluation of the energy efficiency of the industry sector because this sector accounts for 70 percent of China's total energy consumption. Previous studies have used a “black box” DEA (data envelopment analysis) model to obtain the energy efficiency without considering the inner structure of the industry sector. However, differences in the properties of energy utilization (final consumption or intermediate conversion) in different industry departments may lead to bias in energy efficiency measures under such “black box” evaluation structures. Using the network DEA model and efficiency decomposition technique, this study proposes an adjusted energy efficiency evaluation model that can characterize the inner structure and associated energy utilization properties of the industry sector so as to avoid evaluation bias. By separating the energy-producing department and energy-consuming department, this adjusted evaluation model was then applied to evaluate the energy efficiency of China's provincial industry sector. - Highlights: • An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis) model for energy efficiency evaluation is proposed. • The inner structure of industry sector is taken into account for energy efficiency evaluation. • Energy final consumption and energy intermediate conversion processes are separately modeled. • China's provincial industry energy efficiency is measured through the adjusted model.

  6. Do Substance Use, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Sexual Experiences Vary for Dating Violence Victims Based on Type of Violent Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined whether substance use, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual experiences vary for teen dating violence victims by the type of violence in their relationships. We compared dating youth who reported no victimization in their relationships to those who reported being victims of intimate terrorism (dating violence involving one…

  7. A software tool for estimation of burden of infectious diseases in Europe using incidence-based disability adjusted life years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzani, Edoardo; Cassini, Alessandro; Lewandowski, Daniel; Mangen, Marie Josee J.; Plass, Dietrich; McDonald, Scott A; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Maringhini, Guido; Pini, Alessandro; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.

    2017-01-01

    The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability- Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology

  8. A software tool for estimation of burden of infectious diseases in Europe using incidence-based disability adjusted life years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzani, E. (Edoardo); A. Cassini (Alessandro); D. Lewandowski (Daniel); M.J.J. Mangen; Plass, D. (Dietrich); S.A. McDonald (Scott); R.A.W. Van Lier (Rene A. W.); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); Maringhini, G. (Guido); Pini, A. (Alessandro); P Kramarz (Piotr); M.E.E. Kretzschmar (Mirjam)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability- Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this

  9. Growth and clinical variables in nitrogen-restricted piglets fed an adjusted essential amino acid mix: Effects using partially intact protein-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current recommendations for protein levels in infant formula ensure that growth matches or exceeds growth of breast-fed infants, but may provide a surplus of amino acids (AA). Recent studies in infants using AA-based formulas support specific adjustment of the essential AA (EAA) composition allowing...

  10. Policy and Validity Prospects for Performance-Based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article describes performance-based assessment as expounded by its proponents, comments on these conceptions, reviews evidence regarding the technical quality of performance-based assessment, and considers its validity under various policy options. (JDD)

  11. Cost savings from performance-based maintenance contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    2009-01-01

    New procurement approaches combined with performance-based building approaches should reduce costs, but empirical qualitative and quantitative studies are lacking. Performance-based maintenance contracts give maintenance suppliers incentives to improve their way of working. Innovative,

  12. Frequency band adjustment match filtering based on variable frequency GPR antennas pairing scheme for shallow subsurface investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shahid Ali; Tian, Gang; Shi, Zhanjie; Zhao, Wenke; Junejo, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    Ground penetrating Radar (GPR) is an efficient tool for subsurface geophysical investigations, particularly at shallow depths. The non-destructiveness, cost efficiency, and data reliability are the important factors that make it an ideal tool for the shallow subsurface investigations. Present study encompasses; variations in central frequency of transmitting and receiving GPR antennas (Tx-Rx) have been analyzed and frequency band adjustment match filters are fabricated and tested accordingly. Normally, the frequency of both the antennas remains similar to each other whereas in this study we have experimentally changed the frequencies of Tx-Rx and deduce the response. Instead of normally adopted three pairs, a total of nine Tx-Rx pairs were made from 50 MHz, 100 MHz, and 200 MHz antennas. The experimental data was acquired at the designated near surface geophysics test site of the Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. After the impulse response analysis of acquired data through conventional as well as varied Tx-Rx pairs, different swap effects were observed. The frequency band and exploration depth are influenced by transmitting frequencies rather than the receiving frequencies. The impact of receiving frequencies was noticed on the resolution; the more noises were observed using the combination of high frequency transmitting with respect to low frequency receiving. On the basis of above said variable results we have fabricated two frequency band adjustment match filters, the constant frequency transmitting (CFT) and the variable frequency transmitting (VFT) frequency band adjustment match filters. By the principle, the lower and higher frequency components were matched and then incorporated with intermediate one. Therefore, this study reveals that a Tx-Rx combination of low frequency transmitting with high frequency receiving is a better choice. Moreover, both the filters provide better radargram than raw one, the result of VFT frequency band adjustment filter is

  13. Individual fluorouracil dose adjustment in FOLFOX based on pharmacokinetic follow-up compared with conventional body-area-surface dosing: a phase II, proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitain, Olivier; Asevoaia, Andreaa; Boisdron-Celle, Michele; Poirier, Anne-Lise; Morel, Alain; Gamelin, Erick

    2012-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacokinetically (PK) guided fluorouracil (5-FU) dose adjustment vs. standard body-surface-area (BSA) dosing in a FOLFOX (folinic acid, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin) regimen in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A total of 118 patients with mCRC were administered individually determined PK-adjusted 5-FU in first-line FOLFOX chemotherapy. The comparison arm consisted of 39 patients, and these patients were also treated with FOLFOX with 5-FU by BSA. For the PK-adjusted arm 5-FU was monitored during infusion, and the dose for the next cycle was based on a dose-adjustment chart to achieve a therapeutic area under curve range (5-FU(ODPM Protocol)). The objective response rate was 69.7% in the PK-adjusted arm, and median overall survival and median progression-free survival were 28 and 16 months, respectively. In the traditional patients who received BSA dosage, objective response rate was 46%, and overall survival and progression-free survival were 22 and 10 months, respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicity was 1.7% for diarrhea, 0.8% for mucositis, and 18% for neutropenia in the dose-monitored group; they were 12%, 15%, and 25%, respectively, in the BSA group. Efficacy and tolerability of PK-adjusted FOLFOX dosing was much higher than traditional BSA dosing in agreement with previous reports for 5-FU monotherapy PK-adjusted dosing. Analysis of these results suggests that PK-guided 5-FU therapy offers added value to combination therapy for mCRC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Humidity and Gravimetric Equivalency Adjustments for Nephelometer-Based Particulate Matter Measurements of Emissions from Solid Biomass Fuel Use in Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Chen, Chen; Tielsch, James M.; Katz, Joanne; Zeger, Scott L.; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2014-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics. This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined. We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward. PMID:24950062

  15. Humidity and gravimetric equivalency adjustments for nephelometer-based particulate matter measurements of emissions from solid biomass fuel use in cookstoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Chen, Chen; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Zeger, Scott L; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-06-19

    Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics. This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined. We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward.

  16. Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Emphasizing Utility Performance to Unleash Power Sector Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Littell, David [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Kadoch, Camille [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Baker, Phil [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Bharvirkar, Ranjit [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Dupuy, Max [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Hausauer, Brenda [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Migden-Ostrander, Janine [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Rosenow, Jan [Regulatory Assistance Project; Xuan, Wang [Regulatory Assistance Project

    2017-09-12

    Performance-based regulation (PBR) enables regulators to reform hundred-year-old regulatory structures to unleash innovations within 21st century power systems. An old regulatory paradigm built to ensure safe and reliable electricity at reasonable prices from capital-intensive electricity monopolies is now adjusting to a new century of disruptive technological advances that change the way utilities make money and what value customers expect from their own electricity company. Advanced technologies are driving change in power sectors around the globe. Innovative technologies are transforming the way electricity is generated, delivered, and consumed. These emerging technology drivers include renewable generation, distributed energy resources such as distributed generation and energy storage, demand-side management measures such as demand-response, electric vehicles, and smart grid technologies and energy efficiency (EE). PBR enables regulators to recognize the value that electric utilities bring to customers by enabling these advanced technologies and integrating smart solutions into the utility grid and utility operations. These changes in the electric energy system and customer capacities means that there is an increasing interest in motivating regulated entities in other areas beyond traditional cost-of-service performance regulation. This report addresses best practices gleaned from more than two decades of PBR in practice, and analyzes how those best practices and lessons can be used to design innovative PBR programs. Readers looking for an introduction to PBR may want to focus on Chapters 1-5. Chapters 6 and 7 contain more detail for those interested in the intricate workings of PBR or particularly innovative PBR.

  17. FFTF fuel pin design bases and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Hanson, J.E.; Roake, W.E.; Slember, R.J.; Weber, C.E.; Millunzi, A.C.

    1975-04-01

    The FFTF fuel pin was conservatively designed to meet thermal and structural performance requirements in the categories normal operation, upset events, emergency events, and hypothetical, faulted events. The fuel pin operating limits consistent with these requirements were developed from a strong fuel pin irradiation testing program scoped to define the performance capability under relevant steady state and transient conditions. Comparison of the results of the irradiation testing program with design requirements indicates that the FFTF fuel pin can exceed its goal burnup of 80,000 MWd/MTM. (U.S.)

  18. Inverted base pavements: construction and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Efthymios; Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    quality control. This study reviews the extensive South African experience and case histories in the USA. Accumulating evidence suggests that inverted base pavements are a viable alternative and can outperform conventional pavements at a lower cost

  19. A Software Tool for Estimation of Burden of Infectious Diseases in Europe Using Incidence-Based Disability Adjusted Life Years

    OpenAIRE

    Colzani, Edoardo; Cassini, Alessandro; Lewandowski, Daniel; Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Plass, Dietrich; McDonald, Scott A.; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Maringhini, Guido; Pini, Alessandro; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability- Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology poses a challenge. The aim of the Burden of Communicable Disease in Europe (BCoDE) project is to summarize the impact of communicable disease in the European Union and European Economic Ar...

  20. A high PSRR Class-D audio amplifier IC based on a self-adjusting voltage reference

    OpenAIRE

    Huffenus , Alexandre; Pillonnet , Gaël; Abouchi , Nacer; Goutti , Frédéric; Rabary , Vincent; Cittadini , Robert

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In a wide range of applications, audio amplifiers require a large Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) that the current Class-D architecture cannot reach. This paper proposes a self-adjusting internal voltage reference scheme that sets the bias voltages of the amplifier without losing on output dynamics. This solution relaxes the constraints on gain and feedback resistors matching that were previously the limiting factor for the PSRR. Theory of operation, design and IC ...

  1. Do Substance Use, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Sexual Experiences Vary for Dating Violence Victims Based on Type of Violent Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela

    2016-12-01

    We examined whether substance use, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual experiences vary for teen dating violence victims by the type of violence in their relationships. We compared dating youth who reported no victimization in their relationships to those who reported being victims of intimate terrorism (dating violence involving one physically violent and controlling perpetrator) and those who reported experiencing situational couple violence (physical dating violence absent the dynamics of power and control). This was a cross-sectional survey of 3745 dating youth from 10 middle and high schools in the northeastern United States, one third of whom reported physical dating violence. In general, teens experiencing no dating violence reported less frequent substance use, higher psychosocial adjustment, and less sexual activity than victims of either intimate terrorism or situational couple violence. In addition, victims of intimate terrorism reported higher levels of depression, anxiety, and anger/hostility compared to situational couple violence victims; they also were more likely to report having sex, and earlier sexual initiation. Youth who experienced physical violence in their dating relationships, coupled with controlling behaviors from their partner/perpetrator, reported the most psychosocial adjustment issues and the earliest sexual activity. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  2. Performance of risk-adjusted control charts to monitor in-hospital mortality of intensive care unit patients: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Antonie; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; de Jonge, Evert; Cook, David A.; Peek, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Increases in case-mix adjusted mortality may be indications of decreasing quality of care. Risk-adjusted control charts can be used for in-hospital mortality monitoring in intensive care units by issuing a warning signal when there are more deaths than expected. The aim of this study was

  3. Bundle Adjustment-Based Stability Analysis Method with a Case Study of a Dual Fluoroscopy Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Durgham, K.; Lichti, D. D.; Detchev, I.; Kuntze, G.; Ronsky, J. L.

    2018-05-01

    A fundamental task in photogrammetry is the temporal stability analysis of a camera/imaging-system's calibration parameters. This is essential to validate the repeatability of the parameters' estimation, to detect any behavioural changes in the camera/imaging system and to ensure precise photogrammetric products. Many stability analysis methods exist in the photogrammetric literature; each one has different methodological bases, and advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents a simple and rigorous stability analysis method that can be straightforwardly implemented for a single camera or an imaging system with multiple cameras. The basic collinearity model is used to capture differences between two calibration datasets, and to establish the stability analysis methodology. Geometric simulation is used as a tool to derive image and object space scenarios. Experiments were performed on real calibration datasets from a dual fluoroscopy (DF; X-ray-based) imaging system. The calibration data consisted of hundreds of images and thousands of image observations from six temporal points over a two-day period for a precise evaluation of the DF system stability. The stability of the DF system - for a single camera analysis - was found to be within a range of 0.01 to 0.66 mm in terms of 3D coordinates root-mean-square-error (RMSE), and 0.07 to 0.19 mm for dual cameras analysis. It is to the authors' best knowledge that this work is the first to address the topic of DF stability analysis.

  4. A Depth-Adjustment Deployment Algorithm Based on Two-Dimensional Convex Hull and Spanning Tree for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing node depth-adjustment deployment algorithms for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs just consider how to optimize network coverage and connectivity rate. However, these literatures don’t discuss full network connectivity, while optimization of network energy efficiency and network reliability are vital topics for UWSN deployment. Therefore, in this study, a depth-adjustment deployment algorithm based on two-dimensional (2D convex hull and spanning tree (NDACS for UWSNs is proposed. First, the proposed algorithm uses the geometric characteristics of a 2D convex hull and empty circle to find the optimal location of a sleep node and activate it, minimizes the network coverage overlaps of the 2D plane, and then increases the coverage rate until the first layer coverage threshold is reached. Second, the sink node acts as a root node of all active nodes on the 2D convex hull and then forms a small spanning tree gradually. Finally, the depth-adjustment strategy based on time marker is used to achieve the three-dimensional overall network deployment. Compared with existing depth-adjustment deployment algorithms, the simulation results show that the NDACS algorithm can maintain full network connectivity with high network coverage rate, as well as improved network average node degree, thus increasing network reliability.

  5. A Computational Tool for Testing Dose-related Trend Using an Age-adjusted Bootstrap-based Poly-k Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Moon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A computational tool for testing for a dose-related trend and/or a pairwise difference in the incidence of an occult tumor via an age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test and the original poly-k test is presented in this paper. The poly-k test (Bailer and Portier 1988 is a survival-adjusted Cochran-Armitage test, which achieves robustness to effects of differential mortality across dose groups. The original poly-k test is asymptotically standard normal under the null hypothesis. However, the asymptotic normality is not valid if there is a deviation from the tumor onset distribution that is assumed in this test. Our age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test assesses the significance of assumed asymptotic normal tests and investigates an empirical distribution of the original poly-k test statistic using an age-adjusted bootstrap method. A tumor of interest is an occult tumor for which the time to onset is not directly observable. Since most of the animal carcinogenicity studies are designed with a single terminal sacrifice, the present tool is applicable to rodent tumorigenicity assays that have a single terminal sacrifice. The present tool takes input information simply from a user screen and reports testing results back to the screen through a user-interface. The computational tool is implemented in C/C++ and is applied to analyze a real data set as an example. Our tool enables the FDA and the pharmaceutical industry to implement a statistical analysis of tumorigenicity data from animal bioassays via our age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test and the original poly-k test which has been adopted by the National Toxicology Program as its standard statistical test.

  6. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Richard P. [NRR/DOTS/TQMP, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, M/S OWFN 10A19, Washington, D.C. 20555 (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  7. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  8. NTD-GE Based Microcalorimeter Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon; Silver, Eric; Schnopper, Herbert; Murray, Stephen; Barbera, Marco; Madden, Norm; Landis, Don; Beeman, Jeff; Haller, Eugene; Tucker, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Our group has been developing x-ray microcalorimeters consisting of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) germanium thermistors attached to superconducting tin absorbers. We discuss the performance of single pixel x-ray detectors, and describe an array technology. In this paper we describe the read-out circuit that allows us to measure fast signals in our detectors as this will be important in understanding the primary cause of resolution broadening. We describe briefly a multiplexing scheme that allows a number of different calorimeters to be read out using a single JFET. We list the possible causes of broadening and give a description of the experiment which best demonstrates the cause of the primary broadening source. We mention our strategy for finding a suitable solution to this problem and describe briefly a technology for building arrays of these calorimeters.

  9. Effectiveness of Forgiveness Therapy Based on Islamic Viewpoint on Marital Adjustment and Tendency to Forgive in the Women Afflicted by Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Orienting its approach based on Islamic viewpoint (Quran and Hadith, this study aimed to investigate effectiveness of forgiveness therapy, inclination to forgive, and marital adjustment in affected women who referred to counseling centers in Tehran. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research which made use of test-retest methodology and control group. Statistical population contained women who had suffered unfaithfulness by their husbands and referred to counseling centers of Tehran in the summer 2015. A number of 30 samples were selected in purposive and convenience manners and were categorized in two test and control groups. After conduction of pretest, which applied Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Amnesty Ray et al., members of the test group attended in nine 90-minute weekly sessions of forgiveness therapy based on Islamic viewpoint. Finally, posttest was conducted on both groups with the same tool. Results: Results of multivariable analysis of covariance showed that forgiveness therapy based on Islamic viewpoint has a significant effect on increased levels of willingness to forgive and marital adjustment in women. Conclusion: The results showed that forgiveness therapy based on Islamic viewpoints could be applied in designation of therapeutic interventions.

  10. Uncertainty study of the PWR pressure vessel fluence. Adjustment of the nuclear data base; Etudes des incertitudes sur la fluence dans les cuves des REP. Ajustement des donnees de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodeli, I A

    1994-01-01

    The code system devoted to the calculation of the sensitivity and uncertainty of of the neutron flux and reaction rates calculated by the transport codes, has been developed. Adjustment of the basic data to experimental results can be performed as well. Various sources of uncertainties can be taken into account, such as those due to the uncertainties in the cross-sections, response functions, fission spectrum and space distribution of neutron source, geometry and material composition uncertainties... One -As well as two- dimensional analysis can be performed. Linear perturbation theory is applied. The code system is sufficiently general to be used for various analysis in the fields of fission and fusion. The principal objective of our studies concerns the capsule dosimetry study realized in the framework of the 900 MWe PWR pressure vessel surveillance program. The analysis indicates that the present calculations, performed by the code TRIPOLI-2, using the ENDF/B-IV based, non-perturbed neutron cross-section library in 315 energy groups, allows to estimate the neutron flux and the reaction rates in the surveillance capsules and in the most calculated and measured reaction rates permits to reduce these uncertainties. The results obtained with the adjusted iron cross-sections, response functions and fission spectrum show that the agreement between the calculation and the experiment was improved to become within 10% approximately. The neutron flux deduced from the experiment is then extrapolated from the capsule to the most exposed pressure vessel location using the calculated lead factor. The uncertainty in this factor was estimated to be about 7%. (author). 39 refs., 52 figs., 30 tabs.

