Eve UDINO; Margot PEREZ; Claudio CARERE; Patrizia d'ETTORRE
An intriguing question in behavioral biology is whether consistent individual differences (called animal personalities) relate to variation in cognitive performance because commonly measured personality traits may be associated with risk-reward trade-offs.Social insects,whose learning abilities have been extensively characterized,show consistent behavioral variability,both at colony and at individual level.We investigated the possible link between personality traits and learning performance in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops.Exploratory activity,sociability,and aggression were assessed twice in ant foragers.Behaviors differed among individuals,they were partly repeatable across time and exploratory activity correlated positively with aggression.Learning abilities were quantified by differential conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response,a task that requires cue perception and information storage.We found that exploratory activity of individual ants significantly predicted learning performance:"active-explorers" were slower in learning the task than "inactive-explorers".The results suggest for the first time a link between a personality trait and cognitive performance in eusocial insects,and that the underlying individual variability could affect colony performance and success.
Helen R. Lara
Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the influence of social institutions on the involvement of students in school activities. The descriptive method of research was used. Purposive sampling was utilized which involved 30 Presidents of all accredited student organizations. The study specifically determined the degree of involvement of students in school activities; and identified the roles of social institutions and the extent of their influence on the involvement of students in college activities. Interviews, documentary analysis and a survey using a questionnaire-checklist were utilized to gather data and information. The study revealed that family and school have a strong influence on the participation of students in school activities. This was so because student leaders are often in direct contact with people who provide support and spend a long time with them. The Church and community are revealed as moderate influences. The moderate influence of social institutions is because students are not exposed to a variety of activities that are equally important in the development of their abilities and skills. It was found that students had limited involvement in church and community undertakings because of the demands put upon them by their academic and non-academic school activities. There is a need to improve students’ participation in the Church and community activities that have moderate influence in order to strengthen their roles
Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul A.; Shreffler, Anthony; Albert, Patricia; Tomko, Carrie
Different cultures communicate differently. Research is beginning to examine the differences in culture related to social-networking site (SNS) use. Differences in specific SNS activities related to academic performance among United States (US; n = 446) and European (n = 394) university students
The significance of social media has increased greatly in the past few years, leading companies to increase their social media activity and also increase their interest in knowing whether it is genuinely worth being active on social media, including knowing the potential advantages. This study aims to examine the relationship between social media activity and three variables: reputation, firm size and firm performance. The study analyzes the relationships between the constru...
Full Text Available Cognitive decline in aging can negatively impact quality of life in the elderly. However, studies have shown that elderly engaged in advanced activities of daily living (AADLs can maintain or enhance global cognitive function or specific domains.Objective:To investigate the relationship between engagement in AADLs and domains of cognition in elderly from seven different locations in Brazil.Methods:A cross-sectional study involving 2,549 elderly without cognitive deficits suggestive of dementia was conducted. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, health status, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE by subdomain (orientation, memory, attention/calculus, language and constructional praxis, and engagement in AADL grouped under physical, social and intellectual activities.Results:Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed an association, albeit modest, between intellectual AADLs and the domains orientation, attention/calculus, language and constructional praxis (R2=0.005, 0.008, 0.021, and 0.021 respectively. Social AADLs were correlated with memory (R2=0.002 and language (R2=0.004 domains. No association was found between physical AADLs and MMSE domains. Schooling and family income were the sociodemographic variables exhibiting the strongest relationship with cognitive domains.Conclusion:The study found associations between intellectual and social AADLs with higher cognitive performance, suggesting that active aging can provide opportunities to attenuate cognitive decline in aging.
Glassman, Lisa H; Kuster, Anootnara T; Shaw, Jena A; Forman, Evan M; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Matteucci, Alyssa; Herbert, James D
Functional near-infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy is a promising new technology that has demonstrated utility in the study of normal human cognition. We utilized fNIR spectroscopy to examine the effect of social anxiety and performance on hemodynamic activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Socially phobic participants and non-clinical participants with varying levels of social anxiety completed a public speaking task in front of a small virtual audience while the DLPFC was being monitored by the fNIR device. The relationship between anxiety and both blood volume (BV) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) varied significantly as a function of speech performance, such that individuals with low social anxiety who performed well showed an increase in DLPFC activation relative to those who did not perform well. This result suggests that effortful thinking and/or efficient top-down inhibitory control may have been required to complete an impromptu speech task with good performance. In contrast, good performers who were highly socially anxious showed lower DLPFC activation relative to good performers who were low in social anxiety, suggesting autopilot thinking or less-effortful thinking. In poor performers, slight increases in DLPFC activation were observed from low to highly anxious individuals, which may reflect a shift from effortless thinking to heightened self-focused attention. Heightened self-focused attention, poor inhibitory control resulting in excessive fear or anxiety, or low motivation may lower performance. These results suggest that there can be different underlying mechanisms in the brain that affect the level of speech performance in individuals with varying degrees of social anxiety. This study highlights the utility of the fNIR device in the assessment of changes in DLPFC in response to exposure to realistic phobic stimuli, and further supports the potential utility of this technology in the study of the neurophysiology of anxiety disorders.
van Schie, Emil G.M.; van Schie, E.G.M.; Wiegman, O.
A survey was conducted among 346 children from the 7th and 8th grade of 7 elementary schools to examine possible positive and negative effects of playing videogames. Analyses revealed that playing videogames did not appear to take place at the expense of children's other leisure activities, social
Tengku Ezni Balqiah
Full Text Available Various types of corporate social responsibility (CSR are perceived differently by parties associated with those activities because CSR is driven by different motives. This study investigates how CSR activities – CSR activities concerning health and well-being of mothers and children – act as liaisons between business performance (brand attitude and loyalty and social performance (children’s quality of life. A survey was conducted in Indonesia on 450 respondents–customers of firms in industries related to natural resources and in regards to children’s well-being. The data were considered via factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results show business, stakeholder, and moral motives. Brand attitude and loyalty can influence perceptions toward these motive. Further, these motives could increase or decrease social performance. Companies should consider the type of CSR activities to engage in because the activities can be perceived as being driven by different motives and have different impacts on social performance. This result suggests that companies can harmonize business aspects and social aspects of CSR in creating value.
Borst, W.A.M.; Moser, C.; Ferguson, J.E.
Crowdfunding involves raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet and social networks, to fund a project. Crowdfunding projects are mainly funded by the project creator’s relatively small network of family and friends. We argue that mobilizing funders
Borst, W.A.M.; Moser, C.; Ferguson, J.E.
Crowdfunding involves raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet and social networks, to fund a project. Crowdfunding projects are mainly funded by the project creator’s relatively small network of family and friends. We argue that mobilizing funders
Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper
Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings...... from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...
Chen, Jimmy; Scholtens, Bert
Responsible investors, like regular investors, need to investigate whether to actively or passively manage their investments. This especial is of interest for responsible investing as it requires additional information generation and processing compared to more conventional investing. This study
Dawson, Marcelle C.
Considering the lack of coverage in the mass media of certain kinds of social movement activity, many movements make use of smaller scale, independent media to publicise their struggles. From the vantage point of social movements in South Africa, this paper addresses what Mojca Pajnik and John Downing call "nano-media". Based on…
Adrian Henorel Niţu
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Organisational Social Capital (OSC. This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisational Social Capital and business ethics. This represents a gap in the literature, to which this research will address. Three propositions are put forward and discussed using secondary data collection methods. The findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between the characteristics which improve the quality of organisation-stakeholders relationship and the effectiveness of implementing business codes and, therefore, the increasing Corporate Social Performance. The proposed ethical framework has, at the same time, a similar effect by incrementing Organisational Social Capital, because it shares similar features with the relation between organisation-stakeholders, business codes and CSP.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Organisational Social Capital (OSC. This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisational Social Capital and business ethics. This represents a gap in the literature, to which this research will address. Three propositions are put forward and discussed using secondary data collection methods. The findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between the characteristics which improve the quality of organisation-stakeholders relationship and the effectiveness of implementing business codes and, therefore, the increasing Corporate Social Performance. The proposed ethical framework has, at the same time, a similar effect by incrementing Organisational Social Capital, because it shares similar features with the relation between organisation-stakeholders, business codes and CSP.
Full Text Available This article presents an overview of "Performative Social Science," which is defined as the deployment of different forms of artistic performance in the execution of a scientific project. Such forms may include art, theater, poetry, music, dance, photography, fiction writing, and multi-media applications. Performative research practices are in their developmental stage, with most of the major work appearing in the last two decades. Frequently based on a social constructionist metatheory, supporters reject a realist, or mapping view of representation, and explore varieties of expressive forms for constructing worlds relevant to the social sciences. The performative orientation often relies on a dramaturgical approach that encompasses value-laden, emotionally charged topics and presentations. Social scientists invested in social justice issues and political perspectives have been especially drawn to this approach. Performative social science invites productive collaborations among various disciplinary fields and between the sciences and arts. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101119
Lee, Sangheon; Torm, Nina
This article investigates how social security provision - a key determinant of formality - impacts on small and medium-sized firm performance in Viet Nam. Based on enterprise census data covering all registered firms from 2006 to 2011, the authors find that firms which increase their social...... security coverage by 10 per cent experience a revenue gain of 1.4-2.0 per cent per worker and a profit gain of up to 1.8 per cent, depending on the survival time of the firm. However, given the time lag between 'investment' (in social security contributions) and returns (enhanced firm performance...
Seelig, Michelle I.
Given that young adults consume and interact with digital technologies not only a daily basis, but extensively throughout the day, it stands to reason they are more actively involved in advocating social change particularly through social media. However, national surveys of civic engagement indicate civic and community engagement drops-off after high school and while millennials attend college. While past research has compiled evidence about young adults’ social media use and some social medi...
Full Text Available In recent decades, it is gaining more and more dominance in both academic and business life that the company exists for and has responsibilities toward a wider group of stakeholders and it must have some objectives other than profitability. To achieve sustainable development and growth, the companies must assume more duties, which is called the term “corporate social responsibility (CSR.” In the literature, it is questioned whether CSR activities benefit the company or not; whether there is any relationship exists between CSR activities and the company’s financial performance and the direction of the relationship. We aimed to explore that whether there is any effect corporate social performance (CSP on financial performance and position and vice versa. We performed content analysis through annual reports and derived a social score composed of the items included in disclosure guidelines and some criteria used in CSR ratings. We also used several financial position and financial performance indicators. In order to explore the relationship between CSP and financial indicators, we run panel data regressions. We found significant results for some of the indicators, where some of the indicators gave insignificant results. The reporting of CSR activities is in very low levels. The conscious toward CSR and sustainability must be promoted and the companies must assume more active roles. The reporting of those activities is also important.
Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert; Mehrteab, Habteab T.
This paper analyzes whether the effects of monitoring and social ties of the group leader and other group members on repayment performance of groups differ, using data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We hypothesize that the monitoring activities and
McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare
with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall...... activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin......Although social and intellectual engagement have been consistently associated with late-life functioning, rather than true causation, these associations may reflect the experiential choices of high functioning individuals (i.e., selection effects). We investigated the association of social activity...
Grøn, Sisse; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
(Progoulaki & Roe 2011). This challenges social capital on board, i.e. the resources inherent in network cooperation associated with norms of reciprocity and trust (Putnam 2000: 19). Fragmentizing ‘blue’ social capital should however be restored, because work performance depends on the quality of cooperation...... findings suggest that a balance between three types of social capital – bonding, bridging and linking – is needed to achieve a high-performance work system (Gittell et al. 2010). Hence, main actors within the shipping sector should take ‘blue’ social capital into account in order to increase work...... efficiency and economic performance....
Doleck, Tenzin; Lajoie, Susanne
The ubiquitous use of social networking sites by students and the potential impacts of such use on academic performance are of both theoretical and practical importance. Hence, this paper addresses the question: how does the use of social networking sites influence academic performance? The present review synthesizes the empirical findings of the…
Kampf, Constance Elizabeth
To highlight aspects of activism obscured by a focus on legitimacy and ideology, this paper argues that shifting focus from legitimacy and ideology to identity, problem-solving & dialogue is needed to understand emerging forms of Social Media Native Activism that connect Consumer Social Responsib......To highlight aspects of activism obscured by a focus on legitimacy and ideology, this paper argues that shifting focus from legitimacy and ideology to identity, problem-solving & dialogue is needed to understand emerging forms of Social Media Native Activism that connect Consumer Social...... Responsibility (CnSR) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Taking this view as a basis for social activism offers a valuable perspective for understanding some emergent forms of social media activism towards business. Two cases of social media ‘native’ social activist organizations working to create...
Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven
Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…
Danny Pimentel Claro
Full Text Available This paper argues that an informal network can itself be a basis for the increase in a sales manager’s performance. Informal networks create a structure that surpasses the formal hierarchical structure defined by the firm. We concentrated on the advice network and considered two different views of network structure that claim to have impact on performance. To explore this claim, we examined whether sales managers develop either a highly cohesive network structure (i.e. Coleman’s view or one containing structural holes (i.e. Burt’s view in order to achieve higher sales. We also investigated the matter of tie strength put forward by Granovetter in his seminal 1973 work. Census data was collected from about 500 personnel from an agricultural input retailer having 23 divisions. Estimates from a sample of 101 sales managers showed the importance of a highly cohesive structure (degree centrality for the three measures of sales manager’s performance. The strong ties have a positive impact on performance, suggesting the importance of building up strong bonds with network contacts. Sales managers’ age, time within the retailer and education also influence performance. These results imply that firms should stimulate contacts among personnel to spread technical and commercial information.
Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John
Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view......, though. Research has also identified various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor...
Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John
Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view......, though. Research has also identiWed various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor...
Kampf, Constance Elizabeth
To highlight aspects of activism obscured by a focus on legitimacy and ideology, this paper argues that shifting focus from legitimacy and ideology to identity, problem-solving & dialogue is needed to understand emerging forms of Social Media Native Activism that connect Consumer Social...... Responsibility (CnSR) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Taking this view as a basis for social activism offers a valuable perspective for understanding some emergent forms of social media activism towards business. Two cases of social media ‘native’ social activist organizations working to create...... movements are examined from this problem solving & dialogue-based perspective—Carrotmob, and the Good Guide. These cases represent examples of a post-dialectic frame for understanding how social media can affect approaches to activism....
Full Text Available The objective of the research is to establish if there is a correlation between efficiency and socially responsible business performance in Croatian enterprises. The research is based on the hypothesis that higher corporate efficiency affects social responsibility development in enterprises and vice versa, that socially more responsible corporate performance have a positive effect on efficiency. In their research, many authors have proved the correlation between social responsibility and financial performance, reputation of the enterprise and added value. Cases from transition countries, which transferred to market economy and focused on socially responsible management and sustainability, have not been the subject of research. The social responsibility concept implies balance between economic, ecological and social goals, which means distribution of assets on several actors, so it may be predicted that more efficient enterprises will sooner accept the sustainability concept and act more responsibly. Except for theoretical social responsibility hypothesis, the initial point in the empirical section is dynamic analysis of business activities of Croatian entrepreneurs in the period between 1993 and 2010, on the basis of which a sample of enterprises was chosen, which submit transparent reports on social responsibility. The main result obtained by univariate analysis confirms that socially more responsible enterprises have better financial results, i.e. they are more efficient, and also have better reputation. The research also had limitations in relation to qualitative determination of the social responsibility impact on efficiency. The conclusion is derived that there is a causal relationship between efficiency and social responsibility, i.e. higher efficiency level enables higher allocation of resources with the purpose of socially more responsible corporate performance and vice versa; socially responsible corporate performance have an impact on
Kgabo L. Kobo; Collins C. Ngwakwe
Previous researchers have found conflicting results between CSI and firm financial performance. This paper moves this debate further by examining the extent to which corporate social investment (CSI) relates with corporate financial performance (CFP) from a developing country perspective. The main aim of the paper was to determine the relationship between CSI, stock price, sales turnover and return on equity (ROE) amongst the socially responsible investing (SRI) companies in the Johannesburg ...
Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal
Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the impact of using social media and its impact on students’ performance and success. This research tries to identify the relationship between students’ use of social networks and their success in their studies. It tries also to find out whether time spent impacts students’ performance and success. Whether students use social media more for entertainment or for teaching and information sharing purposes. The paper uses a quantitative approach for collecting the primary data. The data was collected by surveying 255 respondents from South East European University. The data analyses were done by SPSS so" ware program. Cronbach alpha is used for testing the validity and reliability of variables used in this study. The hypotheses were tested using One Simple T-test. The obtained empirical results show that a great number of students are aware of advantages and disadvantages by the social media. Thus, due to a great percent of times spent on social networking activities, the performance and the success of students suffer setbacks which could lead to a poor performance and they might fail to create a balance between the social media and academic activities. Furthermore, it is about their addiction, the loss of time leading to consequences in their academic development, and they are also influenced to a great extent negatively by the social networking sites, because their attention is focused on chatting and music while their academic activities are neglected. Finally, based on the results of survey, we can conclude that impact of social media on the academic performance of students should focus more on the positive side than on the negative side to achieve balance. Hence, creating more pages for research and academic activities will enable students to improve their performance, thereby avoiding a distraction which leads to deviation from their academic work.
Editinete André da Rocha Garcia
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study’s general objective is to investigate the moderating effect of Corporate Social Performance Disclosure (D-CSP on the relationship between Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Corporate Financial Performance (CFP. Based on this objective, the study presented a model in which D-CSP acts as a moderator in relation to primary stakeholders (employees, community, and suppliers. D-CSP is a mechanism through which the various social aspects involved in discretionary policies, actions, and activities identified in the management for stakeholders process can be evaluated. A sample of 1,147 companies belonging to 10 different sectors and five continents was used to test the model. Data were collected from the Bloomberg database, totaling 5,735 observations, from 2010 to 2014. The relationship was tested using the multiple linear regression model involving panel data with fixed effects, and the Newey-West robust standard errors correction. Three constructs, D-CSP, CSP, and CFP, were used to perform the tests. As a CSP measure, the CSP of the employee, supplier, and community stakeholders was used. As a D-CSP measure, the CSP disclosure scores available from the database were used, and return on assets (ROA was used as a CFP measure. The tests carried out indicated the existence of a positive moderating effect of disclosure on the relationship between the CSP of primary stakeholders and CFP. Besides presenting a positive CSP in relation to the primary stakeholders the results enable it to be inferred that these results need to be disclosed, thus contributing to higher corporate financial performance.
Petersen, Marie Juul
Many Jordanians perceive formal politics in Jordan as illegitimate, corrupt and authoritarian. Thus, when searching for agents of change and reform, we have to look beyond the formal political system. In this regard, recent years have seen an increasing interest in civil society. However, this in...... the organisations' positions on a number of concepts often associated with "democratisation", namely women's rights, participation and pluralism, paying particular attention to the role of Islam......., this interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care...... and financial assistance to the poor. This brief asks whether these organisations can be considered potential agents of democratic change or rather as preservers of the status quo. Moreover, do they employ Islam as a means of control or empowerment? Attempting to answer these questions, the brief discusses...
Full Text Available Every year Corporate Responsibility Magazine selects and ranks 100 companies on the basis of their corporate social responsibility. This study investigates the stock performance of socially responsible companies in the U.S. The monthly stock returns for these companies are analyzed and compared with the market performance, with the S&P 500 index designated as a proxy for the market. The empirical evidence suggests that these 100 companies outperform the market in their monthly stock returns. We also narrow down the number of companies selected to the top 75, 50, 25, and 10 firms. As we narrow down the companies selected, the difference between their returns and the market returns also narrows. In other words, a portfolio that includes all top 100 companies provides the best stock performance. We extend the analysis to long-term annual stock performance. We find that these socially responsible companies′ annual returns are higher than the market returns for up to seven years after they are listed. We also conduct the same analysis on the top 75, 50, 25, and 10 firms, respectively. Similarly, the larger the number of these top 100 companies, the greater the tendency to generate higher annual returns. We suspect that because the difference between the socially responsible companies′ average returns and the market returns is not dramatic, with a bigger population and thus a larger sample size, the difference becomes more significant. However, in practice, transaction costs must be considered. This study is limited in that it does not consider transaction costs. Nevertheless, we hope to shed some light on the issue of socially responsible companies′ stock performance to encourage companies to start thinking about the importance of corporate social responsibility.
Considers the role of performance improvement professionals and human resources development professionals in helping organizations realize the ethical and financial power of corporate social responsibility. Explains the social responsibility performance outcomes model, which incorporates the concepts of societal needs and outcomes. (LRW)
Nagargoje, Arun; Sokoler, Tomas; Maybach, Karl
This paper discusses our early research into the design space for digital technologies that extend the existing synergistic relationship between physical and social activity from fitness centers to the home. We focus on yoga activity for senior citizens and explore the concept of social yoga mats...
Full Text Available The research aims to show how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR should not be considered a cost to bear as an economic social actor but an investment that will contribute to the competitiveness and growth of the firm. In the first part we consider capitalistic firm as systems for the creation of economic and financial value for their shareholders. We measure their performance by a system of monetary values. In the second part we do not limit our view to simply the shareholders, but we consider, instead a vast group of stakeholders because it is important not only to make profits, but also how companies make them . In these years characterized by the financial crisis, where many big companies went bankrupt, more and more companies are speaking about ethics and CSR. For a firm, acting socially responsible, means for example having fair compensations, promoting transparency and the respect of employees, neutralizing conflicts of interest, as well as taking care of the environment. CSR is today a topic for discussion not only for business people but also for politicians, media, researchers, NGOs and consumers. Growing awareness of CSR is evident in the growth of voluntary codes of corporate conduct, in the growth of companies that are using self-reporting on social and environmental practices, and in increasingly social and ethical investment funds. The public and governments of the world have been steadily increasing pressure on corporations to increase their CSR. Recently the European Commission has put forward a new, simpler definition of corporate social responsibility as â€œthe responsibility of enterprises for their impacts on societyâ€ (European Commission 25/10/2011. Companies have realized that to increase their market share or keep their market share, they must adopt CSR, but the synergy between social performance and financial performance is not automatic; rather it is the result of efforts that combine managerial
Social activity data sets are increasing in number and volume. Finding community structure in such data is valuable in many applications. For example, understand- ing the community structure of social networks may reduce the spread of epidemics
Graafland, J.J.; Smid, H.
Abstract: This paper develops and tests a conceptual framework on the relationships between competition, time horizon and corporate social performance (CSP). We hypothesize that more intense competition discourages CSP by lowering the time horizon of companies. We test the hypothesis on a sample of
One of the major benefits of the face-to-face teaching environment is that social interaction opportunities are a natural part of the course: Learners meet in the same room for the same allotted period of time each week. This social opportunity is not organic to online courses; therefore, to have this social interaction as a part of online classes…
Raluca Miruna Zapciu
Full Text Available The field of corporate social responsibility (CSR has grown exponentially in the last two decades. There are different views of the role of the firm in society and disagreement as to whether wealth maximization should be the sole goal of a corporation. Nevertheless, there still remains a debate about the legitimacy and value of corporate responses to CSR concerns. This paper examines the effect of CSR on financial performance. It examines the effect CSR- related shareholder proposals lead to positive announcements returns and superior accounting performance. Also, the channels through which companies benefit from CSR are examined. The paper finds that CSR improves employee satisfaction and helps companies cater to customers that are responsive to sustainable practices and that the adoption of CSR proposals is associated with an increase in labor productivity and sales growth. The results indicate that the sign of the relationship is positive and statistically significant relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance, supporting the view that socially responsible corporate performance can be associated with a series of bottom-line benefits.
Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles; Lopez-Nicolas, Carolina
to information and opportunity predicted company performance, particularly for small start-up companies. The pattern of results complements prior work that establishes the importance of social capital in regional business clusters by demonstrating how certain ICT uses complement personal relationships to enhance......This study explores how some uses of ICTs, as well as having social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region located...... in Denmark and Southern Sweden. Responding companies included established producers of biotechnology-related products as well as small biotechnology start-up firms emphasizing research and development. The results suggest that when ICT use was aimed at accessing and enhancing human and intellectual capital...
Steinfield, Charles; Scupola, Ada; López-Nicolás, Carolina
to information and opportunity predicted company performance, particularly for small start-up companies. The pattern of results complements prior work that establishes the importance of social capital in regional business clusters by demonstrating how ICT use complements personal relationships to enhance......This study explores how some kinds of ICT uses, as well as social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region located...... in Denmark and Southern Sweden. Responding companies included established producers of biotechnology-related products as well as small biotechnology start-up firms emphasizing research and development. The results suggest that when ICT use was aimed at accessing and enhancing human and intellectual capital...
Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut
Using longitudinal data from the date of arrival, we study long-term labour market and social insurance outcomes for all major immigrant cohorts to Norway since 1970. Immigrants from high-income countries performed as natives, while labour migrants from low-income source countries had declining employment rates and increasing disability programme participation over the lifecycle. Refugees and family migrants assimilated during the initial period upon arrival but labour market convergence halt...
Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut
Using longitudinal data from the date of arrival, we study long- term labor market and social insurance outcomes for all major immigrant cohorts to Norway since 1970. Immigrants from highincome countries performed as natives, while labor migrants from low- income source countries had declining employment rates and increasing disability program participation over the lifecycle. Refugees and family migrants assimilated during the initial period upon arrival, but labor market convergence halted ...
Full Text Available This article reviews recent work applying a notion of "performance" in the study and representation of lives. It tries to clarify some of the issues involved—including the meaning of "performance"—and "performative"—the range of possible approaches (e.g., in addition to drama—other arts and the relationship between "subjects", "researcher" and "audience". An immediate concern is the nature of the researcher—as having the necessary skills and abilities or knowledge involved in "performance" (in researching, writing, recording and representing, as engaged (to some extent in "artistic" endeavour, and moving between a number of "roles" and social relations in "performing" with/to others (the "researched" group, audience and society. An important issue for social science in crossing or bridging the social science-arts, in taking up "performative approaches", is "What remains distinctive about the social science if it becomes involved with performance approaches?" As a source for comparison (and inspiration, some brief reference will be made to the work of KANDINSKY—who moved across disciplinary boundaries and artistic practices—as ethnographer, painter, teacher, designer, theorist and poet. Finally, perhaps, there is a deeper "turn" indicated by the "turn to performance" in the study of lives, a more "complete" portrait of the individual as an active, communicative and sensual being. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802588
Full Text Available This study assessed the influence of trait social anxiety on cardiovascular, emotional and behavioral responses to active performance situations representing social and cognitive demands. Thirty-six male and thirty-six female students categorized as either high or low in trait social anxiety performed a mental arithmetic task and two interpersonal tasks requiring persuasive behavior: Preparation and Performance of a Speech, Role-played Interpersonal Interactions. The cardiovascular effects of social anxiety varied over experimental stressors and appear to reflect differences in effort or task engagement rather than differential affective experiences. During Role-played Interactions high socially anxious subjects displayed lower increases in systolic blood pressure compared to low anxious participants. This effect was partially mediated by behavioral indicators of social competence and suggests a more inhibited coping approach of socially anxious participants. Findings for Mental Arithmetic were in the opposite direction, high socially anxious subjects displayed greater heart rate effects. In the absence of group differences in state anxiety this effect might result from stronger audience effects on effort or task motivation in socially anxious participants. These findings strengthen the view that active performance situations elicit cardiovascular effects that are largely attributable to differences in task engagement. The data also indicate the importance of considering situational factors in social anxiety research.
This article describes the strategic activism of educational leaders who promote social justice. Given the risks, educational leaders need to be strategic about the ways in which they pursue their activism. Citing current research, this article explores the ways in which leaders strategically pursue their social justice agendas within their own…
Ioan Sabin SOPA
Full Text Available : Starting from the assumption that motor activities are the perfect environment for socialization, communication and social integration of young people, this study aims to analyze the effectiveness of these activities in improving intergroup relations at the university level. In this research, the samples were composed of two groups, the experimental group (n = 25 with students from the Physical Education specialization and control group B (n = 25, composed of students from the Faculty of Sciences. The sociological survey applied on the two samples aimed to analyze the level of socialization, communication and social integration of students. The findings showed that the experimental group is more united, having a higher level of socialization and communication, compared to the control group B, proving once again the socializing effects of motor activities.
Fossen Beth L.; Schweidel David A.
Social TV is the simultaneous consumption of television alongside social media chatter about the programming. This topic is highly relevant for marketers. Usually it is considered as a bad thing for TV advertisers. While there can be distraction from the ads, marketers can also benefit from positive effects. Consumers’ multiscreen activities can be used to attract more viewers, to leverage TV campaigns and to increase sales. This chatter creates free exposure for the brand online, extends the...
Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions
Yin, Jun; Xu, Haokui; Duan, Jipeng; Shen, Mowei
Traditionally, objects of attention are characterized either as full-fledged entities or either as elements grouped by Gestalt principles. Because humans appear to use social groups as units to explain social activities, we proposed that a socially defined group, according to social interaction information, would also be a possible object of attentional selection. This hypothesis was examined using displays with and without handshaking interactions. Results demonstrated that object-based attention, which was measured by an object-specific attentional advantage (i.e., shorter response times to targets on a single object), was extended to two hands performing a handshake but not to hands that did not perform meaningful social interactions, even when they did perform handshake-like actions. This finding cannot be attributed to the familiarity of the frequent co-occurrence of two handshaking hands. Hence, object-based attention can select a grouped object whose parts are connected within a meaningful social interaction. This finding implies that object-based attention is constrained by top-down information.
Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR has become a major part of the foodservice industry due to external forces which encourage enterprises’ responsiveness. In reality, consumers’ social concern influences their attitudes towards foodservice firms’ socially responsible practices and purchase decisions, thereby influencing senior management to react. Considering this issue, this study examines the impact of senior management’s ethical leadership in evaluating operational, commercial, and economic performances along with the mediating role of CSR in the foodservice industry. A conceptual model was formulated and empirically tested based on responses from 196 foodservice franchise firms in South Korea. The results indicated ethical leadership significantly influenced CSR and operational performance, while CSR also had a positive effect on operational and commercial performances. Additionally, operational performance had a significantly positive influence on commercial performance, which subsequently enhanced economic performance. Overall, the findings highlight the role that ethical leadership exhibited by senior management of foodservice franchises influenced initiation of CSR activities, which provide implications for research and industry practice and is outlined.
subjects the teaching style should be characterized by more variation and motivate the pupils. Research has shown that there is a correlation between physical activity and intellectual capital (e.g. educational attainment and academic performance), physical capital (e.g. physical fitness and reduction...... of the risk for diseases and risk factors) and emotional capital (e.g. fun, enjoyment and self-esteem) (Bailey, Hillman, Arent, & Petitpas, 2013). The school reform prescribes that all pupils from grade 1-9 must have at least 45 minutes of movement activities in average every day.Next to the well-known PE...... without prerequisites but part of discourses and at the same time individual interpretations of specific practices. The teaching role is something that is constantly produced and reproduced in the bodily interaction. Understanding teaching as performativity means that teachers are not acting in certain...
Müller, L; Weinert, D
In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated. Wild type (WT) animals show a clear and well-synchronized daily activity rhythm, whereas in arrhythmic (AR) hamsters, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) do not generate a circadian signal. The aim of the study was to investigate putative consequences of these deteriorations in the circadian system for animalś cognitive abilities. Hamsters were bred and kept under standardized housing conditions with food and water ad libitum and a 14l/10 D lighting regimen. Experimental animals were assigned to different groups (WT and AR) according to their activity pattern obtained by means of infrared motion sensors. Before the experiments, the animals were given to develop a dominant-subordinate relationship in a dyadic encounter. Experiment 1 dealt with individual recognition of social rank. Subordinate and dominant hamsters were tested in an open arena for their behavioral responses towards a familiar (known from the agonistic encounters) or an unfamiliar hamster (from another agonistic encounter) which had the same or an opposite social rank. The investigation time depended on the social rank of the WT subject hamster and its familiarity with the stimulus animal. Both subordinate and dominant WT hamsters preferred an unfamiliar subordinate stimulus animal. In contrast, neither subordinate nor dominant AR hamsters preferred any of the stimulus animals. Thus, disruptions in circadian
Novak, D; Doubova, S V; Kawachi, I
To examine factors associated with regular physical activity in Croatian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey among high school students was carried out in the 2013/14 school year. A survey was conducted among 33 high schools in Zagreb City, Croatia. Participants were students aged 17-18 years. The dependent variables were regular moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall physical activity measured by the short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire and defined as 60 min or more of daily physical activity. The independent variables included family, neighborhood, and high school social capital. Other study covariates included: socio-economic status, self-rated health, psychological distress and nutritional status. The associations between physical activity and social capital variables were assessed separately for boys and girls through multiple logistic regression and inverse probability weighting in order to correct for missing data bias. A total of 1689 boys and 1739 girls responded to the survey. A higher percentage of boys reported performing regular vigorous and moderate physical activity (59.4%) and overall physical activity (83.4%), comparing with the girls (35.4% and 70%, respectively). For boys, high family social capital and high informal social control were associated with increased odds of regular MVPA (1.49, 95%CI: 1.18 - 1.90 and 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.56, respectively), compared to those with low social capital. For girls, high informal social control was associated with regular overall physical activity (OR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.76). High social capital is associated with regular MVPA in boys and regular overall activity in girls. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as an avenue for promotion of physical activity in youth. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Analysed social-pedagogical aspect of activity of trainer-teacher on preparation of sporting reserve of different level. Activity of trainer is studied on forming socially-active personalities of sportsman. The personal long-term experience is presented to trainer-teaching works of child's trainer, trainer of student command, trainer of command of major league on a handball. It is shown that multilateral activity of trainer is estimated not only the sporting results of his pupils but also has considerably more wide circle of influence on the ward. Influence of employments is represented sport on forming socially-meaningful qualities of personality. It is marked that to the basic personal qualities of trainer behave: creative activity, flexibility of mind, industriousness, honesty, disinterestedness, of principle, self-control, demand, modesty, culture.
Marcos Fernandes Gonçalves da Silva
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define social capital as social infrastructure and to try to include this variable in an economic growth model. Considering social capital in such a way could have an impact on the productivity of production factors. Firstly, I will discuss how institutional variables can affect growth. Secondly, after analyzing several definitions of social capital, I will point out the benefits and problems of each one and will define social capital as social infrastructure, aiming to introduce this variable into an economic growth model. Finally, I will try to open the way for subsequent empirical studies, both in the area of measuring the stock of social infrastructure as well as those comparing economies, with the idea of showing the impact of social infrastructure on economic growth.
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Zhang, C.
This paper surveys the literature on socially responsible investments (SRI). Over the past decade, SRI has experienced an explosive growth around the world. Particular to the SRI funds is that both financial goals and social objectives are pursued. While corporate social responsibility (CSR) -
I. A. Zaitseva
Full Text Available The article examines the involvement of students in volunteer activities, examines the organization of students volunteer activities and volunteer projects realization at the university. The potential of volunteerism as an effective mechanism for addressing the urgent social problems is revealed.Theauthorstudiesexperience of volunteer services organization the I.A. Bunin State University in Yelets.
Lahoz, Manoela de Assis; Camarotto, João Alberto
The measurement of performance is a current topic in the management of people in companies, used as a parameter of effectiveness of processes and operations of production. The methods and models of the indicators of current use in the production have concentrated in the assessment of people's performance as determinative resource of the organizational success in the search for the competitiveness. Associated with the classic indicators of performance assessment of the production proceeding, other indicators are used in the assessment of risks and hazards, however with methods focused in the tasks, without connection with the real work activity. The present article explores literature on the models of performance measurement in use in companies and a field research to understand how companies interpret and use indicators that relate health and work, to direct future studies on the subject. Regarding the literature review, one can see that health indicators can be basically divided into two major groups: the legal and managerial indicators. When conducting case studies, it can be realized that companies do not have precisely the concept of health indicator, or were unable to define which of the indicators could be considered indicators of health, considering that absenteeism was the indicator mentioned by the four companies.
