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Sample records for perform submunitions related

  1. Effect of firing conditions & release height on terminal performance of submunitions and conditions for optimum height of release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Gite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Submunitions should exhibit optimum terminal performance at target end when released from certain pre-determined height. Selection of an optimum height of release of the submunitions depends on the terminal parameters like forward throw, remaining velocity, impact angle and flight time. In this paper, the effects of initial firing conditions and height of release on terminal performance of submunitions discussed in detail. For different height of release, the relation between range and forward throw is also established & validated for a number of firing altitude and rocket configurations.

  2. Trauma-related infections due to cluster munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Youssef; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Fares, Jawad; Bedrosian, Nora; Yared, Nadine

    2013-12-01

    Trauma-related infections remain a concerning and potentially avoidable complication of conflict-related injuries. During the Israeli conflict in South Lebanon, more than four million sub-munitions were dropped over South Lebanese soil. In this study, we will explore the different types of infection caused by sub-munitions and penetrating agents. This prospective study took place from 2006 to 2012 at the Lebanese University within the Faculty of Medical Sciences' departments. This study sample consisted of 350 injured casualties. Patients suffered from blast injuries with fragmentations targeting the head, face, torso, abdomen, pelvis and extremities. Of the 350 causalities studied, 326 (93.1%) were males, and 24 (6.9%) were females. Ages varied between 10 and 70 years, with the average age being 27 years. Of the 350 patients studied, 68 (19.4%) developed infections. Infections varied between pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Candida and fungus and sometimes led to necrosis. Vaccinations, antibiotic therapies and proper wound irrigation must be performed at appropriate emergency units. Excision and complete debridement of necrotic and contaminated tissue should also be performed. The Convention on Cluster Munitions of 2008 should be adhered to, as these weapons indiscriminately and disproportionately harm civilians, thereby violating the well-established international principles governing conflict. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High-density metals and metallic composites for improved fragmentation submunitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, B.G.; Honnell, R.E.; Lederman, G.F. Jr.; Sandstrom, D.J.

    1975-08-01

    The fragmentation of cases (50.8-mm-id) made of tungsten, a tungsten alloy, and depleted uranium (D-38) can be controlled, and velocities greater than 1 mm/μs can be achieved for lethal size fragment weights. Fragmentation was controlled by internal grooves, by internal screens, and by a spheroid-in-weak-matrix scheme. A thin polymer liner was used inside of a grooved tungsten case in one experiment; this system performed exceptionally well. The ease of fabricating cases with D-38 or with the tungsten-alloy spheroid-in-matrix scheme offers an attractive advantage over tungsten and tungsten alloy

  4. Stakeholder relations and financial performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Zhou, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how shareholder performance can be associated with stakeholder relations. As such, we try to find out whether there is an association between financial performance and stakeholder relations with respect to different theoretical notions about the firm. Financial performance is

  5. Computer-Related Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longstreet, Phil; Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee

    2016-01-01

    The existing information system (IS) literature has acknowledged computer self-efficacy (CSE) as an important factor contributing to enhancements in computer-related task performance. However, the empirical results of CSE on performance have not always been consistent, and increasing an individual......'s CSE is often a cumbersome process. Thus, we introduce the theoretical concept of self-prophecy (SP) and examine how this social influence strategy can be used to improve computer-related task performance. Two experiments are conducted to examine the influence of SP on task performance. Results show...... that SP and CSE interact to influence performance. Implications are then discussed in terms of organizations’ ability to increase performance....

  6. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

  7. Performance Related Pay and Labor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  8. Performance Related Pay and Labour Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gielen, Anne; Kerkhofs, Marcel J M; van Ours, Jan C

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labour productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP). We find that PRP increases labour productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  9. Related party transactions and firms financial performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Related party transactions and firms financial performance. ... African Research Review ... financial performance using Secondary data obtained from Nigeria stock ... on Asset, Return on Equity and Earnings per share of manufacturing firms. ... Result showed RPT has no significant effects on ROA and EPS and not used to ...

  10. Relating Performative and Ostensive Management Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    . Findings – The paper illustrates how the process is a balancing act. On the one hand, it requires performative researchers to relate more closely to aspects decisive for ostensive researchers; yet, on the other, they need to preserve the distinctiveness of the performative approach. Originality....../value – This paper exemplifies these issues with reference to management accounting research and contributes by clarifying the methodological implications of moving performative research closer to ostensive research....

  11. Related Party Transactions and Firms Financial Performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Chien and Hsu (2010) found a positive moderating effect of corporate governance on the related transactions-firm performance relationship and deduce that presence of corporate governance could 'transfer' related party transactions 'conflict- of-interest' to be efficient. Past studies on the impact of RPT on financial reporting ...

  12. Relating corporate social investment with financial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kgabo L. Kobo; Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2017-01-01

    Previous researchers have found conflicting results between CSI and firm financial performance. This paper moves this debate further by examining the extent to which corporate social investment (CSI) relates with corporate financial performance (CFP) from a developing country perspective. The main aim of the paper was to determine the relationship between CSI, stock price, sales turnover and return on equity (ROE) amongst the socially responsible investing (SRI) companies in the Johannesburg ...

  13. Business factors related to manufacturing firms' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Vranakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main goal is to understand the way many factors affect the investment decision making process and business performance. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes a new conceptual framework for examining the reasons that manufacturing firms decide to invest on the acquisition of new machinery and equipment in order to improve their infrastructure. It incorporates various factors related to the internal business environment (quality management, investment decisions etc. Findings and Originality/value: A new conceptual framework, establishing the relations between many factors, has been developed, allowing the determinants of adoption of many implications to be discussed and to relate them to the peculiarities of the Greek manufacturing industry. Originality/value: This study presents an overview of the impact of machinery and equipment investment on firm’s performance, giving grasp for further research of the inter-organizational relationships that exist between them. 

  14. Bioremediation performance as related to chemical availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, R.; Olivera, F.; Webster, M.

    1995-01-01

    Two side-by-side field prepared bed land treatment units (PBLTU) were evaluated. One PBLTU (H unit) treated soils containing chemicals from a diesel spill that had occurred about 12 months earlier. The other PBLTU (G unit) treated soils containing crude oil that had been in the soil for many decades. Laboratory slurry treatability studies and indicated that the hydrocarbons in both soils could be bioremediated if adequate nutrients were provided. The PBLTU had nutrients applied periodically, and were operated in a manner consistent with good operational guidelines. PBLTU performance was based on reductions in mobility, toxicity, and chemical concentration. Spatially random soil samples were taken from the two field PBLTU monthly and analyzed for the above parameters as well as nutrients and pH. Periodically, microbial numbers and type in the soil samples also were evaluated. Performance was monitored over an 18 month period. In the H unit, no detectable TPH reductions occurred although petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms existed in the soil and other conditions were appropriate for bioremediation. GC/MS analyses indicated reduction in some specific hydrocarbons. The H unit soils had low chemical mobility as determined by leachability tests (TCLP, SPLP) and had low relative toxicity as determined by Microtox trademark

  15. Engineering Development of the XM261 Multipurpose Submunition Warhead and the XM267 Submunition Training Warhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

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  16. Relative performance of several inexpensive accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John R.; Rogers, John A.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the performance of several low-cost accelerometers for highly cost-driven applications in recording earthquake strong motion. We anticipate applications for such sensors in providing the lifeline and emergency-response communities with an immediate, comprehensive picture of the extent and characteristics of likely damage. We also foresee their use as 'filler' instruments sited between research-grade instruments to provide spatially detailed and near-field records of large earthquakes (on the order of 1000 stations at 600-m intervals in San Fernando Valley, population 1.2 million, for example). The latter applications would provide greatly improved attenuation relationships for building codes and design, the first examples of mainshock information (that is, potentially nonlinear regime) for microzonation, and a suite of records for structural engineers. We also foresee possible applications in monitoring structural inter-story drift during earthquakes, possibly leading to local and remote alarm functions as well as design criteria. This effort appears to be the first of its type at the USGS. It is spurred by rapid advances in sensor technology and the recognition of potential non-classical applications. In this report, we estimate sensor noise spectra, relative transfer functions and cross-axis sensitivity of six inexpensive sensors. We tested three micromachined ('silicon-chip') sensors in addition to classical force-balance and piezoelectric examples. This sample of devices is meant to be representative, not comprehensive. Sensor noise spectra were estimated by recording system output with the sensor mounted on a pneumatically supported 545-kg optical-bench isolation table. This isolation table appears to limit ground motion to below our system noise level. These noise estimates include noise introduced by signal-conditioning circuitry, the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and noise induced in connecting wiring by ambient electromagnetic fields in

  17. The relation between conscientiousness, empowerment and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riëtte Sutherland

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, empowerment and job performance among information technology professionals. An Employee Empowerment Questionnaire (EEQ, a Conscientiousness Scale and a Social Desirability Scale were administered to 101 information technology customer service engineers. Managers completed a Performance Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ for each customer service engineer. The results indicated a significant relationship between conscientiousness and empowerment. A curvilinear relationship was found between empowerment and performance. The practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Performance relations in Capacitive Deionization systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, van B.

    2010-01-01

    Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is a relatively new deionization technology based on the temporary storage of ions on an electrically charged surface. By directing a flow between two oppositely charged surfaces, negatively charged ions will adsorb onto the positively charged surface, and positively

  19. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  20. Performance processes within affect-related performance zones: a multi-modal investigation of golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lei, Harry; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2012-12-01

    Individual affect-related performance zones (IAPZs) method utilizing Kamata et al. (J Sport Exerc Psychol 24:189-208, 2002) probabilistic model of determining the individual zone of optimal functioning was utilized as idiosyncratic affective patterns during golf performance. To do so, three male golfers of a varsity golf team were observed during three rounds of golf competition. The investigation implemented a multi-modal assessment approach in which the probabilistic relationship between affective states and both, performance process and performance outcome, measures were determined. More specifically, introspective (i.e., verbal reports) and objective (heart rate and respiration rate) measures of arousal were incorporated to examine the relationships between arousal states and both, process components (i.e., routine consistency, timing), and outcome scores related to golf performance. Results revealed distinguishable and idiosyncratic IAPZs associated with physiological and introspective measures for each golfer. The associations between the IAPZs and decision-making or swing/stroke execution were strong and unique for each golfer. Results are elaborated using cognitive and affect-related concepts, and applications for practitioners are provided.

  1. Relating FTS Catalyst Properties to Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenping; Ramana Rao Pendyala, Venkat; Gao, Pei; Jermwongratanachai, Thani; Jacobs, Gary; Davis, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    During the reporting period June 23, 2011 to August 31, 2013, CAER researchers carried out research in two areas of fundamental importance to the topic of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS): promoters and stability. The first area was research into possible substitute promoters that might be used to replace the expensive promoters (e.g., Pt, Re, and Ru) that are commonly used. To that end, three separate investigations were carried out. Due to the strong support interaction of ?-Al2O3 with cobalt, metal promoters are commonly added to commercial FTS catalysts to facilitate the reduction of cobalt oxides and thereby boost active surface cobalt metal sites. To date, the metal promoters examined have been those up to and including Group 11. Because two Group 11 promoters (i.e., Ag and Au) were identified to exhibit positive impacts on conversion, selectivity, or both, research was undertaken to explore metals in Groups 12 - 14. The three metals selected for this purpose were Cd, In, and Sn. At a higher loading of 25%Co on alumina, 1% addition of Cd, In, or Sn was found to-on average-facilitate reduction by promoting a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt consisting of larger lesser interacting cobalt clusters and smaller strongly interacting cobalt species. The lesser interacting species were identified in TPR profiles, where a sharp low temperature peak occurred for the reduction of larger, weakly interacting, CoO species. In XANES, the Cd, In, and Sn promoters were found to exist as oxides, whereas typical promoters (e.g., Re, Ru, Pt) were previously determined to exist in an metallic state in atomic coordination with cobalt. The larger cobalt clusters significantly decreased the active site density relative to the unpromoted 25%Co/Al2O3 catalyst. Decreasing the cobalt loading to 15%Co eliminated the large non-interacting species. The TPR peak for reduction of strongly interacting CoO in the Cd promoted catalyst occurred at a measurably lower temperature

  2. The Dilemmas of Adopting Performance Related Pay as a Reward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dilemmas of Adopting Performance Related Pay as a Reward Strategy for ... over automatic pay increase (formal and transparent reward systems linked to ... of reward and compensation, and low level of motivation and performance.

  3. Psychomotor speed is related to perceived performance in rowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine if psychomotor speed is related to perceived performance. It was hypothesized that lower perceived performance was related to longer reaction times. A total of 85 measurements were taken in 26 varsity rowers (mean age 21.3 years, s=1.6) on five

  4. Relative Performance Information, Rank Ordering and Employee Performance: A Research Note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.; Maas, V.S.; van Rinsum, M.

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a laboratory experiment to examine whether the provision of detailed relative performance information (i.e., information about the specific performance levels of peers) affects employee performance. We also investigate how – if at all – explicit ranking of performance levels affects how

  5. Performance-related pay and gender wage differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of performance-related pay (PRP) on gender wage differences using Finnish linked employer-employee panel data. Controlling for unobserved person and firm effects, we find that bonuses increase women's earnings slightly less than men's, but the economic significance of the difference is negligible. Piece rates and reward rates, however, tend to increase gender wage differentials. Thus, the nature of a performance related pay plan is important for gauging the impact of PRP o...

  6. Dimensions in Appraising Fatigue in Relation to Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the relation between fatigue and performance often fail to find a strong and direct link, implying that multiple factors may be involved. A literature search on the fatigue-performance relationship suggests that two different conceptual frameworks are employed concerning the appraisal of

  7. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  8. Analysis of business process maturity and organisational performance relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinowski T. Bartosz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present results of the study on business process maturity in relation to organisational performance. A two-phase methodology, based on literature review and survey was used. The literature is a source of knowledge about business process maturity and organisational performance, whereas the research on process maturity vs organisational performance in Polish Enterprises provides findings based on 84 surveyed companies. The main areas of the research covered: identification and analysis of maturity related variables and identification of organisational performance perspectives and its relation to process maturity. The study shows that there is a significant positive relation between process maturity and organisational performance. Although there are research on such relation available, they are scarce and have some significant limitations in terms of research sample or the scope of maturity or organisational performance covered. This publication is part of a project funded by the National Science Centre awarded by decision number DEC-2011/01/D/HS4/04070.

  9. Simulated astigmatism impairs academic-related performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p  0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures irrespective of the orientation of the astigmatism. These findings have

  10. The Relation between Sustainable Innovation Strategy and Financial Performance Mediated By Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyati Hariyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relationship of sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance through the mediation environmental performance. The hypothesis in this study is sustainable innovation strategy affect the financial performance which is mediated by environmental performance. This study is quantitative research in the explanatory level. The population of this study is all the manufacturer companies in East Java. The data is collected through questionnaire. The unit of analysis is a business unit. The respondent of this study is the manager of a business unit manufacturing company in East Java. The results showed that the environmental performance mediates partially the relation between sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance.

  11. Spatial transformation abilities and their relation to later mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea

    2018-04-10

    Using a longitudinal approach, this study investigated the relational structure of different spatial transformation skills at kindergarten age, and how these spatial skills relate to children's later mathematics performance. Children were tested at three time points, in kindergarten, first grade, and second grade (N = 119). Exploratory factor analyses revealed two subcomponents of spatial transformation skills: one representing egocentric transformations (mental rotation and spatial scaling), and one representing allocentric transformations (e.g., cross-sectioning, perspective taking). Structural equation modeling suggested that egocentric transformation skills showed their strongest relation to the part of the mathematics test tapping arithmetic operations, whereas allocentric transformations were strongly related to Numeric-Logical and Spatial Functions as well as geometry. The present findings point to a tight connection between early mental transformation skills, particularly the ones requiring a high level of spatial flexibility and a strong sense for spatial magnitudes, and children's mathematics performance at the beginning of their school career.

  12. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  13. Subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity in principal-agent relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    . In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...... of the agent) if this does not affect their pay-off....

  14. The Budget-Related Antecedents of Job Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yilmaz Karakoc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate budget related antecedents of job performance of managers. For this purpose, relationships among budgetary participation, budget goal commitment, information sharing, and job performance of managers were examined. The sample consists of managers who are responsible from the budgets of their units in different private enterprises located in Turkey. Survey data was analyzed with confirmatory factor analyses and Structural Equation Modeling. Results indicate that budgetary participation has statistically significant and positive impact on job performance. It also positively affects budget goal commitment and information sharing. Budget goal commitment and information sharing have significant and positive impact on job performance. In addition, budget goal commitment positively affects information sharing of managers. Analyses also revealed that budget goal commitment and information sharing have partial mediation effect on the relationship between budgetary participation and job performance.

  15. The Impact of Servitization Strategy on Relational Capital and Relational Performance: Evidences from China's Industrial Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hua; ZHANG Song-bo

    2014-01-01

    By identifying the characteristics of services management and the levels of specialty resources,the servitization strategy in the service supply chain management can be defined as the following three types,i.e.the business process oriented services,the technique application oriented services and the system integrated or packaged services.At the same time,it is found based on an empirical study of the data of China's enterprises that these strategies have different impact on relational capital and relational performance of the customers with different types of size.For large-scale enterprises,the business process oriented services and the technique application oriented services are significant factors impacting their relational capital and relational performance,while for SMEs,their relational capital and relational performance are impacted more by the technique application oriented services and the system integrated and packaged services.

  16. The Effect of Relational Constructs on Relationship Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); J.C. Hoekstra (Janny)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the effect of relational constructs, such as satisfaction, trust and commitment on relationship performance (that is, positive word-of-mouth communication and the margin provided by each customer) of customers of an insurance company. A central issue concerns the effect of

  17. The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Boschloo, A., Ouwehand, C., Dekker, S., Lee, N., De Groot, R., Krabbendam, L., & Jolles, J. (2012). The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in adolescents. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6(2), 81-88. doi:10.1111/j.1751-228x.2012.01138.x

  18. Dynamic Incentive Effects of Relative Performance Pay: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); J.A. Non (Arjan); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe conduct a field experiment among 189 stores of a retail chain to study dynamic incentive effects of relative performance pay. Employees in the randomly selected treatment stores could win a bonus by outperforming three comparable stores from the control group over the course of four

  19. Age-related decrements in cycling and running performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine ... This study examined age-related decrements in athletic performance during running and cycling activities. ... These findings establish a trend that there is 'accelerated' aging during running which can perhaps be attributed to the increased weight-bearing stress on the muscles ...

  20. 34 CFR 75.732 - Records related to performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records related to performance. 75.732 Section 75.732 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Are the Administrative...) Determine progress in accomplishing project objectives; and (2) Revise those objectives, if necessary...

  1. Performance Evaluation of Java Based Object Relational Mapping Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Mahmood Bhatti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Object persistency is the hot issue in the form of ORM (Object Relational Mapping tools in industry as developers use these tools during software development. This paper presents the performance evaluation of Java based ORM tools. For this purpose, Hibernate, Ebean and TopLinkhave been selected as the ORM tools which are popular and open source. Their performance has been measured from execution point of view. The results show that ORM tools are the good option for the developers considering the system throughput in shorter setbacks and they can be used efficiently and effectively for performing mapping of the objects into the relational dominated world of database, thus creating a hope for a better and well dominated future of this technology.

  2. The age-related performance decline in ultraendurance mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Samuel; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    The age-related changes in ultraendurance performance have been previously examined for running and triathlon but not mountain biking. The aims of this study were (i) to describe the performance trends and (ii) to analyze the age-related performance decline in ultraendurance mountain biking in a 120-km ultraendurance mountain bike race the "Swiss Bike Masters" from 1995 to 2009 in 9,325 male athletes. The mean (±SD) race time decreased from 590 ± 80 min to 529 ± 88 min for overall finishers and from 415 ± 8 min to 359 ± 16 min for the top 10 finishers, respectively. The mean (±SD) age of all finishers significantly (P Bike Masters" appears to start earlier compared with other ultraendurance sports.

  3. Effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauts Amit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students′ performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. Results: The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students′ performance.

  4. Relations between mental health team characteristics and work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.

  5. Skill-related performance in soccer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Rodrigo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and organize systematically the available literature on skill-related performance in young and adult male soccer players in an attempt to identify the most common topics, ascertain the weaknesses, and elucidate the main contributions of the scientific papers on this issue. A systematic review of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI Web of Knowledge database was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines. The keywords ‘football’ and ‘soccer’ were used, each associated with the following terms: ‘technical analysis,’ ‘technical performance,’ ‘technical activity,’ ‘technical skill,’ ‘technical demands,’ ‘technical profiles,’ ‘technical characteristics,’ ‘technical actions,’ ‘technical scores,’ ‘technical ability,’ ‘motor skills,’ and ‘skill acquisition’. From the 2830 papers, only 60 were reviewed, of which 75% had been published in years 2011-2015 and 53.3% concerned professional or seniors players (above the U-20 category. Out of the 41 papers that analysed the skill-related performance in the match, 48.8% evaluated the performance in small-sided and conditioned games. Among the 27 papers that used validated instruments, 88.9% assessed technical actions outside the match context (e.g. dribbling, shooting tests. Future research should pay attention to the definition and classification of the skill-related variables under investigation in match context and propose tests for measured skill-related performance in soccer, considering that the representativeness task design allies the players’ possibilities of action to the situation of the match.

  6. Exploiting graph kernels for high performance biomedical relation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyam, Nagesh C; Verspoor, Karin; Cohn, Trevor; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2018-01-30

    Relation extraction from biomedical publications is an important task in the area of semantic mining of text. Kernel methods for supervised relation extraction are often preferred over manual feature engineering methods, when classifying highly ordered structures such as trees and graphs obtained from syntactic parsing of a sentence. Tree kernels such as the Subset Tree Kernel and Partial Tree Kernel have been shown to be effective for classifying constituency parse trees and basic dependency parse graphs of a sentence. Graph kernels such as the All Path Graph kernel (APG) and Approximate Subgraph Matching (ASM) kernel have been shown to be suitable for classifying general graphs with cycles, such as the enhanced dependency parse graph of a sentence. In this work, we present a high performance Chemical-Induced Disease (CID) relation extraction system. We present a comparative study of kernel methods for the CID task and also extend our study to the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) extraction task, an important biomedical relation extraction task. We discuss novel modifications to the ASM kernel to boost its performance and a method to apply graph kernels for extracting relations expressed in multiple sentences. Our system for CID relation extraction attains an F-score of 60%, without using external knowledge sources or task specific heuristic or rules. In comparison, the state of the art Chemical-Disease Relation Extraction system achieves an F-score of 56% using an ensemble of multiple machine learning methods, which is then boosted to 61% with a rule based system employing task specific post processing rules. For the CID task, graph kernels outperform tree kernels substantially, and the best performance is obtained with APG kernel that attains an F-score of 60%, followed by the ASM kernel at 57%. The performance difference between the ASM and APG kernels for CID sentence level relation extraction is not significant. In our evaluation of ASM for the PPI task, ASM

  7. Occupational Congruence and Personal Task-Related Attributes: How Do They Relate to Work Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziner, Aharon; Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal, Hila

    2002-01-01

    Data from 359 military officers (measures of personality, ability, and congruence) and supervisor and peer performance ratings were analyzed. Personality and person-environment fit were related to performance. Extroverts and those whose interests were congruent with their work environment tended to receive higher ratings. (Contains 41 references.)…

  8. [Performance of Slovak hospitals as related to Porter's generic strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacka, S; Bacharova, L; Rusnakova, V; Wagner, R

    2001-01-01

    Porter's generic strategies characterize organizations in terms of their competitiveness, and are related to the performance of the organization. The aim of this study was to analyze the Porter's generic strategies and their effect on performance in the context of the Slovak hospital industry. Acute care hospitals with more than 30 beds were included into the study. National institutes providing specialized service were excluded from the study. Strategy and performance were evaluated on the basis of self-reported questionnaires, completed by chief administrators of hospitals (total 76 completed questionnaires were obtained, out of 81 distributed, i.e. 94% response rate). The cluster analysis was used for the identification of strategic orientation. Performance differences across strategic groups were tested using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The hierarchical cluster analysis uncovered a four-group taxonomy of hospitals: the group "Focused Cost Leadership" included 33% of hospitals, the group "Stuck-in-the middle" 49%, the group "Wait and See" 13% and the group "Cost leadership" 5%. Significant differences in performance were related to the Porter's pure, or hybrid strategies, respectively. In terms of industry evolution, the Slovak hospital industry could be characterized as fragmented, having a large number of small and medium size mainly state owned hospitals, with absence of market leaders, and with high exit barriers (mainly social and political) that hold back consolidation. (Tab. 1, Ref. 35.).

  9. Research of psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the working tasks of an operator being taken into full consideration in this paper, on the one hand the table of measuring psychological characteristics is designed through the selection of special dimensions; on the other hand the table of performance appraisal is drafted through the choice of suitable standards of an operator. The paper analyzes the results of two aspects, sets relevant nuclear power plant operators as the research objective, and obtains the psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators. The research can be as important and applied reference for the selection, evaluation and use of operators

  10. Natural Composites: Cellulose Fibres and the related Performance of Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Biobased materials are becoming of increasing interest as potential structural materials for the future. A useful concept in this context is the fibre reinforcement of materials by stiff and strong fibres. The biobased resources can contribute with cellulose fibres and biopolymers. This offers th...... in stiffness, on the packing ability of cellulose fibres and the related maximum fibre volume fraction in composites, on the moisture sorption of cellulose fibres and the related mass increase and (large) hygral strains induced, and on the mechanical performance of composites....

  11. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-José Navarro

    Full Text Available The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE. This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES, and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders.The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5, in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest.The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance.The RAE remains, even

  12. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R

    2015-01-01

    The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance. The RAE remains, even with residual

  13. Dieting and food cue-related working memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Meule

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive functioning (e.g., working memory is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n-back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.

  14. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n -back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.

  15. Measuring the relative performance of stock market using TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, investors used some basic financial ratios to measure the relative performance of various active industries based on two-digit ISIC classification. However, direct implementation of basic financial figures may not be practical in today's business environment since investors face with different criteria. The proposed model of this paper uses Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS to compare 37 various industries based on different financial figures. We gather the necessary data over the period of 2009-2010 from Tehran Stock Exchange and investigate the data in two stages. In the first stage, we perform fundamental analysis to select the most appropriate firms and the in the second stage, we use TOPSIS to rank selected firms based on different criteria. The results of the study confirm that information and communication technology, which is one of the biggest firms in this exchange is considered as the best option (relative ranking 0.88 in two years followed by some Cement industry (with relative ranking of 0.26 in 2009 and 0.19 in 2010 and oil refinery units (with relative ranking of 0.23 in 2009 and 0.19 in 2010. The figure also shows that other firms maintain low ratios varied from 0.23 to 0.01. The lowest industry ranking belongs to marine industry.

  16. Music-related reward responses predict episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-12-01

    Music represents a special type of reward involving the recruitment of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. According to recent theories on episodic memory formation, as dopamine strengthens the synaptic potentiation produced by learning, stimuli triggering dopamine release could result in long-term memory improvements. Here, we behaviourally test whether music-related reward responses could modulate episodic memory performance. Thirty participants rated (in terms of arousal, familiarity, emotional valence, and reward) and encoded unfamiliar classical music excerpts. Twenty-four hours later, their episodic memory was tested (old/new recognition and remember/know paradigm). Results revealed an influence of music-related reward responses on memory: excerpts rated as more rewarding were significantly better recognized and remembered. Furthermore, inter-individual differences in the ability to experience musical reward, measured through the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire, positively predicted memory performance. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the relationship between music, reward and memory, showing for the first time that music-driven reward responses are directly implicated in higher cognitive functions and can account for individual differences in memory performance.

  17. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances ...

  18. The effect of performance related pay in employment services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofie Johansen, Ann; Holm, Anders; Rosdahl, Anders

    This paper investigates the effects of performance-related pay (PRP) in Danish local employment administration on unemployed social clients’ employment outcomes. PRP implies here that employees in the employment administration are rewarded each time a social client gets a job. There are different...... schemes involved in the programme – schemes with collective payoffs and schemes with private payoffs and schemes with monetary payoffs and non-monetary payoffs, such as training activities. The main conclusion is that PRP seems to promote employment chances of social clients. Especially it seems that PRP...

  19. Aphysiologic performance on dynamic posturography in work-related patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrosa, F; Durà, M J; Menacho, J; González-Sabaté, L; Cordón, A; Hernández, A; García-Ibáñez, L

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that malingering should be suspected in patients suffering from dizziness or imbalance and who had a potential gain associated with insurance and worker's compensation claims. This study aimed to assess and compare the prevalence of aphysiologic performance on computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) in patients with the potential for secondary gain using a retrospective review of two groups of patients: work-related patients referred for dizziness and/or imbalance (Group 1) were compared against a group of patients with complaints of dizziness or imbalance, who had no history of work-related injury, or litigation procedures (Group 2). CDP and videonystagmography (VNG) were carried out in all patients. The Sensory Organization Test summaries were scored as normal, aphysiologic, or vestibular using the scoring method published by Cevette et al. in Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 112:676-688 (1995). 24 out of 88 (27%) patients had aphysiologic CDP in Group 1 and 9 out of 51 (18%) in Group 2 but these differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Definite signs of vestibular dysfunction were found in 12 out of 24 (50%) of patients with aphysiologic performance in Group 1 although the presence of VNG abnormalities was significantly higher (p = 0.005) in Group 2. The hypothesis that the occupational group could show a significantly higher rate of aphysiologic results than a control group is not confirmed. Furthermore, VNG abnormalities were found in 50% of the work-related cases with non organic sway patterns. These results suggest that patient's complaints should be considered genuine in work-related cases and due caution exercised when evaluating aphysiologic CDP patterns.

  20. Factors related to the performance of Specialized Dental Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Christiane de Azevedo Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC have the mission to expand access to public medium complexity dental care and support the primary health care actions at this level of complexity. However, it is necessary to ensure the quality of services and to evaluate such services continuously to identify weaknesses and strengths that support the processes of leadership/management. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of studies on the assessment of oral health in specialized care that may indicate which factors should be investigated. Therefore, this integrated literature review sought to explore the plethora of publications on the evaluation of SDCC in the LILACS and MEDLINE data bases in October 2013 to identify factors possibly related to the performance of such health services. Thus, 13 references were included in this review pointing to forms of organization and management of work processes related to the creation of healthcare networks (operation of regulation centers and setting up of health consortiums. They include the contextual characteristics of the places where SDCCs are located (population size, Family Health Strategy coverage, Municipal Human Development Index, governance, governing capacity were factors that influenced the SDCCs performance.

  1. Strategic communication related to academic performance: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Chen, Lulu; He, Luwei; Heyman, Gail D

    2017-09-01

    We examined a range of forms of strategic communication relevant to academic performance among 151 seventh- and eleventh-grade adolescents in China. Participants were asked to rate the frequency of their engagement of strategic communication and to evaluate the possible motives for each strategy. The most commonly adopted strategy was to give a vague response about one's own performance, and the predominant motives for strategic communication were the desires to outcompete others, to be prosocial, and to be modest. Males were more likely than females to focus on gaining social approval, and eleventh graders were more likely than seventh graders to focus on being prosocial and modest when engaging in strategic communication. These findings provide insight into the development of strategic communication beyond Western culture. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Adolescents in the West often hide their effort to appear more competent or to gain social acceptance. Little is known about other communication strategies related to academic performance. Little is known about the development of these strategies in non-Western samples. What does this study add? We show that in China, as in Western cultures, children often engage in strategic communication. We demonstrate links between different forms of strategic communication and specific motives. We demonstrate that strategic communication can be motivated by outcompeting others, by being prosocial, and by being modest. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Priming performance-related concerns induces task-related mind-wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordano, Megan L; Touron, Dayna R

    2017-10-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that priming of performance-related concerns would (1) increase the frequency of task-related mind-wandering (i.e., task-related interference; TRI) and (2) decrease task performance. In each experiment, sixty female participants completed an operation span task (OSPAN) containing thought content probes. The task was framed as a math task for those in a condition primed for math-related stereotype threat and as a memory task for those in a control condition. In both studies, women whose performance-related concerns were primed via stereotype threat reported more TRI than women in the control. The second experiment used a more challenging OSPAN task and stereotype primed women also had lower math accuracy than controls. These results support the "control failures×current concerns" framework of mind-wandering, which posits that the degree to which the environmental context triggers personal concerns influences both mind-wandering frequency and content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG and Hospital Business Performance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szynkiewicz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present the possibility of using Diagnosis- Related Groups (DRG in the hospital management process and to analyse the need for business performance management on the part of hospital management staff. The following research methods were used: literature analysis, case studies, and poll analysis. It is not possible to increase the effectiveness of operation of healthcare entities without increasing the importance of IT systems and using DRG more effectively in the management process. Training users in IT and the use of DRGs is important to achieving hospital effectiveness. The increased importance of analyses and planning in a hospital should be reflected in the organisational structure of service providers. Hospital controllers should have a similar role to those present in most companies in other industries.

  4. Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multistudy investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Lievens, Filip; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Sinar, Evan F; Campion, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that how candidates react to selection procedures can affect their test performance and their attitudes toward the hiring organization (e.g., recommending the firm to others). However, very few studies of candidate reactions have examined one of the outcomes organizations care most about: job performance. We attempt to address this gap by developing and testing a conceptual framework that delineates whether and how candidate reactions might influence job performance. We accomplish this objective using data from 4 studies (total N = 6,480), 6 selection procedures (personality tests, job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, work samples, situational judgment tests, and a selection inventory), 5 key candidate reactions (anxiety, motivation, belief in tests, self-efficacy, and procedural justice), 2 contexts (industry and education), 3 continents (North America, South America, and Europe), 2 study designs (predictive and concurrent), and 4 occupational areas (medical, sales, customer service, and technological). Consistent with previous research, candidate reactions were related to test scores, and test scores were related to job performance. Further, there was some evidence that reactions affected performance indirectly through their influence on test scores. Finally, in no cases did candidate reactions affect the prediction of job performance by increasing or decreasing the criterion-related validity of test scores. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Some aspects related to the high performance in gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe; Mihaiu, Ramona; Nistor, Viorica

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma spectroscopy is the science (or art) of identification and/or quantification of radionuclides through gamma-ray energy spectrum analysis. It is a recognized technique, well illustrated by the following examples: environmental radioactivity monitoring, health physics personnel monitoring, reactor corrosion monitoring, nuclear materials safeguards and homeland security, as well as nuclear forensics, materials testing, nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceuticals, and industrial process monitoring. Within the Reliability and Testing Laboratory of INR Pitesti there is now available such a detector of high performance that includes all aspects related to cooling, signal processing (with a high resolution) and the dedicated software applications. At the present time, taking into account the 'nuclear renaissance' the new experimental testing laboratories require complete set-up rather than laboratories having a mixture of the old equipment. The paper presents the mechanically cooled HPGe spectrometers with an undergoing rapid evolution, which eliminate traditional intensive liquid nitrogen management. Also, there are described the digital signal processing virtually by eliminating system drift, and, at the same time, requiring recalibrations much less frequently. Another important aspect presented is related to the software applications, which cover a broad spectrum of nuclear measurement techniques. (authors)

  6. Basic considerations for the preparation of performance testing materials as related to performance evaluation acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, D.E.; Morton, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of performance testing (PT) materials for environmental and radiobioassay applications involves the use of natural matrix materials containing the analyte of interest, the addition (spiking) of the analyte to a desired matrix (followed by blending for certain matrices) or a combination of the two. The distribution of the sample analyte concentration in a batch of PT samples will reflect the degree of heterogeneity of the analyte in the PT material and/or the reproducibility of the sample preparation process. Commercial and government implemented radioanalytical performance evaluation programs have a variety of acceptable performance criteria. The performance criteria should take into consideration many parameters related to the preparation of the PT materials including the within and between sample analyte heterogeneity, the accuracy of the quantification of an analyte in the PT material and to what 'known' value will a laboratory's result be compared. How sample preparation parameters affect the successful participation in performance evaluation (PE) programs having an acceptance criteria established as a percent difference from a 'known' value or in PE programs using other acceptance criteria, such as the guidance provided in ANSI N42.22 and N13.30 is discussed. (author)

  7. Gaming is related to enhanced working memory performance and task-related cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Carlson, S; Vuontela, V; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2017-01-15

    Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals. We studied the relationship between self-reported daily gaming activity, working memory (n-back) task performance and related brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that the extent of daily gaming activity was related to enhancements in both performance accuracy and speed during the most demanding (2-back) level of the working memory task. This improved working memory performance was accompanied by enhanced recruitment of a fronto-parietal cortical network, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during the less demanding (1-back) level of the task, gaming was associated with decreased activity in the same cortical regions. Our results suggest that a greater degree of daily gaming experience is associated with better working memory functioning and task difficulty-dependent modulation in fronto-parietal brain activity already in adolescence and even when non-expert gamers are studied. The direction of causality within this association cannot be inferred with certainty due to the correlational nature of the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep-related Issues for Recovery and Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Venter, Ranel; Halson, Shona L

    2018-04-13

    The body of research that reports the relevance of sleep in high-performance sports is growing steadily. While the identification of sleep cycles and diagnosis of sleep disorders is limited to lab-based assessment via polysomnography, the development of activity-based devices estimating sleep patterns provides greater insight into the sleep behaviour of athletes in ecological settings. Overall, small sleep quantity and/or poor quality appears to exist in many athletic populations, though this may be related to training and competition context. Typical sleep-affecting factors are the scheduling of training sessions and competitions as well as impaired sleep-onset as a result of increased arousal prior to competition or due to the use of electronic devices before bedtime. Further challenges are travel demands which may be accompanied by jet-lag symptoms and disruption of sleep habits. Promotion of sleep may be approached via behavioural strategies, such as sleep hygiene, extending night-time sleep or daytime napping. Pharmacological interventions should be limited to clinically-induced treatments as evidence among healthy and athletic populations is lacking. To optimise and manage sleep in athletes, it is recommended to implement routine sleep monitoring on an individual basis.

  9. The Work Performed within Special Legal Labour Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Răzvan Popescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Prior Work Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. Results An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contr act so different from other contracts. Value We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by this types of labour performed in different legal labour relations.

  10. Performance indicators related to women’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimi Pereira Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine performance indicators related to women’s health. Data were collected from 457 women living in the State of Parana, Brazil, classified according to age: 20-29 years (N=158, 30-39 years (N=171 and 40-49 years (N=128. The following variables were analyzed: height (m, body weight (kg, BMI, waist-hip ratio, abdominal strength (repetitions, flexibility (cm, and right and left hand grip strength (kgf. Descriptive statistics, one-factor ANOVA and the Tukey post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05. The results showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all categories of the variables analyzed, except for right hand grip strength (good and excellent at age 30-39 years and left hand grip strength at age 40-49 years. There was a higher incidence of inadequate BMI and waist-hip ratio and low abdominal strength among women aged 40-49 years. Low flexibility was more frequent in the 20-29 year group. The differences in right and left hand grip strength between age groups were small.

  11. Basketball Performance Is Related to Maturity and Relative Age in Elite Adolescent Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-05-01

    During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.

  12. Product-related Environmental Performance Indicators: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management approach employed in the product development process (PDP) which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during products’ life-cycle, improving its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental performance...

  13. Job anxiety, work-related psychological illness and workplace performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Melanie; Latreille, Paul L.; Sloane, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses matched employee-employer data from the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS) 2004 to examine the determinants of employee job anxiety and work-related psychological illness. Job anxiety is found to be strongly related to the demands of the job as measured by factors such as occupation, education and hours of work. Average levels of employee job anxiety, in turn, are positively associated with work-related psychological illness among the workforce as reported by...

  14. Modeling and Performing Relational Theories in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Elizabeth A.; West, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    Although directly related to students' everyday lives, the abstract and even intimidating nature of relational theories often bars students from recognizing the immediate relevance to their relationships. The theories of symbolic interactionism, social exchange, relational dialectics, social penetration, and uncertainty reduction offer students…

  15. Age-related changes in visual temporal order judgment performance: Relation to sensory and cognitive capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Thomas; Craig, James; Clark, Chris; Humes, Larry

    2010-08-06

    Five measures of temporal order judgments were obtained from 261 participants, including 146 elder, 44 middle aged, and 71 young participants. Strong age group differences were observed in all five measures, although the group differences were reduced when letter discriminability was matched for all participants. Significant relations were found between these measures of temporal processing and several cognitive and sensory assays, and structural equation modeling revealed the degree to which temporal order processing can be viewed as a latent factor that depends in part on contributions from sensory and cognitive capacities. The best-fitting model involved two different latent factors representing temporal order processing at same and different locations, and the sensory and cognitive factors were more successful predicting performance in the different location factor than the same-location factor. Processing speed, even measured using high-contrast symbols on a paper-and-pencil test, was a surprisingly strong predictor of variability in both latent factors. However, low-level sensory measures also made significant contributions to the latent factors. The results demonstrate the degree to which temporal order processing relates to other perceptual and cognitive capacities, and address the question of whether age-related declines in these capacities share a common cause. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-Related Intraindividual Performance Variability with Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne Bonneau; Odell, Katharine H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluctuations in cognitive task performance in older individuals have been reported. To examine intraindividual variability as a function of practice, 34 younger and 34 older female participants, aged 20-30 years and 70-82 years, respectively, performed a reading span task 16 times over four sessions. Each individual's recall accuracy was analyzed…

  17. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  18. Is Transfer of Training Related to Firm Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Alan M.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their…

  19. Positivity in healthcare: relation of optimism to performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthans, Kyle W; Lebsack, Sandra A; Lebsack, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the linkage between nurses' levels of optimism and performance outcomes. The study sample consisted of 78 nurses in all areas of a large healthcare facility (hospital) in the Midwestern United States. The participants completed surveys to determine their current state of optimism. Supervisory performance appraisal data were gathered in order to measure performance outcomes. Spearman correlations and a one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. The results indicated a highly significant positive relationship between the nurses' measured state of optimism and their supervisors' ratings of their commitment to the mission of the hospital, a measure of contribution to increasing customer satisfaction, and an overall measure of work performance. This was an exploratory study. Larger sample sizes and longitudinal data would be beneficial because it is probable that state optimism levels will vary and that it might be more accurate to measure state optimism at several points over time in order to better predict performance outcomes. Finally, the study design does not imply causation. Suggestions for effectively developing and managing nurses' optimism to positively impact their performance are provided. To date, there has been very little empirical evidence assessing the impact that positive psychological capacities such as optimism of key healthcare professionals may have on performance. This paper was designed to help begin to fill this void by examining the relationship between nurses' self-reported optimism and their supervisors' evaluations of their performance.

  20. Performing political partnership - A study of EU-Liberia relations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Sigrid Bjerre

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the concept of political partnership as a way of describing relations between the European Union and the ACP countries (Africa, Carribean and Pacific). The concept reflects two trends in current development discourse. On the one hand, the renaming of donor-recipient relations as 'partnerships', implying a more equal status between donors and recipients. On the other hand, the bringing in of political principles into donor-recipient relations, based on the philosophy t...

  1. The Relation of Parenting Style to Adolescent School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, Sanford M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Uses a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Authoritarian and permissive parenting were negatively associated with grades; authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. (PCB)

  2. Toward a unified representation system of performance-related data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hailemariam, Ebenezer; Glueck, Michael; Attar, Ramtin; Tessier, Alex; McCrae, James; Khan, Azam [Autodesk Research, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)], email: first.last@autodesk.com

    2010-07-01

    When performing a building performance analysis many interacting factors have to be taken into account. Moreover, buildings have a changing behavior due to the ever changing occupants and context. To assess a building's performance, then, an important amount of data has to be studied and the aim of this paper is to present the advances made in the creation of a unified framework where all data can be visualized in a high resolution 3D model. Existing visualization methods are combined into a single framework and both simulated and measured building performance data are used. The model has been tested on the author's office building in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The 3D model under development herein will help users make better use of their massive datasets and understand and analyze a building through its entire life whereas traditional 2D visualization methods make it difficult to interpret all data.