  11. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  12. Students academic performance based on behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida, Juwita Dien; Kariyam

    2017-12-01

    Utilization of data in an information system that can be used for decision making that utilizes existing data warehouse to help dig useful information to make decisions correctly and accurately. Experience API (xAPI) is one of the enabling technologies for collecting data, so xAPI can be used as a data warehouse that can be used for various needs. One software application whose data is collected in xAPI is LMS. LMS is a software used in an electronic learning process that can handle all aspects of learning, by using LMS can also be known how the learning process and the aspects that can affect learning achievement. One of the aspects that can affect the learning achievement is the background of each student, which is not necessarily the student with a good background is an outstanding student or vice versa. Therefore, an action is needed to anticipate this problem. Prediction of student academic performance using Naive Bayes algorithm obtained accuracy of 67.7983% and error 32.2917%.

  13. Ensemble of classifiers based network intrusion detection system performance bound

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, Nenekazi NP

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a performance bound of a network intrusion detection system (NIDS) that uses an ensemble of classifiers. Currently researchers rely on implementing the ensemble of classifiers based NIDS before they can determine the performance...

  14. The Impact of AUC-Based Monitoring on Pharmacist-Directed Vancomycin Dose Adjustments in Complicated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Andrew M; Hale, Cory M; Seabury, Robert W; Miller, Christopher D; Steele, Jeffrey M

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of area under the curve (AUC)-based vancomycin monitoring on pharmacist-initiated dose adjustments after transitioning from a trough-only to an AUC-based monitoring method at our institution. A retrospective cohort study of patients treated with vancomycin for complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection between November 2013 and December 2016 was conducted. The frequency of pharmacist-initiated dose adjustments was assessed for patients monitored via trough-only and AUC-based approaches for trough ranges: 10 to 14.9 mg/L and 15 to 20 mg/L. Fifty patients were included: 36 in the trough-based monitoring and 14 in the AUC-based-monitoring group. The vancomycin dose was increased in 71.4% of patients when troughs were 10 to 14.9 mg/L when a trough-only approach was used and in only 25% of patients when using AUC estimation ( P = .048). In the AUC group, the dose was increased only when AUC/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) AUC/MIC ≥400. The AUC-based monitoring did not significantly increase the frequency of dose reductions when trough concentrations were 15 to 20 mg/L (AUC: 33.3% vs trough: 4.6%; P = .107). The AUC-based monitoring resulted in fewer patients with dose adjustments when trough levels were 10 to 14.9 mg/L. The AUC-based monitoring has the potential to reduce unnecessary vancomycin exposure and warrants further investigation.

  15. A self-driven temperature and flow rate co-adjustment mechanism based on Shape-Memory-Alloy (SMA) assembly for an adaptive thermal control coldplate module with on-orbit service characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Yunhua; Li, Yun-Ze; Zhong, Ming-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Ji-Xiang; Zhang, Jia-Xun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A self-driven temperature and flow rate co-adjustment mechanism based on SMA assembly is proposed. • An adaptive thermal control coldplate module (TCCM) is introduced. • A testbed is set up to investigate the TCCM adaptive thermal management performances. • The TCCM has the potential for spacecrafts on-orbit services. - Abstract: An adaptive thermal control coldplate module (TCCM) was proposed in this paper to fulfill the requirements of modular thermal control systems for spacecrafts on-orbit services. The TCCM could provide flow rate and temperature co-adjustment by using Shape-Memory-Alloy (SMA) assembly which possesses self-driven abilities. In this paper, the adaptive thermal management mechanism of the TCCM integrated with a single phase mechanically pumped fluid loop (SPMPFL) is described in detail, a verification testbed was established to examine the TCCM dynamic characteristics. Various working conditions such as inlet temperature, flow rate and thermal load disturbances were imposed on the TCCM to inspect its startup and transient performance. It was observed that the TCCM may present robust temperature control results with low overshoot (maximum 16.8%) and small temperature control error (minimum 0.18%), fast time response (minimum 600 s) was also revealed. The results demonstrated that the well-designed TCCM provided effective autonomous flow-rate and temperature co-adjustment operations, which may be a promising candidate for realizing modular level adaptive thermal management for spacecrafts on-orbit services.

  16. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder is a type of stress-related mental illness that can affect your feelings, thoughts and behaviors. Signs and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness ...

  17. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cassini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE project and 2011-2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC point prevalence survey (PPS of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs.The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP, healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI, surgical site infection (SSI, healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI, healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI. The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA. The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease. HAP and HA primary BSI were

  18. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmanns, Tim; Abu Sin, Muna; Ducomble, Tanja; Harder, Thomas; Sixtensson, Madlen; Velasco, Edward; Weiß, Bettina; Kramarz, Piotr; Monnet, Dominique L.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Suetens, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011–2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs. Methods and Findings The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI), healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI). The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease

  19. Burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic, literature-based update with risk-factor adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogasale, Vittal; Maskery, Brian; Ochiai, R Leon; Lee, Jung Seok; Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Ramani, Enusa; Kim, Young Eun; Park, Jin Kyung; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    No access to safe water is an important risk factor for typhoid fever, yet risk-level heterogeneity is unaccounted for in previous global burden estimates. Since WHO has recommended risk-based use of typhoid polysaccharide vaccine, we revisited the burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) after adjusting for water-related risk. We estimated the typhoid disease burden from studies done in LMICs based on blood-culture-confirmed incidence rates applied to the 2010 population, after correcting for operational issues related to surveillance, limitations of diagnostic tests, and water-related risk. We derived incidence estimates, correction factors, and mortality estimates from systematic literature reviews. We did scenario analyses for risk factors, diagnostic sensitivity, and case fatality rates, accounting for the uncertainty in these estimates and we compared them with previous disease burden estimates. The estimated number of typhoid fever cases in LMICs in 2010 after adjusting for water-related risk was 11·9 million (95% CI 9·9-14·7) cases with 129 000 (75 000-208 000) deaths. By comparison, the estimated risk-unadjusted burden was 20·6 million (17·5-24·2) cases and 223 000 (131 000-344 000) deaths. Scenario analyses indicated that the risk-factor adjustment and updated diagnostic test correction factor derived from systematic literature reviews were the drivers of differences between the current estimate and past estimates. The risk-adjusted typhoid fever burden estimate was more conservative than previous estimates. However, by distinguishing the risk differences, it will allow assessment of the effect at the population level and will facilitate cost-effectiveness calculations for risk-based vaccination strategies for future typhoid conjugate vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Mogasale et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-SA. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of School-Based Maum Meditation Program on the Self-Esteem and School Adjustment in Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Gyeong; Lee, In Soo

    2013-01-01

    Self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the lower grades of primary school, the beginning stage of school life, have a close relationship with development of personality, mental health and characters of children. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify the effect of school-based Maum Meditation program on children in the lower grades of primary school, as a personality education program. The result showed that the experimental group with application of Maum Meditation program had significant improvements in self-esteem and school adjustment, compared to the control group without the application. In conclusion, since the study provides significant evidence that the intervention of Maum Meditation program had positive effects on self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the early stage of primary school, it is suggested to actively employ Maum Meditation as a school-based meditation program for mental health promotion of children in the early school ages, the stage of formation of personalities and habits. PMID:23777717

  1. Academic performance in adolescents born after ART-a nationwide registry-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangmose, A L; Malchau, S S; Schmidt, L; Vassard, D; Rasmussen, S; Loft, A; Forman, J; Pinborg, A

    2017-02-01

    Is academic performance in adolescents aged 15-16 years and conceived after ART, measured as test scores in ninth grade, comparable to that for spontaneously conceived (SC) adolescents? ART singletons had a significantly lower mean test score in the adjusted analysis when compared with SC singletons, yet the differences were small and probably not of clinical relevance. Previous studies have shown similar intelligence quotient (IQ) levels in ART and SC children, but only a few have been on adolescents. Academic performance measured with standardized national tests has not previously been explored in a complete national cohort of adolescents conceived after ART. A Danish national registry-based cohort including all 4766 ART adolescents (n = 2836 singletons and n = 1930 twins) born in 1995-1998 were compared with two SC control cohorts: a randomly selected singleton population (n = 5660) and all twins (n = 7064) born from 1995 to 1998 in Denmark. Nine children who died during the follow-up period were excluded from the study. Mean test scores on a 7-point-marking scale from -3 to 12 were compared, and adjustments were made for relevant reproductive and socio-demographic covariates including occupational and educational level of the parents. The crude mean test score was higher in both ART singletons and ART twins compared with SC adolescents. The crude mean differences were +0.41 (95% CI 0.30-0.53) and +0.45 (95% CI 0.28-0.62) between ART and SC singletons and between ART and SC twins, respectively. However, the adjusted mean overall test score was significantly lower for ART singletons compared with SC singletons (adjusted mean difference -0.15 (95% CI -0.29-(-0.02))). For comparison, the adjusted mean difference was +2.05 (95% CI 1.82-2.28) between the highest and the lowest parental educational level, suggesting that the effect of ART is weak compared with the conventional predictors. The adjusted analyses showed significantly lower mean test scores in mathematics

  2. Prostate cancer mortality reduction by prostate-specific antigen-based screening adjusted for nonattendance and contamination in the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobol, Monique J; Kerkhof, Melissa; Schröder, Fritz H; Cuzick, Jack; Sasieni, Peter; Hakama, Matti; Stenman, Ulf Hakan; Ciatto, Stefano; Nelen, Vera; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Lujan, Marcos; Lilja, Hans; Zappa, Marco; Denis, Louis; Recker, Franz; Berenguer, Antonio; Ruutu, Mirja; Kujala, Paula; Bangma, Chris H; Aus, Gunnar; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Villers, Arnauld; Rebillard, Xavier; Moss, Sue M; de Koning, Harry J; Hugosson, Jonas; Auvinen, Anssi

    2009-10-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based screening for prostate cancer (PCa) has been shown to reduce prostate specific mortality by 20% in an intention to screen (ITS) analysis in a randomised trial (European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer [ERSPC]). This effect may be diluted by nonattendance in men randomised to the screening arm and contamination in men randomised to the control arm. To assess the magnitude of the PCa-specific mortality reduction after adjustment for nonattendance and contamination. We analysed the occurrence of PCa deaths during an average follow-up of 9 yr in 162,243 men 55-69 yr of age randomised in seven participating centres of the ERSPC. Centres were also grouped according to the type of randomisation (ie, before or after informed written consent). Nonattendance was defined as nonattending the initial screening round in ERSPC. The estimate of contamination was based on PSA use in controls in ERSPC Rotterdam. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were compared between an ITS analysis and analyses adjusting for nonattendance and contamination using a statistical method developed for this purpose. In the ITS analysis, the RR of PCa death in men allocated to the intervention arm relative to the control arm was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.68-0.96). Adjustment for nonattendance resulted in a RR of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58-0.93), and additional adjustment for contamination using two different estimates led to estimated reductions of 0.69 (95% CI, 0.51-0.92) to 0.71 (95% CI, 0.55-0.93), respectively. Contamination data were obtained through extrapolation of single-centre data. No heterogeneity was found between the groups of centres. PSA screening reduces the risk of dying of PCa by up to 31% in men actually screened. This benefit should be weighed against a degree of overdiagnosis and overtreatment inherent in PCa screening.

  3. Teasing and social rejection among obese children enrolling in family-based behavioural treatment: effects on psychological adjustment and academic competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, T; Njardvik, U; Olafsdottir, A S; Craighead, L W; Bjarnason, R

    2012-01-01

    The first objective was to determine the prevalence of psychological maladjustment (emotional and behavioural problems), low academic competencies and teasing/social rejection among obese Icelandic children enrolling in a family-based behavioural treatment. A second objective was to explore the degree to which teasing/social rejection specifically contributes to children's psychological adjustment and academic competencies when controlling for other variables, including demographics, children's physical activity, parental depression and life-stress. Participants were 84 obese children (mean body mass index-standard deviation score=3.11, age range=7.52-13.61 years). Height and weight, demographics and measures of children's psychological adjustment, academic competencies, teasing/social rejection and physical activity were collected from children, parents and teachers. Parental depression and life-stress was self-reported. Over half the children exceeded cutoffs indicating concern on at least one measure of behavioural or emotional difficulties. Children endorsed significant levels of teasing/social rejection, with almost half acknowledging they were not popular with same-gender peers. Parent reports of peer problems were even higher, with over 90% of both boys and girls being rated by their parents as having significant peer difficulties. However, rates of low academic competencies as reported by teachers were not different from those of the general population. In regression analyses controlling for other variables, self-reported teasing/social rejection emerged as a significant contributor to explaining both child psychological adjustment and academic competencies. The results indicate that among obese children enrolled in family-based treatment, self-reported teasing/social rejection is quite high and it is associated with poorer psychological adjustment as well as lower academic competencies. Parent reports corroborate the presence of substantial peer

  4. Performance-based classrooms: A case study of two elementary teachers of mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth W.

    This case study depicts how two elementary teachers develop classrooms devoted to performance-based instruction in mathematics and science. The purpose is to develop empirical evidence of classroom practices that leads to a conceptual framework about the nature of performance-based instruction. Performance-based assessment and instruction are defined from the literature to entail involving students in tasks that are complex and engaging, requiring them to apply knowledge and skills in authentic contexts. In elementary mathematics and science, such an approach emphasizes problem solving, exploration, inquiry, and reasoning. The body of the work examines teacher beliefs, curricular orientations, instructional strategies, assessment approaches, management and organizational skills, and interpersonal relationships. The focus throughout is on those aspects that foster student performance in elementary mathematics and science. The resulting framework describes five characteristics that contribute to performance-based classrooms: a caring classroom community, a connectionist learning theory, a thinking and doing curriculum, diverse opportunities for learning, and ongoing assessment, feedback, and adjustment. The conclusion analyzes factors external to the classroom that support or constrain the development of performance-based classrooms and discusses the implications for educational policy and further research.

  5. A comparison of two sleep spindle detection methods based on all night averages: individually adjusted versus fixed frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Przemyslaw Ujma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles are frequently studied for their relationship with state and trait cognitive variables, and they are thought to play an important role in sleep-related memory consolidation. Due to their frequent occurrence in NREM sleep, the detection of sleep spindles is only feasible using automatic algorithms, of which a large number is available. We compared subject averages of the spindle parameters computed by a fixed frequency (11-13 Hz for slow spindles, 13-15 Hz for fast spindles automatic detection algorithm and the individual adjustment method (IAM, which uses individual frequency bands for sleep spindle detection. Fast spindle duration and amplitude are strongly correlated in the two algorithms, but there is little overlap in fast spindle density and slow spindle parameters in general. The agreement between fixed and manually determined sleep spindle frequencies is limited, especially in case of slow spindles. This is the most likely reason for the poor agreement between the two detection methods in case of slow spindle parameters. Our results suggest that while various algorithms may reliably detect fast spindles, a more sophisticated algorithm primed to individual spindle frequencies is necessary for the detection of slow spindles as well as individual variations in the number of spindles in general.

  6. A Robust and Fast Method to Compute Shallow States without Adjustable Parameters: Simulations for a Silicon-Based Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debernardi, Alberto; Fanciulli, Marco

    Within the framework of the envelope function approximation we have computed - without adjustable parameters and with a reduced computational effort due to analytical expression of relevant Hamiltonian terms - the energy levels of the shallow P impurity in silicon and the hyperfine and superhyperfine splitting of the ground state. We have studied the dependence of these quantities on the applied external electric field along the [001] direction. Our results reproduce correctly the experimental splitting of the impurity ground states detected at zero electric field and provide reliable predictions for values of the field where experimental data are lacking. Further, we have studied the effect of confinement of a shallow state of a P atom at the center of a spherical Si-nanocrystal embedded in a SiO2 matrix. In our simulations the valley-orbit interaction of a realistically screened Coulomb potential and of the core potential are included exactly, within the numerical accuracy due to the use of a finite basis set, while band-anisotropy effects are taken into account within the effective-mass approximation.

  7. Performance-based procurement for low disturbance brdige construction projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.; Claeson-Jonsson, C.; Di Giulio, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to introduce a method of performance-based procurement, based on the most economically advantageous tender (MEAT), for low-disturbance bridge construction projects in urban environment. Design/methodology/approach – The first part of this paper reviews the key performance

  8. Frequency Estimator Performance for a Software-Based Beacon Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Nessel, James A.; Miranda, Felix

    2014-01-01

    As propagation terminals have evolved, their design has trended more toward a software-based approach that facilitates convenient adjustment and customization of the receiver algorithms. One potential improvement is the implementation of a frequency estimation algorithm, through which the primary frequency component of the received signal can be estimated with a much greater resolution than with a simple peak search of the FFT spectrum. To select an estimator for usage in a QV-band beacon receiver, analysis of six frequency estimators was conducted to characterize their effectiveness as they relate to beacon receiver design.

  9. Base technology development of new materials for FBR performance innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Shigeki; Koyama, Masahiro; Nomura, Shigeo; Morikawa, Satoru; Ueno, Fumiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the base technology development of new materials for FBR performance innovations at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The contents are as follows: (1) development of sodium and radiation resistant new materials, (2) development of high performance shielding material, (3) development of high performance control material, (4) development of new functional materials for reactor instrumentation. (author)

  10. Development of methodology for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs calculation based on real-life data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen A Struijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs have the advantage that effects on total health instead of on a specific disease incidence or mortality can be estimated. Our aim was to address several methodological points related to the computation of DALYs at an individual level in a follow-up study. METHODS: DALYs were computed for 33,507 men and women aged 20-70 years when participating in the EPIC-NL study in 1993-7. DALYs are the sum of the Years Lost due to Disability (YLD and the Years of Life Lost (YLL due to premature mortality. Premature mortality was defined as death before the estimated date of individual Life Expectancy (LE. Different methods to compute LE were compared as well as the effect of different follow-up periods using a two-part model estimating the effect of smoking status on health as an example. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.4 years, there were 69,245 DALYs due to years lived with a disease or premature death. Current-smokers had lost 1.28 healthy years of their life (1.28 DALYs 95%CI 1.10; 1.46 compared to never-smokers. The outcome varied depending on the method used for estimating LE, completeness of disease and mortality ascertainment and notably the percentage of extinction (duration of follow-up of the cohort. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the use of DALYs in a cohort study is an appropriate way to assess total disease burden in relation to a determinant. The outcome is sensitive to the LE calculation method and the follow-up duration of the cohort.

  11. A Software Tool for Estimation of Burden of Infectious Diseases in Europe Using Incidence-Based Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzani, Edoardo; Cassini, Alessandro; Lewandowski, Daniel; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; Plass, Dietrich; McDonald, Scott A; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A; Maringhini, Guido; Pini, Alessandro; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E

    2017-01-01

    The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology poses a challenge. The aim of the Burden of Communicable Disease in Europe (BCoDE) project is to summarize the impact of communicable disease in the European Union and European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MS). To meet this goal, a user-friendly software tool (BCoDE toolkit), was developed. This stand-alone application, written in C++, is open-access and freely available for download from the website of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). With the BCoDE toolkit, one can calculate DALYs by simply entering the age group- and sex-specific number of cases for one or more of selected sets of 32 communicable diseases (CDs) and 6 healthcare associated infections (HAIs). Disease progression models (i.e., outcome trees) for these communicable diseases were created following a thorough literature review of their disease progression pathway. The BCoDE toolkit runs Monte Carlo simulations of the input parameters and provides disease-specific results, including 95% uncertainty intervals, and permits comparisons between the different disease models entered. Results can be displayed as mean and median overall DALYs, DALYs per 100,000 population, and DALYs related to mortality vs. disability. Visualization options summarize complex epidemiological data, with the goal of improving communication and knowledge transfer for decision-making.