Giugni, Marco; Bosi, Lorenzo; Uba, Katrin
Scholarship has left the study of the consequences of social movements in the background for a long time, focusing instead on movement emergence, characteristics, and dynamics. Since the mid-1970s, however, scholars have paid an increasing interest in how social movements and protest activities may produce change at various levels. The existing literature can be ordered according to the kind of consequence addressed. In this regard, one can roughly distinguish between political, biographical,...
Fossen Beth L.
Full Text Available Social TV is the simultaneous consumption of television alongside social media chatter about the programming. This topic is highly relevant for marketers. Usually it is considered as a bad thing for TV advertisers. While there can be distraction from the ads, marketers can also benefit from positive effects. Consumers’ multiscreen activities can be used to attract more viewers, to leverage TV campaigns and to increase sales. This chatter creates free exposure for the brand online, extends the reach of television ad campaigns to the online space, and offers real-time feedback to advertisers on how their ads are being received. To take advantage of social TV, marketers need to develop a social media and ad design strategy for TV shows. Not every “social show” is good for them. Many programs receive a high volume of program-related chatter at the expense of advertiser-related word-of-mouth, but some programs generate high levels of online conversations that can also benefit their advertisers. Marketers are well served to identify those programs that are conducive to advertiser-related chatter. Also, specific ad designs can further encourage buzz.
Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao
To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.
Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the impact of the financial crisis on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR performance, emphasizing the case of companies from European Union (EU countries. An empirical analysis is conducted using the database available on Global Report Initiative (GRI. For accomplishing this, we will use Wilcoxon signed rank sum test, in order to test the CSR performance evolution for period 2007 – 2015. According to the GRI reporting guidelines we transform the application level of report standards in a point score system. The results indicated increased CSR performance before, during and after the financial crisis except for 2015, which confirm the results obtained by other researchers. The present study is important both for managers and policymakers: for managers to continue their CSR actions because is demonstrated the positive relationship between CSR and financial performance; and for authorities who have to adopt more incentives for supporting companies involved in CSR activities.
Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.
During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables
Kopelovich, Jonathan C
What is "social activism" to you? For older otolaryngologists, the term is likely to signify the tumult of the 1960s. For incoming generations, this connotation is outdated. Rather, it more broadly reflects concerted efforts to improve the public good. Some ally with existing institutions to work toward incremental progress. Some start new organizations, using technological tools to build networks, marshal resources, and leapfrog hurdles. Countering these efforts are the ever-changing challenges of practicing otolaryngology today: electronic health records, shifting incentives, and changes in the practice model. Employment by large conglomerates is more common, decreasing our visibility as community leaders. Burnout is a recognized "hazard," and budding otolaryngologists are particularly susceptible. Adding one more thing, like social activism, to a full plate seems counterintuitive. But it shouldn't be. You don't need a "bigger" plate to get involved in social causes. Start simple. Find a partner. Scale up. You'll find it rewarding.
Arnon, Sara; Shamai, Shmuel; Ilatov, Zinaida
Research examined the relative importance of peer groups for young adolescents as compared with diverse adult socialization agents--family, school, and community. The factors involved were teenagers' activities, preferences, feelings, and thoughts as to how they spend their leisure time, their preferences for help providers, and their sense of…
Takayanagi, Yuki; Yoshida, Masahide; Takashima, Akihide; Takanami, Keiko; Yoshida, Shoma; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamagata, Takanori; Onaka, Tatsushi
Social recognition underlies social behavior in animals, and patients with psychiatric disorders associated with social deficits show abnormalities in social recognition. Oxytocin is implicated in social behavior and has received attention as an effective treatment for sociobehavioral deficits. Secretin receptor-deficient mice show deficits in social behavior. The relationship between oxytocin and secretin concerning social behavior remains to be determined. Expression of c-Fos in oxytocin neurons and release of oxytocin from their dendrites after secretin application were investigated. Social recognition was examined after intracerebroventricular or local injection of secretin, oxytocin, or an oxytocin receptor antagonist in rats, oxytocin receptor-deficient mice, and secretin receptor-deficient mice. Electron and light microscopic immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to determine whether oxytocin neurons extend their dendrites into the medial amygdala. Supraoptic oxytocin neurons expressed the secretin receptor. Secretin activated supraoptic oxytocin neurons and facilitated oxytocin release from dendrites. Secretin increased acquisition of social recognition in an oxytocin receptor-dependent manner. Local application of secretin into the supraoptic nucleus facilitated social recognition, and this facilitation was blocked by an oxytocin receptor antagonist injected into, but not outside of, the medial amygdala. In the medial amygdala, dendrite-like thick oxytocin processes were found to extend from the supraoptic nucleus. Furthermore, oxytocin treatment restored deficits of social recognition in secretin receptor-deficient mice. The results of our study demonstrate that secretin-induced dendritic oxytocin release from supraoptic neurons enhances social recognition. The newly defined secretin-oxytocin system may lead to a possible treatment for social deficits. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Stankovska, Gordana; Angelkovska, Slagana; Grncarovska, Svetlana Pandiloska
The world is extensively changed by Social Networks Sites (SNSs) on the Internet. A large number of children and adolescents in the world have access to the internet and are exposed to the internet at a very early age. Most of them use the Social Networks Sites with the purpose of exchanging academic activities and developing a social network all…
Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru
The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris
This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.
Abu-Shanab, Emad; Al-Tarawneh, Heyam
Social networks are becoming an integral part of people's lives. Students are spending much time on social media and are considered the largest category that uses such application. This study tries to explore the influence of social media use, and especially Facebook, on high school students' performance. The study used the GPA of students in four…
Levendusky, Philip G.
The performance of 60 elderly volunteers on two cancellation tasks was examined under one of three experimental conditions: social praise, social reproof, or no comment. The clear implications from these data are that social incentives may well facilitate behavioral change in the aged. (Author)
Berkel, Rik van; Møller, Iver Hornemann
of work in modern societies and the implications this has or should have for scientific and sociopolitical thinking about inclusion, participation and activation; the "paradigm shift" that can be observed in present social policies, which increasingly become directed at participation rather than (income...... and training/education schemes; and the implications of these research findings for the issues outlined above, that is our thinking of work in relation to participation on the one hand, and social policies aiming at increasing participation on the other....
Full Text Available This article analyzes rate-of-return and risk related to investments in socially responsible and conventional country indices. The socially responsible indices are the DJSI Korea, DJSI US and Respect Index, and the corresponding conventional country indices are the Korea Stock Exchange Composite KOSPI, Dow Jones Industrial Average and WIG20TR. We conclude that investing in the analyzed SRI indices do not yield systematically better results than investing in the respective conventional indices, both in terms of neoclassical risk and return rate.
Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.
Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and
Møller, Marie Østergaard
Active social policy is an example of New Public Management, which contains a set of policy tools directly affecting the various professions working in the welfare sector (Harrits & Møller 2011). The legitimization of the policy is based in a need to strengthen control with public expenditures...... capacities and the doctor’s specialized focus on physical deviations. As such, the paper is an empirically informed contribution to understanding what happens when new forms of New Public Management meet front-line workers such as social workers and doctors who use both rules and professional norms...... and to restore public support for redistributive social benefits such as early retirement pension. Yet, New Public Management and professional norms are typically seen as two distinct rationalities, as reflected in the conflicting aims of the political system (retrenchment) and the ‘street-level bureaucrats...
Goldstein, Tina R; Miklowitz, David J; Mullen, Kimberley L
This study investigated social skills deficits among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Adolescents with DMS-IV bipolar disorder (n = 18) and their parents completed social skills assessments when they were experiencing minimal mood symptoms. The control group (n = 18) consisted of adolescents with no history of psychiatric disorders. Participants and their parents rated the adolescents' social performance using the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters. We measured the adolescents' knowledge of appropriate social skills using the Interpersonal Negotiation Strategy Interview. Raters 'blind' to psychiatric status rated the adolescents' responses and their social interactions with an examiner during the assessment. Adolescents with bipolar disorder displayed significantly more social skills performance deficits than controls. No significant differences emerged between the groups in social skills knowledge. Ratings of social interactions with the examiner failed to distinguish bipolar from control teens, but raters were successful in guessing the psychiatric status of the participants. These findings indicate that bipolar adolescents lag behind their peers in social skills performance, but not social skills knowledge. Results support the hypothesis that difficulties with emotion regulation interfere with the consistent exhibition of appropriate social behaviors.
Sauerwein, Markus; Theis, Desiree; Fischer, Natalie
Research has shown that participation in extracurricular activities has a positive effect on adolescents' social behaviour and academic performance; however, the reciprocal influence of extracurricular activities and leisure on the development of adolescents' academic performance and social behaviour is unclear. In our study, we investigate the effect of school based and out-of-school leisure activities on adolescent's social and scholastic development. We also explore how students' gender, s...
Kabir, Rezaul; Thai Minh, Hahn
Purpose: The theoretical and empirical relationships between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance are not without controversy. Yet, CSR activities are increasingly undertaken by a large number of firms, not only in developed countries but also in emerging
The paper examines the need for universities to carry out corporate social responsibility programmes. Two theories were used as theoretical framework for the study (stakeholder's theory and uncertainty reduction theory). The qualitative research method was used as the research method while personal interview was used ...
Corporate social responsibility is an approach whereby a company considers the interests of all stakeholders, both within the organisation and in society and applies those interests while developing its strategy and during execution; it offers organisations various opportunities not only to differentiate themselves from ...
CSR universities can pay attention to; these areas are: economic responsibility, ... The idea or thinking of corporate social ... commonly accepted that a good reputation can create a strong competitive advantage ...... Universalities also need to take into consideration philanthropic ..... Critical Perspectives on Accounting. Vol.
Full Text Available Over time, accounting evolved from grounding on financial reports based on economic and financial performance, to the highlighting of issues based on financial, social and environmental aspects, which measures overall performance by integrating financial, social and environmental performance. In this context, economic entities should show interest and consideration in social and environmental issues in order to ensure sustainable development in accordance with the requirements of the EU framework. Corporate social responsibility is an important premise of business, being seen as a source of competitive advantage and a strategic approach to all organizations with economic potential.
) in tertiary institutions in Lagos state of Nigeria were analysed to determine the relationship between social activities and manifest anxiety. Social activities in the study were measured in terms of freshmen adjustment to religious activities and ...
Boudewyns, Vanessa; Himelboim, Itai; Hansen, Derek L; Southwell, Brian G
Stigmatized topics, such as HIV/STD, likely constrain related information sharing in ways that should be apparent in social interactions both on and off the Internet. Specifically, the authors predicted that the more people perceive an issue as stigmatized, the less likely they are to talk about the issue both privately (with sexual partners and peers) and publicly (on Twitter). Study 1 tested the effect of stigma on conversations at the individual level: The authors asked a group of participants (N = 138) about perceived STD-testing stigma, interactions with a sexual partner, and conversations with peers about STD testing. Study 2 assessed whether health conditions, in the aggregate, were less likely to generate social media activity as a function of current stigmatization. Using 259,758 archived Twitter posts mentioning 13 medical conditions, the authors tested whether level of stigma predicted the volume of relevant social media conversation, controlling for each condition's amount of advocacy and Google search popularity from a user's perspective. Findings supported our hypotheses. Individuals who reported perceiving a given health conditions in more stigmatic ways also reported interacting less with others about that topic; Twitter results showed a similar pattern. Results also suggest a more complex story of influence, as funding from the National Institutes of Health (i.e., each conditions amount of advocacy) associated with the examined health conditions also predicted Twitter activity. Overall, these results indicated that stigma had a similar, dampening effect on face-to-face and Twitter interactions. Findings hold theoretical and practical implications, which are discussed.
The objective of this study is to determine the impact of using social media and its impact on students’ performance and success. This research tries to identify the relationship between students’ use of social networks and their success in their studies. It tries also to find out whether time spent impacts students’ performance and success. Whether students use social media more for entertainment or for teaching and information sharing purposes. The paper uses a quantitative approach for col...
Klein, Olivier; Spears, Russell; Reicher, Stephen
This article extends the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) by considering the various ways in which relations of visibility to an audience can affect the public expression of identity-relevant norms (identity performance). It is suggested that social identity performance can
Full Text Available This paper investigates the corporate social responsibility (CSR disclosure of cross-listed companies in China, to bridge the gap between existent CSR literature and the literature on cross-listing. Mann- Whitney-U and Wilcoxon ranking tests document the traditional bonding effect regarding reported corporate financial performance. Furthermore, the test results and findings of this study extend the financial bonding effect to other dimensions of corporate responsibility. In addition to better economic returns to owners, the bonding effect marks better reported CSR performance for cross-listed companies in terms of pay raises for employees, creation of new jobs, desirable stock option plans for management, and increased input in environmental protection and energy-saving activities.
Lima, Alice; Lemasson, Alban; Boye, Martin; Hausberger, Martine
Under natural conditions bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) spend their time mostly feeding and then travelling, socializing, or resting. These activities are not randomly distributed, with feeding being higher in early morning and late afternoon. Social activities and vocal behavior seem to be very important in dolphin daily activity. This study aimed to describe the activity time-budget and its relation to vocal behavior for dolphins in a zoological park. We recorded behaviors and vocalizations of six dolphins over 2 months. All subjects performed more non-agonistic social interactions and play in the morning than in the afternoon. The different categories of vocalizations were distributed non-randomly throughout the day, with more chirps in the afternoon, when the animals were "less social." The most striking result was the strong correlation between activities and the categories of vocalizations produced. The results confirm the association between burst pulses and whistles with social activities, but also reveal that both are also associated with solitary play. More chirps were produced when dolphins were engaged in socio-sexual behaviors, emphasizing the need for further questioning about the function of this vocal category. This study reveals that: (i) in a group kept in zoological management, social activities are mostly present in the morning; and (ii) the acoustic signals produced by dolphins may give a reliable representation of their current activities. While more studies on the context of signal production are needed, our findings provide a useful tool for understanding free ranging dolphin behavior when they are not visible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
On the basis of the role and the social exchange theories, this research investigated the direct and indirect antecedents of three dimensions of team performance (proficiency, adaptivity, proactivity) developed through cooperative education. The theoretical model examined how proactive socialization behaviors led to team socialization and team…
Choi, Jong-Seo; Kwak, Young-Min; Choe, Chongwoo
This paper studies the empirical relation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance in Korea using a sample of 1122 firm-years during 2002-2008. We measure corporate social responsibility by both an equal-weighted CSR index and a stakeholder-weighted CSR index suggested by Akpinar et al. (2008). Corporate financial performance is measured by ROE, ROA and Tobin’s Q. We find a positive and significant relation between corporate financial performance and t...
The aim of this research is to examine the effect of social media marketing activities on brand awareness, brand image and brand loyalty. In addition, it has been aimed to analyze the effect of brand awareness and brand image on brand loyalty in this research. The population of the research consists of the consumers who actively follow five brands with the highest social score according to the Marketing Turkey social media brand performance data on social media communication channels such as ...
Voncken, Marisol J; Bögels, Susan M
Cognitive models emphasize that patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are mainly characterized by biased perception of their social performance. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence showing that SAD patients suffer from actual deficits in social interaction. To unravel what characterizes SAD patients the most, underestimation of social performance (defined as the discrepancy between self-perceived and observer-perceived social performance), or actual (observer-perceived) social performance, 48 patients with SAD and 27 normal control participants were observed during a speech and conversation. Consistent with the cognitive model of SAD, patients with SAD underestimated their social performance relative to control participants during the two interactions, but primarily during the speech. Actual social performance deficits were clearly apparent in the conversation but not in the speech. In conclusion, interactions that pull for more interpersonal skills, like a conversation, elicit more actual social performance deficits whereas, situations with a performance character, like a speech, bring about more cognitive distortions in patients with SAD.
Full Text Available This article aims to map out the level of social performance measurement of Czech companies, i.e. what social performance indicators companies monitor and what information they provide to their stakeholders and to construct alternative corporate social performance indicators. Based on an analysis of 24 corporate voluntary reports and results of an empirical research performed among 79 large companies operating in the manufacturing industry, it was found that companies partially monitor their social performance, but from the perspective of international standards (e.g. Global Reporting Initiative, International Federation of Accountants it is still insufficient. Czech companies usually provide only absolute numbers which disguise real trends and do not allow year on year comparison or comparison with other companies. Czech companies should provide a comprehensive picture of their overall performance, they should not focus only on financial indicators based on accounting data, since it is known that the performance measurement based only on financial and economic performance does not lead to long-term success and sustainability of organizations. Companies should monitor more their impact on society within which they operate. Proposed corporate social performance indicators in a measurable and thus manageable way express social issues.
Jéssica Ribeiro Rangel
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the use of social networks influences on the academic performance of students in the undergraduate program in accounting. Data were collected from 322 students of the course of a federal University of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The regression results show that the variables "gender", "motivation" and "classification in the University entrance examination" are significant in explaining students' academic performance measured by the Grade Point Average (GPA. The results show that the performance of male students is lower than that of female students at the level of 5%. Also was identified that the greater the student's motivation level, the greater your academic performance (at the level of 1 percent. Finally, it was observed that the best ranked students in the University entrance examination, the higher their academic performance. However, none of the variables relating to the use of social networks ("familiarity with technological resources", "hours", "Internet hours on social networks" and "use of social networks to study" presented relation with academic performance. In other words, these results show that the use of social networks does not have positive or negative impacts directly on academic performance. We can conclude for the sample analyzed, that use of social networks during the academic period does not influence significantly the performance of the students. However, you can verify that the motivation is directly related to the academic performance of the Accounting student with regard to perception of motivation, to familiarity with technological resources and the use of applications.
Full Text Available In interpersonal interactions, linguistic information is complemented by non-linguistic information originating largely from facial expressions. The study of online face-to-face social interaction thus entails investigating the multimodal simultaneous processing of oral and visual percepts. Moreover, gaze in and of itself functions as a powerful communicative channel. In this respect, gaze should not be examined as a purely perceptive process but also as an active social performance. We designed a task involving multimodal deciphering of social information based on virtual characters, embedded in naturalistic backgrounds, who directly address the participant with non-literal speech and meaningful facial expressions. Eighteen adult participants were to interpret an equivocal sentence which could be disambiguated by examining the emotional expressions of the character speaking to them face-to-face. To examine self-control and self-awareness of gaze in this context, visual feedback is provided to the participant by a real-time gaze-contingent viewing window centered on the focal point, while the rest of the display is blurred. Eye-tracking data showed that the viewing window induced changes in gaze behaviour, notably longer visual fixations. Notwithstanding, only half the participants ascribed the window displacements to their eye movements. These results highlight the dissociation between non volitional gaze adaptation and self-ascription of agency. Such dissociation provides support for a two-step account of the sense of agency composed of pre-noetic monitoring mechanisms and reflexive processes. We comment upon these results, which illustrate the relevance of our method for studying online social cognition, especially concerning Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD where poor pragmatic understanding of oral speech are considered linked to visual peculiarities that impede face exploration.
Eriksson, Tor; Villeval, Marie Claire
International audience; Variable pay links pay and performance but may also help firms in attracting more productive employees. Our experiment investigates the impact of performance pay on both incentives and sorting and analyzes the influence of repeated interactions between firms and employees on these effects. We show that (i) the opportunity to switch from a fixed wage to variable pay scheme increases the average effort level and its variance; (ii) high skill employees concentrate under t...
We analyse the performance of socially responsible investments in the Netherlands. It appears that the financial performance of the various types of socially responsible investments differs considerably. We construct a proxy for mutual funds' CSR policies and use information about the environmental
Heinerman, J.V.; Stork, J.; Rebolledo Coy, M.A.; Hubert, J.G.; Eiben, A.E.; Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Haasdijk, Evert
Social learning enables multiple robots to share learned experiences while completing a task. The literature offers contradicting examples of its benefits; robots trained with social learning reach a higher performance, an increased learning speed, or both, compared to their individual learning
Chung, Kon Shing Kenneth; Paredes, Walter Christian
In this study, we develop a theoretical model to investigate the association between social network properties, "content richness" (CR) in academic learning discourse, and performance. CR is the extent to which one contributes content that is meaningful, insightful and constructive to aid learning and by social network properties we…
among female social drinkers; to compare motor skills performance between ... Harmful alcohol use is high in males but women ... mean different things in different contexts . Binge ... occasionally thereby putting their brains at risk of damage.
Cadena, Jose; Korkmaz, Gizem; Kuhlman, Chris J; Marathe, Achla; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Vullikanti, Anil
Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011) to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen "on the ground." Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Full Text Available Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011 to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen "on the ground." Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
Social activities have received only scant attention in activity-based analysis. These activities commonly have been considered as one coherent group or have been combined with other discrete activities. Because more knowledge about social activities and commitments is needed, several descriptive
Full Text Available The article deals with corporate sustainability and environmental and social issues of the integration of corporate performance measurement that may lead to sustainable economic success. Sustainability is a strategy of the process of sustainable development. Sustainability of businesses and sustainable performance can be defined as an integration of environmental, social and economic performance. First and foremost, businesses will want to know what indicators can be used to measure environmental, social and economic performance. What is the mutual relationship between environmental, social and economic performance? How can firms arrive at a comprehensive assessment of their performance in relation to sustainability? The aim of this paper is to analyze corporate environmental, social and economic performance and to analyze their mutual relationships. The final part of the article is an assessment of the contemporary situation and draft Key Performance Indicators (KPI for assessment of corporate sustainability that will be the subject of further research in a selected NACE-CZ sector and in accordance with Corporate Sustainability Reporting. KPI provide businesses with a means of measuring progress toward achieving objectives.
Muhamat Amirul Afif
Full Text Available Takaful operators which are part of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs derive their fundamental principles from shariah. These religious based institutions are expected to fulfill the two important roles in their business operations: commercially profitable and socially responsible. Nevertheless, their societal role is rarely measured and discussed. Therefore, this study appraised the societal role of takaful operators by assessing the components which have been proposed under the corporate social performance (CSP theme for IFIs. This study has arranged structured interview sessions with the Chief Investment Officers and Heads of Investment of each of the eleven takaful operators in Malaysia. The Delphi-style technique was adopted when developing the interview questions. The questions were developed in the form of a five-point Likert scale, addressing specific issues on CSP of takaful operators. In addition, information on takaful operators’ CSR activities, zakat and tax payment were gathered from the companies’ websites and annual report of takaful operators. The study concludes that takaful operators in Malaysia have achieved their societal role through two channels: CSP programmes financed from companies’ profits and fulfillment of CSP as a result of business-community agenda. This study covers every takaful operator in Malaysia and the results reflect industry opinion.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyse and identify patterns of international entrepreneurial activity of social purpose organizations. The article utilizes international social entrepreneurship literature to develop an understanding of the international activity of social entrepreneurs and to identify factors that differentiate their activity. A cluster analysis was conducted to identify patterns of international social entrepreneurial activity, which included: the subject of activity, the types of beneficiaries, the scope of activity, and the legal type of organization. As a result, a survey sample of 55 international social ventures was divided into 3 homogeneous groups. The groups were (1 solution providers, (2 entrepreneurial charities, and (3 intermediaries. The results of the analysis show the diversity of the international activities of social entrepreneurs, although only a portion of them operate internationally. These findings contribute to a greater understanding of social entrepreneurs’ motivation and the paths of their internationalization activity.
Kamdar, Dishan; Van Dyne, Linn
This field study examines the joint effects of social exchange relationships at work (leader-member exchange and team-member exchange) and employee personality (conscientiousness and agreeableness) in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Consistent with trait activation theory, matched data on 230 employees, their coworkers, and their supervisors demonstrated interactions in which high quality social exchange relationships weakened the positive relationships between personality and performance. Results demonstrate the benefits of consonant predictions in which predictors and outcomes are matched on the basis of specific targets. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. (c) 2007 APA.
Full Text Available Due to the popularity of social networks and human-carried/human-affiliated devices with sensing abilities, like smartphones and smart wearable devices, a novel application was necessitated recently to organize group activities by learning historical data gathered from smart devices and choosing invitees carefully based on their personal interests. We proposed a private and efficient social activity invitation framework. Our main contributions are (1 defining a novel friendship to reduce the communication/update cost within the social network and enhance the privacy guarantee at the same time; (2 designing a strong privacy-preserving algorithm for graph publication, which addresses an open concern proposed recently; (3 presenting an efficient invitee-selection algorithm, which outperforms the existing ones. Our simulation results show that the proposed framework has good performance. In our framework, the server is assumed to be untrustworthy but can nonetheless help users organize group activities intelligently and efficiently. Moreover, the new definition of the friendship allows the social network to be described by a directed graph. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first work to publish a directed graph in a differentially private manner with an untrustworthy server.
Voncken, Marisol J.; Dijk, Corine; de Jong, Peter J.; Roelofs, Jeffrey
Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor
Voncken, M.J.; Dijk, C.; de Jong, P.J.; Roelofs, J.
Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor
Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret
Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
The paper addresses the challenges and advantages of collaborative stratification in the continuum of theatre and fine arts, with examples from applied performance projects in international contexts. With different approaches to performance/media, acting/agency, devising/curatorship and participation/social engagement, collaborative processes have proved to be quite incongruent in method and motif, although inclusive and versatile in media tactics and political outreach. In post-Brechtian the...
Reliable evidence was obtained of the simultaneous performance of social grooming and social play behaviors by individuals among wild chimpanzees of the M group in Mahale Mountains National Park. I observed three cases of this performance: in an old female, a young female, and an adult male. While the agent was grooming the back of an adult bimanually, an infant or a juvenile approached the agent. The agent then started playing with the infant/juvenile using only the right hand, while simultaneously grooming the back of the adult with the left hand. In one case, an old female continued the simultaneous performance for about 1 min. Such performances probably occur at low frequency because they are not often required. The similarity in the neurobiological bases and the functions of social grooming and social play behaviors, both of which include repetitive contact with the body of another individual, may facilitate their simultaneous performance.
Hoyau, Elena; Gigleux, Marion; Cousin, Émilie; Fournet, Nathalie; Pichat, Cédric; Jaillard, Assia; Baciu, Monica
Environmental factors contribute to the constitution and maintenance of the cognitive reserve and partially explain the variability of cognitive performance in older individuals. We assessed the role of leisure activities - social and individual - on the access to lexico-semantic representations evaluated through a task of object naming (ON). We hypothesize that compared to individual, social leisure activities explain better the ON performance in the older adults, which is explained by a mechanism of neural reserve. Our results in older adults indicate (a) a significant correlation between leisure social activities and the response time for ON, (b) a significant correlation between link the neural activity of the left superior and medial frontal (SmFG) for ON and leisure social activities. Interestingly, the activity of the left SmFG partially mediates the relationship between social activities and OD performance. We suggest that social leisure activities may contribute to maintain ON performances in healthy aging, through a neural reserve mechanism, in relation with left SmFG activity. This region is typically involved in the access to semantic representations, guided by the emotional state. These results open interesting perspectives on the role of social leisure activities on lexical production during aging.
Thompson, Jeffery A
This study of 126 employee-supervisor dyads examined a mediated model of the relationship between proactive personality and job performance. The model, informed by the social capital perspective, suggests that proactive employees reap performance benefits by means of developing social networks that provide them the resources and latitude to pursue high-level initiatives. Structural equation modeling suggested that the relationship between proactive personality and job performance is mediated by network building and initiative taking on the part of the employee. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Biron, M.; Boon, C.
Purpose - Prior research has yielded mixed results regarding the relationship between performance and turnover intentions. Drawing from social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to propose that the performance-turnover intentions association may be contingent upon individuals' exchange
Akhan, Nadire Emel
The purpose of this research is to measure how effective the use of art activities is at achieving the goals of social studies program and to introduce a model practice that social studies teachers can follow. Accordingly, certain objectives were selected from among the main objectives of social studies program and the activities prepared for a…
Amadu Wurie Khan
Full Text Available Based on a long-term study from 1987 to the present and incorporating storytelling apprenticeship, ethnographic fieldwork, and (largely informal interviews, this paper discusses the dynamic nature of oral art as manifested through Themne storytellers’ efforts to vary the oral performance. It explores the relationship between multimedia resources, both intrinsic and external to the performance environment, as well as artistic variation and social aesthetics, along with the audiences’ appreciation and interpretation of oral performances. It argues that the impulse toward social aesthetics is responsible for the oral artists’ deployment of multimedia resources and their varying of oral narratives during storytelling. Specifically, it examines how sociability, the physical setting of performance, and belief systems or worldview function as paradigms of social aesthetics, focusing on their influence on artistic variation and creativity among the Themne of Sierra Leone.
Full Text Available The present study addresses the issue of the relationship between Corporate Social performance and corporate Financial Performance in Indian context under good management theory. The study used S&P ESG India Index as a proxy of CSP/ CSR (Corporate social performance or Corporate Social Responsibility of Indian firms for the first time over the 2005–2011 periods. We designed econometric models and controlled industry specific attributes and performed Weighted Least Square method for the analysis. Overall results show neutral though modest negative relationship between the CSP and CFP which eventually informs that if there would be any relationship, it would be negative.
Full Text Available In this paper I construct an argument which positions research as an inherently violent activity in which the strange is made to appear familiar thereby forcing the otherness of the other into some kind of order, and transforming the unknown into the knowable. Through organising data and imposing an order—which is arguably the point of any analysis and representation—the wild profusion of things is tamed (to use a Foucauldian metaphor. Thus ambiguity and difference are flattened out, and indeterminacy is overlaid with "findings". Furthermore, research can also be seen as an activity in which the moral choices, ethical and analytical decisions, and personal investments of the researcher are secreted away and so are made to appear natural and innocent. I argue that there is an opportunity for performative social science research to remember the ethical consequences of analysis and representation and to take responsibility for the violence of taming the wild profusion of data. This opportunity resides in its potential to show, not tell; to be open to the future, another happening, another event rather than to settle for one final conclusion and close down other possibilities; and to provoke critique, resistance and political action rather than appeal for agreement, conformity and indifference. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802608
Qingqing Chang; Yuqi Peng; Paul D. Berger
This paper considers the relationship between various social-media activities of a company/brand and its sales. We use quarterly revenue data of 13 retail-food brands, over 4 quarters, as our dependent variable. We use 6 independent variables involving the social-media activity of these companies on Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram. We use descriptive statistics to describe our data, and use simple, multiple, and stepwise regression to perform our analyses. We find that certain social-media ac...
RS Wilson DR. Constantino
Full Text Available This study explored the physical activities of fifth and sixth graders that projected correlations to science performance and how these physical activities may be utilized for classroom purposes in the context of science-related play activities. Descriptive survey correlational design directed the data collection and analysis of the physical activities of purposively selected 133 fifth and sixth graders. Primarily, the study used a researcher-developed and validated instrument (Physical Activity Questionnaire [PAQ], and standard instruments: Philippine National Physical Activity Guide (PNPAG and General Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. The latter classified the physical activities into five domains which directed the interpretation of the participants‟ responses. The Pearson-r Moment of Correlation described the level of correlation of the frequency of engagement to physical activities (limited to local and localized activities and the science grade of the respondents. Results show that each of the physical activity domains showed specific correlations to science performance of the respondents. For further research, enrichment of the relationship of the physical activities and the science performance may focus on possible moderating variables like economic status, and time allotment for physical activities.
Berg, van den P.E.W.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
Results of a study on the planning of social activities are reported. Data collected in the Netherlands from social interaction diaries were used to estimate a multinomial logistic regression model to analyze whether a social activity is prearranged, routine, or spontaneous as a function of personal
Chib, Vikram S; Adachi, Ryo; O’Doherty, John P
Abstract Throughout our lives we must perform tasks while being observed by others. Previous studies have shown that the presence of an audience can cause increases in an individual’s performance as compared to when they are not being observed—a phenomenon called ‘social facilitation’. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect, in the context of skilled-task performance for monetary incentives, are not well understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor brain activity while healthy human participants performed a skilled-task during conditions in which they were paid based on their performance and observed and not observed by an audience. We found that during social facilitation, social signals represented in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) enhanced reward value computations in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We also found that functional connectivity between dmPFC and ventral striatum was enhanced when participants exhibited social facilitation effects, indicative of a means by which social signals serve to modulate brain regions involved in regulating behavioral motivation. These findings illustrate how neural processing of social judgments gives rise to the enhanced motivational state that results in social facilitation of incentive-based performance. PMID:29648653
Jansen, T.J.M.; Chioncel, N.E.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.
This article starts from a conceptual clarification of the notions social integration and social cohesion as a prerequisite for the reorientation of citizenship education. Turning away from uncritically reproduced assumptions represented in mainstream `deficiency discourse', the article first
Poell, T.; Trottier, D.; Fuchs, C.
This chapter interrogates how activist social media communication in authoritarian contexts is shaped through the mutual articulation of social media user practices, business models, and technological architectures, as well as through the controlling efforts of states. It specifically focuses on
Ley, Connie J.
A nationwide study identified a pattern of political socialization for home economists who were politically active. The most outstanding feature of the politically active subjects was their perception that political activity is a professional role. (SK)
Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman
This study applies social media analytics to investigate the impact of different corporate social media activities on user word of mouth and attitudinal loyalty. We conduct a multilevel analysis of approximately 5 million tweets regarding the main Twitter accounts of 28 large global companies. We...... empirically identify different social media activities in terms of social media management strategies (using social media management tools or the web-frontend client), account types (broadcasting or receiving information), and communicative approaches (conversational or disseminative). We find positive...... effects of social media management tools, broadcasting accounts, and conversational communication on public perception....
Social activity data sets are increasing in number and volume. Finding community structure in such data is valuable in many applications. For example, understand- ing the community structure of social networks may reduce the spread of epidemics or boost advertising revenue; discovering partitions in tra c networks can help to optimize routing and to reduce congestion; finding a group of users with common interests can allow a system to recommend useful items. Among many aspects, qual- ity of inference and e ciency in finding community structures in such data sets are of paramount concern. In this thesis, we propose several approaches to improve com- munity detection in these aspects. The first approach utilizes the concept of K-cores to reduce the size of the problem. The K-core of a graph is the largest subgraph within which each node has at least K connections. We propose a framework that accelerates community detection. It first applies a traditional algorithm that is relatively slow to the K-core, and then uses a fast heuristic to infer community labels for the remaining nodes. The second approach is to scale the algorithm to multi-processor systems. We de- vise a scalable community detection algorithm for large networks based on stochastic block models. It is an alternating iterative algorithm using a maximum likelihood ap- proach. Compared with traditional inference algorithms for stochastic block models, our algorithm can scale to large networks and run on multi-processor systems. The time complexity is linear in the number of edges of the input network. The third approach is to improve the quality. We propose a framework for non- negative matrix factorization that allows the imposition of linear or approximately linear constraints on each factor. An example of the applications is to find community structures in bipartite networks, which is useful in recommender systems. Our algorithms are compared with the results in recent papers and their quality and e
Hanun, Y.; Setiawan, M. I.; Kurniasih, N.; Hasyim, C.; Ahmar, A. S.
The evaluation of transportation infrastructure project should consider the contribution towards infrastructure growth. This research aims to analyze the effect of Construction enlargement activities towards airport performance. This research is correlation study. The population includes 148 airports in Indonesia. By using total sampling, there were 148 sample airports. The result shows that the construction enlargement activities variable has relatively strong relationship to Airport Performance variable, while the adjusted R Square score shows the increasing construction enlargement activities that affected by the other factors aside from airport performance.
Full Text Available Sustainability issues have been penetrating the financial world over the decades at corporate and sector levels. In the field of sustainable finance, socially responsible investments (SRI are a dynamically evolving segment which has become a special industry in asset allocation and investments out of a niche movement. This article aims to highlight the trends, investors’ motives and performances of these investments. It concludes that controversies around the terminology, performance metrics and return of socially responsible investments, have not been resolved in academic literature yet.