  3. Developing a Behavioral Paradigm for the Performance of Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Melvin L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides and supports a definition of public relations as behavior with a mode explaining the difficulty of achieving each behavior and the cost to organizations when the behavior is not achieved. Draws from the literature on ethics, rhetorical theory, public relations management, case studies, and from observation and experience to support this…

  4. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with succe...

  5. Relative performance of academic departments using DEA with sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Preeti; Yadav, Shiv Prasad; Singh, S P

    2009-05-01

    The process of liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has brought new opportunities and challenges in all areas of human endeavor including education. Educational institutions have to adopt new strategies to make best use of the opportunities and counter the challenges. One of these challenges is how to assess the performance of academic programs based on multiple criteria. Keeping this in view, this paper attempts to evaluate the performance efficiencies of 19 academic departments of IIT Roorkee (India) through data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique. The technique has been used to assess the performance of academic institutions in a number of countries like USA, UK, Australia, etc. But we are using it first time in Indian context to the best of our knowledge. Applying DEA models, we calculate technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies and identify the reference sets for inefficient departments. Input and output projections are also suggested for inefficient departments to reach the frontier. Overall performance, research performance and teaching performance are assessed separately using sensitivity analysis.

  6. Relation between Belief and Performance in Perceptual Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugowitsch, Jan; Moreno-Bote, Rubén; Pouget, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In an uncertain and ambiguous world, effective decision making requires that subjects form and maintain a belief about the correctness of their choices, a process called meta-cognition. Prediction of future outcomes and self-monitoring are only effective if belief closely matches behavioral performance. Equality between belief and performance is also critical for experimentalists to gain insight into the subjects' belief by simply measuring their performance. Assuming that the decision maker holds the correct model of the world, one might indeed expect that belief and performance should go hand in hand. Unfortunately, we show here that this is rarely the case when performance is defined as the percentage of correct responses for a fixed stimulus, a standard definition in psychophysics. In this case, belief equals performance only for a very narrow family of tasks, whereas in others they will only be very weakly correlated. As we will see it is possible to restore this equality in specific circumstances but this remedy is only effective for a decision-maker, not for an experimenter. We furthermore show that belief and performance do not match when conditioned on task difficulty – as is common practice when plotting the psychometric curve – highlighting common pitfalls in previous neuroscience work. Finally, we demonstrate that miscalibration and the hard-easy effect observed in humans' and other animals' certainty judgments could be explained by a mismatch between the experimenter's and decision maker's expected distribution of task difficulties. These results have important implications for experimental design and are of relevance for theories that aim to unravel the nature of meta-cognition. PMID:24816801

  7. Relation between belief and performance in perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugowitsch, Jan; Moreno-Bote, Rubén; Pouget, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In an uncertain and ambiguous world, effective decision making requires that subjects form and maintain a belief about the correctness of their choices, a process called meta-cognition. Prediction of future outcomes and self-monitoring are only effective if belief closely matches behavioral performance. Equality between belief and performance is also critical for experimentalists to gain insight into the subjects' belief by simply measuring their performance. Assuming that the decision maker holds the correct model of the world, one might indeed expect that belief and performance should go hand in hand. Unfortunately, we show here that this is rarely the case when performance is defined as the percentage of correct responses for a fixed stimulus, a standard definition in psychophysics. In this case, belief equals performance only for a very narrow family of tasks, whereas in others they will only be very weakly correlated. As we will see it is possible to restore this equality in specific circumstances but this remedy is only effective for a decision-maker, not for an experimenter. We furthermore show that belief and performance do not match when conditioned on task difficulty--as is common practice when plotting the psychometric curve--highlighting common pitfalls in previous neuroscience work. Finally, we demonstrate that miscalibration and the hard-easy effect observed in humans' and other animals' certainty judgments could be explained by a mismatch between the experimenter's and decision maker's expected distribution of task difficulties. These results have important implications for experimental design and are of relevance for theories that aim to unravel the nature of meta-cognition.

  8. Determinants of International Outsourcing and Performance: A Relational Exchange Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl E. Dresden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prescriptive discussions regarding international outsourcing abound, but there are few previously proposed models of the antecedents leading to such sourcing. This empirical study utilizes the relational exchange framework proposed by Dwyer, Schurr and Oh (1987 and builds a conceptual model of the firm's use of international outsourcing within the context of relational exchange. The model concentrates on the aspects of relational exchange that are crucial antecedents to successful international outsourcing and empirically demonstrates how both economic and social factors have their influence. The resulting model demonstrates how cooperation, rather than competition, leads to successful international outsourcing.

  9. Does student performance on preclinical OSCEs relate to clerkship grades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Chima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs have been used to assess the clinical competence and interpersonal skills of healthcare professional students for decades. However, the relationship between preclinical (second year or M2 OSCE grades and clerkship performance had never been evaluated, until it was explored to provide information to educators at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC. In addition, the relationship between M2 OSCE communication scores (which is a portion of the total score and third-year (M3 Internal Medicine (IM clerkship OSCE scores was also explored. Lastly, conflicting evidence exists about the relationship between the amount of previous clinical experience and OSCE performance. Therefore, the relationship between M3 IM clerkship OSCE scores and the timing of the clerkship in the academic year was explored. Methods: Data from UNMC M2 OSCEs and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs were obtained for graduates of the 2013 and 2014 classes. Specifically, the following data points were collected: M2 fall OSCE total, M2 fall OSCE communication; M2 spring OSCE total, M2 spring OSCE communication; and M3 IM clerkship OSCE total percentages. Data were organized by class, M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance, and timing of the clerkship. Microsoft Excel and SPSS were used for data organization and analysis. Results: Of the 245 records, 229 (93.5% had data points for all metrics of interest. Significant differences between the classes of 2013 and 2014 existed for average M2 spring total, M2 spring communication, and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs. Retrospectively, there were no differences in M2 OSCE performances based on how students scored on the M3 IM clerkship OSCE. M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance improved for those students who completed the clerkship last in the academic year. Conclusions: There were inconsistencies in OSCE performances between the classes of 2013 and 2014, but more information is needed to determine if

  10. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  11. Does student performance on preclinical OSCEs relate to clerkship grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Margot; Dallaghan, Gary Beck

    2016-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) have been used to assess the clinical competence and interpersonal skills of healthcare professional students for decades. However, the relationship between preclinical (second year or M2) OSCE grades and clerkship performance had never been evaluated, until it was explored to provide information to educators at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC). In addition, the relationship between M2 OSCE communication scores (which is a portion of the total score) and third-year (M3) Internal Medicine (IM) clerkship OSCE scores was also explored. Lastly, conflicting evidence exists about the relationship between the amount of previous clinical experience and OSCE performance. Therefore, the relationship between M3 IM clerkship OSCE scores and the timing of the clerkship in the academic year was explored. Data from UNMC M2 OSCEs and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs were obtained for graduates of the 2013 and 2014 classes. Specifically, the following data points were collected: M2 fall OSCE total, M2 fall OSCE communication; M2 spring OSCE total, M2 spring OSCE communication; and M3 IM clerkship OSCE total percentages. Data were organized by class, M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance, and timing of the clerkship. Microsoft Excel and SPSS were used for data organization and analysis. Of the 245 records, 229 (93.5%) had data points for all metrics of interest. Significant differences between the classes of 2013 and 2014 existed for average M2 spring total, M2 spring communication, and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs. Retrospectively, there were no differences in M2 OSCE performances based on how students scored on the M3 IM clerkship OSCE. M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance improved for those students who completed the clerkship last in the academic year. There were inconsistencies in OSCE performances between the classes of 2013 and 2014, but more information is needed to determine if this is because of testing variability or heterogeneity

  12. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    This dissertation presents what is believed to be the first empirical study that measures the effect of increasing access to modern household energy sources upon advancing gender equality within developing countries. As a powerful and fundamental public infrastructural socio-economic building block, improved access to modern energy in developing countries delivers the necessary economic ingredient of time as a major component of household production and consumption and captures the interdependence between market and household economies. Thus, because it has been empirically proven that men and women differ in their utilization of household energy with women spending more time engaged in non-market household labor than men, improving access to modern household energy in developing countries, especially in rural areas, theoretically would disproportionately affect women's lives. Essentially, the element of "time" not only extends the day for women to use towards more economically and educationally productive activities, but also lessens the burden of domestic chores from women with technological advancements in more time-efficient household appliances and cleaner modern energy sources. This dissertation introduces gender differentiation in a model in the form of a gender relative status composite measure comparing socio-economic achievements in secondary education, life expectancy, and labor force participation rates by varying degree of demographic transition, thereby, measuring the effect of improved access to modern household energy upon overall gender equality. Fixed effects panel regressions employing a Driscoll-Kraay non-parametric covariance matrix, and estimated and interpreted adjusted predictions and marginal effects of the two-way interaction between a country's available access to residential electric power (kWh per capita) and the level of relative political performance against predicted values of gender relative status are employed. The models confirm

  13. Performance of Product Codes and Related Structures with Iterated Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Several modifications of product codes have been suggested as standards for optical networks. We show that the performance exhibits a threshold that can be estimated from a result about random graphs. For moderate input bit error probabilities, the output error rates for codes of finite length can...

  14. The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.M.; Ouwehand, C.; Dekker, S.J.; Lee, N.C.; de Groot, R.H.M.; Krabbendam, A.C.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades

  15. The Relation between Breakfast Skipping and School Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades than adolescents who eat breakfast daily.…

  16. Are study strategies related to medical licensing exam performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Courtney; Kurz, Terri; Smith, Sherry; Graham, Lori

    2014-11-02

    To examine the relationship between study strategies and performance on a high stakes medical licensing exam entitled the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1. The action research project included seventy nine student participants at the Texas A & M Health Science Center College of Medicine during their pre-clinical education. Data collection included pre-matriculation and matriculation academic performance data, standardized exam data, and the Learning and Study Strategies Instrument. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. For both models, the dependent variable was the Step 1 score, and the independent variables included Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Grade Point Average, Year 1 Average, Year 2 Average, Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average, Comprehensive Basic Science Exam score, and Learning and Study Strategy Instrument sub-scores. Model 2 added Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment average. Concentration (Model 1 - β = .264; Model 2 - β = .254) was the only study strategy correlated with Step 1 performance. The other statistically significant predictors were Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average (β = .315) and Year 2 Average (β = .280) in Model 1 and Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment Average (β = .338) in Model 2. There does appear to be a relationship between the study strategy concentration and Step 1 licensing exam performance. Teaching students to practice and utilize certain techniques to improve concentration skills when preparing for and taking exams may help improve licensing exam scores.

  17. Relative Performance of Academic Departments Using DEA with Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Preeti; Yadav, Shiv Prasad; Singh, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    The process of liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has brought new opportunities and challenges in all areas of human endeavor including education. Educational institutions have to adopt new strategies to make best use of the opportunities and counter the challenges. One of these challenges is how to assess the performance of…

  18. General Video Game Evaluation Using Relative Algorithm Performance Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorbjørn; Barros, Gabriella; Togelius, Julian

    2015-01-01

    In order to generate complete games through evolution we need generic and reliably evaluation functions for games. It has been suggested that game quality could be characterised through playing a game with different controllers and comparing their performance. This paper explores that idea throug...

  19. Employability, Managerialism, and Performativity in Higher Education: A Relational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfa, Senia; Taksa, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    This article combines Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and cultural capital with Lyotard's account of performativity to construct a three-tiered framework in order to explore how managerialism has affected the academic habitus. Specifically, this article examines the adoption of group assignments as a means of developing teamwork skills in…

  20. Mastery and Performance Goals Predict Epistemic and Relational Conflict Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnon, Celine; Muller, Dominique; Schrager, Sheree M.; Pannuzzo, Nelly; Butera, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    The present research examines whether mastery and performance goals predict different ways of reacting to a sociocognitive conflict with another person over materials to be learned, an issue not yet addressed by the achievement goal literature. Results from 2 studies showed that mastery goals predicted epistemic conflict regulation (a conflict…

  1. Physical performance in relation to menopause status and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Dmitriy; Laakkonen, Eija K; Finni, Taija; Kokko, Katja; Kujala, Urho M; Aukee, Pauliina; Kovanen, Vuokko; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in physical performance (muscle power, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and walking speed) across menopausal stages and potential of leisure physical activity (PA) to modify the impact of menopause on physical performance. In this cross-sectional study, women aged 47 to 55 were randomly selected from the Finnish National Registry and categorized as premenopausal (n = 233), perimenopausal (n = 381), or postmenopausal (n = 299) based on serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone and bleeding diary. Physical performance was measured by knee extension force, handgrip force, vertical jumping height, maximal walking speed, and 6-minute walking distance. PA level was assessed by self-report and categorized as low, moderate, or high. Multivariate linear regression modeling was used for data analysis. After including fat mass, height, PA, and education in the model, the postmenopausal women showed 12.0 N weaker (P women. There was no significant interaction between menopausal stage and PA on physical performance. The peri- and postmenopausal women with a high PA, however, showed better performance in the maximal knee extension strength and 6-minute walking test, and showed greater lower body muscle power than those with a low PA. Menopause status is associated with muscle strength and power, whereas the association between menopause status and mobility/walking is clearly weaker. A high leisure PA level provides more capacity to counteract the potential negative influence of menopausal factors on muscle function.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  2. Education scolaire, performance et equite sociale: des relations problematiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lenoir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using critical theory, this paper first confronts critically the relationship between education and performance in light of globalisation and its underlying neo‑‑ liberal ideology. This comparison reveals that there is a definite compatibility between them, but it is fully slanted towards efficiency logic and human capital production. Then, adopting a critical attitude, the paper questions this direction, in the name of the emancipation and citizenship prospects, which brought the school system reorganisation by democratic nation‑‑ states. The current choices have distorted these objectives and have redirected them towards utilitarian learnings and an increasingly therapeutic socialisation. Finally, the paper stresses the inseparability between the performance issue, the social equity issue and the education/teaching effectiveness issue in order to highlight the need for taking into account qualitative dimensions, which stem from the background and the pupils, so as to focus much more on learning processes, rather than on learning outcomes themselves.

  3. Operational limitations of light water reactors relating to fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.

    1976-07-01

    General aspects of fuel performance for typical Boiling and Pressurized Water Reactors are presented. Emphasis is placed on fuel failures in order to make clear important operational limitations. A discussion of fuel element designs is first given to provide the background information for the subsequent discussion of several fuel failure modes that have been identified. Fuel failure experiences through December 31, 1974, are summarized. The operational limitations that are required to mitigate the effects of fuel failures are discussed

  4. Numerical performance of the parabolized ADM formulation of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Hansen, Jakob; Khokhlov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper [Vasileios Paschalidis, Phys. Rev. D 78, 024002 (2008).], the first coauthor presented a new parabolic extension (PADM) of the standard 3+1 Arnowitt, Deser, Misner (ADM) formulation of the equations of general relativity. By parabolizing first-order ADM in a certain way, the PADM formulation turns it into a well-posed system which resembles the structure of mixed hyperbolic-second-order parabolic partial differential equations. The surface of constraints of PADM becomes a local attractor for all solutions and all possible well-posed gauge conditions. This paper describes a numerical implementation of PADM and studies its accuracy and stability in a series of standard numerical tests. Numerical properties of PADM are compared with those of standard ADM and its hyperbolic Kidder, Scheel, Teukolsky (KST) extension. The PADM scheme is numerically stable, convergent, and second-order accurate. The new formulation has better control of the constraint-violating modes than ADM and KST.

  5. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  6. Policy evaluation in terms of relative industrial performance and competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigson, P.; Dotzauer, E. [Malardalen Univ., Vasteras (Sweden); Yan, J. [Malardalen Univ., Vasteras (Sweden); KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a tool that can improve energy and climate policymaking processes through a stronger inclusion of industry expertise while safeguarding industrial competitiveness. The authors suggested that in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the processes, policymakers should recognize the role that industry plays as emission abatement investors. The tool is designed to promote policy design and management processes, facilitating transparency of methodology and subjectivity, consensus of results, rapid simulations of policy processes, and high inter-usability by key decision makers. The authors analyzed how climate and energy policy framework design and management processes can be improved through evaluation processes that focus on carbon dioxide emissions, energy efficiency, and utilization of renewable energy resources. The tool was used in a Swedish case study where industries are known to be relatively energy efficient with low emissions. The study showed that a more diversified and individual policy approach could be favorable, but this would result in increased administrative work for the government and public entities that administer the policy regime. Although this is a negative effect, the authors argued that the challenge of combating climate change will incur additional costs and labor in one way or the other. The authors emphasized that early-action can mitigate the costs. 40 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Process-related key performance indicators for measuring sustainability performance of ecodesign implementation into product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2016-01-01

    Developing products with improved environmental performance is regarded as a crucial component of companies' commitment towards sustainable development. The potential benefits derived from ecodesign are constantly highlighted in the literature, and go beyond the pure environmental dimension. Howe...

  8. Career-span analyses of track performance: longitudinal data present a more optimistic view of age-related performance decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bradley W; Starkes, Janet L

    2005-01-01

    Sport scientists (Starkes, Weir, Singh, Hodges, & Kerr, 1999; Starkes, Weir, & Young, 2003) have suggested that prolonged training is critical for the maintenance of athletic performance even in the face of predicted age-related decline. This study used polynomial regression analyses to examine the relationship between age and running performance in the 1500 and 10,000 metre events. We compared the age and career-longitudinal performances for 15 male Canadian Masters athletes with a cross-sectional sample of performances at different ages. We hypothesized that the 30 years of uninterrupted training characteristic of this longitudinal sample would moderate the patterns of age-related decline (retention hypothesis); alternatively, the cross-sectional data were expected to demonstrate pronounced age-related decline (quadratic hypothesis). Investigators performed multimodel regression analyses on the age and performance data. Based on the absence (for longitudinal data) or presence (for the cross-sectional data) of significant quadratic components in second-order polynomial models, the authors found support for their respective hypotheses. The longitudinal data showed that running performance declined with age in a more linear fashion than did cross-sectional data. Graphical trends showed that the moderation of age-related decline appeared greater for the longitudinal 10 km performances than for the 1500m event.

  9. Relations Between Stressors and Job Performance: An Aggregate-Level Investigation Using Multiple Criterion Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    .... Army Combat Brigades. Unlike previous studies that have focused exclusively on in-role performance, we examined relations between stressors and multiple performance criterion measures, which corresponded to in-role...

  10. Preferential processing of task-irrelevant beloved-related information and task performance: Two event-related potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2017-09-18

    People who are in love have better attention for beloved-related information, but report having trouble focusing on other tasks, such as (home)work. So, romantic love can both improve and hurt cognition. Emotional information is preferentially processed, which improves task performance when the information is task-relevant, but hurts task performance when it is task-irrelevant. Because beloved-related information is highly emotional, the effects of romantic love on cognition may resemble these effects of emotion on cognition. We examined whether beloved-related information is preferentially processed even when it is task-irrelevant and whether this hurts task performance. In two event-related potential studies, participants who had recently fallen in love performed a visuospatial short-term memory task. Task-irrelevant beloved, friend, and stranger faces were presented during maintenance (Study 1), or encoding (Study 2). The Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) reflecting early automatic attentional capturing and the Late Positive Potential (LPP) reflecting sustained motivated attention were largest for beloved pictures. Thus, beloved pictures are preferentially processed even when they are task-irrelevant. Task performance and reaction times did not differ between beloved, friend, and stranger conditions. Nevertheless, self-reported obsessive thinking about the beloved tended to correlate negatively with task performance, and positively with reaction times, across conditions. So, although task-irrelevant beloved-related information does not impact task performance, more obsessive thinking about the beloved might relate to poorer and slower overall task performance. More research is needed to clarify why people experience trouble focusing on beloved-unrelated tasks and how this negative effect of love on cognition could be reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mathematics-Related Emotions among Finnish Adolescents across Different Performance Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Marja Eliisa; Hannula, Markku Sakari; Björn, Piia Maria

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relation of mathematics performance and gender with seven mathematics-related emotions (enjoyment, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness and boredom) among adolescents. Using strict and lenient mathematics performance cut-off scores, respective groups of adolescents with mathematics difficulties (MD, n = 136), low (LA,…

  12. Pengaruh Learning Climate Terhadap Job Performance Melalui Career Related Continuous Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Anggiani, Sarfilianty

    2017-01-01

    This research objective is to identify and to analyze the relatioship of Learning climatehas an influence on Job Performance through the Career Related Continuous Learning. The result of the study showed that Learning climate influenced Job Performance through the career related continuous learning. Managerial implication and the recommendation for future study are provided.

  13. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump

  14. Pengaruh Current Industry Relative Performance, Future Industry Relative Performance Dan Leverage Terhadap Praktik Manajemen Laba (Studi Komparasi Tiga Bank Konvensional Dan Tiga Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Wahyudi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif qualitative yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya pengaruh dari Current Industry Relative Performance (CRP, Future Industry Relative Performance (FRP dan Leverage (DEBT terhadap praktik manajemen laba pada Perbankan Indonesia. CRP, FRP dan DEBT diukur dengan mengggunakan rasio keuangan. Manajemen laba diukur dengan menggunakan total akrual. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder dengan karakteristik data time series yang berupa laporan keuangan triwulan bank (BM, BRI, BSM, BMI, dan BSMI tahun 2004 sampai dengan 2008. Dengan menggunakan regresi berganda dengan taraf nyata 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada bank konvensional berdasarkan Uji Simultan, peubah CRP, FRP dan DEBT mempengaruhi praktik manajemen laba (AD, sedangkan berdasarkan Uji Parsial, hanya peubah CRP dan DEBT yang mempengaruhi praktik manajemen laba. Pada bank syariah, berdasarkan uji Simultan, peubah CRP, FRP, dan DEBT tidak ada yang mempengaruhi praktik manajemen laba (AD, sedangkan berdasarkan Uji Parsial, peubah CRP, FRP dan DEBT tidak mempengaruhi praktik manajemen laba.JEL Classification : G21, M12, M40Kata kunci : Current Industry Relative Performance (CRP, Future Industry Relative Performance (FRP, Leverage (DEBT, Manajemen Laba (Accrual Discretionary

  15. Performance is not Related to Perception of Target Width in Fitts’ Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhooser Jake

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a new experiment in a series of studies in which research participants perform a Fitts’ Law repetitive task, and then are required to judge the width of the target that was utilized. The first two experiments previously reported showed no relation between perception and performance. However in those two experiments subjects were never provided with feedback on their performance. In the current study, we provided participants with their performance score. Providing their performance score did not produce a relation between target width perception and performance. We posit that sports studies that have shown this relation are the results of intimate knowledge of what it means to perform well. Our inexperienced Fitts’ Law participants lacked such an understanding.

  16. The Influence of Relational Capital on Product Innovation Performance at Innovative SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrego, Pedro Figueroa; Costa, Ricardo; Fernández, Carlos Fernández-Jardon

    2013-01-01

    The authors build on the intellectual capital and new product development perspectives to study the influence of relational capital on product innovation performance. An empirical research was conducted, using a questionnaire administered to Portuguese innovative SMEs. The results suggest that relational capital does have a positive effect on product innovation performance. In particular, ”Vertical relationships” stands out as the main relational capital element significantly affecting produ...

  17. Does Homework Behavior Mediate the Relation between Personality and Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van Der Werf, Margaretha P. C.; Kuyper, Hans; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn

    2010-01-01

    Past research has consistently shown that there is a relation between personality and academic performance, but much less work has focused on explaining this relation. The present study examined whether three aspects of homework behavior, namely homework time, procrastination, and learning strategies, mediate the relation between personality and…

  18. When and why creativity-related conflict with coworkers can hamper creative employees' individual job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Onne; Giebels, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We examined when and why focal employees' creativity-related conflict with coworkers is related to their individual job performance. As hypothesized, a survey among 113 employees in 14 manufacturing work groups showed that creativity-related conflict with coworkers escalates into dysfunctional

  19. Detrimental Effects of Performance-Related Pay in the Public Sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Performance-related pay has been a key ingredient in New Public Management reforms. Nevertheless, the research presented here indicates some adverse effects of such incentives. These incentives may impair an initial motivation to work and change the norms that guide behavior. An issue which...... in particular has been given insufficient attention is fairness. Findings drawn from experimental economics supported by field studies demonstrate that perceived unfairness may have important negative effects on performance. The implication of a broader perspective in the analysis of performance-related pay...... in the public sector is that such a pay system, contrary to its aim, may have detrimental effects on performance....

  20. Clinical skills-related learning goals of senior medical students after performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Hauer, Karen E

    2011-09-01

    Lifelong learning is essential for doctors to maintain competence in clinical skills. With performance feedback, learners should be able to formulate specific and achievable learning goals in areas of need. We aimed to determine: (i) the type and specificity of medical student learning goals after a required clinical performance examination; (ii) differences in goal setting among low, average and high performers, and (iii) whether low performers articulate learning goals that are concordant with their learning needs. We conducted a single-site, multi-year, descriptive comparison study. Senior medical students were given performance benchmarks, individual feedback and guidelines on learning goals; each student was subsequently instructed to write two clinical skills learning goals. Investigators coded the learning goals for specificity, categorised the goals, and performed statistical analyses to determine their concordance with student performance level (low, average or high) in data gathering (history taking and physical examination) or communication skills. All 208 students each wrote two learning goals and most (n=200, 96%) wrote two specific learning goals. Nearly two-thirds of low performers in data gathering wrote at least one learning goal that referred to history taking or physical examination; one-third wrote learning goals pertaining to the organisation of the encounter. High performers in data gathering wrote significantly more patient education goals and significantly fewer history-taking goals than average or low performers. Only 50% of low performers in communication wrote learning goals related to communication skills. Low performers in communication were significantly more likely than average or high performers to identify learning goals related to improving performance in future examinations. The provision of performance benchmarking, individual feedback and brief written guidelines helped most senior medical students in our study to write specific

  1. The quest for performance-related specifications for hydraulic cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the problems associated with quality assurance for hydraulic cement concrete and the difficulties of relating the results of quality control and acceptance testing to the performance of the concrete facility. The importance...

  2. THE RELATION OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE WORK SYSTEMS WITH EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal AFSAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of high performance work systems is to enable employees to exercise decision making, leading to flexibility, innovation, improvement and skill sharing. By facilitating the development of high performance work systems we help organizations make continuous improvement a way of life.The notion of a high-performance work system (HPWS constitutes a claim that there exists a system of work practices for core workers in an organisation that leads in some way to superior performance. This article will discuss the relation that HPWS has with the improvement of firms’ performance and high involvement of the employees.

  3. Small and Medium Enterprises and the Relation between Social Performance and Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun H. Choi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP and corporate financial performance (CFP have focused on large enterprises and archival tests for SMEs have been relatively few. There is a need for SME studies that are comparable to the research on large enterprises. In this study, we tested the CSP-CFP relationship of SMEs in Korea using a massive archival database. Although common theories on corporate social responsibility (CSR in SMEs describe SMEs as non-strategic performers, we found a strong positive relationship between CSP-CFP for the larger or hi-tech SMEs. Therefore, some SMEs are similar to multinational companies in that they approach CSR effectively. This study makes a contribution to the literature on both CSR and SMEs because it empirically demonstrates the heterogeneity of SMEs and it presents a CSR-SME study that is methodologically comparable to the research on big corporations.

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: • Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. • Identifying and remediating disposal pits. • Collecting verification samples. • Performing radiological screening of soil. • Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: (1) Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. (2) Identifying and remediating disposal pits. (3) Collecting verification samples. (4) Performing radiological screening of soil. (5) Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  6. How Relational Capabilities Matter? Organizational Context and Performance of Internationally Oriented SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Ciszewska-Mlinarič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article sheds light on the organizational context enhancing development of relational capabilities and examines the significance of relational capabilities for SMEs’ financial and non-financial performance. The firm relational capability is measured separately in customers’ and suppliers’ networks. The research results reveal that fostering internal social capital coupled with the usage of economic motivators augment a firm relational capability in a supplier network, which in turn is associated with better performance results, both financial and non-financial. The results on relational capability in a customer network with respect to performance are less conclusive, indicating that vertical ties that internationally oriented SMEs develop (with suppliers and customers are not of equal importance.

  7. School Performance, School Segregation, and Stress-Related Symptoms: Comparing Helsinki and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in the interrelation between school performance, school segregation, and stress-related health among 9th-grade students in the greater Stockholm and Helsinki areas. Contrary to the Swedish case, it has been proposed that school performance in Finland is largely independent of the specific school…

  8. An Investigation of Selected Variables Related to Student Algebra I Performance in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Undray

    2016-01-01

    This research study attempted to determine if specific variables were related to student performance on the Algebra I subject-area test. This study also sought to determine in which of grades 8, 9, or 10 students performed better on the Algebra I Subject Area Test. This study also investigated the different criteria that are used to schedule…

  9. A Dataset for Education-Related Majors' Performance Measures with Pre/Post-Video Game Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Elena; Tassell, Janet Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This dataset includes a series of 30 education-related majors' performance measures before and after they completed a 10-hour video game practice in a computer lab. The goal of the experimental study was to examine the effects of action video gaming on students' mathematics performance and mathematics anxiety as mediated by the effect of attention…

  10. Factors related to teamwork performance and stress of operating room nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Yukio; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate operating room nurses' perception of teamwork performance and their level of mental stress and to identify related factors. Little is known about the factors affecting teamwork and the mental stress of surgical nurses, although the performance of the surgical team is essential for patient safety. The questionnaire survey for operation room nurses consisted of simple questions about teamwork performance and mental stress. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors causing a sense of teamwork performance or mental stress. A large number of surgical nurses had a sense of teamwork performance, but 30-40% of operation room nurses were mentally stressed during surgery. Neither the patient nor the operation factors were related to the sense of teamwork performance in both types of nurses. Among scrub nurses, endoscopic and abdominal surgery, body mass index, blood loss and the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class were related to their mental stress. Conversely, circulating nurses were stressed about teamwork performance. The factors related to teamwork performance and mental stress during surgery differed between scrub and circulating nurses. Increased support for operation room nurses is necessary. The increased support leads to safer surgical procedures and better patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Leading product-related environmental performance indicators: a selection guide and database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2015-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management and improvement approach employed in the product development process, which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during a product's life cycle and thus improve its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental...... in the selection and application of environmental performance indicators - a more structured approach is still lacking. This paper presents the efforts made to identify and systematize existing leading product-related environmental performance indicators, based on a systematic literature review, and to develop...

  12. Does homework behavior mediate the relation between personality and academic performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.; Kuyper, Hans; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn

    Past research has consistently shown that there is a relation between personality and academic performance, but much less work has focused on explaining this relation. The present study examined whether three aspects of homework behavior, namely homework time, procrastination, and learning

  13. Age-related attitudes: the influence on relationships and performance at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Franz Josef Gellert; R. Schalk

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: – This paper aims to examine the influence of age and age-related attitudes on relationship factors. In addition, it seeks to assess how both factors affect care service work performance. Design/methodology/approach: – The paper explores the influence of age and age-related attitudes on the

  14. High-Performance Classrooms for Women? Applying a Relational Frame to Management/Organizational Behavior Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, E. Holly

    2002-01-01

    Attributes of relational theory, based on women's development, include preventive connecting, mutual empowering, achieving, and team building. These attributes are compatible with the practices of high performance work organizations. Relational practices should be integrated into management and organizational behavior courses. (Contains 53…

  15. The relation between the secrecy rate of biometric template protection and biometric recognition performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical result relating the maximum achievable security of the family of biometric template protection systems known as key-binding systems to the recognition performance of a biometric recognition system that is optimal in Neyman-Pearson sense is derived. The relation allows for the

  16. The Role of Relative Performance in Inter-firm Mobility of Inventors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzo, Francesco Di; Almeida, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has emphasized the influence of inter-firm mobility on knowledge flows and innovation, yet we have an incomplete picture of the antecedents of inventor mobility. Building on theoretical traditions related to decision-making based on limited, asymmetric, bounded information, and eco......Prior research has emphasized the influence of inter-firm mobility on knowledge flows and innovation, yet we have an incomplete picture of the antecedents of inventor mobility. Building on theoretical traditions related to decision-making based on limited, asymmetric, bounded information......, and economic and other incentives, our paper suggests that after controlling for individual performance and other variables previously shown to affect inter-organizational mobility, an inventor's performance relative to his co-patenting group alters his likelihood of mobility. Our analysis of 2648 inventors...... in the pharmaceutical industry shows that for those performing above their reference group (of past and current co-inventors in patenting), an increase in relative performance decreases the likelihood of mobility, and for those performing below the reference group, a decrease in relative performance decreases...

  17. Work-Related Mental Health and Job Performance: Can Mindfulness Help?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gordon, W; Shonin, E; Zangeneh, M; Griffiths, MD

    2014-01-01

    Work-related mental health issues such as work-related stress and addiction to work impose a significant health and economic burden to the employee, the employing organization, and the country of work more generally. Interventions that can be empirically shown to improve levels of work-related mental health – especially those with the potential to concurrently improve employee levels of work performance – are of particular interest to occupational stakeholders. One such broad-application inte...

  18. Event-related potentials and secondary task performance during simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, A E; Böcker, K B E; Volkerts, E R; Verster, J C; Kenemans, J L

    2008-01-01

    Inattention and distraction account for a substantial number of traffic accidents. Therefore, we examined the impact of secondary task performance (an auditory oddball task) on a primary driving task (lane keeping). Twenty healthy participants performed two 20-min tests in the Divided Attention Steering Simulator (DASS). The visual secondary task of the DASS was replaced by an auditory oddball task to allow recording of brain activity. The driving task and the secondary (distracting) oddball task were presented in isolation and simultaneously, to assess their mutual interference. In addition to performance measures (lane keeping in the primary driving task and reaction speed in the secondary oddball task), brain activity, i.e. event-related potentials (ERPs), was recorded. Performance parameters on the driving test and the secondary oddball task did not differ between performance in isolation and simultaneous performance. However, when both tasks were performed simultaneously, reaction time variability increased in the secondary oddball task. Analysis of brain activity indicated that ERP amplitude (P3a amplitude) related to the secondary task, was significantly reduced when the task was performed simultaneously with the driving test. This study shows that when performing a simple secondary task during driving, performance of the driving task and this secondary task are both unaffected. However, analysis of brain activity shows reduced cortical processing of irrelevant, potentially distracting stimuli from the secondary task during driving.

  19. Low Proportion of Dietary Plant Protein among Athletes with Premenstrual Syndrome-Related Performance Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Takeda, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is psychosomatic disorder that are limited to the late luteal phase in the menstrual cycle. PMS could impair athletic performance. To investigate associations between proportions of dietary plant and animal protein and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance, we surveyed 135 female athletes aged 18-23 years attending Kindai University. Participants belonged to authorized university clubs, all of which have high rankings in Japanese university sports. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on diet history, demographics, and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance. Total protein, animal protein, and plant protein intake were examined, and the proportion of dietary plant protein was calculated for each participant. We divided athletes into two groups: those without PMS-related impairment of athletic performance (n = 117) and those with PMS-related performance impairment (n = 18). A t-test was used to compare mean values and multivariable adjusted mean values between groups; adjustment variables were energy intake, body mass index, and daily training duration. Total protein intake was not significantly different between the groups. However, athletes whose performance was affected by PMS reported higher intake of animal protein (mean 50.6 g) than athletes whose performance was unaffected by PMS (mean 34.9 g). Plant protein intake was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (mean 25.4 g) than among athletes without impairment (mean 26.9 g). The proportion of dietary plant protein was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (39.3%) than those without impairment (45.9%). A low proportion of dietary plant protein may cause PMS-related athletic impairment among athletes.

  20. Relative health performance in BRICS over the past 20 years: the winners and losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Dennis; Tang, Kam Ki

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether the health performance of Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--has kept in step with their economic development. Reductions in age- and sex-specific mortality seen in each BRICS country between 1990 and 2011 were measured. These results were compared with those of the best-performing countries in the world and the best-performing countries with similar income levels. We estimated each country's progress in reducing mortality and compared changes in that country's mortality rates against other countries with similar mean incomes to examine changes in avoidable mortality. The relative health performance of the five study countries differed markedly over the study period. Brazil demonstrated fairly even improvement in relative health performance across the different age and sex subgroups that we assessed. India's improvement was more modest and more varied across the subgroups. South Africa and the Russian Federation exhibited large declines in health performance as well as large sex-specific inequalities in health. Although China's levels of avoidable mortality decreased in absolute terms, the level of improvement appeared low in the context of China's economic growth. When evaluating a country's health performance in terms of avoidable mortality, it is useful to compare that performance against the performance of other countries. Such comparison allows any country-specific improvements to be distinguished from general global improvements.

  1. Performance assessment of EMR systems based on post-relational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Yan; Li, Jing-Song; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Tian, Yu; Suzuki, Muneou; Araki, Kenji

    2012-08-01

    Post-relational databases provide high performance and are currently widely used in American hospitals. As few hospital information systems (HIS) in either China or Japan are based on post-relational databases, here we introduce a new-generation electronic medical records (EMR) system called Hygeia, which was developed with the post-relational database Caché and the latest platform Ensemble. Utilizing the benefits of a post-relational database, Hygeia is equipped with an "integration" feature that allows all the system users to access data-with a fast response time-anywhere and at anytime. Performance tests of databases in EMR systems were implemented in both China and Japan. First, a comparison test was conducted between a post-relational database, Caché, and a relational database, Oracle, embedded in the EMR systems of a medium-sized first-class hospital in China. Second, a user terminal test was done on the EMR system Izanami, which is based on the identical database Caché and operates efficiently at the Miyazaki University Hospital in Japan. The results proved that the post-relational database Caché works faster than the relational database Oracle and showed perfect performance in the real-time EMR system.

  2. Relational invariance of expressive microstructure across global tempo changes in music performance: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, B H

    1994-01-01

    This study addressed the question of whether the expressive microstructure of a music performance remains relationally invariant across moderate (musically acceptable) changes in tempo. Two pianists played Schumann's "Träumerei" three times at each of three tempi on a digital piano, and the performance data were recorded in MIDI format. In a perceptual test, musically trained listeners attempted to distinguish the original performances from performances that had been artificially speeded up or slowed down to the same overall duration. Accuracy in this task was barely above chance, suggesting that relational invariance was largely preserved. Subsequent analysis of the MIDI data confirmed that each pianist's characteristic timing patterns were highly similar across the three tempi, although there were statistically significant deviations from perfect relational invariance. The timing of (relatively slow) grace notes seemed relationally invariant, but selective examination of other detailed temporal features (chord asynchrony, tone overlap, pedal timing) revealed no systematic scaling with tempo. Finally, although the intensity profile seemed unaffected by tempo, a slight overall increase in intensity with tempo was observed. Effects of musical structure on expressive microstructure were large and pervasive at all levels, as were individual differences between the two pianists. For the specific composition and range of tempi considered here, these results suggest that major (cognitively controlled) temporal and dynamic features of a performance change roughly in proportion with tempo, whereas minor features tend to be governed by tempo-independent motoric constraints.

  3. The relation between the board of directors, performance, work and risk in the brazilian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Martins de Paiva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the Corporate Governance mechanisms, the Board of Directors is mentioned in academic research as fundamental in company performance and values in different countries. The important role in defense of the stockholders’ rights, preventing the managers from using the company in defense of their own interests, makes this a relevant mechanism in empirical research, even more when its relations with financial indicators is analyzed. In this study, the main objective was to analyze the relation between this mechanism and the value, performance and risk of Brazilian companies in 2012 and 2013, using panel data regression. Therefore, a Board of Directors index was created, based on binary questions, adapted from Silva, Santos and Almeida (2011, to be used as an independent variable in econometric models. A positive statistical relation was found between the proposed inedex and the variable Volatility, against expectations. The research also indicated relevant relations between the dependent and control variables. Among other results, it was concluded that: a positive relation exists between the company size and its performance; a positive relation exists between the growth of sales and the company value; a position relation between the risk variables beta and volatility; and belonging to the distinguished corporate governance levels on the stock exchange reduces the volatility of company stocks.

  4. Performance variability is related to change in cognition: evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-09-01

    Performance variability across repeated task administrations may be an important indicator of age-related cognitive functioning. In the present investigation, the authors examined whether age differences and change in inconsistency were related to 6-year (3 occasion) cognitive change. Inconsistency scores were computed from 4 reaction time tasks performed by 446 older adults (54-89 years). Replicating previous cross-sectional results, greater inconsistency was observed for older participants even after controlling for differences in response speed. New longitudinal results demonstrated (a) associations between inconsistency at baseline measurement and 6-year change in cognitive performance; (b) longitudinal change in inconsistency; and (c) intraindividual covariation between 6-year change in inconsistency and 6-year change in level of cognitive function. These findings support the view that performance variability serves as a marker of cognitive aging.

  5. Transitivity performance, relational hierarchy knowledge and awareness: results of an instructional framing manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Ludwig, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The transitive inference (TI) paradigm has been widely used to examine the role of the hippocampus in generalization. Here we consider a surprising feature of experimental findings in this task: the relatively poor transitivity performance and levels of hierarchy knowledge achieved by adult human subjects. We focused on the influence of the task instructions on participants' subsequent performance--a single-word framing manipulation which either specified the relation between items as transitive (i.e., OLD-FRAME: choose which item is "older") or left it ambiguous (i.e., NO-FRAME: choose which item is "correct"). We show a marked but highly specific effect of manipulating prior knowledge through instruction: transitivity performance and levels of relational hierarchy knowledge were enhanced, but premise performance unchanged. Further, we show that hierarchy recall accuracy, but not conventional awareness scores, was a significant predictor of inferential performance across the entire group of participants. The current study has four main implications: first, our findings establish the importance of the task instructions, and prior knowledge, in the TI paradigm--suggesting that they influence the size of the overall hypothesis space (e.g., to favor a linear hierarchical structure over other possibilities in the OLD-FRAME). Second, the dissociable effects of the instructional frame on premise and inference performance provide evidence for the operation of distinct underlying mechanisms (i.e., an associative mechanism vs. relational hierarchy knowledge). Third, our findings suggest that a detailed measurement of hierarchy recall accuracy may be a more sensitive index of relational hierarchy knowledge, than conventional awareness score--and should be used in future studies investigating links between awareness and inferential performance. Finally, our study motivates an experimental setting that ensures robust hierarchy learning across participants

  6. Inter-firm relations in SME clusters and the link to marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lamprinopoulou, C.; Tregear, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Networks are increasingly recognised as being important to successful marketing amongst small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thepurpose of this study is to investigate the structure and content of network relations amongst SME clusters, and explore the link to marketing performance.Design/methodology/approach – Following a review of the literature on SME networks and marketing performance, case study analysis isperformed on four SME clusters in the Greek agrifood sector.Findin...

  7. Relative Performance of Indoor Vector Control Interventions in the Ifakara and the West African Experimental Huts.

    OpenAIRE

    Oumbouke, Welbeck A; Fongnikin, Augustin; Soukou, Koffi B; Moore, Sarah J; N'Guessan, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    Background West African and Ifakara experimental huts are used to evaluate indoor mosquito control interventions, including spatial repellents and insecticides. The two hut types differ in size and design, so a side-by-side comparison was performed to investigate the performance of indoor interventions in the two hut designs using standard entomological outcomes: relative indoor mosquito density (deterrence), exophily (induced exit), blood-feeding and mortality of mosquitoes. Methods Metoflut...

