WorldWideScience

Sample records for perform skilled movement

  1. Associations between skill perceptions and young children's actual fundamental movement skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liong, Grace H E; Ridgers, Nicola D; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-04-01

    Given that children with low movement skill competence engage in less physical activity, it is important to understand how children's perceptions relate to actual movement competence. This study examined relationships between (i) children's self-perception and objective assessments of their movement skills (object control and locomotor) and (ii) parents' perceptions of the children's movement skills and objective assessment. Children's skill perceptions were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children. Parent perceptions of their child's skills were assessed using a modified version of this instrument. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd edition assessed children's skills objectively. Participants were 136 Australian children (51% boys; M=6.5 yr., SD=1.1) and 133 parents. Regression analyses (by sex) examined the relationship between perceptions and children's scores for actual skilled performance. Boys' perceptions were associated with their actual object control ability. Parents accurately perceived boys' object control ability and girls' locomotor ability, but not the reverse. This suggests interventions aiming to improve children's movement skills could target parents and be designed to teach parents how to recognize good and poor skill performance in their children.

  2. Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Wouter; De Martelaer, Kristine; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the socialization process, the aim of this study was to examine correlates of family and neighbourhood characteristics as well as parental behaviour and beliefs on FMS performance in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. Relationships between preschool children's FMS performance and family contextual variables were examined within a sample of 846 preschool children. Results identified positive associations of FMS performance with parental education, father's physical activity, transport to school by bicycle, and the high value placed by parents high on sport-specific aspects of children's physical activity. Variables negatively associated with preschool children's FMS performance included father-child interaction in TV-viewing and reading books, the high importance placed by parents on winning and performance in children's physical activity. Furthermore, the ambiguity of associations between FMS performance and parental beliefs underlined its complexity.

  3. Movement Skill Assessment of Typically Developing Preschool Children: A Review of Seven Movement Skill Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Wouter; Martelaer, Kristine De; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The importance of movement is often overlooked because it is such a natural part of human life. It is, however, crucial for a child’s physical, cognitive and social development. In addition, experiences support learning and development of fundamental movement skills. The foundations of those skills are laid in early childhood and essential to encourage a physically active lifestyle. Fundamental movement skill performance can be examined with several assessment tools. The choice of a test will depend on the context in which the assessment is planned. This article compares seven assessment tools which are often referred to in European or international context. It discusses the tools’ usefulness for the assessment of movement skill development in general population samples. After a brief description of each assessment tool the article focuses on contents, reliability, validity and normative data. A conclusion outline of strengths and weaknesses of all reviewed assessment tools focusing on their use in educational research settings is provided and stresses the importance of regular data collection of fundamental movement skill development among preschool children. Key pointsThis review discusses seven movement skill assessment tool’s test content, reliability, validity and normative samples.The seven assessment tools all showed to be of great value. Strengths and weaknesses indicate that test choice will depend on specific purpose of test use.Further data collection should also include larger data samples of able bodied preschool children.Admitting PE specialists in assessment of fundamental movement skill performance among preschool children is recommended.The assessment tool’s normative data samples would benefit from frequent movement skill performance follow-up of today’s children. Abbreviations MOT 4-6: Motoriktest fur vier- bis sechsjährige Kinder, M-ABC: Movement Assessment Battery for Children, PDMS: Peabody Development Scales, KTK: K

  4. CHILDREN'S MOVEMENT SKILLS WHEN PLAYING ACTIVE VIDEO GAMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Johnson, Tara M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Mellecker, Robin R; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-12-01

    Active video games (AVGs) may be useful for movement skill practice. This study examined children's skill execution while playing Xbox Kinect™ and during movement skill assessment. Nineteen children (10 boys, 9 girls; M age=7.9 yr., SD=1.4) had their skills assessed before AVG play and then were observed once a week for 6 wk. while playing AVGs for 50 min. While AVG play showed evidence of correct skill performance (at least 30-50% of the time when playing table tennis, tennis, and baseball), nearly all skills were more correctly performed during skill assessment (generally more than 50% of the time). This study may help researchers to better understand the role AVGs could play in enhancing real life movement skills.