  12. A Software Tool for Estimation of Burden of Infectious Diseases in Europe Using Incidence-Based Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Colzani

    Full Text Available The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology poses a challenge. The aim of the Burden of Communicable Disease in Europe (BCoDE project is to summarize the impact of communicable disease in the European Union and European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MS. To meet this goal, a user-friendly software tool (BCoDE toolkit, was developed. This stand-alone application, written in C++, is open-access and freely available for download from the website of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC. With the BCoDE toolkit, one can calculate DALYs by simply entering the age group- and sex-specific number of cases for one or more of selected sets of 32 communicable diseases (CDs and 6 healthcare associated infections (HAIs. Disease progression models (i.e., outcome trees for these communicable diseases were created following a thorough literature review of their disease progression pathway. The BCoDE toolkit runs Monte Carlo simulations of the input parameters and provides disease-specific results, including 95% uncertainty intervals, and permits comparisons between the different disease models entered. Results can be displayed as mean and median overall DALYs, DALYs per 100,000 population, and DALYs related to mortality vs. disability. Visualization options summarize complex epidemiological data, with the goal of improving communication and knowledge transfer for decision-making.

  13. Measuring Provider Performance for Physicians Participating in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squitieri, Lee; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-07-01

    In 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services began requiring all eligible providers to participate in the Quality Payment Program or face financial reimbursement penalty. The Quality Payment Program outlines two paths for provider participation: the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System and Advanced Alternative Payment Models. For the first performance period beginning in January of 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services estimates that approximately 83 to 90 percent of eligible providers will not qualify for participation in an Advanced Alternative Payment Model and therefore must participate in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System program. The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System path replaces existing quality-reporting programs and adds several new measures to evaluate providers using four categories of data: (1) quality, (2) cost/resource use, (3) improvement activities, and (4) advancing care information. These categories will be combined to calculate a weighted composite score for each provider or provider group. Composite Merit-Based Incentive Payment System scores based on 2017 performance data will be used to adjust reimbursed payment in 2019. In this article, the authors provide relevant background for understanding value-based provider performance measurement. The authors also discuss Merit-Based Incentive Payment System reporting requirements and scoring methodology to provide plastic surgeons with the necessary information to critically evaluate their own practice capabilities in the context of current performance metrics under the Quality Payment Program.

  14. Tropical cyclone losses in the USA and the impact of climate change - A trend analysis based on data from a new approach to adjusting storm losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Silvio; Kemfert, Claudia; Hoeppe, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Economic losses caused by tropical cyclones have increased dramatically. Historical changes in losses are a result of meteorological factors (changes in the incidence of severe cyclones, whether due to natural climate variability or as a result of human activity) and socio-economic factors (increased prosperity and a greater tendency for people to settle in exposed areas). This paper aims to isolate the socio-economic effects and ascertain the potential impact of climate change on this trend. Storm losses for the period 1950-2005 have been adjusted to the value of capital stock in 2005 so that any remaining trend cannot be ascribed to socio-economic developments. For this, we introduce a new approach to adjusting losses based on the change in capital stock at risk. Storm losses are mainly determined by the intensity of the storm and the material assets, such as property and infrastructure, located in the region affected. We therefore adjust the losses to exclude increases in the capital stock of the affected region. No trend is found for the period 1950-2005 as a whole. In the period 1971-2005, since the beginning of a trend towards increased intense cyclone activity, losses excluding socio-economic effects show an annual increase of 4% per annum. This increase must therefore be at least due to the impact of natural climate variability but, more likely than not, also due to anthropogenic forcings.

  15. Examination of the gait pattern based on adjusting and resulting components of the stride-to-stride variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laessoe, Uffe; Jensen, Niels Martin Brix; Madeleine, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Stride-to-stride variability may be used as an indicator in the assessment of gait performance, but the evaluation of this parameter is not trivial. In the gait pattern, a deviation in one stride must be corrected within the next strides (elemental variables) to ensure a steady gait (performance .......5 to 2 strides with 0.5 stride increments. The time lag values corresponded to the following contralateral stride, the following ipsilateral stride, the second following contralateral stride and the second following ipsilateral stride....

  16. The relationship between effectiveness and costs measured by a risk-adjusted case-mix system: multicentre study of Catalonian population data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor-Serra Ferran

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study is to measure the relationship between morbidity, direct health care costs and the degree of clinical effectiveness (resolution of health centres and health professionals by the retrospective application of Adjusted Clinical Groups in a Spanish population setting. The secondary objectives are to determine the factors determining inadequate correlations and the opinion of health professionals on these instruments. Methods/Design We will carry out a multi-centre, retrospective study using patient records from 15 primary health care centres and population data bases. The main measurements will be: general variables (age and sex, centre, service [family medicine, paediatrics], and medical unit, dependent variables (mean number of visits, episodes and direct costs, co-morbidity (Johns Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System and effectiveness. The totality of centres/patients will be considered as the standard for comparison. The efficiency index for visits, tests (laboratory, radiology, others, referrals, pharmaceutical prescriptions and total will be calculated as the ratio: observed variables/variables expected by indirect standardization. The model of cost/patient/year will differentiate fixed/semi-fixed (visits costs of the variables for each patient attended/year (N = 350,000 inhabitants. The mean relative weights of the cost of care will be obtained. The effectiveness will be measured using a set of 50 indicators of process, efficiency and/or health results, and an adjusted synthetic index will be constructed (method: percentile 50. The correlation between the efficiency (relative-weights and synthetic (by centre and physician indices will be established using the coefficient of determination. The opinion/degree of acceptance of physicians (N = 1,000 will be measured using a structured questionnaire including various dimensions. Statistical analysis: multiple regression

  17. SU-F-E-09: Respiratory Signal Prediction Based On Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network Using Adjustable Training Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, W; Jiang, M; Yin, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic tracking of moving organs, such as lung and liver tumors, under radiation therapy requires prediction of organ motions prior to delivery. The shift of moving organ may change a lot due to huge transform of respiration at different periods. This study aims to reduce the influence of that changes using adjustable training signals and multi-layer perceptron neural network (ASMLP). Methods: Respiratory signals obtained using a Real-time Position Management(RPM) device were used for this study. The ASMLP uses two multi-layer perceptron neural networks(MLPs) to infer respiration position alternately and the training sample will be updated with time. Firstly, a Savitzky-Golay finite impulse response smoothing filter was established to smooth the respiratory signal. Secondly, two same MLPs were developed to estimate respiratory position from its previous positions separately. Weights and thresholds were updated to minimize network errors according to Leverberg-Marquart optimization algorithm through backward propagation method. Finally, MLP 1 was used to predict 120∼150s respiration position using 0∼120s training signals. At the same time, MLP 2 was trained using 30∼150s training signals. Then MLP is used to predict 150∼180s training signals according to 30∼150s training signals. The respiration position is predicted as this way until it was finished. Results: In this experiment, the two methods were used to predict 2.5 minute respiratory signals. For predicting 1s ahead of response time, correlation coefficient was improved from 0.8250(MLP method) to 0.8856(ASMLP method). Besides, a 30% improvement of mean absolute error between MLP(0.1798 on average) and ASMLP(0.1267 on average) was achieved. For predicting 2s ahead of response time, correlation coefficient was improved from 0.61415 to 0.7098.Mean absolute error of MLP method(0.3111 on average) was reduced by 35% using ASMLP method(0.2020 on average). Conclusion: The preliminary results

  18. Red list of Czech spiders: 3rd edition, adjusted according to evidence-based national conservation priorities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáč, M.; Kůrka, A.; Růžička, Vlastimil; Heneberg, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 5 (2015), s. 645-666 ISSN 0006-3088 Grant - others:MZe(CZ) RO0415 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : evidence-based conservation * extinction risk * invertebrate surveys Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.719, year: 2015

  19. State of art in FE-based fuel performance codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Fuel performance codes approximate this complex behavior using an axisymmetric, axially-stacked, one-dimensional radial representation to save computation cost. However, the need for improved modeling of PCMI and, particularly, the importance of multidimensional capability for accurate fuel performance simulation has been identified as safety margin decreases. Finite element (FE) method that is reliable and proven solution in mechanical field has been introduced into fuel performance codes for multidimensional analysis. The present state of the art in numerical simulation of FE-based fuel performance predominantly involves 2-D axisymmetric model and 3-D volumetric model. The FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN own 1.5-D and 2-D FE model to simulate PCMI and cladding ballooning. In 2-D simulation, the FALCON code, developed by EPRI, is a 2-D (R-Z and R-θ) fully thermal-mechanically coupled steady-state and transient FE-based fuel behavior code. The French codes TOUTATIS and ALCYONE which are 3-D, and typically used to investigate localized behavior. In 2008, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing multidimensional (2-D and 3-D) nuclear fuel performance code called BISON. In this paper, the current state of FE-based fuel performance code and their models are presented. Based on investigation into the codes, requirements and direction of development for new FE-based fuel performance code can be discussed. Based on comparison of models in FE-based fuel performance code, status of art in the codes can be discussed. A new FE-based fuel performance code should include typical pellet and cladding models which all codes own. In particular, specified pellet and cladding model such as gaseous swelling and high burnup structure (HBS) model should be developed to improve accuracy of code as well as consider AC condition. To reduce computation cost, the approximated gap and the optimized contact model should be also developed

  20. A Multifactorial Intervention Based on the NICE-Adjusted Guideline in the Prevention of Delirium in Patients Hospitalized for Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Cheraghi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is the most common problem in patients in intensive care units. Prevention of delirium is more important than treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the NICE-adjusted multifactorial intervention to prevent delirium in open heart surgery patients. Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study on 88 patients (In each group, 44 patients undergoing open heart surgery in the intensive care unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran. Subjects received usual care group, only the incidence of delirium were studied. So that patients in the two groups of second to fifth postoperative day, twice a day by the researcher, and CAM-ICU questionnaire were followed. After completion of the sampling in this group, in the intervention group also examined incidence of delirium was conducted in the same manner except that multifactorial interventions based on the intervention of NICE modified by the researcher on the second day to fifth implementation and intervention on each turn, their implementation was followed. As well as to check the quality of sleep and pain in the intervention group of CPOT and Pittsburgh Sleep assessment tools were used. Data analysis was done using the SPSS software, version 16. A T-test, a chi-square test, and a Fisher’s exact test were also carried out. Results: The incidence of delirium in the control group was 42.5%; and in the intervention group, it was 22.5%. The result showed the incidence of delirium in open heart surgery hospitalized patients after multifactorial intervention based on adjusted NICE guidelines has been significantly reduced. Conclusion: The NICE-adjusted multifactorial intervention guidelines for the prevention of delirium in cardiac surgery patients significantly reduced the incidence of delirium in these patients. So, using this method as an alternative comprehensive and reliable in preventing delirium in hospitalized patients in the ward heart surgery is recommended.

  1. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Cogburn, Courtney D.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Griffin, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple reg...

  2. GPS Device Testing Based on User Performance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    1. Rationale for a Test Program Based on User Performance Metrics ; 2. Roberson and Associates Test Program ; 3. Status of, and Revisions to, the Roberson and Associates Test Program ; 4. Comparison of Roberson and DOT/Volpe Programs

  3. Tractor performance monitor based on a single-chip microcomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedri, A.R.; Marley, S.J.; Buchelle, W.F.; Smay, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    A tractor performance monitor based on a single-chip microcomputer was developed to measure ground speed, slip, fuel consumption (rate and total), total area, theoretical time, and total time. Transducers used are presented in detail. 5 refs.

  4. Performance Based Islamic Performance Index (Study on the Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mandiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisjah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of Islamic base banks in Indonesia in recent years show rapid growth. The main challenge for Islamic base banks is how to raise belief from the stakeholders. Stakeholder expectations of the Islamic banks is different from a conventional bank. Since, Islamic banks are built on basic principles of Islamic economics. Therefore, we need a tool to evaluate and measure the performance of Islamic base banks. Islamicity Performance Index is a method which can evaluate the performance of Islamic base banks not only their financial but also justice principles, halal (lawfulness, and tazkiyah (sanctification. There are six financial ratios which are measured from Islamicity Performance Index:profit sharing ratio, zakat performance ratio, equitable distribution ratio, directors-employees welfare ratio, Islamic investment versus non-Islamic investment ratio, Islamic income versus non-Islamic income. This research is intended to figure out the performance of Islamic base Bank in Indonesia based on Islamicity Performance Index. The samples are the Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mandiri. Sources of data are the financial reports of Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mandiri in 2009–2010 period.The results show that the financial performance of Islamic Base Bank in Indonesia during 2009-2010 period have ”quite satisfactory level of  valuation. However, there are two unsatisfactory ratios. They are zakat performance ratio and director-employee welfare contrast ratio. It shows that zakat issued by the Islamic base bank in Indonesia is still low and the contrast of the director-employee welfare is still huge.

  5. Theory of Work Adjustment Personality Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Loralie

    1993-01-01

    To measure Theory of Work Adjustment personality and adjustment style dimensions, content-based scales were analyzed for homogeneity and successively reanalyzed for reliability improvement. Three sound scales were developed: inflexibility, activeness, and reactiveness. (SK)

  6. Port performance evaluation tool based on microsimulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsavalista Burhani Jzolanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As port performance is becoming correlative to national competitiveness, the issue of port performance evaluation has significantly raised. Port performances can simply be indicated by port service levels to the ship (e.g., throughput, waiting for berthing etc., as well as the utilization level of equipment and facilities within a certain period. The performances evaluation then can be used as a tool to develop related policies for improving the port’s performance to be more effective and efficient. However, the evaluation is frequently conducted based on deterministic approach, which hardly captures the nature variations of port parameters. Therefore, this paper presents a stochastic microsimulation model for investigating the impacts of port parameter variations to the port performances. The variations are derived from actual data in order to provide more realistic results. The model is further developed using MATLAB and Simulink based on the queuing theory.

  7. Drivers of international performance of Brazilian technology-based firms

    OpenAIRE

    Serpa Fagundes de Oliveira, Maria Carolina; Scherer, Flavia Luciane; Schneider Hahn, Ivanete; de Moura Carpes, Aletéia; Brachak dos Santos, Maríndia; Nunes Piveta, Maíra

    2018-01-01

    For Technology-Based Firms, international expansion represents an opportunity for growth and value creation. The present study was designed to analyze the role of technology-based companies (TBCs) internationalization drivers on international performance. Therefore, a descriptive research was carried out with a quantitative approach performed through a survey. Data collection happened with 53 Brazilian TBCs located in innovation habitats. These data were analyzed by multivariate statistical t...

  8. Performance Based Logistics... What’s Stopping Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    performance-based life cycle product support, where outcomes are acquired through performance-based arrangements that deliver Warfighter requirements and...correlates to the acquisition life cycle framework: spend the time and effort to identify and lock in the PBL requirements; conduct an analysis to...studies and reports on PBLs over the past 15 or more years. Much like fashion styles, the af- finity for PBLs has ebbed and flowed during this time

  9. Association of tic disorders with poor academic performance in central Spain: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Trejo, José; Ausín, Vanesa; Sáez, Sara; Delgado, Vanesa; Macarrón, Jesus; Cordero, José; Louis, Elan D; Kompoliti, Katie; Benito-León, Julián

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the association between tic disorders and poor academic performance in school-aged children. This was a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in a randomly selected sample of mainstream school-aged children (aged 6-16 years). The sampling frame included different types of schools and educational levels. Children with poor academic performance (eg, repeating a grade, special needs), and tic disorders (defined based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision criteria) were identified. Children with and without tics and children with and without poor academic performance were compared in terms of clinical features (ie, medical history and neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities), school, and environmental characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were performed using school performance (dependent variable) and tic disorders (independent variable), after adjusting for confounding variables. The study cohort comprised 1867 children (mean age, 10.9 + 2.9 years; 1007 males [53.9%]). Tics were present in 162 children (8.6%), and poor academic performance was noted in 223 (11.9%). Overall poor academic performance was associated with age (OR, 1.71; P family history of school dysfunction (OR, 2.43; P = .02) and was negatively associated with higher IQ score (OR, 0.90; P academic performance in our cohort. Early academic support and modification of environmental characteristics are needed for children at higher risk for school dysfunction, to enhance academic performance. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Model of Statistics Performance Based on Achievement Goal Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandalos, Deborah L.; Finney, Sara J.; Geske, Jenenne A.

    2003-01-01

    Tests a model of statistics performance based on achievement goal theory. Both learning and performance goals affected achievement indirectly through study strategies, self-efficacy, and test anxiety. Implications of these findings for teaching and learning statistics are discussed. (Contains 47 references, 3 tables, 3 figures, and 1 appendix.)…

  11. Performance Based Building and its application to Healthy Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The European funded Project PeBBu, Performance Based Building, is a Thematic network under the Competitive and Sustainable Growth program, which started September 1st, 2001 andwill run for 4 years. In one of the domains of PeBBu, the domain Indoor Environment, a stateof-the-art on the Performance

  12. Skill-based immigration, economic integration, and economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Studies for major immigrant-receiving countries provide evidence on the comparative economic performance of immigrant classes (skill-, kinship-, and humanitarian-based). Developed countries are increasingly competing for high-skilled immigrants, who perform better in the labor market. However, there are serious challenges to their economic integration, which highlights a need for complementary immigration and integration policies.

  13. Performance-based shape optimization of continuum structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Qingquan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a performance-based optimization (PBO) method for optimal shape design of continuum structures with stiffness constraints. Performance-based design concepts are incorporated in the shape optimization theory to achieve optimal designs. In the PBO method, the traditional shape optimization problem of minimizing the weight of a continuum structure with displacement or mean compliance constraints is transformed to the problem of maximizing the performance of the structure. The optimal shape of a continuum structure is obtained by gradually eliminating inefficient finite elements from the structure until its performance is maximized. Performance indices are employed to monitor the performance of optimized shapes in an optimization process. Performance-based optimality criteria are incorporated in the PBO method to identify the optimum from the optimization process. The PBO method is used to produce optimal shapes of plane stress continuum structures and plates in bending. Benchmark numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PBO method for generating the maximum stiffness shape design of continuum structures. It is shown that the PBO method developed overcomes the limitations of traditional shape optimization methods in optimal design of continuum structures. Performance-based optimality criteria presented can be incorporated in any shape and topology optimization methods to obtain optimal designs of continuum structures.