Lee, Rebecca E.; Cubbin, Catherine
Disparities in physical activity should be investigated in light of social justice principles. This manuscript critically evaluates evidence and trends in disparities research within an ecologic framework, focusing on multi-level factors such as neighborhood and racial discrimination that influence physical activity. Discussion focuses on strategies for integrating social justice into physical activity promotion and intervention programming within an ecologic framework. PMID:19098519
A.O.P. Akemu (Ona); G.M. Whiteman (Gail); S.P. Kennedy (Steve)
textabstractEffectuation theory invests agency - intention and purposeful enactment - for new venture creation in the entrepreneurial actor(s). Based on the results of a 15-month in-depth longitudinal case study of Amsterdam-based social enterprise Fairphone, we argue that effectual entrepreneurial
ABSTRACT Purpose: Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods: A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls’ perspectives of how significant others’ influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Results: Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. Conclusion: The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls’ perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity. PMID:29405881
Laird, Yvonne; Fawkner, Samantha; Niven, Ailsa
Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls' perspectives of how significant others' influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls' perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity.
Deng, Shangkun; Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito
Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques.
Full Text Available Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL and genetic algorithm (GA. MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques.
Cai, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Ying; Stanley, H. Eugene
In human resource management, employee performance is strongly affected by both formal and informal employee networks. Most previous research on employee performance has focused on monolayer networks that can represent only single categories of employee social relationships. We study employee performance by taking into account the entire multiplex structure of underlying employee social networks. We collect three datasets consisting of five different employee relationship categories in three firms, and predict employee performance using degree centrality and eigenvector centrality in a superimposed multiplex network (SMN) and an unfolded multiplex network (UMN). We use a quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) analysis and a regression analysis to demonstrate that the different categories of relationship are mutually embedded and that the strength of their impact on employee performance differs. We also use weighted/unweighted SMN/UMN to measure the predictive accuracy of this approach and find that employees with high centrality in a weighted UMN are more likely to perform well. Our results shed new light on how social structures affect employee performance.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the link between long-run corporate financial performance, corporate social responsibility, and customer satisfaction. Using annual financial data, customer satisfaction index, and the Dow Jones Sustainability Index, the paper seeks to establish whether it pays organizations to use ethical methods in striving to be sustainable. Data used for this research cover the period 2001 to 2008. We used dynamic panel data linear regression models to analyze the effect of customer satisfaction and social responsibility on short-run and long-run financial performance. It was found that it may benefit organizations to use ethical methods in pursuing sustainability. since organizations who invest time, money, and effort in corporate social responsibility activities, their good reputations and satisfied customers yield long-term cash flow growth. Keywords: corporate customer satisfaction, Corporate Social Responsibility, corporate financial performance DisciplinesL business studies, international studies, ethics, finance studies
Barkó, Tamás; Cremers, M.; Renneboog, Luc
We study investor activism promoting environmental, social and governance (ESG) improvements using a proprietary dataset covering 660 companies globally over 2005-2014. Targets have a higher market share, analyst coverage, stock returns, and liquidity. The engagements lead to significant ESG rating
DeLay, Dawn; Zhang, Linlin; Hanish, Laura D; Miller, Cindy F; Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Kochel, Karen P; Updegraff, Kimberly A
Longitudinal social network analysis (SNA) was used to examine how a social-emotional learning (SEL) intervention may be associated with peer socialization on academic performance. Fifth graders (N = 631; 48 % girls; 9 to 12 years) were recruited from six elementary schools. Intervention classrooms (14) received a relationship building intervention (RBI) and control classrooms (8) received elementary school as usual. At pre- and post-test, students nominated their friends, and teachers completed assessments of students' writing and math performance. The results of longitudinal SNA suggested that the RBI was associated with friend selection and peer influence within the classroom peer network. Friendship choices were significantly more diverse (i.e., less evidence of social segregation as a function of ethnicity and academic ability) in intervention compared to control classrooms, and peer influence on improved writing and math performance was observed in RBI but not control classrooms. The current findings provide initial evidence that SEL interventions may change social processes in a classroom peer network and may break down barriers of social segregation and improve academic performance.
Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo
Research into corporate social performance (CSP) recently shifted to studying its political economic dimensions. In this paper, we test the influence of price and technological competition and two institutional factors, mandatory reporting and monitoring by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and
Lorton, Mary; Kukuk, Christopher
Examines the relationship between 14 social process variables and the reading performances of 180 slow learners, ages 7-15. Finds that two of those factors (brith trauma and being held back in school) emerge as predictors of reading comprehension, word recognition, and spelling. (RL)
Meijer, M.M.; Schuyt, T.N.M.
This study replicates Paul, Zalka, Downes, Perry, and Friday's scale to measure U.S. consumer sensitivity to corporate social performance (CSP) in another sample-namely, that of Dutch consumers. In addition, theories on the effects of sociodemographic variables on environmental concern have been
K.E.H. Maas (Karen)
textabstractAll organisations have social, environmental and economic impacts that effect people, their communities and the natural environment. Impacts include intended as well as unintended effects and negative as well as positive effects. Current practice in performance measurement tends to focus
Honda, Yukiko; Meguro, Kenichi; Meguro, Mitsue; Akanuma, Kyoko
Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) are often isolated, withdrawn from society because of negative symptoms and functional disabilities. The aim of this study was to detect factors associated with social withdrawal in patients with VaD. The participants were 36 institutionalized patients with VaD. Social withdrawal was assessed with the social withdrawal of the Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects (MOSES). Possible explanatory variables were the MOSES items depression and self-care, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), apathy evaluation scale (AES), and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Frequency-Weighted Severity Scale (BEHAVE-AD-FW). Multiple regression analyses were conducted for two groups: Analysis 1 was performed in all patients (N = 36) and Analysis 2 was performed in the patients with the ability to move by themselves (i.e., independent walking or independent movement with a cane or a wheelchair; n = 28). In Analysis 1, MOSES item social withdrawal was correlated with AES and MOSES item self-care. In Analysis 2, MOSES item social withdrawal was correlated with AES and CASI domain abstraction and judgment. Decreased social activities of VaD were not related to general cognitive function or depression. Disturbed activities of daily living (ADLs) for self-care may involve decreased frontal lobe function, indicating that comprehensive rehabilitation for both ADL and dementia are needed to improve the social activities of patients with VaD.
Mullen, Rachel; Davis, Jane A; Polatajko, Helene J
Active participation in daily occupations is a vital part of everyday life, social participation and healthy life long human development; however, enablers of active participation are not well understood. Passion, a strong tendency towards an activity that a person finds meaningful and spends a lot of time doing, is a potential enabler. Accordingly, it is important to understand how an individual's passion for a specific occupation plays out across the occupational life course. To explore the experience of passion across the life course of older adults involved in the performing arts. Seven older adults involved in, or retired from, the performing arts, who consider themselves passionate about their occupation. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to explore, through interviews with older adults, passion for performing arts across the life course. Emerging themes supported development of an initial theoretical framework explicating active participation and passion. It centers on passion as an enabler of occupational participation through different modes, and suggests barriers to that enablement process. Findings suggest that passion has an important role in continued active participation in an occupation; however, barriers, such as social and financial, can derail the pursuit of a passionate occupation.
Molin, E.J.E.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
Social activities are responsible for an important share of trips conducted by individuals. This paper contributes to a rapidly increasing stream of transportation research into individuals' choice of social relations and trips made to maintain their social relations. A method that was used to
Oyewo Babajide Michael
Full Text Available This study examines employee involvement in organisational affairs as an important facet of social sustainability in the Nigerian banking sector, because providing good customer service requires committed employees rather than coerced labour. Data extracted through quantitative content analysis from the financial reports of fifteen commercial banks were analysed using descriptive statistics, Z test, one-way ANOVA, correlation and regression analysis techniques. e study found that employee involvement correlates positively and significantly with organisational performance; and banks differ in performance on the account of the level of employee involvement; firms with deeper level of employee involvement performed better than others with shallow level of employee involvement, thus stressing the relevance of employee involvement as an aspect of social sustainability business practices. Organisations are enjoined to involve their employees more to achieve better results; and embrace the modern philosophy of regarding employees as strategic resources that can be used to bolster core competence.
Hill, Lauren; Zheng, Zane
While social media is an aspect of life for many, it brings to light the lack of interpersonal connection when browsing activity occurs. The displacement theory suggests that the quality of one's offline interactions is affected by how much time an individual allots to those exchanges. Depending on the amount of time spent online, interpersonal connections may suffer and lead to negative psychological consequences. Our study aimed to explore the relationship between the desirability of social media and socialization preferences through a cue-based perceptual judgment task where participants ( N = 136) rated 40 gray-scale images in terms of their desirability. The image categories included social media icons, singular scenes depicting an isolated activity, social scenes representing an interactive activity, and traffic signs as the control. We also included questionnaires to assess depressiveness and aspects of social media usage. Our findings suggest that the immediate desire for social media is potentially linked to one's desire for social isolation as represented by the singular scene category, the intensity of participant's reported daily usage, and the extent to which social media is perceived to impact real social life. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the initial desirability judgment of social media and its association with other factors. Further research is needed to distinguish the variability in users' aim of using social media and if that is related to one's perceived feelings of social connectedness and solitude.
Villarreal, Mirta F; Drucaroff, Lucas J; Goldschmidt, Micaela G; de Achával, Delfina; Costanzo, Elsa Y; Castro, Mariana N; Ladrón-de-Guevara, M Soledad; Busatto Filho, Geraldo; Nemeroff, Charles B; Guinjoan, Salvador M
Measures of social competence are closely related to actual community functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying competence in schizophrenia are not fully understood. We hypothesized that social deficits in schizophrenia are explained, at least in part, by abnormally lateralized patterns of brain activation in response to tasks engaging social cognition, as compared to healthy individuals. We predicted such patterns would be partly heritable, and therefore affected in patients' nonpsychotic siblings as well. We used a functional magnetic resonance image paradigm to characterize brain activation induced by theory of mind tasks, and two tests of social competence, the Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia (TABS), and the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) in siblings discordant for schizophrenia and comparable healthy controls (n = 14 per group). Healthy individuals showed the strongest correlation between social competence and activation of right hemisphere structures involved in social cognitive processing, whereas in patients, the correlation pattern was lateralized to left hemisphere areas. Unaffected siblings of patients exhibited a pattern intermediate between the other groups. These results support the hypothesis that schizophrenia may be characterized by an abnormal functioning of nondominant hemisphere structures involved in the processing of socially salient information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heitmann, Carina Y; Peterburs, Jutta; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Hallfarth, Marlit C; Böhme, Stephanie; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas
Fear of negative evaluation, such as negative social performance feedback, is the core symptom of social anxiety. The present study investigated the neural correlates of anticipation and perception of social performance feedback in social anxiety. High (HSA) and low (LSA) socially anxious individuals were asked to give a speech on a personally relevant topic and received standardized but appropriate expert performance feedback in a succeeding experimental session in which neural activity was measured during anticipation and presentation of negative and positive performance feedback concerning the speech performance, or a neutral feedback-unrelated control condition. HSA compared to LSA subjects reported greater anxiety during anticipation of negative feedback. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed deactivation of medial prefrontal brain areas during anticipation of negative feedback relative to the control and the positive condition, and medial prefrontal and insular hyperactivation during presentation of negative as well as positive feedback in HSA compared to LSA subjects. The results indicate distinct processes underlying feedback processing during anticipation and presentation of feedback in HSA as compared to LSA individuals. In line with the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential information processing and the insula in interoception, social anxiety seems to be associated with lower self-monitoring during feedback anticipation, and an increased self-focus and interoception during feedback presentation, regardless of feedback valence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miller, Amalia R.; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth
Given the demand for authentic personal interactions over social media, it is unclear how much firms should actively manage their social media presence. We study this question empirically in a health care setting. We show that active social media management drives more user-generated content. However, we find that this is due to an incremental increase in user postings from an organization's employees rather than from its clients. This result holds when we explore exogenous variation in socia...
Biastro, Leslie; Frank, Heather; Larwin, Karen H.
Adolescents with identified orthopedic impairments are often less likely to participate in social activities outside of the school setting. However, the adolescents who are able to participate in activities have higher social skills, more academic successes, and show more satisfaction in their roles as family member or friend. The aim of this…
The article deals with scientific and applied topicality of studying the problem of children and youth social activity. Spheres of social activity display in European tradition, in particular, the European Charter, Great Britain, have been revealed. Comparative analysis of understanding the essence of such a phenomenon in Western theories and…
Glenn, Cerise L.
The influence of social media and technological developments has changed how groups and organizations advocating for social change generate awareness and participation in their causes. In this single class activity students will (a) analyze notions of activism and "slacktivism" from scholarly and popular sources to apply these concepts…
Wankel, Leonard M.; Berger, Bonnie G.
An overview is given of research evidence pertaining to the contribution of sport and physical activity to personal enjoyment, growth, social integration, and social change. It is important to identify the prerequisite activity, leadership, organizational, and environmental conditions for facilitating positive outcomes. (JD)
Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Thai Minh, H.; Thai Minh, H.
The theoretical as well as empirical relationships between corporate social responsibility and corporate financial performance are not without controversy. Yet, CSR activities are increasingly undertaken by a large number of firms, not only in developed countries but also in emerging countries.
Li, Kam Cheong; Lee, Linda Yin-King; Wong, Suet-Lai; Yau, Ivy Sui-Yu; Wong, Billy Tak-Ming
This study examined the effects of mobile apps on the learning motivation, social interaction and study performance of nursing students. A total of 20 students participated in focus group interviews to collect feedback on their use of mobile apps for learning and communicative activities. Two consecutive cohorts of students in a nursing programme,…
Epidemiological studies clearly show a connection between physical activity and the occurrence of disabilities in old age. Physical exercise is possible and useful at every age. Numerous intervention trials have shown that training of endurance, strength and coordination has positive effects on the cardiovascular system, the lung, the musculo-skeletal system, metabolism and the immune system in elderly people. Even very frail elderly people can increase their muscle strength and functional capabilities by strength training. Group sessions may improve social interactions and additionally increase the quality of life.
Pauline van den Berg
Full Text Available Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults’ preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public ‘third’ places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults.
Full Text Available Recently, the corporate social performance (CSP is not less important than the corporate financial performance (CFP. Debate still exists about the nature of the relationship between the CSP and CFP, whether it is a positive, negative or a neutral correlation. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR reports and CFP. The study uses the accounting-based and market-based quantitative measures to quantify the financial performance of seven organizations listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange in 2007-2014. Then uses the information retrieval technologies to quantify the contribution of each of the three dimensions of the corporate social responsibility report (environmental, social and economic. Finally, the correlation between these two sets of variables is viewed together in a model to detect the correlations between them. This model is applied on seven firms that generate social responsibility reports. The results show a positive correlation between the Earnings per share (market-based measure and the economical dimension in the CSR report. On the other hand, total assets and property, plant and equipment (accounting-based measure are positively correlated to the environmental and social dimensions of the CSR reports. While there is not any significant relationship between ROA, ROE, Operating income and corporate social responsibility. This study contributes to the literature by providing more clarification of the relationship between CFP and the isolated CSR activities in a developing country.
domain will be contingent upon strategic behaviors, which are behaviors of members in an organization. The paper integrates the contextual variables including business environment, strategy, organization structure, and control system with corporate performance by using corporate social performance as moderating variable by means of a recent literatures study from strategic management and accounting field.
Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
We argue that the social networks and activity-travel patterns of people interact and coevolve over time. Through social interaction, people exchange information about activity-travel choice alternatives and adapt their latent and overt preferences for alternatives to each other. At the same time,
Full Text Available This article revisits the debate over Barker and Cox’s (2011 use of Gramsci’s distinction between traditional and organic intellectuals to contrast academic and activist modes of theorizing about social movements. Often misread as an attack on personal choices in career and writing, the distinction aimed to highlight the different purposes, audiences, and social relationships entailed by these different forms of theorizing. Discourses which take ‘scholarship’ as their starting point position ‘activist’ as a personal choice within an institutional field, and substitute this moral commitment for a political assessment of its effects. By contrast, few academics have undergone the political learning curve represented by social movements. This may explain the widespread persistence – beyond any intellectual or empirical credibility – of a faith in ‘critical scholarship’ isolated from agency, an orientation to policy makers and mainstream media as primary audiences or an unquestioned commitment to existing institutional frameworks as pathways to substantial social change. Drawing on over three decades of movement participation and two of academic work, this article explores two processes of activist training within the academy. It also explores the politics of different experiences of theoretical publishing for social movements audiences. This discussion focuses on the control of the “means of mental production” (Marx, 1965, and the politics of distribution. The conclusion explores the broader implications of these experiences for the relationship between movements and research.
Kim, Yonghwan; Wang, Yuan; Oh, Jeyoung
Social media and mobile phones have emerged as important platforms for college students' communication activities. This study examined how college students' psychological need to belong is associated with their use of social media and smartphones. In addition, it further investigated the effects of college students' digital media use on their social engagement. Findings revealed that students' need to belong was positively related with their use of social media and smartphones, which could further facilitate their social engagement. Moreover, the relationship between the need to belong and social engagement was mediated by college students' digital media use. This study offers empirical evidence of the positive effects of digital media on social behaviors and contributed to further understanding about the mechanisms by which need to belong leads to social engagement through digital media use.
Full Text Available Two value concepts are dominant in the social sciences: (1 Schwartz's theory of basic human values, measured through the Portrait Values Questionnaire (ESS and (2 Inglehart's postmaterialism and Welzel's extension to the self-expression values scale (WVS/EVS. To advance research in values, two questions need to be addressed: (1 Are the concepts and measurements of values in the different approaches interchangeable? (2 Which of the concepts performs better for explaining moral and social attitudes? This study contributes to the discussion on value concepts by comparing these value instruments using individual level data from an online access panel (n = 762 and assessing the performance of values instruments for microexplanations of moral (end-of-life attitudes and sexual morality and social attitudes (xenophobia. Overall, the measurement model of basic human values with the PVQ provides a sound basis for comparing the Schwartz values to postmaterialism and self-expression values. In both cases, there are positive correlations with universalism and self-direction and negative correlations with tradition/conformity and security, which do not exceed 0.4. Regarding the performance, it turns out that the Schwartz values are in toto a more powerful tool than both Inglehart's postmaterialism and Welzel's self-expression values, in terms of explained variance as well as in terms of standardized effects.
den Hond, F.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Hickman, G. R.
Using insights from the social movement literature and institutional change theory, we explore how activism influences corporate social change activities. As the responsibility for addressing a variety of social issues is transferred from the state to the private sector, activist groups increasingly
O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Pedersen, Anders Degn
Background: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the neuropsychological performance of patients with anxiety disorders, yet the literature does not provide a systematic review of the results concerning adult patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Aims: The primary...... aim of this paper is to review the literature on neuropsychological performance in adult patients with SAD. Methods: This paper is a systematic review of empirical studies investigating neuropsychological performance as assessed by cognitive tests. Results: 30 papers were located comprising a total...... number of 698 adult patients with SAD. The review revealed indication for decreased performance regarding visual scanning and visuoconstructional ability as well as some indication for verbal memory difficulties. Conclusion: The impact of possible confounding variables on the neuropsychological...
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressiveness. This study also proves that good environmental performance will strengthen the negative effect of CSR disclosure on tax aggressiveness. The assessment of environmental performance is conducted by the Ministry of Environment as independent party. It means that the higher the score of company’s environmental performance, the higher the commitment to pay taxes. This study supports the view that more socially responsible corporations are likely to be less tax aggressive.
Mihara, Takuma; Mensah-Brown, Kobina; Sobota, Rosanna; Lin, Robert; Featherstone, Robert; Siegel, Steven J
Studies suggest that the amygdala is a key region for regulation of anxiety, fear and social function. Therefore, dysfunction of the amygdala has been proposed as a potential mechanism for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. This may be due to NMDA receptor-mediated hypofunction, which is thought to be related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In this study, electroencephalographic amygdala activity was assessed in mice during the three-chamber social test. This activity was also evaluated following exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Vehicle-treated mice spent significantly more time in the social than the non-social chamber. This social preference was eliminated by ketamine. However, ketamine-treated mice spent significantly less time in the social chamber and significantly more time in the nonsocial chamber than vehicle-treated mice. There were no significant differences in induced powers between social and non-social chamber entries in vehicle-treated mice, except for theta frequencies, which featured greater induced theta power during non-social chamber entry. Ketamine eliminated differences in induced theta power between social and non-social chamber entries. Moreover, ketamine increased the induced gamma power during social chamber entry compared to that of vehicle-treated mice. All other frequency ranges were not significantly influenced by zone or drug condition. All significant findings were upon entry to chambers not during interaction. Results suggest that impaired function of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate transmission can induce social impairments and amygdala dysfunction, similar to the pattern in schizophrenia. Future studies will utilize this method to evaluate mechanisms of social dysfunction and development of treatments of social impairments in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Liu, Weifeng; Li, Yang; Lin, Xu; Tao, Dacheng; Wang, Yanjiang
Co-training is a major multi-view learning paradigm that alternately trains two classifiers on two distinct views and maximizes the mutual agreement on the two-view unlabeled data. Traditional co-training algorithms usually train a learner on each view separately and then force the learners to be consistent across views. Although many co-trainings have been developed, it is quite possible that a learner will receive erroneous labels for unlabeled data when the other learner has only mediocre accuracy. This usually happens in the first rounds of co-training, when there are only a few labeled examples. As a result, co-training algorithms often have unstable performance. In this paper, Hessian-regularized co-training is proposed to overcome these limitations. Specifically, each Hessian is obtained from a particular view of examples; Hessian regularization is then integrated into the learner training process of each view by penalizing the regression function along the potential manifold. Hessian can properly exploit the local structure of the underlying data manifold. Hessian regularization significantly boosts the generalizability of a classifier, especially when there are a small number of labeled examples and a large number of unlabeled examples. To evaluate the proposed method, extensive experiments were conducted on the unstructured social activity attribute (USAA) dataset for social activity recognition. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms baseline methods, including the traditional co-training and LapCo algorithms.
Full Text Available Co-training is a major multi-view learning paradigm that alternately trains two classifiers on two distinct views and maximizes the mutual agreement on the two-view unlabeled data. Traditional co-training algorithms usually train a learner on each view separately and then force the learners to be consistent across views. Although many co-trainings have been developed, it is quite possible that a learner will receive erroneous labels for unlabeled data when the other learner has only mediocre accuracy. This usually happens in the first rounds of co-training, when there are only a few labeled examples. As a result, co-training algorithms often have unstable performance. In this paper, Hessian-regularized co-training is proposed to overcome these limitations. Specifically, each Hessian is obtained from a particular view of examples; Hessian regularization is then integrated into the learner training process of each view by penalizing the regression function along the potential manifold. Hessian can properly exploit the local structure of the underlying data manifold. Hessian regularization significantly boosts the generalizability of a classifier, especially when there are a small number of labeled examples and a large number of unlabeled examples. To evaluate the proposed method, extensive experiments were conducted on the unstructured social activity attribute (USAA dataset for social activity recognition. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms baseline methods, including the traditional co-training and LapCo algorithms.
The current study was performed to examine relationships between different aspects of social activities and life satisfaction among the elderly. This issue was investigated in men and women separately. Data for 612 older adults aged 65 to 84 years were obtained from a mail survey in an urban area. Life satisfaction was measured using the LSIK and social activities were assessed by asking respondents their degree of participation in each type of interaction. The focus was on four aspects: personal activities, socially-related activities, learning activities, and job activity. In order to examine relationships between different aspects of social activities and life satisfaction, the author used multiple regression analyses with the four types of social activity level as independent variables. All except job activity were categorized as lower, middle and higher levels, and work was categorized as low and high. Two models of multiple regression were employed. First, each of the four aspects of social activity was entered as an independent variable (Model 1); second, four aspects of social activity were entered as independent variables simultaneously (Model 2). The analyses were conducted separately for men and women, controlling for age, marital status, subjective economic status and IADL (instrumental activities of daily living). (1) The results of the multiple regression analyses (Model 1) were as follows: for both men and women, personal activities were positively associated with life satisfaction. For women, socially-related activities were also positively related to life satisfaction. For both men and women, learning activities and job activity exhibited statistically nonsignificant relationships with life satisfaction. (2) With Model 2, the results were as follows: among men, none of the aspects of social activity was significantly associated with life satisfaction. Among women, only personal activities were positively associated with life satisfaction. When all
Dzewaltowski, David A; Noble, John M; Shaw, Jeff M
Social cognitive theory and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were examined in the prediction of 4 weeks of physical activity participation. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported. Attitude and perceived control predicted intention, and intention predicted physical activity participation. The social cognitive theory variables significantly predicted physical activity participation, with self-efficacy and self-evaluation of the behavior significantly contributing to the prediction. The greater the confidence in participating in physical activity and the greater the satisfaction with present physical activity, the more physical activity performed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived control and intentions did not account for any unique variation in physical activity participation over self-efficacy. Therefore the social cognitive theory constructs were better predictors of physical activity than those from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are
Lia Hecker Luz
Full Text Available Normal birth in contemporaneity is discussed and the three models of birth care are presented, accordingly to categorization proposed by the north-American anthropologist Davis-Floyd, pointing out the consequences of the technocratic model, which has become hegemonic in contemporary societies, naturalizing obstetrical violence. The problematic is contextualized to Brazilian reality, with the analyses of the blog Cientista que virou mãe making it evident that Brazilian women on social media are articulating themselves in order to defend and give visibility to initiatives of natural and humanized birth, acting against obstetrical violence. It is concluded that Internet tools have allowed a pioneer mobilization in respecting women’s reproductive rights in Brazil, turning blogs into a potential hegemonic alternative way to reach more democratic forms of social organization. In addition to denaturalize the obstetrical violence, the bloggers also act aiming to pave the way for the humanistic approach and to motivate planned home birth initiatives.
Mehta, Ranjana K; Rhee, Joohyun
Stress due to cognitive demands and fatigue have shown to impair motor performance in older adults; however, the effect of social stress and its influence on prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning in older adults during upper extremity motor performance tasks is not known. The present study explored the after-effects of an acute social stress bout on neural strategies, measured using PFC and hand/arm muscle activation, and adopted by younger and older adults to maintain handgrip force control. Nine older [74.1 (6.5) years; three men, six women] and ten younger [24.2 (5.0) years, four men, six women] adults performed handgrip force control trials at 30% maximum voluntary contractions before and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). PFC activity was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy and muscle activity from the flexor and extensor carpi radialis (FCR/ECR) was measured using electromyography. In general, aging was associated with decreased force steadiness and force complexity with a concomitant increase in bilateral PFC activity. While motor performance remained comparable before and after the TSST stress session in both age groups, the associated neural strategies differed between groups. While the stress condition was associated with lower FCR and ECR activity in younger adults despite no change in the PFC activation, stress was associated with increases in FCR activity in older adults. This stress-related compensatory neural strategy of increasing hand/arm muscle activation, potentially via the additional recruitment of the stress-motor neural circuitry, may have played a role in maintaining motor performance in older adults.
Kuehn, Christian; Martens, Erik Andreas; Romero, Daniel M
A large variety of complex systems in ecology, climate science, biomedicine and engineering have been observed to exhibit tipping points, where the dynamical state of the system abruptly changes. For example, such critical transitions may result in the sudden change of ecological environments...... a priori known events are preceded by variance and autocorrelation growth. Our findings thus clearly establish the necessary starting point to further investigate the relationship between abstract mathematical theory and various classes of critical transitions in social networks....
Zaranek, Rochelle R; Chapleski, Elizabeth E
This study explored older adults' attitudes about a range of activities and determined characteristics associated with casino participation. Activity theory was used as conceptual framework to examine casino gambling as a newer social activity and to identify characteristics related to gambling behavior among elders. The sample consisted of 1,410 randomly selected participants, aged 60 and older, who reside in the city of Detroit. Through the use of a cross-sectional analyses, selected variables tested with casino visits included health, demographics, social activities, senior optimism, opinions about casinos, transportation, and social support network. Bivariate associations revealed that sociodemographic variables such as income, age, education, marriage, and transportation were significantly associated with casino participation. Additional factors associated with casino visitation included positive attitudes about casinos, social support network, and enjoying a variety of other "active" activities. The results of this study supported the theoretical perspective underlying the basis of this project. Although not a favorite activity, gambling is among several types of social activities in which older adults do participate. Results suggest further investigation of how casino activities relate to mental health and other leisure activities.
Full Text Available Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the "friendship paradox", is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users' network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours; and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple "sentiment sensing" technique that can detect and locate disasters.
Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel
Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the “friendship paradox”, is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users’ network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple “sentiment sensing” technique that can detect and locate disasters. PMID:25692690
Shively, Rachel L.
This case study examines how one study abroad student oriented to social interaction during a semester in Spain. Using an activity theoretical approach, the findings indicate that the student not only viewed social interaction with his Spanish host family and an expert-Spanish-speaking age peer as an opportunity for second language (L2) learning,…
Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang
Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905
Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang
Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modeling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Cheek, Helen N.
Presents fifteen activities designed to lead children from the enactive, iconic, and symbolic levels of understanding map symbols, perspective, direction, distance, location, scale, relief and elevation. (JDH)
Herpen, van E.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.
The authors approached Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a process in which particular CSR activities impact on consumers’ store evaluation and trust. They hypothesized that consumers classify CSR activities along two dimensions: (1) the beneficiary of the activity and (2) the intrinsic
Stevens, Mark; Rees, Tim; Coffee, Pete; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Polman, Remco
Against the backdrop of a global physical inactivity crisis, attempts to both understand and positively influence physical activity behaviours are characterized by a focus on individual-level factors (e.g. cognitions, attitudes, motivation). We outline a new perspective, drawn from an emerging body of work exploring the applicability of social identity and self-categorization theories to domains of sport and health, from which to understand and address this pervasive problem. This social identity approach suggests that the groups to which people belong can be, and often are, incorporated into their sense of self and, through this, are powerful determinants of physical activity-related behaviour. We start by reviewing the current state of physical activity research and highlighting the potential for the social identity approach to help understand how social factors influence these behaviours. Next, we outline the theoretical underpinnings of the social identity approach and provide three key examples that speak to the analytical and practical value of the social identity approach in physical activity settings. Specifically, we argue that social identity (1) can be harnessed to promote engagement in physical activity, (2) underpins exercise group behaviour, and (3) underpins effective leadership in exercise settings. We conclude by identifying prospects for a range of theory-informed research developments.
Jeong, Eui Jun; Kim, Doo Hwan
This study examines whether social activities with parents, online and offline social self-efficacy, and attitudes toward gaming are associated with the degree of game addiction among adolescents. Using data from a survey of 600 middle- and high-school students in South Korea, we tested the relationships of personal characteristics (grade point average and time spent on gaming each day), social self-efficacy (both on- and offline), general social activities (with parents, friends, and teachers), gaming activities with parents, and attitudes toward gaming (those of self, parents, friends, and teachers) with the degree of game addiction. In addition, we conducted ANOVA tests to determine the differences among three groups: non-addicts (NA), possible (mild or moderate) addicts (PA), and Internet addicts (IA). The results show that social self-efficacy in the real world (offline) was negatively related with the degree of game addiction, whereas social self-efficacy in the virtual world (online) indicated a positive association. Social activities with parents are negatively associated with game addiction, although no relationship is found between gaming activities with parents and game addiction. Parental attitude toward gaming has a negative relationship with the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the theoretical framework of the social capital concept, based on different approaches identified in the literature and highlight the direct influence social capital has on the entrepreneurial personality characteristics of individuals and organizations. The objectives of the paper focus first on conceptualizing the notion of social capital, by acknowledging the social capital structure and components in the acceptation of the most popular scholars in the research field, the sources of social capital and its role in building social economy; further on, the article explores the influence of social capital in the creation of innovation and economic growth, its dimensions in the entrepreneurial process and the definition of the instruments of measurement, including indicators of trust-generalized and institutional, number of social networks, associational activities-passive and active membership and civic norms. The paper gathers some of the outcomes of different researches conducted in the literature with respect to the positive relationship between social capital dimensions and entrepreneurship, through attracting the right potential of human capital and the required level of financial capital, reducing the transaction costs, identifying new market opportunities and leveraging the social networks, transfer and knowledge overflow and information channels, enabling the launch and the survival of business venture and help gain competitive advantage that would ensure sustainability and success. The case studies referenced in this article use various approaches of highlighting the social capital as a key enabler and not necessarily a generator of entrepreneurial activity, by analyzing the likelihood to launch new ventures based on the interactions with key partners and exchange of information, the sustainability and success of a start up or push/pull factors that determine an entrepreneur to enter the new
Turney, Peter B B
Activity-based costing is a method of measuring the cost and performance of activities, products and customers. It is increasingly being seen as a more accurate method of costing than conventional costing systems, which are being superseded by the fact that automation means that direct material and labour consumption is now a far less accurate means of apportioning overheads. This practical book outlines why conventional cost systems fail, before going on to cover the advantages of activity-based costing, and describing how to put the system in place successfully, and how to apply the lessons learnt quickly. The book takes the reader step-by-step through the various processes involved, from setting up the system, through its operation, to evaluation of the results.
Lotvonen, Sinikka; Kyngäs, Helvi; Koistinen, Pentti; Bloigu, Risto; Elo, Satu
Increasing numbers of older people relocate into senior housing when their physical performance declines. The change in social environment is known to affect their wellbeing, providing both challenges and opportunities, but more information on the relations between social and physical parameters is required. Thus, we elicited perceptions of the social environment of 81 older people (aged 59-93 years, living in northern Finland) and changes in it 3 and 12 months after relocation to senior housing. We also measured their physical performance, then analysed associations between the social and physical variables. Participants reported that they had freedom to do whatever they liked and generally had enough contact with close people (which have recognized importance for older people's wellbeing), but changes in their physical condition limited their social activity. Moreover, their usual walking speed, dominant hand's grip strength and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) significantly decreased. The pleasantness of the residential community, peer support, constraints on social activity imposed by changes in physical condition, meaningful activity at home and meeting close people all affected these physical performance parameters. Clearly, in addition to assessing physical performance and encouraging regular exercise, the complex interactions among social factors, physical performance and wellbeing should be considered when addressing individuals' needs.
Kyngäs, Helvi; Koistinen, Pentti; Bloigu, Risto; Elo, Satu
Increasing numbers of older people relocate into senior housing when their physical performance declines. The change in social environment is known to affect their wellbeing, providing both challenges and opportunities, but more information on the relations between social and physical parameters is required. Thus, we elicited perceptions of the social environment of 81 older people (aged 59–93 years, living in northern Finland) and changes in it 3 and 12 months after relocation to senior housing. We also measured their physical performance, then analysed associations between the social and physical variables. Participants reported that they had freedom to do whatever they liked and generally had enough contact with close people (which have recognized importance for older people’s wellbeing), but changes in their physical condition limited their social activity. Moreover, their usual walking speed, dominant hand’s grip strength and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) significantly decreased. The pleasantness of the residential community, peer support, constraints on social activity imposed by changes in physical condition, meaningful activity at home and meeting close people all affected these physical performance parameters. Clearly, in addition to assessing physical performance and encouraging regular exercise, the complex interactions among social factors, physical performance and wellbeing should be considered when addressing individuals’ needs. PMID:28841198
Marquez, David X; McAuley, Edward
Despite the well-documented benefits of leisure time physical activity, Latinos are reported to be highest among all ethnic groups in leisure time inactivity. The present study examined the relationship between leisure time physical activity and exercise self-efficacy, exercise barriers self-efficacy, exercise social support, and perceived importance of physical activity. Data were obtained from 153 Latinos (n = 86 female, n = 67 male). Comparisons were made between Latinos with high and low levels of leisure time physical activity and between men and women. Results revealed that Latinos high in leisure time physical activity had significantly greater exercise and barriers self-efficacy, received more social support from friends to exercise, and placed greater importance on physical activity outcomes than did Latinos low in leisure time physical activity. No significant differences were revealed for social support from family, nor between men and women on the psychosocial variables. Physical activity interventions targeting sources of self-efficacy, increasing social support, and emphasizing the importance of regular physical activity should be helpful in increasing leisure time physical activity of Latinos. Future research should examine the influence of environmental and cultural variables on the leisure time physical activity of Latinos and how they interact with psychosocial factors.