  5. MOVEMENT SKILL ASSESSMENT OF TYPICALLY DEVELOPING PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: A REVIEW OF SEVEN MOVEMENT SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Cools

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of movement is often overlooked because it is such a natural part of human life. It is, however, crucial for a child's physical, cognitive and social development. In addition, experiences support learning and development of fundamental movement skills. The foundations of those skills are laid in early childhood and essential to encourage a physically active lifestyle. Fundamental movement skill performance can be examined with several assessment tools. The choice of a test will depend on the context in which the assessment is planned. This article compares seven assessment tools which are often referred to in European or international context. It discusses the tools' usefulness for the assessment of movement skill development in general population samples. After a brief description of each assessment tool the article focuses on contents, reliability, validity and normative data. A conclusion outline of strengths and weaknesses of all reviewed assessment tools focusing on their use in educational research settings is provided and stresses the importance of regular data collection of fundamental movement skill development among preschool children.

  6. Integrating fundamental movement skills in late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Roberto; Manoel, Edison de J; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa; Dantas, Luiz; Marques, Inara

    2012-04-01

    The study examined how children of different ages integrate fundamental movement skills, such as running and throwing, and whether their developmental status was related to the combination of these skills. Thirty children were divided into three groups (G1 = 6-year-olds, G2 = 9-year-olds, and G3 = 12-year-olds) and filmed performing three tasks: running, overarm throwing, and the combined task. Patterns were identified and described, and the efficiency of integration was calculated (distance differences of the ball thrown in two tasks, overarm throwing and combined task). Differences in integration were related to age: the 6-year-olds were less efficient in combining the two skills than the 9- and 12-year-olds. These differences may be indicative of a phase of integrating fundamental movement skills in the developmental sequence. This developmental status, particularly throwing, seems to be related to the competence to integrate skills, which suggests that fundamental movement skills may be developmental modules.

  7. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  8. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  9. Analysis of Relations between Spatiotemporal Movement Regulation and Performance of Discrete Actions Reveals Functionality in Skilled Climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Dominic; Kerr, Graham; Davids, Keith; Seifert, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    In this review of research on climbing expertise, we focus on different measures of climbing performance, including spatiotemporal measures related to fluency and activity states (i.e., discrete actions), adopted by climbers for achieving overall performance goals of getting to the end of a route efficiently and safely. Currently, a broad range of variables have been reported, however, many of these fail to capture how climbers adapt to a route whilst climbing. We argue that spatiotemporal measures should be considered concurrently with evaluation of activity states (such as reaching or exploring) in order gain a more comprehensive picture of how climbers successfully adapt to a route. Spatial and temporal movement measures taken at the hip are a traditional means of assessing efficiency of climbing behaviors. More recently, performatory and exploratory actions of the limbs have been used in combination with spatiotemporal indicators, highlighting the influence of limb states on climbing efficiency and skill transfer. However, only a few studies have attempted to combine spatiotemporal and activity state measures taken during route climbing. This review brings together existing approaches for observing climbing skill at performance outcome (i.e., spatiotemporal assessments) and process (i.e., limb activity states) levels of analysis. Skill level is associated with a spatially efficient route progression and lower levels of immobility. However, more difficult hold architecture designs require significantly greater mobility and more complex movement patterning to maintain performance. Different forms of functional, or goal-supportive, movement variability, including active recovery and hold exploration, have been implicated as important adaptations to physiological and environmental dynamics that emerge during the act of climbing. Indeed, recently it has also been shown that, when climbing on new routes, efficient exploration can improve the transfer of skill. This

  10. ASSESSMENT OF MOVEMENT SKILL PERFORMANCE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: CONVERGENT VALIDITY BETWEEN MOT 4-6 AND M-ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Cools

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine the level of agreement between the Motoriktest für Vier- bis Sechsjährige Kinder [MOT 4-6] and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children [M-ABC]. 48 preschool children participated in the study (Mean age = 5 years, 6 months, SD = 3 months. There was high classification agreement (90% between both tests. A Kappa correlation coefficient (0.67 provided moderately strong support for convergent validity. Less agreement was shown in identification of motor difficulties (58%. This was reflected by lower correlation coefficients on the fine movement cluster and test item level. The MOT 4-6 showed values within the range of similar movement skill performance assessment protocols. Because of its specific focus it may be of meaningful value to assess movement skill competence in typically developing preschool children (ages 4 to 6.