  14. Estimates of over-diagnosis of breast cancer due to population-based mammography screening in South Australia after adjustment for lead time effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Kerri; Duffy, Stephen W; Lynch, John; Hiller, Janet; Farshid, Gelareh; Roder, David

    2015-09-01

    To estimate over-diagnosis due to population-based mammography screening using a lead time adjustment approach, with lead time measures based on symptomatic cancers only. Women aged 40-84 in 1989-2009 in South Australia eligible for mammography screening. Numbers of observed and expected breast cancer cases were compared, after adjustment for lead time. Lead time effects were modelled using age-specific estimates of lead time (derived from interval cancer rates and predicted background incidence, using maximum likelihood methods) and screening sensitivity, projected background breast cancer incidence rates (in the absence of screening), and proportions screened, by age and calendar year. Lead time estimates were 12, 26, 43 and 53 months, for women aged 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 respectively. Background incidence rates were estimated to have increased by 0.9% and 1.2% per year for invasive and all breast cancer. Over-diagnosis among women aged 40-84 was estimated at 7.9% (0.1-12.0%) for invasive cases and 12.0% (5.7-15.4%) when including ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS). We estimated 8% over-diagnosis for invasive breast cancer and 12% inclusive of DCIS cancers due to mammography screening among women aged 40-84. These estimates may overstate the extent of over-diagnosis if the increasing prevalence of breast cancer risk factors has led to higher background incidence than projected. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Performance analysis of a potassium-base AMTEC cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.; Hendricks, T.J.; Hunt, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Sodium-BASE Alkali-Metal-Thermal-to-Electric-Conversion (AMTEC) cells have been receiving increased attention and funding from the Department of Energy, NASA and the United States Air Force. Recently, sodium-BASE (Na-BASE) AMTEC cells were selected for the Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) program for the next generation of deep-space missions and spacecraft. Potassium-BASE (K-BASE) AMTEC cells have not received as much attention to date, even though the vapor pressure of potassium is higher than that of sodium at the same temperature. So that, K-BASE AMTEC cells with potentially higher open circuit voltage and higher power output than Na-BASE AMTEC cells are possible. Because the surface tension of potassium is about half of the surface tension of sodium at the same temperature, the artery and evaporator design in a potassium AMTEC cell has much more challenging pore size requirements than designs using sodium. This paper uses a flexible thermal/fluid/electrical model to predict the performance of a K-BASE AMTEC cell. Pore sizes in the artery of K-BASE AMTEC cells must be smaller by an order of magnitude than in Na-BASE AMTEC cells. The performance of a K-BASE AMTEC cell was higher than a Na-BASE AMTEC cell at low voltages/high currents. K-BASE AMTEC cells also have the potential of much better electrode performance, thereby creating another avenue for potentially better performance in K-BASE AMTEC cells

  16. Heat transfer simulation and retort program adjustment for thermal processing of wheat based Haleem in semi-rigid aluminum containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Hamed; Zamindar, Nafiseh; Shahedi Baghekhandan, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    A mixed computational strategy was used to simulate and optimize the thermal processing of Haleem, an ancient eastern food, in semi-rigid aluminum containers. Average temperature values of the experiments showed no significant difference (α = 0.05) in contrast to the predicted temperatures at the same positions. According to the model, the slowest heating zone was located in geometrical center of the container. The container geometrical center F0 was estimated to be 23.8 min. A 19 min processing time interval decrease in holding time of the treatment was estimated to optimize the heating operation since the preferred F0 of some starch or meat based fluid foods is about 4.8-7.5 min.

  17. Determinants of the use of value-based performance measures for managerial performance evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.; Groot, T.L.C.M.; Schoute, M.; Wiersma, E.

    2012-01-01

    As value-based (VB) performance measures include firms' cost of capital, they are considered more congruent than earnings measures. Prior studies, however, find that their use for managerial performance evaluation is less extensive than their presumed benefits would suggest. We examine how the

  18. The Influence of Performance-Based Management on Teaching and Research Performance of Finnish Senior Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivistö, Jussi; Pekkola, Elias; Lyytinen, Anu

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of performance-based management in higher education, empirical research on its actual impact has remained scarce, particularly in Europe. With agency theory as a framework, our study utilised survey data collected from Finnish universities in order to explore the influence of performance management on perceived teaching…

  19. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills. Advances in Health Science Education, 15(4), 517-532.

  20. Seismic performance evaluation of an MR elastomer-based smart base isolation system using real-time hybrid simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eem, S H; Jung, H J; Koo, J H

    2013-01-01

    Recently, magneto-rheological (MR) elastomer-based base isolation systems have been actively studied as alternative smart base isolation systems because MR elastomers are capable of adjusting their modulus or stiffness depending on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. By taking advantage of the MR elastomers’ stiffness-tuning ability, MR elastomer-based smart base isolation systems strive to alleviate limitations of existing smart base isolation systems as well as passive-type base isolators. Until now, research on MR elastomer-based base isolation systems primarily focused on characterization, design, and numerical evaluations of MR elastomer-based isolators, as well as experimental tests with simple structure models. However, their applicability to large civil structures has not been properly studied yet because it is quite challenging to numerically emulate the complex behavior of MR elastomer-based isolators and to conduct experiments with large-size structures. To address these difficulties, this study employs the real-time hybrid simulation technique, which combines physical testing and computational modeling. The primary goal of the current hybrid simulation study is to evaluate seismic performances of an MR elastomer-based smart base isolation system, particularly its adaptability to distinctly different seismic excitations. In the hybrid simulation, a single-story building structure (non-physical, computational model) is coupled with a physical testing setup for a smart base isolation system with associated components (such as laminated MR elastomers and electromagnets) installed on a shaking table. A series of hybrid simulations is carried out under two seismic excitations having different dominant frequencies. The results show that the proposed smart base isolation system outperforms the passive base isolation system in reducing the responses of the structure for the excitations considered in this study. (paper)

  1. Introducing a performance-based objective clinical examination into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe how a formative Objective Structured Clinical Examination was applied to fourth year pharmacy students at a university in Northern Cyprus. Methods: A blueprint-guided performance-based objective clinical examination was implemented. Group-prepared case scenarios based on course objectives ...

  2. A string matching based algorithm for performance evaluation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zanibbi et al (2011) have proposed performance metrics based on bipartite graphs at stroke level. ... bipartite graphs on which metrics based on hamming distances are defined. ...... Document Image Analysis for Libraries 320–331 ... Lee H J and Wang J S 1997 Design of a mathematical expression understanding system.

  3. Organizational Culture and Performance of Paith-Based Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the impact of organizational culture on the performances of faith-based Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study is the entire employees of the selected faith-based Universities in Ogun State. Primary data were used for the study.

  4. Evaluating hydrological model performance using information theory-based metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accuracy-based model performance metrics not necessarily reflect the qualitative correspondence between simulated and measured streamflow time series. The objective of this work was to use the information theory-based metrics to see whether they can be used as complementary tool for hydrologic m...

  5. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, M J B; Van de Wiel, M W J; Schuwirth, L W T; Van der Vleuten, C P M; Muijtjens, A M M

    2013-08-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using theoretical frameworks of social cognition and person perception, we explored raters' implicit performance theories, use of task-specific performance schemas and the formation of person schemas during WBA. We used think-aloud procedures and verbal protocol analysis to investigate schema-based processing by experienced (N = 18) and inexperienced (N = 16) raters (supervisor-raters in general practice residency training). Qualitative data analysis was used to explore schema content and usage. We quantitatively assessed rater idiosyncrasy in the use of performance schemas and we investigated effects of rater expertise on the use of (task-specific) performance schemas. Raters used different schemas in judging trainee performance. We developed a normative performance theory comprising seventeen inter-related performance dimensions. Levels of rater idiosyncrasy were substantial and unrelated to rater expertise. Experienced raters made significantly more use of task-specific performance schemas compared to inexperienced raters, suggesting more differentiated performance schemas in experienced raters. Most raters started to develop person schemas the moment they began to observe trainee performance. The findings further our understanding of processes underpinning judgment and decision making in WBA. Raters make and justify judgments based on personal theories and performance constructs. Raters' information processing seems to be affected by differences in rater expertise. The results of this study can help to improve rater training, the design of assessment instruments and decision making in WBA.

  6. Guidelines for performance-based supplier audits (NCIG-16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauderdale, J.R.; Mattu, R.K.; Roman, W.S.

    1990-06-01

    This document provides guidelines for planning and conducting performance-based audits of suppliers of items used in nuclear power plants. A common purpose of audits is to provide a basis for confidence in the supplier's controls to ensure that products received will perform their intended functions satisfactorily. Performance-based audits offer means of raising the level of confidence. This confidence comes from evaluation of important features of the product and the processes and activities that produce it. This document does not add requirements to those in existing codes, standards, or regulations. The guidance herein is intended to complement the information in existing industry standards and practices. Performance-based audits are one element of an effective procurement program. A companion EPRI/NCIG document, EPRI NP-6629, Guidelines for the Procurement and Receipt of Items for Nuclear Power Plants (NCIG-15), provides guidance for other elements of an effective procurement program

  7. The Safety, Effectiveness and Concentrations of Adjusted Lopinavir/Ritonavir in HIV-Infected Adults on Rifampicin-Based Antitubercular Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, Eric H.; Maartens, Gary; Smith, Peter; Merry, Concepta; Bango, Funeka; McIlleron, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Objective Rifampicin co-administration dramatically reduces plasma lopinavir concentrations. Studies in healthy volunteers and HIV-infected patients showed that doubling the dose of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or adding additional ritonavir offsets this interaction. However, high rates of hepatotoxicity were observed in healthy volunteers. We evaluated the safety, effectiveness and pre-dose concentrations of adjusted doses of LPV/r in HIV infected adults treated with rifampicin-based tuberculosis treatment. Methods Adult patients on a LPV/r-based antiretroviral regimen and rifampicin-based tuberculosis therapy were enrolled. Doubled doses of LPV/r or an additional 300 mg of ritonavir were used to overcome the inducing effect of rifampicin. Steady-state lopinavir pre-dose concentrations were evaluated every second month. Results 18 patients were enrolled with a total of 79 patient months of observation. 11/18 patients were followed up until tuberculosis treatment completion. During tuberculosis treatment, the median (IQR) pre-dose lopinavir concentration was 6.8 (1.1–9.2) mg/L and 36/47 (77%) were above the recommended trough concentration of 1 mg/L. Treatment was generally well tolerated with no grade 3 or 4 toxicity: 8 patients developed grade 1 or 2 transaminase elevation, 1 patient defaulted additional ritonavir due to nausea and 1 patient developed diarrhea requiring dose reduction. Viral loads after tuberculosis treatment were available for 11 patients and 10 were undetectable. Conclusion Once established on treatment, adjusted doses of LPV/r co-administered with rifampicin-based tuberculosis treatment were tolerated and LPV pre-dose concentrations were adequate. PMID:22412856

  8. Effect of Rocket (Eruca sativa Extract on MRSA Growth and Proteome: Metabolic Adjustments in Plant-Based Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapi I. Doulgeraki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in food has provoked a great concern about the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. Although MRSA is often detected in various retailed meat products, it seems that food handlers are more strongly associated with this type of food contamination. Thus, it can be easily postulated that any food could be contaminated with this pathogen in an industrial environment or in household and cause food poisoning. To this direction, the effect of rocket (Eruca sativa extract on MRSA growth and proteome was examined in the present study. This goal was achieved with the comparative study of the MRSA strain COL proteome, cultivated in rocket extract versus the standard Luria-Bertani growth medium. The obtained results showed that MRSA was able to grow in rocket extract. In addition, proteome analysis using 2-DE method showed that MRSA strain COL is taking advantage of the sugar-, lipid-, and vitamin-rich substrate in the liquid rocket extract, although its growth was delayed in rocket extract compared to Luria–Bertani medium. This work could initiate further research about bacterial metabolism in plant-based media and defense mechanisms against plant-derived antibacterials.

  9. The Effectiveness of Using Limited Gauge Measurements for Bias Adjustment of Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimation over Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Raied; Hsu, Kuolin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Braithwaite, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation is a key input variable for hydrological and climate studies. Rain gauges are capable of providing reliable precipitation measurements at point scale. However, the uncertainty of rain measurements increases when the rain gauge network is sparse. Satellite -based precipitation estimations appear to be an alternative source of precipitation measurements, but they are influenced by systematic bias. In this study, a method for removing the bias from the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) over a region where the rain gauge is sparse is investigated. The method consists of monthly empirical quantile mapping, climate classification, and inverse-weighted distance method. Daily PERSIANN-CCS is selected to test the capability of the method for removing the bias over Saudi Arabia during the period of 2010 to 2016. The first six years (2010 - 2015) are calibrated years and 2016 is used for validation. The results show that the yearly correlation coefficient was enhanced by 12%, the yearly mean bias was reduced by 93% during validated year. Root mean square error was reduced by 73% during validated year. The correlation coefficient, the mean bias, and the root mean square error show that the proposed method removes the bias on PERSIANN-CCS effectively that the method can be applied to other regions where the rain gauge network is sparse.

  10. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  11. Two-Stage Performance Engineering of Container-based Virtualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has become a compelling paradigm built on compute and storage virtualization technologies. The current virtualization solution in the Cloud widely relies on hypervisor-based technologies. Given the recent booming of the container ecosystem, the container-based virtualization starts receiving more attention for being a promising alternative. Although the container technologies are generally considered to be lightweight, no virtualization solution is ideally resource-free, and the corresponding performance overheads will lead to negative impacts on the quality of Cloud services. To facilitate understanding container technologies from the performance engineering’s perspective, we conducted two-stage performance investigations into Docker containers as a concrete example. At the first stage, we used a physical machine with “just-enough” resource as a baseline to investigate the performance overhead of a standalone Docker container against a standalone virtual machine (VM. With findings contrary to the related work, our evaluation results show that the virtualization’s performance overhead could vary not only on a feature-by-feature basis but also on a job-to-job basis. Moreover, the hypervisor-based technology does not come with higher performance overhead in every case. For example, Docker containers particularly exhibit lower QoS in terms of storage transaction speed. At the ongoing second stage, we employed a physical machine with “fair-enough” resource to implement a container-based MapReduce application and try to optimize its performance. In fact, this machine failed in affording VM-based MapReduce clusters in the same scale. The performance tuning results show that the effects of different optimization strategies could largely be related to the data characteristics. For example, LZO compression can bring the most significant performance improvement when dealing with text data in our case.

  12. Performance and competence in usage-based construction grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    While formalist approaches in the Chomskian tradition to language distinguish sharply between performance and competence in their modeling of language competence, performance and competence are considered to be in a mutually influential relation in usage-based models of language. Language...... competence, in the latter approach, is, much like in Dell Hymes’ notion of communicative competence, held to be experientially based in the sense that speakers establish their competence through inductive social-cognitive processes of schematization and conventionalization. Making a case for the usage......-based definition of the language system, his paper explores the interplay between performance and competence in a construction grammar perspective in which grammatical constructions are considered meaningful symbolic units on par with lexemes, in relation to the [V until ADJ]-construction, based on a study...

  13. Accounting for estimated IQ in neuropsychological test performance with regression-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, S Marc; Winicki, Jessica M; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Gordon, Barry; Schretlen, David J

    2009-11-01

    Regression-based normative techniques account for variability in test performance associated with multiple predictor variables and generate expected scores based on algebraic equations. Using this approach, we show that estimated IQ, based on oral word reading, accounts for 1-9% of the variability beyond that explained by individual differences in age, sex, race, and years of education for most cognitive measures. These results confirm that adding estimated "premorbid" IQ to demographic predictors in multiple regression models can incrementally improve the accuracy with which regression-based norms (RBNs) benchmark expected neuropsychological test performance in healthy adults. It remains to be seen whether the incremental variance in test performance explained by estimated "premorbid" IQ translates to improved diagnostic accuracy in patient samples. We describe these methods, and illustrate the step-by-step application of RBNs with two cases. We also discuss the rationale, assumptions, and caveats of this approach. More broadly, we note that adjusting test scores for age and other characteristics might actually decrease the accuracy with which test performance predicts absolute criteria, such as the ability to drive or live independently.

  14. FIRE SAFETY IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A RISK-INFORMED AND PERFORMANCE-BASED APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AZARM,M.A.; TRAVIS,R.J.

    1999-11-14

    The consideration of risk in regulatory decision-making has long been a part of NRC's policy and practice. Initially, these considerations were qualitative and were based on risk insights. The early regulations relied on good practices, past insights, and accepted standards. As a result, most NRC regulations were prescriptive and were applied uniformly to all areas within the regulatory scope. Risk technology is changing regulations by prioritizing the areas within regulatory scope based on risk, thereby focusing on the risk-important areas. Performance technology, on the other hand, is changing the regulations by allowing requirements to be adjusted based on the specific performance expected and manifested, rather than a prior prescriptive requirement. Consistent with the objectives of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory requirements, BNL evaluated the feasibility of applying risk- and performance-technologies to modifying NRC's current regulations on fire protection for nuclear power plants. This feasibility study entailed several case studies (trial applications). This paper describes the results of two of them. Besides the case studies, the paper discusses an overall evaluation of methodologies for fire-risk analysis to support the risk-informed regulation. It identifies some current shortcomings and proposes some near-term solutions.

  15. FIRE SAFETY IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A RISK-INFORMED AND PERFORMANCE-BASED APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AZARM, M.A.; TRAVIS, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The consideration of risk in regulatory decision-making has long been a part of NRC's policy and practice. Initially, these considerations were qualitative and were based on risk insights. The early regulations relied on good practices, past insights, and accepted standards. As a result, most NRC regulations were prescriptive and were applied uniformly to all areas within the regulatory scope. Risk technology is changing regulations by prioritizing the areas within regulatory scope based on risk, thereby focusing on the risk-important areas. Performance technology, on the other hand, is changing the regulations by allowing requirements to be adjusted based on the specific performance expected and manifested, rather than a prior prescriptive requirement. Consistent with the objectives of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory requirements, BNL evaluated the feasibility of applying risk- and performance-technologies to modifying NRC's current regulations on fire protection for nuclear power plants. This feasibility study entailed several case studies (trial applications). This paper describes the results of two of them. Besides the case studies, the paper discusses an overall evaluation of methodologies for fire-risk analysis to support the risk-informed regulation. It identifies some current shortcomings and proposes some near-term solutions

  16. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  17. Group-based parent-training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment in children from birth to three years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Smailagic, Nadja; Ferriter, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Jones, Hannah

    2010-03-17

    Emotional and behavioural problems in children are common. Research suggests that parenting has an important role to play in helping children to become well-adjusted, and that the first few months and years are especially important. Parenting programmes may have a role to play in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of infants and toddlers. This review is applicable to parents and carers of children up to three years eleven months although some studies included children up to five years old. To:a) establish whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of children three years of age or less (i.e. maximum mean age of 3 years 11 months); b) assess the role of parenting programmes in the primary prevention of emotional and behavioural problems. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociofile, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, National Research Register (NRR) and ERIC. The searches were originally run in 2000 and then updated in 2007/8. Randomised controlled trials of group-based parenting programmes that had used at least one standardised instrument to measure emotional and behavioural adjustment. The results for each outcome in each study have been presented, with 95% confidence intervals. Where appropriate the results have been combined in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Eight studies were included in the review. There were sufficient data from six studies to combine the results in a meta-analysis for parent-reports and from three studies to combine the results for independent assessments of children's behaviour post-intervention. There was in addition, sufficient information from three studies to conduct a meta-analysis of both parent-report and independent follow-up data. Both parent-report (SMD -0.25; CI -0.45 to -0.06), and independent observations (SMD -0.54; CI -0.84 to -0.23) of children's behaviour produce significant results favouring the

  18. Performance reliability prediction for thermal aging based on kalman filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shuhong; Wen Zhenhua; Xue Fei; Zhao Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    The performance reliability of the nuclear power plant main pipeline that failed due to thermal aging was studied by the performance degradation theory. Firstly, through the data obtained from the accelerated thermal aging experiments, the degradation process of the impact strength and fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steel material of the main pipeline was analyzed. The time-varying performance degradation model based on the state space method was built, and the performance trends were predicted by using Kalman filtering. Then, the multi-parameter and real-time performance reliability prediction model for the main pipeline thermal aging was developed by considering the correlation between the impact properties and fracture toughness, and by using the stochastic process theory. Thus, the thermal aging performance reliability and reliability life of the main pipeline with multi-parameter were obtained, which provides the scientific basis for the optimization management of the aging maintenance decision making for nuclear power plant main pipelines. (authors)

  19. 39 CFR 3010.25 - Limitation on unused rate adjustment authority rate adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... only be applied together with inflation-based limitation rate adjustments or when inflation-based... used in lieu of an inflation-based limitation rate adjustment. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on unused rate adjustment authority...