  8. What is the Relation (if any) Between a Firm's Corporate Governance Arrangements and its Financial Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Wessels, Roberto E.; Wansbeek, Tom J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents estimates from a latent variables model of the relation between corporate governance and financial performance. We use data on large US corporations to estimate the correlation, conditional on the firms' investment opportunity set, between governance and performance. We find that this correlation is statistically speaking zero. This result is consistent with the equilibrium view (Demsetz, 1983) in which firms optimize corporate governance arrangements subject to the constr...

  9. The genetics of overwintering performance in two-year old common carp and its relation to performance until market size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prchal, Martin; Kause, Antti; Vandeputte, Marc; Gela, David; Allamellou, Jean-Michel; Kumar, Girish; Bestin, Anastasia; Bugeon, Jérôme; Zhao, Jinfeng; Kocour, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Using farmed common carp, we investigated the genetic background of the second year overwintering performance and its relation to the performance during the third growing season and at market size. The experimental stock was established by partial factorial design with a series of 4 factorial matings of 5 dams and 10 sires each. The families were reared communally and pedigree was re-constructed with 93.6% success using 12 microsatellites on 2008 offspring. Three successive recordings (second autumn, third spring, and third autumn-market size) covering two periods (second overwintering, third growing season) were included. Body weight, Fulton's condition factor and percent muscle fat content were recorded at all times and headless carcass yield and fillet yield were recorded at market size. Specific growth rate, absolute and relative fat change and overall survival were calculated for each period. Heritability estimates were significantly different from zero and almost all traits were moderately to highly heritable (h2 = 0.36-1.00), except survival in both periods and fat change (both patterns) during overwintering (h2 = 0.12-0.15). Genetic and phenotypic correlations imply that selection against weight loss and fat loss during overwintering is expected to lead to a better winter survival, together with a positive effect on growth in the third growing season. Interestingly, higher muscle fat content was genetically correlated to lower survival in the following period (rg = -0.59; -0.53, respectively for winter and the third summer). On the other hand, higher muscle fat was also genetically linked to better slaughter yields. Moreover, selection for higher condition factor would lead to better performance during winter, growing season and at market size.

  10. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, R T A; Brink, M S; van der Does, H T D; Lemmink, K A P M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes (age, 27±8 years; ˙VO2max, 50.3±4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress and recovery (RESTQ-Sport) in relation to cycling performance (Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT)). All 19 RESTQ-Sport scales were calculated and scores of the 4 main categories were determined (i. e., general stress, general recovery, sport-specific stress and sport-specific recovery). A balance score of total stress and recovery was calculated by recovery-stress. Power at the second stage (P80), third stage (P90) and heart rate recovery (HRR60 s) of the LSCT were determined as performance parameters. 110 RESTQ-Sports and LSCTs were analysed using a multilevel approach (random intercepts model). Higher self-efficacy was related to improvement of all performance parameters. Higher total recovery stress, and lower emotional stress were related to improvement of P90 and HRR60 s. Higher sport-specific recovery was related to P80, higher general stress, fatigue and physical complaints were related to decreased P90 and higher social stress and injury were related to decreased HRR60 s. Improved perceived recovery and stress contributed to an improved performance. Relevant information could be provided by monitoring changes in perceived stress and recovery of female athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Masticatory performance and oral health-related quality of life before and after complete denture treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Saori; Shiga, Hiroshi

    2018-03-13

    To clarify the relationship between masticatory performance and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) before and after complete denture treatment. Thirty patients wearing complete dentures were asked to chew a gummy jelly on their habitual chewing side, and the amount of glucose extraction during chewing was measured as the parameter of masticatory performance. Subjects were asked to answer the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-J49) questionnaire, which consists of 49 questions related to oral problems. The total score of 49 question items along with individual domain scores within the seven domains (functional limitation, pain, psychological discomfort, physical disability, psychological disability, social disability and handicap) were calculated and used as the parameters of OHRQoL. These records were obtained before treatment and 3 months after treatment. Each parameter of masticatory performance and OHRQoL was compared before treatment and after treatment. The relationship between masticatory performance and OHRQoL was investigated, and a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Both masticatory performance and OHRQoL were significantly improved after treatment. Furthermore, masticatory performance was significantly correlated with some parameters of OHRQoL. The stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed functional limitation and pain as important factors affecting masticatory performance before treatment and functional limitation as important factors affecting masticatory performance after treatment. These results suggested that masticatory performance and OHRQoL are significantly improved after treatment and that there is a close relationship between the two. Moreover, functional limitation was found to be the most important factor affecting masticatory performance. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of product market competition on transactions with related parties and company performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Asadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effect of product market competition on transactions with related parties and company performance. The study selects a sample of 250 randomly selected firms whose common shares were traded on Tehran Stock Exchange. The study uses Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI to measure the market concentration and uses historical information over the period 2008-2012 to examine the hypotheses of the survey. Using simple regression analysis, the study has detected a positive relationship between HHI and related party transactions. In addition, the study has detected a negative relationship between competition and company performance measured by return on assets.

  13. Performance related pay (PRP) to social workers in Danish Job Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg Jensen, Maya; Rosdahl, Anders

    This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?......This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?...

  14. Transformational leadership and safety performance among nurses: the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter

    2014-03-01

    To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Loh, Kep Kee; Zheng, Hui; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the contribution of sleep duration and quality to age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance in relatively healthy older adults. Community-based longitudinal brain and cognitive aging study using a convenience sample. Participants were studied in a research laboratory. Relatively healthy adults aged 55 y and older at study commencement. N/A. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment every 2 y. Subjective assessments of sleep duration and quality and blood samples were obtained. Each hour of reduced sleep duration at baseline augmented the annual expansion rate of the ventricles by 0.59% (P = 0.007) and the annual decline rate in global cognitive performance by 0.67% (P = 0.050) in the subsequent 2 y after controlling for the effects of age, sex, education, and body mass index. In contrast, global sleep quality at baseline did not modulate either brain or cognitive aging. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, showed no correlation with baseline sleep duration, brain structure, or cognitive performance. In healthy older adults, short sleep duration is associated with greater age-related brain atrophy and cognitive decline. These associations are not associated with elevated inflammatory responses among short sleepers. Lo JC, Loh KK, Zheng H, Sim SK, Chee MW. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance.

  16. Performance goals in conflictual social interactions: towards the distinction between two modes of relational conflict regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommet, Nicolas; Darnon, Céline; Mugny, Gabriel; Quiamzade, Alain; Pulfrey, Caroline; Dompnier, Benoît; Butera, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    Socio-cognitive conflict has been defined as a situation of confrontation with a disagreeing other. Previous research suggests that individuals can regulate conflict in a relational way, namely by focusing on social comparison between relative levels of competences. Relational conflict regulation has been described as yielding particularly negative effects on social interactions and learning, but has been understudied. The present research addresses the question of the origin of relational conflict regulation by introducing a fundamental distinction between two types of regulation, one based on the affirmation of one's own point of view and the invalidation of the other's (i.e., 'competitive' regulation), the other corresponding to the protection of self-competence via compliance (i.e., 'protective' regulation). Three studies show that these modes of relational conflict regulation result from the endorsement of distinct performance goals, respectively, performance-approach goals (trying to outperform others) and performance-avoidance goals (avoiding performing more poorly than others). Theoretical implications for the literature on both conflict regulation and achievement goals are discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devine Amy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematics anxiety (MA, a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys’ mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls’ performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls’ and boys’ mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Methods Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. Results No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Conclusions Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education

  18. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Amy; Fawcett, Kayleigh; Szűcs, Dénes; Dowker, Ann

    2012-07-09

    Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys' mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls' performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls' and boys' mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on 'online' mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in the mathematics classroom, particularly because

  19. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys’ mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls’ performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls’ and boys’ mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Methods Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. Results No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Conclusions Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in

  20. The Relation between Work Family Conflict and Employee Performance: A Research on Hotel Employee

    OpenAIRE

    KARAKAŞ, Ayhan; SAHİN, Nilufer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of thisstudy was, to examine the relation between work family conflict and  employeeperformance. To measure the relationship ,WFC and EP scales used. Data weregathered from hotel employees in Western Black Sea provinces. End of the study,through data were examined -obtained statistical software package-, frequencyanalysis, correlation analysis, t-test, ANOVA test and regression analysis. Theresult indicate that  work familyconflict related significantly to employee performance. Employ...

  1. Young Children’s Video/Computer Game Use: Relations with School Performance and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, Erin C.; Karas, Tamara L.; Winsler, Adam; Way, Erin; Madigan, Amy; Tyler, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the amount and content of children’s video game playing in relation with behavioral and academic outcomes. Relationships among playing context, child gender, and parental monitoring were explored. Data were obtained through parent report of child’s game play, behavior, and school performance. Results revealed that time spent playing games was related positively to aggression and negatively to school competence. Violent content was correlated positively and educational cont...

  2. Results of data base management system parameterized performance testing related to GSFC scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carchedi, C. H.; Gough, T. L.; Huston, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a variety of tests designed to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of several commercially available data base management system (DBMS) products compatible with the Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780 computer system are summarized. The tests were performed on the INGRES, ORACLE, and SEED DBMS products employing applications that were similar to scientific applications under development by NASA. The objectives of this testing included determining the strength and weaknesses of the candidate systems, performance trade-offs of various design alternatives and the impact of some installation and environmental (computer related) influences.

  3. The Relation between Past Flows and Future Performance: Simple Investment Strategies in the Mutual Fund Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rohleder

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the mutual fund literature, it is an established fact that investors “chase past performance”. However, the opposite impact of flows on performance is widely discussed. Mainly, liquidity costs are held responsible for short-term erosion of performance, while high inflows enhance performance over longer horizons. I investigate this relation for various groups of equity, bond, and money market funds and find significant outperformance in high inflow funds over several months, especially for specific bond fund groups. In addition, I test whether this information can be exploited using simple investment strategies but find that the abnormal returns are too low to offset associated costs.

  4. Relational energy at work: Implications for job engagement and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Bradley P; Baker, Wayne E; Sumpter, Dana McDaniel; Cameron, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    Energy is emerging as a topic of importance to organizations, yet we have little understanding of how energy can be useful at an interpersonal level toward achieving workplace goals. We present the results of 4 studies aimed at developing, validating, and testing the relational energy construct. In Study 1, we report qualitative insights from 64 individuals about the experience and functioning of relational energy in the workplace. Study 2 draws from 3 employee samples to conduct exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a measure of relational energy, differentiating relational energy from related constructs. To test the predictive validity of the new relational energy scale, Study 3 comprises data from employees rating the level of relational energy they experienced during interactions with their leaders in a health services context. Results showed that relational energy employees experienced with their leaders at Time 1 predicted job engagement at Time 2 (1 month later), while controlling for the competing construct of perceived social support. Study 4 shows further differentiation of relational energy from leader-member exchange (LMX), replicates the positive relationship between relational energy (Time 1) and job engagement (Time 2), and shows that relational energy is positively associated with employee job performance (Time 3) through the mechanism of job engagement. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings and highlight areas for future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Effects of Music and Tonal Language Experience on Relative Pitch Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Strybel, Thomas Z

    2016-01-01

    We examined the interaction between music and tone language experience as related to relative pitch processing by having participants judge the direction and magnitude of pitch changes in a relative pitch task. Participants' performance on this relative pitch task was assessed using the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) index of expertise, based on a ratio of discrimination over consistency in participants' relative pitch judgments. Testing took place in 2 separate sessions on different days to assess the effects of practice on participants' performance. Participants also completed the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), an existing measure comprising subtests aimed at evaluating relative pitch processing abilities. Musicians outperformed nonmusicians on both the relative pitch task, as measured by the CWS index, and the MBEA, but tonal language speakers outperformed non-tonal language speakers only on the MBEA. A closer look at the discrimination and consistency component scores of the CWS index revealed that musicians were better at discriminating different pitches and more consistent in their assessments of the direction and magnitude of relative pitch change.

  6. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments...... and storage, noise level and visual privacy. However, if job performance is considered, then satisfaction with the main indoor environmental parameters should be addressed first as they affected self-estimated job performance to the highest extent. The present study showed that overall satisfaction...... with personal workspace affected significantly the self-estimated job performance. Increasing overall satisfaction with the personal workspace by about 15% would correspond to an increase of self-estimated job performance by 3.7%. Among indoor environmental parameters and building features, satisfaction...

  7. Patterns of work-related intimate partner violence and job performance among abusive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Perrin, Nancy A; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses different types of work-related intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and their relationship to perpetrators' work performance and employment. We determine if groups of abusive men with similar patterns of work-related IPV exist and then examine whether the patterns are related to their characteristics, job performance, and employment outcomes. Participants were 198 adult men (60% Latino, 40% non-Latino) from batterer intervention programs (BIPs) who self-reported their lifetime work-related IPV and job outcomes. Five distinct clusters were identified and named based on the pattern (predominance or absence) of different work-related abusive behaviors reported: (a) low-level tactics, (b) job interference, (c) job interference with threatened or actual violence, (d) extreme abuse without jealousy and (e) extreme abuse. Analyses revealed significant differences between the clusters on ethnicity, parental status, partner's employment status, income, education, and (among Latinos only) acculturation. The probability of men's work-related IPV substantially impacting their own job performance was nearly 4 times greater among those in the extreme abuse cluster than those in the low-level tactics cluster. These data inform the development of employee training programs and workplace policies for reducing IPV that affects the workplace.

  8. Big Five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to marching arts satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacob J; Lounsbury, John W

    2011-01-01

    To examine the Big Five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to marching arts satisfaction. Data were collected from 278 instrumentalists (i.e., brass players and percussionists) and color guard performers (e.g., dancers) representing six world class drum and bugle corps. PARTICIPANTS completed three measures: the Adolescent Personal Style Inventory was used to measure the Big Five personality factors: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness; the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire - used to assess somatic and cognitive symptoms of performance anxiety; and the Marching Arts Satisfaction - used to assess for the physical, social, and contextual environments of drum and bugle corps. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed concurrent relationships between the Big Five and performance anxiety with satisfaction. A linear combination of the Big Five traits and Performance Anxiety accounted for 36% of the total variance in satisfaction, with Extraversion, Emotional Stability, and Performance Anxiety contributing significant unique variance. The findings of the present study suggest that performers who are extraverted, conscientious, and effective at managing general stress - and performance stress in particular - find a greater sense of satisfaction with their participation in world class drum and bugle corps.

  9. Motor Performance in Relation with Sustained Attention in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Solouki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study compares relationship between motor performance, sustained attention and impulse control in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and normal children. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 21 boys with ADHD and 21 normal boys in the age range of 7- 10 years old were participated. Motor performance by using Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and sustained attention and impulse control by using Continuous Performance Test were evaluated. Results: Analysis by T-Test and Mann-Whitney revealed significant difference between ADHD group and normal group in gross, fine and battery motor performance also sustained attention and impulse control (P<0.0001. Analysis by Z-Fisher test indicated no significant difference between Correlation Coefficient of inattention and gross motor performance in two groups (P=0.276 but significant difference between Correlation Coefficient of inattention and fine (P<0.0001 and battery (P<0.0001 motor performance were shown. Correlation Coefficient impulsivity and gross (P=0.379, fine (P=0.92 and battery (P=0.562 motor performance shown no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: According to study results there was a positive relation between sustained attention and impulse control and most of motor performance in both groups. Therefore these findings help Occupational Therapist to determine rehabilitation priorities and to use exact strategies in order to enhance motor performance in children.

  10. Physique and Performance of Young Wheelchair Basketball Players in Relation with Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cavedon

    Full Text Available The relationships among physical characteristics, performance, and functional ability classification of younger wheelchair basketball players have been barely investigated to date. The purpose of this work was to assess anthropometry, body composition, and performance in sport-specific field tests in a national sample of Italian younger wheelchair basketball players as well as to evaluate the association of these variables with the players' functional ability classification and game-related statistics. Several anthropometric measurements were obtained for 52 out of 91 eligible players nationwide. Performance was assessed in seven sport-specific field tests (5m sprint, 20m sprint with ball, suicide, maximal pass, pass for accuracy, spot shot and lay-ups and game-related statistics (free-throw points scored per match, two- and three-point field-goals scored per match, and their sum. Association between variables, and predictivity was assessed by correlation and regression analysis, respectively. Players were grouped into four Classes of increasing functional ability (A-D. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons was used to assess differences between Classes. Sitting height and functional ability Class especially correlated with performance outcomes, but wheelchair basketball experience and skinfolds did not. Game-related statistics and sport-specific field-test scores all showed significant correlation with each other. Upper arm circumference and/or maximal pass and lay-ups test scores were able to explain 42 to 59% of variance in game-related statistics (P<0.001. A clear difference in performance was only found for functional ability Class A and D.In younger wheelchair basketball players, sitting height positively contributes to performance. The maximal pass and lay-ups test should be carefully considered in younger wheelchair basketball training plans. Functional ability Class reflects to a limited extent the actual

  11. The Relative Age Effect and the Influence on Performance in Youth Alpine Ski Racing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE, which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup. Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative.

  12. The relative age effect and the influence on performance in youth alpine ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  13. Burnout among pilots: psychosocial factors related to happiness and performance at simulator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Veldhuis, Wouter; Coombes, Claire; Hunter, Rob

    2018-06-18

    In this study among airline pilots, we aim to uncover the work characteristics (job demands and resources) and the outcomes (job crafting, happiness and simulator training performance) that are related to burnout for this occupational group. Using a large sample of airline pilots, we showed that 40% of the participating pilots experience high burnout. In line with Job Demands-Resources theory, job demands were detrimental for simulator training performance because they made pilots more exhausted and less able to craft their job, whereas job resources had a favourable effect because they reduced feelings of disengagement and increased job crafting. Moreover, burnout was negatively related to pilots' happiness with life. These findings highlight the importance of psychosocial factors and health for valuable outcomes for both pilots and airlines. Practitioner Summary: Using an online survey among the members of a European pilots' professional association, we examined the relationship between psychosocial factors (work characteristics, burnout) and outcomes (simulator training performance, happiness). Forty per cent of the participating pilots experience high burnout. Job demands were detrimental, whereas job resources were favourable for simulator training performance/happiness. Twitter text: 40% of airline pilots experience burnout and psychosocial work factors and burnout relate to performance at pilots' simulator training.

  14. Health-Related Behavior Mediates the Association Between Personality and Memory Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Laborde, Sylvain; Walter, Emma E

    2017-03-01

    This prospective study explored the potential mediating role of health-related behavior (alcohol involvement, diet, television viewing, and physical activity) in the association between personality and change in memory performance over 2 years. A nationally representative sample of 8,376 U.K. participants aged 55 years and older (4,572 women, 3,804 men) completed self-report measures of personality and health-related behavior in 2010, and completed a memory performance task in 2010 and 2012. After removing variance associated with potential confounding variables, neuroticism and agreeableness had negative associations, and openness and conscientiousness positive associations with change in memory performance. There were no moderation effects by age, sex, education level, or ethnicity. Multiple mediator models demonstrated that physical activity, television viewing, and alcohol intake mediated associations between personality and change in memory performance. These findings provide evidence that the association between personality and memory performance in older adults can be explained, in part, through health-related behavior.

  15. Gender difference and age-related changes in performance at the long-distance duathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Pfeifer, Susanne; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Senn, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    The differences in gender- and the age-related changes in triathlon (i.e., swimming, cycling, and running) performances have been previously investigated, but data are missing for duathlon (i.e., running, cycling, and running). We investigated the participation and performance trends and the gender difference and the age-related decline in performance, at the "Powerman Zofingen" long-distance duathlon (10-km run, 150-km cycle, and 30-km run) from 2002 to 2011. During this period, there were 2,236 finishers (272 women and 1,964 men, respectively). Linear regression analyses for the 3 split times, and the total event time, demonstrated that running and cycling times were fairly stable during the last decade for both male and female elite duathletes. The top 10 overall gender differences in times were 16 ± 2, 17 ± 3, 15 ± 3, and 16 ± 5%, for the 10-km run, 150-km cycle, 30-km run and the overall race time, respectively. There was a significant (p triathlons, the age-related decline in the duathlon performance was more pronounced in running than in cycling. Athletes and coaches can use these findings to plan the career in long-distance duathletes with the age of peak performance between 25 and 39 years for both women and men.

  16. Assessing Adult Learner's Numeracy as Related to Gender and Performance in Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Anyikwa, Blessing E.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated adult learner numeracy as related to gender and performance in arithmetic among 32 Nigerian adult learners from one government accredited adult literacy centre in Lagos State using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of descriptive survey design. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive statistics…

  17. Validating Student Satisfaction Related to Persistence, Academic Performance, Retention and Career Advancement within ODL Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Maximus Gorky

    2015-01-01

    Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual) dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was…

  18. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J.M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W.J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  19. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  20. Experiences of Second-Class Citizenship Related to Continued Poor Academic Performance of Minority Xhosa Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Lorna M.; Singh, Suzanne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the subjective life experiences of racial minority Xhosa speakers and the factors that contribute to their continued poor academic performance in a previously Whites-only school in South Africa. Vygotskian sociocultural perspective in relation to creating a democratic educational system and Bronfenbrenner's biosystemic theory…

  1. Is There a Causal Relation between Mathematical Creativity and Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480…

  2. Managing XML Data to optimize Performance into Object-Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana BOTHA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose some possibilities for manage XML data in order to optimize performance into object-relational databases. It is detailed the possibility of storing XML data into such databases, using for exemplification an Oracle database and there are tested some optimizing techniques of the queries over XMLType tables, like indexing and partitioning tables.

  3. Organizational Socialization and Its Relation with Organizational Performance in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Ali; Ozturk, Inci; Polatcan, Mahmut; Saylik, Ahmet; Bil, Erkut

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to explore organizational socialization and organizational performance levels of secondary school teachers and the relation between the two variables mentioned. The study is designed as correlational research. The target population of the research consists of 5744 teachers who work in public and private Anatolian high…

  4. The Impact of Collegiality amongst Australian Accounting Academics on Work-Related Attitudes and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Sophia; Baird, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the collegiality of Australian accounting academics and the association of collegiality with their work-related attitudes and academic performance. Data were collected by a survey questionnaire from a random sample of 267 accounting academics within Australian universities. The results suggest a moderate level…

  5. How Do Employee Perceptions of HRM Relate to Performance? : A Meta-Analysis of Mediating Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Jeroen; Beijer, Susanne; Bos-Nehles, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    A substantial body of research has examined how employee perceptions of HRM systems relate to employee performance. Although relying on a variety of measures to examine perceived HRM systems, existing studies are unclear to what extent these measures differ in their relationships with important

  6. Performance Related Pay in Australian Universities: The Case of Swinburne University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Peter; Schier, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Performance related pay is not common in Australian universities. A number of Australian universities have begun to show interest in implementing more individualised pay arrangements. Swinburne University of Technology, in Melbourne, has chosen, contrary to the wishes of many of its staff, to be a path-breaker and has introduced a performance…

  7. Gender Differences in Factors Related to Parenting Styles: A Study of High Performing Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Carol; Lewko, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Examined parenting styles within families of high performing science students and explored gender differences in the factors associated with authoritative parenting style. Found that the authoritative parenting style was predominant among study participants and that a greater number of family-related variables emerge for females, whereas more…

  8. Using Alternative Teaching Techniques To Enhance Student Performance in the Traditional Introductory Public Relations Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the value of two alternative tools as supplements for the traditional introduction to public relations course. Considers the usage of a study manual, usage of televised review sessions, year in school and major status. Indicates that all four variables are significantly correlated with class performance, but that the study manual explains…

  9. The Relations between Teasing and Bullying and Middle School Standardized Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Anna; Cornell, Dewey; Konold, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relations between the schoolwide prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) and schoolwide academic performance in a sample of 271 Virginia middle schools. In addition, the study examined the mediating effects of student engagement. A three-step sequence of path models investigated associations between schoolwide PTB and…

  10. The Effect of Relation-Specific Investments in the Supply Chain Triad on Innovation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gelei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a comprehensive survey, this paper analyzes the effect of committed and heavy supply chain relationships characterized by high levels of relation-specific investments in innovation performance in Hungary, an emerging economy in Central and Eastern Europe. For this research, we carry out a two-step analysis. First, we investigate the effect of Relation Specific Investments (RSI on four different innovation-related performance dimensions of a focal firm. In contrast to previous research, we did not limit our analysis to the dyadic relationship level, but rather, we analyzed the triadic supply chain relationships. Uniquely, this paper conceptualizes and measures innovation performance in a complex way, both product and process, but also analyzes incremental and radical innovations. As a second step, the effect of internationalization on the focal firm is tested. Triad level RSI has a positive effect on all innovation related performance dimensions. A test of the moderation effect produced mixed results, indicating the need to treat innovation in a complex, sophisticated way in future research.

  11. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed.

  12. Job performance ratings : The relative importance of mental ability, conscientiousness, and career adaptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohme, Melanie; Zacher, Hannes

    According to career construction theory, continuous adaptation to the work environment is crucial to achieve work and career success. In this study, we examined the relative importance of career adaptability for job performance ratings using an experimental policy-capturing design. Employees (N =

  13. Modeling the Relations among Parental Involvement, School Engagement and Academic Performance of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwan, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    The author proposed a model to explain how parental involvement and school engagement related to academic performance. Participants were (671) 9th and 10th graders students who completed two scales of "parental involvement" and "school engagement" in their regular classrooms. Results of the path analysis suggested that the…

  14. 75 FR 76254 - Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 802 [Docket GIPSA-2010-FGIS-0012] RIN 0580-AB19 Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain Handling Systems AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  15. The determinants of relational governance and performance: how to manage business relationships?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claro, D.P.; Hagelaar, J.L.F.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2003-01-01

    It is the aim of this study to assess the influence of the determinants of the transaction, dyadic, and business environment level on relational governance and ultimately performance. We build an integrated framework for relationship management drawing from literature of transaction cost economics,

  16. Human Performance on the Traveling Salesman and Related Problems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, James N.; Chu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a review of recent research on human performance on the traveling salesman problem (TSP) and related combinatorial optimization problems. We discuss what combinatorial optimization problems are, why they are important, and why they may be of interest to cognitive scientists. We next describe the main characteristics of human…

  17. The Relation between Binge Drinking and Academic Performance: Considering the Mediating Effects of Academic Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Brian P.; Loes, Chad N.; Trolian, Teniell L.

    2017-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from multiple institutions, we focused on the relation between binge drinking and academic performance. Binge drinking exerts a negative influence on grade point average, even after accounting for a host of precollege confounding variables. Furthermore, the number of times a student binge drinks in college is less…

  18. R&D manpower and technological performance : The impact of demographic and task-related diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, D.L.M.; Subramaniam, A.

    2013-01-01

    We assess the impact of R&D manpower diversity on firms' technological performance. Relying on insights from two theoretical perspectives on team diversity (i.e. social categorization perspective and information decision-making perspective), we hypothesize that both demographic and task-related

  19. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R. T. A.; Brink, M. S.; van der Does, H. T. D.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes ( age, 27 +/- 8 years; VO2max, 50.3 +/- 4.6 mL center dot kg(-1) center dot min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress

  20. On the dynamics of the preference-performance relation for hearing aid noise reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Rosa-Linde; Wagener, Kirsten C.; Vormann, Matthias

    on the data collected during the first laboratory assessment of the study. In particular, the influence of hearing aid experience and individual noise sensitivity on the preference-performance relation will be presented and discussed. REFERENCES S. Getzmann, E. Wascher and M. Falkenstein (2015). "What does......Previous research has shown that hearing aid users can differ substantially in their preference for noise reduction (NR) strength, and that preference for and speech recognition with NR processing typically are not correlated (e.g. Neher 2014; Serman et al. 2016). In other words, hearing aid users...... may prefer a certain NR setting, but perform better with a different one. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of individual noise sensitivity, hearing aid experience and acclimatization on the preference-performance relation for different NR settings. For this purpose...

  1. Working-memory performance is related to spatial breadth of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    Working memory and attention are closely related constructs. Models of working memory often incorporate an attention component, and some even equate working memory and attentional control. Although some attention-related processes, including inhibitory control of response conflict and interference resolution, are strongly associated with working memory, for other aspects of attention the link is less clear. We examined the association between working-memory performance and attentional breadth, the ability to spread attention spatially. If the link between attention and working memory is broader than inhibitory and interference resolution processes, then working-memory performance might also be associated with other attentional abilities, including attentional breadth. We tested 123 participants on a variety of working-memory and attentional-breadth measures, finding a strong correlation between performances on these two types of tasks. This finding demonstrates that the link between working memory and attention extends beyond inhibitory processes.

  2. Values and attitudes related to career preference and performance in the surgical clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, B S; Zeppa, R

    1982-10-01

    We investigated the values and attitudes of junior medical students in relation to career preference (particularly surgery), ward behavior, and cognitive performance in the surgical clerkship. Students choosing specialty surgery were more cynical and authoritarian than those selecting general surgery. Those choosing general surgery had more self-esteem, and along with those who selected specialty surgery, more intolerance for ambiguity than other students. None of the values or attitudes were associated with grades, but several were related to ward behavior as judged by faculty and house staff. Students who valued academic achievement more and independence and intellectualism less and those with more submissive authoritarian views and more ego strength were considered better ward performers. This raises the question of whether such values and attitudes should be reinforced in ward performance or whether such students are rated higher simply because they are less disruptive to busy ward routines.

  3. Age-related differences in dual task performance: A cross-sectional study on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustio, Paolo R; Magistro, Daniele; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Liubicich, Monica E

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneous performances of motor and attention-demanding tasks are common in activities of everyday life. The present cross-sectional study examined the changes and age-related differences on mobility performance with an additional cognitive or motor task, and evaluated the relative dual-task cost (DTC) on the motor performance in young, middle-aged and older women. A total of 30 young (mean age 25.12 ± 3.00 years), 30 middle-aged (mean age 47.82 ± 5.06 years) and 30 older women (mean age 72.74 ± 5.95 years) were recruited. Participants carried out: (i) single task: Timed Up & Go Test; (ii) cognitive dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while counting backwards by three; (iii) manual dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while carrying a glass of water. A repeated measures anova with between-factor as age groups and within-factor as tasks was carried out to assess the effect of aging on the performance of mobility tasks. DTC was calculated as ([performance in single-task - performance in dual-task] / performance in single task) × 100%. One-way ancova were carried out to compare the DTC among the three age groups. A significant interaction between age groups and task (F 4,172  = 6.716, P performance under dual-task condition compared with young and middle-aged groups. Furthermore, DTC differences in cognitive task were observed in older women compared with younger and middle-aged women (F 2,86  = 7.649, P task. Dual-task conditions might affect mobility performance differently across the lifespan, and could be particularly challenging in older women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 315-321. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Young children's video/computer game use: relations with school performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Erin C; Karas, Tamara L; Winsler, Adam; Way, Erin; Madigan, Amy; Tyler, Shannon

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the amount and content of children's video game playing in relation with behavioral and academic outcomes. Relationships among playing context, child gender, and parental monitoring were explored. Data were obtained through parent report of child's game play, behavior, and school performance. Results revealed that time spent playing games was related positively to aggression and negatively to school competence. Violent content was correlated positively and educational content negatively with attention problems. Educational games were related to good academic achievement. Results suggest violent games, and a large amount of game play, are related to troublesome behavioral and academic outcomes, but educational games may be related to positive outcomes. Neither gender nor parental monitoring emerged as significant moderators of these effects.

  5. Young Children’s Video/Computer Game Use: Relations with School Performance and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Erin C.; Karas, Tamara L.; Winsler, Adam; Way, Erin; Madigan, Amy; Tyler, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the amount and content of children’s video game playing in relation with behavioral and academic outcomes. Relationships among playing context, child gender, and parental monitoring were explored. Data were obtained through parent report of child’s game play, behavior, and school performance. Results revealed that time spent playing games was related positively to aggression and negatively to school competence. Violent content was correlated positively and educational content negatively with attention problems. Educational games were related to good academic achievement. Results suggest violent games, and a large amount of game play, are related to troublesome behavioral and academic outcomes, but educational games may be related to positive outcomes. Neither gender nor parental monitoring emerged as significant moderators of these effects. PMID:19742374

  6. Relations between female students' personality traits and reported handicaps to rhythmic gymnastics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Champely, Stephane; Brunel, Philippe C

    2005-04-01

    The present study evaluated the relative contributions of Self-esteem, Trait anxiety, and Public Self-consciousness to self-handicapping on a sex-typed task, within a specific academic sport context. Prior to the competitive examination used to recruit French Physical Education Teachers, female sport students (N = 74) were asked to list and rate on a 7-point scale handicaps which could be disruptive to their Rhythmic Gymnastics performance. Self-esteem did not account for significant variance in any category of handicaps. Trait Anxiety was negatively related to handicaps related to Rhythmic Gymnastics and to Social and Work Commitments. Public Self-consciousness was significantly related to endorsement of Friends and Family Commitments handicaps. These results were discussed in relation to the literature.

  7. What is the impact of a clinically related readmission measure on the assessment of hospital performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, Roger K; Hou, Hechuan; Dhir, Apoorv; Andino, Juan J; Dupree, James M; Miller, David C; Ellimoottil, Chad

    2017-11-28

    The Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP) penalizes hospitals for high all-cause unplanned readmission rates. Many have expressed concern that hospitals serving patient populations with more comorbidities, lower incomes, and worse self-reported health status may be disproportionately penalized by readmissions that are not clinically related to the index admission. The impact of including clinically unrelated readmissions on hospital performance is largely unknown. We sought to determine if a clinically related readmission measure would significantly alter the assessment of hospital performance. We analyzed Medicare claims for beneficiaries in Michigan admitted for pneumonia and joint replacement from 2011 to 2013. We compared each hospital's 30-day readmission rate using specifications from the HRRP's all-cause unplanned readmission measure to values calculated using a clinically related readmission measure. We found that the mean 30-day readmission rates were lower when calculated using the clinically related readmission measure (joint replacement: all-cause 5.8%, clinically related 4.9%, p impact hospital performance in the HRRP.

  8. [Prevalence of aphysiologic performance on dynamic posturography in work-related patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrosa, Francisco; Durà, María J; Cordón, Astrid; Hernández, Anabella; García-Ibáñez, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Medical-legal implications of dizziness and imbalance in work-related patients are important. In these cases, computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) adds information to standard vestibular tests and aphysiologic patterns have been described. The objective is to assess the prevalence of aphysiologic performance on CDP in work-related patients complaining of dizziness/imbalance. Retrospective review of patients referred by the workers' compensation board for assessment of dizziness, imbalance or both. Standard vestibular assessment including CDP was carried out in all patients. The sensory organization test (SOT) summaries were scored as normal, aphysiologic or vestibular using the scoring method published by Cevette et al. in 1995. Aphysiologic performance in SOT, evaluated with the Cevette formula, was found in 31 out of 100 cases. Low composite score results and aphysiologic SOT results had a statistically-significant association (P=.01). Videonystagmography (VNG) was altered in 14 out of 31 cases with aphysiologic SOT. The 31% prevalence of aphysiologic results on CDP among work-related patients complaining of dizziness/imbalance is relatively high in comparison with the 25% published by Longridge and Mallinson in 2005. However, aphysiologic performance should not necessarily be related to malingering or exaggeration and altered vestibular tests are found in some of these cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Zuber, Isabelle; Kohn, Juliane; Poltz, Nadine; Wyschkon, Anne; Esser, Günter; von Aster, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD) using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (= negative math priming effect ).We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls). All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction) that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related) was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  10. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kucian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (=negative math priming effect.We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls. All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  11. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Zuber, Isabelle; Kohn, Juliane; Poltz, Nadine; Wyschkon, Anne; Esser, Günter; von Aster, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD) using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (=negative math priming effect).We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls). All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction) that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related) was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  12. Performance monitoring during associative learning and its relation to obsessive-compulsive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doñamayor, Nuria; Dinani, Jakob; Römisch, Manuel; Ye, Zheng; Münte, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    Neural responses to performance errors and external feedback have been suggested to be altered in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In the current study, an associative learning task was used in healthy participants assessed for obsessive-compulsive symptoms by the OCI-R questionnaire. The task included a condition with equivocal feedback that did not inform about the participants' performance. Following incorrect responses, an error-related negativity and an error positivity were observed. In the feedback phase, the largest feedback-related negativity was observed following equivocal feedback. Theta and beta oscillatory components were found following incorrect and correct responses, respectively, and an increase in theta power was associated with negative and equivocal feedback. Changes over time were also explored as an indicator for possible learning effects. Finally, event-related potentials and oscillatory components were found to be uncorrelated with OCI-R scores in the current non-clinical sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative performance of priority rules for hybrid flow shop scheduling with setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with explicit and sequence-independent setup times. This production environment is a multistage system with unidirectional flow of jobs, wherein each stage may contain multiple machines available for processing. The optimized measure was the total time to complete the schedule (makespan. The aim was to propose new priority rules to support the schedule and to evaluate their relative performance at the production system considered by the percentage of success, relative deviation, standard deviation of relative deviation, and average CPU time. Computational experiments have indicated that the rules using ascending order of the sum of processing and setup times of the first stage (SPT1 and SPT1_ERD performed better, reaching together more than 56% of success.

  14. Multiple performance optimization of electrochemical drilling of Inconel 625 using Taguchi based Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Manikandan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this present investigation, a multi performance characteristics optimization based on Taguchi approach with Grey Relational Analysis (GRA is proposed for Electrochemical Drilling process on Inconel 625 material which is used for marine, nuclear, aerospace applications, especially in corrosive environments. Experimental runs have been planned as per Taguchi’s principle with three input machining variables such as feed rate, flow rate of electrolyte and concentration of electrolyte. Besides the material removal rate and surface roughness, the geometric measures such as overcut, form and orientation tolerance are included as performance measures in this investigation. Outcomes of the analysis show that the feed rate is the predominant variable for the desired performance characteristics. On establishing the desired performance measures and multiple regression models are developed to be used as predictive tools. The confirmation test also conducted to validate the results attained by GRA approach and affirmed that there is considerable improvement with the help of proposed approach.

  15. Class Anxiety in Secondary Education: Exploring Structural Relations with Perceived Control, Engagement, Disaffection, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Antonio; Faílde Garrido, José María; Rodríguez Castro, Yolanda; Carrera Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2015-09-14

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between class-related anxiety with perceived control, teacher-reported behavioral engagement, behavioral disaffection, and academic performance. Participants were 355 compulsory secondary students (9th and 10th grades; Mean age = 15.2 years; SD = 1.8 years). Structural equation models revealed performance was predicted by perceived control, anxiety, disaffection, and engagement. Perceived control predicted anxiety, disaffection, and engagement. Anxiety predicted disaffection and engagement, and partially mediated the effects from control on disaffection (β = -.277, p anxiety and performance was mediated by engagement and disaffection (β = -.295, p Anxiety, engagement, and disaffection mediated the effects of control on performance (β = .352, p < .003; CI = .279, .440). The implications of these results are discussed in the light of current theory and educational interventions.

  16. Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggins, J.L.

    1979-12-14

    An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

  17. THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE-ORGANIZATION RELATIONSHIP ON INDIVIDUALS’ BEHAVIORAL OUTCOMES OF TASK-RELATED PERFORMANCE, CONTEXTUAL PERFORMANCE AND INTENTION TO TURNOVER: AN EVALUATION WITH SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil BAL TAŞTAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE-ORGANIZATION RELATIONSHIP ON INDIVIDUALS’ BEHAVIORAL OUTCOMES OF TASK-RELATED PERFORMANCE, CONTEXTUAL PERFORMANCE AND INTENTION TO TURNOVER: AN EVALUATION WITH SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY

  18. Cycling in the Absence of Task-related Feedback: Effects on Pacing and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Smits

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To achieve personal goals in exercise task completion, exercisers have to regulate, distribute and manage their effort. In endurance sports, it has become very commonplace for athletes to consult task-related feedback on external devices to do so. The aim of the present study was to explore the importance of the presence of this information by examining the influence of the absence of commonly available task-related feedback on effort distribution and performance in experienced endurance athletes.Methods. A 20-km cycling time trial was performed. 20 Participants from a homogenous cyclist population were appointed to a group that did not receive any feedback (NoF, or a group that could consult task-related feedback (i.e., speed, heart rate, power output, cadence, elapsed time and elapsed distance continuously during their trial (FF.Results. The distribution of power output (PO differed between groups. Most evident is the spurt at the end of the trial of FF, which was not incorporated by NoF. Nevertheless, no between-group differences were found in performance time (FF: 28.86 +/- 3.68 min vs. NoF: 30.95 +/- 2.77 min and mean PO controlled by body mass (FF: 3.61 +/- .60 W/kg vs. NoF: 3.43 +/- .38 W/kg. Also, no differences in rating of perceived exertion scores were found.Conclusion. The current study provides a first indication that prior knowledge of task demands together with reliance on bodily and environmental information can be sufficient for experienced athletes to come to comparable time trial performances. This questions the necessity of the presence of in-race instantaneous task-related feedback via external devices for maximising performance. Moreover, it seems that different pacing strategies emerge depending on sources of information available to experienced athletes.

  19. Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, on behalf of Cigre WG C4.502, W.; Sluis, L. V. der; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary...... for assessing the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with large share of AC cable lines. This paper besides providing a background for formulation of WG C4.502 and its overall aim, describes the tasks that were accomplished before the interim report was submitted to Study Committee C4 System Technical...... Performance in August 2010. The work in the WG is ongoing and final report will be ready according to the time schedule in 2012. The focus of this paper is in particular to show all issues related to system technical performance with assigned weights in terms of their importance and/or uniqueness for cable...

  20. Extending BPM Environments of Your Choice with Performance Related Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Mathias; Picht, Michael; Gilani, Wasif; Spence, Ivor; Brown, John; Kilpatrick, Peter

    What-if Simulations have been identified as one solution for business performance related decision support. Such support is especially useful in cases where it can be automatically generated out of Business Process Management (BPM) Environments from the existing business process models and performance parameters monitored from the executed business process instances. Currently, some of the available BPM Environments offer basic-level performance prediction capabilities. However, these functionalities are normally too limited to be generally useful for performance related decision support at business process level. In this paper, an approach is presented which allows the non-intrusive integration of sophisticated tooling for what-if simulations, analytic performance prediction tools, process optimizations or a combination of such solutions into already existing BPM environments. The approach abstracts from process modelling techniques which enable automatic decision support spanning processes across numerous BPM Environments. For instance, this enables end-to-end decision support for composite processes modelled with the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) on top of existing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) processes modelled with proprietary languages.

  1. Influence of children's oral health-related quality of life on school performance and school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the relation of child oral health-related quality of life with school performance and school absenteeism. We followed a cross-sectional design with a multistage random sample of 312 12-year-old schoolchildren living in Brazil. The participants completed the child perceptions questionnaire (CPQ(11-14) ) that provides information about psychological factors, while their parents or guardians answered questions on their socioeconomic status measured by parents' education level and household income. A dental examination of each child provided information on the prevalence of caries and dental trauma. Data on school performance, which included the results of baseline Brazilian language (Portuguese) tests, and school absenteeism (school days missed) were obtained from the school register. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate the association among psychological and socioeconomic status and children's school performance. In the multiple model, after adjusting for individual covariates, being a girl was associated with higher school performance (P Children's school performance and absence were influenced by psychological and socioeconomic conditions. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. Effects of caffeine, time of day and user history on study-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P J; Redman, J R

    1992-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of caffeine, time of day and history of caffeine consumption on several study-related tasks were investigated in 25 subjects (6 males, 19 females). Performance was measured on short term memory (STM), mental arithmetic (MA), reading comprehension, serial search (SS) and verbal reasoning (VR). Subjects attended eight experimental sessions, at four times of day (0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 hours), after ingesting caffeine (4 mg/kg) or placebo. Subjects were assigned to a low, moderate or high user group on the basis of a caffeine consumption questionnaire. Reading comprehension was affected by time of day, while caffeine improved performance on all mental speed-related tasks. High caffeine users performed more poorly than other groups on the verbal reasoning task. Several interactions between the three independent variables were observed on a number of tasks, supporting the contention that different processes underlying various types of cognitive performance are differentially, and often jointly, affected by caffeine, time of day and user history. Implications of caffeine usage on academic performance were discussed.