  11. Analysis of Relations between Spatiotemporal Movement Regulation and Performance of Discrete Actions Reveals Functionality in Skilled Climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Orth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review of research on climbing expertise, we focus on different measures of climbing performance, including spatiotemporal measures related to fluency and activity states (i.e., discrete actions, adopted by climbers for achieving overall performance goals of getting to the end of a route efficiently and safely. Currently, a broad range of variables have been reported, however, many of these fail to capture how climbers adapt to a route whilst climbing. We argue that spatiotemporal measures should be considered concurrently with evaluation of activity states (such as reaching or exploring in order gain a more comprehensive picture of how climbers successfully adapt to a route. Spatial and temporal movement measures taken at the hip are a traditional means of assessing efficiency of climbing behaviors. More recently, performatory and exploratory actions of the limbs have been used in combination with spatiotemporal indicators, highlighting the influence of limb states on climbing efficiency and skill transfer. However, only a few studies have attempted to combine spatiotemporal and activity state measures taken during route climbing. This review brings together existing approaches for observing climbing skill at performance outcome (i.e., spatiotemporal assessments and process (i.e., limb activity states levels of analysis. Skill level is associated with a spatially efficient route progression and lower levels of immobility. However, more difficult hold architecture designs require significantly greater mobility and more complex movement patterning to maintain performance. Different forms of functional, or goal-supportive, movement variability, including active recovery and hold exploration, have been implicated as important adaptations to physiological and environmental dynamics that emerge during the act of climbing. Indeed, recently it has also been shown that, when climbing on new routes, efficient exploration can improve the transfer

  12. Development of Foundational Movement Skills: A Conceptual Model for Physical Activity Across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Morgan, Philip J; Barnett, Lisa M; Stodden, David F; Lubans, David R

    2018-03-09

    Evidence supports a positive association between competence in fundamental movement skills (e.g., kicking, jumping) and physical activity in young people. Whilst important, fundamental movement skills do not reflect the broad diversity of skills utilized in physical activity pursuits across the lifespan. Debate surrounds the question of what are the most salient skills to be learned which facilitate physical activity participation across the lifespan. In this paper, it is proposed that the term 'fundamental movement skills' be replaced with 'foundational movement skills'. The term 'foundational movement skills' better reflects the broad range of movement forms that increase in complexity and specificity and can be applied in a variety of settings. Thus, 'foundational movement skills' includes both traditionally conceptualized 'fundamental' movement skills and other skills (e.g., bodyweight squat, cycling, swimming strokes) that support physical activity engagement across the lifespan. A proposed conceptual model outlines how foundational movement skill competency can provide a direct or indirect pathway, via specialized movement skills, to a lifetime of physical activity. Foundational movement skill development is hypothesized to vary according to culture and/or geographical location. Further, skill development may be hindered or enhanced by physical (i.e., fitness, weight status) and psychological (i.e., perceived competence, self-efficacy) attributes. This conceptual model may advance the application of motor development principles within the public health domain. Additionally, it promotes the continued development of human movement in the context of how it leads to skillful performance and how movement skill development supports and maintains a lifetime of physical activity engagement.