Mason, Michael J; Schmidt, Christopher; Abraham, Anisha; Walker, Leslie; Tercyak, Kenneth
The present study examined components of adolescents' social environment (social network, extracurricular activities, and family relationships) in association with depression. A total of 332 adolescents presenting for a routine medical check-up were self-assessed for social network risk (i.e., smoking habits of best male and female friends), extracurricular activity level (i.e., participation in organized sports teams, clubs, etc.), family relationship quality (i.e., cohesion and conflict), and symptoms of depression (i.e., minimal, mild, moderate/severe). Results of a forward linear regression modeling indicate that social environment components were associated with a significant proportion of the variance in adolescent depression (Adjusted R (2) = .177, p social network (beta = .107, p depression symptoms. Conversely, adolescents who engaged in more extracurricular activities (beta = -.118, p depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the important role that the social environment plays in adolescent depression, as well as yields new insights into socially-based intervention targets that may ameliorate adolescent depression. These intervention targets may be gender-specific, include positive social network skills training, increase adolescents' engagement in organized activities, and attend to the quality of their family relationships.
Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Ella, Krisztina; Gyöngyösi, Norbert; Roenneberg, Till; Káldi, Krisztina
Discrepancies between sleep timing on workdays and weekends, also known as social jetlag (SJL), affect the majority of the population and have been found to be associated with increased health risk and health-impairing behaviors. In this study, we explored the relationship between SJL and academic performance in a sample of undergraduates of the Semmelweis University. We assessed SJL and other sleep-related parameters with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) (n = 753). Academic performance was measured by the average grade based on weekly test results as well as scores acquired on the final test (n = 247). The average mid-sleep point on free days in the Hungarian sample fits well the regression line plotted for longitudes within the Central European Time Zone and chronotypes, confirming that sunlight has a major impact on chronotype. Multivariate analysis showed negative effect of SJL on the weekly average grade (p = 0.028, n = 247) during the lecture term with its highly regular teaching schedules, while this association disappeared in the exam period (p = 0.871, n = 247) when students had no scheduled obligations (lower SJL). We also analyzed the relationship between the time of the weekly tests and academic performance and found that students with later sleep times on free days achieved worse in the morning (p = 0.017, n = 129), while the inverse tendency was observed for the afternoon test-takers (p = 0.10, n = 118). We did not find significant association between academic performance and sleep duration or sleep debt on work days. Our data suggest that circadian misalignment can have a significant negative effect on academic performance. One possible reason for this misalignment is socially enforced sleep times.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to understand consumer behavioural models with respect to their reactions to social network marketing. Theoretical background is focused on online and social network usage, motivations and behaviour. The research goal is to explore consumer reactions to the exposure of social network marketing based on the following criteria: level of brand engagement, word-of-mouth (WOM referral behaviour, and purchase intentions. Consumers are investigated based on their attitudes toward social network marketing and basic socio-demographic covariates using data from a sample size of 700 Bulgarian respondents (age group 21–54 years, Internet users, urban inhabitants. Factor and cluster analyses are applied. It is found that consumers are willing to receive information about brands and companies through social networks. They like to talk in social networks about these brands and companies and to share information as well (factor 2, brand engagement. Internet users are willing to share information received through social network advertising (factor 1, wom referral behaviour but they would not buy a certain brand as a result of brand communication activities in social networks (factor 3, purchase intention. Several practical implications regarding marketing activities through social networks are drawn.
Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mendonça, Gerfeson; Farias Júnior, José Cazuza de
To analyze the association between physical activity and social support from parents and friends on the physical activity level among adolescents. Data from 2,361 adolescents (56.6% females; mean age 16.4; SD = 1.2), from public and private high schools were analyzed. The physical activity level of the adolescents, parents, and friends were measured through a questionnaire. Parents' and friends' support and self-efficacy were measured using two previously tested scales. Data analysis was performed using the structural equation modeling in IBM® SPSS® Amos™ 20.0. Physical activity of friends was directly associated with physical activity level of adolescents. Physical activity of the father was associated with that of their sons, and the physical activity of mother was associated with that of their daughters. An indirect association was identified between the physical activity of parents and friends with physical activity level of the adolescents, mediated by social support. Social support was directly associated with physical activity in adolescents of both genders and indirectly mediated by self-efficacy. Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents' level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self-efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Luanna Alexandra Cheng
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity and social support from parents and friends on the physical activity level among adolescents. METHODS: Data from 2,361 adolescents (56.6% females; mean age 16.4; SD = 1.2, from public and private high schools were analyzed. The physical activity level of the adolescents, parents, and friends were measured through a questionnaire. Parents' and friends' support and self-efficacy were measured using two previously tested scales. Data analysis was performed usingthe structural equation modeling in IBM(r SPSS(r AmosTM 20.0. RESULTS: Physical activity of friends was directly associated with physical activity level of adolescents. Physical activity of the father was associated with their sons, and the physical activity of mother was associated with their daughters. An indirect association was identified between the physical activity of parents and friends with physical activity level of the adolescents, mediated by social support. Social support was directly associated with physical activity in adolescents of both genders and indirectly mediated by self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents' level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self-efficacy.
Bilbao, Aritz; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego
The increase of life expectancy in modern society has caused an increase in elderly population. Elderly people want to live independently in their home environment for as long as possible. However, as we age, our physical skills tend to worsen and our social circle tends to become smaller, something that often leads to a considerable decrease of both our physical and social activities. In this paper, we present an AAL framework developed within the SONOPA project, whose objective is to promote active ageing by combining a social network with information inferred using in-home sensors. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Francisco José, Riquel Ligero
Full Text Available This paper attempts an analysis of organizational motivations when developing policies for environmental liability. Specifically, to compare the production of social legitimacy to the improvement of organizational performance, we proceeded to test two models in a sector which in recent years has opened a wide debate on environmental sustainability. We refer to golf tourism in Andalusia, in which there has been a considerable increase in such facilities. We have used the statistical technique Partial Least Square (PLS.
What psychological factors determine Ghanaian employee participation in development activities in organizations? Empirical research has failed to examine psychological factors influencing employee behavior in Ghanaian organizations. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), I examine attitudinal ...
Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.
Axelrod's model was proposed to study interactions between agents and the formation of cultural domains. It presents a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural steady state which has been studied in the literature by evaluation of the relative size of the largest cluster. In this article, we propose new measurements based on the concept of activity per agent to study the Axelrod's model on the square lattice. We show that the variance of system activity can be used to indicate the critical points of the transition. Furthermore the frequency distribution of the system activity is able to show a coexistence of phases typical of a first order phase transition. Finally, we verify a power law dependence between cluster activity and cluster size for multicultural steady state configurations at the critical point.
Kelly, Michelle E; Duff, Hollie; Kelly, Sara; McHugh Power, Joanna E; Brennan, Sabina; Lawlor, Brian A; Loughrey, David G
Social relationships, which are contingent on access to social networks, promote engagement in social activities and provide access to social support. These social factors have been shown to positively impact health outcomes. In the current systematic review, we offer a comprehensive overview of the impact of social activities, social networks and social support on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults (50+) and examine the differential effects of aspects of social relationships on various cognitive domains. We followed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, and collated data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), genetic and observational studies. Independent variables of interest included subjective measures of social activities, social networks, and social support, and composite measures of social relationships (CMSR). The primary outcome of interest was cognitive function divided into domains of episodic memory, semantic memory, overall memory ability, working memory, verbal fluency, reasoning, attention, processing speed, visuospatial abilities, overall executive functioning and global cognition. Thirty-nine studies were included in the review; three RCTs, 34 observational studies, and two genetic studies. Evidence suggests a relationship between (1) social activity and global cognition and overall executive functioning, working memory, visuospatial abilities and processing speed but not episodic memory, verbal fluency, reasoning or attention; (2) social networks and global cognition but not episodic memory, attention or processing speed; (3) social support and global cognition and episodic memory but not attention or processing speed; and (4) CMSR and episodic memory and verbal fluency but not global cognition. The results support prior conclusions that there is an association between social relationships and cognitive function but the exact nature of this association remains unclear
Higham, Desmond J.; Grindrod, Peter; Mantzaris, Alexander V.; Otley, Amanda; Laflin, Peter
We propose a novel mathematical model for the activity of microbloggers during an external, event-driven spike. The model leads to a testable prediction of who would become most active if a spike were to take place. This type of information is of great interest to commercial organisations, governments and charities, as it identifies key players who can be targeted with information in real time when the network is most receptive. The model takes account of the fact that dynamic interactions ev...
Full Text Available Using critical theory, this paper first confronts critically the relationship between education and performance in light of globalisation and its underlying neo‑‑ liberal ideology. This comparison reveals that there is a definite compatibility between them, but it is fully slanted towards efficiency logic and human capital production. Then, adopting a critical attitude, the paper questions this direction, in the name of the emancipation and citizenship prospects, which brought the school system reorganisation by democratic nation‑‑ states. The current choices have distorted these objectives and have redirected them towards utilitarian learnings and an increasingly therapeutic socialisation. Finally, the paper stresses the inseparability between the performance issue, the social equity issue and the education/teaching effectiveness issue in order to highlight the need for taking into account qualitative dimensions, which stem from the background and the pupils, so as to focus much more on learning processes, rather than on learning outcomes themselves.
Rupp, Tracy L; Killgore, William D S; Balkin, Thomas J
to examine the effects of socially enriched versus socially impoverished environments on performance and alertness decline during sleep deprivation in extraverts versus introverts. participants (n = 29 men, n = 19 women) were assigned to socially enriched (n = 24; 13 introverts, 11 extraverts) or socially impoverished (n = 24; 12 introverts, 12 extraverts) conditions (activities matched) for 12 hours (1000-2200) on Day 1 followed by 22 hours of sleep deprivation (2200-2000; 36 h awake total), monitored by actigraphy. The median split of volunteers' Eysenck Extraversion scores was used for extravert/introvert categorization. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), and Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) were administered every 2 hours throughout. PVT speed, transformed lapses, modified MWT sleep-onset latency, and SSS were analyzed using mixed-model analyses of variance, with covariates of age and total actigraphic activity during enrichment or impoverishment. residential sleep/performance testing facility. forty-eight healthy adults (aged 18-39). Twelve hours of socially enriched or isolated environments in extraverts and introverts prior to sleep deprivation. Social experience interacted with personality type to affect alertness and vigilance. Social enrichment, as compared with social impoverishment, was associated with more PVT lapses at 04:00 overall. Similarly, following social enrichment, PVT speed was significantly slower among extraverts than among introverts during sleep deprivation, but no personality-group differences emerged following social impoverishment. MWT sleep latency and SSS subjective sleepiness did not show significant personality or social-condition effects during sleep deprivation. the effect of social exposure on vulnerability or resiliency to sleep deprivation was modulated by introversion and extraversion. Extraverts exposed to social environments were more vulnerable to subsequent sleep
Full Text Available Social roles are thought to play an important role in determining the capacity for collective action in a community regarding the use of shared resources. Here we report on the results of a study using a behavioral experimental approach regarding the relationship between social roles and the performance of social-ecological systems. The computer-based irrigation experiment that was the basis of this study mimics the decisions faced by farmers in small-scale irrigation systems. In each of 20 rounds, which are analogous to growing seasons, participants face a two-stage commons dilemma. First they must decide how much to invest in the public infrastructure, e.g., canals and water diversion structures. Second, they must decide how much to extract from the water made available by that public infrastructure. Each round begins with a 60-second communication period before the players make their investment and extraction decisions. By analyzing the chat messages exchanged among participants during the communication stage of the experiment, we coded up to three roles per participant using the scheme of seven roles known to be important in the literature: leader, knowledge generator, connector, follower, moralist, enforcer, and observer. Our study supports the importance of certain social roles (e.g., connector previously highlighted by several case study analyses. However, using qualitative comparative analysis we found that none of the individual roles was sufficient for groups to succeed, i.e., to reach a certain level of group production. Instead, we found that a combination of at least five roles was necessary for success. In addition, in the context of upstream-downstream asymmetry, we observed a pattern in which social roles assumed by participants tended to differ by their positions. Although our work generated some interesting insights, further research is needed to determine how robust our findings are to different action situations, such as
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use different economic variables to establish whether there are differences in economic performance between companies as a result of their inclusion in the sustainability index. This paper presents a one-dimensional exploratory study which compares the socially responsible companies included in the Spanish sustainability index, FTSE4Good Ibex, with the rest of the indices in the IBEX family. Parametric testing was used to study whether there are differences between the two types of companies. The results demonstrate that there are no statistically significant differences in economic performance between the two groups. Morover, it is confirmed that companies with good practices are as profitable as the rest, but it also demonstrates that the economic-financial behaviour is not better as a result of being in the sustainability index. The basic conclusion is that adhering to social and environmental standards does not harm a firm’s competitive position and, therefore, provide support for the development policy of responsible practices so that they become a tool to help improve the resilience of the economy and investor trust.
Bomben, M.; Ducourthial, A.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Calderini, G.; D'Eramo, L.; Giacomini, G.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.; Rummler, A.; Weingarten, J.
To cope with the High Luminosity LHC harsh conditions, the ATLAS inner tracker has to be upgraded to meet requirements in terms of radiation hardness, pile up and geometrical acceptance. The active edge technology allows to reduce the insensitive area at the border of the sensor thanks to an ion etched trench which avoids the crystal damage produced by the standard mechanical dicing process. Thin planar n-on-p pixel sensors with active edge have been designed and produced by LPNHE and FBK foundry. Two detector module prototypes, consisting of pixel sensors connected to FE-I4B readout chips, have been tested with beams at CERN and DESY. In this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.
Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter
on a horisontal and vertical velocity are treated. All three systems are based on digital FIR-filters. For numerical comparison a performance function combining the frequency response of the set of filters for each system is derived enabling discussion on optimal filter design and system setup. Irregular wave......A comparison of wave gauge based on velocity meter based active absorption systems is presented discussing advantages and disadvantages of the systems. In detail one system based on two surface elevations, one system based on a surface elevation and a horisontal velocity and one system based...... tests with a highly reflective structure with the purely wave gauge based system and the wave gauge velocity meter based system are performed. The wave test depict the differences between the systems....
Mendonça, Gerfeson; Júnior, José Cazuza de Farias
Little is known about the influence of different types and sources of social support on physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and different types and sources of social support in adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,859 adolescents between 14-19 years of age in the city of João Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. Physical activity was measured with a questionnaire and social support from parents and friends using a 10-item scale five for each group (type of support: encouragement, joint participation, watching, inviting, positive comments and transportation). Multivariable analysis showed that the types of support provided by parents associated with physical activity in adolescents were encouragement for females (P genders (males: P = 0.009; females: P physical activity varies according to its source, as well as the gender and age of the adolescents.
de Bakker, F.G.A.; Groenewegen, P.; den Hond, F.
Social responsibilities of businesses and their managers have been discussed since the 1950s. Yet no consensus about progress has been achieved in the corporate social responsibility/corporate social performance literature. In this article, we seek to analyze three views on this literature. One view
Colquitt, Gavin; Alfonso, Moya L.; Walker, Ashley
Physical education teachers can champion their profession through marketing the importance of physical activity to children and families in the communities they serve. Social marketing, a consumer-based approach to behavior change, is an excellent choice for physical education teachers who want to "sell" physical activity to their…
Zamboni, C. B.; Zahn, G.S.; Figueredo, A. M. G.; Madi, T. F.; Yoriyaz, H.; Lima, R. B.; Shtejer, K.; Dalaqua Jr, L.
The development of appropriate nuclear instrumentation to perform neutron activation analyze (NAA), using thermal and fast neutrons, can be useful to investigate materials outside the reactor premises. Considering this fact, a small size neutron irradiator prototype was developed at IPEN facilities (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - Brazil). Basically, this prototype consists of a cylinder of 1200 mm long and 985 mm diameter (filled with paraffin) with two Am-Be sources (600GBq each) arranged in the longitudinal direction of its geometric center. The material to be irradiated is positioned at a radial direction of the cylinder between the two Am-Be sources. The main advantage of this irradiator is a very stable neutron flux eliminating the use of standard material (measure of the induced activity in the sample by comparative method). This way the process became agile, practical and economic, but quantities at mg levels of samples are necessary to achieve good sensitivity, when the material has a low microscopy neutron cross section. As fast and thermal neutron can be used, the flux distribution, for both, were calculated and the prototype performance is discussed
Natalya I. Nikitina; Elena Yu. Romanovaa; Tatyana V. Vasilyeva; Irina N. Nikishina; Veronica M. Grebennikova
In modern Russia professional activity productivity of social work specialist depends largely on his abilities and skills in the field of social design. University graduate`s (social work bachelor`s) high level of professional-project activity culture can be regarded as one of the necessary conditions of successful labour market adaptation of young specialists in social sphere institutions. The article discusses various aspects of future social work bachelors` vocational project activity cult...
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Social customer relationship management (social CRM is an emerging concept that integrates traditional CRM and social media in order to provide benefits for organizations and customers. Despite the benefits that social CRM can bring, many organizations are still at the early stage of adoption. To move beyond social marketing and to exploit opportunities offered by sales and customer service, organizations need to be aware of factors that drive social CRM adoption and different implications of social CRM adoption for performance outcomes. This paper aims to provide a review of scholarly literature on social CRM adoption with the focus on factors and performance outcomes.
Grynszpan, Ouriel; Simonin, Jérôme; Martin, Jean-Claude; Nadel, Jacqueline
Gaze represents a major non-verbal communication channel in social interactions. In this respect, when facing another person, one's gaze should not be examined as a purely perceptive process but also as an action-perception online performance. However, little is known about processes involved in the real-time self-regulation of social gaze. The present study investigates the impact of a gaze-contingent viewing window on fixation patterns and the awareness of being the agent moving the window. In face-to-face scenarios played by a virtual human character, the task for the 18 adult participants was to interpret an equivocal sentence which could be disambiguated by examining the emotional expressions of the character speaking. The virtual character was embedded in naturalistic backgrounds to enhance realism. Eye-tracking data showed that the viewing window induced changes in gaze behavior, notably longer visual fixations. Notwithstanding, only half of the participants ascribed the window displacements to their eye movements. These participants also spent more time looking at the eyes and mouth regions of the virtual human character. The outcomes of the study highlight the dissociation between non-volitional gaze adaptation and the self-ascription of agency. Such dissociation provides support for a two-step account of the sense of agency composed of pre-noetic monitoring mechanisms and reflexive processes, linked by bottom-up and top-down processes. We comment upon these results, which illustrate the relevance of our method for studying online social cognition, in particular concerning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) where the poor pragmatic understanding of oral speech is considered linked to visual peculiarities that impede facial exploration.
Haeuchi, Yuka; Honda, Takanori; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Chen, Sanmei; Kumagai, Shuzo
Purpose This study aimed to examine the relationship between participation in social activity and both, composite and individual measures of physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults.Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from the Sasaguri Genkimon Study (SGS), a longitudinal cohort study conducted in 2011. Participants were 1,365 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or above, who did not require certified nursing care and who resided in Sasaguri, a town located east of the Fukuoka metropolitan area. Participation in social activity was assessed by asking participants whether they engaged in any of eight social activities. Physical fitness tests assessed participants' handgrip strength and knee extension strength as measures of muscle strength, and their one-leg standing time, 5-m maximum gait speed, and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate as measures of their physical performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between participation in social activity and each measure of physical fitness, adjusting for sex; age; body mass index; socioeconomic status; solitary living; exercise, habitual drinking and smoking; accelerometer-measured, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; cognitive function; instrumental activities of daily living; distress; social network; and comorbidities.Results A total of 83.6% of the participants were engaged in at least one social activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, engagement in social activity was positively associated with a higher composite physical fitness score, faster gait speed and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate, and longer one-leg standing time (P=0.008, P=0.030, P=0.034, and P=0.009, respectively).Conclusion Participation in social activity was significantly associated with physical fitness, specifically those related to locomotive function. These associations were independent of various confounders including
Ayubi, Soleh U; Parmanto, Bambang
Advances in physical activity (PA) monitoring devices provide ample opportunities for innovations in the way the information produced by these devices is used to encourage people to have more active lifestyles. One such innovation is expanding the current use of the information from self-management to social support. We developed a Persuasive social network for physical Activity (PersonA) that combines automatic input of physical activity data, a smartphone, and a social networking system (SNS). This paper describes the motivation for and overarching design of the PersonA and its functional and non-functional features. PersonA is designed to intelligently and automatically receive raw PA data from the sensors in the smartphone, calculate the data into meaningful PA information, store the information on a secure server, and show the information to the users as persuasive and real-time feedbacks or publish the information to the SNS to generate social support. The implementation of self-monitoring, social support, and persuasive concepts using currently available technologies has the potential for promoting healthy lifestyle, greater community participation, and higher quality of life. We also expect that PersonA will enable health professionals to collect in situ data related to physical activity. The platform is currently being used and tested to improve PA level of three groups of users in Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Boksem, Maarten A S; Smolders, Ruud; De Cremer, David
It has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and attention to rewards. In contrast, reduced power is associated with increased threat, punishment and social constraint and thereby activates inhibition-related motivation. Moreover, approach motivation has been found to be associated with increased relative left-sided frontal brain activity, while withdrawal motivation has been associated with increased right sided activations. We measured EEG activity while subjects engaged in a task priming either high or low social power. Results show that high social power is indeed associated with greater left-frontal brain activity compared to low social power, providing the first neural evidence for the theory that high power is associated with approach-related motivation. We propose a framework accounting for differences in both approach motivation and goal-directed behaviour associated with different levels of power.
Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.
Sant'Anna, Maria José Carvalho; Catunda, Júlia Kerr; Carvalho, Kepler Alencar Mendes; Coates, Veronica; Omar, Hatim A.
Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP) General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at firs...
Inaddition to the quality product and service provision, strategic management andstrategic communication approach, it has become a necessity for theinstitutions to form social reputation of the institutions with socialresponsibility approach and to maintain them in accordance with a certainunderstanding. The purpose of social responsibility activities in relation tothe public is to create a responsibility awareness and positive attitude in thesociety and to direct attitude and behavior change...
Boksem, Maarten; Smolders, Ruud; Cremer, David
textabstractIt has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and attention to rewards. In contrast, reduced power is associated with increased threat, punishment and social constraint and thereby activates inhibition-related motivation. Moreover, approach motiva...
Saarela, Miiamaaria V; Hari, Riitta
Human footsteps carry a vast amount of social information, which is often unconsciously noted. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed brain networks activated by footstep sounds of one or two persons walking. Listening to two persons walking together activated brain areas previously associated with affective states and social interaction, such as the subcallosal gyrus bilaterally, the right temporal pole, and the right amygdala. These areas seem to be involved in the analysis of persons' identity and complex social stimuli on the basis of auditory cues. Single footsteps activated only the biological motion area in the posterior STS region. Thus, hearing two persons walking together involved a more widespread brain network than did hearing footsteps from a single person.
Full Text Available In today’s world of increasing ecological, social and economic issues, the question as to how businesses can become a vehicle towards more sustainable development has become more relevant than ever. Crucial to a more sustainable economy is the successful implementation of sustainable practices through entrepreneurial activities. Although there are attempts to describe how sustainable entrepreneurs differentiate themselves, the question of how some entrepreneurs manage to successfully create a sustainable enterprise, while others do not, remains unanswered. The aim of this research is to find causal patterns that explain the success of sustainable entrepreneurs, using their social performance as a measure. Using a configuration approach-based fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA of 598 Austrian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, we could identify four different combinations of the interconnected variables of innovation orientation, environmental sustainability, resource leveraging and achievement motivation, which all lead to social performance depending on the respective networking intensity of the firms. The only variable that is included in all combinations is environmental sustainability, thus indicating it may be either crucial to or a prerequisite for achieving social performance in SMEs.
Full Text Available This article foregrounds the importance of social prevention activities with adolescents from single-parent families, which aim at overcoming external social pressures and psychological discomfort as well as creating a system of mutual support and self-help for adolescents. The aim of this article is to highlight the forms and methods of work that constitute the set of traditional methods of professional influence on adolescents from single-parent families and their parents. The author proposes a work process cycle of social prevention activities (which defines the selection of apparatus, content, forms and methods of work to 186 carry out in a logical sequence of certain stages that are characteristic of work with any singleparent family. First (pre-preparatory stage consisted of a primary formulation of goal guidelines for social preventive specialists with the aim of determination of the search criterion for the conditions and social environment of single-parent families, acquaintance with the problems of the family and the adolescent. Second (organization and information stage consisted of gathering of information, its organization and analysis. In the third (determination and diagnosis stage, the methods of detailed investigation of both adolescent and family members’ problems were chosen. In the fourth (procedure and analytics stage, the methods of detailed research of single-family problems, determined by the programme, were implemented. In the fifth (correction and results stage stipulated for the socio-educational (correctional work (if necessary with members of single-parent families to create new or to restore damaged positive relationships of the adolescent with their family and enhance social responsibility of all family members for the future of the adolescent, etc. In the sixth (control and prevention stage social workers make monitor visits to the single-parent families during a certain period. Key words: stage, incomplete
Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.; Vaas, F.
Social innovation is an organisational capability, defined as a strategic renewal in organising & organisational behaviour. This capability may consist of four resources: strategic orientation, product-market improvement, flexible work & organising smarter. Social innovation is theoretically rooted
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effects of social capital—namely structural,relational, and cognitive dimensions—on crowdfunding performance usingKitabisa.com as a case study for 2013-2015. Using robust ordinary least squares methods, we find two important results. Structural dimension, which is measured by Facebook friends owned by an entrepreneur, affects crowdfundingsuccess. The cognitive dimension, which is measured by the number of wordsthat are written by entrepreneurs in the platform, also affects crowdfundingopportunities in order to wage a successful campaign. Using logistic regressiontechnique, this study finds the same result, namely that the structural dimensionand cognitive dimension have a positive relationship to the performance ofcrowdfunding. From a logistic regression, we can conclude that the number ofFacebook friends and the amount of words to describe the project significantlypositively influence the chances of success of the project; the more the number offriends and the number of words on a project, the greater chance of a project toachieve success. This study concludes Facebook friends owned by entrepreneurand number of words affect positively crowdfunding opportunities toward asuccessful campaign.
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Zhang, C.
This paper surveys the literature on socially responsible investments (SRI). Over the past decade, SRI has experienced an explosive growth around the world. Particular to the SRI funds is that both financial goals and social objectives are pursued. While corporate social responsibility (CSR) -
Smits, M.T.; Mogos, S.; van Hillegersberg, J.; van Heck, E.; Connolly, R.
Social media are gaining popularity and are increasingly used in regular operations of many companies, including start-ups, small, medium-sized, and large organizations. The purpose of this research is to explore the impact of social media and to analyze to what extent social media have impact on
Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel
Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter's message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster.
Full Text Available This study examines the relationship of corporate social performance (CSP to corporate financial performance (CFP to determine if CSP is related to firm performance. Additionally, it examines whether firm size or industry affects the relationships between CSR and CSP. This study advances the literature as it examines this relationship for companies in a developing country, Indonesia, along with examining the impact of moderating variables on this relationship. Two models were developed: the first model was derived using slack resource theory and the second model was developed using the good management theory. Through the examination of 383 firms, the result of the study failed to find a significant relationship between CSP and CFP in either model. Further analysis, using the slack resource theory, did find that company size had a significant positive moderating effect on the relationship between CSP and CFP.
This study evaluates a model predicting that school size affects student participation in extracurricular activities and that these leisure interests will continue in young adult life. High school social participation, it is hypothesized, also is influenced by curriculum track placement and academic performance, which are affected by student…
Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)
Maher, Carol; Lewis, Lucy; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Dumuid, Dot; Cassidy, Leah; Olds, Tim
To examine the relationships between children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behaviours, and academic performance. This study investigated cross-sectional relationships between children's accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns, and academic performance using a standardised, nationally-administered academic assessment. A total of 285 Australian children aged 9-11 years from randomly selected schools undertook 7-day 24h accelerometry to objectively determine their MVPA and sedentary behaviour. In the same year, they completed nationally-administered standardised academic testing (National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy; NAPLAN). BMI was measured, and socio-demographic variables were collected in a parent-reported survey. Relationships between MVPA, sedentary behaviour and academic performance across five domains were examined using Generalised Linear Mixed Models, adjusted for a wide variety of socio-demographic variables. Higher academic performance was strongly and consistently related to higher sedentary time, with significant relationships seen across all five academic domains (range F=4.13, p=0.04 through to F=18.65, p=academic performance was only related to higher MVPA in two academic domains (writing F=5.28, p=0.02, and numeracy F=6.28, p=0.01) and was not related to language, reading and spelling performance. Findings highlight that sedentary behaviour can have positive relationships with non-physical outcomes. Positive relationships between MVPA and literacy and numeracy, as well as the well documented benefits for MVPA on physical and social health, suggest that it holds an important place in children's lives, both in and outside of school. Copyright Â© 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present the results of analysis of scientific literature on the social media concept and social media classification and provide insights on how the use of the social media can be expanded in business to get the maximum benefits and minimize potential risks. The structure of the article fits for purpose – presents the analysis of the scientific literature, synthesis, comparison, systematization of information and its graphical visualization. The performed analysis allowed to determine possibilities for application of the social media in the enterprise activities and to identify gained benefits. Social media allows enterprises to communicate more flexible and faster both in the outside and inside environment, facilitates customer accessibility, provides opportunity to quickly respond to customer feedback or inform existing and potential customers about new ideas and proposals.
Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Fink-Jensen, Anders
The development of animal models mimicking symptoms associated with schizophrenia has been a critical step in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the disease. Long-term social isolation from weaning in rodents, a model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia......, has been suggested to mimic some of the deficits seen in schizophrenic patients. We confirm in the present study that socially isolated rats display an increase in both spontaneous and d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, as well as deficits in sensorimotor gating as assessed in a pre......, and a change of firing activity towards a more irregular and bursting firing pattern. Taken together, our findings suggest that the behavioral phenotype induced by social isolation may be driven by an overactive dopamine system....
Zorza, Juan Pablo; Marino, Julián; Acosta Mesas, Alberto
This study examined the relationship between executive functions (EFs) and school performance in primary and secondary school students aged 8 to 13 years (N = 146, M = 10.4, 45.8% girls). EFs were evaluated using the Trail Making Test (TMT), Verbal Fluency (VF), and the Stroop Test. Students' GPAs and teachers' assessment of academic skills were used to measure school performance. To evaluate the students' social behavior, participants were asked to rate all their classmates' prosocial behavior and nominate three students with whom they preferred to do school activities; teachers also provided evaluations of students' social skills. EF measures explained 41% (p = .003, f 2 = .694) of variability in school performance and 29% (p = .005, f 2 = .401) of variance in social behavior in primary school students. The predictive power of EFs was found to be lower for secondary school students, although the TMT showed significant prediction and explained 13% (p = .004, f 2 = .149) of variance in school performance and 15% (p = .008, f 2 = .176) in peer ratings of prosocial behavior. This paper discusses the relevance of EFs in the school environment and their different predictive power in primary and secondary school students.
Rajennd A/L Muniady
Full Text Available Social capital and its dimensions are highly interrelated, and the outcome of social capital provides entrepreneurs with resources and knowledge that are not available in the first place. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of relational and cognitive social capital on structural social capital and the effect of structural social capital on the performance of micro-enterprises owned and managed by women in Peninsular Malaysia. This study uses a cross-sectional approach, and quantitative data are collected through structured interviews. It was found that cognitive social capital has a significant positive effect on structural social capital, and structural social capital has a significant positive effect on micro-enterprise performance. It was found that relational social capital has a positive but insignificant effect on structural social capital. Therefore, women entrepreneurs should emphasize on making the communication process easier and on ensuring that their business values, norms, interpretation, and meaning are shared and communicated to relevant parties to improve network ties and to build a dense network, which is essential in providing access to resources and knowledge. This, in return, is expected to improve the micro-enterprise performance in Malaysia.
Galbraith, Kyle L
Social media are becoming increasingly integrated into both the clinical and the research dimensions of emergency medicine. They can provide methods for sharing crucial information to targeted individuals or groups in a rapid fashion. As a result, investigators conducting emergency research under the exception from prospective informed consent requirements are beginning to turn to social media platforms as they engage in required community consultation and public disclosure activities before their research begins. At present, there are limited data regarding how effectively social media have been used for performing those consultation and disclosure activities. This article offers investigators four specific areas to consider before using social media in consultation and outreach efforts. First, understand the forms of outreach social media platforms can provide. Second, recognize how those outreach methods relate to the specific goals of community consultation and public disclosure. Third, consider whether or not the intended audiences of community consultation and public disclosure will be available via social media. Finally, think about how social media outreach efforts will be measured and assessed before consultation and disclosure activities are under way. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Blecharz, Jan; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Scholz, Urte; Schwarzer, Ralf; Siekanska, Malgorzata; Cieslak, Roman
This research investigates the role of beliefs about the ability to deal with specific social barriers and its relationships to mindfulness, football performance, and satisfaction with one's own and team performance. Study 1 aimed at eliciting these social barriers. Study 2 tested (i) whether self-efficacy referring to social barriers would predict performance over and above task-related self-efficacy and collective efficacy and (ii) the mediating role of self-efficacy to overcome social barriers in the relationship between mindfulness and performance. Participants were football (soccer) players aged 16-21 years (Study 1: N=30; Study 2: N=101, longitudinal sample: n=88). Study 1 resulted in eliciting 82 social barriers referring to team, peer leadership, and coaches. Study 2 showed that task-related self-efficacy and collective efficacy explained performance satisfaction at seven-month follow-up, whereas self-efficacy referring to social barriers explained shooting performance at seven-month follow-up. Indirect associations between mindfulness and performance were found with three types of self-efficacy referring to social barriers, operating as parallel mediators. Results provide evidence for the role of beliefs about the ability to cope with social barriers and show a complex interplay between different types of self-efficacy and collective efficacy in predicting team sport performance.
Saputri, Novitasari; Heriningsih, Sucahyo
This research is aimed to examine effect Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR) Disclosure and EnvironmentalPerformance on Economic Performance.This research used Corporate Social Responsibility Index (CSDI) asmeasure of CSR, Proper Index as measure of Environmental Performance and Return on Equity (ROE) asmeasure of Economic Performance. The samples of this research are 11 manufactur firms listed at IndonesianStock Exchange year 2006 until 2009. The research hyphotesis were tested using mu...
Success in social justice activism often hinges on judging when to employ the most effective strategy for action. Strategies for action include militancy, peaceful protest, and sometimes, engaging in a longer term program of "marginal gains." The militant feminism of many 19th century suffragettes, such as Emmeline Pankhurst, is a good…
Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde
Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…
Ren, X.; Lu, Y.; Brombacher, A.C.; Bekker, M.M.
In the HCI domain, many researches have been carried out on how to apply Persuasive Technology (PT) to stimulate a more active lifestyle. Regarding collectivist cultures, social influence has been considered as one of the most impactful factors among others in PT. Within one societal context,
Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.
Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…
The study was conducted to investigate the activity budgets on social interactions and reproductive behaviour of olive baboon (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti ... Results of polyspecific association shows that the baboons spent 14.29% of the time in association with red flanked duikers, 14.29% with black-and-white ...
Siporin, Sheldon; Baron, Lisa
"Contingency Management programs (CMP) and non-drug social and recreational activities (NDSRA) are interventions premised on behavior theory that rely on external sources of reinforcement alternative to drug-based forms to decrease drug use. CMP usually employs vouchers as reinforcement for negative toxicologies. Despite research support, CMP…
Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.