  20. Premorbid functioning of patients with first-episode nonaffective psychosis: a comparison of deterioration in academic and social performance, and clinical correlates of Premorbid Adjustment Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Ralph C; Goulding, Sandra M; Compton, Michael T

    2008-09-01

    Motivated by a previous study among male veterans [Allen, D.N., Frantom, L.V., Strauss, G.P., van Kammen, D.P., 2005. Differential patterns of premorbid academic and social deterioration in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 75, 389-397], the present analysis examined: (1) patterns of premorbid academic and social functioning during childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence, and (2) associations between these premorbid functioning dimensions and a number of clinical variables. Data on premorbid functioning were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) in 95 hospitalized first-episode patients. Analyses were similar to those conducted by Allen and colleagues (2005). Deterioration was evident in both academic and social functioning from childhood to early adolescence, along with a pronounced/accelerated deterioration in academic functioning from early adolescence to late adolescence, occurring in both male and female patients. Age at onset of prodromal symptoms was predicted by childhood/early adolescent/late adolescent academic functioning scores, and age at onset of psychotic symptoms was significantly associated only with childhood academic functioning. Severity of negative symptoms was predicted by childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores, and severity of general psychopathology symptoms was predicted by late adolescent academic functioning, as well as childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores. Consistent with prior findings, deterioration in premorbid functioning appears to be more pronounced in the academic than social dimension of the PAS. Some PAS scores are predictive of ages at onset of prodrome/psychosis and severity of psychotic symptoms. Ongoing research on premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia may have implications for future prevention goals.

  1. State of art in FE-based fuel performance codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Finite element (FE) method that is reliable and proven solution in mechanical field has been introduced into fuel performance codes for multidimensional analysis. The present state of the art in numerical simulation of FE-based fuel performance predominantly involves 2-D axisymmetric model and 3-D volumetric model. The FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN own 1.5-D and 2-D FE model to simulate PCMI and cladding ballooning. In 2-D simulation, the FALCON code, developed by EPRI, is a 2-D (R-Z and R-θ) fully thermal-mechanically coupled steady-state and transient FE-based fuel behavior code. The French codes TOUTATIS and ALCYONE which are 3-D, and typically used to investigate localized behavior. In 2008, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing multidimensional (2-D and 3-D) nuclear fuel performance code called BISON. In this paper, the current state of FE-based fuel performance code and their models are presented. Based on investigation into the codes, requirements and direction of development for new FE-based fuel performance code can be discussed. Based on comparison of models in FE-based fuel performance code, status of art in the codes can be discussed. A new FE-based fuel performance code should include typical pellet and cladding models which all codes own. In particular, specified pellet and cladding model such as gaseous swelling and high burnup structure (HBS) model should be developed to improve accuracy of code as well as consider AC condition. To reduce computation cost, the approximated gap and the optimized contact model should be also developed. Nuclear fuel operates in an extreme environment that induces complex multiphysics phenomena, occurring over distances ranging from inter-atomic spacing to meters, and times scales ranging from microseconds to years. This multiphysics behavior is often tightly coupled, a well known example being the thermomechanical behavior. Adding to this complexity, important aspects of fuel behavior are inherently

  2. Integrating policy-based management and SLA performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzong-Jye; Lin, Chin-Yi; Chang, Shu-Hsin; Yen, Meng-Tzu

    2001-10-01

    Policy-based management system provides the configuration capability for the system administrators to focus on the requirements of customers. The service level agreement performance monitoring mechanism helps system administrators to verify the correctness of policies. However, it is difficult for a device to process the policies directly because the policies are the management concept. This paper proposes a mechanism to decompose a policy into rules that can be efficiently processed by a device. Thus, the device may process the rule and collect the performance statistics information efficiently; and the policy-based management system may collect these performance statistics information and report the service-level agreement performance monitoring information to the system administrator. The proposed policy-based management system achieves both the policy configuration and service-level agreement performance monitoring requirements. A policy consists of a condition part and an action part. The condition part is a Boolean expression of a source host IP group, a destination host IP group, etc. The action part is the parameters of services. We say that an address group is compact if it only consists of a range of IP address that can be denoted by a pair of IP address and corresponding IP mask. If the condition part of a policy only consists of the compact address group, we say that the policy is a rule. Since a device can efficiently process a compact address and a system administrator prefers to define a range of IP address, the policy-based management system has to translate policy into rules and supplements the gaps between policy and rules. The proposed policy-based management system builds the relationships between VPN and policies, policy and rules. Since the system administrator wants to monitor the system performance information of VPNs and policies, the proposed policy-based management system downloads the relationships among VPNs, policies and rules to the

  3. Research on the comparison of performance-based concept and force-based concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zeyu; Wang, Dongwei

    2011-03-01

    There are two ideologies about structure design: force-based concept and performance-based concept. Generally, if the structure operates during elastic stage, the two philosophies usually attain the same results. But beyond that stage, the shortage of force-based method is exposed, and the merit of performance-based is displayed. Pros and cons of each strategy are listed herein, and then which structure is best suitable to each method analyzed. At last, a real structure is evaluated by adaptive pushover method to verify that performance-based method is better than force-based method.

  4. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  5. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income (as...

  6. Alpha neurofeedback training improves SSVEP-based BCI performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Nuno da Cruz, Janir; Nan, Wenya; Wong, Chi Man; Vai, Mang I.; Rosa, Agostinho

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide relatively easy, reliable and high speed communication. However, the performance is still not satisfactory, especially in some users who are not able to generate strong enough SSVEP signals. This work aims to strengthen a user’s SSVEP by alpha down-regulating neurofeedback training (NFT) and consequently improve the performance of the user in using SSVEP-based BCIs. Approach. An experiment with two steps was designed and conducted. The first step was to investigate the relationship between the resting alpha activity and the SSVEP-based BCI performance, in order to determine the training parameter for the NFT. Then in the second step, half of the subjects with ‘low’ performance (i.e. BCI classification accuracy <80%) were randomly assigned to a NFT group to perform a real-time NFT, and the rest half to a non-NFT control group for comparison. Main results. The first step revealed a significant negative correlation between the BCI performance and the individual alpha band (IAB) amplitudes in the eyes-open resting condition in a total of 33 subjects. In the second step, it was found that during the IAB down-regulating NFT, on average the subjects were able to successfully decrease their IAB amplitude over training sessions. More importantly, the NFT group showed an average increase of 16.5% in the SSVEP signal SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and an average increase of 20.3% in the BCI classification accuracy, which was significant compared to the non-NFT control group. Significance. These findings indicate that the alpha down-regulating NFT can be used to improve the SSVEP signal quality and the subjects’ performance in using SSVEP-based BCIs. It could be helpful to the SSVEP related studies and would contribute to more effective SSVEP-based BCI applications.

  7. Fiscal Adjustment in IMF-Supported Adjustment Programmes: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiscal adjustment is an essential element of macro-economic stability and economic growth. Given that economic growth is the most powerful weapon in the fight for higher living standards, poor growth performance in African countries, has been a challenge to economists, policy makers and international development ...

  8. The Performance-based Funding Scheme of Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha KETTUNEN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of the performance-based funding scheme of the Finnish universities that was adopted at the beginning of 2013. The political decision-makers expect that the funding scheme will create incentives for the universities to improve performance, but these funding schemes have largely failed in many other countries, primarily because public funding is only a small share of the total funding of universities. This study is interesting because Finnish universities have no tuition fees, unlike in many other countries, and the state allocates funding based on the objectives achieved. The empirical evidence of the graduation rates indicates that graduation rates increased when a new scheme was adopted, especially among male students, who have more room for improvement than female students. The new performance-based funding scheme allocates the funding according to the output-based indicators and limits the scope of strategic planning and the autonomy of the university. The performance-based funding scheme is transformed to the strategy map of the balanced scorecard. The new funding scheme steers universities in many respects but leaves the research and teaching skills to the discretion of the universities. The new scheme has also diminished the importance of the performance agreements between the university and the Ministry. The scheme increases the incentives for universities to improve the processes and structures in order to attain as much public funding as possible. It is optimal for the central administration of the university to allocate resources to faculties and other organisational units following the criteria of the performance-based funding scheme. The new funding scheme has made the universities compete with each other, because the total funding to the universities is allocated to each university according to the funding scheme. There is a tendency that the funding schemes are occasionally

  9. Multi performance option in direct displacement based design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljati Ima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compare to traditional method, direct displacement based design (DDBD offers the more rational design choice due to its compatibility with performance based design which is controlled by the targeted displacement in design. The objectives of this study are: 1 to explore the performance of DDBD for design Level-1, -2 and -3; 2 to determine the most appropriate design level based on material efficiency and damage risk; and 3 to verify the chosen design in order to check its performance under small-, moderate- and severe earthquake. As case study, it uses regular concrete frame structures consists of fourand eight-story with typical plan, located in low- and high-risk seismicity area. The study shows that design Level-2 (repairable damage is the most appropriate choice. Nonlinear time history analysis is run for each case study in order to verify their performance based on parameter: story drift, damage indices, and plastic mechanism. It can be concluded that DDBD performed very well in predicting seismic demand of the observed structures. Design Level-2 can be chosen as the most appropriate design level. Structures are in safe plastic mechanism under all level of seismicity although some plastic hinges formed at some unexpected locations.

  10. Economic structure and performance of forest-based industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Laughlin, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the economic structure, conduct, and performance of industries dependent on the nation's forests that are topics of special importance for research. A major challenge to research involving industrial organization of forest-based industries is to link descriptions of structure, conduct, and industrial performance in ways that facilitate public and private policy making. Not to be overlooked is the need to continue efforts to monitor changes in structure and conduct dimensions at the national level and to conduct baseline studies of industry structure-conduct-performance at regional, state, and local levels. Specifically needed is research that will improve understanding of restructuring within the wood-based industry; definitions of the wood-based industry and segments thereof; linkages between structure and regional economic development; timberland as a managerial and economic variable; structural consequences of technological innovations; corporate strategies as related to performance; structural dimensions in an international setting; and structure and performance of nonwood-based forest industries. Economics research focused in such directions will go far toward improving the manner in which the nation's many forest industries organize and conduct their activities

  11. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  12. Robotic Mobile System's Performance-Based MIMO-OFDM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a predistortion neural network (PDNN architecture has been imposed to the Sniffer Mobile Robot (SNFRbot that is based on spatial multiplexed wireless Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM transmission technology. This proposal is used to improve the system performance by combating one of the main drawbacks that is encountered by OFDM technology; Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR. Simulation results show that using PDNN resulted in better PAPR performance than the previously published work that is based on linear coding, such as Low Density Parity Check (LDPC codes and turbo encoding whether using flat fading channel or a Doppler spread channel.

  13. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  14. Product and process effectiveness using performance-based auditing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Focus is the backbone of genius. Focus is the lifeblood of adequate products and effective processes. Focus is the theme of Performance-Based Audits (PBA). The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program is using the PBA tool extensively to focus on the evaluation of product adequacy and process effectiveness. The term Performance-Based Audit has been around for several years. however, the approach presented here for the systematic end-product selection, planning, and measurement of adequacy and effectiveness is new and innovative

  15. Case-Mix for Performance Management: A Risk Algorithm Based on ICD-10-CM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Moran, Eileen; Almenoff, Peter L

    2018-06-01

    Accurate risk adjustment is the key to a reliable comparison of cost and quality performance among providers and hospitals. However, the existing case-mix algorithms based on age, sex, and diagnoses can only explain up to 50% of the cost variation. More accurate risk adjustment is desired for provider performance assessment and improvement. To develop a case-mix algorithm that hospitals and payers can use to measure and compare cost and quality performance of their providers. All 6,048,895 patients with valid diagnoses and cost recorded in the US Veterans health care system in fiscal year 2016 were included in this study. The dependent variable was total cost at the patient level, and the explanatory variables were age, sex, and comorbidities represented by 762 clinically homogeneous groups, which were created by expanding the 283 categories from Clinical Classifications Software based on ICD-10-CM codes. The split-sample method was used to assess model overfitting and coefficient stability. The predictive power of the algorithms was ascertained by comparing the R, mean absolute percentage error, root mean square error, predictive ratios, and c-statistics. The expansion of the Clinical Classifications Software categories resulted in higher predictive power. The R reached 0.72 and 0.52 for the transformed and raw scale cost, respectively. The case-mix algorithm we developed based on age, sex, and diagnoses outperformed the existing case-mix models reported in the literature. The method developed in this study can be used by other health systems to produce tailored risk models for their specific purpose.

  16. Performance and Compatibility of Phosphonate-Based Superplasticizers for Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Coppola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effectiveness of an innovative phosphonate-based superplasticizer (PNH for ready mixed concrete. Concrete specimens were manufactured by considering a constant initial workability, equal to 220 mm slump at the end of the mixing procedure. Workability was measured at 0, 30, and 60 min to evaluate the workability retention performances of the innovative superplasticizer. Compressive tests at 1, 7, and 28 days were carried out to evaluate the influence of the phosphonate-based superplasticizer on concrete setting and hardening. The concrete mixes were designed by considering 13 different cements to assess the superplasticizer-cement compatibility. The PNH-based admixture showed a better performance in terms of water reduction and workability retention with respect to napthalenesulphonate based admixtures (NSF; however, a higher dosage of PNH with respect to polycarboxylate ethers (PCEs was needed to get the same initial fluidity.

  17. Cash-Flow Analysis Base of the Company's Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Riana Iren; Mihalcea Lucean; Negoescu Gheorghe

    2013-01-01

    Analyses based on the study of financial flows allow coherent merge to study the financial equilibrium of the firm's performance. If static analysis to assess the financial imbalance at some point, but does not explain its evolution, in contrast, dynamic analysis highlights the evolution of financial imbalance, but does not indicate the extent of it. It follows that the two kinds of analysis are complementary and should be pursued simultaneously. Dynamic analysis is based on the concept of st...

  18. Influence of surface error on electromagnetic performance of reflectors based on Zernike polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuanjie; Shi, Jiachen; Tang, Yaqiong

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the influence of surface error distribution on the electromagnetic performance of antennas. The normalized Zernike polynomials are used to describe a smooth and continuous deformation surface. Based on the geometrical optics and piecewise linear fitting method, the electrical performance of reflector described by the Zernike polynomials is derived to reveal the relationship between surface error distribution and electromagnetic performance. Then the relation database between surface figure and electric performance is built for ideal and deformed surfaces to realize rapidly calculation of far-field electric performances. The simulation analysis of the influence of Zernike polynomials on the electrical properties for the axis-symmetrical reflector with the axial mode helical antenna as feed is further conducted to verify the correctness of the proposed method. Finally, the influence rules of surface error distribution on electromagnetic performance are summarized. The simulation results show that some terms of Zernike polynomials may decrease the amplitude of main lobe of antenna pattern, and some may reduce the pointing accuracy. This work extracts a new concept for reflector's shape adjustment in manufacturing process.

  19. Effect of students' learning styles on classroom performance in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghasham, Abdullah A

    2012-01-01

    Since problem-based learning (PBL) sessions require a combination of active discussion, group interaction, and inductive and reflective thinking, students with different learning styles can be expected to perform differently in the PBL sessions. Using "Learning Style Inventory Questionnaire," students were divided into separate active and reflective learner groups. Tutors were asked to observe and assess the students' behavioral performance during the PBL sessions for a period of 5 weeks. A questionnaire of 24 items was developed to assess students' behavioral performance in PBL sessions. Active students tended to use multiple activities to obtain the needed information were more adjusted to the group norms and regulation and more skillful in using reasoning and problem-solving skills and in participation in discussion. On the other hand, reflective students used independent study more, listened actively and carefully to others and used previously acquired information in the discussion more frequently. Formative assessment quizzes did not indicate better performance of either group. There were no significant gender differences in PBL behavioral performance or quizzes' scores. Active and reflective learners differ in PBL class behavioral performance but not in the formative assessment. We recommend that students should be informed about their learning style and that they should learn strategies to compensate for any lacks in PBL sessions through self-study. Also, educational planners should ensure an adequate mix of students with different learning styles in the PBL groups to achieve PBL desired objectives.

  20. Evidence-Based Supplements for the Enhancement of Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Binnie, Martyn J; Goods, Paul S R; Sim, Marc; Burke, Louise M

    2018-03-01

    A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective. The following review focuses on the current evidence-base for a number of common (and emerging) performance supplements used in sport. The supplements discussed here are separated into three categories based on the level of evidence supporting their use for enhancing sports performance: (1) established (caffeine, creatine, nitrate, beta-alanine, bicarbonate); (2) equivocal (citrate, phosphate, carnitine); and (3) developing. Within each section, the relevant performance type, the potential mechanisms of action, and the most common protocols used in the supplement dosing schedule are summarized.

  1. Performance evaluation of self-breakdown-based single-gap ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gap plasma cathode electron (PCE) gun (5–20 kV/50–160 A) in argon, gas atmosphere and its performance evaluation based on particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code `OOPIC-Pro'.The PCE-Gun works in conducting phase (low energy, high ...

  2. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, M.J.; Wiel, M.W.J. van de; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using

  3. 6 CFR 27.230 - Risk-based performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based performance standards. 27.230 Section 27.230 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY... the facility and that discourages abuse through established disciplinary measures; (4) Deter, Detect...

  4. Functionalized graphene hydrogel-based high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxi; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-10-25

    Functionalized graphene hydrogels are prepared by a one-step low-temperature reduction process and exhibit ultrahigh specific capacitances and excellent cycling stability in the aqueous electrolyte. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on functionalized graphene hydrogels are demonstrated with superior capacitive performances and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Vegetable based oil - RV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RV. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  6. High temperature performance of soy-based adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane L. O’Dell; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart

    2013-01-01

    We studied the high temperature performance of soy meal processed to different protein concentrations (flour, concentrate, and isolate), as well as formulated soy-based adhesives, and commercial nonsoy adhesives for comparison. No thermal transitions were seen in phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF) or soy-phenol-formaldehyde (SoyPF) or in as-received soy flour...

  7. Performance-Based Accountability in Qatar: A State in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Sonia Ben

    2011-01-01

    It has become a normative practice to include Performance-Based Accountability (PBA) policies in educational reforms to foster school changes that enhance student learning and success. There is considerable variation in PBA models that have an important impact on how they operate in schools. It is, therefore, important to characterize PBA models…

  8. Performance-based contracting in public procurement of developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambaw, Baynesagn Asfaw

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused on the application of Performance-based Contracting (PBC) in public procurement system of developing countries. We define five research objectives (ROs) that focus on this common issue. The first objective (RO1) mainly deals with the theory behind and the theoretical

  9. Performance-based maintenance procurement by Dutch housing associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    2004-01-01

    OTB Research institute has established a long-term research program to performance-based maintenance procurement in the technical management of housing stock. Stakeholders: housing associations, contractors and the Dutch Building Research Foundation are directly involved in this research program.

  10. Performance-Based Measurement: Action for Organizations and HPT Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Basic measurements and applications of six selected general but critical operational performance-based indicators--effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, return on investment, and benefit-cost ratio--are presented. With each measurement, goals and potential impact are explored. Errors, risks, limitations to measurements, and a…

  11. Critical Arts-Based Research in Education: Performing Undocumented Historias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Castro-Salazar, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The article seeks to elucidate and academically position the genre of critical arts-based research in education. The article fuses Critical Race Theory (CRT), life history and performance, alongside work with undocumented American students of Mexican origin, to show how a politicised qualitative paradigmatic re envisioning can occur in which…

  12. Performance Based Criteria for Ship Collision and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines a probabilistic procedure whereby the maritime industry can develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events and identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention...