  13. Fundamental Movement Skills Are More than Run, Throw and Catch: The Role of Stability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, James R.; Barnett, Lisa M.; Butson, Michael L.; Farrow, Damian; Berry, Jason; Polman, Remco C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In motor development literature fundamental movement skills are divided into three constructs: locomotive, object control and stability skills. Most fundamental movement skills research has focused on children’s competency in locomotor and object control skills. The first aim of this study was to validate a test battery to assess the construct of stability skills, in children aged 6 to 10 (M age = 8.2, SD = 1.2). Secondly we assessed how the stability skills construct fitted into a model of fundamental movement skill. Method The Delphi method was used to select the stability skill battery. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess if the skills loaded onto the same construct and a new model of FMS was developed using structural equation modelling. Results Three postural control tasks were selected (the log roll, rock and back support) because they had good face and content validity. These skills also demonstrated good predictive validity with gymnasts scoring significantly better than children without gymnastic training and children from a high SES school performing better than those from a mid and low SES schools and the mid SES children scored better than the low SES children (all p < .05). Inter rater reliability tests were excellent for all three skills (ICC = 0.81, 0.87, 0.87) as was test re-test reliability (ICC 0.87–0.95). CFA provided good construct validity, and structural equation modelling revealed stability skills to be an independent factor in an overall FMS model which included locomotor (r = .88), object control (r = .76) and stability skills (r = .81). Discussion This study provides a rationale for the inclusion of stability skills in FMS assessment. The stability skills could be used alongside other FMS assessment tools to provide a holistic assessment of children’s fundamental movement skills. PMID:26468644

  14. Fundamental Movement Skills Are More than Run, Throw and Catch: The Role of Stability Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, James R; Barnett, Lisa M; Butson, Michael L; Farrow, Damian; Berry, Jason; Polman, Remco C J

    2015-01-01

    In motor development literature fundamental movement skills are divided into three constructs: locomotive, object control and stability skills. Most fundamental movement skills research has focused on children's competency in locomotor and object control skills. The first aim of this study was to validate a test battery to assess the construct of stability skills, in children aged 6 to 10 (M age = 8.2, SD = 1.2). Secondly we assessed how the stability skills construct fitted into a model of fundamental movement skill. The Delphi method was used to select the stability skill battery. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess if the skills loaded onto the same construct and a new model of FMS was developed using structural equation modelling. Three postural control tasks were selected (the log roll, rock and back support) because they had good face and content validity. These skills also demonstrated good predictive validity with gymnasts scoring significantly better than children without gymnastic training and children from a high SES school performing better than those from a mid and low SES schools and the mid SES children scored better than the low SES children (all p skills (ICC = 0.81, 0.87, 0.87) as was test re-test reliability (ICC 0.87-0.95). CFA provided good construct validity, and structural equation modelling revealed stability skills to be an independent factor in an overall FMS model which included locomotor (r = .88), object control (r = .76) and stability skills (r = .81). This study provides a rationale for the inclusion of stability skills in FMS assessment. The stability skills could be used alongside other FMS assessment tools to provide a holistic assessment of children's fundamental movement skills.

  15. Fundamental Movement Skills Are More than Run, Throw and Catch: The Role of Stability Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Rudd

    Full Text Available In motor development literature fundamental movement skills are divided into three constructs: locomotive, object control and stability skills. Most fundamental movement skills research has focused on children's competency in locomotor and object control skills. The first aim of this study was to validate a test battery to assess the construct of stability skills, in children aged 6 to 10 (M age = 8.2, SD = 1.2. Secondly we assessed how the stability skills construct fitted into a model of fundamental movement skill.The Delphi method was used to select the stability skill battery. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to assess if the skills loaded onto the same construct and a new model of FMS was developed using structural equation modelling.Three postural control tasks were selected (the log roll, rock and back support because they had good face and content validity. These skills also demonstrated good predictive validity with gymnasts scoring significantly better than children without gymnastic training and children from a high SES school performing better than those from a mid and low SES schools and the mid SES children scored better than the low SES children (all p < .05. Inter rater reliability tests were excellent for all three skills (ICC = 0.81, 0.87, 0.87 as was test re-test reliability (ICC 0.87-0.95. CFA provided good construct validity, and structural equation modelling revealed stability skills to be an independent factor in an overall FMS model which included locomotor (r = .88, object control (r = .76 and stability skills (r = .81.This study provides a rationale for the inclusion of stability skills in FMS assessment. The stability skills could be used alongside other FMS assessment tools to provide a holistic assessment of children's fundamental movement skills.