The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…
Romero Herrera, N.A.; Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, M.M.; Valk, de L.C.T.; Kruitwagen, S.
In this paper we describe a case study in which we examine how to develop playful persuasive solutions to motivate older adults to maintain or increase their social and physical activities. By including various stakeholders (older adults, family, and care givers) and by designing for transitions in
Bouslah, Kais; Linares-Zegarra, José; M'Zali, Bouchra; Scholtens, Bert
This study examines the relationship between CEO risk-taking incentives, measured by the sensitivity of CEO wealth held in options to a change in stock return volatility or Vega, and socially irresponsible activities using a large sample of U.S. firms during the period 1992–2012. Our results for the
This qualitative study focused on educators who participated in grassroots social justice groups to explore the role teacher activism can play in the struggle for educational justice. Findings show teacher activists made three overarching commitments: to reconcile their vision for justice with the realities of injustice around them; to work within…
Pasque, Penny A.; Vargas, Juanita Gamez
This chapter explores the various performances of activism by students through sound, silence, gender, and dis/ability and how these performances connect to social change efforts around issues such as human trafficking, homeless children, hunger, and children with varying abilities.
Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa
Although a number of studies have investigated how consumers use social media for health-related purposes, there is a paucity of studies in the Australian context. This study aimed to explore how Australian consumers used social media for health-related purposes, specifically how they identified social media platforms, which were used, and which health-related activities commonly took place. A total of 5 focus groups (n=36 participants), each lasting 60 to 90 minutes, were conducted in the Sydney metropolitan area. The group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded line-by-line and thematically analyzed. Participants used general search engines to locate health-related social media platforms. They accessed a wide range of social media on a daily basis, using several electronic devices (in particular, mobile phones). Although privacy was a concern, it did not prevent consumers from fully engaging in social media for health-related purposes. Blogs were used to learn from other people's experiences with the same condition. Facebook allowed consumers to follow health-related pages and to participate in disease-specific group discussions. Wikipedia was used for factual information about diseases and treatments. YouTube was accessed to learn about medical procedures such as surgery. No participant reported editing or contributing to Wikipedia or posting YouTube videos related to health topics. Twitter was rarely used for health-related purposes. Social media allowed consumers to obtain and provide disease and treatment-related information and social and emotional support for those living with the same condition. Most considered their participation as observational, but some also contributed (eg, responded to people's questions). Participants used a wide range of social media for health-related purposes. Medical information exchange (eg, disease and treatment) and social and emotional support were the cornerstones of their online
Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min
The goal of this research is to examine if the long neglected correlates such as social and leisure activities, social support, and subjective social status contribute to variations in psychological distress among older Chinese. Using data collected in one of the most developed areas in China-Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, the authors find that engaging in various exercises, living with both spouse and adult children, perceived availability of social support from others as well as believing in the importance of caring for other family members are particularly beneficial for mental health whereas the perception of relative deprivation and low life quality is detrimental to mental health for older Chinese. This work is among the first studies that comprehensively examined various important correlates of psychological distress and indicate the unique patterns of distress among the elderly in the most developed area in the contemporary China.
de Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco
The energy crisis and a greater awareness among the general public regarding the issue of climate change have, between them, led to a notable increase in the interest shown by governments in relation to the problem of environmental sustainability. An example has been the initiative taken by the President of France to set up a commission, known as the Sarkozy Commission, named after the President, bringing together renowned economists to study and propose forms of economic performance measurement related to social progress. This article aims to propose a methodology to establish a quantitative definition of sustainability structured on the principles of minimum and maximum entropy production, and, based on this, outline a way of organizing the many sources of, and kinds of energy, we have available to us in order of the intensity of their respective environmental impacts. Based on this, we could produce an Environmental Sustainability Index, linked to existing statistical indicators of human development, and thereby arrive at a Sustainable Human Development Index, which would be positively or negatively influenced by parameters linked to environmental sustainability and quality of life. In order to ensure that this index can produce practical results, the WTO (World Trade Organization) would have to establish a scale of increments, to be applied to export tariffs on products originating in countries with different indexes. (author)
This paper uses panel data to assess the relative importance of social networks and geographic proximity to micro, small, and medium enterprises in Viet Nam. The results suggest that a larger social network, and hiring employees mainly through social networks, are both correlated with higher value added per worker. The number of government officials and civil servants in a firm's network emerges as particularly important. When the quality of contacts is controlled for, firms with tighter soci...
Cadima, Rita; Ojeda Rodríguez, Jordi; Monguet Fierro, José María
Social networks play an essential role in learning environments as a key channel for knowledge sharing and students' support. In distributed learning communities, knowledge sharing does not occur as spontaneously as when a working group shares the same physical space; knowledge sharing depends even more on student informal connections. In this study we analyse two distributed learning communities' social networks in order to understand how characteristics of the social structure can enhance s...
Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Koscik, Rebecca L; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Peppard, Paul E; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Engelman, Corinne D
Social activity is associated with healthy aging and preserved cognition. Such activity includes a confluence of social support and verbal interaction, each influencing cognition through rarely parsed, mechanistically distinct pathways. We created a novel verbal interaction measure for the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) and assessed reliability of resultant data, a first step toward mechanism-driven examination of social activity as a modifiable predictor of cognitive health. Two WRAP subsamples completed a test-retest study to determine 8-week stability ( n = 107) and 2-year stability ( n = 136) of verbal interaction, and 2-year stability of perceived social support. Reliability was determined using quadratic-weighted kappa, percent agreement, or correlation coefficients. Reliability was fair to almost perfect. The association between social support and interaction quantity decreased with age. Social activity data demonstrate moderate to excellent temporal stability. Moreover, in older individuals, social support and verbal interaction represent two distinct dimensions of social activity.
Miers, Anne Claire
This thesis deals with the negative perceptions of socially anxious youth in three different cognitive domains: (a) interpretation of ambiguous social situations, (b) self-evaluation of social skills and nervous behaviors, and (c) perception of physical arousal during social situations. It also
Martinez-Millana, Antonio; Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Basagoiti Bilbao, Ignacio; Traver Salcedo, Manuel; Traver Salcedo, Vicente
showed better performance on Facebook and YouTube. The two-sided Wilcoxon test and t student test at a CI of 95% show that the use of Twitter distribution is higher (Psocial networks is still not as high compared to that of hospitals in the United States and Western Europe. Public hospitals are found to be more active on Twitter, whereas private hospitals show better performance on Facebook and YouTube. This study suggests that hospitals, both public and private, should devote more effort to and be more aware of social media, with a clear strategy as to how they can foment new relationships with patients and citizens. ©Antonio Martinez-Millana, Carlos Fernandez-Llatas, Ignacio Basagoiti Bilbao, Manuel Traver Salcedo, Vicente Traver Salcedo. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 23.05.2017.
Margittai, Zsofia; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schnitzler, Alfons; Joëls, Marian; Kalenscher, Tobias
People often exhibit prosocial tendencies towards close kin and friends, but generosity decreases as a function of increasing social distance between donor and recipient, a phenomenon called social discounting. Evidence suggests that acute stress affects prosocial behaviour in general and social discounting in particular. We tested the causal role of the important stress neuromodulators cortisol (CORT) and noradrenaline (NA) in this effect by considering two competing hypotheses. On the one hand, it is possible that CORT and NA act in concert to increase generosity towards socially close others by reducing the aversiveness of the cost component in costly altruism and enhancing the emotional salience of vicarious reward. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that CORT and NA exert dissociable, opposing effects on prosocial behaviour based on prior findings implicating CORT in social affiliation, and NA in aggressive and antagonistic tendencies. We pharmacologically manipulated CORT and NA levels in a sample of men (N = 150) and found that isolated hydrocortisone administration promoted prosocial tendencies towards close others, reflected in an altered social discount function, but this effect was offset by concurrent noradrenergic activation brought about by simultaneous yohimbine administration. These results provide inceptive evidence for causal, opposing roles of these two important stress neuromodulators on prosocial behaviour, and give rise to the possibility that, depending on the neuroendocrine response profile, stress neuromodulator action can foster both tend-and-befriend and fight-or-flight tendencies at the same time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carmona, Carmen; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Peiro, Jose M.
The present study examined whether social comparison responses (identification and contrast in social comparison) mediated the relationship between goal orientation (promotion and prevention) and self-efficacy, and whether self-efficacy was subsequently related with a better performance. As
Scheppingen, A.R. van; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Have, K.C.J.M. ten; Bos, E.H.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between organizational (bonding, bridging, and linking) social capital, employees' health, and employees' performance. METHODS: Linear regression on cross-sectional data among 718 employees in two Dutch companies. RESULTS: Organizational social capital was
Frey, Lawrence R.; Palmer, David L.
The recent formation of the National Communication Association's Activism and Social Justice Division puts a spotlight on the extent to which instructional communication and instructional communication research have advanced--or even should advance--the goals of social justice. To examine this issue, two of the leading scholars on this topic,…
LILIANA NICOLETA SIMIONESCU
Full Text Available Many scholars, academicians and practitioners have intensively examined corporate social responsibility (CSR and corporate financial performance (CFP in the literature on CSR along the years. Mainstream of these studies suggested a positive relationship or negative, neutral as few others found and/or curvilinear relationships. Hence, this paper develops an understanding for a mediator instrument as regards the relationship between corporate social responsibility and corporate financial performance. The present paper proposes to provide a theoretical framework, which explains how and why, companies through their socially responsible activities leads to a certain company performance by promoting a potential mediator respectively stakeholder ability to influence (SIC. Companies with socially responsible activities accumulate satisfactory SAI stock enjoying an enhanced financial performance. As more the companies invest in CSR activities, the greater SAI stock became. Based on the literature reviewed, the present paper enriches the literature on CSR by proposing three variables that can be used to employ the framework at a company level. The variables are corporate social responsibility (CSR, stakeholder ability to influence (SAI and corporate financial performance (CFP.
as necessary and important, very little justification was given for their .... Chemistry laboratory activities refer to the practical activities which students ..... equations, formulae, definitions, terminology, physical properties, hazards or disposal.
Nikitina, Natalya I.; Romanova, Elena Yu.; Vasilyeva, Tatyana V.; Nikishina, Irina N.; Grebennikova, Veronica M.
In modern Russia professional activity productivity of social work specialist depends largely on his abilities and skills in the field of social design. University graduate's (social work bachelor`s) high level of professional-project activity culture can be regarded as one of the necessary conditions of successful labour market adaptation of…
Cabrera, Nolan L.; Matias, Cheryl E.; Montoya, Roberto
The emergence of social media has greatly influenced 21st-century student activism. It has also given rise to the birth of "slacktivism," an online form of self-aggrandizing, politically ineffective activism. This theoretical article delves into the conceptualizations of what constitutes student activism versus slacktivism in a digital…
Neiger, Brad L; Thackeray, Rosemary; Van Wagenen, Sarah A; Hanson, Carl L; West, Joshua H; Barnes, Michael D; Fagen, Michael C
Despite the expanding use of social media, little has been published about its appropriate role in health promotion, and even less has been written about evaluation. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) outline purposes for social media in health promotion, (b) identify potential key performance indicators associated with these purposes, and (c) propose evaluation metrics for social media related to the key performance indicators. Process evaluation is presented in this article as an overarching evaluation strategy for social media.
The thesis explored the connection between individuals’ social media promotion and its influence on the company’s performance. The definitions of social media and social media marketing were covered, taking into consideration both the advantages and disadvantages of using it within a company’s strategy. The main task was to find out what impact social media on marketing a company’s performance (readership) on the web. The literature review helped provide valuable information about th...
Flensborg Jensen, Maya; Rosdahl, Anders
This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?......This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?...
Henk Spies; drs. Johny Vanschoren
This book contains a practical description of a successful method to guide people that have been standing in the sideline for long periods of time, to them a fitting form of social participation. This can be done through paid or voluntary work, activities aimed at physical or psychological and
Plagens, Gregory K.
Scholars theorize that social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups. Robert Putnam claims to have found support for this theory in his studies of Italy and the United States. In each case he concludes that the presence of social capital generalized norms of trust and reciprocity is sufficient to predict progress on a variety…
Full Text Available On the basis of the lack of measurement tools and the research gap regarding social entrepreneurship, three studies were conducted to develop a new measure of social enterprise (SE performance that is empirically valid and easy to administer. The purpose of this measure was to examine the relationship between entrepreneurs’ personality traits and their perceived SE performance. The results indicated that SE performance can be assessed using four dimensions: personal issues, social aspects, business elements, and service programmes. Extraversion positively influenced service programmes, and openness negatively affected service programmes. Neuroticism and conscientiousness positively predicted personal issues and service programmes, and agreeableness positively predicted all dimensions of perceived SE performance. The results also demonstrated the curvilinear relationship of the U-shaped curve between neuroticism and personal issues and the social aspects of SE performance. Furthermore, the results showed the curvilinear relationship of the inverted U-shaped curve between agreeableness and the four dimensions of SE performance.
Liang, Chao-Tung; Peng, Li-Pei; Yao, Shu-Nung; Liang, Chaoyun
On the basis of the lack of measurement tools and the research gap regarding social entrepreneurship, three studies were conducted to develop a new measure of social enterprise (SE) performance that is empirically valid and easy to administer. The purpose of this measure was to examine the relationship between entrepreneurs’ personality traits and their perceived SE performance. The results indicated that SE performance can be assessed using four dimensions: personal issues, so...
Kim, Bo-Rin; Liss, Alison; Rao, Monica; Singer, Zachary; Compton, Rebecca J
Social psychologists have long noted the tendency for human behavior to conform to social group norms. This study examined whether feedback indicating that participants had deviated from group norms would elicit a neural signal previously shown to be elicited by errors and monetary losses. While electroencephalograms were recorded, participants (N = 30) rated the attractiveness of 120 faces and received feedback giving the purported average rating made by a group of peers. The feedback was manipulated so that group ratings either were the same as a participant's rating or deviated by 1, 2, or 3 points. Feedback indicating deviance from the group norm elicited a feedback-related negativity, a brainwave signal known to be elicited by objective performance errors and losses. The results imply that the brain treats deviance from social norms as an error.
Full Text Available In recent years, StartUp has shown a considerable progress in Indonesia. Although most of the StartUps are newly established companies in phase to find the right markets, the StartUps are expected to contribute to the economy and solve local problems. In Indonesia most of the StartUps are still in the idea stage. Therefore, they have no profit, loss, or even failure. It causes the StartUps to be difficult in gaining trust from investors. To overcome these problems, support from various parties is necessary for the development of StartUp activities. One of them is a support from family (Family Social Support. Previous studies have shown that family support contributes to the success of an entrepreneur. However, there has been no research on the relationship between family support with StartUp activities, especially in developing countries like Indonesia. This study examined the influence of family social support in the form of financial capital support, social capital, human capital, physical capital, and family cohesiveness on StartUp activities in Indonesia by using Poisson regression analysis. The results showed that family cohesiveness had a significant effect on the increase of StartUp activities.
Full Text Available This paper contributes to the knowledge on corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives of by businesses and its ability to influence their financial performance. Consequently, the main objective is to examine the relationship between CSR and financial performance in the airline industry in Central and Eastern Europe. The paper does not attempt to establish causality between CŚR and financial performance. The paper attempts to contribute to the existing knowledge in the field by examining the extent to which CSR relates to financial performance of airline firms. A sample of 20 audited financial statements of airline firms were selected randomly. The study analyzed the impact of CSR activities on the financial performance of firms. The Return on Equity (ROE and Return on Assets (ROA were used as indicators to measure financial performance of firms whiles the independent variables were Community Performance (CP, Environment Management System (EMS and Employee Relations (ER. The study found that there is a significant positive relationship between CSR initiatives and financial performance measures. More specifically, there was found to be a positive relationship between the independent variables of CSR thus, CP, EMS and ER and the financial performance of airline firms in terms of the ROE and ROA.
Highlights: ► Scant attention is paid to social performance of construction waste management (CWM). ► We develop a model for assessing the social performance of CWM. ► With the model, the social performance of CWM can be quantitatively simulated. - Abstract: It has been determined by existing literature that a lot of research efforts have been made to the economic performance of construction waste management (CWM), but less attention is paid to investigation of the social performance of CWM. This study therefore attempts to develop a model for quantitatively evaluating the social performance of CWM by using a system dynamics (SD) approach. Firstly, major variables affecting the social performance of CWM are identified and a holistic system for assessing the social performance of CWM is formulated in line with feedback relationships underlying these variables. The developed system is then converted into a SD model through the software iThink. An empirical case study is finally conducted to demonstrate application of the model. Results of model validation indicate that the model is robust and reasonable to reflect the situation of the real system under study. Findings of the case study offer helpful insights into effectively promoting the social performance of CWM of the project investigated. Furthermore, the model exhibits great potential to function as an experimental platform for dynamically evaluating effects of management measures on improving the social performance of CWM of construction projects.
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the effect of social media marketing activities on brand awareness, brand image and brand loyalty. In addition, it has been aimed to analyze the effect of brand awareness and brand image on brand loyalty in this research. The population of the research consists of the consumers who actively follow five brands with the highest social score according to the Marketing Turkey social media brand performance data on social media communication channels such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. In this research, quantitative method has been used and research data has been obtained via online questionnaires shared on social media from 547 brand followers with applying convenience sampling method. The obtained data have been analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM. As a result of the analysis, social media marketing activities have been found as effective factors on brand image and brand loyalty, besides it has been determined that the most obvious effect seen on brand awareness. In addition, it has been found out that brand awareness and brand image have a significant effect on brand loyalty. Furthermore, in the research, it has been achieved that the brand awareness has a limited effect on the brand image.
Full Text Available Recent corporate scandals have resulted in heightened attention towards the shortcomings of traditional financial reporting frameworks. Concurrently, the rise of the corporate social responsibility imperative has led to criticisms that financial reports resent an incomplete account of a firm‟s activities. In addition, growing acknowledgement of the importance of a firm‟s intangibles and intellectual capital has been associated with increased commentary about the need for extra disclosures if a more complete picture of the firm‟s value is to be provided to external stakeholders. This paper responds to these concerns by developing an extended performance reporting framework to the Australian Food and Beverage Industry, which is characterised by both corporate social responsibility and intellectual capital issues. In relation to the latter, this framework presents a novel attempt to develop an industry-customised framework as called for by both industry bodies and researchers in the area.
Full Text Available Recent corporate scandals have resulted in heightened attention towards the shortcomings of traditional financial reporting frameworks. Concurrently, the rise of the corporate social responsibility imperative has led to criticisms that financial reports resent an incomplete account of a firm‟s activities. In addition, growing acknowledgement of the importance of a firm‟s intangibles and intellectual capital has been associated with increased commentary about the need for extra disclosures if a more complete picture of the firm‟s value is to be provided to external stakeholders. This paper responds to these concerns by developing an extended performance reporting framework to the Australian Food and Beverage Industry, which is characterised by both corporate social responsibility and intellectual capital issues. In relation to the latter, this framework presents a novel attempt to develop an industry-customised framework as called for by both industry bodies and researchers in the area.
Full Text Available Despite possible differences in official ideology the drawbacks of social organization and the absence of sound approach to social and personal conflicts cause constant demolition of existing formal institutions for the sake of the survival of the system. The neglect of these drawbacks brings about old problems to be transferred to the “new” state. The level of social and human capital and its proper utilization guarantees progressive development. The shifts in organizational policy is also reflected by the consequent shift in the theoretical paradigm, from treatment of a participant of the structure as an object, then as the user and finally as the client. The lack of social capital generates a vicious cycle, which brings about the necessity of object-based relations and the spread of all-pervasive protecting informality to compensate for object-based relations.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of leisure and social activities on the ability of middle-aged adults to maintain activities of daily living (ADL, and whether performing these activities alone or with others contributed to the ability to perform ADL. The study used nationally representative longitudinal data of 22,770 adults in Japan, aged 50-59 years, who did not have limitations in performing ADL at the beginning of the 5-year survey period. The study considered six activity categories: two leisure activities ("hobbies or cultural activities" and "exercise or sports" and four social activities ("community events," "support for children," "support for elderly individuals," and "other social activities". Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation between participation in these categories at baseline and difficulties in ADL at the 5-year follow-up. The association between the extent of social interaction during these activities ("by oneself," "with others," or "both" and difficulties in ADL was also investigated. The analysis yielded significant negative correlations between "exercise or sports" and difficulties in ADL for both men and women, and between "hobbies or cultural activities" and difficulties in ADL for women. However, these significant relationships occurred only when activities were conducted "with others." The present findings might help prevent deterioration in middle-aged adults' performance of ADL in Japan.
Full Text Available The social-network formation and analysis is nowadays one of objects that are in a focus of intensive research. The objective of the paper is to suggest the perspective of representing social networks as graphs, with the application of the graph theory to problems connected with studying the network-like structures and to study spreading activation algorithm for reasons of analyzing these structures. The paper presents the process of modeling multidimensional networks by means of directed graphs with several characteristics. The paper also demonstrates using Spreading Activation algorithm as a good method for analyzing multidimensional network with the main focus on recommender systems. The experiments showed that the choice of parameters of the algorithm is crucial, that some kind of constraint should be included and that the algorithm is able to provide a stable environment for simulations with networks.
Faye eVan der Fluit
Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test, as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale. Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. In addition, a significant improvement in performance was seen with the added scaffolding particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning.
This paper examines the use of root metaphors in the description of social activity and especially the performance of sickness. It starts with a critical account of Susan Sontag's examination of the use of illness as metaphor in literature. There then follows a brief analysis of another account of society based on the discussion of creative literature-Kenneth Burke's "Dramatism," itself acknowledged as a source by Erving Goffman. Goffman's own expressed reservations about his supposed use of a dramatic metaphor are then extended to suggest that Goffman was more concerned with "performance" in a broader sense. The discussion of performative metaphors is then shifted by a critical consideration of Anselm Strauss and colleagues' view of sickness as manifold performances of work rather than drama, expressed in their metaphor of "trajectory." Sickness as a process compounded of many performances is further explored using ideas developed by the anthropologist Victor Turner toward the end of his life, in collaboration with his wife, Edith Turner. It is finally suggested that sickness as cultural performance enables us to understand the dialectical relationships between expressive and instrumental activities surrounding sickness. This in turn leaves room for the nonreductionist understanding, within a sociological framework, of individual idiosyncrasy, biological accident, and the discourse of healing.
Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.
This article presents the results of a survey of corporate social responsibility activities, under-taken by a group of business entities in Bulgaria in the context of great political, economical and cultural changes that the country has been passing through from 1990 up to date, and that affected the organizational behaviour of locally operating companies, as well as the beliefs, values and underlying assumptions of the individuals, working there. Environmental factors, influencing the initia...
Won Min, Jong
The ongoing Eurozone crisis brought Spain harsh austerity measures of higher tax and cuts in medical care and social services. The growing economic hardship may lead to greater economic inequality. Income inequality, in turn, could cause inequitable health differences in population, called “health inequalities.” All of the events pose great challenges and risk to older adults, and threatens their efforts toward achieving healthy and active aging in Spain. This paper provides an ov...
Galenkamp, Henrike; Gagliardi, Cristina; Principi, Andrea; Golinowska, Stanislawa; Moreira, Amilcar; Schmidt, Andrea E; Winkelmann, Juliane; Sowa, Agnieszka; van der Pas, Suzan; Deeg, Dorly J H
Older people spend much time participating in leisure activities, such as taking part in organized activities and going out, but the extent of participation may differ according to both individual and environmental resources available. Chronic health problems become more prevalent at higher ages and likely necessitate tapping different resources to maintain social participation. This paper compares predictors of participation in social leisure activities between older people with and those without multimorbidity. The European Project on Osteoarthritis (EPOSA) was conducted in Germany, UK, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden ( N = 2942, mean age 74.2 (5.2)). Multivariate regression was used to predict social leisure participation and degree of participation in people with and without multimorbidity. Fewer older people with multimorbidity participated in social leisure activities (90.6 %), compared to those without multimorbidity (93.9 %). The frequency of participation was also lower compared to people without multimorbidity. Higher socioeconomic status, widowhood, a larger network of friends, volunteering, transportation possibilities and having fewer depressive symptoms were important for (the degree of) social leisure participation. Statistically significant differences between the multimorbidity groups were observed for volunteering and driving a car, which were more important predictors of participation in those with multimorbidity. In contrast, self-reported income appeared more important for those without multimorbidity, compared to those who had multimorbidity. Policies focusing on social (network of friends), physical (physical performance) and psychological factors (depressive symptoms) and on transportation possibilities are recommended to enable all older people to participate in social leisure activities.
Ridder, Elizabeth; Galletti, Christopher S; Fall, Patricia L; Falconer, Steven E
We investigate ancient agricultural terraces and their associated social and economic activities across the site complex consisting of the village at Politiko-Troullia and its more extensive associated taskscape. Surface artifact distributions mapped over 12 ha are integrated with evidence excavated from this Bronze Age settlement in central Cyprus. Contrary to expectations, artifact densities do not diminish with distance from the village architecture. In particular, concentrations of Prehistoric Bronze Age ceramics and ground stone artifacts are most pronounced on nearby terraced hillsides. These terraces were not utilized for domestic structures, but for extensive processing of agricultural crops and copper ore. Bronze Age excavated plant remains indicate cultivation of olives, grapes and figs, with wood resources dominated by olive and pine. Larger, non-portable ground stones and gaming stones are associated with communal social and economic activities in open courtyard settings in Politiko-Troullia. This category of ground stone also is particularly common on the terraced hillsides around Troullia, suggesting that similar behaviors occurred beyond village structures. The terraced landscape of Politiko-Troullia exemplifies a multi-faceted taskscape with a range of agricultural, metallurgical and social activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W
Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes.
Bal, P.M.; Chiaburu, D.S.; Jansen, P.G.W.
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how social exchanges modify the relationship between psychological contract breach and work performance. It aims to present two concurrent hypotheses, based on theoretical interaction effects of social exchanges (conceptualized as social exchange
Benberin, V V; Akhetov, A A; Tanbaeva, G Z
The article discusses a new model for active ageing in Republic of Kazakhstan with participation the state, population and medical social services. Achieving active longevity will lead to positive trends in the development of human capital of the state, because it enables to use experience and knowledge of senior generation in enhancing the effectiveness of socio-economic transformation in health care. The study was carried out on the base of the Central clinical hospital of the President's affairs administration in Republic of Kazakhstan, with the participation of 147 admitted patients of elderly and senile age.
Jingwen Zhang, PhD
Full Text Available To identify what features of online social networks can increase physical activity, we conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in 2014 in Philadelphia, PA. Students (n = 790, mean age = 25.2 at an university were randomly assigned to one of four conditions composed of either supportive or competitive relationships and either with individual or team incentives for attending exercise classes. The social comparison condition placed participants into 6-person competitive networks with individual incentives. The social support condition placed participants into 6-person teams with team incentives. The combined condition with both supportive and competitive relationships placed participants into 6-person teams, where participants could compare their team's performance to 5 other teams' performances. The control condition only allowed participants to attend classes with individual incentives. Rewards were based on the total number of classes attended by an individual, or the average number of classes attended by the members of a team. The outcome was the number of classes that participants attended. Data were analyzed using multilevel models in 2014. The mean attendance numbers per week were 35.7, 38.5, 20.3, and 16.8 in the social comparison, the combined, the control, and the social support conditions. Attendance numbers were 90% higher in the social comparison and the combined conditions (mean = 1.9, SE = 0.2 in contrast to the two conditions without comparison (mean = 1.0, SE = 0.2 (p = 0.003. Social comparison was more effective for increasing physical activity than social support and its effects did not depend on individual or team incentives.
Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak; Vang, Jan
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship suggest that migrant entrepreneur plays an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature. This paper aims to reduce this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from...... the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalisation of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different...
Lins, K V; Servaes, H; Tamayo, A
During the 2008-2009 financial crisis, firms with high social capital, measured as corporate social responsibility (CSR) intensity, had stock returns that were four to seven percentage points higher than firms with low social capital. High-CSR firms also experienced higher profitability, growth, and sales per employee relative to low-CSR firms, and they raised more debt. This evidence suggests that the trust between the firm and both its stakeholders and investors, built through investments i...
Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher
In this study, the authors investigated the role of activities and self-referent memory beliefs for cognitive performance in a life-span sample. A factor analysis identified 8 activity factors, including Developmental Activities, Experiential Activities, Social Activities, Physical Activities, Technology Use, Watching Television, Games, and Crafts. A second-order general activity factor was significantly related to a general factor of cognitive function as defined by ability tests. Structural regression models suggested that prediction of cognition by activity level was partially mediated by memory beliefs, controlling for age, education, health, and depressive affect. Models adding paths from general and specific activities to aspects of crystallized intelligence suggested additional unique predictive effects for some activities. In alternative models, nonsignificant effects of beliefs on activities were detected when cognition predicted both variables, consistent with the hypothesis that beliefs derive from monitoring cognition and have no influence on activity patterns. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; Marcolin, Marina L; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; McCormick, Cheryl M
Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviors in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p=0.006). Furthermore, CTL rats showed a preference for novel over familiar conspecifics in a social recognition test whereas SS rats did not, which may reflect reduced recognition, impaired memory, or reduced preference for novelty in SS rats. The reward value of social interactions was not affected by SS based on conditioned place preference tests and based on the greater time SS rats spent investigating stimulus rats than did CTL rats when the stimulus rat was behind wire mesh (p=0.03). Finally, oxytocin receptor binding density was higher in the dorsal lateral septum and nucleus accumbens shell in SS rats compared with CTL rats (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). No effect of SS was found for vasopressin 1a receptor binding density in any of the brain regions analyzed. We discuss the extent to which the differences in social behavior exhibited after social instability in adolescence involve changes in social salience and social competency, and the possibility that changes in oxytocin signaling in the brain underlie the differences in social behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stevens, Stephan; Cooper, Ruth; Bantin, Trisha; Hermann, Christiane; Gerlach, Alexander L
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) co-occur frequently and there is preliminary evidence that alcohol might reduce social anxiety. It is, however, unclear which mechanisms contribute to the anxiety reducing effect, particularly regarding key aspects of social anxiety such as deficits in social performance. We compared self-rated and physiological measures of anxiety as well as self- and observer-rated social performance in a sample of 62 individuals with SAD and 60 nonanxious control participants during a speech task after receiving either alcohol, an alcohol-free placebo drink or orange juice. SAD patients reported more anxiety during the speech task than did control participants. Furthermore, SAD patients underestimated their performance in comparison to observer ratings. Alcohol reduced self-report anxiety only in SAD patients, while observers rated all participants as less competent when intoxicated. Although individuals with SAD experience a reduction in anxiety when drinking alcohol, simultaneous decreases in social performance might contribute to negative reactions from others and consequently increase the risk of further alcohol use to cope with these negative reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper starts from the idea that organizations “are best understood as clusters of interconnected structures and practices” (Fiss, 2007:1180). At the beginning of the study, organizational features of Dutch social housing associations were identified (Cloudt & Geurts, 2013) and checked for
Linnet, Jeppe Trolle
Based on ethnographic observations and interviews in cafés in Copenhagen, and online descriptions in which users review their experience of cafés, this paper focuses on how materiality and sociality inter-relate to constitute a relaxed, pleasant sense of atmosphere: That which in Denmark as known...
Cadima, Rita; Ojeda, Jordi; Monguet, Josep M.
Social networks play an essential role in learning environments as a key channel for knowledge sharing and students' support. In distributed learning communities, knowledge sharing does not occur as spontaneously as when a working group shares the same physical space; knowledge sharing depends even more on student informal connections. In this…
Vang, Jan; Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature (Saxenian, 2002; 2006, Ruzzlier et al, 2007; Honig and Drori, 2010, Drodi et al, 2010)). This paper aims at reducing this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...
Meier, Kenneth J.; Favero, Nathan; Compton, Mallory
Do internal (administrative human capital) and external (social capital) resources work to reinforce the effects of each other? Work from multiple disciplines has approached this question, and we advance this literature with a theory of social and administrative resources as potential substitutes
Anantharaman, K.; Chandra, R.
The objective of the failed fuel detection system is to keep a watch on fuel behaviour during operation. This paper describes the evaluation of fuel behaviour by monitoring the activities of various isotopes of iodine both during steady state and during a reactor shutdown. The limitations of this approach also has been explained. The monitoring of tramp uranium for different types of release, namely fixed contamination and continuous release from fuel, is also presented. (author)
The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the frequency in which school social workers in Virginia engage in and prefer to engage in social work related activities and (2) to determine if the frequency in which the social work related activities the school social workers engage in is related to select variables. After a comprehensive review…
Organizational cultures shape and reinforce socially appropriate roles for men and women. Drawing on a performativity framework, which assumes that gender is socially constructed through gendered "performances," this study employs interviews with and observations of six women faculty members to examine how dominant discourses define and maintain…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among dimensions of social intelligence, social skills, social information processing, social awareness, social desirability of organizational performance. Methods: This research was a descriptive study. The population in this study comprised all experts, assistants and managers of regional water companies in Ardabil province, and was about 164 randomly selected people. And to gather data from field methods the means of questionnaires were used. Tromso questionnaire was chosen and designed to measure social intelligence and organizational performance by assessing specific questions about Balanced Scorecard as independent variable. To achieve the multiplier effect of each variable on the dependent variable, Pearson correlation test was performed. Results indicated that social skills, social information processing, social awareness and social desirability of improving organizational performance had the most important part in social information processing, and social awareness and social skills played a secondary role in improving performance.
Hoelscher Deanna M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of social support in promoting physical activity, little is known about the relative influence of the type or source of social support on adolescent girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined the associations of two types of social support (social participation in and social encouragement for physical activity and two social support sources (family and friends with self-reported daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior among sixth-grade girls in Texas. Methods A secondary analysis of 718 sixth-grade girls between the ages of 10 to 14 was performed using cross-sectional baseline data from an osteoporosis prevention intervention study. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (television-video viewing and computer-video game playing were assessed using 3 administrations of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; social support indicators were assessed with Likert-type items from a psychosocial questionnaire. Results In multiple linear regression analyses, friend physical activity participation (partial correlation coefficient (r = 0.10, p = .009 and friend (r = 0.12 and family encouragement (r = 0.11 (p Conclusion Findings lend support to the importance of social support for physical activity among adolescent girls but suggest that the source and type of social support may differ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to assess the causal or reciprocal relation between the roles of friends and family in promoting physical activity and of family physical activity in decreasing sedentary behaviors among early adolescent girls.
Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill
In this study we compare test takers' performance on the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™and their performances during their real-life academic studies. Thirty international graduate students from mixed language backgrounds in two different disciplines (Sciences and Social Sciences) responded to two independent and four integrated speaking tasks…
Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L
Physical activity (PA) during childhood often occurs in social contexts. As such, children's ability to develop and maintain friendship groups may be important in understanding their PA. This paper investigates the associations among children's social functioning, and physical activity and whether perceptions of social acceptance mediate any social functioning-PA association. A cross sectional survey in which 652 10-11 year olds self-reported their peer (e.g. difficulties with friends) and conduct (e.g. anger/aggression) problems, prosocial behaviours (e.g. being kind to others) and perceptions of social acceptance. Physical activity was objectively assessed by Actigraph GT1M accelerometers to estimate counts per minute, (CPM) and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate associations between social functioning and PA. Indirect effects were analysed to explore mediation by social acceptance. Among boys, peer problems were negatively associated with CPM and MVPA and conduct problems were positively associated with CPM and MVPA. Prosocial behaviour was unrelated to PA in boys. Social functioning was not associated with PA among girls. Social acceptance did not mediate the social functioning-PA relationship. Boys' conduct and peer problems were associated positively and negatively respectively with their PA but this relationship was not mediated by perceptions of social acceptance. Future research should study alternative mediators to understand the processes underpinning this relationship.