  3. The causal relation between commitment and performance: a study in research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejos-Saldivia, Miguel Enrique

    2006-01-01

    In this work relation among leadership, motivation, organizational climate, teamwork, and the organizational and occupational commitment, were studied. The exploratory study was accomplished in three parts. In the first it was identified the more important performance factors in a larger relation resultant of the bibliographical research and in the second, it was undertaken a quantification the 4 performance factors together to the organizational and occupational commitments. In the first part, it was accomplished an exploratory research close to some experienced servants, with emphasis in the management area. In the second part it was interviewed 52 employees of the CCTM's at the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN and 252 employees of the IAE at the Aerospace Technical Center - CTA. This research used 18 indicators of the organizational commitment and 18 indicators of the occupational commitment, all extracted from the instrument of Meyer, Allen and Smith. Beyond of these, it was used 7 demographic variables and 71 performance variables built from the theoretical revision. The results obtained with the exploratory research of the first part identified the 4 factors aforementioned performance factors. In the second part the obtained results in the two firsts places proved the hypothesis that the servants' locations or groups that show a higher degree of commitment tend to a higher degree of performance. In the third part of this study it was used the Structural Equations Modelling - SEM, from one theoretic model defined with the 12 more important variables from performance in both researched locals and with assistance of two statistical software SPSS and LISREL it was obtained a model of causal relations more strengthened to explain the relationship among the used variables. (author)

  4. Assessment of driving-related performance in chronic whiplash using an advanced driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haines, Andrew; Jull, Gwendolen

    2013-11-01

    Driving is often nominated as problematic by individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), yet driving-related performance has not been evaluated objectively. The purpose of this study was to test driving-related performance in persons with chronic WAD against healthy controls of similar age, gender and driving experience to determine if driving-related performance in the WAD group was sufficiently impaired to recommend fitness to drive assessment. Driving-related performance was assessed using an advanced driving simulator during three driving scenarios; freeway, residential and a central business district (CBD). Total driving duration was approximately 15min. Five driving tasks which could cause a collision (critical events) were included in the scenarios. In addition, the effect of divided attention (identify red dots projected onto side or rear view mirrors) was assessed three times in each scenario. Driving performance was measured using the simulator performance index (SPI) which is calculated from 12 measures. z-Scores for all SPI measures were calculated for each WAD subject based on mean values of the control subjects. The z-scores were then averaged for the WAD group. A z-score of ≤-2 indicated a driving failing grade in the simulator. The number of collisions over the five critical events was compared between the WAD and control groups as was reaction time and missed response ratio in identifying the red dots. Seventeen WAD and 26 control subjects commenced the driving assessment. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. All subjects completed the freeway scenario but four withdrew during the residential and eight during the CBD scenario because of motion sickness. All scenarios were completed by 14 WAD and 17 control subjects. Mean z-scores for the SPI over the three scenarios was statistically lower in the WAD group (-0.3±0.3; Pdriving. There were no differences in the reaction time and missed response ratio in divided

  5. Resting sympatho-vagal balance is related to 10 km running performance in master endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Cataldo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between heart rate recovery after exercise (HRR, baseline heart rate variability measures (HRV, and time to perform a 10Km running trial (t10Km were evaluated in "master" athletes of endurance to assess whether the measured indexes may be useful for monitoring the training status of the athletes. Ten “master” athletes of endurance, aged 40-60 years, were recruited. After baseline measures of HRV, the athletes performed a graded maximal test on treadmill and HRR was measured at 1 and 2 minutes from recovery. Subsequently they performed a 10Km running trial and t10Km was related to HRV and HRR indexes. The time to perform a 10Km running trial was significantly correlated with baseline HRV indexes. No correlation was found between t10Km and HRR. Baseline HRV measures, but not HRR, were significantly correlated with the time of performance on 10km running in “master” athletes. The enhanced parasympathetic function at rest appears to be a condition to a better performance on 10km running. HRV can be simple and useful measurements for monitoring the training stratus of athletes and their physical condition in proximity of a competition.

  6. Economic Difficulty and Coping Strategies of Low Income Faculty Members as Related to their Teaching Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo F. Frufonga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study ascertained the relationship between difficulties and coping strategies as related to teaching performance of West Visayas State University-Janiuay Campus (WVSU-JC faculty for the School Year 2014-2015. The survey-correlational method was used with teaching performance as dependent variables, experienced economic difficulties as the independent variable, and coping strategy as moderator variable. The participants in the study were the 52 faculty who were selected through purposive sampling. Data were gathered through a researcher-made questionnaire-checklist and Faculty Performance Evaluation System. The statistical tools used were frequency count, rank, mean, standard deviation, and Pearson's Product-Moment Coefficient of Correlation. All statistical computations were availed of through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results revealed that the top economic difficulty experienced by faculty was limited cash. The topmost coping strategy employed by faculty was buying only basic foods or things for household. The faculty also experienced economic difficulty to a “moderate extent.” Nevertheless, the performance of the faculty was found to be “outstanding.” Teachers were affected by such financial crisis. However, despite their experienced economic difficulties, as major agents for change, they performed their best for the improvement of quality education. No significant relationships existed between coping strategies and teaching performance of faculty.

  7. Visual tracking speed is related to basketball-specific measures of performance in NBA players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Rogowski, Joseph P; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Pruna, Gabriel J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between visual tracking speed (VTS) and reaction time (RT) on basketball-specific measures of performance. Twelve professional basketball players were tested before the 2012-13 season. Visual tracking speed was obtained from 1 core session (20 trials) of the multiple object tracking test, whereas RT was measured by fixed- and variable-region choice reaction tests, using a light-based testing device. Performance in VTS and RT was compared with basketball-specific measures of performance (assists [AST]; turnovers [TO]; assist-to-turnover ratio [AST/TO]; steals [STL]) during the regular basketball season. All performance measures were reported per 100 minutes played. Performance differences between backcourt (guards; n = 5) and frontcourt (forward/centers; n = 7) positions were also examined. Relationships were most likely present between VTS and AST (r = 0.78; p basketball-specific performance measures. Backcourt players were most likely to outperform frontcourt players in AST and very likely to do so for VTS, TO, and AST/TO. In conclusion, VTS seems to be related to a basketball player's ability to see and respond to various stimuli on the basketball court that results in more positive plays as reflected by greater number of AST and STL and lower turnovers.

  8. Non-training related causes of personnel performance problems: the role of organizational value systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaret, R.

    1987-01-01

    Training is frequently viewed as a panacea for all personnel related problems. Whenever an inexplicable incident occurs, training is verbalized by many as the solution, or worse, as the cause of the incident. All to frequently, training organizations are needlessly commissioned to develop some elaborate course, only to discover that the training is irrelevant to the problem. While training as a solution to an incident is socially acceptable, its' use clouds the real issue. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize that there are many reasons people do not perform, many of which are related to organizational culture or values. Values directly influence all activities which the authors are involved in, even to the extent of how they perceive their environment. They exert a strong, pervasive influence on what and how they perform

  9. Working memory performance inversely predicts spontaneous delta and theta-band scaling relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Matthew J; Wiltshire, Travis J; Niermeyer, Madison A; Butner, Jonathan E

    2016-04-15

    Electrophysiological studies have strongly implicated theta-band activity in human working memory processes. Concurrently, work on spontaneous, non-task-related oscillations has revealed the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) within sub-bands of the ongoing EEG, and has begun to demonstrate their functional significance. However, few studies have yet assessed the relation of LRTCs (also called scaling relations) to individual differences in cognitive abilities. The present study addressed the intersection of these two literatures by investigating the relation of narrow-band EEG scaling relations to individual differences in working memory ability, with a particular focus on the theta band. Fifty-four healthy adults completed standardized assessments of working memory and separate recordings of their spontaneous, non-task-related EEG. Scaling relations were quantified in each of the five classical EEG frequency bands via the estimation of the Hurst exponent obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis. A multilevel modeling framework was used to characterize the relation of working memory performance to scaling relations as a function of general scalp location in Cartesian space. Overall, results indicated an inverse relationship between both delta and theta scaling relations and working memory ability, which was most prominent at posterior sensors, and was independent of either spatial or individual variability in band-specific power. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the relevance of neural LRTCs for understanding brain functioning, and support a construct- and state-dependent view of their functional implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relative effects of demand and control on task-related cardiovascular reactivity, task perceptions, performance accuracy, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Niamh; James, Jack E

    2009-05-01

    The hypothesis that work control has beneficial effects on well-being is the basis of the widely applied, yet inconsistently supported, Job Demand Control (JDC) Model [Karasek, R.A., 1979. Job demands, job decision latitude and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Adm. Sci. Q. 24, 285-308.; Karasek, R., Theorell, T., 1990. Healthy Work: Stress, Productivity, and the Reconstruction of Working Life. Basic Books, Oxford]. The model was tested in an experiment (N=60) using a cognitive stressor paradigm that sought to prevent confounding between demand and control. High-demand was found to be associated with deleterious effects on physiological, subjective, and performance outcomes. In contrast, few main effects were found for control. Evidence for the buffer interpretation of the JDC Model was limited to a significant demand-control interaction for performance accuracy, whereas substantial support was found for the strain interpretation of the model [van der Doef, M., Maes, S., 1998. The job demand-control(-support) model and physical health outcomes: A review of the strain and buffer hypotheses. Psychol. Health 13, 909-936., van der Doef, M., Maes, S., 1999. The Job Demand-Control(-Support) model and psychological well-being: A review of 20 years of empirical research. Work Stress 13, 87-114]. Manipulation checks revealed that objective control altered perceptions of control but not perceptions of demand. It is suggested that beneficial effects of work-related control are unlikely to occur in the absence of reductions in perceived demand. Thus, contrary to the propositions of Karasek and colleagues, demand and control do not appear to be independent factors.

  11. Paying for performance and the social relations of health care provision: an anthropological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Priscilla; Nichter, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Over the past decade, the use of financial incentive schemes has become a popular form of intervention to boost performance in the health sector. Often termed "paying for performance" or P4P, they involve "…the transfer of money or material goods conditional upon taking a measurable action or achieving a predetermined performance target" (Eldridge & Palmer, 2009, p.160). P4P appear to bring about rapid improvements in some measured indicators of provider performance, at least over the short term. However, evidence for the impact of these schemes on the wider health system remains limited, and even where evaluations have been positive, unintended effects have been identified. These have included: "gaming" the system; crowding out of "intrinsic motivation"; a drop in morale where schemes are viewed as unfair; and the undermining of social relations and teamwork through competition, envy or ill feeling. Less information is available concerning how these processes occur, and how they vary across social and cultural contexts. While recognizing the potential of P4P, the authors argue for greater care in adapting schemes to particular local contexts. We suggest that insights from social science theory coupled with the focused ethnographic methods of anthropology can contribute to the critical assessment of P4P schemes and to their adaptation to particular social environments and reward systems. We highlight the need for monitoring P4P schemes in relation to worker motivation and the quality of social relations, since these have implications both for health sector performance over the long term and for the success and sustainability of a P4P scheme. Suggestions are made for ethnographies, undertaken in collaboration with local stakeholders, to assess readiness for P4P; package rewards in ways that minimize perverse responses; identify process variables for monitoring and evaluation; and build sustainability into program design through linkage with complementary reforms

  12. How is goodwill impairment driven by relative firm performance? : evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Sara Fontes Coutinho Mesquita

    2014-01-01

    Goodwill treatment has been facing considerable changes in terms of regulation. More recently, IAS 36 (2004) develops the subject of impairment of assets, stating that goodwill should be subject to impairment tests on an annual basis. In the IFRS context, the present research study aims at investigating how goodwill impairment is driven by relative firm performance in Europe, using Germany evidence. More precisely, the paper focuses on two distinct analyses: comparing differenc...

  13. Polymorphism screening and mapping of nine meat performance-related genes in the pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Stratil, Antonín; Svatoňová, Martina; Maštálková, Lucie; Patáková, Jitka; Van Poucke, M.; Bartenschlager, H.; Peelman, L. J.; Geldermann, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2010), s. 334-335 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500450801; GA ČR GA523/09/0844; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/06/1302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : genomics * meat performance-related genes * pig Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2010

  14. Firm Size as Moderator to Non-Linear Leverage-Performance Relation: An Emerging Market Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    2017-08-01

    such losses are more prominent for small size firms. Results also show that the leverage-performance relation is nonlinear for medium and large size firms. However, these firms are not targeting optimal level and overleveraging that ultimately decrease their profits. So, financial managers of small size firms should avoid debt financing while for large and medium size firms, managers need to adjust their debt ratio to its optimal level.

  15. Quality Management, Job-related Contentment and Performance: an empirical analysis of British workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    de Menezes, L. M.; Wood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This article investigates whether a quality management philosophy underlies the joint use of operations and human resource management practices, and the relationships with job-related contentment and performance.\\ud \\ud Design/ methodology/approach - Data from an economy-wide survey is used to test hypotheses via latent variable analyses (latent trait and latent class models) and structural equation models. The sensitivity of each path is then assessed using regression models.\\ud \\u...

  16. Polymorphism screening and mapping of nine meat performance-related genes in the pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Stratil, Antonín; Svatoňová, Martina; Maštálková, Lucie; Patáková, Jitka; Van Poucke, M.; Bartenschlager, H.; Peelman, L. J.; Geldermann, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2010), s. 334-335 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500450801; GA ČR GA523/09/0844; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/06/1302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : genomics * meat performance -related genes * pig Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2010

  17. The role of anthropometric, growth and maturity index (AGaMI) influencing youth soccer relative performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki, Ahmad; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Juahir, Hafizan; Muhamad, Wan Siti Amalina Wan; Afiqah Mohamad Nasir, Nur; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Musliha Mat-Rasid, Siti; Adnan, Aleesha; Azura Kosni, Norlaila; Abdullah, Farhana; Ain Shahirah Abdullah, Nurul

    2018-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop Anthropometric, Growth and Maturity Index (AGaMI) in soccer and explore its differences to soccer player physical attributes, fitness, motivation and skills. A total 223 adolescent soccer athletes aged 12 to 18 years old were selected as respondent. AGaMI was develop based on anthropometric components (bicep, tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, calf circumference and muac) with growth and maturity component using tanner scale. Meanwhile, relative performance namely physical, fitness, motivation and skills attributes of soccer were measured as dependent variables. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) are used to achieve the objective in this study. AGaMI had categorized players into three different groups namely; high (5 players), moderate (88 players) and low (91 players). PCA revealed a moderate to very strong dominant range of 0.69 to 0.90 of factor loading on AGaMI. Further analysis assigned AGaMI groups as treated as independent variables (IV) and physical, fitness, motivation and skills attributes were treated as dependent variables (DV). Finally, ANOVA showed that flexibility, leg power, age, weight, height, sitting height, short and long pass are the most significant parameters statistically differentiate by the groups of AGaMI (p<0.05). As a summary, body fat mass, growth and maturity are an essential component differentiating the output of the soccer players relative performance. In future, information of the AGaMI model are useful to the coach and players for identifying the suitable biological and physiological demand reflects more comprehensive means of youth soccer relative performance. This study further highlights the importance of assessing AGaMI when identifying soccer relative performance.

  18. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    OpenAIRE

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments, influence the perception of comfort.To meet the objective, the following actions were taken: (1) a literature survey exploring which indoor environmental parameters (thermal, acoustic, visualenvironmen...

  19. Performance Analysis of the Mobile IP Protocol (RFC 3344 and Related RFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    field of 9 identifies the ICMP message as an adverstisement . Code Mobile IP home agents and foreign agents use the value of 16 to prevent any nodes...ANALYSIS OF THE MOBILE IP PROTOCOL (RFC 3344 AND RELATED RFCS) by Chin Chin Ng December 2006 Thesis Co-Advisors: George W. Dinolt J. D...December 2006 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Performance Analysis of the Mobile IP Protocol (RFC 3344 and

  20. EFFECTS OF MUSIC TEACHER CANDIDATES’ ATTITUDES RELATED TO BOOK READING ON PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hasan OKAY; H. Serdar CAKIRER; Zafer KURTASLAN

    2015-01-01

    Music education depends on processing complex applications by considering educational aims because of its nature. Deep and multi dimensional form of music performance requires a detailed teoritical substructure in every disciplines related to music making. Knowing well that teoritical substructure by musicians or music making learners/teachers effects directly deepness of musical cause and quality and so on achievement. These elements requires to be powered on that substructure for who are re...

  1. Validating Student Satisfaction Related to Persistence, Academic Performance, Retention and Career Advancement within ODL Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximus Gorky Sembiring

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was collected proportionally and purposively followed by congregating them through unified interviews. Population was 1,814 Universitas Terbuka students domiciled overseas; 350 questionnaires were dispersed, 169 completed. Satisfaction was assessed by examining Servqual dimensions. Importance-performance analysis (IPA and customer-satisfaction index (CSI were applied to measure satisfaction and the level of its importance. Structural equation model (SEM was then employed to examine influencing variables. Nine hypotheses developed were all validated by the analysis. Responsiveness, assurance, tangible, reliability, and empathy were in harmony to satisfaction. Career advancement, retention, academic performance, and persistence were influenced by satisfaction. Qualitative inquiry implemented afterwards was basically coherent with the quantitative findings.

  2. Gender differences in the causal relation between adolescents' maths self-concept and scholastic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Antunes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is a core subject in every school curriculum and it is strongly correlated with maths self-concept, which is defined as the subjective feelings and beliefs about one's competence in maths. In general, boys tend to report higher maths self-concept than girls, but the difference between boys and girls' maths scholastic performance is low or even inexistent. Some authors maintain that academic self-concept can play an important role as a motivational variable, promoting self-confidence and investment in the learning process. This study examined the causal relations between maths self-concept and maths scholastic performance in four cohorts of boys and girls within a three-wave longitudinal study. The first two cohorts were composed of 187 girls and 139 boys attending grades 7 and 8 at Time 1 and the third and fourth cohorts were composed of 167 girls and 123 boys attending grades 9 and 10 at Time 1. Structural Equation Modelling was used to test the fit of several models of causal relations. The results revealed that for the first two cohorts the best models were reciprocal and skill-development for both boys and girls. However, for the older students, a reciprocal model gave a best fit for the boys, but for the girls there was only one significant effect from maths self-concept to maths scholastic performance. Results are discussed on the basis of gender-related differential learning expectancies.

  3. Effects of Non-Driving Related Task Modalities on Takeover Performance in Highly Automated Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandtner, Bernhard; Schömig, Nadja; Schmidt, Gerald

    2018-04-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of different non-driving related tasks (NDR tasks) on takeover performance in highly automated driving. During highly automated driving, it is allowed to engage in NDR tasks temporarily. However, drivers must be able to take over control when reaching a system limit. There is evidence that the type of NDR task has an impact on takeover performance, but little is known about the specific task characteristics that account for performance decrements. Thirty participants drove in a simulator using a highly automated driving system. Each participant faced five critical takeover situations. Based on assumptions of Wickens's multiple resource theory, stimulus and response modalities of a prototypical NDR task were systematically manipulated. Additionally, in one experimental group, the task was locked out simultaneously with the takeover request. Task modalities had significant effects on several measures of takeover performance. A visual-manual texting task degraded performance the most, particularly when performed handheld. In contrast, takeover performance with an auditory-vocal task was comparable to a baseline without any task. Task lockout was associated with faster hands-on-wheel times but not altered brake response times. Results showed that NDR task modalities are relevant factors for takeover performance. An NDR task lockout was highly accepted by the drivers and showed moderate benefits for the first takeover reaction. Knowledge about the impact of NDR task characteristics is an enabler for adaptive takeover concepts. In addition, it might help regulators to make decisions on allowed NDR tasks during automated driving.

  4. Performance Monitoring for Nuclear Safety Related Instrumentation at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2015-01-01

    The Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) at Malaysia Nuclear Agency is a TRIGA Mark II type reactor and pool type cooled by natural circulation of light water. This paper describe on performance monitoring for nuclear safety related instrumentation in TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP) of based on various parameter of reactor safety instrument channel such as log power, linear power, Fuel temperature, coolant temperature will take into consideration. Methodology of performance on estimation and monitoring is to evaluate and analysis of reactor parameters which is important of reactor safety and control. And also to estimate power measurement, differential of log and linear power and fuel temperature during reactor start-up, operation and shutdown .This study also focus on neutron power fluctuation from fission chamber during reactor start-up and operation. This work will present result of performance monitoring from RTP which indicated the safety parameter identification and initiate safety action on crossing the threshold set point trip. Conclude that performance of nuclear safety related instrumentation will improved the reactor control and safety parameter during reactor start-up, operation and shutdown. (author)

  5. The Influence of Relative Humidity on Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Flow Control Actuator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, M.; Thomas, F. O.; Corke, T. C.; Patel, M.

    2012-11-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators possess numerous advantages for flow control applications and have been the focus of several previous studies. Most work has been performed in relatively pristine laboratory settings. In actual flow control applications, however, it is essential to assess the impact of various environmental influences on actuator performance. As a first effort toward assessing a broad range of environmental effects on DBD actuator performance, the influence of relative humidity (RH) is considered. Actuator performance is quantified by force balance measurements of reactive thrust while RH is systematically varied via an ultrasonic humidifier. The DBD plasma actuator assembly, force balance, and ultrasonic humidifier are all contained inside a large, closed test chamber instrumented with RH and temperature sensors in order to accurately estimate the average RH at the actuator. Measurements of DBD actuator thrust as a function of RH for several different applied voltage regimes and dielectric materials and thicknesses are presented. Based on these results, several important design recommendations are made. This work was supported by Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC), LLC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II Contract No. N00014-11-C-0267 issued by the U.S. Department of the Navy.

  6. Relative performance of different numerical weather prediction models for short term predition of wind wnergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G; Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Moennich, K; Waldl, H P [Carl con Ossietzky Univ., Faculty of Physics, Dept. of Energy and Semiconductor, Oldenburg (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In several approaches presented in other papers in this conference, short term forecasting of wind power for a time horizon covering the next two days is done on the basis of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. This paper explores the relative merits of HIRLAM, which is the model used by the Danish Meteorological Institute, the Deutschlandmodell from the German Weather Service and the Nested Grid Model used in the US. The performance comparison will be mainly done for a site in Germany which is in the forecasting area of both the Deutschlandmodell and HIRLAM. In addition, a comparison of measured data with the forecasts made for one site in Iowa will be included, which allows conclusions on the merits of all three models. Differences in the relative performances could be due to a better tailoring of one model to its country, or to a tighter grid, or could be a function of the distance between the grid points and the measuring site. Also the amount, in which the performance can be enhanced by the use of model output statistics (topic of other papers in this conference) could give insights into the performance of the models. (au)

  7. Performance evaluations of continuous glucose monitoring systems: precision absolute relative deviation is part of the assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Karin; Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Klötzer, Hans-Martin; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Eikmeier, Heino; del Re, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Even though a Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute proposal exists on the design of studies and performance criteria for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, it has not yet led to a consistent evaluation of different systems, as no consensus has been reached on the reference method to evaluate them or on acceptance levels. As a consequence, performance assessment of CGM systems tends to be inconclusive, and a comparison of the outcome of different studies is difficult. Published information and available data (as presented in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology by Freckmann and coauthors) are used to assess the suitability of several frequently used methods [International Organization for Standardization, continuous glucose error grid analysis, mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), precision absolute relative deviation (PARD)] when assessing performance of CGM systems in terms of accuracy and precision. The combined use of MARD and PARD seems to allow for better characterization of sensor performance. The use of different quantities for calibration and evaluation, e.g., capillary blood using a blood glucose (BG) meter versus venous blood using a laboratory measurement, introduces an additional error source. Using BG values measured in more or less large intervals as the only reference leads to a significant loss of information in comparison with the continuous sensor signal and possibly to an erroneous estimation of sensor performance during swings. Both can be improved using data from two identical CGM sensors worn by the same patient in parallel. Evaluation of CGM performance studies should follow an identical study design, including sufficient swings in glycemia. At least a part of the study participants should wear two identical CGM sensors in parallel. All data available should be used for evaluation, both by MARD and PARD, a good PARD value being a precondition to trust a good MARD value. Results should be analyzed and

  8. Subjective memory complaint only relates to verbal episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Katherine A.; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M.; Chapman, William G.; Romano, Raymond R.; Samuels, Lauren R.; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. Objective We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. Method MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n=191, 77±7 years; complaint n=206, 73±8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Results Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E-4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β=−1.07, pmemory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β=−1.06, p=0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Conclusions Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer’s disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum. PMID:25281602

  9. Subjective memory complaint only relates to verbal episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Katherine A; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M; Chapman, William G; Romano Iii, Raymond R; Samuels, Lauren R; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L

    2015-01-01

    A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n = 191, 77 ± 7 years; complaint n = 206, 73 ± 8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β = -1.07, p memory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β = -1.06, p = 0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer's disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum.

  10. How the relative permittivity of solar cell materials influences solar cell performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Huss-Hansen, Mathias K.; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    of the materials permittivity on the physics and performance of the solar cell by means of numerical simulation supported by analytical relations. We demonstrate that, depending on the specific solar cell configuration and materials properties, there are scenarios where the relative permittivity has a major......The relative permittivity of the materials constituting heterojunction solar cells is usually not considered as a design parameter when searching for novel combinations of heterojunction materials. In this work, we investigate the validity of such an approach. Specifically, we show the effect...... the heterojunction partner has a high permittivity, solar cells are consistently more robust against several non-idealities that are especially likely to occur in early-stage development, when the device is not yet optimized....

  11. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior.

  12. Hippocampal testosterone relates to reference memory performance and synaptic plasticity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eSchulz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are important neuromodulators influencing cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity. While the majority of literature concerns adrenal- and gonadectomized animals, very little is known about the natural endogenous release of hormones during learning. Therefore, we measured blood and brain (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone concentrations of intact male rats undergoing a spatial learning paradigm which is known to reinforce hippocampal plasticity. We found significant modulations of all investigated hormones over the training course. Corticosterone and testosterone were correlated manifold with behaviour, while estradiol expressed fewer correlations. In the recall session, testosterone was tightly coupled to reference memory performance, which is crucial for reinforcement of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Intriguingly, prefrontal cortex and hippocampal levels related differentially to reference memory performance. Correlations of testosterone and corticosterone switched from unspecific activity to specific cognitive functions over training. Correspondingly, exogenous application of testosterone revealed different effects on synaptic and neuronal plasticity in trained versus untrained animals. While hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP was prolonged in untrained rats, both the fEPSP- and the population spike amplitude-LTP was impaired in trained rats. Behavioural performance was unaffected, but correlations of hippocampal field potentials with behaviour were decoupled in treated rats. The data provide important evidence that besides adrenal, also gonadal steroids play a mechanistic role in linking synaptic plasticity to cognitive performance.

  13. Development of visual working memory and distractor resistance in relation to academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2017-02-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) enables active maintenance of goal-relevant visual information in a readily accessible state. The storage capacity of VWM is severely limited, often as few as 3 simple items. Thus, it is crucial to restrict distractor information from consuming VWM capacity. The current study investigated how VWM storage and distractor resistance develop during childhood in relation to academic performance in the classroom. Elementary school children (7- to 12-year-olds) and adults (total N=140) completed a VWM task with and without visual/verbal distractors during the retention period. The results showed that VWM performance with and without distractors developed at similar rates until reaching adult levels at 10years of age. In addition, higher VWM performance without distractors was associated with higher academic scores in literacy (reading and writing), mathematics, and science for the younger children (7- to 9-year-olds), whereas these academic scores for the older children (10- to 12-year-olds) were associated with VWM performance with visual distractors. Taken together, these results suggest that VWM storage and distractor resistance develop at a similar rate, whereas their contributions to academic performance differ with age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification of the relative age effect in three indices of physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Taylor, Matthew J; Voss, Christine; Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Cohen, Daniel D; Parry, David A

    2013-12-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) describes the relationship between an individual's birth month and their level of attainment in sports. There is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for selection in age-grouped sports, and it is hypothesized that such relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. There is, however, little empirical evidence of any such advantage. This study investigated whether schoolchildren's physical performance differed according to which quarter of the school year they were born in. Mass, stature, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and power were measured in 10 to 16 year olds (n = 8,550, 53% male). We expressed test performance as age- and sex-specific z-scores based on reference data with age rounded down to the nearest whole year and also as units normalized for body mass. We then compared these values between yearly birth quarters. There were no significant main effects for differences in anthropometric measures in either sex. Girls born in the first quarter of the school year were significantly stronger than those born at other times when handgrip was expressed as a z-score. As z-scores, all measures were significantly higher in boys born in either the first or second yearly quarters. Relative to body mass, cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in boys born in the first quarter and power was higher in those born in the second quarter. The RAE does not appear to significantly affect girls' performance test scores when they are expressed as z-score or relative to body mass. Boys born in the first and second quarters of the year had a significant physical advantage over their relatively younger peers. These findings have practical bearing if coaches use fitness tests for talent identification and team selection. Categorizing test performance based on rounded down values of whole-year age may disadvantage children born later in the selection year. These

  15. Anthropometric factors related to sprint and agility performance in young male soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathisen G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gunnar Mathisen, Svein Arne Pettersen School of Sport Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Objective: To investigate the relationship between anthropometrics and sprint and agility performance and describe the development of sprint (acceleration and agility performance in 10- to 16-year-old male soccer players. Methods: One hundred and thirty-two participants were divided into three age groups, 10–12 years (mean 10.8±0.50, 13–14 years (mean 13.9±0.50, and 15–16 years (mean 15.5±0.24, with assessment of 20 m sprint with 10 m split time and agility performance related to body height and body mass within groups. Results: In the 10- to 12-year-olds, there were no significant correlations between height, weight, and the performance variables, except for body mass, which was correlated to 10–20 m sprint (r=0.30. In the 13- to 14-year-olds, body height was significantly correlated with 10 m sprint (r=0.50 and 20 m sprint (r=0.52, as well as 10–20 m sprint (r=0.50 and agility performance (r=0.28. In the 15- to 16-year-old group, body height was correlated to 20 m (r=0.38 and 10–20 m (r=0.45 sprint. Body mass was significantly correlated to 10 m spring (r=0.35 in the 13- to 14-year-olds, as well as 20 m (r=0.33 and 10–20 m (r=0.35 sprint in the 15- to 16-year-olds. Conclusion: Height and body mass were significantly correlated with sprint performance in 13- to 16-year-old male soccer players. However, the 10- to 12-year-olds showed no significant relationship between sprint performance and anthropometrics, except for a small correlation in 10–20 m sprint. This may be attributed to maturation, with large differences in body height and body mass due to different patterns in the growth spurt. The agility performance related to anthropometrics was insignificant apart from a moderate correlation in the 13- to 14-year-olds. Keywords: youth soccer, running speed, development, football, puberty, skills 

  16. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Flueckiger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  17. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  18. How brain asymmetry relates to performance – a large-scale dichotic listening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eHirnstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All major mental functions including language, spatial and emotional processing are lateralized but how strongly and to which hemisphere is subject to inter- and intraindividual variation. Relatively little, however, is known about how the degree and direction of lateralization affect how well the functions are carried out, i.e., how lateralization and task performance are related. The present study therefore examined the relationship between lateralization and performance in a dichotic listening (DL task for which we had data available from 1839 participants. In this task, consonant-vowel syllables are presented simultaneously to the left and right ear, such that each ear receives a different syllable. When asked which of the two they heard best, participants typically report more syllables from the right ear, which is a marker of left-hemispheric speech dominance. We calculated the degree of lateralization (based on the difference between correct left and right ear reports and correlated it with overall response accuracy (left plus right ear reports. In addition, we used reference models to control for statistical interdependency between left and right ear reports. The results revealed a u-shaped relationship between degree of lateralization and overall accuracy: the stronger the left or right ear advantage, the better the overall accuracy. This u-shaped asymmetry-performance relationship consistently emerged in males, females, right-/non-right-handers, and different age groups. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that performance on lateralized language functions depends on how strongly these functions are lateralized. The present study further stresses the importance of controlling for statistical interdependency when examining asymmetry-performance relationships in general.

  19. A search for factors related to successful performance by Rebuild America partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, Martin; Ogle-Graham, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) studied the Rebuild America program for the purpose of identifying key factors associated with successful operations. This involved performing a quantitative analysis of the relationships between program results and selected characteristics of the partnerships as well as soliciting opinion data from partnership representatives regarding the factors related to good performance. The statistical analysis revealed that partnership age and the number of projects per partnership were both positively related to all the results measures tested, by themselves and in the presence of each other. The factors most frequently mentioned by the interviewed partnership representatives as influencing good partnership performance were: general assistance from the Rebuild America representative; open communications among all partners; existence of a 'champion' for the partnership; support from the relevant city or state government; effective marketing to attract new partners; strong community interest; quick return on investment; interaction with other community organizations; and continuity of funding. A full discussion of all study findings can be found in the ORNL Report entitled an examination of Rebuild America partnership accomplishments and the factors influencing them (ORNL/CON-490, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

  20. A Performance Improvement of Power Supply Module for Safety-related Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Hwang, Sung-Jae; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in relation to voltage shortage state when power supply module is a slave mode, the performance improvement by modifying a PFC(Power Factor Correction) circuit is presented. With the modification of the PFC circuit, the performance improvement in respect of the voltage shortage state when the power supply module is a slave mode is checked. As a result, POSAFE-Q PLC can ensure the stability with the redundant power supply module. The purpose of this paper is to improve the redundant performance of power supply module(NSPS-2Q). It is one of components in POSAFE-Q which is a PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. Power supply module provides a stable power in order that POSAFE-Q can be operated normally. It is possible to be mounted two power supply modules in POSAFE-Q for a redundant(Master/Slave) function. So that even if a problem occurs in one power supply module, another power supply module will provide a power to POSAFE-Q stably

  1. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of age-related changes in lineup performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Joyce E; Flowe, Heather D

    2015-04-01

    In the basic face memory literature, support has been found for the late maturation hypothesis, which holds that face recognition ability is not fully developed until at least adolescence. Support for the late maturation hypothesis in the criminal lineup identification literature, however, has been equivocal because of the analytic approach that has been used to examine age-related changes in identification performance. Recently, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied for the first time in the adult eyewitness memory literature to examine whether memory sensitivity differs across different types of lineup tests. ROC analysis allows for the separation of memory sensitivity from response bias in the analysis of recognition data. Here, we have made the first ROC-based comparison of adults' and children's (5- and 6-year-olds and 9- and 10-year-olds) memory performance on lineups by reanalyzing data from Humphries, Holliday, and Flowe (2012). In line with the late maturation hypothesis, memory sensitivity was significantly greater for adults compared with young children. Memory sensitivity for older children was similar to that for adults. The results indicate that the late maturation hypothesis can be generalized to account for age-related performance differences on an eyewitness memory task. The implications for developmental eyewitness memory research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Performance Improvement of Power Supply Module for Safety-related Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Hwang, Sung-Jae; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo [PONUTech Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, in relation to voltage shortage state when power supply module is a slave mode, the performance improvement by modifying a PFC(Power Factor Correction) circuit is presented. With the modification of the PFC circuit, the performance improvement in respect of the voltage shortage state when the power supply module is a slave mode is checked. As a result, POSAFE-Q PLC can ensure the stability with the redundant power supply module. The purpose of this paper is to improve the redundant performance of power supply module(NSPS-2Q). It is one of components in POSAFE-Q which is a PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. Power supply module provides a stable power in order that POSAFE-Q can be operated normally. It is possible to be mounted two power supply modules in POSAFE-Q for a redundant(Master/Slave) function. So that even if a problem occurs in one power supply module, another power supply module will provide a power to POSAFE-Q stably.

  3. Compulsivity-related neurocognitive performance deficits in gambling disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Timmeren, Tim; Daams, Joost G; van Holst, Ruth J; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2018-01-01

    Compulsivity is a core feature of addictive disorders, including gambling disorder. However, it is unclear to what extent this compulsive behavior in gambling disorder is associated with abnormal compulsivity-related neurocognitive functioning. Here, we summarize and synthesize the evidence for compulsive behavior, as assessed by compulsivity-related neurocognitive tasks, in individuals with gambling disorder compared to healthy controls (HCs). A total of 29 studies, comprising 41 task-results, were included in the systematic review; 32 datasets (n=1072 individuals with gambling disorder; n=1312 HCs) were also included in the meta-analyses, conducted for each cognitive task separately. Our meta-analyses indicate significant deficits in individuals with gambling disorder in cognitive flexibility, attentional set-shifting, and attentional bias. Overall, these findings support the idea that compulsivity-related performance deficits characterize gambling disorder. This association may provide a possible link between impairments in executive functions related to compulsive action. We discuss the practical relevance of these results, their implications for our understanding of gambling disorder and how they relate to neurobiological factors and other 'disorders of compulsivity'. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. To master or perform? Exploring relations between achievement goals and conceptual change learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M

    2013-09-01

    Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Seventy-three undergraduate students were assessed on their prior knowledge and misconceptions about Newtonian mechanics, and then reported their achievement goals and participated in think-aloud protocols while reading Newtonian physics texts. A mastery-approach goal orientation positively predicted deep processing strategies, shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change. In contrast, a performance-approach goal orientation did not predict either of the processing strategies, but negatively predicted conceptual change. A performance-avoidance goal orientation negatively predicted deep processing strategies and conceptual change. Moreover, deep and shallow processing strategies positively predicted conceptual change as well as recall. Finally, both deep and shallow processing strategies mediated relations between mastery-approach goals and conceptual change. Results provide some support for Dole and Sinatra's (1998) Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model of conceptual change but also challenge specific facets with regard to the role of depth of processing in conceptual change. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  5. The Influence of Unsportsmanlike Fouls on Basketball Teams' Performance According to Context-Related Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Ortega Toro, Enrique; Furley, Philip

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the temporal effects that unsportsmanlike fouls may have on basketball teams' scoring performance under consideration of context-related variables. The authors analyzed 130 unsportsmanlike fouls from 362 elite basketball games (men's and women's Olympic Games, European and World Championships). The context-related variables studied were score-line, quality of opposition, timeout situation, minutes remaining, and player status. The data were analyzed with linear-regression models. The results showed that both teams (the team that made the foul and the opponent) had similar positive scoring performances during 1 and 3 ball possessions after the unsportsmanlike foul (short-term effect). However, 5 ball possessions after the foul (midterm effect), the team that made the foul had a scoring disadvantage (-0.96) and the opponent team an advantage (0.78). The context-related variable quality of opposition was significant only during 1 ball possession, with negative effects for the team that made the foul and positive effects for the opponent. The final outcome showed a positive effect for score-line when the unsportsmanlike foul was made (0.96) and for quality of opposition (0.64).

  6. Performance evaluation of websites using entropy and grey relational analysis methods: The case of airline companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Vatansever

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The revolutionary alterations and conversions occurring in information and communication technologies, have triggered an increase in the electronic commerce applications. Airline tickets are one of the most popular items purchased on the internet. The airline websites have become a big distribution channel for the companies to sustain their competitiveness. At this moment, the competition is increasing as airlines try to acquire and retain customers in the airline industry. To acquire and retain customers in such a highly competitive market, it is important for airlines to understand their relative levels of quality in terms of critical elements affecting their competitive advantages. In this study, an integrated two-stage multi-criteria decision-making techniques were used for the measurement of the performance of the airline websites using the Entropy Weight Method and the Grey Relational Analysis approach. The performance of 11 airline companies’ websites operating in Turkey was evaluated in terms of seven criteria. The data of quality website from airlines websites were taken more than 30 trails on various occasions on different periods of times. The data has been taken from 1 December 2016 to 31 December 2016. The weights of the attributes were calculated by Entropy Weight Method, the evaluation of the alternatives using the Grey Relational Analysis method were given ranking of websites.

  7. Relations Between Lower Body Isometric Muscle Force Characteristics and Start Performance in Elite Male Sprint Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Beretić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was twofold. The first aim was to examine the influence of absolute and relative lower body muscle force on kinematic component which determine the start performance. The second aim was to create multiregressional model which could use as a tool for swimming coaches with the purpose to start performance control and improvement. Twenty seven high-level trained male competitive swimmers all members of the Serbian National Youth and Senior Swimming Team (Age = 21.1 ± 4.3 yrs., Height = 1. 89 ± 0.10 m, Weight = 81.6 ± 8.4 kg, 50m freestyle - long course = 24.36 ± 0.86 s performed two trials of standing leg extensors isometric muscle force testing and three swimming start trials corresponding to 10m distance. The average start time significantly correlated with variables of leg extensors maximum voluntary force (Fmax, r = -0.559, p = 0.002, leg extensors relative muscle voluntary force (Frel, r = -0.727, p < 0.001, leg extensors specific rate of force development (RFD50%, r = -0.338, p = 0.047 and leg extensors relative value of specific rate of force development (RFD50%rel, r = -0.402, p = 0.040. Regression equation for t10m prediction was defined by following variables: maximum voluntary isometric force of leg extensors muscles at absolute and relative level (Fmax and Frel, as well as a specific rate of force development of the same muscle groups (RFD50% and RFD50%rel at absolute and relative level too with 74.4% of explained variance. Contractile abilities indicators of the leg extensors muscles included consideration: Fmax, RFD50%, Frel and RFD50%rel showed significant correlation with swimming start times on 10m. Additionally, the results suggest that swimmers, who possess greater isometric maximum force and specific rate of force development at absolute and relative levels, tend to be able to swim faster on initial 10m swim start perforamnce.

  8. EAST ASIAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: A TEST OF THE RELATION BETWEEN CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND FIRM PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Warokka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance theory predicts that leverage affects agency costs and thereby influences firm performance. Agency costs represent important problems in corporate governance in both financial and non-financial industries. Prior evidences have demonstrated an association between ownership structures, capital structure, and firm performance. This study extends the literature by proposing a further link between capital structure and firm performance in term of post Asian Financial Crisis that is rarely investigated. Using an agency framework, the research argues that the distribution of equity ownership among corporate managers and external block holders has a significant relationship with leverage and firm performance, and there is reverse causality effect between ownership structure, capital structure, and firm performance. The paper tests two hypotheses that explore various aspects of this relationship. This study uses 532 East Asian companies, which are located in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE STUDIES Vol 3, No 2, 2011 ISSN: 1309-8055 (Online 2 seven most affected countries when the crisis took place during period 1996-1997. The time frame of analysis is 2000-2001 period that is believed as a start of recovery period. Statistic methods used for testing the hypothesis are t-test and multivariate regression model. The empirical results indicate that the East Asian companies after the crisis apply the efficiency-risk argument. In analyzing the reverse causation of capital structure and corporate performance relation, the result confirms the incentive signaling approach, which debt can be used to signal the fact that firm has prospect and equity issues may be interpreted as a negative signal.