  16. Mastery of fundamental movement skills among children in New South Wales: prevalence and sociodemographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, A D; Booth, M L

    2004-09-01

    Fundamental movement skills form the foundation for many of the specific motor skills employed in popular sports and leisure activities. Little data exist on the prevalence and socioeconomic distribution of fundamental movement skill mastery among young children in Australia. This study process-assessed performance on six fundamental movement skills in a randomly selected sample of students from Years 1 through 3 in the Sydney metropolitan area of New South Wales. The prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of mastery and near mastery for each skill and each skill component is reported for boys and girls in each school year. The findings revealed that the prevalence of mastery and near mastery of each of fundamental movement skill was generally low. Boys performed significantly better than girls in the run and in the four object-control skills (throw, catch, kick, and strike) whilst girls performed better than boys in the skip. There was no consistent association between prevalence of skill mastery and socio-economic status (SES), with only the kick and vertical jump for boys and catch, dodge, and vertical jump for girls differing across SES tertiles. Based on these results, we recommend that adequate curriculum time, resources, and professional development continue to be devoted to fundamental movement skills in NSW primary schools.

  17. Does Core Stability Training Affect Fundamental Movement Skills in Low Proficiency Children? Evaluation of Performance Process

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Bahram; Moslem Bahmani; Farhad Ghadiri

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of 8-weeks of core stability training on fundamental movement skills in children with low proficiency in both locomotor and object control skills. By using a semi-experimental research design. 30 elementary boy students (means age= 8.89 years, SD= 1.06) were recruited and organized in training (n= 15) and control group (n=15). Fundamental movement skills were measured before and after the training period using the test of gross motor development &nda...

  18. Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency amongst Adolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Literature suggests that physical education programmes ought to provide intense instruction towards basic movement skills needed to enjoy a variety of physical activities. Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are basic observable patterns of behaviour present from childhood to adulthood (e.g. run, skip and kick). Recent evidence indicates…

  19. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  20. Advantages of melodic over rhythmic movement sonification in bimanual motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J F; Stapleton, P; Rodger, M W M

    2017-10-01

    An important question for skill acquisition is whether and how augmented feedback can be designed to improve the learning of complex skills. Auditory information triggered by learners' actions, movement sonification, can enhance learning of a complex bimanual coordination skill, specifically polyrhythmic bimanual shape tracing. However, it is not clear whether the coordination of polyrhythmic sequenced movements is enhanced by auditory-specified timing information alone or whether more complex sound mappings, such as melodic sonification, are necessary. Furthermore, while short-term retention of bimanual coordination performance has been shown with movement sonification training, longer term retention has yet to be demonstrated. In the present experiment, participants learned to trace a diamond shape with one hand while simultaneously tracing a triangle with the other to produce a sequenced 4:3 polyrhythmic timing pattern. Two groups of participants received real-time auditory feedback during training: melodic sonification (individual movements triggered a separate note of a melody) and rhythmic sonification (each movement triggered a percussive sound), while a third control group received no augmented feedback. Task acquisition and performance in immediate retention were superior in the melodic sonification group as compared to the rhythmic sonification and control group. In a 24-h retention phase, a decline in performance in the melodic sonification group was reversed by brief playback of the target pattern melody. These results show that melodic sonification of movement can provide advantages over augmented feedback which only provides timing information by better structuring the sequencing of timed actions, and also allow recovery of complex target patterns of movement after training. These findings have important implications for understanding the role of augmented perceptual information in skill learning, as well as its application to real-world training or

  1. Development of Junior High School Students' Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity in a Naturalistic Physical Education Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaja, Sami Pekka; Jaakkola, Timo Tapio; Liukkonen, Jarmo Olavi; Digelidis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence showing that fundamental movement skills and physical activity are related with each other. The ability to perform a variety of fundamental movement skills increases the likelihood of children participating in different physical activities throughout their lives. However, no fundamental movement skill interventions…

  2. Observational assessment of fundamental movement skill proficiency in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 玲子; 石沢, 順子

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill competency in children has been declining in recent years. Early childhood is a sensitive period for the development of fundamental movement skills ; the mastery of certain of these skills is a prerequisite for daily functioning and participation in later physical or sport-specific activities. Although quantitative methods have been developed for assessing movement development in children, it is also important to qualitatively evaluate such skills in developing chil...