Langley, Ellis J G; van Horik, Jayden O; Whiteside, Mark A; Madden, Joah R
Dominant individuals differ from subordinates in their performances on cognitive tasks across a suite of taxa. Previous studies often only consider dyadic relationships, rather than the more ecologically relevant social hierarchies or networks, hence failing to account for how dyadic relationships may be adjusted within larger social groups. We used a novel statistical method: randomized Elo-ratings, to infer the social hierarchy of 18 male pheasants, Phasianus colchicus , while in a captive, mixed-sex group with a linear hierarchy. We assayed individual learning performance of these males on a binary spatial discrimination task to investigate whether inter-individual variation in performance is associated with group social rank. Task performance improved with increasing trial number and was positively related to social rank, with higher ranking males showing greater levels of success. Motivation to participate in the task was not related to social rank or task performance, thus indicating that these rank-related differences are not a consequence of differences in motivation to complete the task. Our results provide important information about how variation in cognitive performance relates to an individual's social rank within a group. Whether the social environment causes differences in learning performance or instead, inherent differences in learning ability predetermine rank remains to be tested.
Iguacel, Isabel; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin
Objectives: To examine associations between social vulnerabilities and meeting physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) recommendations during a 2-year follow-up. Methods: 13,891 children aged 2.0 to ...-up. Children’s sports club membership, PA and ST were collected via parental questionnaires. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was objectively assessed with accelerometers. Performing at least 1 h of MVPA daily and spending less than 2 h of ST defined physically active and non-sedentary children...... parents had minimal social networks had a higher risk of non-compliance with PA recommendations (subjectively assessed) at baseline. Migrants and children with unemployed parents had longer ST. All vulnerable groups were less likely to be sports club members. Conclusions: Migrants and children...
Daniel F. Ofori
Research purpose: This article examined the impact of corporate social responsibility on financial performance using empirical evidence from the Ghanaian banking sector. Motivation for the study: Although corporate social responsibility is a hot topic in Ghana and banks do practise it, no detailed study has been conducted to ascertain whether banks derive any benefits therefrom. Research design, approach and method: A sample size of 22 banks was involved. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain primary data whilst archival records were used to gather the secondary data. Main findings: The findings revealed that banks in Ghana view corporate social responsibility practices to be a strategic tool; banks are motivated to practise corporate social responsibility by legitimate reasons as much as they are motivated by profitability and sustainability reasons. Also, although there is a positive relationship between corporate social responsibility practices and financial performance, the financial performance of banks in Ghana does not depend significantly on their corporate social responsibility practices but rather on other control variables, such as growth, origin, debt ratio, and size. Practical implications: Properly adopted and implemented, corporate social responsibility can pay its way by contributing toward firm performance. Contribution: There is a positive but currently insignificant relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance amongst Ghanaian banks. However, given the numerous benefits of corporate social responsibility, it is recommended that firms continue to give priority to this practice.
Losiak, Wladyslaw; Blaut, Agata; Klosowska, Joanna; Slowik, Natalia
Social anxiety is characterized by increased emotional reactivity to social stimuli, but results of studies focusing on affective reactions of socially anxious subjects in the situation of social exposition are inconclusive, especially in the case of endocrinological measures of affect. This study was designed to examine individual differences in endocrinological and affective reactions to social exposure as well as in performance on a speech task in a group of students (n = 44) comprising subjects with either high or low levels of social anxiety. Measures of salivary cortisol and positive and negative affect were taken before and after an impromptu speech. Self-ratings and observer ratings of performance were also obtained. Cortisol levels and negative affect increased in both groups after the speech task, and positive affect decreased; however, group × affect interactions were not significant. Assessments conducted after the speech task revealed that highly socially anxious participants had lower observer ratings of performance while cortisol increase and changes in self-reported affect were not related to performance. Socially anxious individuals do not differ from nonanxious individuals in affective reactions to social exposition, but reveal worse performance at a speech task. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
There is a need to find out the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education and academic performance among school-aged youth. To better understand these connections, this research paper first finds out the independent variables upon which academic performance depends. Study is from a range of physical activity contexts, including school-based physical education, recess, classroom-based physical activity and extracurricular physical activity. In his attempt...
Berg, van den P.E.W.
Social activities are responsible for an important portion of trips and they constitute the fastest growing segment of travel. Moreover, social activities and mobility are important aspects of people’s quality of life. Therefore, social activities are important for transport planners to take into
Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena
We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…
Full Text Available The objectives were (1 to define physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviors (SB patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2 to identify pattern(s of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii sedentary transportation, (iv sedentary occupation and leisure, (v active transportation, and (vi active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the “active transportation” cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with “active transportation” included “high availability of destinations around home,” “presence of bicycle paths,” and “low traffic.” A “positive image of walking/cycling,” the “individual feeling of being physically active,” and a “high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends” were positively related to “active transportation,” identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors’ complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.
Perchoux, Camille; Enaux, Christophe; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Menai, Mehdi; Charreire, Hélène; Salze, Paul; Weber, Christiane; Hercberg, Serge; Feuillet, Thierry; Hess, Franck; Roda, Célina; Simon, Chantal; Nazare, Julie-Anne
The objectives were (1) to define physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation) in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2) to identify pattern(s) of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i) active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii) sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii) sedentary transportation, (iv) sedentary occupation and leisure, (v) active transportation, and (vi) active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the "active transportation" cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with "active transportation" included "high availability of destinations around home," "presence of bicycle paths," and "low traffic." A "positive image of walking/cycling," the "individual feeling of being physically active," and a "high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends" were positively related to "active transportation," identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors' complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.
Medus, A D; Dorso, C O
Activity-driven modelling has recently been proposed as an alternative growth mechanism for time varying networks,displaying power-law degree distribution in time-aggregated representation. This approach assumes memoryless agents developing random connections with total disregard of their previous contacts. Thus, such an assumption leads to time-aggregated random networks that do not reproduce the positive degree-degree correlation and high clustering coefficient widely observed in real social networks. In this paper, we aim to study the incidence of the agents' long-term memory on the emergence of new social ties. To this end, we propose a dynamical network model assuming heterogeneous activity for agents, together with a triadic-closure step as main connectivity mechanism. We show that this simple mechanism provides some of the fundamental topological features expected for real social networks in their time-aggregated picture. We derive analytical results and perform extensive numerical simulations in regimes with and without population growth. Finally, we present an illustrative comparison with two case studies, one comprising face-to-face encounters in a closed gathering, while the other one corresponding to social friendship ties from an online social network. (paper)
Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fulford, Daniel; Swendsen, Joel
Research concerning the complex interplay between factors that contribute to poor social functioning in schizophrenia has been hampered by limitations of traditional measures, most notably the ecological validity and accuracy of retrospective self-report and interview measures. Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) permits the real-time assessment of relationships between daily life experiences, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In the current study, EMAc was used to record daily social interactions, subjective performance appraisals of these interactions (e.g., "I succeeded/failed"; "I was liked/rejected"), and affect in 145 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants completed electronic questionnaires on a personal digital assistant (PDA) four times per day for one week. Time-lagged multilevel modeling of the data revealed that more positive interaction appraisals at any point in a day were associated with greater positive affect which, in turn, was a strong predictor of more social interactions over subsequent hours. Social functioning, therefore, was linked to positive performance beliefs about social interactions that were associated with greater positive affect. The findings suggest a useful treatment target for cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychosocial interventions that can be used to challenge defeatist beliefs and increase positive affect to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Dovrolis, Constantine [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sim, Alex [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
To improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling of scientific data transfers on high-speed networks, the "Advanced Performance Modeling with combined passive and active monitoring" (APM) project investigates and models a general-purpose, reusable and expandable network performance estimation framework. The predictive estimation model and the framework will be helpful in optimizing the performance and utilization of networks as well as sharing resources with predictable performance for scientific collaborations, especially in data intensive applications. Our prediction model utilizes historical network performance information from various network activity logs as well as live streaming measurements from network peering devices. Historical network performance information is used without putting extra load on the resources by active measurement collection. Performance measurements collected by active probing is used judiciously for improving the accuracy of predictions.
Full Text Available Background: In developmental research, infants are commonly assumed to be early stakeholders in interactions with their caregivers. The tools that infants can use to interact with others vary from visual contact to smiling or vocalizing, and also include motor activity. However, surprisingly few studies have explored how the nature and context of social interactions affect infants’ engagement in motor activity. Methods: We investigated the kinematic properties of foot and face movements produced by 11 infants aged between 5 and 9 months during six contrasting dyadic episodes (i.e. passive presence of a stranger or the infant's mother, weak or intense interaction with the stranger/mother as she sings a nursery play song. Results: The infants’ face and foot motor activity was significantly reduced during the interactive episodes, compared with the episodes without any interaction, in both the mother and stranger conditions. Furthermore, the level of their motor activity was significantly lower in the stranger condition than in the mother one for some parameters. Conclusion: These results are in line with those reported by previous studies and confirm the relevance of using motor activity to delineate the early forms of interactive episodes in infants.
Stormbroek-Burgers, van R.G.B.M.; Montfort, van K.; Sluis, van der E.C. (Lidewey)
This study contributes to research on the impact of social networks on organizational outcomes in the context of the increasing number of professionals in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to get insight into the characteristics of professionals’ social networks and to examine the effect of
Tavakoli Taba, Seyedamir; Hossain, Liaquat; Heard, Robert; Brennan, Patrick; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah
Rationale and objectives: Observer performance has been widely studied through examining the characteristics of individuals. Applying a systems perspective, while understanding of the system's output, requires a study of the interactions between observers. This research explains a mixed methods approach to applying a social network analysis (SNA), together with a more traditional approach of examining personal/ individual characteristics in understanding observer performance in mammography. Materials and Methods: Using social networks theories and measures in order to understand observer performance, we designed a social networks survey instrument for collecting personal and network data about observers involved in mammography performance studies. We present the results of a study by our group where 31 Australian breast radiologists originally reviewed 60 mammographic cases (comprising of 20 abnormal and 40 normal cases) and then completed an online questionnaire about their social networks and personal characteristics. A jackknife free response operating characteristic (JAFROC) method was used to measure performance of radiologists. JAFROC was tested against various personal and network measures to verify the theoretical model. Results: The results from this study suggest a strong association between social networks and observer performance for Australian radiologists. Network factors accounted for 48% of variance in observer performance, in comparison to 15.5% for the personal characteristics for this study group. Conclusion: This study suggest a strong new direction for research into improving observer performance. Future studies in observer performance should consider social networks' influence as part of their research paradigm, with equal or greater vigour than traditional constructs of personal characteristics.
Farren, G. L.; Zhang, T.; Martin, S. B.; Thomas, K. T.
Objective: To examine the relations of sex, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and social support with meeting physical activity guidelines (PAGs). Participants: Three hundred ninety-six college students participated in this study in the summer 2013. Methods: Students completed online questionnaires that assessed physical activity…
Morris, David S.
Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…
Cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), founded on the seminal work of Vygotsky and evolving in the subsequent work of Leont'ev and Engestrom, continues to emerge as a robust and increasingly widely used conceptual framework for the research and analysis of the complex social mediation of human learning and development. Yet there remains…
Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.
The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…
Kuépié, Mathias; Tenikue, Michel; Walther, Olivier
burden that leads to a negative economic impact. Testing the effect of social networks between small traders and three categories of actors, we find that the most well-connected actors are also the most successful in terms of monthly profit. The effects of social networks are, however, dependent...... with traditional religious leaders has a negative effect on economic performance. Our work has two implications: first, collecting data on social networks remains challenging due to endogeneity. Second, network-enhancing policies should aim at improving both the internal connectivity of economic actors......This paper studies the link between economic performance and social networks in West Africa. Using data collected about 358 small-scale traders in five border markets, we show that social network can simultaneously be a resource which positively contributes to labor market outcomes and a social...
Huang, Xian; Gao, Qin
Although many studies claim that social policies are "carrots" that authoritarian leaders use to garner public support, the assumption that social benefits can boost public support of government has been rarely tested empirically, especially at the local levels. This article investigates the effects of social insurance enrollment on citizens' assessment of local government performance using data from the 2010 China Family Panel Study. We use propensity score matching to reduce selection bias and ordered probit regressions with fixed effects to examine these possible effects. We find that social insurance enrollment had a significant positive effect on rural citizens' assessment of government performance, but this effect did not exist for their urban and migrant peers. This discrepancy could be largely due to the groups' different expectations for government redistribution and their distinct experiences of China's social welfare reform. We conclude that the Chinese authoritarian government has achieved partial success in its attempt to use social policies to maintain popular support. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ardestani, Monasadat; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim
The importance of increasing adolescence girl's level of physical activity is recognized as a priority for having a healthy lifestyle. However, adolescent girls especially Iranian, are at high risk for physical inactivity. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a successful theory to explain physical activity behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of physical activity based on the SCT. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 adolescent girls (15-16 yr old) in Tehran, Iran (2013). The participants were randomly chosen with multistage sampling. The SCT constructs consisted of self-efficacy, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectancy, and self-efficacy to overcoming impediments. Statistical analysis was carried out applying SPSS: 16, LISREL 8.8. Stepwise regression was used to test predictors of behavior. Pearson correlation was assessed. Self efficacy to overcoming impediments was the main construct to predict physical activity (Beta=0.37). Other determinants were self-efficacy (Beta=0.29), family support (beta=0.14), outcome expectancy (beta=0.13), friend support (beta=0.12), and self-regulation (beta=0.11), respectively. In general, the SCT questionnaire determined 0.85 variation of physical activity behavior. All of the constructs had direct significant relation to physical activity behavior (P<0.001). The constructs of SCT provide a suitable framework to perform promoting physical activity programs and self-efficacy to overcoming impediments and self-efficacy are the best predictors of physical activity in adolescent girls.
Perry, Brea L; Pescosolido, Bernice A
In response to health problems, individuals may strategically activate their social network ties to help manage crisis and uncertainty. While it is well-established that social relationships provide a crucial safety net, little is known about who is chosen to help during an episode of illness. Guided by the Network Episode Model, two aspects of consulting others in the face of mental illness are considered. First, we ask who activates ties, and what kinds of ties and networks they attempt to leverage for discussing health matters. Second, we ask about the utility of activating health-focused network ties. Specifically, we examine the consequences of network activation at time of entry into treatment for individuals' quality of life, social satisfaction, ability to perform social roles, and mental health functioning nearly one year later. Using interview data from the longitudinal Indianapolis Network Mental Health Study (INMHS, N = 171), we focus on a sample of new patients with serious mental illness and a group with less severe disorders who are experiencing their first contact with the mental health treatment system. Three findings stand out. First, our results reveal the nature of agency in illness response. Whether under a rational choice or habitus logic, individuals appear to evaluate support needs, identifying the best possible matches among a larger group of potential health discussants. These include members of the core network and those with prior mental health experiences. Second, selective activation processes have implications for recovery. Those who secure adequate network resources report better outcomes than those who injudiciously activate network ties. Individuals who activate weaker relationships and those who are unsupportive of medical care experience poorer functioning, limited success in fulfilling social roles, and lower social satisfaction and quality of life later on. Third, the evidence suggests that social networks matter above and
Full Text Available Any activity requires the presence of labor resources. If centuries ago the concept was that their presence was enough, now it takes a lot more. Moreover, since Aristotle the issue was taking into consideration all aspects of the community life that can lead to a "better life". In the current conditions we may consider resources in the broader context of the human factor and of the relations established within a society. Thus social capital was conceptualized. As opportunities of economic growth - based purely on the quantitative aspects of the determinants â€“ were limited, the need occurred to reconsider the qualitative and structural components. Social capital considers a number of the integrative components of social life. These refer to the relations established at family level up to the level of societal institutions. It is necessary that these relationships be well established, and for the proper performance it is necessary that aspects of education and health should be properly valued and assessed. This helps setting up strong institutions. Developed countries have the ability to create a proper environment for the manifestations of social capital; in these countries one can observe the growing importance of formal and more impersonal relations. But this just reinforces the occurrence and development of economic activities based on efficiency criteria leading to the countriesâ€™ economic development. The interpretations of economic development issues have undergone changes in recent decades. If previously it was considered that the essential difference between rich and poor countries is reflected in the amount of physical capital per person, later on the concept of capital has been expanded to include as well human capital, the lack of which was considered a serious obstacle to development, particularly in the case of poor countries. And given the fact that the transactions within an economic system take place in an
The results of this analysis have practical applications in the boardroom; they are proof that all social policies increment financial resources, and vice versa, that increased financial performances lead to greater social benefits. As a consequence, this paper encourages all board members to seriously weigh investing financial resources in developing policies that boost the levels of social behavior components in order to contribute globally to the improvement of society.
Bal, P. Matthijs; Chiaburu, Dan S.; Jansen, Paul G. W.
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how social exchanges modify the relationship between psychological contract breach and work performance. It aims to present two concurrent hypotheses, based on theoretical interaction effects of social exchanges (conceptualized as social exchange relationships, POS, and trust). Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from a sample of 266 employees in a service sector company in the USA. Regression analysis was used to explore the moder...
Performance objectives for the disposal of low activity waste from Hanford Waste Tanks have been developed. These objectives have been based on DOE requirements, programmatic requirements, and public involvement. The DOE requirements include regulations that direct the performance assessment and are cited within the Radioactive Waste Management Order (DOE Order 435.1). Performance objectives for other DOE complex performance assessments have been included
Audra Holmes Greene
Full Text Available The Performing Arts Troupe is a program that provides youth in foster care and youth from low income neighborhoods with expressive therapies and social support. The program is designed to assist youth in addressing the effects of trauma and developing competencies as they prepare to transition to adulthood. The article discusses the literature base for the program, the program activities and describes the impact of the program on youth through preliminary evaluations and case studies. The program offers an innovative combination of expressive therapies and social supports that has effectively met the needs of vulnerable youth.
Thompson, Kathryn L.; And Others
An assertiveness training curriculum that was an expansion of two previous programs with young adolescents was presented to 22 fifth graders. Results did not show that training facilitated assertiveness on the performance components. Suggestions are offered for designing programs aimed at developing adolescents' assertive behavior in ways that…
Adverse effects of BD on cognitive functions such as psychomotor skills negatively impact on women's daily living. Methodology: Using a matched-pairs design and snowball sampling method, the present study investigated the relationship between binge drinking and psychomotor performance in a population of female ...
Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo
Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to
Mulyadi, Endang; Yuniarsih, Tjutju; Disman; Supardan, Dadang
This research is intended to analyze the principal's leadership, school cultures, teachers' welfare, achievement motivation and the competence of social teachers at Senior High Schools in Ciamis regency and their effects towards the teachers' performance. Population of this research are Social teachers at Senior High Schools in Ciamis regency,…
Muhingi, Wilkins Ndege; Mutavi, Teresia; Kokonya, Donald; Simiyu, Violet Nekesa; Musungu, Ben; Obondo, Anne; Kuria, Mary Wangari
Given the known positive and negative effects of uncontrolled social networking among secondary school students worldwide, it is necessary to establish the relationship between social network sites and academic performances among secondary school students. This study, therefore, aimed at establishing the relationship between secondary school…
Beek, A.P.A van
Over the years, there has been increasing attention for the role of social networks in explaining performance differences between organizations. Yet, research on social networks within healthcare organizations in general and long-term care facilities specifically has been rare, despite growing
Being a member of a socially devalued group (e.g., women, ethnic minorities) threatens social identity, leading people to lower their investment in performance domains that determine societal status (e.g., education, career success). The experiments discussed in this dissertation show that offering
Verboom, C.E.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Ormel, J.
Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between
Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan
Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between
Liou, Yi-Hwa; Daly, Alan J.; Canrinus, Esther T.; Forbes, Cheryl A.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Cornelissen, Frank; Van Lare, Michelle; Hsiao, Joyce
This exploratory study foregrounds the important, but often understudied social side of pre-service teacher development and its relation to teaching performance in one university-based teacher preparation program in the US. We examine the extent to which pre-service elementary teachers' social relationships and perceptions of peer trust and…
Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen; Katz, Ellen; Mylopoulos, Maria; Regehr, Glenn
The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…
White-Johnson, Rhonda L.
Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…
Liou, Yi Hwa; Daly, Alan J.; Canrinus, Esther T.; Forbes, Cheryl A.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304352802; Cornelissen, Frank; Van Lare, Michelle; Hsiao, Joyce
This exploratory study foregrounds the important, but often understudied social side of pre-service teacher development and its relation to teaching performance in one university-based teacher preparation program in the US. We examine the extent to which pre-service elementary teachers’ social
Woods, Amelia Mays; McLoughlin, Gabriella M; Kern, Ben D; Graber, Kim C
Public health concerns regarding childhood obesity and sedentary behavior make investigations of children's physical activity (PA) promotion crucial. School recess, a highly discretional time, plays a central role in shaping children's activity preferences. Participants included 40 children (30 girls, 10 boys) from fourth and fifth grades, categorized as low active during recess (<26% moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA]). PA was measured via accelerometer (Actigraph wGT3X+) and activity choice gauged through a self-report measure over a 3-day period. To assess attitudes and perceptions of recess, individual interviews were conducted. Accelerometer data were analyzed into minutes and percentage of MVPA; interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed utilizing open and axial coding. Participants were active for 18% of recess, choosing activities that were primarily individual-based. Interview data showed low active children attribute recess enjoyment to social interaction and time away from schoolwork as well as an intention to avoid other children who were unkind and/or caused social conflict. This study supports the importance of gaining a child's perspective of their own behavior, particularly those children classified as less active. Findings add a unique contribution to school health research through an innovative, child-centered approach to explore perceptions of PA. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available The present study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of a group cognitive intervention aimed at promoting executive functions in children at social risk. The quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design included a control group. The sample was made up of 178 children (52% boys, aged 6-10. The children were evaluated by means of a battery of neuropsychological EF tests and a teacher-rated behavioral EF scale. The intervention program included 30 group cognitive stimulation sessions that increased in difficulty and were embedded into school curr´ıcula. Trained children performed better in terms of cognitive flexibility, planning, metacognition and inhibitory control, as compared to their baseline values and to children in the control group. This study provides new evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive interventions for children and of children’s capability to transfer cognitive improvements to daily school activities.
Full Text Available Current Latvian research in the area of social work is not characteristic of a creative and innovative methodological approach. The methodological conservatism derived from general sociology is particularly affecting students in doctoral studies. This proposes a question: should, in the name of scientific novelty, we support research in which the PhD student aims to get rid of his personality behind the shield of authority, sometimes even general sociology textbook truths? Or should we encourage bold challenges to methodological schematism, in which the researcher takes a pose of truly creative research and avoids becoming a representative of scientific marginality lacking one’s personality? The subject of creative activity – the researcher in social work – can best express oneself in the level of philosophic wisdom, identifying only the main guidelines of his creative processes and allowing a large headspace for one’s creative quests. A scientist, also one interested in the problems of social work, can ascertain his/her uniqueness by relying on the concept that any researcher has embarked on an individual journey, circulating on different orbits around one central idea. If the distance between such central idea and the researcher’s activities is increasing, this signifies of either a creatively productive reevaluation of the researcher’s position, or the death of the research process in having lost the original idea. On the other hand, continuous approach towards the central idea either means that the researcher is consistent and determined in his creative research, or there is complete lack of scientific novelty in cases when borrowed foreign ideas are worshipped.
It has been determined by existing literature that a lot of research efforts have been made to the economic performance of construction waste management (CWM), but less attention is paid to investigation of the social performance of CWM. This study therefore attempts to develop a model for quantitatively evaluating the social performance of CWM by using a system dynamics (SD) approach. Firstly, major variables affecting the social performance of CWM are identified and a holistic system for assessing the social performance of CWM is formulated in line with feedback relationships underlying these variables. The developed system is then converted into a SD model through the software iThink. An empirical case study is finally conducted to demonstrate application of the model. Results of model validation indicate that the model is robust and reasonable to reflect the situation of the real system under study. Findings of the case study offer helpful insights into effectively promoting the social performance of CWM of the project investigated. Furthermore, the model exhibits great potential to function as an experimental platform for dynamically evaluating effects of management measures on improving the social performance of CWM of construction projects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Claypoole, Victoria L; Szalma, James L
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an independent coactor on vigilance task performance. It was hypothesized that the presence of an independent coactor would improve performance in terms of the proportion of false alarms while also increasing perceived workload and stress. Vigilance, or the ability to maintain attention for extended periods, is of great interest to human factors psychologists. Substantial work has focused on improving vigilance task performance, typically through motivational interventions. Of interest to vigilance researchers is the application of social facilitation as a means of enhancing vigilance. Social facilitation seeks to explain how social presence may improve performance. A total of 100 participants completed a 24-min vigil either alone or in the presence of an independent (confederate) coactor. Participants completed measures of perceived workload and stress. The results indicated that performance (i.e., proportion of false alarms) was improved for those who completed the vigil in the presence of an independent coactor. Interestingly, perceived workload was actually lower for those who completed the vigil in the presence of an independent coactor, although perceived stress was not affected by the manipulation. Authors of future research should extend these findings to other forms of social facilitation and examine vigilance task performance in social contexts in order to determine the utility of social presence for improving vigilance. The use of coactors may be an avenue for organizations to consider utilizing to improve performance because of its relative cost-effectiveness and easy implementation.
McNaughton Sarah A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social norms are theoretically hypothesized to influence health-related behaviors such as physical activity and eating behaviors. However, empirical evidence relating social norms to these behaviors, independently of other more commonly-investigated social constructs such as social support, is scarce and findings equivocal, perhaps due to limitations in the ways in which social norms have been conceptualized and assessed. This study investigated associations between clearly-defined social norms and a range of physical activity and eating behaviors amongst women, adjusting for the effects of social support. Methods Self-report survey data about particular physical activity (leisure-time moderate-vigorous activity; volitional walking; cycling for transport and eating behaviors (fast food, soft drink and fruit and vegetable consumption, and social norms and support for these, were provided by 3,610 women aged 18-46 years living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Results Results of regression analyses showed that social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors predicted these respective behaviors relatively consistently; these associations generally remained significant after adjustment for social support. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional study design, these data confirm theoretical accounts of the importance of social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors, and suggest that this is independent from social support. Intervention strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy eating could incorporate strategies aimed at modifying social norms relating to these behaviors.
Scott, Susan V.; Orlikowski, Wanda J.
Information systems researchers have shown an increasing interest in the notion of sociomateriality. In this paper, we continue this exploration by focusing specifically on entanglement: the inseparability of meaning and matter. Our particular approach is differentiated by its grounding in a relational and performative ontology, and its use of agential realism. We explore some of the key ideas of entanglement through a comparison of two phenomena in the travel sector: an institutionalized acc...
Woods, S. A.; de Menezes, L. M.
Research on family-friendly practices has concentrated on the predictors of their use, particularly from the perspective of either institutional theory or the high involvement or commitment management vogue. This paper first shows how such perspectives can be used to generate hypotheses about the link between family-friendly management and organizational performance. Second, the paper reports research designed to test these, using data from a national representative sample of workplaces acros...
Dahlia Sari; Christine Tjen
This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressivene...
Lo, Panmi; Siu, Andrew M H
Social-cognitive deficits have a significant impact on the community and vocational functioning of persons with schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the relationship between social-cognitive abilities and vocational functioning in a Chinese population. We recruited 30 outpatients with schizophrenia to participate. We administered the Chinese Social Cognition and Screening Questionnaire (C-SCSQ) to assess Theory of Mind (ToM), attributional bias, and neurocognition; the Facial Expression Identification Test (FEIT) to assess emotion perception (EP) ability, and the Chinese Work Personality Profile (CWPP) to assess work performance in a simulated work setting. ToM showed a significant negative correlation with attributional bias. The neurocognitive measure displayed a significant positive correlation with ToM and EP. The structural equation model was a good fit to the data (CFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.12), and showed that social-cognitive abilities had a significant impact (-0.41) on work performance. Of the four social-cognitive domains, ToM and paranoid attributional style (PAS) contributed significantly to variations in work performance. These results support the theory that social-cognitive abilities have an impact on work performance. ToM has a positive impact whereas PAS has an adverse effect. Persons with schizophrenia present specific deficits in their social-cognitive abilities, which have significant impact on their work performance and employability.
Branscum, Paul; Haider, Taj; Brown, David; Sharma, Manoj
Background: The theory of emotional intelligence (EI) has been developed to evaluate and highlight the importance of emotional health, especially on job performance. Purpose: No study has examined EI's role on the performance of public health educators; therefore, this study examined the role of EI and social support on the performance of health…
Knost, Benjamin R
.... This field study, conducted at a military training course, attempted to further refine this social network-performance relationship by modeling characteristics of both the formal and informal work...
Hart, T.A.; David, P.; Shao, F.; Fox, C.J.; Westermann-Behaylo, M.
We investigate the relationship between top management team compensation disparity and corporate social performance. We argue that pay structures with high disparity are reflective of transactional, individualistic organizations that foster a shareholder orientation. In contrast, pay structures with
Zheng, Shuai; Shae, Zon Yin; Zhang, Xiangliang; Jamjoom, Hani T.; Fong, Liana
Social influence among users (e.g., collaboration on a project) creates bursty behavior in the underlying high performance computing (HPC) workloads. Using representative HPC and cluster workload logs, this paper identifies, analyzes, and quantifies
Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric M; Spear, Linda P
In human adolescents, heavy drinking is often predicted by high sociability in males and high social anxiety in females. This study assessed the impact of baseline levels of social activity and social anxiety-like behavior in group-housed adolescent and adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats on ethanol (EtOH) intake when drinking alone or in a social group. Social activity and anxiety-like behavior initially were assessed in a modified social interaction test, followed by 6 drinking sessions that occurred every other day in animals given ad libitum food and water. Sessions consisted of 30-minute access to 10% EtOH in a "supersac" (3% sucrose + 0.1% saccharin) solution given alone as well as in groups of 5 same-sex littermates, with order of the alternating session types counterbalanced across animals. Adolescent males and adults of both sexes overall consumed more EtOH under social than alone circumstances, whereas adolescent females ingested more EtOH when alone. Highly socially active adolescent males demonstrated elevated levels of EtOH intake relative to their low and medium socially active counterparts when drinking in groups, but not when tested alone. Adolescent females with high levels of social anxiety-like behavior demonstrated the highest EtOH intake under social, but not alone circumstances. Among adults, baseline levels of social anxiety-like behavior did not contribute to individual differences in EtOH intake in either sex. The results clearly demonstrate that in adolescent rats, but not their adult counterparts, responsiveness to a social peer predicts EtOH intake in a social setting-circumstances under which drinking typically occurs in human adolescents. High levels of social activity in males and high levels of social anxiety-like behavior in females were associated with elevated social drinking, suggesting that males ingest EtOH for its socially enhancing properties, whereas females ingest EtOH for its socially anxiolytic effects. Copyright
Mehreen Mumtaz; Hafiz Adnan Habib
Successful Human Resource Management plays a key role in success of any organization. Traditionally, human resource managers rely on various information technology solutions such as Payroll and Work Time Systems incorporating RFID and biometric technologies. This research evaluates activity recognition algorithms for employee performance monitoring. An activity recognition algorithm has been implemented that categorized the activity of employee into following in to classes: job activities and...
Rocha, Sérgio F; Marocolo, Moacir; Corrêa, Elisangela N V; Morato, Gledys S G; da Mota, Gustavo R
We evaluated if regular physical activity could influence musical performance anxiety (MPA) in college music students. Levels of MPA, as measured with the Kenny MPA Inventory, and a survey about the physical activity habits were obtained from 87 students of music. The results showed that physically active musicians had lower MPA scores (pindependent of gender. We conclude that there is an association between physical activity and minor MPA, and studies with a longitudinal design should be done to explore this important issue.
Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.
The present study aims at examining whether the "Social Skills Performance Assessment" (SSPA; Patterson et al. in "Schizophr Res" 48(2-3):351-360, 2001) is a suitable performance-based measure to assess social skills in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). For this purpose, social skills of individuals with ASD and…
Westlund , Hans; Andersson, Martin; Karlsson, Charlie
In this paper, we focus on the connections between creativity, social capital and economic performance and growth. Our working hypothesis is that both creativity and social capital influences the economy, both each per se, but also through their influence on each other. We regard creativity as one of the sources of entrepreneurship and innovation (although creativity also can have ‘bad’ consequences if bad actors such as criminals perform it). Depending on the types of networks and the norms ...
This research aims to identify the influence of Good Corporate Governance, represented by institutional ownership and managerial ownership, on Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance, and also to observe the possible influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on Corporate Financial Performance. This research examines 126 manufacturing companies which are listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (ISX) and have issued an audited financial statement for 2006. The statist...
Alexander Olawumi Dabor
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the casuality between corporate social responsibility and firm financial performance. The study employed two least square regression approaches. Fifty-two firms were selected using the scientific method. The findings revealed that corporate social responsibility and firm performance in manufacturing sector are mutually related at 5%. The study recommended that management of manufacturing companies in Nigeria should expend on CSR to boost profitability and corporate image.
Social media have recently become one of the most popular communicating form of media for numerous number of people. the text and posts shared on social media is widely used by researcher to analyze, study and relate them to various fields. In this master thesis, sentiment analysis has been performed on posts containing information about two companies that are shared on Twitter, and machine learning algorithms has been used to predict the financial performance of these companies.
Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew
The prevalence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is frequently higher in younger age groups and people with other anxiety or mood disorders; however, it is unclear whether these groups have a higher risk for developing SAD or are simply more likely to endorse diagnostic criteria than other people with similar levels of social anxiety. Explicitly testing the assumption all people respond to structured diagnostic interviews in comparable ways (measurement invariance) is essential in ensuring systematic response biases do not create spurious group differences. This research aims to systematically test whether age, comorbidity status, or types of social fears affect responses to a structured diagnostic interview. Responses from 1755 participants in a large-scale survey of mental health in Australia screening into the social phobia/SAD section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were used. Three series of multigroup confirmatory factor analyses for categorical data systematically tested for increasingly strict levels of measurement invariance. Overall, patterns of responding to diagnostic criteria were comparable across the groups, supporting assumptions of measurement invariance. Establishment of invariance supports the interpretation of differences between age, comorbidity status, and types of social situations feared as genuine differences in experience as opposed to measurement biases.
Jung, S. K.; Jin, T. E.; Kim, J. S.; Jung, I. S.; Kim, T. R.