  9. How to assess performance in cycling: the multivariate nature of influencing factors and related indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, A. Margherita; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Finding an optimum for the cycling performance is not a trivial matter, since the literature shows the presence of many controversial aspects. In order to quantify different levels of performance, several indexes have been defined and used in many studies, reflecting variations in physiological and biomechanical factors. In particular, indexes such as Gross Efficiency (GE), Net Efficiency (NE) and Delta Efficiency (DE) have been referred to changes in metabolic efficiency (EffMet), while the Indexes of Effectiveness (IE), defined over the complete crank revolution or over part of it, have been referred to variations in mechanical effectiveness (EffMech). All these indicators quantify the variations of different factors [i.e., muscle fibers type distribution, pedaling cadence, setup of the bicycle frame, muscular fatigue (MFat), environmental variables, ergogenic aids, psychological traits (PsychTr)], which, moreover, show high mutual correlation. In the attempt of assessing cycling performance, most studies in the literature keep all these factors separated. This may bring to misleading results, leaving unanswered the question of how to improve cycling performance. This work provides an overview on the studies involving indexes and factors usually related to performance monitoring and assessment in cycling. In particular, in order to clarify all those aspects, the mutual interactions among these factors are highlighted, in view of a global performance assessment. Moreover, a proposal is presented advocating for a model-based approach that considers all factors mentioned in the survey, including the mutual interaction effects, for the definition of an objective function E representing the overall effectiveness of a training program in terms of both EffMet and EffMech. PMID:23734130

  10. Feature Extraction of Event-Related Potentials Using Wavelets: An Application to Human Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Shensa, Mark J.; Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development and evaluation of mathematical models for predicting human performance from discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) of event-related potentials (ERP) elicited by task-relevant stimuli. The DWT was compared to principal components analysis (PCA) for representation of ERPs in linear regression and neural network models developed to predict a composite measure of human signal detection performance. Linear regression models based on coefficients of the decimated DWT predicted signal detection performance with half as many f ree parameters as comparable models based on PCA scores. In addition, the DWT-based models were more resistant to model degradation due to over-fitting than PCA-based models. Feed-forward neural networks were trained using the backpropagation,-, algorithm to predict signal detection performance based on raw ERPs, PCA scores, or high-power coefficients of the DWT. Neural networks based on high-power DWT coefficients trained with fewer iterations, generalized to new data better, and were more resistant to overfitting than networks based on raw ERPs. Networks based on PCA scores did not generalize to new data as well as either the DWT network or the raw ERP network. The results show that wavelet expansions represent the ERP efficiently and extract behaviorally important features for use in linear regression or neural network models of human performance. The efficiency of the DWT is discussed in terms of its decorrelation and energy compaction properties. In addition, the DWT models provided evidence that a pattern of low-frequency activity (1 to 3.5 Hz) occurring at specific times and scalp locations is a reliable correlate of human signal detection performance.

  11. How to Assess Performance in Cycling: the Multivariate Nature of Influencing Factors and Related Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Margherita eCastronovo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding an optimum for the cycling performance is not a trivial matter, since the literature shows the presence of many controversial aspects. In order to quantify different levels of performance, several indexes have been defined and used in many studies, reflecting variations in physiological and biomechanical factors. In particular, indexes such as Gross Efficiency (GE, Net Efficiency (NE and Delta Efficiency (DE have been referred to changes in metabolic efficiency (EffMet, while the Indexes of Effectiveness (IE, defined over the complete crank revolution or over part of it, have been referred to variations in mechanical effectiveness (EffMech. All these indicators quantify the variations of different factors (i.e. muscle fibers type distribution, pedaling cadence, setup of the bicycle frame, muscular fatigue, environmental variables, ergogenic aids, psychological traits, which, moreover, show high mutual correlation. In the attempt of assessing cycling performance, most studies in the literature keep all these factors separated. This may bring to misleading results, leaving unanswered the question of how to improve cycling performance. This work provides an overview on the studies involving indexes and factors usually related to performance monitoring and assessment in cycling. In particular, in order to clarify all those aspects, the mutual interactions among these factors are highlighted, in view of a global performance assessment. Moreover, a proposal is presented advocating for a model-based approach that considers all factors mentioned in the survey, including the mutual interaction effects, for the definition of an objective function E representing the overall effectiveness of a training program in terms of both metabolic efficiency and mechanical effectiveness.

  12. Occupational-Specific Strength Predicts Astronaut-Related Task Performance in a Weighted Suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew; Kotarsky, Christopher J; Bond, Colin W; Hackney, Kyle J

    2018-01-01

    Future space missions beyond low Earth orbit will require deconditioned astronauts to perform occupationally relevant tasks within a planetary spacesuit. The prediction of time-to-completion (TTC) of astronaut tasks will be critical for crew safety, autonomous operations, and mission success. This exploratory study determined if the addition of task-specific strength testing to current standard lower body testing would enhance the prediction of TTC in a 1-G test battery. Eight healthy participants completed NASA lower body strength tests, occupationally specific strength tests, and performed six task simulations (hand drilling, construction wrenching, incline walking, collecting weighted samples, and dragging an unresponsive crewmember to safety) in a 48-kg weighted suit. The TTC for each task was recorded and summed to obtain a total TTC for the test battery. Linear regression was used to predict total TTC with two models: 1) NASA lower body strength tests; and 2) NASA lower body strength tests + occupationally specific strength tests. Total TTC of the test battery ranged from 20.2-44.5 min. The lower body strength test alone accounted for 61% of the variability in total TTC. The addition of hand drilling and wrenching strength tests accounted for 99% of the variability in total TTC. Adding occupationally specific strength tests (hand drilling and wrenching) to standard lower body strength tests successfully predicted total TTC in a performance test battery within a weighted suit. Future research should couple these strength tests with higher fidelity task simulations to determine the utility and efficacy of task performance prediction.Taylor A, Kotarsky CJ, Bond CW, Hackney KJ. Occupational-specific strength predicts astronaut-related task performance in a weighted suit. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):58-62.

  13. Gender differences in alcohol impairment of simulated driving performance and driving-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2009-01-01

    Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Both biological and social-cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference.

  14. Technical and tactical skills related to performance levels in tennis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Nikki S; Kramer, Tamara; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Visscher, Chris

    2018-06-11

    The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of outcome measures and instruments identified in the literature for examining technical and tactical skills in tennis related to performance levels. Such instruments can be used to identify talent or the specific skill development training needs of particular players. Searches for this review were conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases. Out of 733 publications identified through these searches, 40 articles were considered relevant and included in this study. They were divided into three categories: (1) technical skills, (2) tactical skills and (3) integrated technical and tactical skills. There was strong evidence that technical skills (ball velocity and to a lesser extent ball accuracy) and tactical skills (decision making, anticipation, tactical knowledge and visual search strategies) differed among players according to their performance levels. However, integrated measurement of these skills is required, because winning a point largely hinges on a tactical decision to perform a particular stroke (i.e., technical execution). Therefore, future research should focus on examining the relationship between these skills and tennis performance and on the development of integrated methods for measuring these skills.

  15. Effects of Different Relative Loads on Power Performance During the Ballistic Push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Hoffman, Jay R; Sadres, Eliahu; Bartolomei, Sandro; Muddle, Tyler W D; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-01

    Wang, R, Hoffman, JR, Sadres, E, Bartolomei, S, Muddle, TWD, Fukuda, DH, and Stout, JR. Effects of different relative loads on power performance during the ballistic push-up. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3411-3416, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of load on force and power performance during a ballistic push-up. Sixty (24.5 ± 4.3 years, 1.75 ± 0.07 m, and 80.8 ± 13.5 kg) recreationally active men who participated in this investigation completed all testing and were included in the data analysis. All participants were required to perform a 1 repetition maximum bench press, and ballistic push-ups without external load (T1), with 10% (T2) and 20% (T3) of their body mass. Ballistic push-ups during T2 and T3 were performed using a weight loaded vest. Peak and mean force, power, as well as net impulse and flight time were determined for each ballistic push-up. Peak and mean force were both significantly greater (p ballistic push-up, regardless of the participants' level of strength.

  16. Effect of overreaching on cognitive performance and related cardiac autonomic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, O; Lussier, M; Fraser, S; Bherer, L; Audiffren, M; Bosquet, L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of a 2-week overload period immediately followed by a 1-week taper period on different cognitive processes including executive and nonexecutive functions, and related heart rate variability. Eleven male endurance athletes increased their usual training volume by 100% for 2 weeks, and decreased it by 50% for 1 week. A maximal graded test, a constant speed test at 85% of peak treadmill speed, and a Stroop task with the measurement of heart rate variability were performed at each period. All participants were considered as overreached. We found a moderate increase in the overall reaction time to the three conditions of the Stroop task after the overload period (816 ± 83 vs 892 ± 117 ms, P = 0.03) followed by a return to baseline after the taper period (820 ± 119 ms, P = 0.013). We found no association between cognitive performance and cardiac parasympathetic control at baseline, and no association between changes in these measures. Our findings clearly underscore the relevance of cognitive performance in the monitoring of overreaching in endurance athletes. However, contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find any relationship between executive performance and cardiac parasympathetic control. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Parenting style of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong: correlates with children's school-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong.

  18. X-Ray Microscopy of Photovoltaic Polyfluorene Blends: Relating Nanomorphology to Device Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, C.R.; Watts, B.; Thomsen, L.; Ade, H.; Greenham, N.C.; Dastoor, P.C.; /Cambridge U. /North Carolina State U. /Newcastle U., Australia

    2007-07-10

    The composition of blend films of poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (PFB) and poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) used in prototype polymer solar cells has been quantitatively mapped using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The resolution of the STXM technique is 50 nm or better, allowing the first nanoscale lateral chemical mapping of this blend system. For 1:1 blend films spin-coated from xylene we find that the F8BT-rich domain is over 90% pure (by weight) and the PFB-rich domain contains 70% PFB. For 5:1 and 1:5 blend films processed from xylene, the minority phases are found to be intermixed, containing as much as 50% by weight of the majority polymer. Films prepared from chloroform with a 1:1 weight ratio have also been imaged but show no features on the length scale of 50 nm or greater. Additionally, the performance of photovoltaic devices fabricated using films prepared in an identical fashion to those prepared for STXM analysis has been evaluated and compared to the performance of chloroform blends with varied weight ratio. By studying the influence of blend composition on device performance in chloroform blends with a uniform morphology, we relate the performance of xylene-processed films to the local blend composition measured by STXM and the degree of nanoscale phase separation.

  19. Simulator Evaluation of Drivers’ Performance on Rural Highways in relation to Drivers’ Visual Attention Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to investigate, by means of a driving simulator experiment, drivers’ performance in terms of lateral position, speed, deceleration, steering angle, and breaking times on a divided two-lane rural highway in relation to drivers’ visual attention (VD. In the experiment, the virtual scene of twenty different geometric alignment sections without traffic and the VD testing were designed. Twenty-three experienced drivers with the calibration of attention capacity participated in a 30 km drive in an interactive fixed-base simulator. Each participant was required to drive with the controlled speed of 60 km/h along the central lane as repeating random number and was evaluated on VD and driving performances. Three different data analysis techniques were used: (a statistical tests and hypothesis test of curvature change rate (CCR of the geometric alignments, visual attention demands, and driving performance data, (b correlation analysis of VD, CCRs, and driving behaviors, and (c regression analysis of the VD and CCRs. Results have showed that the driving performance can be effectively influenced by the highway alignment and a prediction model built in this study can evaluate the drivers’ visual attention demands before the highway constructed. The interactions among VD, driving behavior, and CCRs were also found.

  20. Labour Mobility and Plant Performance in Denmark: The Significance of Related Inflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Boschma, Ron

    This paper investigates the impact of different types of labour mobility on plant performance, making use of the IDA-database that provides detailed information on all individuals and plants for the whole of Denmark. Our study shows that the effect of labour mobility can only be assessed when one...... performance. Moreover, intra-regional skilled labour mobility had a negative effect on plant performance in general, while the effect of inter-regional labour mobility depends on the type of skills that flow into the plant. We used a sophisticated indicator of revealed relatedness that measures the degree...... accounts for the type of skills that flow into the plant, and the degree to which these match the existing set of skills at the plant level. We found that the inflow of related skills has a positive impact on plant performance, while inflows of similar and unrelated skills have a negative effect on plant...

  1. Enhanced device performances of a new inverted top-emitting OLEDs with relatively thick Ag electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Ra; Suh, Min Chul

    2018-02-19

    To improve the device performances of top-emitting organic light emitting diodes (TEOLEDs), we developed a new inverted TEOLEDs structure with silver (Ag) metal as a semi-transparent top electrode. Especially, we found that the use of relatively thick Ag electrode without using any carrier injection layer is beneficial to realize highly efficient device performances. Also, we could insert very thick overlying hole transport layer (HTL) on the emitting layer (EML) which could be very helpful to suppress the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupling if it is applied to the common bottom-emission OLEDs (BEOLEDs). As a result, we could realize noteworthy high current efficiency of approximately ~188.1 cd/A in our new inverted TEOLEDs with 25 nm thick Ag electrode.

  2. Towards assuring the continued performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. Pertinent concrete structures are described in terms of their importance, design considerations, and materials of construction. Degradation factors which can potentially impact the ability of these structures to meet their functional and performance requirements are identified. A review of the performance history of the concrete components in nuclear power plants is provided. Accomplishments of the SLAG Program are summarized, i.e., development of the structural materials information center, development of a structural aging assessment methodology, evaluation of models for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete, review of in-service inspection methods, and development of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessment and life prediction of concrete structures. On-going activities are also described

  3. Putting to a bigger hole: Golf performance relates to perceived size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K.; Linkenauger, Sally A.; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    When engaged in a skilled behaviour such as occurs in sports, people's perceptions relate optical information to their performance. In current research we demonstrate the effects of performance on size perception in golfers. We found golfers who played better judged the hole to be bigger than golfers who did not play as well (Study 1). In follow-up laboratory experiments, participants putted on a golf mat from a location near or far from the hole then judged the size of the hole. Participants who putted from the near location perceived the hole to be bigger than participants who putted from the far location. Our results demonstrate that perception is influenced by the perceiver's current ability to act effectively in the environment. PMID:18567258

  4. [Sleeping habits and sleep disorders during adolescence: relation to school performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Aguilar, F; Rodríguez Almonacid, F M; Monterde Aznar, M L; García Jiménez, M A; Redondo Martínez, P; Marcos Navarro, A I

    2005-05-15

    To determine the prevalence of sleep disorders in adolescence. To describe sleeping habits of adolescents in relation to sleep disorders and associated factors. To determine the relation between sleep disorders/inappropiate sleeping habits and school performance. Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Secondary school of Cuenca (city in Spain). 1293 school children of first and fourth curses of secondary education. Structured questionnaire with opened and closed questions on sleeping habits during weekdays and at weekends and sleep disorders to be answered by the adolescents anonymously and on their own. Student's school performance with relation with to sleeping habits and sleep disorders were determined. 1155 students out of 1293 (response rate 89.33%) answered the questionnaire, 537 (45.9%) boys and 618 (54.1%) girls, 14 years old on average (between 11-18 years). On weekdays students went to bed at 23.17 h and got up at 7.46 h (average sleeping time =8 hours and 18 minutes). At weekends they went to bed at 1.02 h and got up at 10.42 h (average sleeping time =9 hours and 40 minutes). 45.4% of students said to sleep badly on Sunday night's. On average the number of subjects failed in class is higher with adolescents who complain about sleep (2.28 vs 1.91; P=.04), who are tired at waking up time (2.17 vs 1.97; P=.048) and who have morning sleepiness (2.17 vs 1.75; P=.004). Schools hours cause deficit sleeping time during weekdays which is partly made up for at weekend. At weekends there is an interruption of the adolescent's sleeping habits. School performance of adolescents with sleep disorders is lower.

  5. Seismic design and performance of nuclear safety related RC structures based on new seismic design principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, R.; Sivathanu Pillai, C.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Sundaramurthy, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Seismic design of safety related Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures of Nuclear power plants (NPP) in India as per the present AERB codal procedures tries to ensure predominantly elastic behaviour under OBE so that the features of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) necessary for continued safe operation are designed to remain functional and prevent accident (collapse) of NPP under SSE for which certain Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) those are necessary to ensure the capability to shut down the reactor safely, are designed to remain functional. While the seismic design principles of non safety related structures as per Indian code (IS 1893-2002) are ensuring elastic behaviour under DBE and inelastic behaviour under MCE by utilizing ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the structure effectively. The design principle of AERB code is ensuring elastic behaviour under OBE and is not enlightening much inference about the overall structural behaviour under SSE (only ensuring the capability of certain SSCs required for safe shutdown of reactor). Various buildings and structures of Indian Nuclear power plant are classified from the basis of associated safety functions in a descending order in according with their roles in preventions and mitigation of an accident or support functions for prevention. This paper covers a comprehensive seismic analysis and design methodology based on the AERB codal provisions followed for safety related RC structure taking Diesel Generator Building of PFBR as a case study and study and investigates its performance under OBE and SSE by carrying out Non-linear static Pushover analysis. Based on the analysis, observed variations, recommendations are given for getting the desired performance level so as to implement performance based design in the future NPP design

  6. Performance Improvement of Power Analysis Attacks on AES with Encryption-Related Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You-Seok; Lee, Young-Jun; Han, Dong-Guk; Kim, Ho-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Nam

    A power analysis attack is a well-known side-channel attack but the efficiency of the attack is frequently degraded by the existence of power components, irrelative to the encryption included in signals used for the attack. To enhance the performance of the power analysis attack, we propose a preprocessing method based on extracting encryption-related parts from the measured power signals. Experimental results show that the attacks with the preprocessed signals detect correct keys with much fewer signals, compared to the conventional power analysis attacks.

  7. Synchronized arousal between performers and related spectators in a fire-walking ritual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    during the 30-min ritual between fire-walkers and related spectators but not unrelated spectators. This indicates that the mediating mechanism may be informational, because participants and related observers had very different bodily behavior. This study demonstrates that a collective ritual may evoke......Collective rituals are present in all known societies, but their function is a matter of long-standing debates. Field observations suggest that they may enhance social cohesion and that their effects are not limited to those actively performing but affect the audience as well. Here we show...... synchronized arousal over time between active participants and bystanders. It links field observations to a physiological basis and offers a unique approach for the quantification of social effects on human physiology during real-world interactions....

  8. Performance indicators related to points scoring and winning in international rugby sevens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Dean G; Hopkins, Will G; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M

    2014-05-01

    Identification of performance indicators related to scoring points and winning is needed to inform tactical approaches to international rugby sevens competition. The aim of this study was to characterize team performance indicators in international rugby sevens and quantify their relationship with a team's points scored and probability of winning. Performance indicators of each team during 196 matches of the 2011/2012 International Rugby Board Sevens World Series were modeled for their linear relationships with points scored and likelihood of winning within (changes in team values from match to match) and between (differences between team values averaged over all matches) teams. Relationships were evaluated as the change and difference in points and probability of winning associated with a two within- and between-team standard deviations increase in performance indicator values. Inferences about relationships were assessed using a smallest meaningful difference of one point and a 10% probability of a team changing the outcome of a close match. All indicators exhibited high within-team match-to-match variability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.00 to 0.23). Excluding indicators representing points-scoring actions or events occurring on average less than once per match, 13 of 17 indicators had substantial clear within-team relationships with points scored and/or likelihood of victory. Relationships between teams were generally similar in magnitude but unclear. Tactics that increase points scoring and likelihood of winning should be based on greater ball possession, fewer rucks, mauls, turnovers, penalties and free kicks, and limited passing. Key pointsSuccessful international rugby sevens teams tend to maintain ball possession; more frequently avoid taking the ball into contact; concede fewer turnovers, penalties and free kicks; retain possession in scrums, rucks and mauls; and limit passing the ball.Selected performance indicators may be used to

  9. Age-related differences in working memory performance in a 2-back task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele eWild-Wall

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to elucidate the neuro-cognitive processes underlying age-related differences in working memory. Young and middle-aged participants performed a two-choice task with low and a 2-back task with high working memory load. The P300, an event-related potential reflecting controlled stimulus-response processing in working memory, and the underlying neuronal sources of expected age-related differences were analyzed using sLORETA. Response speed was generally slower for the middle-aged than the young group. Under low working memory load the middle-aged participants traded speed for accuracy. The middle-aged were less efficient in the 2-back task as they responded slower while the error rates did not differ for groups. An age-related decline of the P300 amplitude and characteristic topographical differences were especially evident in the 2-back task. A more detailed analysis of the P300 in non-target trials revealed that amplitudes in the young but not middle-aged group differentiate between correctly detected vs. missed targets in the following trial. For these trials, source analysis revealed higher activation for the young vs. middle-aged group in brain areas which support working memory processes. The relationship between P300 and overt performance was validated by significant correlations. To sum up, under high working memory load the young group showed an increased neuronal activity before a successful detected target, while the middle-aged group showed the same neuronal pattern regardless of whether a subsequent target will be detected or missed. This stable memory trace before detected targets was reflected by a specific activation enhancement in brain areas which orchestrate maintenance, update, storage and retrieval of information in working memory.

  10. Age-Related Differences in Working Memory Performance in A 2-Back Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild-Wall, Nele; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the neuro-cognitive processes underlying age-related differences in working memory. Young and middle-aged participants performed a two-choice task with low and a 2-back task with high working memory load. The P300, an event-related potential reflecting controlled stimulus–response processing in working memory, and the underlying neuronal sources of expected age-related differences were analyzed using sLORETA. Response speed was generally slower for the middle-aged than the young group. Under low working memory load the middle-aged participants traded speed for accuracy. The middle-aged were less efficient in the 2-back task as they responded slower while the error rates did not differ for groups. An age-related decline of the P300 amplitude and characteristic topographical differences were especially evident in the 2-back task. A more detailed analysis of the P300 in non-target trials revealed that amplitudes in the young but not middle-aged group differentiate between correctly detected vs. missed targets in the following trial. For these trials, source analysis revealed higher activation for the young vs. middle-aged group in brain areas which support working memory processes. The relationship between P300 and overt performance was validated by significant correlations. To sum up, under high working memory load the young group showed an increased neuronal activity before a successful detected target, while the middle-aged group showed the same neuronal pattern regardless of whether a subsequent target will be detected or missed. This stable memory trace before detected targets was reflected by a specific activation enhancement in brain areas which orchestrate maintenance, update, storage, and retrieval of information in working memory. PMID:21909328

  11. Association between health-related physical fitness and academic performance in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Jorge Santos de Castro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n4p441   This study aimed to verify the association between health-related physical fitness and academic performance in adolescents. Overall, 326 students aged 15-18 years of the Federal Institute of Sergipe (IFS participated in this cross-sectional study. Data relating to physical fitness were collected by applying the following tests: body mass index, sit and reach, abdominal in one minute and one mile running, which comprise the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance testing battery. Academic performance was measured by the grades of two-month period in the disciplines that comprise the following areas of knowledge: languages and codes, natural sciences and humanities, obtained from the IFS school record. Students with average grades ≥ 6.0 were considered on satisfactory academic performance. The prevalence of physical unfitness in the sample was 15.8% (girls 15.4%; boys 16.4% in body composition, 32.3% (girls 23.1%; boys 41.5% in flexibility, 93.0% (95.8% girls; 90.2% boys in muscular strength and 86.9% (85.3% girls; 88.5% boys in cardiorespiratory endurance. On academic performance, the prevalence of adolescents below the average grade was 8.8% (girls 5.6%; boys 12.0% in languages and codes, 24.5% (girls 19.5%; boys 29.5% in natural sciences and 12.8% (girls 11.9%; boys 13.7% in humanities. Adolescents with low cardiorespiratory endurance levels were more likely to have worse academic performance (OR=2.39; CI95%=1.05 to 5.44. It was concluded that low cardiorespiratory endurance levels were associated with worse academic performance.

  12. Building on prior knowledge: schema-dependent encoding processes relate to academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-10-01

    The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite their fundamental importance. A preexisting schema has been shown to enhance memory by influencing the balance between activity within the medial-temporal lobe and the medial pFC during mnemonic processes such as encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Specifically, correctly encoding and retrieving information that is related to preexisting schemas appears rather related to medial prefrontal processing, whereas information unrelated or inconsistent with preexisting schemas rather relates to enhanced medial temporal processing and enhanced interaction between these structures. To further investigate interactions between these regions during conceptual encoding in a real-world university setting, we probed human brain activity and connectivity using fMRI during educationally relevant conceptual encoding carefully embedded within two course programs. Early second-year undergraduate biology and education students were scanned while encoding new facts that were either related or unrelated to the preexisting conceptual knowledge they had acquired during their first year of study. Subsequently, they were tested on their knowledge of these facts 24 hr later. Memory scores were better for course-related information, and this enhancement was associated with larger medial-prefrontal, but smaller medial-temporal subsequent memory effects. These activity differences went along with decreased functional interactions between these regions. Furthermore, schema-related medial-prefrontal subsequent memory effects measured during this experiment were found to be predictive of second-year course performance. These results, obtained in a real-world university setting, reveal brain

  13. Relation between stability and resilience determines the performance of early warning signals under different environmental drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Korolev, Kirill S; Gore, Jeff

    2015-08-11

    Shifting patterns of temporal fluctuations have been found to signal critical transitions in a variety of systems, from ecological communities to human physiology. However, failure of these early warning signals in some systems calls for a better understanding of their limitations. In particular, little is known about the generality of early warning signals in different deteriorating environments. In this study, we characterized how multiple environmental drivers influence the dynamics of laboratory yeast populations, which was previously shown to display alternative stable states [Dai et al., Science, 2012]. We observed that both the coefficient of variation and autocorrelation increased before population collapse in two slowly deteriorating environments, one with a rising death rate and the other one with decreasing nutrient availability. We compared the performance of early warning signals across multiple environments as "indicators for loss of resilience." We find that the varying performance is determined by how a system responds to changes in a specific driver, which can be captured by a relation between stability (recovery rate) and resilience (size of the basin of attraction). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the positive correlation between stability and resilience, as the essential assumption of indicators based on critical slowing down, can break down in this system when multiple environmental drivers are changed simultaneously. Our results suggest that the stability-resilience relation needs to be better understood for the application of early warning signals in different scenarios.

  14. Performance of the modified Poisson regression approach for estimating relative risks from clustered prospective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Lisa N; Salter, Amy B; Ryan, Philip

    2011-10-15

    Modified Poisson regression, which combines a log Poisson regression model with robust variance estimation, is a useful alternative to log binomial regression for estimating relative risks. Previous studies have shown both analytically and by simulation that modified Poisson regression is appropriate for independent prospective data. This method is often applied to clustered prospective data, despite a lack of evidence to support its use in this setting. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the performance of the modified Poisson regression approach for estimating relative risks from clustered prospective data, by using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. A simulation study is conducted to compare log binomial regression and modified Poisson regression for analyzing clustered data from intervention and observational studies. Both methods generally perform well in terms of bias, type I error, and coverage. Unlike log binomial regression, modified Poisson regression is not prone to convergence problems. The methods are contrasted by using example data sets from 2 large studies. The results presented in this article support the use of modified Poisson regression as an alternative to log binomial regression for analyzing clustered prospective data when clustering is taken into account by using generalized estimating equations.

  15. Executive functioning in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: domain asynchrony and age-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Donna; Moss, Jo; Nelson, Lisa; Groves, Laura; Oliver, Chris

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in adolescents and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) to identify a syndrome and age-related profile of cognitive impairment. Participants were 24 individuals with CdLS aged 13-42 years (M = 22; SD = 8.98), and a comparable contrast group of 21 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) aged 15-33 years (M = 24; SD = 5.82). Measures were selected to test verbal and visual fluency, inhibition, perseverance/flexibility, and working memory and comprised both questionnaire and performance tests. Individuals with CdLS showed significantly greater impairment on tasks requiring flexibility and inhibition (rule switch) and on forwards span capacity. These impairments were also reported in the parent/carer-rated questionnaire measures. Backwards Digit Span was significantly negatively correlated with chronological age in CdLS, indicating increased deficits with age. This was not identified in individuals with DS. The relative deficits in executive functioning task performance are important in understanding the behavioural phenotype of CdLS. Prospective longitudinal follow-up is required to examine further the changes in executive functioning with age and if these map onto observed changes in behaviour in CdLS. Links with recent research indicating heightened responses to oxidative stress in CdLS may also be important.

  16. Ant-Related Oviposition and Larval Performance in a Myrmecophilous Lycaenid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Trager

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally assessed ant-related oviposition and larval performance in the Miami blue butterfly (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri. Ant tending had sex-dependent effects on most measures of larval growth: female larvae generally benefitted from increased tending frequency whereas male larvae were usually unaffected. The larger size of female larvae tended by ants resulted in a substantial predicted increase in lifetime egg production. Oviposition by adult females that were tended by C. floridanus ants as larvae was similar between host plants with or without ants. However, they laid relatively more eggs on plants with ants than did females raised without ants, which laid less than a third of their eggs on plants with ants present. In summary, we found conditional benefits for larvae tended by ants that were not accompanied by oviposition preference for plants with ants present, which is a reasonable result for a system in which ant presence at the time of oviposition is not a reliable indicator of future ant presence. More broadly, our results emphasize the importance of considering the consequences of variation in interspecific interactions, life history traits, and multiple measures of performance when evaluating the costs and benefits of mutualistic relationships.

  17. Relative merits of size, field, and current on ignited tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    A simple global analysis is developed to examine the relative merits of size (L = a or R/sub 0 /), field (B/sub 0 /), and current (I) on ignition regimes of tokamaks under various confinement scaling laws. Scalings of key parameters with L, B/sub 0 /, and I are presented at several operating points, including (a) optimal path to ignition (saddle point), (b) ignition at minimum beta, (c) ignition at 10 keV, and (d) maximum performance at the limits of density and beta. Expressions for the saddle point and the minimum conditions needed for ohmic ignition are derived analytically for any confinement model of the form tau/sub E/ ∼ n/sup x/T/sup y/. For a wide range of confinement models, the ''figure of merit'' parameters and I are found to give a good indication of the relative performance of the devices where q* is the cylindrical safety factor. As an illustration, the results are applied to representative ''CIT'' (as a class of compact, high-field ignition tokamaks) and ''Super-JETs'' [a class of large-size (few x JET), low-field, high-current (≥20-MA) devices.

  18. EFFECTS OF MUSIC TEACHER CANDIDATES’ ATTITUDES RELATED TO BOOK READING ON PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasan OKAY

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Music education depends on processing complex applications by considering educational aims because of its nature. Deep and multi dimensional form of music performance requires a detailed teoritical substructure in every disciplines related to music making. Knowing well that teoritical substructure by musicians or music making learners/teachers effects directly deepness of musical cause and quality and so on achievement. These elements requires to be powered on that substructure for who are related to music making subject. Reading books whiches are about mentioned music making theoritical substructure is a affective way standing on the front of the elements that help everybody linked musicianship. This research aims to evaluate relationships of music candidates’ book reading attitudes with academic achievement of instrument or vocal performance lessons. “Öğretmen Adaylarının Kitap Okuma Alışkanlığına Yönelik Tutum Ölçeği” (The Attitudes Scale of of Teacher Candidates’ Reading Book Trends is used to gather data by taking permission Mrs. Kırmızı who developed this scale.

  19. Is performance on probed serial recall tasks in schizophrenia related to duration of Attentional Blink?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. McAllindon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with a deficit in working memory, with the degree of working memory impairment related to the level of social and occupational functioning. This study tests the hypothesis that the working memory deficits in individuals with schizophrenia can be explained by slow processing of visual stimuli, as measured by the attentional blink (AB task. Individuals with schizophrenia (SC and controls (HC were recruited from an early intervention service for psychosis and the local community. Data from 16 SC (11M/5F, mean = 26.4 yo and 20 age-matched HC (11M/9F, mean = 25.8 yo were analyzed. Each subject performed an AB task to determine their AB duration, defined as the lag to reach their plateau performance (ltpp. As expected, mean AB duration in the SC group (575 ms was significantly slower than HC (460 ms; p = 0.007. Recall accuracy of the SC group on a working memory task, a 6-item probed serial recall task (PSR, was reduced compared to the HC group at a standard interstimulus interval (ISI (p = 0.002. When the individual's AB duration was then used to adjust the ISI on the PSR task to three relative ISI rates (Slow (2 × ltpp, Medium (ltpp and Fast (1/2 × ltpp, performance on the PSR task was affected by group, position and ISI and qualified by an ISI ∗ position (p = 0.001 and a trend to a triple interaction (p = 0.054. There was main effect of group at all ISIs, but group ∗ position interaction only at Slow ISI (p = 0.01. Our interpretation of the results is that absolute ISI, rather than ISI relative to AB duration, affected performance.

  20. Is autonomy related to the quality of performance of everyday activities in children with spina bifida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peny-Dahlstrand, Marie; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Gosman-Hedström, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the level of autonomy and the quality of performance of everyday activities in a population-based cohort of children with spina bifida and to study the agreement between the children's and the parents' ratings of autonomy. 50 dyads of children (aged 6-14) with spina bifida and their parents rated the children's level of autonomy with an adapted, Swedish version of the Autonomy Scale from the Arc's Self-Determination Scale. Each child's quality of performance of everyday activities was assessed with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). The autonomy levels of the children with spina bifida were rated to be lowest in daily routines and highest in leisure activities. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, motor skills and process skills were all significantly related to the autonomy level, but that process skills appeared to predominate in this respect. Concerning the perception of the autonomy level, little agreement was found between each child and his/her parent. It is important to understand and support the development of process skills as expressed in task performance in children with spina bifida and to pay attention to both the parent's and the child's opinion when setting goals and plans for interventions.

  1. Attentional fluctuations in preschoolers: Direct and indirect relations with task accuracy, academic readiness, and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Elif; Calkins, Susan D; Swingler, Margaret M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2018-03-01

    Attentional control fluctuates in the presence of internal and external distractors, wandering on and off a given task. The current study investigated individual differences in attentional fluctuations in 250 preschoolers. Attentional fluctuations were assessed via intra-individual variability in response time in a Go/No-Go task. Greater fluctuations in attentional control were linked to lower task accuracy. In addition, greater attentional fluctuations predicted lower performance in a task of cognitive flexibility, the Dimensional Change Card Sort task. Attentional fluctuations were also associated with laboratory measures of academic readiness in preschool, as assessed by the Applied Problems and Letter-Word Identification subscales of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement, which in turn predicted teacher reports of academic performance in first grade. Attentional fluctuations also had indirect associations with emergent math skills in preschool, via cognitive flexibility, as well as indirect associations with first-grade teacher reports of academic performance, via the relations between cognitive flexibility and emergent math skills in preschool. These results suggest that consistency is an important aspect of attentional control during early childhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Game-Related Performance Factors in four European Men's Professional Volleyball Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Javier; Casals, Martí

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to assess the relevance of game-related performance factors as outcome predictors in high-level volleyball. To carry out the analysis, the official box scores of 399 matches played by 47 different teams in four different European male professional volleyball leagues (Italy, Poland, Germany and Turkey) during the 2013-14 regular season were analyzed. A logistic mixed model was performed to determine the effects of different variables in matches' outcomes. According to the multivariate analysis the following factors were significantly associated with winning matches: the number of scorers (OR = 1.32; CI: 1.09 - 1.59), service errors (OR = 0.91; CI: 0.87 - 0.95), service points (OR = 1.25; CI: 1.15 -1.36), reception errors (OR = 0.79; CI: 0.74 - 0.84), the percentage of positive receptions (OR = 1.02; CI: 1.00 -1.04) and blocked balls (OR = 1.17; CI: 1.11 - 1.26). Team category 2 (OR = 0.39; CI: 0.24 - 0.63) and team category 3 (OR = 0.15; CI: 0.09 - 0.25) were significantly associated with losing matches. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of performance indicators in professional volleyball, helping coaches and decision makers to better determine the importance of particular game factors.

  3. Game-Related Performance Factors in four European Men’s Professional Volleyball Championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Javier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the relevance of game-related performance factors as outcome predictors in high-level volleyball. To carry out the analysis, the official box scores of 399 matches played by 47 different teams in four different European male professional volleyball leagues (Italy, Poland, Germany and Turkey during the 2013-14 regular season were analyzed. A logistic mixed model was performed to determine the effects of different variables in matches’ outcomes. According to the multivariate analysis the following factors were significantly associated with winning matches: the number of scorers (OR = 1.32; CI: 1.09 – 1.59, service errors (OR = 0.91; CI: 0.87 – 0.95, service points (OR = 1.25; CI: 1.15 -1.36, reception errors (OR = 0.79; CI: 0.74 – 0.84, the percentage of positive receptions (OR = 1.02; CI: 1.00 -1.04 and blocked balls (OR = 1.17; CI: 1.11 – 1.26. Team category 2 (OR = 0.39; CI: 0.24 – 0.63 and team category 3 (OR = 0.15; CI: 0.09 – 0.25 were significantly associated with losing matches. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of performance indicators in professional volleyball, helping coaches and decision makers to better determine the importance of particular game factors.

  4. Assessing Adult Learner’s Numeracy as Related to Gender and Performance in Arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeneye O. A. Awofala

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated adult learner numeracy as related to gender and performance in arithmetic among 32 Nigerian adult learners from one government accredited adult literacy centre in Lagos State using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of descriptive survey design. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive statistics of percentages, mean, and standard deviation and inferential statistics of factor analysis, independent samples t-test, and multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed that numeracy skill assessed by the numeracy self-assessment scale was a multi-dimensional construct (numeracy in everyday life, numeracy in workplace, and numeracy in mathematical tasks. Adult learners showed average numeracy strength as gender differences in perception of numeracy skills and performance in arithmetic among adult learners reached zero-tolerance level. Numeracy in workplace and numeracy in mathematical tasks made statistically significant contributions to the variance in adult learners’ performance in arithmetic. Based on this base line study, it was thus, recommended that future studies in Nigeria should investigate adult learners’ numeracy skills using more robust and psychometrically sound instruments such as the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALLS and the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS.

  5. Comparison of two approaches for establishing performance criteria related to Maintenance Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerng, Dong-Wook; Kim, Man Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) serves as a tool for systemically analyzing the safety of nuclear power plants. This paper explains and compares two approaches for the establishment of performance criteria related to the Maintenance Rule: (1) the individual reliability-based approach, and (2) the PSA importance measure-based approach. Different characteristics of the two approaches were compared in a qualitative manner, while a quantitative comparison was performed through application of the two approaches to a nuclear power plant. It was observed that the individual reliability-based approach resulted in more conservative performance criteria, compared to the PSA importance measure-based approach. It is thus expected that the PSA importance measure-based approach will allow for more flexible maintenance policy under conditions of limited resources, while providing for a macroscopic view of overall plant safety. Based on insights derived through this analysis, we emphasize the importance of a balance between reliability and safety significance, and propose a balance measure accordingly. The conclusions of this analysis are likely to be applicable to other types of nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. CRP on Demonstrating Performance of Spent Fuel and Related Storage Systems beyond the Long Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    At the initial Coordinated Research Project (CRP) planning meeting held in August 2011, international experts in spent fuel performance confirmed the value of further coordination and development of international efforts to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and related storage system components as durations extend. Furthermore, in recognition that the Extended Storage Collaboration Program (ESCP) managed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the USA, from now on ESCP, provided a broad context for the research and development work to be performed in the frame of this CRP, it was agreed that its objectives should target specific ESCP needs in order to make a relevant contribution. Accordingly, the experts examined on-going gap analyses - gaps between anticipated technical needs and existing technical data - for identify the specific research objectives. Additionally, during the planning meeting it was pointed out the need to coordinate and cooperate with the OECD/NEA counterparts involved in the organization of the International Workshop planned in autumn 2013 and with the on-going third phase of the CRP on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III). Given the importance to assess the performance of spent fuel and related important storage system components in order to confirm the viability of very long term storage for supporting the need to extend or renew licenses for storage facilities the CRP was approved by the IAEA in November 2011. While a full range of spent fuel types and storage conditions are deployed around the world, this CRP is focused on existing systems and, more specifically, water reactor fuel in dry storage with the overall research objective to support the technical basis for water reactor spent fuel management as dry storage durations extend. In March 2012 the group of international experts who participated at the initial CRP planning meeting in August 2011 evaluated and recommended for approval 9 research

  7. Intraoperative performance and longterm outcome of phacoemulsification in age-related cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dholakia Sheena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate intraoperative performance and longterm surgical outcome after phacoemulsification of age-related cataracts. METHODS: Prospective, observational, non-comparative study of 165 consecutive eyes undergoing phacoemulsification with nuclear sclerosis Grade I to III (Scale I to V. Preoperative evaluation included specular microscopy. Phacoemulsification was performed by a single surgeon using a standardised surgical technique under topical anaesthesia. Intraoperatively, effective phaco time (EPT, wound site thermal injury (WSTI, serious complications (eg. vitreous loss, posterior capsule rupture, zonulolysis and intraoperative posterior capsule opacification (plaque were evaluated. Postoperatively, posterior capsule opacification (PCO, Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy rate, corneal endothelial count, best corrected visual acuity and cystoid macular oedema were evaluated. Eyes were examined at 6 months and then yearly for 3 years. RESULTS: Mean ages of 78 males and 87 females were 59.12 +/- 8.56 and 58.34 +/- 7.45 years respectively. EPT was 36 +/- 19 seconds and WSTI occurred in 7 eyes (4.7%. No serious intraocular complications occurred. Intraoperative posterior capsule opacification (plaque was present in 21 eyes (13.93%. Postoperatively, PCO occurred in 8 eyes (4.84% and Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed in 3 eyes (1.8%. Endothelial cell loss was 7.1% at 3 years follow-up. At the end of 3 years follow-up, 146 eyes (88.89% maintained a best corrected visual acuity of > or = 6/12. Cystoid macular oedema did not occur in any eye at 1 and 6 months′ follow-up. CONCLUSION: PCO rates and endothelial cell loss were acceptable. Consistent and reproducible outcome can be obtained after phacoemulsification of age related cataracts (grade I to III.

  8. Simulated front crawl swimming performance related to critical speed and critical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, H M; Wakayoshi, K; Hollander, A P; Ogita, F

    1998-01-01

    Competitive pool swimming events range in distance from 50 to 1500 m. Given the difference in performance times (+/- 23-1000 s), the contribution of the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems changes considerably with race distance. In training practice the regression line between swimming distance and time (Distance = critical velocity x time + anaerobic swimming capacity) is used to determine the individual capacity of the aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. Although there is confidence that critical velocity and anaerobic swimming capacity are fitness measures that separate aerobic and anaerobic components, a firm theoretical basis for the interpretation of these results does not exist. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the critical power concept and anaerobic swimming capacity as measures of the aerobic and anaerobic capacity using a modeling approach. A systems model was developed that relates the mechanics and energetics involved in front crawl swimming performance. From actual swimming flume measurements, the time dependent aerobic and anaerobic energy release was modeled. Data derived from the literature were used to relate the energy cost of front crawl swimming to swimming velocity. A balance should exist between the energy cost to swim a distance in a certain time and the concomitant aerobic and anaerobic energy release. The ensuing model was used to predict performance times over a range of distances (50-1500 m) and to calculate the regression line between swimming distance and time. Using a sensitivity analysis, it was demonstrated that the critical velocity is indicative for the capacity of the aerobic energy system. Estimates of the anaerobic swimming capacity, however, were influenced by variations in both anaerobic and aerobic energy release. Therefore, it was concluded that the anaerobic swimming capacity does not provide a reliable estimate of the anaerobic capacity.