  3. FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN NORTHWEST ENGLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls.

  4. The Relation between Reading Skills and Eye Movement Patterns in Adolescent Readers: Evidence from a Regular Orthography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Krieber

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence, we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12. We found that (a reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency.

  5. Fundamental movement skills and self-concept of children who are overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Anne A; Desha, Laura; Ziviani, Jenny; Griffiths, Lisa; Heaslop, Annabel; Khan, Asad; Leong, Gary M

    2011-06-01

    Differences in fundamental movement skills and self-perceptions of physical ability and physical appearance of overweight and non-overweight children were investigated. Overweight (n = 89, mean age = 8.75 ± 1.4 years, BMI z-score = 2.22, SD = 0.46, 46% male) and non-overweight (n = 27, mean age = 8.25 ± 1.5 years, BMI z-score = 0.03, SD = 0.73, 62.1% male) participants enrolled in the KOALA (Kinder Overweight Activity Lifestyle Actions) project were included. The overall objective of the KOALA project was to determine in a randomized controlled trial the effect of a Triple P (Positive Parenting Program), and a family 'Eat Well Be Active' Scouts Camp program on BMI in overweight children. Baseline between-group differences on measures of fundamental movement skills and self-concept perceptions were analyzed using independent samples t-tests. Relationships between BMI and these variables were investigated with multiple linear regression. Overweight children had lower scores on Bruninks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Performance-2 subtests (Bilateral Coordination, Upper Limb Coordination, Strength, Balance, and Running Speed and Agility), and Physical abilities self-concept than non-overweight children. Children who were overweight had significant fundamental movement skill difficulties, as well as having poorer Physical abilities self-concept perceptions compared to non-overweight children. The association between increasing BMI and poor performance of gross motor tasks has potential implications for physical activity participation. Future research is needed to determine if fundamental movement skill difficulties and low physical ability self-concept are predisposing factors for children who are overweight or associated outcomes.

  6. Proficiency deficiency: mastery of fundamental movement skills and skill components in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Steele, Julie R; Baur, Louise A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to compare the mastery of 12 fundamental movement skills (FMS) and skill components between a treatment-seeking sample of overweight/obese children and a reference sample from the United States. Mastery of six locomotor and six object-control skills (24 components in each subdomain) were video-assessed by one assessor using the test of gross motor development-2 (TGMD-2). The 153 overweight/obese children (mean ± s.d. age = 8.3 ± 1.1 years, BMI z-score = 2.78 ± 0.69, 58% girls, 77% obese) were categorized into age groups (for the underhand roll and strike: 7-8 years and 9-10 years; all other FMS: 6-7 years and 8-10 years) and mastery prevalence rates were compared with representative US data (N = 876) using χ(2) analysis. For all 12 skills in all age groups, the prevalence of mastery was lower among overweight/obese children compared with the reference sample (all P skill components (all P movement patterns that could be targeted for improvement include positioning of the body and feet, the control or release of an object at an optimal position, and better use of the arms to maintain effective force production during the performance of FMS. Physical activity programs designed for overweight and obese children may need to address deficiencies in FMS proficiency to foster the movement capabilities required for participation in health-enhancing physical activity.