Risk analysis and performance evaluation methodology were applied to the aging evaluation of active components in the periodic safety review of Wolsung unit 1. We conclude that evaluation of performance is more effective to discriminate the aging degradation of active component than the evaluation of aging mechanism. It is essential to analyze the common cause failures of low performance components to evaluate the properness of present maintenance system. Past 10 years failure history is used for establishing the performance criteria. Past 2 years failure history is used for the evaluating the recent performance condition. We analyze the failure mode of the components to improve the maintenance system. Performance evaluation methodology is useful for the quantitative evaluation of aging degradation of active components. Analysis on the repeated failures can be useful for the feedback to maintenance plan and interval
Thomas, Jessica E; O'Connell, Beverly; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J
Social interaction and participation in leisure activities are positively related to the health and well-being of elderly people. The main focus of this exploratory study was to investigate elderly peoples' perceptions and experiences of social interaction and leisure activities living in a residential aged care (RAC) facility. Six residents were interviewed. Themes emerging from discussions about their social interactions included: importance of family, fostering friendships with fellow residents, placement at dining room tables, multiple communication methods, and minimal social isolation and boredom. Excursions away from the RAC facility were favourite activities. Participants commonly were involved in leisure activities to be socially connected. Poor health, family, the RAC facility, staffing, transportation, and geography influenced their social interaction and participation in leisure activities. The use of new technologies and creative problem solving with staff are ways in which residents could enhance their social lives and remain engaged in leisure activities.
de Boer, Bram; Hamers, Jan P H; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Tan, Frans E S; Beerens, Hanneke C; Verbeek, Hilde
Innovative care environments are developed for people with dementia to encourage person-centered care. This study aims to investigate whether residents of green care farms that provide 24-hour nursing care participate more in (physical) activities and social interaction compared with residents of other nursing homes. Longitudinal observation study. Nursing homes in the Netherlands (green care farms, traditional nursing homes, and regular small-scale living facilities). A total of 115 nursing home residents at baseline, 100 at follow-up. Ecological momentary assessments (n = 16,860) were conducted using the Maastricht Electronic Daily Life Observation Tool. Residents living at green care farms were compared with residents living in traditional nursing homes and regular small-scale living facilities. The following aspects were collected for this study: the activity performed by the participant or occurring in his or her vicinity, the engagement in the activity, the level of physical activity during the activity, the physical environment (location where the activity occurred), and the level of social interaction during the activity. In total, 9660 baseline observations and 7200 follow-up observations were conducted. Analyses showed that residents of green care farms significantly more often participated in domestic activities (P = .004, SE = 1.6) and outdoor/nature-related activities (P = .003, SE = 0.9), and significantly less often engaged in passive/purposeless activities (P social interaction (P = .006, SE = 1.1), and came outside significantly more (P = .010, SE = 1.1) than residents of traditional nursing homes. Residents of green care farms were significantly more physically active (P = .013, SE = 0.8) than were residents of regular small-scale living facilities. No other significant differences were found. Green care farms can be a valuable alternative to traditional nursing homes. They provide an attractive, homelike environment and
Sicilia, Álvaro; Sáenz-Alvarez, Piedad; González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto
Based on self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between social physique anxiety and intention to be physically active, while taking into account the mediating effects of the basic psychological needs and behavioral regulations in exercise. Having obtained parents' prior consent, 390 students in secondary school (218 boys, 172 girls; M age = 15.10 years, SD = 1.94 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire during physical education class that assessed the target variables. Preliminary analyses included means, standard deviations, and bivariate correlations among the target variables. Next, a path analysis was performed using the maximum likelihood estimation method with the bootstrapping procedure in the statistical package AMOS 19. Analysis revealed that social physique anxiety negatively predicted intention to be physically active through mediation of the basic psychological needs and the 3 autonomous forms of motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation, integrated regulation, and identified regulation). The results suggest that social physique anxiety is an internal source of controlling influence that hinders basic psychological need satisfaction and autonomous motivation in exercise, and interventions aimed at reducing social physique anxiety could promote future exercise.
Waleed Mugahed Al-Rahmi
Full Text Available Social media has been always described as the channel through which knowledge is transmitted between communities and learners. This social media has been utilized by colleges in a way to encourage collaborative learning and social interaction. This study explores the use of social media in the process of collaborative learning through learning Quran and Hadith. Through this investigation, different factors enhancing collaborative learning in learning Quran and Hadith in the context of using social media are going to be examined. 340 respondents participated in this study. The structural equation modeling (SEM was used to analyze the data obtained. Upon analysis and structural model validities, the study resulted in a model used for measuring the influences of the different variables. The study reported direct and indirect significant impacts of these variables on collaborative learning through the use of social media which might lead to a better performance by learners.
Social influence among users (e.g., collaboration on a project) creates bursty behavior in the underlying high performance computing (HPC) workloads. Using representative HPC and cluster workload logs, this paper identifies, analyzes, and quantifies the level of social influence across HPC users. We show the existence of a social graph that is characterized by a pattern of dominant users and followers. This pattern also follows a power-law distribution, which is consistent with those observed in mainstream social networks. Given its potential impact on HPC workloads prediction and scheduling, we propose a fast-converging, computationally-efficient online learning algorithm for identifying social groups. Extensive evaluation shows that our online algorithm can (1) quickly identify the social relationships by using a small portion of incoming jobs and (2) can efficiently track group evolution over time. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Kuzma, Jennifer; Kuzhabekova, Aliya
In this article, we examine voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology in the context of corporate social performance (CSP) in order to better understand the drivers, barriers, and forms of company participation in such programs. At the theoretical level, we use the management framework of CSP to understand the voluntary behavior of companies. At the empirical level, we investigate nanotech industry participation in the Environmental Protection Agency's Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program (NMSP) as an example of CSP, in order to examine the effects of company characteristics on CSP outcomes. The analysis demonstrates that, on the average, older and larger companies for which nanotech is one of the many business activities demonstrate greater CSP as judged by company actions, declarations, and self-evaluations. Such companies tended to submit more of the requested information to the NMSP, including specific information about health and safety, and to claim fewer of the submitted items as confidential business information. They were also more likely to have on-line statements of generic and nano-specific corporate social responsibility principles, policies, and achievements. The article suggests a need to encourage smaller and younger companies to participate in voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology and presents options for better design of these programs.
Kuzma, Jennifer; Kuzhabekova, Aliya
In this article, we examine voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology in the context of corporate social performance (CSP) in order to better understand the drivers, barriers, and forms of company participation in such programs. At the theoretical level, we use the management framework of CSP to understand the voluntary behavior of companies. At the empirical level, we investigate nanotech industry participation in the Environmental Protection Agency’s Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program (NMSP) as an example of CSP, in order to examine the effects of company characteristics on CSP outcomes. The analysis demonstrates that, on the average, older and larger companies for which nanotech is one of the many business activities demonstrate greater CSP as judged by company actions, declarations, and self-evaluations. Such companies tended to submit more of the requested information to the NMSP, including specific information about health and safety, and to claim fewer of the submitted items as confidential business information. They were also more likely to have on-line statements of generic and nano-specific corporate social responsibility principles, policies, and achievements. The article suggests a need to encourage smaller and younger companies to participate in voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology and presents options for better design of these programs.
BARR, ASHLEY B.; LEI, MAN-KIT; STEWART, ERIC
Simons and Burt’s (2011) social schematic theory (SST) of crime posits that adverse social factors are associated with offending because they promote a set of social schemas (i.e., a criminogenic knowledge structure) that elevates the probability of situational definitions favorable to crime. This study extends the SST model by incorporating the role of contexts for action. Furthermore, the study advances tests of the SST by incorporating a measure of criminogenic situational definitions to assess whether such definitions mediate the effects of schemas and contexts on crime. Structural equation models using 10 years of panel data from 582 African American youth provided strong support for the expanded theory. The results suggest that childhood and adolescent social adversity fosters a criminogenic knowledge structure as well as selection into criminogenic activity spaces and risky activities, all of which increase the likelihood of offending largely through situational definitions. Additionally, evidence shows that the criminogenic knowledge structure interacts with settings to amplify the likelihood of situational definitions favorable to crime. PMID:26392633
Social work has engaged with and led the revolutionary social movements of the past century. Yet today, as activism by and for racial others unfolds across the United States and Canada, our discipline remains largely silent. This article considers new ways for social workers to conceptualize social work activism, challenge the existing erasures within the profession, and construct innovative strategies to locate social work within the critical social movements of our time. Recognizing the continuity of histories of colonialism, slavery, and genocide, the author argues that social workers must engage with racialized communities' resistance through their legacy of exclusion and displacement. The author demonstrates the significance of an evolving politics of race and social justice for social work practice. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.
Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B
In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and team performance as assessed by the supervisor.
Sobota, Rosanna; Mihara, Takuma; Forrest, Alexandra; Featherstone, Robert E; Siegel, Steven J
Standard dopamine therapies for schizophrenia are not efficacious for negative symptoms of the disease, including asociality. This reduced social behavior may be due to glutamatergic dysfunction within the amygdala, leading to increased fear and social anxiety. Several studies have demonstrated the prosocial effects of oxytocin in schizophrenia patients. Therefore, this study evaluates the effect of subchronic oxytocin on EEG activity in amygdala of mice during performance of the three-chamber social choice and open field tests following acute ketamine as a model of glutamatergic dysfunction. Oxytocin did not restore social deficits introduced by ketamine but did significantly increase sociality in comparison to the control group. Ketamine had no effect on time spent in the center during the open field trials, whereas oxytocin increased overall center time across all groups, suggesting a reduction in anxiety. Amygdala activity was consistent across all drug groups during social and nonsocial behavioral trials. However, oxytocin reduced overall amygdala EEG power during the two behavioral tasks. Alternatively, ketamine did not significantly affect EEG power throughout the tasks. Decreased EEG power in the amygdala, as caused by oxytocin, may be related to both reduced anxiety and increased social behaviors. Data suggest that separate prosocial and social anxiety pathways may mediate social preference. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Luanna Alexandra Cheng
Conclusions: Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents’ level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self‐efficacy.
Full Text Available Children’s block building performances are used as indicators of other abilities in multiple domains. In the current study, we examined individual differences, types of model and social settings as influences on children’s block building performance. Chinese preschoolers (N = 180 participated in a block building activity in a natural setting, and performance was assessed with multiple measures in order to identify a range of specific skills. Using scores generated across these measures, three dependent variables were analyzed: block building skills, structural balance and structural features. An overall MANOVA showed that there were significant main effects of gender and grade level across most measures. Types of model showed no significant effect in children’s block building. There was a significant main effect of social settings on structural features, with the best performance in the 5-member group, followed by individual and then the 10-member block building. These findings suggest that boys performed better than girls in block building activity. Block building performance increased significantly from 1st to 2nd year of preschool, but not from second to third. The preschoolers created more representational constructions when presented with a model made of wooden rather than with a picture. There was partial evidence that children performed better when working with peers in a small group than when working alone or working in a large group. It is suggested that future study should examine other modalities rather than the visual one, diversify the samples and adopt a longitudinal investigation.
Tian, Mi; Deng, Zhu; Meng, Zhaokun; Li, Rui; Zhang, Zhiyi; Qi, Wenhui; Wang, Rui; Yin, Tingting; Ji, Menghui
Children's block building performances are used as indicators of other abilities in multiple domains. In the current study, we examined individual differences, types of model and social settings as influences on children's block building performance. Chinese preschoolers ( N = 180) participated in a block building activity in a natural setting, and performance was assessed with multiple measures in order to identify a range of specific skills. Using scores generated across these measures, three dependent variables were analyzed: block building skills, structural balance and structural features. An overall MANOVA showed that there were significant main effects of gender and grade level across most measures. Types of model showed no significant effect in children's block building. There was a significant main effect of social settings on structural features, with the best performance in the 5-member group, followed by individual and then the 10-member block building. These findings suggest that boys performed better than girls in block building activity. Block building performance increased significantly from 1st to 2nd year of preschool, but not from second to third. The preschoolers created more representational constructions when presented with a model made of wooden rather than with a picture. There was partial evidence that children performed better when working with peers in a small group than when working alone or working in a large group. It is suggested that future study should examine other modalities rather than the visual one, diversify the samples and adopt a longitudinal investigation.
Lapum, Jennifer; Hamzavi, Neda; Veljkovic, Katarina; Mohamed, Zubaida; Pettinato, Adriana; Silver, Sarabeth; Taylor, Elizabeth
In this article, a poetical and performative narrative is shared to examine how the use of stories to critically self-reflect on oppression facilitates an understanding of critical social theory in nursing education and impacts social justice. A fusion of prose with a poetical narrative is employed; the latter is reserved to capture the immediacy of personal, emotive, and embodied storied experiences. This deeply intimate and dialogical story begins with a pedagogical experiment created to facilitate nursing students' understanding of critical social theory. Drawing upon Paulo Freire's work, the nursing teacher in a professional development course attempted to deconstruct power relations and cultivate an open and safe learning environment by sharing a poem that depicts her oppression. Students then anonymously wrote a word/statement about their oppression. The teacher created a composite poem from students' words and shared it with the class; it was a powerful moment that highlighted their shared humanity. As a way to further explore stories and consider how to preserve these words, a small group of students and the teacher formed the 'the oppression group'. Towards the end, we conclude an unfinished story by realizing that the chains of oppression are loosening and humanity is surfacing. There is still a camouflaging of an authentic self. There are still stories to be told. The group is not yet certain if a social representation of an authentic self is possible and if all stories can be told. It has become apparent that the personal can play out in social justice as enacted in the classroom between teacher and students and provides an entry point into the development of the capacity to be social agents in nursing. The group simultaneously concludes the story with both an ending and a threshold of social justice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Arts festivals have been explored through many lenses, but social media marketing and digital performance are less studied. The potential of social media networks in digital performance is exemplified by the London International Festival of Theatre (LIFT), which repositions social media technology as an enabler for audiences to co-produce digitally oriented performance. This article argues that the relationship between social media marketing and performance is more hybridized than often assum...
Li, Jibin; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Mo, Phoenix K. H.; Su, Xuefen; Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Jie; Qin, Zuguo
Background Online social networking use has been integrated into adolescents? daily life and the intensity of online social networking use may have important consequences on adolescents? well-being. However, there are few validated instruments to measure social networking use intensity. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) and validate it among junior middle school students in China. Methods A total of 910 students who were social networking...
Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Leung, Edward M F; Chan, Trista Wai Sze
This study examined the associations between social network types and peak expiratory flow (PEF), and whether these associations were mediated by social and physical activities and mood. Nine hundred twenty-four community-dwelling Chinese older adults, who were classified into five network types (diverse, friend-focused, family-focused, distant family, and restricted), provided data on demographics, social and physical activities, mood, smoking, chronic diseases, and instrumental activities of daily living. PEF and biological covariates, including blood lipids and glucose, blood pressure, and height and weight, were assessed. Two measures of PEF were analyzed: the raw reading in L/min and the reading expressed as percentage of predicted normal value on the basis of age, sex, and height. Diverse, friend-focused, and distant family networks were hypothesized to have better PEF values compared with restricted networks, through higher physical and/or social activities. No relative advantage was predicted for family-focused networks because such networks tend to be associated with lower physical activity. Older adults with diverse, friend-focused, and distant family networks had significantly better PEF measures than those with restricted networks. The associations between diverse network and PEF measures were partially mediated by physical exercise and socializing activity. The associations between friend-focused network and PEF measures were partially mediated by socializing activity. No significant PEF differences between family-focused and restricted networks were found. Findings suggest that social network types are associated with PEF in older adults, and that network-type differences in physical and socializing activity is partly responsible for this relationship. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Sheehy, Tammy L
Group physical activity programs for clinical populations can provide opportunities for adaptive social interactions, improving perceptions of competence, and may facilitate posttraumatic growth (positive psychological changes resulting from traumatic life experiences). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how people with Parkinson's experience social interactions and physical challenges in a group physical activity program, and to investigate what role they think those experie...
Cimpian, Andrei; Mu, Yan; Erickson, Lucy C
Children's achievement-related theories have a profound impact on their academic success. Children who adopt entity theories believe that their ability to perform a task is dictated by the amount of natural talent they possess for that task--a belief that has well-documented adverse consequences for their achievement (e.g., lowered persistence, impaired performance). It is thus important to understand what leads children to adopt entity theories. In the experiments reported here, we hypothesized that the mere act of linking success at an unfamiliar, challenging activity to a social group gives rise to entity beliefs that are so powerful as to interfere with children's ability to perform the activity. Two experiments showed that, as predicted, the performance of 4- to 7-year-olds (N = 192) was impaired by exposure to information that associated success in the task at hand with membership in a certain social group (e.g., "boys are good at this game"), regardless of whether the children themselves belonged to that group.
Abrahamsen, F E; Roberts, G C; Pensgaard, A M; Ronglan, L T
The present study is founded on achievement goal theory (AGT) and examines the relationship between motivation, social support and performance anxiety with team handball players (n=143) from 10 elite teams. Based on these theories and previous findings, the study has three purposes. First, it was predicted that the female athletes (n=69) would report more performance worries and more social support use than males (n=74). The findings support the hypothesis for anxiety, but not for social support use. However, females report that they felt social support was more available than males. Second, we predicted and found a positive relationship between the interaction of ego orientation and perceptions of a performance climate on performance anxiety, but only for females. As predicted, perceived ability mediated this relationship. Finally, we predicted that perceptions of a performance climate were related to the view that social support was less available especially for the male athletes. Simple correlation supports this prediction, but the regression analyses did not reach significance. Thus, we could not test for mediation of social support between motivational variables and anxiety. The results illustrate that fostering a mastery climate helps elite athletes tackle competitive pressure.
Full Text Available As the use of social network sites (SNS has become increasingly prevalent, its effect on sustainable performance has received much attention. The existing literature has taken either a positive or negative view of SNS, arguing that it either decreases performance by taking time and effort away from work, or increases performance by providing social benefits for enhancing performance. In contrast, this experimental study, investigates how SNS use can disturb or enhance the performance of different types of tasks differently, thus influencing the sustainability of task performance. Based on distraction-conflict theory, this study distinguishes between simple and complex tasks, examines the role of SNS, and analyzes data including electroencephalography data captured by a brain-computer interface. The results show that task performance can be sustainable such that SNS use positively influences performance when participants are engaged in a simple task and influences performance neither positively nor negatively when participants are engaged in a complex task. The study finds the former result is attributable to the positive effect of the psychological arousal induced by SNS use and the latter result to the negative effect of the psychological arousal offsetting the positive effect of reduced stress resulting from SNS use.
Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen
and characterize ADL task performance problems among a group of adult disabled hospitalized cancer patients using interview and questionnaire data. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on prevalence of ADL task performance problems experienced by disabled hospitalized cancer patients using the Activities of Daily Living...... Questionnaire (ADL-Q) (n = 118) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) (n = 55). RESULTS: All 118 patients reported problems with ADL task performance. Based on the ADL-Q patients reported more problems within instrumental (I-)ADL than personal (P-)ADL. In both I-ADL and P-ADL the results......BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients report unmet rehabilitation needs. Rehabilitation may include activities of daily living (ADL) tasks, but little is known about how cancer patients perform these tasks and how they prioritize their daily activities. Hence, this study aims to identify...
Daneshvar, Sabrina D; Charlop, Marjorie H; Berry Malmberg, Debra
To compare the efficacy of two procedures, a photo activity schedule intervention and Social Stories, to teach social skills to four children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). An adapted alternating treatments design with an additional multiple baseline control was used, and two social skills were targeted for each of the four participants, one under each intervention condition. Results indicated that all four participants learned the target social behaviours with the photo activity schedule intervention, but did not learn target social behaviours with Social Stories. Findings support the use of a photo activity intervention for teaching social skillsto children with ASD; we discuss the implications of inconsistent findings of effectiveness of Social Stories.
Maria José Carvalho Sant'Anna
Full Text Available Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at first intercourse was 14.2 years and the average period between first intercourse and pregnancy was 1.4 years. Most pregnancies (75% were neither planned nor wanted, however, most teen mothers (64.3% did not use any contraceptive method. Of the pregnant teenagers, 68.1% came from unstructured families where in 71% of the teen pregnancy cases, there was a role model (mother, sister, or cousin who already experienced teen pregnancy. The average number of school years attended by the analyzed pregnant teenagers was 8.1 years, however, there was a high dropout rate of 40.1%. The age at first intercourse was low and concurs with the high incidence of unstructured families. The average number of school years attended was high, which would theoretically reflect a greater knowledge with regard to human reproduction, pointing to the multicausality of teen pregnancy and the role played by the family. Conclusions: We confirmed that teen pregnancy presents multicausal etiology; sexual initiation of pregnant teenagers was quite early with high dropout rates, which indicated that prevention methodology should be based on early detection of risk factors for elaboration of appropriate prevention proposals.
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological and social health is the main problems of workers population, which can increase productivity at work and physical and mental health and provide or decline in these aspects. Materials and Methods: this study was descriptive and crosses - sectional and has been performed on 388 Iranian central iron ore company workers. The tool of study was standard GHQ-28 question are that has been measured under social performance scale. Results: 49.3 and 49 percent of the people have favorable and average score from the state of the social function condition and 1.8 percent of people have severe social dysfunction and besides the employees have less work experienced that have more social dysfunction and there is a relationship between the P = 0.026. With satisfaction with the status of social dysfunction (P = 0 and with the consent of the income (P = 0 there is significant relationship. Conclusion: In this study, a significant percentage of mineworkers were not in good condition from health, social functioning. It reveals the importance of addressing health issues and vulnerable working class, Intervention studies conducted by employers to improve job satisfaction and increased income and received social support from him, can increase the health indicators related to the body and mind.
Huysmans, M.A.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; van der Beek, A.J.; de Looze, M.P.; van Dieen, J.H.
It has been suggested that fatigue affects proprioception and consequently movement accuracy, the effects of which may be counteracted by increased muscle activity. To determine the effects of fatigue on tracking performance and muscle activity in the M. extensor carpi radialis (ECR), 11 female
Brooks, B A; Floyd, F; Robins, D L; Chan, W Y
Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill acquisition. Participation in social activities is positively related to children's social adjustment, but little is known about the benefits of activity participation for children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities. This study investigated the association between frequency and type of social activity participation and the social competence of 8-11-year-old children with intellectual disability (n = 40) and specific learning disabilities (n = 53), in comparison with typically developing peers (n = 24). More time involved in unstructured activities, but not structured activities, was associated with higher levels of social competence for all children. This association was strongest for children with intellectual disability, suggesting that participation in unstructured social activities was most beneficial for these children. Future research on the quality of involvement is necessary to further understand specific aspects of unstructured activities that might facilitate social development. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gilman, Jodi M; Lee, Sang; Kuster, John K; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C
Decades of research have demonstrated the importance of social influence in initiation and maintenance of drug use, but little is known about neural mechanisms underlying social influence in young adults who use recreational drugs. To better understand whether the neural and/or behavioral response to social influence differs in young adults using illicit drugs, 20 marijuana-using young adults (MJ) aged 18-25, and 20 controls (CON) performed a decision-making task in the context of social influence, while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. A priori analyses focused on the nucleus accumbens (NAc), with post hoc analyses in the rest of the striatum. In this task, participants could choose to either follow or go against group influence. When subjects applied social information to response choice selection (independent of following or going against group influence), we observed activation in the middle striatum (caudate), in the MJ group only, that extended ventrally into the NAc. MJ users but not CON showed greater activation in the NAc but not the caudate while making choices congruent with group influence as opposed to choices going against group influence. Activation in the NAc when following social influence was associated with amount of drug use reported. In contrast, during the feedback phase of the task we observed significant NAc activation in both MJ and CON, along with dorsal caudate activation only in MJ participants. This NAc activation did not correlate with drug use. This study shows that MJ users, but not CON, show differential brain activation across striatal subregions when applying social information to make a decision, following versus going against a group of peers, or receiving positive feedback. The current work suggests that differential neural sensitivity to social influence in regions such as the striatum may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of marijuana use.
Jun H. Choi
Full Text Available Most studies on the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP and corporate financial performance (CFP have focused on large enterprises and archival tests for SMEs have been relatively few. There is a need for SME studies that are comparable to the research on large enterprises. In this study, we tested the CSP-CFP relationship of SMEs in Korea using a massive archival database. Although common theories on corporate social responsibility (CSR in SMEs describe SMEs as non-strategic performers, we found a strong positive relationship between CSP-CFP for the larger or hi-tech SMEs. Therefore, some SMEs are similar to multinational companies in that they approach CSR effectively. This study makes a contribution to the literature on both CSR and SMEs because it empirically demonstrates the heterogeneity of SMEs and it presents a CSR-SME study that is methodologically comparable to the research on big corporations.
Richards, Elizabeth A; McDonough, Meghan; Fu, Rong
Physical activity behavior is influenced by numerous factors including motivation, social interactions, and the walkability of the environment. To examine how social contexts and environmental features affect physical activity motivational processes across time. Participants (N=104) completed 3 monthly online surveys assessing self-determination theory constructs, social partners in physical activity, neighborhood walkability, and weekly physical activity. Longitudinal path analysis examined the degree to which physical activity was predicted by individual goals, orientation, and autonomy support and whether these associations were meditated by motivation and moderated by the social and environmental contexts of physical activity. The effect of controlled exercise orientations on physical activity was mediated by autonomous motivation. This association was stronger among those who perceived less crime in their neighborhoods. To improve the ability to tailor physical activity counseling it is important to understand how each person views exercise situations and to understand his/her social and neighborhood environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…
Johnson, Alan R.; van de Schoot, Rens; Delmar, Frédéric; Crano, William D.
The team behavior literature is ambiguous about the relations between members’ interpersonal processes—task debate and task conflict—and team performance. From a social influence perspective, we show why members’ interpersonal processes determine team performance over time in small groups. Together,
Perkmen, Serkan; Pamuk, Sonmez
The main objective of the study was to examine interrelationships among social cognitive variables (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and performance goals) and their role in predicting pre-service teachers' technology integration performance. Although researchers have examined the role of these variables in the teacher-education context, the…
Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther
Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first and…
van Emmerik, Hetty; Sanders, Karin
This study examines how different employment relationships in academic settings, ie tenured versus non-tenured appointments, are associated with different types of job performance efforts. The social embeddedness model contends that employees' efforts to perform well depend on embeddedness in the
Eddy Soeryanto Soegoto
Full Text Available AbstractBanking industries have not been effective yet in implementing marketing communication and company social responsibility programs. The establishment of image has not been done effectively yet; accordingly marketing performance cannot be implemented as it is expected. This research was done in the banking industries at Bandung City with sample as much as 42 banking industries drawn using a random sampling method. Thaanalysis procedure used Structural Equation Modeling based on Partial Least Square. This study generates anew model different with the previous researches where marketing communication and company social respon-sibility programs do not affect directly on the banking industries’ marketing performance. Nevertheless the image affect the marketing performance moderately. In conclusion, banking industries’ marketing perfor-mance can be maximal when the marketing communication is implemented effectively and the company social responsibility is implemented conducively in order to shape positive image.
Montrezor, Luís H
The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Wiederkehr, Virginie; Darnon, Céline; Chazal, Sébastien; Guimond, Serge; Martinot, Delphine
Previous research has largely documented that socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong and consistent predictor of pupils' school performance in several countries. In this research, we argue that children internalize the SES achievement gap in the form of a lower/higher sense of school self-efficacy. In two studies, teenaged students' (Study 1) and…
Yang, Chia-chen; Brown, B Bradford
Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among college students, but the specific activities and motives that foster social adjustment remain unclear. This study examined associations between patterns of Facebook activity, motives for using Facebook, and late adolescents' social adjustment to the college environment. Anonymous self-report survey data from 193 mostly European American students (M age = 20.32; 54 % female) attending a major Midwestern university indicated that motives and activity patterns were associated directly with social adjustment, but the association between one activity, status updating, and social adjustment also was moderated by the motive of relationship maintenance. Findings provide a more comprehensive portrait of how Facebook use may foster or inhibit social adjustment in college.
Marcelo Alvaro da Silva Macedo
listed, were the Paper and Pulp and Steel and Metallurgy. From this point, it was made a comparison of the behavior of the socially responsible companies with the other belonging to their sector, which were listed among the Best and Bigger, “Maiores e Melhores” from the Exame Magazine (2006. The idea is to check if the companies which have adopted “politically” correct practices through social and environmental actions showed a performance, in terms of liquidity, debt and profitability, statistically higher in relation to the market. The results show that, it isn’t observed significant differences in the indexes under analysis between the two companies groups (socially responsible and the market. Key-words: Social Responsibility; Performance; ISE.
Social Security Administration — The DATA Act Information Model Schema Reporting Submission Specification File B. File B includes the agency object class and program activity detail obligation and...
Full Text Available Companies that are listed on a stock exchange should know that reporting only financial measures is not enough for ensuring sustainable development. To be truly competitive, they should also include information about environmental policies and about the benefits that the company offers to its employees. The present research aims to provide information on how Romanian listed companies report environmental and social indicators and whether or not this has an impact on financial performance. We used a four time period panel fixed effect model for Romanian companies that are listed in the first category of the Bucharest Stock of Exchange. The results point out that increasing water, air and soil protection has a negative impact on current return on equity, while no effects were detected on return on assets and stock market returns. Other environmental variables such as gas, energy or sound were found not to be statistically significant. Training and benefits after retirement have a mixed effect on financial measures. The research correlates Romanian accounting regulation changes with companies’ characteristics and the influence of financial audit on financial performance, and concludes that increasing environmental and social protection could have an impact on financial performance in the long run, as positive correlation was detected between social or environmental performance and stock market returns one year after the changes occurred.
Wright, Michelle F
Little attention has been given to adolescents' experience of cyberstalking and how such experiences relate to their depression and academic performance. It is less clear how other variables, such as perceived social support, might impact these associations. Addressing these gaps in the literature, this study investigated the potential moderating effect of perceived social support from parents on the association between cyberstalking victimization and depression and academic performance, each assessed 1 year later, from 11th to 12th grade. Participants were 413 adolescents (ages 17-19 years old; 54 percent female; M = 17.39 years, SD = 0.53) in the 12th grade from a Midwestern city in the United States. They completed questionnaires on their self-reported face-to-face and cyberstalking victimization, depression, and perceived social support from parents. Adolescents' academic performance was also assessed using their school records. During the 12th grade, depression and academic performance were examined again. The findings indicated that the association between cyberstalking victimization and Time 2 depression was much more positive at lower levels of perceived social support, while such an association was more negative at higher levels of perceived social support. Opposite patterns were found for Time 2 academic performance. The results indicate the need for additional research focused on cyberstalking about adolescents.
S. A. Shlianchak
Full Text Available The article reviews the key opportunities of using services of web 2. 0 technologies to the educational process. It is shown of Social Software tools: Wiki technology, system of creating blogs, systems of storing and sharing web resources. The basic lines of Wiki-technology, possibility, and methods of the use of it are described in pedagogical practice. The described pedagogical potential of Wiki-technology to organize project activities of students. It should be stressed that Wiki is a piece of server software that allows users to freely create and edit web page content using any web browser. The author focusing on teaching and methodical opportunities of the Internet blogs and systems of storing and sharing web resources (for joint hypertext materials creation, placement of presentations, text documents, photos, video resources, etc. in professional preparation of the future primary school teachers. It is shown efficiency using of web 2. 0 technologies in the educational work future teachers (by the example of their own resources of Kirovograd State Pedagogical University named after Volodymyr Vynnychenko.
Justin M. Odinioha Gabriel; Wadike, George
Over the years, society has witnessed an unprecedented neglect in the area of corporate social responsibility; this situation has diversely been greeted with several conflicts between host communities and the guest enterprises resulting in kidnapping, hostage takings, total shutdown of company facilities and eventual financial losses. In this paper, we examined the social responsibility performance of higher educational institutions in Nigeria. Four research questions were asked to produce th...
Töllinen, Aarne; Karjaluoto, Heikki
The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for measuring the effectiveness of social media marketing communications. With recent advances in information and communications technology, especially in social collaboration technologies, both academics and practitioners rethink whether the existing marketing communications performance metrics are still valid in the changing communications landscape, or is it time to devise entirely new metrics for measuring mar...
Research and development (R&D) investment affects firms’ growth and reflects their investment energy. However, it is recorded as an expense in financial statements, according to generally accepted accounting principles (e.g., International Financial Statements Standards). This study examines whether firms’ R&D investment has a positive effect on their performance, when they engage in corporate social responsibility. The author focuses on firms that have earned corporate social responsibility ...
Nia Kusuma Wardhani
Full Text Available Every employee would expect a career enhancement in his job. There are many factors that affect employee careers. This study aims to examine the influence of Competence, Transformational Leadership, Social Capital and Performance to Career Employees of Mercu Buana University, is a quantitative research with Path Analysis method. This research was conducted at Mercu Buana University in West Jakarta area, the research sample was 185 employees using Simple Random Sampling method. Associated with the performance of employees, the results showed that there is an influence of competence on performance, there is the influence of transformational leadership on performance, there is the influence of social capital on performance. In the case of employee career, the result of research indicate that there is influence of competence to career of employee, there is influence of employee career performance, there is influence of social capital to career of employee. The result of path analysis gives a structural equation Y = 0,258X1 + 0,213X2 + 0,229X3 + 0,416X4 + 0,36. Thus it can be explained that the most direct influence on Employee Career is a Performance variable of 41.6%, while the Competence variable of 25.8% and social capital variable of 22.9%.
Takahashi, Hideyuki; Terada, Kazunori; Morita, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Haji, Tomoki; Kozima, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Omori, Takashi; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi
Internal (neuronal) representations in the brain are modified by our experiences, and this phenomenon is not unique to sensory and motor systems. Here, we show that different impressions obtained through social interaction with a variety of agents uniquely modulate activity of dorsal and ventral pathways of the brain network that mediates human social behavior. We scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 16 healthy volunteers when they performed a simple matching-pennies game with a human, human-like android, mechanical robot, interactive robot, and a computer. Before playing this game in the scanner, participants experienced social interactions with each opponent separately and scored their initial impressions using two questionnaires. We found that the participants perceived opponents in two mental dimensions: one represented "mind-holderness" in which participants attributed anthropomorphic impressions to some of the opponents that had mental functions, while the other dimension represented "mind-readerness" in which participants characterized opponents as intelligent. Interestingly, this "mind-readerness" dimension correlated to participants frequently changing their game tactic to prevent opponents from envisioning their strategy, and this was corroborated by increased entropy during the game. We also found that the two factors separately modulated activity in distinct social brain regions. Specifically, mind-holderness modulated activity in the dorsal aspect of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal and posterior paracingulate cortices, while mind-readerness modulated activity in the ventral aspect of TPJ and the temporal pole. These results clearly demonstrate that activity in social brain networks is modulated through pre-scanning experiences of social interaction with a variety of agents. Furthermore, our findings elucidated the existence of two distinct functional networks in the social human brain
The purpose of this paper is to understand consumer behavioural models with respect to their reactions to social network marketing. Theoretical background is focused on online and social network usage, motivations and behaviour. The research goal is to explore consumer reactions to the exposure of social network marketing based on the following criteria: level of brand engagement, word-of-mouth (WOM) referral behaviour, and purchase intentions. Consumers are investigated ...
Full Text Available Objective: We present first-phase results of a performing arts public health intervention, ‘Singing and Dancing for Health,’ aiming to promote healthier behaviors in Ghana’s impoverished Northern Region. We hypothesize that live music and dance drama provide a powerful technology to overcome barriers such as illiteracy, lack of adequate media access, inadequate health resources, and entrenched sociocultural attitudes. Our research objective is to evaluate this claim. Methods: In this first phase, we evaluated the effectiveness of arts interventions in improving knowledge and behaviors associated with reduced incidence of malaria and cholera, focusing on basic information and simple practices, such as proper hand washing. Working with the Youth Home Cultural Group, we codeveloped two ‘dance dramas’ delivering health messages through dialog, lyrics, and drama, using music and dance to attract spectators, focus attention, infuse emotion, and socialize impact. We also designed knowledge, attitude, and behavior surveys as measurement instruments. Using purposive sampling, we selected three contrasting test villages in the vicinity, contrasting in size and demographics. With cooperation of chiefs, elders, elected officials, and Ghana Health Service officers, we conducted a baseline survey in each village. Next, we performed the interventions, and subsequently conducted follow-up surveys. Using a more qualitative approach, we also tracked a select subgroup, conducted focus group studies, and collected testimonials. Surveys were coded and data were analyzed by Epi Info. Results: Both quantitative and qualitative methods indicated that those who attended the dance drama performances were likelier than those who did not attend to list the causal, preventive, and transmission factors of malaria and cholera. Also, the same attendees were likelier than nonattendees to list some activities they do to prevent malaria, cholera, and other sanitation
Katevas, Kleomenis; Healey, Patrick G. T.; Harris, Matthew Tobias
The success of live comedy depends on a performer's ability to 'work' an audience. Ethnographic studies suggest that this involves the co-ordinated use of subtle social signals such as body orientation, gesture, gaze by both performers and audience members. Robots provide a unique opportunity to test the effects of these signals experimentally. Using a life-size humanoid robot, programmed to perform a stand-up comedy routine, we manipulated the robot's patterns of gesture and gaze and examine...