  9. The effect of non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration on face recognition performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Deanna J; Smith, Nicholas D; Binns, Alison M; Crabb, David P

    2018-04-01

    There is a well-established research base surrounding face recognition in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, much of this existing research does not differentiate between results obtained for 'wet' AMD and 'dry' AMD. Here, we test the hypothesis that face recognition performance is worse in patients with dry AMD compared with visually healthy peers. Patients (>60 years of age, logMAR binocular visual acuity 0.7 or better) with dry AMD of varying severity and visually healthy age-related peers (controls) completed a modified version of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT). Percentage of correctly identified faces was used as an outcome measure for performance for each participant. A 90% normative reference limit was generated from the distribution of CFMT scores recorded in the visually healthy controls. Scores for AMD participants were then specifically compared to this limit, and comparisons between average scores in the AMD severity groups were investigated. Thirty patients (median [interquartile range] age of 76 [70, 79] years) and 34 controls (median age of 70 [64, 75] years) were examined. Four, seventeen and nine patients were classified as having early, intermediate and late AMD (geographic atrophy) respectively. Five (17%) patients recorded a face recognition performance worse than the 90% limit (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.46) set by controls; four of these had geographic atrophy. Patients with geographic atrophy identified fewer faces on average (±SD) (61% ± 22%) than those with early and intermediate AMD (75 ± 11%) and controls (74% ± 11%). People with dry AMD may not suffer from problems with face recognition until the disease is in its later stages; those with late AMD (geographic atrophy) are likely to have difficulty recognising faces. The results from this study should influence the management and expectations of patients with dry AMD in both community practice and hospital clinics.

  10. Spectacle-related eye injuries, spectacle-impact performance and eye protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha; Dain, Stephen J; Mackey, David A

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to review the prevalence of spectacle-related ocular trauma and the performance of currently available spectacle materials and to identify the risk factors associated with spectacle-related ocular trauma. A literature review was conducted using Medline, Embase and Google with the keywords 'eyeglasses' OR 'spectacles' AND 'ocular injury' / 'eye injury'/ 'eye trauma' / 'ocular trauma'. Articles published prior to 1975 were excluded from this review because of advances in spectacle lens technology and Food and Drug Administration legislative changes requiring impact resistance of all prescription spectacle lenses in the United States. Six hundred and ninety-five individual ocular traumas, for which spectacles contributed to or were the main cause of injury, were identified in the literature. Eye injuries occurred when spectacles were worn in sports, in which medium- to high-impact energies were exerted from balls, racquets or bats and/or as a result of a collision with another player. Frame, lens design and product material choice were found to be associated with ocular injury, with polycarbonate lenses cited as the material of choice in the literature. International, regional and national standards for spectacle lenses had a wide range of impact requirements for prescription spectacle lenses, sports eye protection and occupational eye protection. Spectacle-related injury represents a small but preventable cause of ocular injury. With the increasing numbers of spectacle wearers and calls to spend more time outdoors to reduce myopia, spectacle wearers need to be made aware of the potential risks associated with wearing spectacles during medium- to high-risk activities. At particular risk are those prone to falls, the functionally one-eyed, those who have corneal thinning or have had previous eye surgery or injury. With increased understanding of specific risk factors, performance guidelines can be developed for prescription spectacle eye

  11. Relative performance of indoor vector control interventions in the Ifakara and the West African experimental huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumbouke, Welbeck A; Fongnikin, Augustin; Soukou, Koffi B; Moore, Sarah J; N'Guessan, Raphael

    2017-09-19

    West African and Ifakara experimental huts are used to evaluate indoor mosquito control interventions, including spatial repellents and insecticides. The two hut types differ in size and design, so a side-by-side comparison was performed to investigate the performance of indoor interventions in the two hut designs using standard entomological outcomes: relative indoor mosquito density (deterrence), exophily (induced exit), blood-feeding and mortality of mosquitoes. Metofluthrin mosquito coils (0.00625% and 0.0097%) and Olyset® Net vs control nets (untreated, deliberately holed net) were evaluated against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus in Benin. Four experimental huts were used: two West African hut designs and two Ifakara hut designs. Treatments were rotated among the huts every four nights until each treatment was tested in each hut 52 times. Volunteers rotated between huts nightly. The Ifakara huts caught a median of 37 Culex quinquefasciatus/ night, while the West African huts captured a median of 8/ night (rate ratio 3.37, 95% CI: 2.30-4.94, P  4-fold higher mosquito exit relative to the West African huts (odds ratio 4.18, 95% CI: 3.18-5.51, P < 0.0001), regardless of treatment. While blood-feeding rates were significantly higher in the West African huts, mortality appeared significantly lower for all treatments. The Ifakara hut captured more Cx. quinquefasciatus that could more easily exit into windows and eave traps after failing to blood-feed, compared to the West African hut. The higher mortality rates recorded in the Ifakara huts could be attributable to the greater proportions of Culex mosquitoes exiting and probably dying from starvation, relative to the situation in the West African huts.

  12. The assessment of performance and self-report validity in persons claiming pain-related disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; Brewer, Steve T

    2013-01-01

    One third of all people will experience spinal pain in their lifetime and half of these will experience chronic pain. Pain often occurs in the context of a legally compensable event with back pain being the most common reason for filing a Workers Compensation claim in the United States. When financial incentives to appear disabled exist, malingered pain-related disability is a potential problem. Malingering may take the form of exaggerated physical, emotional, or cognitive symptoms and/or under-performance on measures of cognitive and physical capacity. Essential to the accurate detection of Malingered Pain-related Disability is the understanding that malingering is an act of will, the goal of which is to increase the appearance of disability beyond that which would naturally arise from the injury in question. This paper will review a number of Symptom Validity Tests (SVTs) that have been developed to detect malingering in patients claiming pain-related disability and will conclude with a review of studies showing the diagnostic benefit of combining SVT findings from a comprehensive malingering assessment. The utilization of a variety of tools sensitive to the multiple manifestations of malingering increases the odds of detecting invalid claims while reducing the risk of rejecting a valid claim.

  13. Relation between intelligence, emotional intelligence, and academic performance among medical interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Nath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of research on the correlation between emotional quotient (EQ and intelligence quotient (IQ, and specifically among medical students and interns. So, we in our study aim to find out the correlation between these two variants of intelligence, and their relation to academic performance among medical interns as well as the gender differences between EQ, IQ, and academic performance. Methodology: EQ Test Questionnaire developed by Chadha and Singh was used for testing the EQ of the participants (n=50; males=34, females=16; mean age=24.1 years. IQ was tested by an experienced clinical psychologist using Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Test. The academic achievement was determined from the percentage of marks secured in tenth standard, 12th standard, and Final MBBS. GraphPad InStat version 3.05 was used for data entry and analysis. Results: A statistically high significant negative correlation was found between EQ and IQ of our total study sample as well as among the male participants. The mean EQ was higher among females and mean IQ among males. The females were academically better than the males and this difference was statistically highly significant. No significant correlation of EQ and IQ to academic performance was found in the total sample group. Conclusion: EQ and IQ are negatively correlated to each other, and there is no significant correlation of EQ and IQ to academic performance. Based on the current findings, further studies need to be built in larger samples. Limitation of the study is a small sample population.

  14. Short-term Retention of Relational Memory in Amnesia Revisited: Accurate Performance Depends on Hippocampal Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia T.S. Yee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location, participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  15. Stress-Related Mental Health Symptoms in Coast Guard: Incidence, Vulnerability, and Neurocognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Servatius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Coast Guard (CG personnel face occupational stressors (e.g., search and rescue which compound daily life stressors encountered by civilians. However, the degree CG personnel express stress-related mental health symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD is understudied as a military branch, and little is known concerning the interplay of vulnerabilities and neurocognitive outcomes in CG personnel. The current study addressed this knowledge gap, recruiting 241 active duty CG personnel (22% female to assess mental health, personality, and neurocognitive function. Participants completed a battery of scales: PTSD Checklist with military and non-military prompts to screen for PTSD, Psychological Health Questionnaire 8 for MDD, and scales for behaviorally inhibited (BI temperament, and distressed (Type D personality. Neurocognitive performance was assessed with the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA battery. Cluster scoring yielded an overall rate of PTSD of 15% (95% CI: 11–20% and 8% (95% CI: 3–9% for MDD. Non-military trauma was endorsed twice that of military trauma in those meeting criteria for PTSD. Individual vulnerabilities were predictive of stress-related mental health symptoms in active duty military personnel; specifically, BI temperament predicted PTSD whereas gender and Type D personality predicted MDD. Stress-related mental health symptoms were also associated with poorer reaction time and response inhibition. These results suggest rates of PTSD and MDD are comparable among CG personnel serving Boat Stations to those of larger military services after combat deployment. Further, vulnerabilities distinguished between PTSD and MDD, which have a high degree of co-occurrence in military samples. To what degree stress-related mental healthy symptoms and attendant neurocognitive deficits affect operational effectiveness remains unknown and warrant future study.

  16. Performance Approach, Performance Avoidance and Depth of Information Processing: A Fresh Look at Relations between Students' Academic Motivation and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Katrina L.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Dowson, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Examines effects of the motivational approach on the recall of verbal information processed at shallow and deep levels. Explains that students were assigned to a mastery focused condition, performance approach condition, or a control group. Reports that students remembered more stimulus words during cued recall than free recall. Includes…

  17. A Closer Look at Social Skills and School Performance: Students' Peer Relations Skills and Assertion Skills as Predictors for Their Written and Oral Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Susanne; Hänze, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Students' individual learning is supposed to be based on cognitive and social processes. Therefore, students' social skills are assumed to play an important role for school performance. This study set out to investigate the links between students' peer relations skills and assertion skills and their grades for written performances and oral…

  18. Do New Production Concepts and a new Management of Employment Relations, yield higher Employee Performance and lower Job Strain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolus Kraan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In the past decades, in reaction to dysfunctions of Tayloristic and professional bureaucratic production concepts and employment relations, several new forms of employment relations and NPCs, appeared. Examples are the Socio-technical NPC and customized employment relations. In this study both this NPC and customized employment relations - i.c. customized performance targets - demonstrate positive associations with employee performance. According to Socio-technical theory the design of employment relations is relatively unimportant, as human resources are mobilised primarily by the production concept. Our results for this NPC show the legitimacy of this assumption, because its high employee performance is irrespective of the employment relation instruments. On the contrary, in the other NPCs and in professional bureaucracies, the (employment relation instruments of respectively an increased period needed for learning the job, and customized performance targets can compensate for the lower employee performance in these production concepts. The results do not show increased job strain, due to new production concepts, or new employment relations. production concepts, employment relations, labour productivity, socio-technical theory

  19. Catecholaminergic activation in acute myocardial infarction: time course and relation to left ventricular performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Nielsen, Jens Rokkedal; Petersen, Bodil Laub

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The study was designed to assess (1) the time course of catecholaminergic activation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as estimated by adrenaline (ADR) and noradrenaline (NOR) concentrations, and (2) to relate activation of these hormones to predict the outcome of cardiac performance......-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). RESULTS: In the study group as a whole, the concentrations of ADR decreased from (mean +/- SEM) 0.80 +/- 0.12 nmol/l on admission to 0.33 +/- 0.03 nmol/l at discharge (p ... of both ADR and NOR on admission were correlated to LVEF at discharge (r = -0.56, p ADR and NOR after 1 year follow-up was 0...

  20. Activities, self-referent memory beliefs, and cognitive performance: evidence for direct and mediated relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the role of activities and self-referent memory beliefs for cognitive performance in a life-span sample. A factor analysis identified 8 activity factors, including Developmental Activities, Experiential Activities, Social Activities, Physical Activities, Technology Use, Watching Television, Games, and Crafts. A second-order general activity factor was significantly related to a general factor of cognitive function as defined by ability tests. Structural regression models suggested that prediction of cognition by activity level was partially mediated by memory beliefs, controlling for age, education, health, and depressive affect. Models adding paths from general and specific activities to aspects of crystallized intelligence suggested additional unique predictive effects for some activities. In alternative models, nonsignificant effects of beliefs on activities were detected when cognition predicted both variables, consistent with the hypothesis that beliefs derive from monitoring cognition and have no influence on activity patterns. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Sprinting performance on the Woodway Curve 3.0 is related to muscle architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Fukuda, David H; Townsend, Jeremy R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Jajtner, Adam R; Bohner, Jonathan D; LaMonica, Michael; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    To determine if unilateral measures of muscle architecture in the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) were related to (and predictive of) sprinting speed and unilateral (and bilateral) force (FRC) and power (POW) during a 30 s maximal sprint on the Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorized treadmill. Twenty-eight healthy, physically active men (n = 14) and women (n = 14) (age = 22.9 ± 2.4 years; body mass = 77.1 ± 16.2 kg; height = 171.6 ± 11.2 cm; body-fa t = 19.4 ± 8.1%) completed one familiarization and one 30-s maximal sprint on the TM to obtain maximal sprinting speed, POW and FRC. Muscle thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (ECHO) of the RF and VL in the dominant (DOM; determined by unilateral sprinting power) and non-dominant (ND) legs were measured via ultrasound. Pearson correlations indicated several significant (p architecture. Stepwise regression indicated that POW(DOM) was predictive of ipsilateral RF (MT and CSA) and VL (CSA and ECHO), while POW(ND) was predictive of ipsilateral RF (MT and CSA) and VL (CSA); sprinting power/force asymmetry was not predictive of architecture asymmetry. Sprinting time was best predicted by peak power and peak force, though muscle quality (ECHO) and the bilateral percent difference in VL (CSA) were strong architectural predictors. Muscle architecture is related to (and predictive of) TM sprinting performance, while unilateral POW is predictive of ipsilateral architecture. However, the extent to which architecture and other factors (i.e. neuromuscular control and sprinting technique) affect TM performance remains unknown.

  2. 25 CFR 1000.367 - Will the Department evaluate a Tribe's/Consortium's performance of non-trust related programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Evaluations § 1000.367 Will the Department evaluate a Tribe's/Consortium's performance of non-trust related... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the Department evaluate a Tribe's/Consortium's performance of non-trust related programs? 1000.367 Section 1000.367 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...

  3. BASEBALL THROWING MECHANICS AS THEY RELATE TO PATHOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Whiteley

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a commonly held perception amongst biomechanists, sports medicine practitioners, baseball coaches and players, that an individual baseball player's style of throwing or pitching influences their performance and susceptibility to injury. With the results of a series of focus groups with baseball managers and pitching coaches in mind, the available scientific literature was reviewed regarding the contribution of individual aspects of pitching and throwing mechanics to potential for injury and performance. After a discussion of the limitations of kinematic and kinetic analyses, the individual aspects of pitching mechanics are discussed under arbitrary headings: Foot position at stride foot contact; Elbow flexion; Arm rotation; Arm horizontal abduction; Arm abduction; Lead knee position; Pelvic orientation; Deceleration-phase related issues; Curveballs; and Teaching throwing mechanics. In general, popular opinion of baseball coaching staff was found to be largely in concordance with the scientific investigations of biomechanists with several notable exceptions. Some difficulties are identified with the practical implementation of analyzing throwing mechanics in the field by pitching coaches, and with some unquantified aspects of scientific analyses

  4. Sleep-related offline improvements in gross motor task performance occur under free recall requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMalangre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep effects on memory consolidation following gross motor sequence learning were examined using a complex arm movement task. This task required participants to produce non-regular spatial patterns in the horizontal plane by successively fitting a small peg into different target-holes on an electronic pegboard. The respective reaching movements typically differed in amplitude and direction. Targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. With this task we tested 18 subjects (22.6 +/- 1.9 years; 8 female using a between-subjects design. Participants initially learned a 10-element arm movement sequence either in the morning or in the evening. Performance was retested under free recall requirements 15 minutes post training, as well as 12 hrs and 24 hrs later. Thus each group was provided with one sleep-filled and one wake retention interval. Dependent variables were error rate (number of erroneous sequences and average sequence execution time (correct sequences only. Performance improved during acquisition. Error rate remained stable across retention. Sequence execution time (inverse to execution speed significantly decreased again during the sleep-filled retention intervals, but remained stable during the respective wake intervals. These results corroborate recent findings on sleep-related enhancement consolidation in ecological valid, complex gross motor tasks. At the same time they suggest this effect to be truly memory-based and independent from repeated access to extrinsic sequence information during retests.

  5. Marathon performance in relation to body fat percentage and training indices in recreational male runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanda G

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Tanda,1 Beat Knechtle2,31DIME, Università degli Studi di Genova, Genova, Italy; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anthropometric characteristics and training indices on marathon race times in recreational male marathoners.Methods: Training and anthropometric characteristics were collected for a large cohort of recreational male runners (n = 126 participating in the Basel marathon in Switzerland between 2010 and 2011.Results: Among the parameters investigated, marathon performance time was found to be affected by mean running speed and the mean weekly distance run during the training period prior to the race and by body fat percentage. The effect of body fat percentage became significant as it exceeded a certain limiting value; for a relatively low body fat percentage, marathon performance time correlated only with training indices.Conclusion: Marathon race time may be predicted (r = 0.81 for recreational male runners by the following equation: marathon race time (minutes = 11.03 + 98.46 exp(−0.0053 mean weekly training distance [km/week] + 0.387 mean training pace (sec/km + 0.1 exp(0.23 body fat percentage [%]. The marathon race time results were valid over a range of 165–266 minutes.Keywords: endurance, exercise, anthropometry

  6. Marathon performance in relation to body fat percentage and training indices in recreational male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anthropometric characteristics and training indices on marathon race times in recreational male marathoners. Training and anthropometric characteristics were collected for a large cohort of recreational male runners (n = 126) participating in the Basel marathon in Switzerland between 2010 and 2011. Among the parameters investigated, marathon performance time was found to be affected by mean running speed and the mean weekly distance run during the training period prior to the race and by body fat percentage. The effect of body fat percentage became significant as it exceeded a certain limiting value; for a relatively low body fat percentage, marathon performance time correlated only with training indices. Marathon race time may be predicted (r = 0.81) for recreational male runners by the following equation: marathon race time (minutes) = 11.03 + 98.46 exp(-0.0053 mean weekly training distance [km/week]) + 0.387 mean training pace (sec/km) + 0.1 exp(0.23 body fat percentage [%]). The marathon race time results were valid over a range of 165-266 minutes.

  7. The impact of motivation on neuropsychological performance in sports-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Christopher M; Echemendia, Ruben J; Arnett, Peter A

    2006-07-01

    The current project examined the impact of differential motivation on baseline versus post-mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) neuropsychological measures in athletes. Collegiate athletes were administered a neuropsychological battery prior to and post-MTBI. High Motivation at Baseline (HMB) and Suspect Motivation at Baseline (SMB) groups were established for each measure based on whether baseline performance fell +/- one or more standard deviations from the mean of the given measure. Greater improvement was expected in the SMB group than the HMB group given hypothesized differences in baseline motivation. In repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) that removed achievement performance, the SMB groups demonstrated greater improvement than the HMB groups for the Trail Making Test A & B (TMT-A & B), Digit Span, and Stroop-Color Word (Stroop-CW) tests. Also, the percentage of participants who improved according to reliable change indices was greater for the SMB groups on the TMT-A & B, Stroop-CW, and the Vigil. These findings are likely due to lower motivation in the SMB group for each test. However, results also suggest that some tests may be relatively unaffected by motivation. These data may have clinical implications and point to the need for better methods of identifying athletes with suspect motivation at baseline.

  8. Evaluation of Social Performance and Related Factors in Iranian Central Iron Ore company workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Halvani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological and social health is the main problems of workers population, which can increase productivity at work and physical and mental health and provide or decline in these aspects. Materials and Methods: this study was descriptive and crosses - sectional and has been performed on 388 Iranian central iron ore company workers. The tool of study was standard GHQ-28 question are that has been measured under social performance scale. Results: 49.3 and 49 percent of the people have favorable and average score from the state of the social function condition and 1.8 percent of people have severe social dysfunction and besides the employees have less work experienced that have more social dysfunction and there is a relationship between the P = 0.026. With satisfaction with the status of social dysfunction (P = 0 and with the consent of the income (P = 0 there is significant relationship. Conclusion: In this study, a significant percentage of mineworkers were not in good condition from health, social functioning. It reveals the importance of addressing health issues and vulnerable working class, Intervention studies conducted by employers to improve job satisfaction and increased income and received social support from him, can increase the health indicators related to the body and mind.

  9. Age-related differences in the relations between individualised HRM and organisational performance: a large-scale employer survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Dorenbosch, L.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between individualised HRM practices and several measures of organisational performance, including the moderating role of employee age in these relationships. A large-scale representative study among 4,591 organisations in the Netherlands

  10. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  11. Is Baseline Cardiac Autonomic Modulation Related to Performance and Physiological Responses Following a Supramaximal Judo Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Martínez-Navarro, Ignacio; Mateo-March, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Little research exists concerning Heart Rate (HR) Variability (HRV) following supramaximal efforts focused on upper-body explosive strength-endurance. Since they may be very demanding, it seems of interest to analyse the relationship among performance, lactate and HR dynamics (i.e. HR, HRV and complexity) following them; as well as to know how baseline cardiac autonomic modulation mediates these relationships. The present study aimed to analyse associations between baseline and post-exercise HR dynamics following a supramaximal Judo test, and their relationship with lactate, in a sample of 22 highly-trained male judoists (20.70±4.56 years). A large association between the increase in HR from resting to exercise condition and performance suggests that individuals exerted a greater sympathetic response to achieve a better performance (Rating of Perceived Exertion: 20; post-exercise peak lactate: 11.57±2.24 mmol/L; 95.76±4.13 % of age-predicted HRmax). Athletes with higher vagal modulation and lower sympathetic modulation at rest achieved both a significant larger ∆HR and a faster post-exercise lactate removal. A enhanced resting parasympathetic modulation might be therefore related to a further usage of autonomic resources and a better immediate metabolic recovery during supramaximal exertions. Furthermore, analyses of variance displayed a persistent increase in α1 and a decrease in lnRMSSD along the 15 min of recovery, which are indicative of a diminished vagal modulation together with a sympathovagal balance leaning to sympathetic domination. Eventually, time-domain indices (lnRMSSD) showed no lactate correlations, while nonlinear indices (α1 and lnSaEn) appeared to be moderate to strongly correlated with it, thus pointing to shared mechanisms between neuroautonomic and metabolic regulation. PMID:24205273

  12. Performance of passive long term investments : A longitudinal study over the relative performance of emerging- and developed markets

    OpenAIRE

    Babar, Haseeb Zaman; Norberg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of emerging markets came to surface in early 1980 and constituted of only eight countries from the two continents of South America and Asia. The globalization of financial markets has since raised the importance of emerging capital markets. We take a quantitative approach to investigate the performance of emerging markets compared to developed markets. The aim of the study is to conclude if emerging markets offers investment value and if logic in portfolio theory can be used to im...

  13. Navon's classical paradigm concerning local and global processing relates systematically to visual object classification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian; Poirel, Nicolas

    2018-01-10

    Forty years ago David Navon tried to tackle a central problem in psychology concerning the time course of perceptual processing: Do we first see the details (local level) followed by the overall outlay (global level) or is it rather the other way around? He did this by developing a now classical paradigm involving the presentation of compound stimuli; large letters composed of smaller letters. Despite the usefulness of this paradigm it remains uncertain whether effects found with compound stimuli relate directly to visual object recognition. It does so because compound stimuli are not actual objects but rather formations of elements and because the elements that form the global shape of compound stimuli are not features of the global shape but rather objects in their own right. To examine the relationship between performance on Navon's paradigm and visual object processing we derived two indexes from Navon's paradigm that reflect different aspects of the relationship between global and local processing. We find that individual differences on these indexes can explain a considerable amount of variance in two standard object classification paradigms; object decision and superordinate categorization, suggesting that Navon's paradigm does relate to visual object processing.

  14. Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, reduces post-peak age-related regression of rooster reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad Abdulgabbar; Zhandi, Mahdi; Towhidi, Armin; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Ansari, Mahdi; Najafi, Mojtaba; Deldar, Hamid

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate orally administrated Letrozole (Lz) on reproductive performance, plasma testosterone and estradiol concentrations and relative abundance of mRNA of GnRH, FSH and LH in roosters. Ross 308 roosters (n=32) that were 40-weeks of age were individually housed and received a basal standard diet supplemented different amounts of capsulated Lz [0 (Lz-0), 0.5 (Lz-0.5), 1 (Lz-1) or 1.5 (Lz-1.5), mg Lz/bird/day] for 12 weeks. Sperm quality variables and plasma testosterone and estradiol concentrations were assessed from the first to the tenth week of the treatment period. Semen samples from the 11th to 12th week were used for artificial insemination and eggs were collected and allotted to assess fertility and hatchability rates. Relative abundance of hypothalamic and pituitary GnRH, LH and FSH mRNA was evaluated at the end of 12th week. The results indicated that total and forward sperm motility as well as egg hatchability rate were greater in the Lz-0.5 group. Greater sperm concentrations, ejaculate volume, sperm plasma membrane integrity, testis index and fertility rates were recorded for both Lz-0.5 and Lz-1 groups compared with the Lz-0 group (Proosters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relational database hybrid model, of high performance and storage capacity for nuclear engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes Neto, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the relational database, named FALCAO. It was created and implemented to support the storage of the monitored variables in the IEA-R1 research reactor, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP. The data logical model and its direct influence in the integrity of the provided information are carefully considered. The concepts and steps of normalization and de normalization including the entities and relations involved in the logical model are presented. It is also presented the effects of the model rules in the acquisition, loading and availability of the final information, under the performance concept since the acquisition process loads and provides lots of information in small intervals of time. The SACD application, through its functionalities, presents the information stored in the FALCAO database in a practical and optimized form. The implementation of the FALCAO database occurred successfully and its existence leads to a considerably favorable situation. It is now essential to the routine of the researchers involved, not only due to the substantial improvement of the process but also to the reliability associated to it. (author)

  16. Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Lederle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mouse has emerged as a uniquely valuable species for studying the molecular and genetic basis of complex behaviors and modeling neuropsychiatric disease states. While valid and reliable preclinical assays for reward-related behaviors are critical to understanding addiction-related processes, and various behavioral procedures have been developed and characterized in rats and primates, there have been relatively few studies using operant-based addiction-relevant behavioral paradigms in the mouse. Here we describe the performance of the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain on three major reward-related paradigms, and replicate the same procedures in two other commonly used inbred strains (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ. We examined Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT by measuring the ability of an auditory cue associated with food reward to promote an instrumental (lever press response. In a separate experiment, we assessed the acquisition and extinction of a simple stimulus-reward instrumental behavior on a touch screen based task. Reinstatement of this behavior was then examined following either continuous exposure to cues (conditioned reinforcers, CRs associated with reward, brief reward and CR exposure, or brief reward exposure followed by continuous CR exposure. The third paradigm examined sensitivity of an instrumental (lever press response to devaluation of food reward (a probe for outcome insensitive, habitual behavior by repeated pairing with malaise. Results showed that C57BL/6J mice displayed robust PIT, as well as clear extinction and reinstatement, but were insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. DBA/2J mice showed good PIT and (rewarded reinstatement, but were slow to extinguish and did not show reinforcer devaluation or significant CR-reinstatement. BALB/cJ mice also displayed good PIT, extinction and reinstatement, and retained instrumental responding following devaluation, but, unlike the other strains, demonstrated reduced Pavlovian approach

  17. Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederle, Lauren; Weber, Susanna; Wright, Tara; Feyder, Michael; Brigman, Jonathan L; Crombag, Hans S; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J; Holmes, Andrew

    2011-01-10

    The mouse has emerged as a uniquely valuable species for studying the molecular and genetic basis of complex behaviors and modeling neuropsychiatric disease states. While valid and reliable preclinical assays for reward-related behaviors are critical to understanding addiction-related processes, and various behavioral procedures have been developed and characterized in rats and primates, there have been relatively few studies using operant-based addiction-relevant behavioral paradigms in the mouse. Here we describe the performance of the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain on three major reward-related paradigms, and replicate the same procedures in two other commonly used inbred strains (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ). We examined Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) by measuring the ability of an auditory cue associated with food reward to promote an instrumental (lever press) response. In a separate experiment, we assessed the acquisition and extinction of a simple stimulus-reward instrumental behavior on a touch screen based task. Reinstatement of this behavior was then examined following either continuous exposure to cues (conditioned reinforcers, CRs) associated with reward, brief reward and CR exposure, or brief reward exposure followed by continuous CR exposure. The third paradigm examined sensitivity of an instrumental (lever press) response to devaluation of food reward (a probe for outcome insensitive, habitual behavior) by repeated pairing with malaise. Results showed that C57BL/6J mice displayed robust PIT, as well as clear extinction and reinstatement, but were insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. DBA/2J mice showed good PIT and (rewarded) reinstatement, but were slow to extinguish and did not show reinforcer devaluation or significant CR-reinstatement. BALB/cJ mice also displayed good PIT, extinction and reinstatement, and retained instrumental responding following devaluation, but, unlike the other strains, demonstrated reduced Pavlovian approach behavior (food

  18. Educational Technology-Related Performance of Teaching Faculty in Higher Education: Implications for eLearning Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Guerra-Lopez, Ingrid; Moseley, James L.; Spannaus, Timothy; Yaprak, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The study examined teaching faculty's educational technology-related performances (ETRP) as a measure for predicting eLearning management in Ghana. A total of valid data (n = 164) were collected and analyzed on applied ISTE-NETS-T Performance Standards using descriptive and ANOVA statistics. Results showed an overall moderate performance with the…

  19. Relative Performance of HPV and Cytology Components of Cotesting in Cervical Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Kinney, Walter K; Cheung, Li C; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Befano, Brian; Schussler, John; Katki, Hormuzd A; Castle, Philip E

    2018-05-01

    The main goal of cervical screening programs is to detect and treat precancer before cancer develops. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting precancer. However, reports of rare HPV-negative, cytology-positive cancers are motivating continued use of both tests (cotesting) despite increased testing costs. We quantified the detection of cervical precancer and cancer by cotesting compared with HPV testing alone at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), where 1 208 710 women age 30 years and older have undergone triennial cervical cotesting since 2003. Screening histories preceding cervical cancers (n = 623) and precancers (n = 5369) were examined to assess the relative contribution of the cytology and HPV test components in identifying cases. The performances of HPV testing and cytology were compared using contingency table methods, general estimating equation models, and nonparametric statistics; all statistical tests were two-sided. HPV testing identified more women subsequently diagnosed with cancer (P < .001) and precancer (P < .001) than cytology. HPV testing was statistically significantly more likely to be positive for cancer at any time point (P < .001), except within 12 months (P = .10). HPV-negative/cytology-positive results preceded only small fractions of cases of precancer (3.5%) and cancer (5.9%); these cancers were more likely to be regional or distant stage with squamous histopathology than other cases. Given the rarity of cancers among screened women, the contribution of cytology to screening translated to earlier detection of at most five cases per million women per year. Two-thirds (67.9%) of women found to have cancer during 10 years of follow-up at KPNC were detected by the first cotest performed. The added sensitivity of cotesting vs HPV alone for detection of treatable cancer affected extremely few women.

  20. Anthropometric and training variables related to half-marathon running performance in recreational female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running has been investigated in distances ranging from 100 m to the marathon distance (42.195 km), with the exclusion of the half-marathon distance (21.0975 km). We investigated the association between anthropometric variables, prerace experience, and training variables with race time in 42 recreational, nonprofessional, female half-marathon runners using bi- and multivariate analysis. Body weight (r, 0.60); body mass index (r, 0.48); body fat percentage (r, 0.56); pectoral (r, 0.61), mid-axilla (r, 0.69), triceps (r, 0.49), subscapular (r, 0.61), abdominal (r, 0.59), suprailiac (r, 0.55), and medial calf (r, 0.53) skin-fold thickness; mean speed of the training sessions (r, -0.68); and personal best time in a half-marathon (r, 0.69) correlated with race time after bivariate analysis. Body weight (P = 0.0054), pectoral skin-fold thickness (P = 0.0068), and mean speed of the training sessions (P = 0.0041) remained significant after multivariate analysis. Mean running speed during training was related to mid-axilla (r, -0.31), subscapular (r, -0.38), abdominal (r, -0.44), and suprailiac (r, -0.41) skin-fold thickness, the sum of 8 skin-fold thicknesses (r, -0.36); and percent body fat (r, -0.31). It was determined that variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half-marathon race time, and that skin-fold thicknesses were associated with running speed during training. For practical applications, high running speed during training (as opposed to extensive training) may both reduce upper-body skin-fold thicknesses and improve race performance in recreational female half-marathon runners.

  1. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  2. The importance of job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill for predicting role breadth and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgeson, Frederick P; Delaney-Klinger, Kelly; Hemingway, Monica A

    2005-03-01

    Role theory suggests and empirical research has found that there is considerable variation in how broadly individuals define their jobs. We investigated the theoretically meaningful yet infrequently studied relationships between incumbent job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, role breadth, and job performance. Using multiple data sources and multiple measurement occasions in a field setting, we found that job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill were positively related to role breadth, accounting for 23% of the variance in role breadth. In addition, role breadth was positively related to job performance and was found to mediate the relationship between job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, and job performance. These results add to our understanding of the factors that predict role breadth, as well as having implications for how job aspects and individual characteristics are translated into performance outcomes and the treatment of variability in incumbent reports of job tasks.

  3. Modeling demographic performance of northern spotted owls relative to forest habitat in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gail S.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.; Reid, Janice A.; Loschl, Peter J.; Ripple, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) are known to be associated with late-successional forests in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, but the effects of habitat on their demographic performance are relatively unknown. We developed statistical models relating owl survival and productivity to forest cover types within the Roseburg Study Area in the Oregon Coast Range of Oregon, USA. We further combined these demographic parameters using a Leslie-type matrix to obtain an estimate of habitat fitness potential for each owl territory (n = 94). We used mark–recapture methods to develop models for survival and linear mixed models for productivity. We measured forest composition and landscape patterns at 3 landscape scales centered on nest and activity sites within owl territories using an aerial photo-based map and a Geographic Information System (GIS). We also considered additional covariates such as age, sex, and presence of barred owls (Strix varia), and seasonal climate variables (temperature and precipitation) in our models. We used Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank and compare models. Survival had a quadratic relationship with the amount of late- and mid-seral forests within 1,500 m of nesting centers. Survival also was influenced by the amount of precipitation during the nesting season. Only 16% of the variability in survival was accounted for by our best model, but 85% of this was due to the habitat variable. Reproductive rates fluctuated biennially and were positively related to the amount of edge between late- and mid-seral forests and other habitat classes. Reproductive rates also were influenced by parent age, amount of precipitation during nesting season, and presence of barred owls. Our best model accounted for 84% of the variability in productivity, but only 3% of that was due to the habitat variable. Estimates of habitat fitness potential (which may range from 0 to infinity) for the 94 territories ranged from 0.74 to 1

  4. Relating Memory To Functional Performance In Normal Aging to Dementia Using Hierarchical Bayesian Cognitive Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankle, William R.; Pooley, James P.; Steyvers, Mark; Hara, Junko; Mangrola, Tushar; Reisberg, Barry; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Determining how cognition affects functional abilities is important in Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (ADRD). 280 patients (normal or ADRD) received a total of 1,514 assessments using the Functional Assessment Staging Test (FAST) procedure and the MCI Screen (MCIS). A hierarchical Bayesian cognitive processing (HBCP) model was created by embedding a signal detection theory (SDT) model of the MCIS delayed recognition memory task into a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The SDT model used latent parameters of discriminability (memory process) and response bias (executive function) to predict, simultaneously, recognition memory performance for each patient and each FAST severity group. The observed recognition memory data did not distinguish the six FAST severity stages, but the latent parameters completely separated them. The latent parameters were also used successfully to transform the ordinal FAST measure into a continuous measure reflecting the underlying continuum of functional severity. HBCP models applied to recognition memory data from clinical practice settings accurately translated a latent measure of cognition to a continuous measure of functional severity for both individuals and FAST groups. Such a translation links two levels of brain information processing, and may enable more accurate correlations with other levels, such as those characterized by biomarkers. PMID:22407225

  5. Science laboratory behavior strategies of students relative to performance in and attitude to laboratory work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    The relationship between science laboratory behavior strategies of students and performance in and attitude to laboratory work was investigated in an observational study of 160 laboratory sessions involving 600 class five (eleventh grade) biology students. Zero-order correlations between the behavior strategies and outcome measures reveal a set of low to strong relationships. Transmitting information, listening and nonlesson related behaviors exhibited low correlations with practical skills and the attitude measure. The correlations between manipulating apparatus and observation with practical skills measures were found to be strong. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the behaviors of students in the laboratories observed accounted for a large percentage of the variance in the scores on manipulative skills and a low percentage on interpretation of data, responsibility, initiative, and work habits. One significant canonical correlation emerged. The loadings on this canonical variate indicate that the practical skills measures, i.e., planning and design, manipulative skills and conduct of experiments, observation and recording of data, and attitude to laboratory work made primary contributions to the canonical relationship. Suggestions as to how students can be encouraged to go beyond cookbook-like laboratories and develop a more favorable attitude to laboratory work are made.

  6. The relative value of safety and performance indicators and qualitative arguments in different time frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Rohlig, K.J.; Batandjieva, B.; Griffault, L.; Regent, A.; Schneider, J.; Storck, R.; Umeki, H.

    2002-01-01

    Indicators complementary to dose or risk are of great importance for the provision of multiple lines of reasoning at different time frames and therefore for the building of confidence within a safety case and that regulations should acknowledge this fact. They are also of great value with regard to the understanding of the safety case by and the communication to different audiences. The relative value of such indicators changes with time. For longer timescales qualitative information becomes more important. The meaning of calculated dose or risk is different for different timescales (ranging from expected performance to illustration) but dose or risk remains a valuable and central information for any time considered in a Safety Assessment. Certain indicators (concentrations and fluxes) can provide information by avoiding certain uncertainties which increase remarkably with time (biosphere, dilution) but apart from that no generic opinion or recommendation can be derived since the value of specific indicators and the required degree of aggregation (over different nuclides or even of consequence and probability) strongly depends on the many parameter. (authors)

  7. The relation between xyr1 overexpression in Trichoderma harzianum and sugarcane bagasse saccharification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Delabona, Priscila; Rodrigues, Gisele Nunes; Zubieta, Mariane Paludetti; Ramoni, Jonas; Codima, Carla Aloia; Lima, Deise Juliana; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo; Seiboth, Bernhard

    2017-03-20

    This work investigates the influence of the positive regulator XYR1 of Trichoderma harzianum on the production of cellulolytic enzymes, using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. Constitutive expression of xyr1 was achieved under the control of the strong Trichoderma reesei pki1 promoter. Five clones with xyr1 overexpression achieved higher xyr1 expression and greater enzymatic productivity when cultivated under submerged fermentation, hence validating the genetic construction for T. harzianum. Clone 5 presented a relative expression of xyr1 26-fold higher than the parent strain and exhibited 66, 37, and 36% higher values for filter paper activity, xylanase activity, and β-glucosidase activity, respectively, during cultivation in a stirred-tank bioreactor. The overexpression of xyr1 in T. harzianum resulted in an enzymatic complex with significantly improved performance in sugarcane bagasse saccharification, with an enhancement of 25% in the first 24h. Our results also show that constitutive overexpression of xyr1 leads to the induction of several important players in biomass degradation at early (24h) and also late (48h) timepoints of inoculation. However, we also observed that the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 was upregulated in xyr1 overexpression mutants. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of improving cellulase production by modifying regulator expression and suggest an attractive approach for increasing total cellulase productivity in T. harzianum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Left Ventricular Myocardial Function in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: Relation to Right Ventricular Performance and Hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Dale A; Slorach, Cameron; Patel, Sonali S; Redington, Andrew N; Ivy, D Dunbar; Mertens, Luc; Younoszai, Adel K; Friedberg, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that LV strain/strain rate, surrogate measures of myocardial contractility, are reduced in pediatric PH and relate to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional measures of PH. At 2 institutions, echocardiography was prospectively performed in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization, and in 54 matched controls. Patients with PH had reduced LV global longitudinal strain (LS; -18.8 [-17.3 to -20.4]% versus -20.2 [-19.0 to -20.9]%; P=0.0046) predominantly because of reduced basal (-12.9 [-10.8 to -16.3]% versus -17.9 [-14.5 to -20.7]%; Pright ventricular free-wall LS (r=0.64; PBrain natriuretic peptide levels correlated moderately with septal LS (r=0.48; P=0.0038). PH functional class correlated moderately with LV free-wall LS (r=-0.48; P=0.0051). The septum, shared between ventricles and affected by septal shift, was the most affected LV region in PH. Pediatric PH patients demonstrate reduced LV strain/strain rate, predominantly within the septum, with relationships to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional PH measures. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. heat-induced biological changes as heat tolerance indices related to growth performance in buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldes, M.Z.N.

    2004-01-01

    the main objective of this study was to predict new heat tolerance indices related to hot summer growth performance, depending on heat - induced changes in some physiological and biochemical parameters of young water buffalo calves. the present study was carried out on 8 egyptian male buffalo calves of 6 months old and 106.8 kg mean body weight (B W), and on the same animals of 12 months old and 179.5 kg mean B W. the animals were maintained in a climatic chamber of the egyptian atomic energy authority. the animals were maintained in metabolic cages inside a climatic chamber for 3 weeks under mild climate (20-24 c and 50-60% Rh, equivalent to 62-72 THI) for 6 hours daily as adjustment period,followed by 5 and 7 days in the 6- and 12-month old calves, respectively at the same climatic conditions as a control period.this was followed by 6 hours of acute heat exposure period (33-43 c and 40-60% Rh, equivalent to 85-93 Thi), then by chronic heat exposure period of the same climatic conditions for 5 and 7 days in the 6- and 12- month old calves, respectively.Rectal temperature (RT) and respiration rate (RR) were estimated daily, whereas BW was estimated at the beginning and the end of each exposure period

  10. Containment Emergency Sump Performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. Both BWRs and PWRs are considered in this report. Emergency core cooling systems require a clean, reliable water source to maintain long-term recirculation following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). PWRs rely on the containment emergency sump to provide such a water supply to residual heat removal pumps and containment spray pumps. BWRs rely on pump suction intakes in the suppression pool or wet well to provide water to residual heat removal and core spray systems. Thus, the technical findings in this report provide information on post-LOCA recirculation. These findings have been derived from extensive experimental studies, generic plant studies, and assessments of sumps used for long-term cooling. Results of hydraulic tests have shown that the potential for air ingestion is less severe than previously hypothesized. The effects of debris blockage on NPSH margin must be dealt with on a plant-specific basis. These findings have been used to develop revisions to Regulatory Guide 1.82 and Standard Review Plan Section 6.2.2 (NUREG-0800)

  11. Evaluation of the performance of diagnosis-related groups and similar casemix systems: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, G; Reid, B

    2001-05-01

    With the increasing recognition and application of casemix for managing and financing healthcare resources, the evaluation of alternative versions of systems such as diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) has been afforded high priority by governments and researchers in many countries. Outside the United States, an important issue has been the perceived need to produce local versions, and to establish whether or not these perform more effectively than the US-based classifications. A discussion of casemix evaluation criteria highlights the large number of measures that may be used, the rationale and assumptions underlying each measure, and the problems in interpreting the results. A review of recent evaluation studies from a number of countries indicates that considerable emphasis has been placed on the predictive validity criterion, as measured by the R2 statistic. However, the interpretation of the findings has been affected greatly by the methods used, especially the treatment and definition of outlier cases. Furthermore, the extent to which other evaluation criteria have been addressed has varied widely. In the absence of minimum evaluation standards, it is not possible to draw clear-cut conclusions about the superiority of one version of a casemix system over another, the need for a local adaptation, or the further development of an existing version. Without the evidence provided by properly designed studies, policy-makers and managers may place undue reliance on subjective judgments and the views of the most influential, but not necessarily best informed, healthcare interest groups.