  13. Performance study of coal-base charcoals for removing radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuying; Wu Yanwei; Guo Liangtian; Jia Ming; Lu Xueshi; Zhang Hong

    1988-01-01

    In authos' laboratory sveral types of domestic coal-base charcoals are selected and impregnated and examined for their main physical and chemical performances. The results show that under the test conditions the iodine-removing efficiencies of these impregnated coal-base charcoals charcoals are not poorer than that of the impregnated fruit-shell base charcoals (such as coconut shell charcoal) and most of their physical properties can satisfy the requirements of the nuclear grade charcoals assigned in USA standards. More detailed studies will be made in the next programme

  14. Orthogonal Analysis Based Performance Optimization for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical shape of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT is composed of multiple structural parameters. Since there are interactions among the structural parameters, traditional research approaches, which usually focus on one parameter at a time, cannot obtain performance of the wind turbine accurately. In order to exploit overall effect of a novel VAWT, we firstly use a single parameter optimization method to obtain optimal values of the structural parameters, respectively, by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD method; based on the results, we then use an orthogonal analysis method to investigate the influence of interactions of the structural parameters on performance of the wind turbine and to obtain optimization combination of the structural parameters considering the interactions. Results of analysis of variance indicate that interactions among the structural parameters have influence on performance of the wind turbine, and optimization results based on orthogonal analysis have higher wind energy utilization than that of traditional research approaches.

  15. Drivers of international performance of Brazilian technology-based firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Serpa Fagundes de Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For Technology-Based Firms, international expansion represents an opportunity for growth and value creation. The present study was designed to analyze the role of technology-based companies (TBCs internationalization drivers on international performance. Therefore, a descriptive research was carried out with a quantitative approach performed through a survey. Data collection happened with 53 Brazilian TBCs located in innovation habitats. These data were analyzed by multivariate statistical technique. The results showed that the determinants of the international performance of Brazilian TBCs, can be set by external influencers (localization in innovation habitats, integration into global productive chains, partnerships and strategic alliances for innovation and government policies and internal influencers (innovation capability, international market orientation and international marketing skills.

  16. Hydrological Performance of LECA-Based Roofs in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hamouz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rooftops represent a considerable part of the impervious fractions of urban environments. Detaining and retaining runoff from vegetated rooftops can be a significant contribution to reducing the effects of urbanization, with respect to increased runoff peaks and volumes from precipitation events. However, in climates with limited evapotranspiration, a non-vegetated system is a convenient option for stormwater management. A LECA (lightweight expanded clay aggregate-based roof system was established in the coastal area of Trondheim, Norway in 2016. The roof structure consists of a 200 mm-thick layer of LECA® lightweight aggregate, covered by a concrete pavement. The retention in the LECA-based roof was estimated at 9%, which would be equivalent to 0.27 mm/day for the entire period. The LECA-based configuration provided a detention performance for a peak runoff reduction of 95% (median and for a peak delay of 1 h and 15 min (median, respectively. The relatively high moisture levels in the LECA-based roof did not affect the detention performance. Rooftop retrofitting as a form of source control may contribute to a change in runoff characteristics from conventional roofs. This study of the LECA-based roof configuration presents data and performance indicators for stormwater urban planners with regard to water detention capability.

  17. Repatriation Adjustment: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Arman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expatriation is a widely studied area of research in work and organizational psychology. After expatriates accomplish their missions in host countries, they return to their countries and this process is called repatriation. Adjustment constitutes a crucial part in repatriation research. In the present literature review, research about repatriation adjustment was reviewed with the aim of defining the whole picture in this phenomenon. Present research was classified on the basis of a theoretical model of repatriation adjustment. Basic frame consisted of antecedents, adjustment, outcomes as main variables and personal characteristics/coping strategies and organizational strategies as moderating variables.

  18. Performance Issues in High Performance Fortran Implementations of Sensor-Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. O'hallaron

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications that get their inputs from sensors are an important and often overlooked application domain for High Performance Fortran (HPF. Such sensor-based applications typically perform regular operations on dense arrays, and often have latency and through put requirements that can only be achieved with parallel machines. This article describes a study of sensor-based applications, including the fast Fourier transform, synthetic aperture radar imaging, narrowband tracking radar processing, multibaseline stereo imaging, and medical magnetic resonance imaging. The applications are written in a dialect of HPF developed at Carnegie Mellon, and are compiled by the Fx compiler for the Intel Paragon. The main results of the study are that (1 it is possible to realize good performance for realistic sensor-based applications written in HPF and (2 the performance of the applications is determined by the performance of three core operations: independent loops (i.e., loops with no dependences between iterations, reductions, and index permutations. The article discusses the implications for HPF implementations and introduces some simple tests that implementers and users can use to measure the efficiency of the loops, reductions, and index permutations generated by an HPF compiler.

  19. Staff background paper on performance-based rate making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.; Brownell, B.

    1998-10-01

    An alternative to the traditional cost of service (COS) regulation for electric utilities in British Columbia has been proposed. The alternative to pure COS regulation is performance-based rate making (PBR). PBR partially decouples a utility's rates from its costs and ties utility profits to performance relative to specific benchmarks. The motivation underlying PBR is that ideally, it provides incentives for utilities to cost-effectively achieve pre-defined goals. This report describes the design of PBR mechanisms, base rate PBR formulas, base rate PBR in other jurisdictions including New York, California, Maine and New Jersey. The report also describes gas procurement PBR in other jurisdictions, as well as British Columbia Utilities' Commission's own experience with PBR. In general, PBR has the potential to provide resource efficiency, allocative efficiency, support for introduction of new services, and reduced regulatory administrative costs. 15 refs., 4 tabs

  20. A measurement-based performability model for a multiprocessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilsueh, M. C.; Iyer, Ravi K.; Trivedi, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    A measurement-based performability model based on real error-data collected on a multiprocessor system is described. Model development from the raw errror-data to the estimation of cumulative reward is described. Both normal and failure behavior of the system are characterized. The measured data show that the holding times in key operational and failure states are not simple exponential and that semi-Markov process is necessary to model the system behavior. A reward function, based on the service rate and the error rate in each state, is then defined in order to estimate the performability of the system and to depict the cost of different failure types and recovery procedures.

  1. Research on Performance Evaluation by IDSS Based on AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xuelian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Talent resource is the primary resource. There are two sides as the starting point and foothold in this paper. One is how to evaluate the performance of science and technology talents flow by IDSS (Intelligence Decision Supporting System. Another is how to guide the innovation work of science and technology according to the evaluation results. The evaluation index on performance system has hierarchical structure. So AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process is applied to evaluate the performance. Evaluation model is established and illustrated by the cases in this paper. It can be seen that the flow of performance is influenced by the growth rate of important scientific and technological achievements. Furthermore, some constructive suggestions are given based on the results of evaluation.

  2. Depletion calculations of adjuster rods in Darlington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, B.; Tsang, K., E-mail: benoit.arsenault@amecfw.com, E-mail: kwok.tsang@amecfw.com [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the simulation methodology and reactivity worth calculated for aged adjuster rods in the Darlington core. ORIGEN-S IST was applied to simulate the isotope transmutation process of the stainless steel and titanium adjusters. The compositions were used in DRAGON-IST to calculate the change in incremental properties of aged adjusters. Pre-simulations of the reactivity worth of the stainless steel and titanium adjusters in Darlington were performed using RFSP-IST and the results showed that the titanium adjuster rods exhibit faster reactivity-worth drop than that of stainless steel rods. (author)

  3. Performance-Based Compensation: Linking Performance to Teacher Salaries. Ask the Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock-Sherratt, Ellen; Potemski, Amy

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the goal of attracting and retaining talented professionals in education, performance-based compensation systems (PBCS) must offer salaries that are both fair and sufficiently competitive at each point across an educator's career continuum. Although many states, especially with the support of the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants,…

  4. Right-­turn traffic volume adjustment in traffic signal warrant analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    This report was based on the research project, Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustment in Traffic Signal Warrants, sponsored by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) and SOLARIS. Right-turn traffic does not affect intersection performance in th...

  5. Right-\\0xADturn traffic volume adjustment in traffic signal warrant analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    This report was based on the research project, Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustment in : Traffic Signal Warrants, sponsored by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) : and SOLARIS. Right-turn traffic does not affect intersection performance i...

  6. Development and Performance Evaluation of Image-Based Robotic Waxing System for Detailing Automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Hsu, Bing-Cheng

    2018-05-14

    Waxing is an important aspect of automobile detailing, aimed at protecting the finish of the car and preventing rust. At present, this delicate work is conducted manually due to the need for iterative adjustments to achieve acceptable quality. This paper presents a robotic waxing system in which surface images are used to evaluate the quality of the finish. An RGB-D camera is used to build a point cloud that details the sheet metal components to enable path planning for a robot manipulator. The robot is equipped with a multi-axis force sensor to measure and control the forces involved in the application and buffing of wax. Images of sheet metal components that were waxed by experienced car detailers were analyzed using image processing algorithms. A Gaussian distribution function and its parameterized values were obtained from the images for use as a performance criterion in evaluating the quality of surfaces prepared by the robotic waxing system. Waxing force and dwell time were optimized using a mathematical model based on the image-based criterion used to measure waxing performance. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed robotic waxing system and image-based performance evaluation scheme.

  7. Tough nanocomposite ionogel-based actuator exhibits robust performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhua; He, Bin; Wang, Zhipeng; Tang, Haifeng; Su, Teng; Wang, Qigang

    2014-10-20

    Ionogel electrolytes can be fabricated for electrochemical actuators with many desirable advantages, including direct low-voltage control in air, high electrochemical and thermal stability, and complete silence during actuation. However, the demands for active actuators with above features and load-driving ability remain a challenge; much work is necessary to enhance the mechanical strength of electrolyte materials. Herein, we describe a cross-linked supramolecular approach to prepare tough nanocomposite gel electrolytes from HEMA, BMIMBF4, and TiO2 via self-initiated UV polymerization. The tough and stable ionogels are emerging to fabricate electric double-layer capacitor-like soft actuators, which can be driven by electrically induced ion migration. The ionogel-based actuator shows a displacement response of 5.6 mm to the driving voltage of 3.5 V. After adding the additional mass weight of the same as the actuator, it still shows a large displacement response of 3.9 mm. Furthermore, the actuator can not only work in harsh temperature environments (100°C and -10°C) but also realize the goal of grabbing an object by adjusting the applied voltage.

  8. 76 FR 54721 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... operational use. Based on these fundamental performance characteristics of s-cam brakes, the August 2005 final... maintenance task (e.g., readjusting the brakes or replacing an inoperable slack adjuster) at the inspection..., slack adjusters, linings/pads, and drums/rotors. * * * * * (e) Clamp, Bendix DD-3, bolt-type, and...

  9. Performance based design of reinforced concrete beams under impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tachibana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to collect fundamental data and to establish a performance-based design method for reinforced concrete beams under perpendicular impact load.

    Series of low speed impact experiments using reinforced concrete beams were performed varying span length, cross section and main reinforcement.

    The experimental results are evaluated focusing on the impact load characteristics and the impact behaviours of reinforced concrete beams. Various characteristic values and their relationships are investigated such as the collision energy, the impact force duration, the energy absorbed by the beams and the beam response values. Also the bending performance of the reinforced concrete beams against perpendicular impact is evaluated.

    An equation is proposed to estimate the maximum displacement of the beam based on the collision energy and the static ultimate bending strength. The validity of the proposed equation is confirmed by comparison with experimental results obtained by other researchers as well as numerical results obtained by FEM simulations. The proposed equation allows for a performance based design of the structure accounting for the actual deformation due to the expected impact action.

  10. Controlling the Performance of P-type Cu2O/SnO Bilayer Thin-Film Transistors by Adjusting the Thickness of the Copper Oxide Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jawhari, Hala A.; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso; Hedhili, Mohamed N.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of copper oxide layer thickness on the performance of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors was investigated. By using sputtered Cu2O films produced at an oxygen partial pressure, Opp, of 10% as the upper layer and 3% Opp SnO films

  11. Gender-based performance differences in an introductory physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Mark Lee

    Cognitive research has indicated that the difference between males and females is negligible. Paradoxically, in traditionally-taught college level introductory physics courses, males have outperformed females. UC Davis' Physics 7A (the first class of a three-quarter Introduction to Physics sequence for Life-Science students), however, counters this trend since females perform similarly to males. The gender-based performance difference within the other two quarters (Physics 7B & 7C) of the radically restructured, active-learning physics sequence still echo the traditionally-taught courses. In one experiment, I modified the laboratory activity instructions of the Physics 7C course to encourage further group interaction. These modifications did not affect the gender-based performance difference. In a later experiment, I compared students' performance on different forms of assessment for certain physics concepts during the Physics 7C course. Over 500 students took weekly quizzes at different times. The students were given different quiz questions on the same topics. Several quiz questions seemed to favor males while others were more gender equitable. I highlighted comparisons between a few pairs of questions that assessed students' understanding of the same physical concept. Males tended to perform better in responding to questions that seemed to require spatial visualization. Questions that required greater understanding of the physical concept or scientific model were more gender neutral.

  12. Pharmacists performing quality spirometry testing: an evidence based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Michael J; Warning, William J

    2015-10-01

    The scope of pharmacist services for patients with pulmonary disease has primarily focused on drug related outcomes; however pharmacists have the ability to broaden the scope of clinical services by performing diagnostic testing including quality spirometry testing. Studies have demonstrated that pharmacists can perform quality spirometry testing based upon international guidelines. The primary aim of this review was to assess the published evidence of pharmacists performing quality spirometry testing based upon American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) guidelines. In order to accomplish this, the description of evidence and type of outcome from these services were reviewed. A literature search was conducted using five databases [PubMed (1946-January 2015), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2015), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews] with search terms including pharmacy, spirometry, pulmonary function, asthma or COPD was conducted. Searches were limited to publications in English and reported in humans. In addition, Uniform Resource Locators and Google Scholar searches were implemented to include any additional supplemental information. Eight studies (six prospective multi-center trials, two retrospective single center studies) were included. Pharmacists in all studies received specialized training in performing spirometry testing. Of the eight studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 (100%) demonstrated acceptable repeatability of spirometry testing based upon standards set by the ATS/ERS guidelines. Acceptable repeatability of seven studies ranged from 70 to 99% consistent with published data. Available evidence suggests that quality spirometry testing can be performed by pharmacists. More prospective studies are needed to add to the current evidence of quality spirometry testing performed by

  13. Gender consequences of a national performance-based funding model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    -regarded’ and highly selective journals and book publishers, and 1 and 5 points for equivalent scientific contributions via ‘normal level’ channels. On the basis of bibliometric data, the study shows that the BRI considerably widens the existing gender gap in researcher performance, since men on average receive more......This article investigates the extent to which the Danish Bibliometric Research Indicator (BRI) reflects the performance of men and women differently. The model is based on a differentiated counting of peer-reviewed publications, awarding three and eight points for contributions to ‘well...... privileges collaborative research, which disadvantages women due to gender differences in collaborative network relations....

  14. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  15. A Knowledge-based Environment for Software Process Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Chaves Lessa Schots

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Process performance analysis is a key step for implementing continuous improvement in software organizations. However, the knowledge to execute such analysis is not trivial and the person responsible to executing it must be provided with appropriate support. Aim: This paper presents a knowledge-based environment, named SPEAKER, proposed for supporting software organizations during the execution of process performance analysis. SPEAKER comprises a body of knowledge and a set of activities and tasks for software process performance analysis along with supporting tools to executing these activities and tasks. Method: We conducted an informal literature reviews and a systematic mapping study, which provided basic requirements for the proposed environment. We implemented the SPEAKER environment integrating supporting tools for the execution of activities and tasks of performance analysis and the knowledge necessary to execute them, in order to meet the variability presented by the characteristics of these activities. Results: In this paper, we describe each SPEAKER module and the individual evaluations of these modules, and also present an example of use comprising how the environment can guide the user through a specific performance analysis activity. Conclusion: Although we only conducted individual evaluations of SPEAKER’s modules, the example of use indicates the feasibility of the proposed environment. Therefore, the environment as a whole will be further evaluated to verify if it attains its goal of assisting in the execution of process performance analysis by non-specialist people.

  16. Determining the energy performance of manually controlled solar shades: A stochastic model based co-simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Driving factor for adjustment of manually controlled solar shades was determined. • A stochastic model for manual solar shades was constructed using Markov method. • Co-simulation with Energyplus was carried out in BCVTB. • External shading even manually controlled should be used prior to LOW-E windows. • Previous studies on manual solar shades may overestimate energy savings. - Abstract: Solar shading devices play a significant role in reducing building energy consumption and maintaining a comfortable indoor condition. In this paper, a typical office building with internal roller shades in hot summer and cold winter zone was selected to determine the driving factor of control behavior of manual solar shades. Solar radiation was determined as the major factor in driving solar shading adjustment based on field measurements and logit analysis and then a stochastic model for manually adjusted solar shades was constructed by using Markov method. This model was used in BCVTB for further co-simulation with Energyplus to determine the impact of the control behavior of solar shades on energy performance. The results show that manually adjusted solar shades, whatever located inside or outside, have a relatively high energy saving performance than clear-pane windows while only external shades perform better than regularly used LOW-E windows. Simulation also indicates that using an ideal assumption of solar shade adjustment as most studies do in building simulation may lead to an overestimation of energy saving by about 16–30%. There is a need to improve occupants’ actions on shades to more effectively respond to outdoor conditions in order to lower energy consumption, and this improvement can be easily achieved by using simple strategies as a guide to control manual solar shades

  17. The Consistency of Performance Management System Based on Attributes of the Performance Indicator: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zavadsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The performance management system (PMS is a metasystem over all business processes at the strategic and operational level. Effectiveness of the various management systems depends on many factors. One of them is the consistent definition of each system elements. The main purpose of this study is to explore if the performance management systems of the sample companies is consistent and how companies can create such a system. The consistency in this case is based on the homogenous definition of attributes relating to the performance indicator as a basic element of PMS.Methodology: At the beginning, we used an affinity diagram that helped us to clarify and to group various attributes of performance indicators. The main research results we achieved are through empirical study. The empirical study was carried out in a sample of Slovak companies. The criterion for selection was the existence of the certified management systems according to the ISO 9001. Representativeness of the sample companies was confirmed by application of Pearson´s chi-squared test (χ2 - test due to above standards. Findings: Coming from the review of various literature, we defined four groups of attributes relating to the performance indicator: formal attributes, attributes of target value, informational attributes and attributes of evaluation. The whole set contains 21 attributes. The consistency of PMS is based not on maximum or minimum number of attributes, but on the same type of attributes for each performance indicator used in PMS at both the operational and strategic level. The main findings are: companies use various financial and non-financial indicators at strategic or operational level; companies determine various attributes of performance indicator, but most of the performance indicators are otherwise determined; we identified the common attributes for the whole sample of companies. Practical implications: The research results have got an implication for

  18. EPRI fuel performance data base: user's manual. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.; Lee, S.; Rumble, E.