Monma, Takafumi; Takeda, Fumi; Noguchi, Haruko; Takahashi, Hideto; Tamiya, Nanako
This study investigated the effects of leisure and social activities on the ability of middle-aged adults to maintain activities of daily living (ADL), and whether performing these activities alone or with others contributed to the ability to perform ADL. The study used nationally representative longitudinal data of 22,770 adults in Japan, aged 50–59 years, who did not have limitations in performing ADL at the beginning of the 5-year survey period. The study considered six activity categories: two leisure activities (“hobbies or cultural activities” and “exercise or sports”) and four social activities (“community events,” “support for children,” “support for elderly individuals,” and “other social activities”). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation between participation in these categories at baseline and difficulties in ADL at the 5-year follow-up. The association between the extent of social interaction during these activities (“by oneself,” “with others,” or “both”) and difficulties in ADL was also investigated. The analysis yielded significant negative correlations between “exercise or sports” and difficulties in ADL for both men and women, and between “hobbies or cultural activities” and difficulties in ADL for women. However, these significant relationships occurred only when activities were conducted “with others.” The present findings might help prevent deterioration in middle-aged adults’ performance of ADL in Japan. PMID:27788163
Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).
Scheiber, IBR; Weiss, BM; Frigerio, D; Kotrschal, K
In general, support by social allies may reduce stress, increase success in agonistic encounters and ease access to resources. Social support was mainly known from mammals, particularly primates, and has been studied in birds only recently. Basically two types are known: (i) 'active social support',
This article argues that while social entrepreneurship shares concerns similar to those of social justice activism, the corporate and business ethos in the idea of entrepreneurship is not suited to the social concerns that teachers and other educators deal with in their everyday lives. The article points out characteristics of social…
Zhu, Junxing; Zhang, Jiawei; Wu, Quanyuan; Jia, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Xiaokai; Yu, Philip S
Nowadays, people are usually involved in multiple heterogeneous social networks simultaneously. Discovering the anchor links between the accounts owned by the same users across different social networks is crucial for many important inter-network applications, e.g., cross-network link transfer and cross-network recommendation. Many different supervised models have been proposed to predict anchor links so far, but they are effective only when the labeled anchor links are abundant. However, in real scenarios, such a requirement can hardly be met and most anchor links are unlabeled, since manually labeling the inter-network anchor links is quite costly and tedious. To overcome such a problem and utilize the numerous unlabeled anchor links in model building, in this paper, we introduce the active learning based anchor link prediction problem. Different from the traditional active learning problems, due to the one-to-one constraint on anchor links, if an unlabeled anchor link a = ( u , v ) is identified as positive (i.e., existing), all the other unlabeled anchor links incident to account u or account v will be negative (i.e., non-existing) automatically. Viewed in such a perspective, asking for the labels of potential positive anchor links in the unlabeled set will be rewarding in the active anchor link prediction problem. Various novel anchor link information gain measures are defined in this paper, based on which several constraint active anchor link prediction methods are introduced. Extensive experiments have been done on real-world social network datasets to compare the performance of these methods with state-of-art anchor link prediction methods. The experimental results show that the proposed Mean-entropy-based Constrained Active Learning (MC) method can outperform other methods with significant advantages.
Howie, Lajeana D; Lukacs, Susan L; Pastor, Patricia N; Reuben, Cynthia A; Mendola, Pauline
Research has shown that participating in activities outside of school hours is associated with lower dropout rates, enhanced school performance, improved social skills, and reduced problem behaviors. However, most prior studies have been limited to small populations of older children (>12 years). This analysis focuses on children aged 6 to 11 to assess the potential association between participation in activities outside of school hours and behavior in middle childhood in a nationally representative survey. Estimates were based on 25,797 children from the 2003-2004 National Survey of Children's Health. Outside of school activity was defined as participating in sports teams/lessons, clubs/organizations, or both at least once in the past year. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the differences in behavior problems and social skills adjusting for sociodemographic factors, among children classified by participation in outside of school activities. Seventy-five percent of children participated in outside of school activities: 23% in sports, 16% in clubs, and 36% in both clubs and sports. Activity participation differed by gender, race/ethnicity, type of school, poverty status, family structure, household education, and school and community safety. Children participating in both sports and clubs had higher social skills index scores, but no significant difference in problem behavior scores compared with children who did not participate in any outside of school activity. Children participating in both sports and clubs had greater social competence during middle childhood compared with children who did not participate in any outside of school activities.
Ana Rocío Acevedo-Pérez
Full Text Available The accounting professional in recent times, as a major player, has been questioned in the performance of his work and even frequently involved with corporate financial scandals, putting into question the social responsibility of his profession. However, here, the analysis of the accounting profession is directed specifically to watch the behavior of the accountant in a particular sector such as mining, mainly in relation to the advise in the exploitation of coal. This paper presents the results of the investigation on public accountants who provide advisory services to entrepreneurs in the mining sector. It inquires also on issues related to the level and quality of the advice that they provide in different topics such as economic, administrative , tax, labor , social and environmental issues in relation to the development of the activity. Similarly the accountant has an ethical commitment to both organizations and the different groups that are linked directly or indirectly to maintain balance in organizations through the provision of information to related parties on their rights that correspond to them in the development of the activity, and as an administrator and manager of information in decision-making contributes to the generation of the common welfare. Finally, the social responsibility of the public accountant goes beyond the commitment to the State and the organizations in which they work, because there is a commitment to other stakeholders including the environment and society.
Haugen, Tommy; Reinboth, Michael; Hetlelid, Ken J; Peters, Derek M; Høigaard, Rune
The purpose of this study was to determine if mental toughness moderated the occurrence of social loafing in cycle time-trial performance. Twenty-seven men (Mage = 17.7 years, SD = 0.6) completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire prior to completing a 1-min cycling trial under 2 conditions: once with individual performance identified, and once in a group with individual performance not identified. Using a median split of the mental toughness index, participants were divided into high and low mental toughness groups. Cycling distance was compared using a 2 (trial) × 2 (high-low mental toughness) analysis of variance. We hypothesized that mentally tough participants would perform equally well under both conditions (i.e., no indication of social loafing) compared with low mentally tough participants, who would perform less well when their individual performance was not identifiable (i.e., demonstrating the anticipated social loafing effect). The high mental toughness group demonstrated consistent performance across both conditions, while the low mental toughness group reduced their effort in the non-individually identifiable team condition. The results confirm that (a) clearly identifying individual effort/performance is an important situational variable that may impact team performance and (b) higher perceived mental toughness has the ability to negate the tendency to loaf.
Kuepié, Mathias; Tenikué, Michel; Walther, Olivier
networks are also the most successful in terms of monthly sales and profit. The paper shows that the overall economic performance of traders is affected by the socio-professional position of the actors with whom they are connected. While social ties with local religious leaders have no effect......This paper studies the link between economic performance and social networks in West Africa. Using first-hand data collected on 358 small-scale traders in five border markets between Niger, Nigeria and Benin, we are particularly interested in testing whether the most well-connected actors of trade...... on their business, support received from civil servants, politicians, and security authorities translates into economic performance. The paper also shows significant differences between countries, regions and marketplaces. Social connections developed with state representatives have a much greater effect...
Hu, Jiehui; Qi, Song; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Gao, Shan; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, René; Kendrick, Keith M
In male Caucasian subjects, learning is facilitated by receipt of social compared with non-social feedback, and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) facilitates this effect. In this study, we have first shown a cultural difference in that male Chinese subjects actually perform significantly worse in the same reinforcement associated learning task with social (emotional faces) compared with non-social feedback. Nevertheless, in two independent double-blind placebo (PLC) controlled between-subject design experiments we found OXT still selectively facilitated learning with social feedback. Similar to Caucasian subjects this OXT effect was strongest with feedback using female rather than male faces. One experiment performed in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the response, but not feedback phase of the task, OXT selectively increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and putamen during the social feedback condition, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula and caudate. Therefore, OXT may be increasing the salience and reward value of anticipated social feedback. In the PLC group, response times and state anxiety scores during social feedback were associated with signal changes in these same regions but not in the OXT group. OXT may therefore have also facilitated learning by reducing anxiety in the social feedback condition. Overall our results provide the first evidence for cultural differences in social facilitation of learning per se, but a similar selective enhancement of learning with social feedback under OXT. This effect of OXT may be associated with enhanced responses and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This research aims to identify the influence of Good Corporate Governance, represented by institutional ownership and managerial ownership, on Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance, and also to observe the possible influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on Corporate Financial Performance. This research examines 126 manufacturing companies which are listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (ISX and have issued an audited financial statement for 2006. The statistical method used to test the hypothesis is Path Analysis. The result suggests that Good Corporate Governance influences both the disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance and that Corporate Social Responsibility significantly influences Corporate Financial Performance. The result also suggests that CEO Tenure, the controlling variable, holds a significant influence on the disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility. Yet, there is no strong evidence to support the type of industries as an influencing factor of Corporate Social Responsibility. Furthermore, we found that the latter condition would also apply when we analyze the influence of Corporate Secretary and Nomination and Remuneration Committee on Corporate Financial Performance. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi pengaruh antara struktur Coorporate Governance yang diproksikan sebagai kepemilikan institusional, kepemilikan manajerial terhadap corporate social responsibility dan corporate social responsibility terhadap corporate financial performance. Penelitian menggunakan data sekunder dari laporan tahunan 2006 perusahaan publik yang terdapat di Pusat Referensi Pasar Modal (PRPM Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. Sampel dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 126 perusahaan. Melalui pendekatan analisa jalur (path analysis menunjukkan Good Corporate Governance yaitu kepemilikan managerial dan institusional mempunyai pengaruh terhadap
Mingle, Jeffrey; Adams, Musah; Adjei, E. A.
The study comparatively analyzed social media usage and academic performance in public and private senior high schools. The issue of social media and academic performance has been a very debatable topic with regard to its effect. This study further explores the relation between private and public schools in relation to social media use and…
Eden, Aimee R; Hansen, Elizabeth; Hagen, Michael D; Peterson, Lars E
Physician performance and peer comparison feedback can affect physician care quality and patient outcomes. This study aimed to understand family physician perspectives of the value of performance feedback in quality improvement (QI) activities. This study analyzed American Board of Family Medicine open-ended survey data collected between 2004 and 2014 from physicians who completed a QI module that provided pre- and post-QI project individual performance data and peer comparisons. Physicians made 3480 comments in response to a question about this performance feedback, which were generally positive in nature (86%). Main themes that emerged were importance of accurate feedback data, enhanced detail in the content of feedback, and ability to customize peer comparison groups to compare performance to peers with similar patient populations or practice characteristics. Meaningful and tailored performance feedback may be an important tool for physicians to improve their care quality and should be considered an integral part of QI project design.
Full Text Available Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, <10% of the brain is active at any given time, it utilizes almost all the oxygen delivered. In order to perform complex tasks or more than one task (multitasking, the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities.Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking. Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen (b HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen. Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance.Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment (p < 0.001 for both. Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment (p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part.Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.
Stern, Emily R; Wager, Tor D; Egner, Tobias; Hirsch, Joy; Mangels, Jennifer A
Advance preparation has been shown to improve the efficiency of conflict resolution. Yet, with little empirical work directly linking preparatory neural activity to the performance benefits of advance cueing, it is not clear whether this relationship results from preparatory activation of task-specific networks, or from activity associated with general alerting processes. Here, fMRI data were acquired during a spatial Stroop task in which advance cues either informed subjects of the upcoming relevant feature of conflict stimuli (spatial or semantic) or were neutral. Informative cues decreased reaction time (RT) relative to neutral cues, and cues indicating that spatial information would be task-relevant elicited greater activity than neutral cues in multiple areas, including right anterior prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortex. Additionally, preparatory activation in bilateral parietal cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex predicted faster RT when subjects responded to spatial location. No regions were found to be specific to semantic cues at conventional thresholds, and lowering the threshold further revealed little overlap between activity associated with spatial and semantic cueing effects, thereby demonstrating a single dissociation between activations related to preparing a spatial versus semantic task-set. This relationship between preparatory activation of spatial processing networks and efficient conflict resolution suggests that advance information can benefit performance by leading to domain-specific biasing of task-relevant information.
Ferrari, Francesca; Peerani, Paolo
Neutron coincidence counting is the reference NDA technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. For high-enriched uranium (HEU) samples active neutron interrogation is generally performed and the most common device used by nuclear inspectors is the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC). Within her master thesis at the Polytechnic of Milan, the first author performed an intensive study on the characteristics and performances of the AWCC in order to assess the 235 U mass in HEU oxide samples at the PERLA laboratory of JRC. The work has been summarised in this paper that starts with the optimisation of the use of AWCC for nuclear safeguards, describing the calibration procedure, reporting results of a series of verification measurements, summarising the performances that can be obtained with this instruments during inspections at fuel production plants and concluding with the discussion of uncertainties related to these measurements.
This is an explorative case study that examines how ideas and concepts relating to sustainable development are factored into new approaches to urban governance in Hangzhou. The proposition is that traditional performance assessment procedures combined with innovative surveys of the city government......’s social accountability and with various forms of social participation have created a new framework for urban governance, both conceptually and as a series of practical measures. More specifically, the study examines a dramatic redesign of the performance assessment system in Hangzhou aimed at developing...
Marcinkowska, Urszula; Kukowka, Karol; Gałeczka, Michał; Pudlo, Robert; Zakliczyński, Michał; Zembala, Marian
The aim of the study is to describe both professional and social activities of patients after heart transplant. Ninety-five heart transplant patients treated at the Silesian Center for Heart Diseases in Zabrze were surveyed, comprising 29 women (30.5%) and 66 men (69.5%). The average age of respondents was 54.3 years old (standard deviation (SD) = 15 years); the average period that had elapsed since the heart transplant was 7.1 years (SD = 4 years). We designed a questionnaire as a tool for collecting information from patients. Twenty-five percent of patients worked at the time of completion of the questionnaire. Eighty percent of those patients were working before and after the transplant, 20%--only after transplantation (p surveyed, 52.5% said that their financial situation had not changed whereas 34.5% of those surveyed reported a change for the worse. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported changes in family relationships. Seventy-seven percent reported that they received help from family members, as compared with 19% who did not. Only 25.3% of the patients treated at the Silesian Centre for Heart Diseases after heart transplant are employed and it is one of the lowest employment rates in this category of patients in Europe. One third of working patients have the same work place as they had before their operation. Heart transplant is a cause of changes in family relationships. Most often family bonds are strengthened but sometimes family members become nervous, impatient and unwilling to talk about the transplant. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Ambient Intelligence research is about ubiquitous computing and about social and intelligent properties of computer-supported environments. These properties aim at providing inhabitants or visitors of ambient intelligence environments with support in their activities. Activities include interactions
Ambient Intelligence research is about ubiquitous computing and about social and intelligent properties of computer-supported environments. These properties aim at providing inhabitants or visitors of ambient intelligence environments with support in their activities. Activities include interactions
From its inception, antievolution activism has been aimed not only at the natural sciences but also, and almost as often, at the social sciences. Although almost entirely overlooked by scholars, this activism played a significant part in the development of American social science in the early twentieth century. Analyzing public writings and private papers of antievolution activists, academic social scientists, and university officials from the 1920s, this essay recalls this forgotten history, showing how antievolution activism contributed to the abandonment of evolutionary theory and the adoption of a set of secular, scientific, and professional characteristics that have come to define much of modern social science.
Macaulay, Bobby; Mazzei, Micaela; Roy, Michael J; Teasdale, Simon; Donaldson, Cam
An emerging stream of literature has focused on the ways in which social enterprises might act on the social determinants of health. However, this previous work has not taken a sufficiently broad account of the wide range of stakeholders involved in social enterprises and has also tended to reduce and simplify a complex and heterogeneous set of organisations to a relatively homogenous social enterprise concept. In an attempt to address these gaps, we conducted an empirical investigation between August 2014 and October 2015 consisting of qualitative case studies involving in-depth semi-structured interviews and a focus group with a wide variety of stakeholders from three social enterprises in different regions of Scotland. We found that different forms of social enterprise impact on different dimensions of health in different ways, including through: engendering a feeling of ownership and control; improving environmental conditions (both physical and social); and providing or facilitating meaningful employment. In conclusion, we highlight areas for future research. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available One important instrument to be used in the control system design is strategic behaviors that can lead to the expected organization performance. Referring to the extended definition of strategic behavior using stakeholder-based strategic behavior, corporate social performance is kind of strategic behavior to be influenced by using control system. This paper discusses how control system, using Simons‟ levers of control can play important role in increasing the corporate social performance. The interaction between control system, including belief system, boundary system, diagnostic control system, and interactive control system, as well as the corporate financial performance (CFP can affect the corporate social performance (CSP due to fact that increase in CFP resulting from the appropriate use of control system components enables the company has more chance to do the CSP. The levers of control are deemed to form an integral part of employee socialization and support the development of an organization‟s culture, the system of shared beliefs, values, norms, and mores of organizational members which are deemed to be a primary determinant of the direction of employee behavior.
Triana, Maria Andrea; Lamberts, Roberto; Sassi, Paola
In Brazil the housing deficit is around 5.5 million houses. To address this need, the government created a programme called “My house, My life”. The main subsidies of the programme are for families earning up to three times the minimum wage. In order to formulate strategies for more energy efficiency buildings, it is necessary to understand the thermal and energy performance of what is being built. This article defines representative projects for typologies being built in the Brazilian social housing sector through the analysis of 108 projects considering two groups of income levels and investigates the thermal and energy performance of the representative projects in relation to the Regulation for Energy Efficiency Labelling of Residential Buildings in Brazil for two bioclimatic zones. Five representative building models were defined. Considering the most common features found on the sample, the study suggests the importance of addresing energy efficiency measures on the sector since current building techniques for social housing shows a tendency towards a low performance in relation to the thermal and energy performance criteria of the Energy Labelling especially for lower income projects. This provides a basis for future policy and allows for more in depth studies within the sector. - Highlights: • Characterisation of representative typologies built for social housing in Brazil. • More recurrent building physics characteristics considered. • Energy efficiency and thermal performance of Brazilian social housing analysed. • Regulation for Energy Efficiency Labelling of Residential Buildings in Brazil used for analysis.
Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study social relationships and reproductivity in captive arctic blue fox groups of different genetic origin. The social status of the individuals among groups remained constant during autumn and early winter. Males typically dominated over females in the groups. Males also had higher body weights and more social contacts than females. The locomotor activity of the animals increased during the breeding season, especially in the case of males. Urinary marking had a significant importance during the breeding season, being most pronounced in dominant males. No synchronization was observed in the heat development of females despite some kinship. Behaviours such as escape attempts, bitings and increased aggressiveness occurred in March-April as a result of increasing social tension combined with reproductive behaviour. Whelping success varied depending on group composition. Some of the non-breeding and breeding females were observed to act as communal nursing helpers.
Full Text Available For the effective and better implementation of CSR law, development of SRI market in the investment world is essential. Unless the investors turn socially responsible, CSR principles cannot be enforced in practice. This paper examines whether the companies that are socially responsible are performing better than general companies in terms of risk, return and various risk-adjusted measures during pre-crisis, crisis and post-crisis periods. We find that despite having higher risk, socially responsible stocks portfolios generated significantly higher returns and hence outperformed other portfolios on the basis of all risk-adjusted measures, as well as net selectivity returns during crisis period. The results uphold even with the use of Fama-French three factor model for estimating excess returns. Besides augmenting existing literature, our results clearly corroborate the fact that investors can derive benefits by investing in socially responsible companies (especially in crisis period. The study supports the view that socially responsible products can be used as a safe investment vehicle by investors during adversity. Therefore, regulators, policy makers and mutual funds should construct and make available various socially responsible investment products to initiate the movement of socially responsible investing in India.
Maller, Cecily Jane
The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shaker Al Ani Mawih K.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate and analyze the effects of corporate citizenship activities on the financial performance and market performance of Omani manufacturing companies in the Sultanate of Oman for the period 2009-2013. The Financial performance of companies is measured by two independent variables: return on assets (ROA and return on equity (ROE. Market performance is measured by the fair market value of shares (FMV. CCAs are determined by the voluntary disclosures of corporate citizenship activities by the companies. The study concludes that there is a positive impact by CCAs on the financial and market performance of the Omani companies that leads to profit maximization.
Social support and positive activity involvement are considered protective factors that can help offset the risks for youths living in impoverished areas. This study investigated whether insufficient social support and activity involvement are related to internalizing difficulties, such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.…
Kubacki, Krzysztof; Ronti, Rimante; Lahtinen, Ville; Pang, Bo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
Purpose: A significant proportion of the world's adult population is insufficiently active. One approach used to overcome barriers and facilitate participation in physical activity is social marketing. The purpose of this paper are twofold: first, this review seeks to provide a contemporary review of social marketing's effectiveness in changing…
Fernandes de Mello Araujo, E.; Tran, A.V.T.T.; Mollee, J.S.; Klein, M.C.A.
It is known that opinions, attitudes and emotions spread through social networks. Several of these cognitions influence behavioral choices. Therefore, it is assumed that the level of physical activity of a person is influenced by the activity levels of the people in its social network. We have
Cassandra L. Brown
Full Text Available Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.
Baumgartner, Robert; Heberlein, Thomas A.
Two recreational activities, deer hunting and goose hunting, both similar in form, are compared. It was hypothesized that the activity for which participants rated the process, the goal, and the social interaction as most important to the experience and for which participants showed the strongest family ties and social support for participation…
Popova, Irina N.
The article is devoted to the analysis of technological support of the educational process in solving the problem of forming the socially active individual. The authors studied the value of the category "social activity" and analyzed educational technologies that have an impact on its formation. The obtained results gave the possibility…
Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Cairney, John; Zimmer, Chantelle
In this article, we reflect on the contributions of the social sciences to the field of adapted physical activity by examining the theories and methods that have been adopted from the social science disciplines. To broaden our perspective on adapted physical activity and provide new avenues for theoretical and empirical exploration, we discuss and…
Full Text Available Background: Nowadays the emphasis on social components in the general mainstream of innovation activity is one of the strongest grounds for the successful functioning and development of enterprises. In several countries, social innovation activity is becoming a product of business in general, with associated expectations regarding profit.
Rogier Brussee; Drs Erik Hekman; Thijs Waardenburg
In this paper we discuss the general approach and choices we made in developing a prototype of a social media monitor. The main goal of the museum monitor is to offer museum professionals and researchers better insight in the effects of their own social media usage and compare this with other actors
Raud, Triin; Kaldoja, Mari-Liis; Kolk, Anneli
Epilepsy may affect a child's social skills and social cognition. The purpose of the study was to examine associations between sociocognitive skills and neurocognitive performance in children with epilepsy. Thirty-five children with epilepsy between the ages of 7 and 12 years (25 with partial and 10 with generalized epilepsy) and 30 controls participated. Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks, Social Cognition Questionnaire proposed by Saltzman-Benaiah and Lalonde (2007), and Social Skills Rating System were used to assess social competence and sociocognitive skills. Neurocognitive performance was assessed using the NEPSY battery. Children with epilepsy demonstrated more difficulties in understanding false belief (pChildren with epilepsy performed significantly worse in attention, executive, verbal, and fine motor tasks (pChildren with generalized epilepsy had more problems in memory tasks (pchildren with partial epilepsy. An age of onset over 9.1 years was positively associated with ToM skills (r=.42, pchildren with better executive functions, and language and visuospatial skills was revealed. The type of epilepsy and age of onset significantly affected ToM skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koban, Leonie; Schneider, Rebecca; Ashar, Yoni K; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Landy, Lauren; Moscovitch, David A; Wager, Tor D; Arch, Joanna J
People learn about their self from social information, and recent work suggests that healthy adults show a positive bias for learning self-related information. In contrast, social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by a negative view of the self, yet what causes and maintains this negative self-view is not well understood. Here the authors use a novel experimental paradigm and computational model to test the hypothesis that biased social learning regarding self-evaluation and self-feelings represents a core feature that distinguishes adults with SAD from healthy controls. Twenty-one adults with SAD and 35 healthy controls (HCs) performed a speech in front of 3 judges. They subsequently evaluated themselves and received performance feedback from the judges and then rated how they felt about themselves and the judges. Affective updating (i.e., change in feelings about the self over time, in response to feedback from the judges) was modeled using an adapted Rescorla-Wagner learning model. HCs demonstrated a positivity bias in affective updating, which was absent in SAD. Further, self-performance ratings revealed group differences in learning from positive feedback-a difference that endured at an average of 1 year follow up. These findings demonstrate the presence and long-term endurance of positively biased social learning about the self among healthy adults, a bias that is absent or reversed among socially anxious adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ballen, Cissy J; Wieman, Carl; Salehi, Shima; Searle, Jeremy B; Zamudio, Kelly R
Efforts to retain underrepresented minority (URM) students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have shown only limited success in higher education, due in part to a persistent achievement gap between students from historically underrepresented and well-represented backgrounds. To test the hypothesis that active learning disproportionately benefits URM students, we quantified the effects of traditional versus active learning on student academic performance, science self-efficacy, and sense of social belonging in a large (more than 250 students) introductory STEM course. A transition to active learning closed the gap in learning gains between non-URM and URM students and led to an increase in science self-efficacy for all students. Sense of social belonging also increased significantly with active learning, but only for non-URM students. Through structural equation modeling, we demonstrate that, for URM students, the increase in self-efficacy mediated the positive effect of active-learning pedagogy on two metrics of student performance. Our results add to a growing body of research that supports varied and inclusive teaching as one pathway to a diversified STEM workforce. © 2017 C. J. Ballen et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Full Text Available Background: Social relations and depressive symptoms are intertwined. They both predict subsequent dementia, but only few studies on the association between social life aspects and subsequent dementia exist. Methods: The risk of subsequent dementia was estimated over 2 follow-up assessments, each 18 months apart, depending on leisure activity, social support (general scale and the 3 factors emotional support, practical support, and social integration, and depressive symptoms, using proportional hazard models in a cohort of elderly patients (n = 2,300, with a mean age of 82.45 years recruited for the study by their general practitioners. Results: Higher depressive symptoms and lower cognitive and physical activity were associated with an increased risk of subsequent all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's dementia (AD. While neither social engagement nor the general social support scale was associated with subsequent dementia, a higher level of social integration was associated with a lower dementia risk. In combined models, the results for activity variables remained similar, but the strength of the association between depressive symptoms and the subsequent risk of dementia decreased, and the association with social integration disappeared. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms increased and activity variables decreased the risk of subsequent dementia; however, activity variables, namely cognitive and physical activity, partly mediated the effect of depressive symptoms on the subsequent risk of all-cause dementia and AD. In many cases, social support was not associated with a risk of subsequent dementia.
... the project methodology and findings will be used in similar explorations in Egypt, ... and religious organizations in the Lebanese social policies [Arabic language] ... There is no doubt that Canada is tying its future growth prospects to Asia.
Heiny, Robert W.; Stachowiak, Robert J.
The Resident-Environment Analysis by Levels Scales model is used to identify ways to rearrange the macro-environment of mentally retarded adults in order to allow for more independent social-community living. (Author)
Kumar, Rohit; Saleem, Muhammad Aamir; Calders, Toon
-driven approach based on the identification of influence propagation patterns. In the first work, we identify so-called information-channels to model potential pathways for information spread, while the second work exploits how users in a location-based social network check in to locations in order to identify...... influential locations. To make our algorithms scalable, approximate versions based on sketching techniques from the data streams domain have been developed. Experiments show that in this way it is possible to efficiently find good seed sets for influence propagation in social networks.......Interaction networks consist of a static graph with a timestamped list of edges over which interaction took place. Examples of interaction networks are social networks whose users interact with each other through messages or location-based social networks where people interact by checking...
Full Text Available the article focuses on the empirical study of students' behavior in social networks; the study was conducted by statistical data analysis methods obtained by interviewing students.
Rhoads, C. J.; Healy, Therese
Can instructors impact their student performance by recommending an activity just prior to taking an exam? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (study, exercise, or meditation) or a control group. Each group was given two different types of tests; a traditional concept exam, and a non-traditional…
Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario
Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…
Wolf, Alex M.; Liachovitzky, Carlos; Abdullahi, Abass S.
This study assessed the effectiveness of the introduction of active learning exercises into the anatomy and physiology curriculum in a community college setting. Specifically, the incorporation of a spirometry-based respiratory physiology lab resulted in improved student performance in two concepts (respiratory volumes and the hallmarks of…
Full Text Available In the latest years, academics have talked more and more about the creative economy, as a cause of a different classification and division of the economic activities, including in its area all those activities which are based on the human resource, its talent and intellectual capital. The creativity seems to be a too special feature, having its own ways to flourish and to be exploited, so it has to be treated separately from the sectors of manufacture, industry or services. The Romanian culture is transmitted and exploited in various ways, starting with the commercialisation of handicrafts and ending with the organisation of events with artistic or symbolic expression. We will focus on the performing arts, organized as events for different communities. These events appear as leisure activities and have an important social feature because they have the attribute to develop the sense of identity, belonging to the group and social cohesion. These aspects are crucial for the development of a creative habitat or cultural center. The festivals attract people for different reasons; some of them are looking for an environment where to socialise, others come being interested exactly in enjoying the event or the specific goods and services which are offered there. Another type of the festival consumers is represented by the ones who only look for something new to experiment, exploring the unknown, this segment not representing loyal customers, but whatever the reason are, each participant comes for the emotional stimulation offered by the enjoyment of the festival.
Cavallo, David N; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; DeVellis, Robert F; Thayer, Linden M; Ammerman, Alice S
Despite their widespread use and extensive technical features, little is known about how to use online social networking sites to increase physical activity. This study aims to examine Facebook engagement among participants in the online social networking arm of a randomized controlled physical activity promotion trial (n = 67). Facebook communications were double coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Regression procedures were used to determine predictors of Facebook use and associations between types of use and changes in perceived social support and physical activity. Changes in perceived social support and physical activity were more strongly associated with participants' individual Facebook use than use of the Facebook intervention group. The way social media sites are used in intervention design could have an impact on their effects. Including existing friends in interventions and using applications that incorporate intervention activities into a more naturalistic use of Facebook may improve the efficacy of future interventions.
José Jesús eGázquez
Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify interpersonal value profiles and find out whether there were any differences in academic performance and social thinking. The study sample was 885 high school students of whom 49.8% (N=441 were boys and 50.2% (N=444 were girls. The results show that students with low Benevolence and Conformity levels showed higher prevalence of failures and repeated the year more often. Furthermore, students with a high level of Recognition and Leadership and low Conformity and Benevolence are socially incompetent students. Intervention programs should to achieve high levels of kindness and consideration, respect for rules and generosity, and diminish the perception of recognition by others and exertion of authority. Thus, this study shows the values that must be worked on to improve students’ Academic Performance and social competence.
Cohen, Joanna; Darnon, Céline; Mollaret, Patrick
We sought to distinguish mastery goals (i.e., desire to learn) from performance goals (i.e., desire to achieve more positive evaluations than others) in the light of social judgment research. In a pilot study, we made a conceptual distinction between three types of traits (agency, competence, and effort) that are often undifferentiated. We then tested the relevance of this distinction for understanding how people pursuing either mastery or performance goals are judged. On self-perception, results revealed that effort was predicted by the adoption of mastery goals and agency by performance goals (Study 1). On judgments, results showed that (a) the target pursuing mastery goals was perceived as oriented toward effort, and (b) the target pursuing performance goals was oriented toward agency (Study 2). Finally, these links were shown again by participants who inferred a target's goals from his traits (Study 3). Results are discussed in terms of the social value of achievement goals at school.
Martensen, Anne; Mouritsen, Jan
The purpose of this study is to prioritise investments in marketing activities based on their effect on business performance (BP). On the basis of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model adapted to a marketing context, four generic marketing activities are structured in two...... dimensions: (1) Small m: marketing strategy and marketing implementation and (2) big M: cross-functional coordination and innovation. Big M and small m interact and influence BP similarly. When considering investing in marketing activities to improve financial performance, the first priority is to recruit...... and retain competent employees and the second, to collect, disseminate and act upon market insight in the form of measurement of effectiveness and production of intelligence. These provide resources for the development of a customer-oriented marketing strategy that in turn helps innovation and cross...
Göritz Anja S
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relation between social desirability and self-reported physical activity in web-based research. Findings A longitudinal study (N = 5,495, 54% women was conducted on a representative sample of the Dutch population using the Marlowe-Crowne Scale as social desirability measure and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Social desirability was not associated with self-reported physical activity (in MET-minutes/week, nor with its sub-behaviors (i.e., walking, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity, and sedentary behavior. Socio-demographics (i.e., age, sex, income, and education did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported physical activity and its sub-behaviors. Conclusions This study does not throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on physical activity.
Jo, Il-Hyun; Kang, Stephanie; Yoon, Meehyun
Collaborative learning has become a dominant learning apparatus for higher level learning objectives. Much of the psychological and social mechanisms operating under this complex group activity, however, is not yet well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of college students' communication competence and degree…
Social media like Facebook has been used for teaching and learning for quite some time. Since it allows for better participation in the learning activities, a fundamental English course at a private university integrated Facebook as a learning platform making it possible for students to do self-study, exchange ideas, give comments, and submit the…
Full Text Available The effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR on financial performance has important implications for enterprises, communities, and countries, and the significance of this issue cannot be ignored. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated model to explain the influence of CSR on financial performance with intellectual capital as a mediator and industry type as a moderator. Empirical results indicate that intellectual capital mediates the relationship between CSR and financial performance, and industry type moderates the direct influence of CSR on financial performance. Such results have critical implications for both academia and practice.
Smith, Matthew J; Horan, William P; Cobia, Derin J; Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Reilly, James L; Breiter, Hans C
Empathic deficits have been linked to poor functioning in schizophrenia, but this work is mostly limited to self-report data. This study examined whether performance-based empathy measures account for incremental variance in social competence and social attainment above and beyond self-reported empathy, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Given the importance of working memory in theoretical models of empathy and in the prediction of functioning in schizophrenia, we also examined whether empathy mediates the relationship between working memory and functioning. Sixty outpatients and 45 healthy controls were compared on performance-based measures of 3 key components of empathic responding, including facial affect perception, emotional empathy (affective responsiveness), and cognitive empathy (emotional perspective-taking). Participants also completed measures of self-reported empathy, neurocognition, clinical symptoms, and social competence and attainment. Patients demonstrated lower accuracy than controls across the 3 performance-based empathy measures. Among patients, these measures showed minimal relations to self-reported empathy but significantly correlated with working memory and other neurocognitive functions as well as symptom levels. Furthermore, cognitive empathy explained significant incremental variance in social competence (∆R (2) = .07, P working memory and social competence. Performance-based measures of empathy were sensitive to functionally relevant disturbances in schizophrenia. Working memory deficits appear to have an important effect on these disruptions in empathy. Empathy is emerging as a promising new area for social cognitive research and for novel recovery-oriented treatment development. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Acuña, Santiago Roger; López-Aymes, Gabriela; Acuña-Castillo, Silvia T.
In this paper we analyze the effects of the type of collaborative task (elaboration of concept map vs elaboration of expository summary) on the performance and on the level of collaboration achieved by Mexican university students in the multimedia learning of a social sciences content (Communication Psychology). Likewise, the processes of social…
Ghadirian, Hajar; Salehi, Keyvan; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd
An ego network is an individual's social network relationships with core members. In this study, the ego network parameters in online discussion spaces of high- and low-performing students were compared. The extent to which students' ego networks changed over the course were also analyzed. Participation in 7 weeks of online discussions were…
Ozer, Ipek; Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul A.
Social-networking site (SNS) use, specifically Facebook®, has remained a controversial subject for many educators and media. Recent studies discuss the negative and positive impacts of SNSs on students’ academic performance. This qualitative study examines the impact of SNSs on students’ academic