  12. Competitive state anxiety and self-confidence: intensity and direction as relative predictors of performance on a golf putting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Sean T; Hale, Bruce D

    2007-06-01

    This study considered relationships between the intensity and directional aspects of competitive state anxiety as measured by the modified Competitive Sport Anxiety Inventory-2(D) (Jones & Swain, 1992) in a sample of 12 experienced male golfers. Anxiety and performance scores from identical putting tasks performed under three different anxiety-manipulated competitive conditions were used to assess both the predictions of Multidimensional Anxiety Theory (MAT; Martens et al., 1990) and the relative value of intensity and direction in explaining performance variance. A within-subjects regression analysis of the intra-individual data showed partial support for the three MAT hypotheses. Cognitive anxiety intensity demonstrated a negative linear relationship with performance, somatic anxiety intensity showed a curvilinear relationship with performance, and self-confidence intensity revealed a positive linear relation. Cognitive directional anxiety illustrated a positive linear relationship with putting performance. Multiple regression analyses indicated that direction (42% of variance) was a better predictor of performance than intensity (22%).

  13. High resolution dynamical downscaling of air temperature and relative humidity: performance assessment of WRF for Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Isilda; Pereira, Mário; Moreira, Demerval; Carvalheiro, Luís; Bugalho, Lourdes; Corte-Real, João

    2017-04-01

    Air temperature and relative humidity are two of the atmospheric variables with higher impact on human and natural systems, contributing to define the stress/comfortable conditions, affecting the productivity and health of the individuals as well as diminishing the resilience to other environmental hazards. Atmospheric regional models, driven by large scale forecasts from global circulation models, are the best way to reproduce such environmental conditions in high space-time resolution. This study is focused on the performance assessment of the WRF mesoscale model to perform high resolution dynamical downscaling for Portugal with three two-way nested grids, at 60 km, 20 km and 5 km horizontal resolution. The simulations of WRF models were produced with different initial and boundary forcing conditions. The NCEP-FNL Operational Global Analysis data available on 1-degree by 1-degree grid every six hours and ERA-Interim reanalyses dataset were used to drive the models. Two alternative configurations of the WRF model, including planetary boundary, layer schemes, microphysics, land-surface models, radiation schemes, were used and tested within the 5 km spatial resolution domain. Simulations of air temperature and relative humidity were produced for January and July of 2016 and compared with the observed datasets provided by the Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA) for 83 weather stations. Different performance measures of bias, precision, and accuracy were used, namely normalized bias, standard deviation, mean absolute error, root mean square error, bias of root mean square error as well as correlation based measures (e.g., coefficient of determination) and goodness of fit measures (index of agreement). Main conclusions from the obtained results reveal: (i) great similarity between the spatial patterns of the simulated and observed fields; (ii) only small differences between simulations produced with ERA-Interim and NCEP-FNL, in spite of some differences

  14. Age-related neural correlates of cognitive task performance under increased postural load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Impe, A; Bruijn, S M; Coxon, J P; Wenderoth, N; Sunaert, S; Duysens, J; Swinnen, S P

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that postural control requires increased cognitive control and visuospatial processing with aging. Consequently, performance can decline when concurrently performing a postural and a demanding cognitive task. We aimed to identify the neural substrate underlying this

  15. Is performance related to marketing research in the health care industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, G M; Kleimenhagen, A; Pillari, G D

    1994-01-01

    Marketing research has grown to become indispensable for superior performance in packaged goods industries. While health care institutions are spending large amounts on marketing research, few studies focus upon the relationship of marketing research to health care organizational performance. Utilizing a national sample of U.S. hospitals, this article points out that marketing research and superior performance are positively associated.

  16. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks: An analysis across policy phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, D. T. J. M.; Raab, J.; Grêaux, K. M.; Stronks, K.; Harting, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structural network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such as

  17. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks : An analysis across policy phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Dorothee; Raab, J.; Grêaux, Kimberley M.; Stronks, Karien; Harting, Janneke

    2017-01-01

    Background: Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structure and network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such

  18. Job-demand for learning and job-related learning: the mediating effect of job performance improvement initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, M; Bartram, T

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether job-performance-improvementinitiatives mediate the relationship between individuals’ job-demand for learning and job-related learning. Data were obtained from 115 full-time\\ud employees in a diverse range of occupations. A partial least squares analysis revealed that job-performance-improvement-initiatives mediate partially the effects of job-demand for learning on job-related learning. Several implications\\ud for future research and policy are drawn from the findi...

  19. Relating the Structure of Noise Correlations in Macaque Primary Visual Cortex to Decoder Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or P. Mendels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Noise correlations in neuronal responses can have a strong influence on the information available in large populations. In addition, the structure of noise correlations may have a great impact on the utility of different algorithms to extract this information that may depend on the specific algorithm, and hence may affect our understanding of population codes in the brain. Thus, a better understanding of the structure of noise correlations and their interplay with different readout algorithms is required. Here we use eigendecomposition to investigate the structure of noise correlations in populations of about 50–100 simultaneously recorded neurons in the primary visual cortex of anesthetized monkeys, and we relate this structure to the performance of two common decoders: the population vector and the optimal linear estimator. Our analysis reveals a non-trivial correlation structure, in which the eigenvalue spectrum is composed of several distinct large eigenvalues that represent different shared modes of fluctuation extending over most of the population, and a semi-continuous tail. The largest eigenvalue represents a uniform collective mode of fluctuation. The second and third eigenvalues typically show either a clear functional (i.e., dependent on the preferred orientation of the neurons or spatial structure (i.e., dependent on the physical position of the neurons. We find that the number of shared modes increases with the population size, being roughly 10% of that size. Furthermore, we find that the noise in each of these collective modes grows linearly with the population. This linear growth of correlated noise power can have limiting effects on the utility of averaging neuronal responses across large populations, depending on the readout. Specifically, the collective modes of fluctuation limit the accuracy of the population vector but not of the optimal linear estimator.

  20. Performance of adaptive DD-OFDM multicore fiber links and its relation with intercore crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M F; Luís, Ruben S; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Cartaxo, Adolfo V T; Awaji, Yoshinari; Wada, Naoya

    2017-07-10

    Adaptive direct-detection (DD) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed to guarantee signal quality over time in weakly-coupled homogenous multicore fiber (MCFs) links impaired by stochastic intercore crosstalk (ICXT). For the first time, the received electrical power of the ICXT and the performance of the adaptive DD-OFDM MCF link are experimentally monitored quasi-simultaneously over a 210 hour period. Experimental results show that the time evolution of the error vector magnitude due to the ICXT can be suitably estimated from the normalized power of the detected crosstalk. The detected crosstalk results from the beating between the carrier in the test core and ICXT originating from the carrier and modulated signal from interfering core. The results show that the operation of DD-OFDM systems employing fixed modulation can be severely impaired by the presence of ICXT that may unpredictable vary in both power and frequency. The system may suffer from deleterious impact of moderate ICXT levels over a time duration of several hours or from peak ICXT levels occurring over a number of minutes. Such power fluctuations can lead to large variations in bit error ratio (BER) for static modulation schemes. Here, we show that BER fluctuations may be minimized by the use of adaptive modulation techniques and that in particular, the adaptive OFDM is a viable solution to guarantee link quality in MCF-based systems. An experimental model of an adaptive DD-OFDM MCF link shows an average throughput of 12 Gb/s that represents a reduction of only 9% compared to the maximum throughput measured without ICXT and an improvement of 23% relative to throughput obtained with static modulation.

  1. How is anxiety related to math performance in young students? A longitudinal study of Grade 2 to Grade 3 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Elisa; Tomasetto, Carlo; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara

    2017-06-01

    Both general and math-specific anxiety are related to proficiency in mathematics. However, it is not clear when math anxiety arises in young children, nor how it relates to early math performance. This study therefore investigated the early association between math anxiety and math performance in Grades 2 and 3, by accounting for general anxiety and by further inspecting the prevalent directionality of the anxiety-performance link. Results revealed that this link was significant in Grade 3, with a prevalent direction from math anxiety to performance, rather than the reverse. Longitudinal analyses also showed an indirect effect of math anxiety in Grade 2 on subsequent math performance in Grade 3. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of monitoring anxiety from the early stages of schooling in order to promote proficient academic performance.

  2. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  3. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sam- ple of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  4. An Investigation of Boys' and Girls' Emotional Experience of Math, Their Math Performance, and the Relation between These Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan, Selin; Jansen, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in children's emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages 7-15 years). In Study 2, perceived math…

  5. An investigation of boys’ and girls’ emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erturan, S; Jansen, B.

    2015-01-01

    GGender differences in children’s emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages

  6. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Dekker, S.; Lee, N.; Groot, R. de; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  7. Multiple Personality Domains in Relation to Occupational Choice and Performance among Established Teachers. Research Report. ETS RR-04-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Walter; Rock, Donald A.; Trapani, Catherine S.

    2004-01-01

    Does personality impact differently on occupational choice and occupational performance? In a study of established teachers, interests, the Five-Factor Model, and attributions were examined in relation to occupational choice and performance. Attributions were assessed using a new instrument designed for teachers. Choice of teaching specialty was…

  8. Do strong brands pay off? : An empirical investigation of the relation between brand asset valuator and financial performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Vijn, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relation between BrandAssetTM Valuatorand financial performance measures. More specifically, we investigate whether pillars of the BrandAssetTM Valuatormodel (Brand Vitality and Brand Stature) are associated with accounting performance (return on investment, return

  9. Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential…

  10. Does Performance in Digital Reading Relate to Computer Game Playing? A Study of Factor Structure and Gender Patterns in 15-Year-Olds' Reading Literacy Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmusson, Maria; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Data from a Swedish PISA-sample were used (1) to identify a digital reading factor, (2) to investigate gender differences in this factor (if found), and (3) to explore how computer game playing might relate to digital reading performance and gender. The analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling techniques. In addition to an overall…

  11. Metabolic effects of beta2-agonists in relation to exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    athletes. The present PhD thesis is based on four manuscripts in which the acute effects of beta2-agonists on exercise performance were investigated. The aims were 1) to investigate whether supratherapeutic inhalation of beta2-agonists enhances muscle strength, anaerobic performance and aerobic performance......, 2) to uncover the mechanisms behind potential beta2-adrenergic improvements in anaerobic performance, 3) to investigate whether inhalation of beta2-agonists is ergogenic in elite athletes with or without airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Results from the studies of the thesis show...... administration of a certain dose, but a further increase in dose does not seem to elicit a greater performance-enhancing effect. Moreover, the effects of beta2-agonists on performance are unaffected by training status and AHR, but athletes with AHR who regularly use beta2-agonists get a reduced ergogenic...

  12. Non-Performance Pay and Relational Contracting: Evidence from CEO Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVaro, Jed; Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Vikander, Nick

    2017-01-01

    compensation by invoking the idea of informal agreements, specifically the theory of relational contracting. We derive observable implications to distinguish relational from formal contracting and, using ExecuComp data, find that CEOs' annual cash and equity incentive payments positively correlate...... with the cyclical component of sales and respond to measures of persistence as relational contracting theory predicts....

  13. A low cortisol response to acute stress is related to worse basal memory performance in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almela, M.; Hidalgo, V.; van der Meij, L.; Villada, C.; Pulopulos, M. M.; Salvador, A.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related memory decline has been associated with a faulty regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol increase is related to memory performance when memory is measured in

  14. The importance of team level tacit knowledge and related characteristics of high-performing health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Leonard H; Bernell, Stephanie L

    2006-01-01

    Team level tacit knowledge is related to the collective knowledge of the team members. It is the shared experience that results in the ability to successfully anticipate the reactions of teammates in typical and nontypical situations. This study evaluates how tacit knowledge and related team characteristics influence the performance of cardiothoracic surgery teams.

  15. Muscle morphology of the vastus lateralis is strongly related to ergometer performance, sprint capacity and endurance capacity in Olympic rowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaard, Stephan; Weide, Guido; Levels, Koen; Eikelboom, Michelle R.I.; Noordhof, Dionne A.; Hofmijster, Mathijs J.; van der Laarse, Willem J.; de Koning, Jos J.; de Ruiter, Cornelis J.; Jaspers, Richard T.

    2018-01-01

    Rowers need to combine high sprint and endurance capacities. Muscle morphology largely explains muscle power generating capacity, however, little is known on how muscle morphology relates to rowing performance measures. The aim was to determine how muscle morphology of the vastus lateralis relates

  16. Fall-related self-efficacy, not balance and mobility performance, is related to accidental falls in chronic stroke survivors with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, M Y C; Eng, J J

    2008-07-01

    Chronic stroke survivors with low hip bone density are particularly prone to fractures. This study shows that fear of falling is independently associated with falls in this population. Thus, fear of falling should not be overlooked in the prevention of fragility fractures in these patients. Chronic stroke survivors with low bone mineral density (BMD) are particularly prone to fragility fractures. The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of balance, mobility and falls in this sub-group of stroke patients. Thirty-nine chronic stroke survivors with low hip BMD (T-score fall-related self-efficacy. Any falls in the past 12 months were also recorded. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of balance and mobility performance, whereas logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of falls. Multiple regression analysis revealed that after adjusting for basic demographics, fall-related self-efficacy remained independently associated with balance/mobility performance (R2 = 0.494, P fall-related self-efficacy, but not balance and mobility performance, was a significant determinant of falls (odds ratio: 0.18, P = 0.04). Fall-related self-efficacy, but not mobility and balance performance, was the most important determinant of accidental falls. This psychological factor should not be overlooked in the prevention of fragility fractures among chronic stroke survivors with low hip BMD.

  17. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  18. Initial Progress Rates as Related to Performance in a Personalized System of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberry, John K.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses research which explored the hypothesis that students who are fast starters in a personalized system of instruction psychology course would perform better and maintain faster course progress rates than slow starters. Findings indicate that students' starting pace is predictive of course performance and subsequent progress rates.…

  19. Technical player profiles related to the physical fitness of young female volleyball players predict team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Romero, C; Hernández-Mocholí, M A; García-Hermoso, A

    2015-03-01

    This study is divided into three sequential stages: identification of fitness and game performance profiles (individual player performance), an assessment of the relationship between these profiles, and an assessment of the relationship between individual player profiles and team performance during play (in championship performance). The overall study sample comprised 525 (19 teams) female volleyball players aged 12-16 years and a subsample (N.=43) used to examine study aims one and two was selected from overall sample. Anthropometric, fitness and individual player performance (actual game) data were collected in the subsample. These data were analyzed through clustering methods, ANOVA and independence chi-square test. Then, we investigated whether the proportion of players with the highest individual player performance profile might predict a team's results in the championship. Cluster analysis identified three volleyball fitness profiles (high, medium, and low) and two individual player performance profiles (high and low). The results showed a relationship between both types of profile (fitness and individual player performance). Then, linear regression revealed a moderate relationship between the number of players with a high volleyball fitness profile and a team's results in the championship (R2=0.23). The current study findings may enable coaches and trainers to manage training programs more efficiently in order to obtain tailor-made training, identify volleyball-specific physical fitness training requirements and reach better results during competitions.

  20. The ‘performativity thesis’ and its critics: towards a relational ontology of management accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosselman, E.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores accounting's mediating role in bringing theoretical statements from economics into life. It addresses the so-called performativity thesis that claims that economic theory does not just observe and explain a reality, but rather shapes, formats and performs reality. Accounting

  1. The ‘performativity thesis’ and its critics: towards a relational ontology of management accounting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosselman, E.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores accounting's mediating role in bringing theoretical statements from economics into life. It addresses the so-called performativity thesis that claims that economic theory does not just observe and explain a reality, but rather shapes, formats and performs reality. Accounting

  2. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: Testing a Model of Their Joint Relations with Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were…

  3. Power System Technical Performance Issues Related to the Application of Long HVAC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    The aim of this TB is to serve as a practical guide for preparing models and performing studies necessary during the assessment of the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with a large share of (long) AC cables. The brochure follows all phases of planning and analysis of a typical underground...

  4. Relation of Organizational Structure to Job Satisfaction, Anxiety-Stress, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancevich, John M.; Donnelly, James H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the relationship between organizational shape or structure (tall, medium, and flat) and job satisfaction, anxiety-stress, and performance. Indicates that salesmen in flat organizations perceive more autonomy and more satisfaction with respect to self-actualization, perceive lower amounts of anxiety-stress, and perform more efficiently.…

  5. ISO 9001 aspects related to performance and their level of implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Castello Dalmau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the last three decades, thousands of companies around the world have embraced the ISO 9001 standard in their quest to improve company performance and customer satisfaction. In recent literature, a number of authors have identified different “levels” of ISO 9001 implementation. This study aims to analyse these implementation levels in companies from the point of view of the customer, and provide guidelines for future improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Research was conducted based on the results of the second-party audits (SPAs of 90 suppliers, (including component suppliers, assemblers, and wind farm operation and maintenance services, to one of the wind power industry’s largest wind turbine manufacturers. The audits were carried out within the ISO 9001:2008 framework and conducted by one of this study’s authors in his role as the wind turbine company’s Director of Global Quality. Findings: Auditing suppliers plays a unique role in helping to isolate system weaknesses, identify opportunities and suggest areas for improvement. This study shows that, in terms of management commitment and culture and the good practices of an organization, ISO 9001 certified companies implement differing degrees of the standard. From the results of this research, a "road map" towards improvement can be established; one that allows companies in the sector to go beyond simply being accredited with the standard and instead to take advantage of ISO 9001 certification as a catalyst for change. Research limitations/implications: This article focuses only on the wind power sector, although its findings could be extrapolated to similar sectors of high technology and high levels of customization. Originality/value: While quality audits are a customary topic for academics and researchers, few contributions are related to SPAs and their impact on the quality control process of company suppliers. Primary data from the SPAs of suppliers (objective

  6. ISO 9001 aspects related to performance and their level of implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello Dalmau, J.; Gimenez, G.; Castro, R. de

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: In the last three decades, thousands of companies around the world have embraced the ISO 9001 standard in their quest to improve company performance and customer satisfaction. In recent literature, a number of authors have identified different “levels” of ISO 9001 implementation. This study aims to analyse these implementation levels in companies from the point of view of the customer, and provide guidelines for future improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Research was conducted based on the results of the second-party audits (SPAs) of 90 suppliers, (including component suppliers, assemblers, and wind farm operation and maintenance services), to one of the wind power industry’s largest wind turbine manufacturers. The audits were carried out within the ISO 9001:2008 framework and conducted by one of this study’s authors in his role as the wind turbine company’s Director of Global Quality. Findings: Auditing suppliers plays a unique role in helping to isolate system weaknesses, identify opportunities and suggest areas for improvement. This study shows that, in terms of management commitment and culture and the good practices of an organization, ISO 9001 certified companies implement differing degrees of the standard. From the results of this research, a road map towards improvement can be established; one that allows companies in the sector to go beyond simply being accredited with the standard and instead to take advantage of ISO 9001 certification as a catalyst for change. Research limitations/implications: This article focuses only on the wind power sector, although its findings could be extrapolated to similar sectors of high technology and high levels of customization. Originality/value: While quality audits are a customary topic for academics and researchers, few contributions are related to SPAs and their impact on the quality control process of company suppliers. Primary data from the SPAs of suppliers (objective data collected by one

  7. ISO 9001 aspects related to performance and their level of implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castello Dalmau, J.; Gimenez, G.; Castro, R. de

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the last three decades, thousands of companies around the world have embraced the ISO 9001 standard in their quest to improve company performance and customer satisfaction. In recent literature, a number of authors have identified different “levels” of ISO 9001 implementation. This study aims to analyse these implementation levels in companies from the point of view of the customer, and provide guidelines for future improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Research was conducted based on the results of the second-party audits (SPAs) of 90 suppliers, (including component suppliers, assemblers, and wind farm operation and maintenance services), to one of the wind power industry’s largest wind turbine manufacturers. The audits were carried out within the ISO 9001:2008 framework and conducted by one of this study’s authors in his role as the wind turbine company’s Director of Global Quality. Findings: Auditing suppliers plays a unique role in helping to isolate system weaknesses, identify opportunities and suggest areas for improvement. This study shows that, in terms of management commitment and culture and the good practices of an organization, ISO 9001 certified companies implement differing degrees of the standard. From the results of this research, a road map towards improvement can be established; one that allows companies in the sector to go beyond simply being accredited with the standard and instead to take advantage of ISO 9001 certification as a catalyst for change. Research limitations/implications: This article focuses only on the wind power sector, although its findings could be extrapolated to similar sectors of high technology and high levels of customization. Originality/value: While quality audits are a customary topic for academics and researchers, few contributions are related to SPAs and their impact on the quality control process of company suppliers. Primary data from the SPAs of suppliers (objective data collected by one

  8. Students' perceptions of rewards for academic performance by parents and teachers: relations with achievement and motivation in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly D; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N= 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for students' grades were common at all levels of schooling. Reward history related significantly to students' motivational orientation and performance in college, and these relations were generally stronger for boys than for girls. The authors discuss implications of these findings.

  9. Review of Methods Related to Assessing Human Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman

    2001-11-01

    With the increased use of digital systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control rooms comes a need to thoroughly understand the human performance issues associated with digital systems. A common way to evaluate human performance is to test operators and crews in NPP control room simulators. However, it is often challenging to characterize human performance in meaningful ways when measuring performance in NPP control room simulations. A review of the literature in NPP simulator studies reveals a variety of ways to measure human performance in NPP control room simulations including direct observation, automated computer logging, recordings from physiological equipment, self-report techniques, protocol analysis and structured debriefs, and application of model-based evaluation. These methods and the particular measures used are summarized and evaluated.

  10. Self-reported academic performance in relation to health behaviours among Bahria University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Rehana; Zafar, Amara; Mohib, Aleena; Hussain, Mehwish; Ali, Rabiya

    2018-02-01

    To find an association between self-reported academic performance with different socio-demographic factors, health behaviours and mental health amongst university students. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahria University, Karachi, from January 2012 to December 2013, and comprised university students of different disciplines. An anonymous, self-reported questionnaire was distributed among the subjects. Convenient sampling technique was used. Demographic information, including age, gender and field of study, were obtained. Depresion was evaluated via Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. SPSS 22 was used to analyse data. Of the 813 respondents, 334(41.1%) were males and 479(58.9%) females. The mean age was 19.9±1.8 years. Overall, 126(15.5%) subjects reported excellent, 242(29.8%) very good, 310(38.1%) good, 100(12.3%) satisfactory and 35(4.3%) not satisfactory academic performance. Residential status of students played a significant role on their academic performance (p=0.011). Breakfast eating behaviour depicted a significant association with the academic performance (p=0.04).The proportion of unsatisfactory academic performances among students having severe sleep disorder was the highest, followed by mild/moderate (p=0.01). The depression scale's item 'troubling in mind' was highly associated with academic performance (pacademic performance. .

  11. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Yip, Ngai Yin; Phillip, William A.; Schiffman, Jessica D.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide

  12. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  13. [Physical activity diminishes aging-related decline of physical and cognitive performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apor, Péter; Babai, László

    2014-05-25

    Aging-related decline of muscle force, walking speed, locomotor coordination, aerobic capacity and endurance exert prognostic impact on life expectancy. Proper use of training may diminish the aging process and it may improve the quality of life of elderly persons. This paper provides a brief summary on the impact of training on aging-related decline of physical and cognitive functions.

  14. Experience-Based Mitigation of Age-Related Performance Declines: Evidence from Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ashley; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found age-related deficits in a variety of cognitive processes. However, some studies have demonstrated age-related sparing on tasks where individuals have substantial experience, often attained over many decades. Here, the authors examined whether decades of experience in a fast-paced demanding profession, air traffic…

  15. National labour relations in internationalized markets : a comparative study of institutions, change, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traxler, F.; Blaschke, S.; Kittel, B.E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents and examines evidence and theories about changing patterns of industrial relations and their links to convergence on the one hand, and economic competitiveness on the other. Includes a comprehensive set of comparable date on industrial relations in twenty OECD countries including Australia,

  16. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Vicente; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Helgerud, Jan; Claireaux, Guy; Farrell, Anthony P.; Krasnov, Aleksei; Helland, Ståle; Takle, Harald Rune

    2013-01-01

    Background Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming per...

  17. An Empirical Study of Mutual Fund Performance and Its Relation with Fund Size

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Daofen

    2007-01-01

    The increasing popularity of mutual fund investment is a remarkable phenomenon of recent decades. Mutual funds have been among the largest investors and played an important role in the financial market worldwide. The evaluation of mutual fund performance has been achieving a great deal of academic interest since the 1960s. This study employed a time-series data to examine the performance of sixty actively-managed equity growth funds of the United States during the period of July, 2002 to June...

  18. Angiotensin I - Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism in relation to physical performance, cognition and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Bathum, Lise

    2003-01-01

    Studies of younger individuals have suggested an association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive performance. Using a longitudinal study of elderly twins we studied the association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive functioning and survival in old age.......Studies of younger individuals have suggested an association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive performance. Using a longitudinal study of elderly twins we studied the association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive functioning and survival in old age....

  19. Effect of areal power density and relative humidity on corrosion resistant container performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gansemer, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    The impact of the rewetting process on the performance of waste containers at the Yucca Mountain repository is analyzed. This paper explores the impact of the temperature-humidity relationships on pitting corrosion failure of stainless steel containers for different areal power densities (APDs)in the repository. It compares the likely performance of containers in a repository with a low APD, 55 Kw/acre, and a high APD, 110 kW/acre

  20. Bank CEO Pay-Performance Relations and the Effects of Deregulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Anthony J; Ezzell, John R; Miles, James A

    1995-01-01

    The authors test the deregulation hypothesis that posits that bank CEO compensation became more sensitive to performance as bank management became less regulated. They observe a significant increase in pay-performance sensitivities from their 1976-81 regulation subsample to their 1982-88 deregulation subsample. These increases in pay sensitivities after deregulation are observed for salary and bonus, stock options, and common stock holdings. The authors observe increases in the pay-performanc...

  1. Relation between capacity and performance in paediatric upper limb prosthesis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Helen; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Hermansson, Liselotte

    2018-02-01

    The International Classification of functioning, disability and health refers capacity to what an individual can do in a standardised environment and describes performance as what an individual really does and whether the individual encounters any difficulty in the real-life environment. Measures of capacity and performance can help to determine if there is any gap between them that may restrict participation. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between capacity scores obtained in a standardised clinical setting and proportional ease of performance obtained from a real-life environment. The Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control and the Prosthetic Upper Extremity Functional Index were used to assess capacity and performance in 62 prosthetic users (age 3-17). Spearman coefficient and generalised linear model were used to examine the association between these measures. A strong correlation (Spearman = 0.75) was found between the capacity scores and the ease of performance. In both unadjusted and adjusted models, capacity was significantly associated with proportional ease of performance. The adjusted model showed that, by 1 unit increase in the Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control score, the ratio of proportional ease of performance increases by 45%. This implies that Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control can be a predictor for ease of performance in real-life environment. Clinical relevance The ACMC scores may serve as an indicator to predict the difficulties that the children may encounter in their home environment. This prediction can help the clinician to make decisions, such that if the child requires more control training or is ready to move on to learn more complex tasks.

  2. The impact of relational governance on performance improvement in export manufacturing firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Awan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper seeks to identify the factors affecting social performance improvemens in the Pakistan export manufacturing firms and investigae inter-relationships existing among them. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a cross-sectional survey; data were collected using self-administered survey questionnaire. Using data collected from 239 small- and medium-sized direct exporters manufacturing firms in Pakistan. We used structural equation modelling (SEM approach to test structural model, and mediation analysis was conducted with regression analysis. Findings: The results support that meta-cognitive dimensions of cultural intelligence effect on social performance improvements, while the social performance improvement significant associated with innovation performance improvements. We suggest that cultural intelligence is a key to maintaining a relationship through development better cultural understanding and creating harmony among suppliers and buyers through minimizing the differences and disputes, requires developing social cohesion. Our results reveal that exporting firms need to adapt, reconfigure cultural knowledge and integrate resources into the operations to build learning capability, in turn, they can improve social performance and achieve superior innovation performance. Practical implications: Through the application of cultural intelligence capabilty, a firm could increase its ability to sense cultural differences, seize and adapt globally scattered cultural practices on social issues and allows for the development of unique knowledge resources and capabilities, impact on firm social performance and innovation performance improvements. Originality/value: The study conducted in Pakistan cultural context, which can be extended to other Asian countries. We argue that in a globalising world it is pertinent for exporting firms to have a better understanding of the various facets of cultural when dealing with inter

  3. Assessing the use of psychological skills by sports category and the relation with sports performance satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé-Lourido, David; Arce, Constantino; Vales-Vázquez, Ángel; Ponte, Dolores

    2018-05-02

    The evaluation of psychological skills by athletes and their relationship with sports performance and satisfaction has been of great interest in recent decades. Likewise, there has been an emergent tendency to focus on developing specific psychological skills for each sport. The principal aim of this study was to determine the frequency with which athletes deploy psychological skills whilst competing and whether their frequency varies in accordance with the technical, tactical and physical characteristics of the sport in question. A further objective was to establish the connection between the frequency of use of psychological skills and athletes' degree of satisfaction with their performance. The study comprised 1003 athletes practising 43 different sports, grouped into 7 categories based on the similarities between them. Frequency of use of the psychological skills was measured with the Test of Performance Strategies 3. The data analyses allowed the following conclusions to be drawn: the degree to which psychological skills are used is dependent on the technical, tactical and physical characteristics of each sport; and the higher the frequency of the use of psychological skills, the greater the athletes' degree of satisfaction with their performance. These results allow athletes and coaches to increase levels of sports performance by working on the use of psychological skills, adapted to the technical, tactical or physical requirements of the category in which their sport is included. In addition, working on different psychological skills will improve their satisfaction with sports performance.

  4. Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Wouter; De Martelaer, Kristine; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the socialization process, the aim of this study was to examine correlates of family and neighbourhood characteristics as well as parental behaviour and beliefs on FMS performance in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. Relationships between preschool children's FMS performance and family contextual variables were examined within a sample of 846 preschool children. Results identified positive associations of FMS performance with parental education, father's physical activity, transport to school by bicycle, and the high value placed by parents high on sport-specific aspects of children's physical activity. Variables negatively associated with preschool children's FMS performance included father-child interaction in TV-viewing and reading books, the high importance placed by parents on winning and performance in children's physical activity. Furthermore, the ambiguity of associations between FMS performance and parental beliefs underlined its complexity.

  5. A quantitative measure for degree of automation and its relation to system performance and mental load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z G; Macwan, A P; Wieringa, P A

    1998-06-01

    In this paper we quantitatively model degree of automation (DofA) in supervisory control as a function of the number and nature of tasks to be performed by the operator and automation. This model uses a task weighting scheme in which weighting factors are obtained from task demand load, task mental load, and task effect on system performance. The computation of DofA is demonstrated using an experimental system. Based on controlled experiments using operators, analyses of the task effect on system performance, the prediction and assessment of task demand load, and the prediction of mental load were performed. Each experiment had a different DofA. The effect of a change in DofA on system performance and mental load was investigated. It was found that system performance became less sensitive to changes in DofA at higher levels of DofA. The experimental data showed that when the operator controlled a partly automated system, perceived mental load could be predicted from the task mental load for each task component, as calculated by analyzing a situation in which all tasks were manually controlled. Actual or potential applications of this research include a methodology to balance and optimize the automation of complex industrial systems.

  6. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting syst......–20% of the building energy demand. The additional loss depends on the type of heat emitter, type of control, pump and boiler. Keywords: Heating systems; CEN standards; Energy performance; Calculation methods......According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...... systems. This energy declaration must refer to the primary energy or CO2 emissions. The European Organization for Standardization (CEN) has prepared a series of standards for energy performance calculations for buildings and systems. This paper presents related standards for heating systems. The relevant...

  7. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Vicente; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Jørgensen, Sven M; Helgerud, Jan; Claireaux, Guy; Farrell, Anthony P; Krasnov, Aleksei; Helland, Ståle J; Takle, Harald

    2013-01-21

    Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon.Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming performance in a screening test and then exercise trained for 10 weeks using one of two constant-velocity or two interval-velocity training regimes for comparison against control trained fish (low speed continuously). Disease resistance was assessed by a viral disease challenge test (infectious pancreatic necrosis) and gene expression analyses of the host response in selected organs. An inherently good swimming performance was associated with improved disease resistance, as good swimmers showed significantly better survival compared to poor swimmers in the viral challenge test. Differences in mortalities between poor and good swimmers were correlated with cardiac mRNA expression of virus responsive genes reflecting the infection status. Although not significant, fish trained at constant-velocity showed a trend towards higher survival than fish trained at either short or long intervals. Finally, only constant training at high intensity had a significant positive effect on fish growth compared to control trained fish. This is the first evidence suggesting that inherent swimming performance is associated with disease resistance in fish.

  8. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming performance in a screening test and then exercise trained for 10 weeks using one of two constant-velocity or two interval-velocity training regimes for comparison against control trained fish (low speed continuously. Disease resistance was assessed by a viral disease challenge test (infectious pancreatic necrosis and gene expression analyses of the host response in selected organs. Results An inherently good swimming performance was associated with improved disease resistance, as good swimmers showed significantly better survival compared to poor swimmers in the viral challenge test. Differences in mortalities between poor and good swimmers were correlated with cardiac mRNA expression of virus responsive genes reflecting the infection status. Although not significant, fish trained at constant-velocity showed a trend towards higher survival than fish trained at either short or long intervals. Finally, only constant training at high intensity had a significant positive effect on fish growth compared to control trained fish. Conclusions This is the first evidence suggesting that inherent swimming performance is associated with disease resistance in fish.

  9. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.

    2017-07-04

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  10. A Framework for the Relative and Absolute Performance Evaluation of Automated Spectroscopy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoy, David; Heimberg, Peter; Heimberg, Jennifer; Feuerbach, Robert; McQuarrie, Allan; Noonan, William; Mattson, John

    2009-01-01

    The development of high-speed, high-performance gamma-ray spectroscopy algorithms is critical to the success of many automated threat detection systems. In response to this need a proliferation of such algorithms has taken place. With this proliferation comes the necessary and non-trivial task of validation. There is (and always will be) insufficient experimental data to determine performance of spectroscopy algorithms over the relevant factor space at any reasonable precision. In the case of gamma-ray spectroscopy, there are hundreds of radioisotopes of interest, which may come in arbitrary admixtures, there are many materials of unknown quantity, which may be found in the intervening space between the source and the detection system, and there are also irregular variations in the detector systems themselves. All of these factors and more should be explored to determine algorithm/system performance. This paper describes a statistical framework for the performance estimation and comparison of gamma-ray spectroscopy algorithms. The framework relies heavily on data of increasing levels of artificiality to sufficiently cover the factor space. At each level rigorous statistical methods are employed to validate performance estimates.

  11. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.; Sicat, R.; Baum, D.; Wodo, O.; Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  12. New insight for activity intensity relativity, metabolic expenditure during object projection skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacko, Ryan S; McIver, Kerry; Brian, Ali; Stodden, David F

    2018-04-02

    This study examined the metabolic cost (METs) of performing object projection skills at three practice trial intervals (6, 12, and 30 seconds). Forty adults (female n = 20) aged 18-30 (M = 23.7 ± 2.9 years) completed three, nine-minute sessions of skill trials performed at 6, 12, and 30 second intervals. Participants performed kicking, throwing and striking trials in a blocked schedule with maximal effort. Average METs during each session were measured using a COSMED K4b2. A three (interval condition) X two (sex) ANOVA was conducted to examine differences in METs across interval conditions and by sex. Results indicated a main effect for interval condition (F(5,114) = 187.02, p < .001, η 2  = 0.76) with decreased interval times yielding significantly higher METs [30 sec = 3.45, 12 sec = 5.68, 6 sec = 8.21]. A main effect for sex (F(5, 114) = 35.39, p < .001, η 2  = 0.24) also was found with men demonstrating higher METs across all intervals. At a rate of only two trials/min, participants elicited moderate physical activity, with 12 and 6-second intervals exhibiting vigorous PA. Demonstrating MVPA during the performance of object projection skill performance has potential implications for PA interventions.

  13. Issues Related to Experience & Automated Agent Technology in Synthetic Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coovert, Michael D; Riddle, Dawn L; Gordon, Thomas; Miles, Donald; Hoffman, Kimberly; King, Thomas; Elliott, Linda; Dalrymple, Mathieu; Schiflett, Samual; Chaiken, Scott

    2001-01-01

    .... Elliott, Stoyen and Chaiken (2000) note the limits of human cognitive processing relative to this demand and suggest agent technology has the potential to offer effective information and decision support the human operator...

  14. Shooting performance is related to forearm temperature and hand tremor size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakie, M; Villagra, F; Bowman, I; Wilby, R

    1995-08-01

    The changes in postural tremor of the hand and the subsequent effect on shooting performance produced by moderate cooling and heating of the forearm were studied in six subjects. Cooling produced a large decrease in tremor size of the ipsilateral hand, whereas warming the limb produced an increase in tremor size. Cooling or warming the forearm did not change the peak frequency of tremor significantly, which was quite stable for each subject. The improvement in shooting performance after cooling the forearm, as measured by grouping pattern of the shots, reached statistical significance and warming caused a significant worsening. This measure of performance was shown to correlate (r = 0.776) inversely with tremor size. The causes and implications of these changes are discussed. It is suggested that local cooling may be useful for people who wish temporarily to reduce tremor in order to improve dexterity for shooting and for other purposes.

  15. How "fun/importance" fit affects performance: relating implicit theories to instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Amy T; Higgins, E Tory; Klem, Adena

    2003-09-01

    People experience a regulatory fit when they employ means of goal pursuit that fit their regulatory orientation, and this fit increases motivation that can enhance performance. The present studies extend previous research on regulatory fit to the classic motivational variables of fun and importance. They also examine for the first time the effect on performance of the fit between individuals' implicit theories about a task's fun or importance and their strategic engagement of the task as fun or important as induced by task instructions. In all three studies, task performance was better when the external task instructions "fit" rather than did not fit participants' implicit theory for the task. The implications of these findings for understanding the motivational effects of fun and importance are discussed.

  16. An open-source software program for performing Bonferroni and related corrections for multiple comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Lesack

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased type I error resulting from multiple statistical comparisons remains a common problem in the scientific literature. This may result in the reporting and promulgation of spurious findings. One approach to this problem is to correct groups of P-values for "family-wide significance" using a Bonferroni correction or the less conservative Bonferroni-Holm correction or to correct for the "false discovery rate" with a Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Although several solutions are available for performing this correction through commercially available software there are no widely available easy to use open source programs to perform these calculations. In this paper we present an open source program written in Python 3.2 that performs calculations for standard Bonferroni, Bonferroni-Holm and Benjamini-Hochberg corrections.

  17. Physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of the cerebral cortex in relation to musical instrument performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramo, Mark Jude

    2004-05-01

    The acquisition and maintenance of fine-motor skills underlying musical instrument performance rely on the development, integration, and plasticity of neural systems localized within specific subregions of the cerebral cortex. Cortical representations of a motor sequence, such as a sequence of finger movements along the keys of a saxophone, take shape before the figure sequence occurs. The temporal pattern and spatial coordinates are computed by networks of neurons before and during the movements. When a finger sequence is practiced over and over, performance gets faster and more accurate, probably because cortical neurons generating the sequence increase in spatial extent, their electrical discharges become more synchronous, or both. By combining experimental methods such as single- and multi-neuron recordings, focal stimulation, microanatomical tracers, gross morphometry, evoked potentials, and functional imaging in humans and nonhuman primates, neuroscientists are gaining insights into the cortical physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of musical instrument performance.

  18. Are subjective memory problems related to suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bergen, Saskia; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between subjective memory beliefs and suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance was studied in a community sample of young and middle-aged people (N = 142). We hypothesized that people with subjective memory problems would exhibit higher suggestibility and compliance levels and would be more susceptible to false recollections than those who are optimistic about their memory. In addition, we expected a discrepancy between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance. We found that subjective memory judgments correlated significantly with compliance, with more negative memory judgments accompanying higher levels of compliance. Contrary to our expectation, subjective memory problems did not correlate with suggestibility or false recollections. Furthermore, participants were accurate in estimating their objective memory performance.

  19. The effects of scattering on the relative LPI performance of optical and mm-wave systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, John; Hampton, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Previous results comparing the LPI performance of optical and millimeter-wave satellite systems is extended to include the effects of scattering on optical LPI performance. The LPI figure of merit used to compare the two media is the circular equivalent vulnerability radius (CEVR). The CEVR is calculated for typical optical and spread spectrum millimeter-wave systems, and the LPI performance tradeoffs available with each medium are compared. Attention is given to the possibility that light will be scattered into the interceptor's FOV and thereby enable detection in geometries in which interception of the main beam is impossible. The effects of daytime vs. nighttime operation of the optical LPI system are also considered. Some illustrative results for the case of a ground-to-space uplink to a low earth orbit satellite are presented, along with some conclusions and unresolved issues for further study.

  20. Relations of academic procrastination, rationalizations, and performance in a web course with deadlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W

    2005-06-01

    This study compared students' academic procrastination tendency with the (1) frequency and nature of rationalizations used to justify procrastination, (2) self-regulation, and (3) performance in a web-based study strategies course with frequent performance deadlines. 106 college students completed the 16-item Tuckman Procrastination Scale, a measure of tendency to procrastinate, the Frequency of Use Self-survey of Rationalizations for Procrastination, and a 9-item self-regulation scale. Students' subsequent course performance was measured by total points earned. A linear regression with Academic Procrastination as the criterion variable and Rationalization score and Course Points as the predictor variables suggested academic procrastinators support procrastinating by rationalizing, not self-regulating, and thus put themselves at a disadvantage, with respect to evaluation in highly structured courses with frequent enforced deadlines.

  1. Cognitive Performance Is Related to Central Sensitization and Health-related Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders and Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Iris; Ickmans, Kelly; Cagnie, Barbara; Nijs, Jo; De Pauw, Robby; Noten, Suzie; Meeus, Mira

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has demonstrated that impaired central pain modulation or central sensitization (CS) is a crucial mechanism for the development of persistent pain in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence for cognitive dysfunctions among these patients. In addition, chronic WAD and FM patients often report problems with health-related quality of life (QoL). Yet, there is limited research concerning the interrelations between cognitive performance, indices of CS, and health-related QoL in these patients. (1) Examining the presence of cognitive impairment, CS, and limitations on health-related QoL in patients with chronic WAD and FM compared to healthy controls. (2) Examining interrelations between performance-based cognitive functioning, CS, and self-reported health-related QoL in these 3 study groups. A case-control study was conducted. The present study took place at the University Hospital Brussels, the University of Brussels, and the University of Antwerp. Fifty-nine patients (16 chronic WAD patients, 21 FM patients, and 22 pain-free volunteers) filled out the Short Form 36 item Health Survey (SF-36), a self-reported psychosocial questionnaire, to assess health-related QoL. Next, they were subjected to various pain measurements (pressure hyperalgesia, deep-tissue hyperalgesia, temporal summation [TS], and conditioned pain modulation [CPM]). Finally, participants completed a battery of performance-based cognitive tests (Stroop task, psychomotor vigilance task [PVT], and operation span task [OSPAN]). Significant cognitive impairment, bottom-up sensitization, and decreased health-related QoL were demonstrated in patients with chronic WAD and FM compared to healthy controls (P fibromyalgia, whiplash, central sensitization, conditioned pain modulation, temporal summation, cognition, quality of life.