    1980-10-01

    This user's manual provides instructions for accessing the data in the EPRI fuel performance data base (FPDB) and manipulating that data to solve specific problems that the user wishes to specify. The user interacts with the FPDB through the Relational Information Management System (RIMS) computer program. The structure and format of the FPDB and the general syntax of the data base commands are described. Instructions follow for the use of each command. Appendixes provide more detailed information about the FPDB and its software. The FPDB currently resides on a PRIME-750 computer

  19. Estimating Driving Performance Based on EEG Spectrum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Tzyy-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of traffic accidents in recent years has become a serious concern to society. Accidents caused by driver's drowsiness behind the steering wheel have a high fatality rate because of the marked decline in the driver's abilities of perception, recognition, and vehicle control abilities while sleepy. Preventing such accidents caused by drowsiness is highly desirable but requires techniques for continuously detecting, estimating, and predicting the level of alertness of drivers and delivering effective feedbacks to maintain their maximum performance. This paper proposes an EEG-based drowsiness estimation system that combines electroencephalogram (EEG log subband power spectrum, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and linear regression models to indirectly estimate driver's drowsiness level in a virtual-reality-based driving simulator. Our results demonstrated that it is feasible to accurately estimate quantitatively driving performance, expressed as deviation between the center of the vehicle and the center of the cruising lane, in a realistic driving simulator.

  20. [Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Armijo, Fernanda; Charvel, Sofía; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory approach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation's target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  1. Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    For non-reactor nuclear facilities, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) does not require that nuclear criticality safety engineers demonstrate qualification for their job. It is likely, however, that more formalism will be required in the future. Current DOE requirements for those positions which do have to demonstrate qualification indicate that qualification should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis is incompletely developed in some areas

  2. Improving the performance of a filling line based on simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Bartkowiak, T.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the method of improving performance of a filling line based on simulation. This study concerns a production line that is located in a manufacturing centre of a FMCG company. A discrete event simulation model was built using data provided by maintenance data acquisition system. Two types of failures were identified in the system and were approximated using continuous statistical distributions. The model was validated taking into consideration line performance measures. A brief Pareto analysis of line failures was conducted to identify potential areas of improvement. Two improvements scenarios were proposed and tested via simulation. The outcome of the simulations were the bases of financial analysis. NPV and ROI values were calculated taking into account depreciation, profits, losses, current CIT rate and inflation. A validated simulation model can be a useful tool in maintenance decision-making process.

  3. Performance characterization of structured light-based fingerprint scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G.; Wang, Minghao; Daley, Raymond C.

    2013-05-01

    Our group believes that the evolution of fingerprint capture technology is in transition to include 3-D non-contact fingerprint capture. More specifically we believe that systems based on structured light illumination provide the highest level of depth measurement accuracy. However, for these new technologies to be fully accepted by the biometric community, they must be compliant with federal standards of performance. At present these standards do not exist for this new biometric technology. We propose and define a set of test procedures to be used to verify compliance with the Federal Bureau of Investigation's image quality specification for Personal Identity Verification single fingerprint capture devices. The proposed test procedures include: geometric accuracy, lateral resolution based on intensity or depth, gray level uniformity and flattened fingerprint image quality. Several 2-D contact analogies, performance tradeoffs and optimization dilemmas are evaluated and proposed solutions are presented.

  4. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation’s target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. Recommendations: modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  5. Performance-Based (Risk-Informed) Regulation: A Regulatory Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadambi, N. Prasad

    2005-01-01

    Performance-based regulation (PBR) has been mandated at the national level in the United States and at the agency level, where appropriate, at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Guidance has been developed that implements the USNRC's definitions of PBR and other such conceptual regulatory improvements. This paper describes why PBR is important, what constitutes PBR in the context of direction provided at the USNRC, and how PBR can be implemented using a five-step process. The process steps articulate questions to be posed by the analyst regarding various aspects of a regulatory issue so that a suitably performance-based resolution can be developed. A regulatory alternative thus developed can be included among other options to be considered as part of the regulatory decision-making process

  6. Optimization of centrifugal pump cavitation performance based on CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, S F; Wang, Y; Liu, Z C; Zhu, Z T; Ning, C; Zhao, L F

    2015-01-01

    In order to further improve the cavitation performance of a centrifugal pump, slots on impeller blade near inlet were studied and six groups of hydraulic model were designed. Base on cavitating flow feature inside a centrifugal pump, bubble growth and implosion are calculated from the Rayleigh-Plesset equation which describes the dynamic behavior of spherical bubble and RNG κ-ε model was employed to simulate and analyze the internal two-phase flow of the model pump under the same conditions. The simulation results show that slots on blade near inlet could improve the cavitation performance and cavitation performance improvement of the second group was more obvious. Under the same conditions, the pressure on the back of blade near inlet was higher than the pressure on the back of unmodified blade near inlet, and energy distribution in the flow channel between the two blades was more uniform with a small change of head

  7. Performance Evaluation of Java Based Object Relational Mapping Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Mahmood Bhatti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Object persistency is the hot issue in the form of ORM (Object Relational Mapping tools in industry as developers use these tools during software development. This paper presents the performance evaluation of Java based ORM tools. For this purpose, Hibernate, Ebean and TopLinkhave been selected as the ORM tools which are popular and open source. Their performance has been measured from execution point of view. The results show that ORM tools are the good option for the developers considering the system throughput in shorter setbacks and they can be used efficiently and effectively for performing mapping of the objects into the relational dominated world of database, thus creating a hope for a better and well dominated future of this technology.

  8. Performance evaluation of the insurance companies based on AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Manhong; Zhu, Kunping

    2018-04-01

    With the entry of foreign capital, China's insurance industry is under increasing pressure of competition. The performance of a company is the external manifestation of its comprehensive strength. Therefore, the establishment of a scientific evaluation system is of practical significance for the insurance companies. In this paper, based on the financial and non-financial indicators of the companies, the performance evaluation system is constructed by means of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In the system, the weights of the indicators which represent the impact on the performance of the companies will be calculated by the process. The evaluation system is beneficial for the companies to realize their own strengths and weaknesses, so as to take steps to enhance the core competitiveness of the companies.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Air-Based Heat Rejection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Fugmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the Number of Transfer Units (NTU method a functional relation between electric power for fans/pumps and effectiveness in dry coolers and wet cooling towers is developed. Based on this relation, a graphical presentation method of monitoring and simulation data of heat rejection units is introduced. The functional relation allows evaluating the thermodynamic performance of differently sized heat rejection units and comparing performance among them. The method is used to evaluate monitoring data of dry coolers of different solar cooling field projects. The novelty of this approach is that performance rating is not limited by a design point or standardized operating conditions of the heat exchanger, but is realizable under flexible conditions.

  10. Investigation of Concrete Electrical Resistivity As a Performance Based Test

    OpenAIRE

    Malakooti, Amir

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent that concrete resistivity measurements (bulk and/or surface) can be used as a performance based lab test to improve the quality of concrete in Utah bridge decks. By allowing UDOT to specify a required resistivity, concrete bridge deck quality will increase and future maintenance costs will decrease. This research consisted of two phases: the field phase and the lab phase. In the field phase, concrete samples were gathered from...

  11. Enhancing Ground Based Telescope Performance with Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    called the hybrid diversity algorithm ( HDA ) that is based on the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm with another process to perform phase-unwraping [36, 45...47]. The HDA requires phase diversity similar to the LM least squares method used for characterizing the HST [32]. The problem of generating...addition, the new phase retrieval algorithm proposed in this chapter has the advantage over NASA’s hybrid diversity algorithm ( HDA ) planned for use on JWST

  12. The Enterprise’ Performance in the Knowledge Based Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As in the traditional enterprise, the performance of the enterprises in theknowledge based society is expressed through the same well-known financialindicators: return on equity, the profit margin, return on assets, gross margin, assetturnover, inventory turnover, the collection period, days’ sales in cash, payableperiod, fixed-asset turnover, balance sheet rations, coverage rations, market valueleverage rations, liquidity ratios, return on invested capital and many others. But,the differences that appear are in the way of acquiring at this performance in theenterprises. The actual knowledge based society is promoting the methods andmodels of the rational management that will lead to performance acquiring by theenterprises. Although as a first step, the reference to financial character as incomestatement, balance sheet, schedules to a balance sheet started to include referencesto the brain capital that is considered the success key in the businesses. In this paperI intend to present the effects on enterprise’ financial performance of the maincomponents of the brain capital: the human capital characterised through theemployees’ competences and skills; organizational capital that defines the internalstructures of the enterprises, inclusively the informatics structure and social capital,related to the enterprise relations with thirds (investors, banks, customers, suppliersetc.. The brain capital mustn’t be looked as a present vogue but as a necessity of itsconsideration and evaluation thus to the old economic-financial rules used indecision making to be added and the knowledge/information decision.

  13. Visualizations of Travel Time Performance Based on Vehicle Reidentification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley Ernest [National Renewable Energy Lab, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401; Sharifi, Elham [Center for Advanced Transportation Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Technology Ventures Building, Suite 2200, 5000 College Avenue, College Park, MD 20742; Day, Christopher M. [Joint Transportation Research Program, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906; Bullock, Darcy M. [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a visual reference of the breadth of arterial performance phenomena based on travel time measures obtained from reidentification technology that has proliferated in the past 5 years. These graphical performance measures are revealed through overlay charts and statistical distribution as revealed through cumulative frequency diagrams (CFDs). With overlays of vehicle travel times from multiple days, dominant traffic patterns over a 24-h period are reinforced and reveal the traffic behavior induced primarily by the operation of traffic control at signalized intersections. A cumulative distribution function in the statistical literature provides a method for comparing traffic patterns from various time frames or locations in a compact visual format that provides intuitive feedback on arterial performance. The CFD may be accumulated hourly, by peak periods, or by time periods specific to signal timing plans that are in effect. Combined, overlay charts and CFDs provide visual tools with which to assess the quality and consistency of traffic movement for various periods throughout the day efficiently, without sacrificing detail, which is a typical byproduct of numeric-based performance measures. These methods are particularly effective for comparing before-and-after median travel times, as well as changes in interquartile range, to assess travel time reliability.

  14. Performance analysis of vortex based mixers for confined flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschhagen, Timo

    The hybrid rocket is still sparsely employed within major space or defense projects due to their relatively poor combustion efficiency and low fuel grain regression rate. Although hybrid rockets can claim advantages in safety, environmental and performance aspects against established solid and liquid propellant systems, the boundary layer combustion process and the diffusion based mixing within a hybrid rocket grain port leaves the core flow unmixed and limits the system performance. One principle used to enhance the mixing of gaseous flows is to induce streamwise vorticity. The counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) mixer utilizes this principle and introduces two vortices into a confined flow, generating a stirring motion in order to transport near wall media towards the core and vice versa. Recent studies investigated the velocity field introduced by this type of swirler. The current work is evaluating the mixing performance of the CVP concept, by using an experimental setup to simulate an axial primary pipe flow with a radially entering secondary flow. Hereby the primary flow is altered by the CVP swirler unit. The resulting setup therefore emulates a hybrid rocket motor with a cylindrical single port grain. In order to evaluate the mixing performance the secondary flow concentration at the pipe assembly exit is measured, utilizing a pressure-sensitive paint based procedure.

  15. Reliability-based performance simulation for optimized pavement maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Le, Thanh-Son

    2011-01-01

    Roadway pavement maintenance is essential for driver safety and highway infrastructure efficiency. However, regular preventive maintenance and rehabilitation (M and R) activities are extremely costly. Unfortunately, the funds available for the M and R of highway pavement are often given lower priority compared to other national development policies, therefore, available funds must be allocated wisely. Maintenance strategies are typically implemented by optimizing only the cost whilst the reliability of facility performance is neglected. This study proposes a novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) technique to evaluate the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy based on non-dominant solutions. Moreover, a probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. A numerical example of a highway pavement project is illustrated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed MOPSO algorithms. The analytical results show that the proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans. - Highlights: →A novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization technique. → Evaluation of the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy. → A probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. → The proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans.

  16. Reliability-based performance simulation for optimized pavement maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng, E-mail: jschou@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech), 43 Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Le, Thanh-Son [Department of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech), 43 Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-15

    Roadway pavement maintenance is essential for driver safety and highway infrastructure efficiency. However, regular preventive maintenance and rehabilitation (M and R) activities are extremely costly. Unfortunately, the funds available for the M and R of highway pavement are often given lower priority compared to other national development policies, therefore, available funds must be allocated wisely. Maintenance strategies are typically implemented by optimizing only the cost whilst the reliability of facility performance is neglected. This study proposes a novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) technique to evaluate the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy based on non-dominant solutions. Moreover, a probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. A numerical example of a highway pavement project is illustrated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed MOPSO algorithms. The analytical results show that the proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans. - Highlights: > A novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization technique. > Evaluation of the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy. > A probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. > The proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans.

  17. Parallel Performance Optimizations on Unstructured Mesh-based Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarje, Abhinav; Song, Sukhyun; Jacobsen, Douglas; Huck, Kevin; Hollingsworth, Jeffrey; Malony, Allen; Williams, Samuel; Oliker, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    © The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This paper addresses two key parallelization challenges the unstructured mesh-based ocean modeling code, MPAS-Ocean, which uses a mesh based on Voronoi tessellations: (1) load imbalance across processes, and (2) unstructured data access patterns, that inhibit intra- and inter-node performance. Our work analyzes the load imbalance due to naive partitioning of the mesh, and develops methods to generate mesh partitioning with better load balance and reduced communication. Furthermore, we present methods that minimize both inter- and intranode data movement and maximize data reuse. Our techniques include predictive ordering of data elements for higher cache efficiency, as well as communication reduction approaches. We present detailed performance data when running on thousands of cores using the Cray XC30 supercomputer and show that our optimization strategies can exceed the original performance by over 2×. Additionally, many of these solutions can be broadly applied to a wide variety of unstructured grid-based computations.

  18. Academic performance in adolescents born after ART—a nationwide registry-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangmose, Anne Lærke; Malchau, Sara; Schmidt, Lone

    2017-01-01

    singletons and ART twins. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Missing data on educational test scores occurred in 6.6% of adolescents aged 15–16 years for the birth cohorts 1995–1997, where all of the children according to their age should have passed the ninth grade exam at the time of data retrieval......STUDY QUESTION Is academic performance in adolescents aged 15–16 years and conceived after ART, measured as test scores in ninth grade, comparable to that for spontaneously conceived (SC) adolescents? SUMMARY ANSWER ART singletons had a significantly lower mean test score in the adjusted analysis...... are based on national data, our findings can be applied to other populations. The findings of this paper suggest that a possible small negative effect of parental subfertility or ART treatment is counterbalanced by the higher educational level in the ART parents. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST...

  19. Large-scale block adjustment without use of ground control points based on the compensation of geometric calibration for ZY-3 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Mi; Xu, Wen; Li, Deren; Gong, Jianya; Pi, Yingdong

    2017-12-01

    The potential of large-scale block adjustment (BA) without ground control points (GCPs) has long been a concern among photogrammetric researchers, which is of effective guiding significance for global mapping. However, significant problems with the accuracy and efficiency of this method remain to be solved. In this study, we analyzed the effects of geometric errors on BA, and then developed a step-wise BA method to conduct integrated processing of large-scale ZY-3 satellite images without GCPs. We first pre-processed the BA data, by adopting a geometric calibration (GC) method based on the viewing-angle model to compensate for systematic errors, such that the BA input images were of good initial geometric quality. The second step was integrated BA without GCPs, in which a series of technical methods were used to solve bottleneck problems and ensure accuracy and efficiency. The BA model, based on virtual control points (VCPs), was constructed to address the rank deficiency problem caused by lack of absolute constraints. We then developed a parallel matching strategy to improve the efficiency of tie points (TPs) matching, and adopted a three-array data structure based on sparsity to relieve the storage and calculation burden of the high-order modified equation. Finally, we used the conjugate gradient method to improve the speed of solving the high-order equations. To evaluate the feasibility of the presented large-scale BA method, we conducted three experiments on real data collected by the ZY-3 satellite. The experimental results indicate that the presented method can effectively improve the geometric accuracies of ZY-3 satellite images. This study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale mapping without GCPs.

  20. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  1. An information and communication technology-based centralized clinical trial to determine the efficacy and safety of insulin dose adjustment education based on a smartphone personal health record application: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyuri; Bae, Ji Cheol; Yi, Byoung Kee; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Chang, Dong Kyung; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Jin, Sang-Man

    2017-07-18

    A Personal Health Record (PHR) is an online application that allows patients to access, manage, and share their health data. PHRs not only enhance shared decision making with healthcare providers, but also enable remote monitoring and at-home-collection of detailed data. The benefits of PHRs can be maximized in insulin dose adjustment for patients starting or intensifying insulin regimens, as frequent self-monitoring of glucose, self-adjustment of insulin dose, and precise at-home data collection during the visit-to-visit period are important for glycemic control. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy and safety of insulin dose adjustment based on a smartphone PHR application in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and to confirm the validity and stability of an information and communication technology (ICT)-based centralized clinical trial monitoring system. This is a 24-week, open-label, randomized, multi-center trial. There are three follow-up measures: baseline, post-intervention at week 12, and at week 24. Subjects diagnosed with type 1 DM, type 2 DM, and/or post-transplant DM who initiate basal insulin or intensify their insulin regimen to a basal-bolus regimen are included. After education on insulin dose titration and prevention for hypoglycemia and a 1-week acclimation period, subjects are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either an ICT-based intervention group or a conventional intervention group. Subjects in the conventional intervention group will save and send their health information to the server via a PHR application, whereas those in ICT-based intervention group will receive additional algorithm-based feedback messages. The health information includes level of blood glucose, insulin dose, details on hypoglycemia, food diary, and step count. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients who reach an optimal insulin dose within 12 weeks of study enrollment, without severe hypoglycemia or unscheduled clinic visits. This clinical trial

  2. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  3. A New Model for Optimal Mechanical and Thermal Performance of Cement-Based Partition Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiping; Hu, Mengyu; Huang, Yonghui; Cui, Nannan; Wang, Weifeng

    2018-04-17

    The prefabricated cement-based partition wall has been widely used in assembled buildings because of its high manufacturing efficiency, high-quality surface, and simple and convenient construction process. In this paper, a general porous partition wall that is made from cement-based materials was proposed to meet the optimal mechanical and thermal performance during transportation, construction and its service life. The porosity of the proposed partition wall is formed by elliptic-cylinder-type cavities. The finite element method was used to investigate the mechanical and thermal behaviour, which shows that the proposed model has distinct advantages over the current partition wall that is used in the building industry. It is found that, by controlling the eccentricity of the elliptic-cylinder cavities, the proposed wall stiffness can be adjusted to respond to the imposed loads and to improve the thermal performance, which can be used for the optimum design. Finally, design guidance is provided to obtain the optimal mechanical and thermal performance. The proposed model could be used as a promising candidate for partition wall in the building industry.

  4. A New Model for Optimal Mechanical and Thermal Performance of Cement-Based Partition Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The prefabricated cement-based partition wall has been widely used in assembled buildings because of its high manufacturing efficiency, high-quality surface, and simple and convenient construction process. In this paper, a general porous partition wall that is made from cement-based materials was proposed to meet the optimal mechanical and thermal performance during transportation, construction and its service life. The porosity of the proposed partition wall is formed by elliptic-cylinder-type cavities. The finite element method was used to investigate the mechanical and thermal behaviour, which shows that the proposed model has distinct advantages over the current partition wall that is used in the building industry. It is found that, by controlling the eccentricity of the elliptic-cylinder cavities, the proposed wall stiffness can be adjusted to respond to the imposed loads and to improve the thermal performance, which can be used for the optimum design. Finally, design guidance is provided to obtain the optimal mechanical and thermal performance. The proposed model could be used as a promising candidate for partition wall in the building industry.