  2. Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A longitudinal study of multidimensional performance characteristics related to physical capacities in youth handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Stijn P J; Vaeyens, Roel; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Vandendriessche, Joric; Vandorpe, Barbara; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal research provides valuable information about change and progress towards elite performance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of longitudinal research in handball. In this study, 94 youth handball players (oldest group: n = 41; age 15-17 and youngest group: n = 53; age 13-15) were followed over a three-year period. Repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted to reveal longitudinal changes in anthropometry and physical performance between elite and non-elite players, controlling for maturation. Maturation effects were found for anthropometry (P team handball should recognise the importance of good skills and an excellent endurance for talent identification purposes.

  4. Relations between Air-Fuel Ratio and Dynamic Performance of Small Race Cars

    OpenAIRE

    位田, 晴良; Ida, Haruyoshi; 漁, 佑一郎; Sunadori, Yuichiro; 牧田, 俊太郎; Makita, Syuntaro; 宮﨑, 真央; Miyazaki, Manaka; 磯松, 弥司; Isomatsu, Yatsuka

    2017-01-01

    'It goes without saying that engine output power characteristics greatly affect the dynamic performance of the race car. One of the methods of changing the output power of the engine is to adjust the set amount of fuel supply. This method changes the air-fuel ratio of the air fuel mixture supplied to the engine. In this study, a slalom test run of a small race car was used to examine dynamic performance with attention to the air-fuel ratio changed by adjusting the set amount of fuel supply. T...

  5. Factors Related to the Work Performance of Midwives in the IUD Contraception Service in Primary Healthcare Centers of Surabaya City

    OpenAIRE

    Anggasari, Yasi; Kartasurya, Martha Irene; Suparwati, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    The decrease of IUD active family planning participants' coverage in Surabaya in the last three years, from 12.27% to 6.1%, became a special attention for Surabaya district health office. The decrease was caused by inadequate work performance of midwives in implementing IUD contraception service in the primary healthcare centers in Surabaya area. Objective of the study was to analyze factors related to the work performance of midwives in the IUD contraception service in the primary healthcare...

  6. Predicting psychopharmacological drug effects on actual driving performance (SDLP) from psychometric tests measuring driving-related skills

    OpenAIRE

    Verster, Joris C.; Roth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Rationale There are various methods to examine driving ability. Comparisons between these methods and their relationship with actual on-road driving is often not determined. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether laboratory tests measuring driving-related skills could adequately predict on-the-road driving performance during normal traffic. Methods Ninety-six healthy volunteers performed a standardized on-the-road driving test. Subjects were instructed to drive with a ...

  7. Relation of Employee and Manager Emotional Intelligence to Job Satisfaction and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Thomas; Tram, Susanna; O'Hara, Linda A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among employees' emotional intelligence, their manager's emotional intelligence, employees' job satisfaction, and performance for 187 food service employees from nine different locations of the same restaurant franchise. We predicted and found that employees' emotional intelligence was positively associated…

  8. Physical and performance-related profile of elite male South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VO2max) evaluations were performed on male (n=23) distance athletes. The means and standard deviations of the parameters are as follows: Percentage fat 8.0% (±1.3), percentage muscle 46.2% (±2.9), VO2max 70.1ml/kg/min (±5.2), peak ...

  9. Application essays and future performance in medical school: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Kay, Allen; Artino, Anthony R; Gilliland, William R; Waechter, Donna M; Cruess, David; DeZee, Kent J; Durning, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on whether application essays are a valid indicator of medical students' future performance. The goal is to score medical school application essays systematically and examine the correlations between these essay scores and several indicators of student performance during medical school and internship. A journalist created a scoring rubric based on the journalism literature and scored 2 required essays of students admitted to our university in 1 year (N = 145). We picked 7 indicators of medical school and internship performance and correlated these measures with overall essay scores: preclinical medical school grade point average (GPA), clinical medical school GPA, cumulative medical school GPA, U.S. Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and 2 scores, and scores on a program director's evaluation measuring intern professionalism and expertise. We then examined the Pearson and Spearman correlations between essay scores and the outcomes. Essay scores did not vary widely. American Medical College Application Service essay scores ranged from 3.3 to 4.5 (M = 4.11, SD = 0.15), and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences essay scores ranged from 2.9 to 4.5 (M = 4.09, SD = 0.17). None of the medical school or internship performance indicators was significantly correlated with the essay scores. These findings raise questions about the utility of matriculation essays, a resource-intensive admission requirement.

  10. The relation between finance utilisation and business performance in Indonesian horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Finance is important for Indonesian farmers to purchase agricultural inputs and machinery and to pay for hired labour, which can improve farm performance. Farmers in Indonesia can access finance from various finance providers, i.e. banks, micro-finance institutions, farmers’ associations,

  11. Measures of Kindergarten Spelling and Their Relations to Later Spelling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Kessler, Brett; Pollo, Tatiana Cury; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Learning the orthographic forms of words is important for both spelling and reading. To determine whether some methods of scoring children's early spellings predict later spelling performance better than do other methods, we analyzed data from 374 U.S. and Australian children who took a 10-word spelling test at the end of kindergarten (M age =…

  12. Managing Resources and Relations in Higher Education Institutions: A Framework for Understanding Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sophia Shi-Huei; Peng, Michael Yao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Changes in social systems demonstrate that various structural disadvantages have jointly led to increasing competition among higher education institutions (HEIs) in many countries, especially Taiwan. Institutional administrators must recognize the need to understand how to improve performance and consistently outperform other institutions.…

  13. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melius, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationships that exist between mathematics anxiety and nurse self-efficacy for mathematics, and the medication calculation performance of acute care nurses. This research used a quantitative correlational research design and involved a sample of 84 acute care nurses, LVNs and RNs, from a…

  14. Empirical Evidence for the Relation between Customer Satisfaction and Business Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Wiele (Ton); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); M. Hesselink

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the analysis of empirical data on customer satisfaction and the relationship with hard organisational performance data. The organisation is a Flexcompany with its headquarters in The Netherlands, but also operating in other countries in Europe. The empirical data on

  15. Motor Asymmetry and Substantia Nigra Volume Are Related to Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Erin R.; Black, Kevin J.; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Hershey, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest motor deficit asymmetry may help predict the pattern of cognitive impairment in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). We tested this hypothesis using a highly validated and sensitive spatial memory task, spatial delayed response (SDR), and clinical and neuroimaging measures of PD asymmetry. We predicted SDR performance would be…

  16. Flexibility and Control : An empirical study relating production flexibility to the design of performance management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen-Dirks, P.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    A critical challenge facing organizations is the design of management control systems, which play a key role in evaluating the achievement of organizational and individual objectives. This thesis addresses the design of management control (performance management) systems in the current flexible

  17. Satisfaction and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Frontczak, Monika; Schiavon, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines how satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters and building features affects satisfaction and self-estimated job performance. The analyses used subjective responses from around 50, 000 occupants collected mainly in US office buildings using a web-based survey administered...

  18. The relation between the blood benzodiazepine concentration and performance in suspected impaired drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, B.E.; Lusthof, K.J.; de Gier, J.J.; Uges, D.R.; Egberts, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several experimental studies have shown a negative influence of benzodiazepines on driving skills. The objective of this study is to study the relationship between the blood concentration of benzodiazepines and the influence on performance in field sobriety tests. A retrospective case file

  19. Biological lifestyle factors related to cognition and learning performance in adults in distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    An important part of learning performance is influenced by individual characteristics. One of those are the environmental influences determined by lifestyle. We call these influences biological lifestyle factors (BLFs). Physical activity, sleep and nutrition are such BLFs and they contribute to

  20. The Emotional Impact of Performance-Related Pay on Teachers in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Pat; Menter, Ian; Hextall, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the emotional impact of Threshold Assessment on teachers and schools. Using data from an ESRC funded project, 'The impact of Performance Threshold Assessment on teachers' work' (ESRC R000239286), we seek to contribute to a growing literature on teachers' emotions by sharing some of the insights gained from 76 interviews…

  1. Relation between Academic Performance and Students' Engagement in Digital Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheussen, Bernt Arne; Myrland, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of student engagement in digital learning activities on academic performance for 120 students enrolled in an undergraduate finance course. Interactive practice and exam problem files were available to each student, and individual download activity was automatically recorded during the first 50 days of the course.…

  2. How Are Task Reflexivity and Intercultural Sensitivity Related to the Academic Performance of MBA Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Napiersky, Uwe; Vlachopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in business school environments is increasingly focused on how to best equip students with the skills necessary for leadership in the global workplace. This paper examines the impact of two particularly important cognitive capabilities--task reflexivity and intercultural sensitivity, on academic performance in an MBA programme. It…

  3. Is age of menarche among school girls related to academic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mathkoori, Radhia; Nur, Ula; Al-Taiar, Abdullah

    2017-06-17

    Background There is strong evidence that the mean age of menarche has declined over the last few decades in developed and developing countries. This is of a major concern because of its enormous public health implications. This study aimed to estimate the age of menarche in Kuwait and investigate the association between menarcheal age and academic performance among high school girls in Kuwait. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected female high school students from private and public high schools in all governorates in Kuwait. Data on the age of menarche were collected by self-administered questionnaire from the students, while data on academic performance were extracted from the students' academic records. Results Of the 907 students we selected, 800 (88.2%) responded. The mean age of menarche was 12.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.18-12.49] years. There was no evidence for significant association between age of menarche and students' academic performance before or after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion The calculated age of menarche among contemporary girls in Kuwait is similar to that of the girls in industrialized countries. Early menarcheal age is unlikely to lead to adverse behavior that may affect academic performance in our setting.

  4. Workplace innovation and its relations with organisational performance and employee commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.; Vergeer, R.; Pot, F.

    2012-01-01

    According to some theoretical approaches workplace innovation is the implementation of new and combined interventions in work organisation, HRM and supportive technologies, and a strategy that improves the performance of organisations and the quality of jobs. Using data from a large-scale survey

  5. Relation of Knowledge and Performance in Boys' Tennis: Age and Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sue L.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    1989-01-01

    Examined 10- to 13-year-old boys' development of knowledge structure and sport performance in tennis by comparing skills and knowledge of experts and novices. Experts focused on higher concepts and exhibited greater decision-making ability because of their more highly developed knowledge structure. (SAK)

  6. Age-related changes in executive control and their relationships with activity performance in handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Fogel, Yael

    2013-04-01

    Deterioration in the frontal and prefrontal cortex associated with executive functions (EF) occurs with age and may be associated with changes in daily performance. The aim of the present study was to describe changes occurring with age in Executive Functions (EF) and handwriting activity, as well as to analyze relationships between age, EF and handwriting performance. The study population included 80 healthy participants (aged 31 to 76+) living in the community. After answering five questions about their writing habits, the participants completed the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). In addition, they performed a handwriting task on a digitizer included in the Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET), which provides kinematic measures of the handwriting process. Significant differences were found between the four age groups for both EF and temporal and spatial handwriting measures. A series of regressions indicated that age predicted 35% of the variance of the BADS profile score (EF control) and 32% of the variance of in-air time while writing. The results of this study indicated age effect on both EF control and handwriting performance. Possible implications for further research and clinical evaluation and intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the Relation between Language Comprehension and Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel; Benassi, Victor A.; Tappin, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have focused specifically on the role that language plays in learning chemistry. We report here an investigation into the ability of language comprehension measures to predict performance in university introductory chemistry courses. This work is informed by theories of language comprehension, which posit that high-skilled…

  8. Performance Monitoring Is Altered in Adult ADHD: A Familial Event-Related Potential Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Grainne; Albrecht, Bjoern; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert; Brandeis, Daniel; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. Electrophysiological studies in children with ADHD provide evidence for abnormal performance monitoring processes and familial association of these processes with ADHD. It is not yet known…

  9. Subjective Performance Evaluations, Self-esteem, and Ego-threats in Principal-agent Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    find that agents sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if the agents' payoff is independent of the principals' feedback. Based on our experimental analysis we propose a principal-agent model with subjective performance evaluations that accommodates...

  10. Analysis of Performance Factors for Accounting and Finance Related Business Courses in a Distance Education Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benligiray, Serdar; Onay, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore business courses performance factors with a focus on accounting and finance. Course score interrelations are assumed to represent interpretable constructs of these factors. Factor analysis is proposed to identify the constructs that explain the correlations. Factor analysis results identify three…

  11. Relation of Home Chaos to Cognitive Performance and Behavioral Adjustment of Pakistani Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamama-tus-Sabah, Syeda; Gilani, Nighat; Wachs, Theodore D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings from Western developed countries have linked home chaos to children's cognitive performance and behavioral problems. In the present paper we test whether the same pattern of associations can be replicated in a non-Western developing country. Our sample was 203 Pakistani primary school children. To assess home chaos the Confusion,…

  12. Simulated front crawl swimming performance related to critical speed and critical power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, H.M.; Wakayoshi, K.; Hollander, A.P.; Ogita, F.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Competitive pool swimming events range in distance from 50 to 1500 m. Given the difference in performance times (±23-1000 s), the contribution of the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems changes considerably with race distance. In training practice the regression line between swimming

  13. The Relative Performance of Female and Male Students in Accounting Principles Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, Marvin L.; Doran, B. Michael

    1992-01-01

    The performance of female and male students in Accounting Principles (AP) I and II was compared by using multiple regression techniques to assess the incremental explanatory effects of gender. Males significantly outperformed females in AP I, contradicting earlier studies. Similar gender of instructor and student was insignificant. (JOW)

  14. The moderating role of competitive strategy in relating frim performance to quality management and government support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Kemp, R.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main concerns in companies is quality management and its relationship to firm performance. Recently a growing interest in research is the important role of the business environment in the competitive strategy choices of companies. By proposing a conceptual framework for a general model

  15. Gender-related effects of contemporary math instruction for low performers on problem solving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.E.; van Lieshout, E.C.D.M.; Verhoeven, L.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of guided (GI) and direct instruction (DI) in solving subtraction problems for mathematically low performers in regular schools were compared. In the GI condition, self-development of solution procedures was encouraged whereas in the DI condition one prescribed strategy was to be used. Forty

  16. The Relation of Student Engagement and Other Admission Metrics to Master of Accounting Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckless, Frank; Krawczyk, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether the use of student engagement (SE) information as part of the admissions process can help us to predict student academic success in Master of Accounting (MAC) programs. The association of SE, undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), and Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) score to academic performance was tested…

  17. Assessing the Relation between Seventh-Grade Students' Engagement and Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Amy E.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Starosta, Kristin M.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Hughes-Reid, Cheyenne L.; Star, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the contribution of engagement (on-task behavior) to the mathematics problem-solving performance of seventh-grade students after accounting for prior mathematics achievement. A subsample of seventh-grade students in four mathematics classrooms (one high-, two average-, and one low-achieving) from a larger…

  18. Assessing the Relation between Seventh-Grade Students' Engagement and Proportional Problem Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Amy E.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Starosta, Kristin M.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Hughes-Reid, Cheyenne L.; Star, John R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the contribution of engagement (on-task behavior) to the mathematics problem-solving performance of seventh-grade students after accounting for prior mathematics achievement. A subsample of seventh-grade students in four mathematics classrooms (one high-, two average-, and one low-achieving) from a larger…

  19. Health services research related to performance indicators and benchmarking in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klazinga, Niek; Fischer, Claudia; ten Asbroek, Augustinus

    2011-01-01

    Measuring quality of care through performance indicators and subsequently using these to compare, learn, and improve (benchmarking) has become a central component of health care policy. This paper aims to identify the main themes of health services research in this area and focuses on opportunities

  20. Working Condition And The Convenience Of Organization Environment Related With Performance Of Pharmacist Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kiswanto kiswanto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organization support is one of the determining factors in improving the performance of the employees. Organization support consisting of organizational factor, convenience environment, the provision of the infrastructure the selection of technology and working proviso condition. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between organization support and performance of pharmacist assistant at the pharmacies division of the district general hospital Arifin Achmad Pekanbaru of Riau province. This was an analytic quantitative study with the cross sectional design to 53 pharmacist assistants as population.  The study was used total sampling. The data were collected by using questionnaire and analyzed with univariate and bivariate. The results showed 49% pharmacist assistants having poor performance. There was a significant relationship between working condition (p-value = 0,04, the convenience of organization environment (p-value = 0,019 with the performance of pharmacist assistant. Its Expected the hospital management to improve the convenience of organization environment at the pharmacies division and also improve the health program and salvation for pharmacist assistant.

  1. School Autonomy and Accountability: Are They Related to Student Performance? PISA in Focus. No. 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many schools have grown into more autonomous organisations and have become more accountable to students, parents and the public at large for their outcomes. PISA results suggest that, when autonomy and accountability are intelligently combined, they tend to be associated with better student performance. In countries where schools…

  2. Hierarchy of Dysfunction Related to Dressing Performance in Stroke Patients: A Path Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takaaki; Nagayama, Hirofumi; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Otsuki, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that various dysfunctions caused by stroke affect the level of independence in dressing. These dysfunctions can be hierarchical, and these effects on dressing performance can be complicated in stroke patients. However, there are no published reports focusing on the hierarchical structure of the relationships between the activities of daily living and balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the hierarchical and causal relationships between dressing performance and these dysfunctions in stroke patients. This retrospective study included 104 first-time stroke patients. The causal relationship between the dressing performance and age, time post stroke, balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits were examined using path analysis. A hypothetical path model was created based on previous studies, and the goodness of fit between the data and model were verified. A modified path model was created that achieved an almost perfect fit to the data. Balance function and abdominal muscle strength have direct effects on dressing performance, with standardized direct effect estimates of 0.78 and 0.15, respectively. Age, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, and strength of abdominal muscle and knee extension on the unaffected side have indirect effects on dressing by influencing balance function. Our results suggest that dressing performance depends strongly on balance function, and it is mainly influenced by the motor function of the affected lower limb.

  3. Hierarchy of Dysfunction Related to Dressing Performance in Stroke Patients: A Path Analysis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Fujita

    Full Text Available Previous reports indicated that various dysfunctions caused by stroke affect the level of independence in dressing. These dysfunctions can be hierarchical, and these effects on dressing performance can be complicated in stroke patients. However, there are no published reports focusing on the hierarchical structure of the relationships between the activities of daily living and balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the hierarchical and causal relationships between dressing performance and these dysfunctions in stroke patients. This retrospective study included 104 first-time stroke patients. The causal relationship between the dressing performance and age, time post stroke, balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits were examined using path analysis. A hypothetical path model was created based on previous studies, and the goodness of fit between the data and model were verified. A modified path model was created that achieved an almost perfect fit to the data. Balance function and abdominal muscle strength have direct effects on dressing performance, with standardized direct effect estimates of 0.78 and 0.15, respectively. Age, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, and strength of abdominal muscle and knee extension on the unaffected side have indirect effects on dressing by influencing balance function. Our results suggest that dressing performance depends strongly on balance function, and it is mainly influenced by the motor function of the affected lower limb.

  4. The relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Baeriswyl, Marie; Kliegel, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    ABSTRACTBackground:From a conceptual point of view, close friends are an important resource for promoting activity engagement in old age. Leisure activity engagement in turn is a key predictor of cognitive performance. Empirically, it remains unclear so far whether leisure activity engagement mediates between having close friends on the one hand and cognitive performance on the other, which we investigated in a large sample of older adults. We assessed cognitive performance (Mill Hill vocabulary scale and Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B) in 2,812 older adults. Participants reported information on leisure activity engagement and close friends. A larger number of leisure activities and a larger number of close friends were significantly related to better cognitive performance in the Mill Hill vocabulary scale and TMT parts A and B. A larger number of close friends were significantly related to a larger number of leisure activities. The number of leisure activities mediated more than half of the relation of the number of close friends to performance in all three cognitive measures. Having close friends may be helpful to stimulate and promote activity participation in old age. By enhancing individuals' cognitive reserve, this may finally preserve their cognitive performance level in old age.

  5. Improved correlations of hydrogen content versus combustion performance related properties of aviation turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Sharma, R.L.; Sagu, M.L.; Tiwari, G.B. (Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India))

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the hydrogen content of Aviation Fuels has generated considerable interest. Various investigators have suggested correlation of hydrogen content with combustion related properties of aviation turbine fuel (ATF). A suitable threshold value of hydrogen content 13.8 wt% is being considered as a waiver of specifications such as specific energy, aniline gravity product, smoke point, aromatic content, naphthalenes and luminometer number. In the present paper relationship between the hydrogen content and combustion related properties has been examined and improved correlations of hydrogen content with several combustion related properties have been developed by incorporating a characterization factor in the equations. The supporting threshold value of a hydrogen content of 13.8wt% is verified with 25 data points for waiving of combustion properties such as specific energy, aniline gravity product, smoke point and aromatic content from aviation turbine fuel. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Compelled attention: the effects of viewing trauma-related stimuli on concurrent task performance in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, C M; Roitblat, H L; Hamada, R S; Muraoka, M Y; Carlson, J G; Bauer, G B

    1999-04-01

    We examined the ability of Vietnam veterans with PTSD to focus attention on a primary digit detection task while concurrently viewing neutral or Vietnam-related picture and word distractors. Controlling for combat exposure, military service, and psychopathology, veterans with PTSD took longer to detect the target when Vietnam-related pictures were distractors. There were no reaction time differences when word stimuli were distractors. The latency effect was specific to trials with trauma-related pictures and did not spread to neutral trials interleaved within a mixed block of trauma and neutral pictures. Individuals with PTSD recalled proportionally more Vietnam-related words than other groups, implying differential attention to Vietnam-related words. Attending to trauma-related pictures interferes with performance of a concurrent task by individuals with PTSD.

  7. Comparative performance measures of relational and object-oriented databases using High Energy Physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marstaller, J.

    1993-12-01

    The major experiments at the SSC are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year. The use of database techniques can significantly reduce the time it takes to access data. The goal of this project was to test which underlying data model, the relational or the object-oriented, would be better suited for archival and accessing high energy data. We describe the relational and the object-oriented data model and their implementation in commercial database management systems. To determine scalability we tested both implementations for 10-MB and 100-MB databases using storage and timing criteria

  8. Intelligent Prediction of Soccer Technical Skill on Youth Soccer Player's Relative Performance Using Multivariate Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, M. R; Maliki, A. B. H. M; Musa, R. M; Kosni, N. A; Juahir, H

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to predict the potential pattern of soccer technical skill on Malaysia youth soccer players relative performance using multivariate analysis and artificial neural network techniques. 184 male youth soccer players were recruited in Malaysia soccer academy (average age = 15.2±2.0) underwent to, physical fitness test, anthropometric, maturity, motivation and the level of skill related soccer. Unsupervised pattern recognition of principal component analysis (PCA) was used to ident...

  9. Relating the carbon footprint of milk from Irish dairy farms to economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Hennessy, T; Moran, B; Shalloo, L

    2015-10-01

    Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of milk or the carbon footprint (CF) of milk is a key issue for the European dairy sector given rising concerns over the potential adverse effects of climate change. Several strategies are available to mitigate GHG emissions, but producing milk with a low CF does not necessarily imply that a dairy farm is economically viable. Therefore, to understand the relationship between the CF of milk and dairy farm economic performance, the farm accountancy network database of a European Union nation (Ireland) was applied to a GHG emission model. The method used to quantify GHG emissions was life cycle assessment (LCA), which was independently certified to comply with the British standard for LCA. The model calculated annual on- and off-farm GHG emissions from imported inputs (e.g., electricity) up to the point milk was sold from the farm in CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq). Annual GHG emissions computed using LCA were allocated to milk based on the economic value of dairy farm products and expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The results showed for a nationally representative sample of 221 grass-based Irish dairy farms in 2012 that gross profit averaged € 0.18/L of milk and € 1,758/ha and gross income was € 40,899/labor unit. Net profit averaged € 0.08/L of milk and € 750/ha and net income averaged € 18,125/labor unit. However, significant variability was noted in farm performance across each financial output measure. For instance, net margin per hectare of the top one-third of farms was 6.5 times higher than the bottom third. Financial performance measures were inversely correlated with the CF of milk, which averaged 1.20 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM but ranged from 0.60 to 2.13 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM. Partial least squares regression analysis of correlations between financial and environmental performance indicated that extending the length of the grazing season and increasing milk production

  10. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  11. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Anne Sofie Bøgh; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2016-01-01

    , the aim was to study the effect of motor intensive training performed in a safe anti-gravity environment using lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) technology on performance during dynamic balance related tasks. Thirteen male PDP went through an 8-week control period followed by 8 weeks of motor intensive...... antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development...

  12. The Performance Measurement of Enterprises Traded in Borsa Istanbul the Emerging Companies Market with Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir TUNA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance measurement of eleven enterprises traded in Borsa Istanbul the Emerging Companies Market was performed. For this aim, six-rates were obtained by using the balance sheet and income statement data of the year 2011. The Grey Relational Analysis was applied by using these rates. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that Denge Yatirim Holding Inc. (DENGE had the highest performance. Furthermore, it was found that the rates of net profit/total assets, net profit/capital stock, net profit/net sales of DENGE had high profitability ratios values.

  13. Detecting payload performance based on relative radiometric characteristic: case of the optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Li, Shengyang; Zhang, Tao; Qin, Bangyong

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for accurately estimating the degree of radiometric non-uniformity in remote sensing images. The algorithm was tested on high-quality images and heavily striping images, and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate the performance for each band by measuring the radiometric non-uniformity of the images. The results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm exhibits high accuracy and stability compared with traditional algorithms. The radiometric performance of TianGong-1 short-wave infrared images was calculated using this new method, and it was highly correlated with the solar angle, pitch angle and refrigerator thermal according to the Apriori algorithm. Based on these results, we have proposed a strategy for restricting increases in striping.

  14. HOW PERFORMANCE OF JAKARTA ISLAMIC INDEX (JII STOCKS RELATIVE TO OTHER STOCKS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Listyaningsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the performance of Jakarta Islamic Index (JII stocks and also investigate whether there was an ethical effect (JII selection restriction and compare it with non-Sharia stocks. The main model used in this study was the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM single index model extended to the Fama and French three factors. This study employs elaborate matching data. The data used in this study was split into two periods: the 2005-2007 periods which consists of two groups: JII and non-JII and the 2008-2012 periods which consists of three groups: JII, Sharia and non-Sharia based on industry sector. This study found that basically there was no difference on performance between JII and non-JII stocks. Therefore, this result supports the previous studies in which there were no significant differences between Sharia and conventional investment.

  15. Performance of popular open source databases for HEP related computing problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalskyi, D; Sfiligoi, I; Wuerthwein, F; Yagil, A

    2014-01-01

    Databases are used in many software components of HEP computing, from monitoring and job scheduling to data storage and processing. It is not always clear at the beginning of a project if a problem can be handled by a single server, or if one needs to plan for a multi-server solution. Before a scalable solution is adopted, it helps to know how well it performs in a single server case to avoid situations when a multi-server solution is adopted mostly due to sub-optimal performance per node. This paper presents comparison benchmarks of popular open source database management systems. As a test application we use a user job monitoring system based on the Glidein workflow management system used in the CMS Collaboration.

  16. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance

  17. A high performance, ad-hoc, fuzzy query processing system for relational databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, William H., Jr.; Fleischman, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Database queries involving imprecise or fuzzy predicates are currently an evolving area of academic and industrial research. Such queries place severe stress on the indexing and I/O subsystems of conventional database environments since they involve the search of large numbers of records. The Datacycle architecture and research prototype is a database environment that uses filtering technology to perform an efficient, exhaustive search of an entire database. It has recently been modified to include fuzzy predicates in its query processing. The approach obviates the need for complex index structures, provides unlimited query throughput, permits the use of ad-hoc fuzzy membership functions, and provides a deterministic response time largely independent of query complexity and load. This paper describes the Datacycle prototype implementation of fuzzy queries and some recent performance results.

  18. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Aggarwal, S.K. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  19. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Aggarwal, S.K. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  20. Comparison of ETF´s performance related to the tracking error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dorocáková

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of financial markets, there is also immediate expansion of fund industry, which is a representative issue of collective investment. The purpose of index funds is to replicate returns and risk of underling index to the largest possible extent, with tracking error being one of the most monitored performance indicator of these passively managed funds. The aim of this paper is to describe several perspectives concerning indexing, index funds and exchange-traded funds, to explain the issue of tracking error with its examination and subsequent comparison of such funds provided by leading investment management companies with regard to different methods used for its evaluation. Our research shows that the decisive factor for occurrence of copy deviation is fund size and fund´s stock consolidation. In addition, performance differences between exchange-traded fund and its benchmark tend to show the signs of seasonality in the sense of increasing in the last months of a year.

  1. Children's Performance on Pseudoword Repetition Depends on Auditory Trace Quality: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceponiene, Rita; Service, Elisabet; Kurjenluoma, Sanna; Cheour, Marie; Naatanen, Risto

    1999-01-01

    Compared the mismatch-negativity (MMN) component of auditory event-related brain potentials to explore the relationship between phonological short-term memory and auditory-sensory processing in 7- to 9-year olds scoring the highest and lowest on a pseudoword repetition test. Found that high and low repeaters differed in MMN amplitude to speech…

  2. Factors Related to How Superiors Establish Goals and Review Performance for Their Subordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Stephen J., Jr.; And Others

    The objective of the study was to identify the characteristics of the superior, the subordinate, and the situation which were related to the manner in which the "Management by Objectives" (MBO) process is carried out. Data collected from 112 managers in a national industrial firm was used in the analysis. Previous research with this data had…

  3. Factors Related to Performance of Health Practices Among Asian Adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Ayres, PhD, RN

    2010-06-01

    Conclusions: Study findings extend existing knowledge and contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian adolescents. Having this knowledge base provides practitioners with a better understanding of the factors related to health practices in Asian adolescents and assists them in developing culturally sensitive interventions aimed at promoting PHP in this population.

  4. School Satisfaction of Elementary School Children : The Role of Performance, Peer Relations, Ethnicity and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2002-01-01

    The present study examines school satisfaction among 1,090 Dutch and ethnic minority children aged between ten and twelve in relation to their school context. Data were gathered in 51 classes from 26 schools. Individual and classroom variables were examined simultaneously, using multilevel analysis.

  5. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Job Performance of Online Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Charles; Kirwan, Jeral R.; Bova, Mark; Belcher, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and how they relate to online teacher effectiveness. The primary method of data collection for this study was through the use of surveys primarily building upon the Personality Style Inventory (PSI) (Lounsbury & Gibson, 2010), a work-based personality…

  6. The effect of relative humidity on output performance of inclined and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The set-up of 70 Watts solar panel was inclined stationary at 150 for maximum solar reception while the set-up of 80 Watts solar panel had automatic solar tracker for effective capturing of solar radiation. For 70 Watts solar panel, the maximum power output of 59.99 Watt was obtained when the relative humidity was 30%.

  7. Is Writing Performance Related to Keyboard Type? An Investigation from Examinees' Perspectives on the TOEFL IBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guangming

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the type of keyboard used in exams introduces any construct-irrelevant variance to the TOEFL iBT Writing scores, we surveyed 17,040 TOEFL iBT examinees from 24 countries on their keyboard-related perceptions and preferences and analyzed the survey responses together with their test scores. Results suggest that controlling…

  8. Motor performance, exercise tolerance, and health-related quality of life in children on dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsermans, RM; Creemers, DG; Helders, PJ; Schroder, CH

    In contrast to the adult population, little is known regarding health-related quality of life and exercise tolerance in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing chronic intermittent hemodialysis. We designed a pilot study to investigate whether research into this area is indicated.

  9. Analysis of Performance Factors for Accounting and Finance Related Business Courses in A Distance Education Environment

    OpenAIRE

    BENLIGIRAY, Serdar; ONAY, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore business courses performance factors with a focus on accounting and finance. Course score interrelations are assumed to represent interpretable constructs of these factors. Factor analysis is proposed to identify the constructs that explain the correlations. Factor analysis results identify three sub-groups of business core courses. The first group is labeled as management-oriented courses. Accounting, finance and economics courses are separated in tw...

  10. Dental Student Study Strategies: Are Self-Testing and Scheduling Related to Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen; Morrow, Christina S; Atiyeh, Lindsey; Pierre, Gaëlle C

    2016-05-01

    Self-testing, a strategy wherein a student actively engages in creating questions and answers from study materials to assist with studying, has been found to be especially advantageous because it enhances future retrieval of information. Studies have found correlations among students' grade point averages (GPAs), self-testing, and rereading study strategies, as well as the spacing of study sessions over time. The aim of this study was to assess relationships among dental students' study strategies, scheduling of study time, and academic achievement. A 16-item survey requesting information on study habits, study schedules, and GPAs was distributed to 358 second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry. Additionally, the survey asked students to report the average number of hours per week they devoted to studying for didactic courses and preparing for hands-on preclinical courses. Of the 358 students, 94 (26%) responded to the survey. The vast majority of the respondents reported utilizing self-testing and rereading study strategies. High performers (with higher GPAs) were more likely to use self-testing, especially with flashcards, and to space their studying over multiple sessions. Lower performing students were more likely to highlight or underline their notes and to mass their study sessions or cram. Longer hours devoted to studying and practicing for simulation courses were associated with stronger performance; lower performers reported spending significantly fewer hours practicing for simulation courses. Half of the dental students surveyed said that they felt their studying would be more productive in the morning, although 84% reported doing most of their studying in the evening or late night. Sound study decisions depend on accurate regulation of ongoing learning and appropriate use and timing of evidence-based study strategies, so these results suggest that dental students may require guidance in these areas.

  11. Motivational profiles in table tennis players: Relations with performance anxiety and subjective vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tsz Lun Alan; Zhang, Tao; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2018-06-27

    Research has suggested the need to use a person-centred approach to examine multidimensionality of motivation. Guided by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the primary aim of the present study was to examine the motivational profiles in table tennis players and their composition by gender, country, training status, and competition levels (from recreational to international). The secondary aim was to examine the differences in performance anxiety and subjective vitality across the motivational profiles. Participants were 281 table tennis players from multiple countries, mostly the U.S. and China. Hierarchical and nonhierarchical cluster analyses were conducted and showed three motivational profiles with distinct quantity and quality: "low", "controlled", and "self-determined". Chi-square tests of independence demonstrated significant differences in their cluster membership by country, formal training with a coach, and competition levels, but not gender. MANCOVA results indicated differences in performance anxiety and subjective vitality across the motivational profiles, in which the controlled profile had the greatest anxiety symptoms. These differences are attributed to the quality over quantity of motivation, which have meaningful implications for table tennis coaches and sport psychology consultants to diagnose and intervene with players in order to reduce their performance anxiety and improve their well-being.

  12. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2011-02-01

    Osmotically driven membrane processes have the potential to treat impaired water sources, desalinate sea/brackish waters, and sustainably produce energy. The development of a membrane tailored for these processes is essential to advance the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation. By systematically varying the conditions used during the casting of the polysulfone layer, an array of support layers with differing structures was produced. The role that solvent quality, dope polymer concentration, fabric layer wetting, and casting blade gate height play in the support layer structure formation was investigated. Using a 1M NaCl draw solution and a deionized water feed, water fluxes ranging from 4 to 25Lm-2h-1 with consistently high salt rejection (>95.5%) were produced. The relationship between membrane structure and performance was analyzed. This study confirms the hypothesis that the optimal forward osmosis membrane consists of a mixed-structure support layer, where a thin sponge-like layer sits on top of highly porous macrovoids. Both the active layer transport properties and the support layer structural characteristics need to be optimized in order to fabricate a high performance forward osmosis membrane. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Analysis of Performance Factors for Accounting and Finance Related Business Courses in A Distance Education Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar BENLIGIRAY

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore business courses performance factors with a focus on accounting and finance. Course score interrelations are assumed to represent interpretable constructs of these factors. Factor analysis is proposed to identify the constructs that explain the correlations. Factor analysis results identify three sub-groups of business core courses. The first group is labeled as management-oriented courses. Accounting, finance and economics courses are separated in two groups: the prior courses group and the subsequent courses group. The clustering order of these three groups was attributed to underlying performance factor similarities. Then, the groups are compared by the pre-assessed ratings of course specific skills and knowledge. The comparison suggests that course requirements for skills and knowledge were the latent variables for the factor analysis. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses are employed to reveal the required level of verbal and quantitative skills for the groups. Management-oriented courses are differentiated from others with requiring verbal skills, managerial skills and knowledge more. Introductory courses require quantitative and analytical reasoning skills more than the subsequent courses in accounting, finance and economics. Mathematics course score fails to be a suitable proxy of numerical processing skills as an accounting course performance factor.

  14. Teacher Electronic Portfolio and its Relation to EFL Student Teacher Performance and Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej T Alshawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available E-portfolio is a promising approach to develop teachers into reflective practitioners who show that they can adapt to new technologies, new criteria, and new environments. The current research explored the quality of EFL student teachers’ e-portfolios and their attitudes towards using them. The research was conducted on 30 EFL female student teachers at Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia. The participants were engaging in practical training at schools and reflecting their skills and experiences in their e-portfolios. This research posed further questions about the relationships between the quality of EFL student teachers’ e-portfolios, their attitudes towards using them and their teaching performance. In order to explore the possible answers, the participants’ teaching performance were observed, their e-portfolios were evaluated by a rubric, and a 24-item questionnaire was administered to them. The results proved high proficiency level of the EFL student teachers’ e-portfolios and positive attitudes towards using e-portfolios among EFL student teachers. Furthermore, the results denoted a statistically significant positive relationship between the quality of EFL student teachers’ e-portfolio and their teaching performance. The results of this study may encourage policy makers to integrate the idea of e-portfolio and reflection as an effective component in teacher education and development.

  15. Thinking about thinking: changes in first-year medical students’ metacognition and its relation to performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han Hong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown the importance of metacognition in medical education. Metacognitive skills consist of two dimensions: knowledge of metacognition and regulation of metacognition. Aim: This study hypothesizes that the knowledge and regulation of metacognition is significantly different at the beginning and end of the academic year, and a correlation exists between the two dimensions of metacognitive skills with academic performance. Methods: The Metacognitive Skills Inventory comprising 52 Likert-scale items was administered to 159 first-year medical students at the University of Malaya. Students’ year-end results were used to measure their academic performance. Results: A paired sample t-test indicated no significant difference for knowledge of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A paired sample t-test revealed significant difference for regulation of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A very strong correlation was found between the two dimensions of metacognition. The correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with students’ academic result was moderate. Conclusions: The improvement in students’ metacognitive regulation and the moderate correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with academic performance at the end of the academic year indicate the probable positive influence of the teaching and learning activities in the medical program.

  16. Collection of human reaction times and supporting health related data for analysis of cognitive and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Brůha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking, excessive drinking, overeating and physical inactivity are well-established risk factors decreasing human physical performance. Moreover, epidemiological work has identified modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor diet and physical and cognitive inactivity that are associated with the risk of reduced cognitive performance. Definition, collection and annotation of human reaction times and suitable health related data and metadata provides researchers with a necessary source for further analysis of human physical and cognitive performance. The collection of human reaction times and supporting health related data was obtained from two groups comprising together 349 people of all ages - the visitors of the Days of Science and Technology 2016 held on the Pilsen central square and members of the Mensa Czech Republic visiting the neuroinformatics lab at the University of West Bohemia. Each provided dataset contains a complete or partial set of data obtained from the following measurements: hands and legs reaction times, color vision, spirometry, electrocardiography, blood pressure, blood glucose, body proportions and flexibility. It also provides a sufficient set of metadata (age, gender and summary of the participant's current life style and health to allow researchers to perform further analysis. This article has two main aims. The first aim is to provide a well annotated collection of human reaction times and health related data that is suitable for further analysis of lifestyle and human cognitive and physical performance. This data collection is complemented with a preliminarily statistical evaluation. The second aim is to present a procedure of efficient acquisition of human reaction times and supporting health related data in non-lab and lab conditions. Keywords: Reaction time, Health related data, Cognitive and physical performance, Chronic disease, Data acquisition, Data collection, Software for data collection

  17. [Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, M

    2018-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Interview data on the 7 th grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; p<0.001; SE: AME: 0.12; p<0.05) and performance-oriented class climate (PT: AME: 0.05; p<0.1; EC: AME: 0.15, p<0.01). They partly explain the relation between both migration background and educational background and eating disorders. In order to prevent eating disorders in female high school students, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Prolonged performance-related neuroendocrine activation and perseverative cognition in low- and high-anxious university music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Patrick; Nielsen, Carole; Studer, Regina K; Hildebrandt, Horst; Klumb, Petra L; Nater, Urs M; Wild, Pascal; Danuser, Brigitta

    2018-05-14

    Music performances are social-evaluative situations that can elicit marked short-term neuroendocrine activation and anxious thoughts especially in musicians suffering from music performance anxiety (MPA). The temporal patterns of neuroendocrine activity and concert-related worry and rumination (perseverative cognition, PC) days before and after a concert in low- and high-anxious musicians are unknown. The first goal of the present study was to investigate the prolonged effects of a solo music performance and the effects of trait MPA on salivary cortisol (sC), alpha-amylase (sAA), and concert-related PC. The second goal was to investigate whether concert-related PC is associated with neuroendocrine activity and mediates the effects of measurement day and trait MPA on neuroendocrine responses. Seventy-two university music students collected saliva samples and reported their PC for seven consecutive days. On the fifth day, they performed solo. Measurement day and trait MPA were tested as main predictors of the diurnal area under the curve with respect to ground (sC AUCg, sAA AUCg), awakening responses, and PC. SC AUCg, sAA AUCg, and concert-related PC were highest on concert day. SC AUCg decreased only partially on post-concert days. SAA AUCg remained elevated on the first post-concert day among students with moderate to very high trait MPA. Throughout the assessment period, trait MPA was associated with smaller sC AUCg and higher concert-related PC. Concert-related PC showed significant positive associations with sC AUCg and sAA AUCg but did not mediate the effects of measurement day and trait MPA on these measures. These findings suggest that solo music performances have prolonged neuroendocrine effects and that trait MPA is an important factor having specific effects on university music students' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system, and cognitive activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aimée A; Brown, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  20. Performance evaluation of inpatient service in Beijing: a horizontal comparison with risk adjustment based on Diagnosis Related Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Weiyan; Huang, Yinmin; Hu, Mu; Zhang, Xiumei

    2009-04-30

    The medical performance evaluation, which provides a basis for rational decision-making, is an important part of medical service research. Current progress with health services reform in China is far from satisfactory, without sufficient regulation. To achieve better progress, an effective tool for evaluating medical performance needs to be established. In view of this, this study attempted to develop such a tool appropriate for the Chinese context. Data was collected from the front pages of medical records (FPMR) of all large general public hospitals (21 hospitals) in the third and fourth quarter of 2007. Locally developed Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) were introduced as a tool for risk adjustment and performance evaluation indicators were established: Charge Efficiency Index (CEI), Time Efficiency Index (TEI) and inpatient mortality of low-risk group cases (IMLRG), to reflect respectively work efficiency and medical service quality. Using these indicators, the inpatient services' performance was horizontally compared among hospitals. Case-mix Index (CMI) was used to adjust efficiency indices and then produce adjusted CEI (aCEI) and adjusted TEI (aTEI). Poisson distribution analysis was used to test the statistical significance of the IMLRG differences between different hospitals. Using the aCEI, aTEI and IMLRG scores for the 21 hospitals, Hospital A and C had relatively good overall performance because their medical charges were lower, LOS shorter and IMLRG smaller. The performance of Hospital P and Q was the worst due to their relatively high charge level, long LOS and high IMLRG. Various performance problems also existed in the other hospitals. It is possible to develop an accurate and easy to run performance evaluation system using Case-Mix as the tool for risk adjustment, choosing indicators close to consumers and managers, and utilizing routine report forms as the basic information source. To keep such a system running effectively, it is necessary to