  5. Evaluation of analytical performance based on partial order methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars; Bruggemann, Rainer; Kenessova, Olga; Erzhigitov, Erkin

    2015-01-01

    Classical measurements of performances are typically based on linear scales. However, in analytical chemistry a simple scale may be not sufficient to analyze the analytical performance appropriately. Here partial order methodology can be helpful. Within the context described here, partial order analysis can be seen as an ordinal analysis of data matrices, especially to simplify the relative comparisons of objects due to their data profile (the ordered set of values an object have). Hence, partial order methodology offers a unique possibility to evaluate analytical performance. In the present data as, e.g., provided by the laboratories through interlaboratory comparisons or proficiency testings is used as an illustrative example. However, the presented scheme is likewise applicable for comparison of analytical methods or simply as a tool for optimization of an analytical method. The methodology can be applied without presumptions or pretreatment of the analytical data provided in order to evaluate the analytical performance taking into account all indicators simultaneously and thus elucidating a "distance" from the true value. In the present illustrative example it is assumed that the laboratories analyze a given sample several times and subsequently report the mean value, the standard deviation and the skewness, which simultaneously are used for the evaluation of the analytical performance. The analyses lead to information concerning (1) a partial ordering of the laboratories, subsequently, (2) a "distance" to the Reference laboratory and (3) a classification due to the concept of "peculiar points". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. UMTS base station-like exposure, well-being, and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Sabine J; Negovetic, Sonja; Röösli, Martin; Berdiñas, Veronica; Schuderer, Jürgen; Huss, Anke; Lott, Urs; Kuster, Niels; Achermann, Peter

    2006-08-01

    Radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) of mobile communication systems are widespread in the living environment, yet their effects on humans are uncertain despite a growing body of literature. We investigated the influence of a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station-like signal on well-being and cognitive performance in subjects with and without self-reported sensitivity to RF EMF. We performed a controlled exposure experiment (45 min at an electric field strength of 0, 1, or 10 V/m, incident with a polarization of 45 degrees from the left back side of the subject, weekly intervals) in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. A total of 117 healthy subjects (33 self-reported sensitive, 84 nonsensitive subjects) participated in the study. We assessed well-being, perceived field strength, and cognitive performance with questionnaires and cognitive tasks and conducted statistical analyses using linear mixed models. Organ-specific and brain tissue-specific dosimetry including uncertainty and variation analysis was performed. In both groups, well-being and perceived field strength were not associated with actual exposure levels. We observed no consistent condition-induced changes in cognitive performance except for two marginal effects. At 10 V/m we observed a slight effect on speed in one of six tasks in the sensitive subjects and an effect on accuracy in another task in nonsensitive subjects. Both effects disappeared after multiple end point adjustment. In contrast to a recent Dutch study, we could not confirm a short-term effect of UMTS base station-like exposure on well-being. The reported effects on brain functioning were marginal and may have occurred by chance. Peak spatial absorption in brain tissue was considerably smaller than during use of a mobile phone. No conclusions can be drawn regarding short-term effects of cell phone exposure or the effects of long-term base station-like exposure on human health.

  7. Investment Performance of PT. Gresik Migas Based on Enterpreneur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In knowing the company's ability to manage the capital invested by the investor, the need for measuring the financial performance of the company. This also applies to companies in the sphere of regional, or local government (Regional Owned Enterprises. Therefore, the focus of this study is: (1 How-owned PT Gresik Migas profile based on performance; 2 How is the performance improvement strategy-owned PT Gresik Migas entrepreneurs based on the scope of the Provincial Government of East Java. The results showed that; 1 Performance PT Gresik oil and gas enterprises in East Java province measured by the conventional method / Ratio Analysis indicates good results (2 There are four strategically to improve the performance of enterprises, namely: (a the ability of the human resource managers of enterprises, including the strengthening of entrepreneurship spirit; (b Clarity and firmness legal basis for the establishment of the rule of enterprises; (c the financial management aspects of public enterprises; and(d Feasibility and sustainability of the business or business unit-owned both the products and the services sector is measured based on the internal and external performance. To improve the performance of enterprises PT. Gas Gresik in East Java province, as well as implementing 4 (four strategy that has been set, then there are some things that need to suggest, namely; 1 For local government should have the courage and firmness to minimize various forms, practices and patterns which raises the political cost, prepare clear SOPs related enterprises managing resource recruitment patterns, consistent to encourage more independent and professional enterprises, without intervention, and pays tribute to the manager who managed to bring enterprises to Go Public; 2 for the management of public enterprises should be able to create an environment more conducive working and always oriented towards the task and the future, foster leadership and managers of

  8. Wicket gate trailing-edge blowing: A method for improving off-design hydroturbine performance by adjusting the runner inlet swirl angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B J; Cimbala, J M; Wouden, A M

    2014-01-01

    At their best efficiency point (BEP), hydroturbines operate at very high efficiency. However, with the ever-increasing penetration of alternative electricity generation, it has become common to operate hydroturbines at off-design conditions in order to maintain stability in the electric power grid. This paper demonstrates a method for improving hydroturbine performance during off-design operation by injecting water through slots at the trailing edges of the wicket gates. The injected water causes a change in bulk flow direction at the inlet of the runner. This change in flow angle from the wicket gate trailing-edge jets provides the capability of independently varying the flow rate and swirl angle through the runner, which in current designs are both determined by the wicket gate opening angle. When properly tuned, altering the flow angle results in a significant improvement in turbine efficiency during off-design operation

  9. Wicket gate trailing-edge blowing: A method for improving off-design hydroturbine performance by adjusting the runner inlet swirl angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. J.; Cimbala, J. M.; Wouden, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    At their best efficiency point (BEP), hydroturbines operate at very high efficiency. However, with the ever-increasing penetration of alternative electricity generation, it has become common to operate hydroturbines at off-design conditions in order to maintain stability in the electric power grid. This paper demonstrates a method for improving hydroturbine performance during off-design operation by injecting water through slots at the trailing edges of the wicket gates. The injected water causes a change in bulk flow direction at the inlet of the runner. This change in flow angle from the wicket gate trailing-edge jets provides the capability of independently varying the flow rate and swirl angle through the runner, which in current designs are both determined by the wicket gate opening angle. When properly tuned, altering the flow angle results in a significant improvement in turbine efficiency during off-design operation.

  10. Probability versus representativeness in infancy: can infants use naïve physics to adjust population base rates in probabilistic inference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Stephanie; Trikutam, Pallavi; Xu, Fei

    2014-08-01

    A rich tradition in developmental psychology explores physical reasoning in infancy. However, no research to date has investigated whether infants can reason about physical objects that behave probabilistically, rather than deterministically. Physical events are often quite variable, in that similar-looking objects can be placed in similar contexts with different outcomes. Can infants rapidly acquire probabilistic physical knowledge, such as some leaves fall and some glasses break by simply observing the statistical regularity with which objects behave and apply that knowledge in subsequent reasoning? We taught 11-month-old infants physical constraints on objects and asked them to reason about the probability of different outcomes when objects were drawn from a large distribution. Infants could have reasoned either by using the perceptual similarity between the samples and larger distributions or by applying physical rules to adjust base rates and estimate the probabilities. Infants learned the physical constraints quickly and used them to estimate probabilities, rather than relying on similarity, a version of the representativeness heuristic. These results indicate that infants can rapidly and flexibly acquire physical knowledge about objects following very brief exposure and apply it in subsequent reasoning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. How to perform 3D reconstruction of skull base tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, N-X; Dubrulle, F; Risoud, M; Vincent, C

    2017-04-01

    The surgical management of skull base lesions is difficult due to the complex anatomy of the region and the intimate relations between the lesion and adjacent nerves and vessels. Minimally invasive approaches are increasingly used in skull base surgery to ensure an optimal functional prognosis. Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstruction facilitates surgical planning by visualizing the anatomical relations of the lesions in all planes (arteries, veins, nerves, inner ear) and simulation of the surgical approach in the operating position. Helical CT angiography is performed with optimal timing of the injection in terms of tumour and vessel contrast enhancement. 3D definition of each structure is based on colour coding by automatic thresholding (bone, vessels) or manual segmentation on each slice (tumour, nerves, inner ear). Imaging is generally presented in 3 dimensions (superior, coronal, sagittal) with simulation of the surgical procedure (5 to 6 reconstructions in the operating position at different depths). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Performance simulation of a MRPC-based PET imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Banerjee, A.; Biswas, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Das, G.; Saha, S.

    2014-10-01

    The less expensive and high resolution Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) opens up a new possibility to find an efficient alternative detector for the Time of Flight (TOF) based Positron Emission Tomography, where the sensitivity of the system depends largely on the time resolution of the detector. In a layered structure, suitable converters can be used to increase the photon detection efficiency. In this work, we perform a detailed GEANT4 simulation to optimize the converter thickness towards improving the efficiency of photon conversion. A Monte Carlo based procedure has been developed to simulate the time resolution of the MRPC-based system, making it possible to simulate its response for PET imaging application. The results of the test of a six-gap MRPC, operating in avalanche mode, with 22Na source have been discussed.

  13. FDG PET/CT diagnostic criteria may need adjustment based on MRI to estimate the presurgical risk of extrapelvic infiltration in patients with uterine endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Satoko; Sakuragi, Noriaki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology, Sapporo (Japan); Hattori, Naoya; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kitaku, Sapporo (Japan); Kato, Fumi; Mimura, Rie; Magota, Keiichi; Sugimori, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Sapporo (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    The staging of endometrial cancer requires surgery which carries the risk of morbidity. FDG PET/CT combined with anatomical imaging may reduce the number of unnecessary lymphadenectomies by demonstrating the risk of extrapelvic infiltration. The purpose of this study was to optimize FDG PET/CT diagnostic criteria for risk assessment in endometrial cancer after first-line risk triage with MRI. The study population comprised 37 patients who underwent curative surgery for the treatment of endometrial cancer. First, the risk of extrapelvic infiltration was triaged using MRI. Second, multiple glucose metabolic profiles of the primary lesion were assessed with FDG PET/CT, and these were correlated with the histopathological risk of extrapelvic infiltration including lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) and high-grade malignancy (grades 2 and 3). The results of histological correlation were used to adjust FDG PET/CT diagnostic criteria. Presurgical assessment using MRI was positive for deep (>50 %) myometrial invasion in 17 patients. The optimal FDG PET/CT diagnostic criteria vary depending on the results of MRI. Specifically, SUVmax (≥16.0) was used to indicate LVSI risk with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 88.2 % in patients with MRI findings showing myometrial invasion. High-grade malignancy did not correlate with any of metabolic profiles in this patient group. In the remaining patients without myometrial invasion, lesion glycolysis (LG) or metabolic volume were better indicators of LVSI than SUVmax with the same diagnostic accuracy of 80.0 %. In addition, LG (≥26.9) predicted high-grade malignancy with an accuracy of 72.2 %. Using the optimized cut-off criteria for LVSI, glucose metabolic profiling of primary lesions correctly predicted lymph node metastasis with an accuracy of 73.0 %, which was comparable with the accuracy of visual assessment for lymph node metastasis using MRI and FDG PET/CT. FDG PET/CT diagnostic criteria may need adjustment based on the

  14. Testing Game-Based Performance in Team-Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Orwat, Matthias; Hinz, Matthias; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Bacharach, David W; von Duvillard, Serge P; Müller, Erich

    2016-10-01

    Wagner, H, Orwat, M, Hinz, M, Pfusterschmied, J, Bacharach, DW, von Duvillard, SP, and Müller, E. Testing game-based performance in team-handball. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2794-2801, 2016-Team-handball is a fast paced game of defensive and offensive action that includes specific movements of jumping, passing, throwing, checking, and screening. To date and to the best of our knowledge, a game-based performance test (GBPT) for team-handball does not exist. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate such a test. Seventeen experienced team-handball players performed 2 GBPTs separated by 7 days between each test, an incremental treadmill running test, and a team-handball test game (TG) (2 × 20 minutes). Peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), blood lactate concentration (BLC), heart rate (HR), sprinting time, time of offensive and defensive actions as well as running intensities, ball velocity, and jump height were measured in the game-based test. Reliability of the tests was calculated using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, we measured V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the incremental treadmill running test and BLC, HR, and running intensities in the team-handball TG to determine the validity of the GBPT. For the test-retest reliability, we found an ICC >0.70 for the peak BLC and HR, mean offense and defense time, as well as ball velocity that yielded an ICC >0.90 for the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the GBPT. Percent walking and standing constituted 73% of total time. Moderate (18%) and high (9%) intensity running in the GBPT was similar to the team-handball TG. Our results indicated that the GBPT is a valid and reliable test to analyze team-handball performance (physiological and biomechanical variables) under conditions similar to competition.

  15. Yield performance and stability of CMS-based triticale hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, Jonathan; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Maurer, Hans Peter; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2015-02-01

    CMS-based triticale hybrids showed only marginal midparent heterosis for grain yield and lower dynamic yield stability compared to inbred lines. Hybrids of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) are expected to possess outstanding yield performance and increased dynamic yield stability. The objectives of the present study were to (1) examine the optimum choice of the biometrical model to compare yield stability of hybrids versus lines, (2) investigate whether hybrids exhibit a more pronounced grain yield performance and yield stability, and (3) study optimal strategies to predict yield stability of hybrids. Thirteen female and seven male parental lines and their 91 factorial hybrids as well as 30 commercial lines were evaluated for grain yield in up to 20 environments. Hybrids were produced using a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-inducing cytoplasm that originated from Triticumtimopheevii Zhuk. We found that the choice of the biometrical model can cause contrasting results and concluded that a group-by-environment interaction term should be added to the model when estimating stability variance of hybrids and lines. midparent heterosis for grain yield was on average 3 % with a range from -15.0 to 11.5 %. No hybrid outperformed the best inbred line. Hybrids had, on average, lower dynamic yield stability compared to the inbred lines. Grain yield performance of hybrids could be predicted based on midparent values and general combining ability (GCA)-predicted values. In contrast, stability variance of hybrids could be predicted only based on GCA-predicted values. We speculated that negative effects of the used CMS cytoplasm might be the reason for the low performance and yield stability of the hybrids. For this purpose a detailed study on the reasons for the drawback of the currently existing CMS system in triticale is urgently required comprising also the search of potentially alternative hybridization systems.

  16. Dissolution performance of plutonium nitride based fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, E.; Hedberg, M. [Nuclear Chemistry, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 4, Gothenburg, SE41296 (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    Nitride fuels have been regarded as one viable fuel option for Generation IV reactors due to their positive features compared to oxides. To be able to close the fuel cycle and follow the Generation IV concept, nitrides must, however, demonstrate their ability to be reprocessed. This means that the dissolution performance of actinide based nitrides has to be thoroughly investigated and assessed. As the zirconium stabilized nitrides show even better potential as fuel material than does the pure actinide containing nitrides, investigations on the dissolution behavior of both PuN and (Pu,Zr)N has been undertaken. If possible it is desirable to perform the fuel dissolutions using nitric acid. This, as most reprocessing strategies using solvent-solvent extraction are based on a nitride containing aqueous matrix. (Pu,Zr)N/C microspheres were produced using internal gelation. The spheres dissolution performance was investigated using nitric acid with and without additions of HF and Ag(II). In addition PuN fuel pellets were produced from powder and their dissolution performance were also assessed in a nitric acid based setting. It appears that both PuN and (Pu,Zr)N/C fuel material can be completely dissolved in nitric acid of high concentration with the use of catalytic amounts of HF. The amount of HF added strongly affects dissolution kinetics of (Pu, Zr)N and the presence of HF affects the 2 solutes differently, possibly due to inhomogeneity o the initial material. Large additions of Ag(II) can also be used to facilitate the dissolution of (Pu,Zr)N in nitric acid. PuN can be dissolved by pure nitric acid of high concentration at room temperature while (Pu, Zr)N is unaffected under similar conditions. At elevated temperature (reflux), (Pu,Zr)N can, however, also be dissolved by concentrated pure nitric acid.

  17. Mindfulness-based and acceptance-based interventions in sport and performance contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Frank L; Moore, Zella E

    2017-08-01

    Since mindfulness-based and acceptance-based practice models were first conceptualized and applied in sport in an attempt to enhance performance and overall well-being of athletes and performers, these state-of-the-art theoretical and practice models have substantially broadened our knowledge base and have been successfully incorporated into sport and performance practice domains worldwide. Evolving from a sound empirical foundation, mindfulness-based and acceptance-based models in sport psychology have accumulated a strong basic and applied empirical foundation. In the nearly 20 years since their incorporation in the context of sport, empirical findings have demonstrated efficacious outcomes associated with performance and personal well-being, as well as supported their theorized mechanisms of change. Particularly as sport and performance environments increasingly call upon practitioners to provide more comprehensive care to clientele, including a range of care from performance enhancement and maintenance, to general personal well-being, to subclinical and clinical issues, mindfulness-based and acceptance-based practitioners have the tools to offer robust, empirically informed interventions that can enhance skills and quality of life, and/or ameliorate personal struggles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Simple Versus Performance-Based Fall Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar K. Gadkaree BS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the predictive ability of standard falls prediction models based on physical performance assessments with more parsimonious prediction models based on self-reported data. Design: We developed a series of fall prediction models progressing in complexity and compared area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC across models. Setting: National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of Medicare enrollees (age ≥65 at baseline (Round 1: 2011-2012 and 1-year follow-up (Round 2: 2012-2013. Participants: In all, 6,056 community-dwelling individuals participated in Rounds 1 and 2 of NHATS. Measurements: Primary outcomes were 1-year incidence of “ any fall ” and “ recurrent falls .” Prediction models were compared and validated in development and validation sets, respectively. Results: A prediction model that included demographic information, self-reported problems with balance and coordination, and previous fall history was the most parsimonious model that optimized AUC for both any fall (AUC = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.67, 0.71] and recurrent falls (AUC = 0.77, 95% CI = [0.74, 0.79] in the development set. Physical performance testing provided a marginal additional predictive value. Conclusion: A simple clinical prediction model that does not include physical performance testing could facilitate routine, widespread falls risk screening in the ambulatory care setting.

  19. Performance Evaluation of IP Based Multimedia Services in UMTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riri Fitri SARI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our work in the performance evaluation of UMTS network based on simulation. Enhanced UMTS Radio Access Network Extensions for NS-2 (EURANE developed by SEACORN has brought us to the higher phase of UMTS simulation in third generation wireless telecommunication system. Wireless 3G is designed to be able to deliver various kind of multimedia package through an IP network for the purpose of easier interconnection with fixed network with various existing multimedia services. Multimedia services with their bandwidth consumption characteristics are able to be sent through a UMTS network with the existence of High Speed Data Packet Access (HSPDA in Release 5. Quality of Service (QoS is a major concern in multimedia services. This paper shows the performance analysis of a number of multimedia services and their QoS using HSDPA in UMTS. The experiments were based on EURANE extension for NS-2. From the simulation conducted, we found that Unacknowledged Mode (UM in Radio Link Control (RLC will perform better for QoS class number 1 (VoIP and 2 (Video Streaming, while Acknowledged Mode (AM mode are more suitable for QoS class number 3 (web server and 4 (FTP.

  20. Performance Improvements and Congestion Reduction for Routing-based Synthesis for Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windh, Skyler; Phung, Calvin; Grissom, Daniel T.

    2017-01-01

    Routing-based synthesis for digital microfluidic biochips yields faster assay execution times compared to module-based synthesis. We show that routing-based synthesis can lead to deadlocks and livelocks in specific cases, and that dynamically detecting them and adjusting the probabilities...