  7. Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Abigail; Reilly, John J; Kelly, Louise A; Montgomery, Colette; Williamson, Avril; Paton, James Y; Grant, Stan

    2005-04-01

    To test for relationships between objectively measured habitual physical activity and fundamental movement skills in a relatively large and representative sample of preschool children. Physical activity was measured over 6 d using the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) accelerometer in 394 boys and girls (mean age 4.2, SD 0.5 yr). Children were scored on 15 fundamental movement skills, based on the Movement Assessment Battery, by a single observer. Total physical activity (r=0.10, Pmovement skills score. Time spent in light-intensity physical activity was not significantly correlated with motor skills score (r=0.02, P>0.05). In this sample and setting, fundamental movement skills were significantly associated with habitual physical activity, but the association between the two variables was weak. The present study questions whether the widely assumed relationships between motor skills and habitual physical activity actually exist in young children.

  8. Relationship of physical activity to fundamental movement skills among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, A D; Booth, M L; Patterson, J W

    2001-11-01

    To determine the relationship of participation in organized and nonorganized physical activity with fundamental movement skills among adolescents. Male and female children in Grade 8 (mean age, 13.3 yr) and Grade 10 (mean age, 15.3 yr) were assessed on six fundamental movement skills (run, vertical jump, catch, overhand throw, forehand strike, and kick). Physical activity was assessed using a self-report recall measure where students reported the type, duration, and frequency of participation in organized physical activity and nonorganized physical activity during a usual week. Multiple regression analysis indicated that fundamental movement skills significantly predicted time in organized physical activity, although the percentage of variance it could explain was small. This prediction was stronger for girls than for boys. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between time in nonorganized physical activity and fundamental movement skills. Fundamental movement skills are significantly associated with adolescents' participation in organized physical activity, but predict only a small portion of it.

  9. Fundamental Movement Skills and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Peer Comparisons and Stimulant Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fundamental movement skills of 22 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from 6 to 12 years of age, to gender- and age-matched peers without ADHD and assess the effects of stimulant medication on the movement skill performance of the children with ADHD. Repeated measures analyses…

  10. Fundamental movement skills and motivational factors influencing engagement in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaja, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony

    2010-08-01

    To assess whether subgroups based on children's fundamental movement skills, perceived competence, and self-determined motivation toward physical education vary with current self-reported physical activity, a sample of 316 Finnish Grade 7 students completed fundamental movement skills measures and self-report questionnaires assessing perceived competence, self-determined motivation toward physical education, and current physical activity. Cluster analysis indicated a three-cluster structure: "Low motivation/low skills profile," "High skills/low motivation profile," and "High skills/high motivation profile." Analysis of variance indicated that students in the third cluster engaged in significantly more physical activity than students of clusters one and two. These results provide support for previous claims regarding the importance of the relationship of fundamental movement skills with continuing engagement in physical activity. High fundamental movement skills, however, may represent only one element in maintaining adolescents' engagement in physical activity.

  11. The relationship between adolescents' physical activity, fundamental movement skills and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a potential relationship among physical activity (PA), fundamental movement skills and weight status exists amongst early adolescent youth. Participants were a sample of 85 students; 54 boys (mean age = 12.94 ± 0.33 years) and 31 girls (mean age = 12.75 ± 0.43 years). Data gathered during physical education class included PA (accelerometry), fundamental movement skills and anthropometric measurements. Standard multiple regression revealed that PA and total fundamental movement skill proficiency scores explained 16.5% (P fundamental movement skills. Results from the current investigation indicate that weight status is an important correlate of fundamental movement skill proficiency during adolescence. Aligned with most recent research, school- and community-based programmes that include developmentally structured learning experiences delivered by specialists can significantly improve fundamental movement skill proficiency in youth.

  12. The perceptual cognitive processes underpinning skilled performance in volleyball: evidence from eye-movements and verbal reports of thinking involving an in situ representative task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, José; Garganta, Jêlio; McRobert, Allistair; Williams, Andrew M; Mesquita, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    An extensive body of work has focused on the processes underpinning perceptual-cognitive expertise. The majority of researchers have used film-based simulations to capture superior performance. We combined eye movement recording and verbal reports of thinking to explore the processes underpinning skilled performance in a complex, dynamic, and externally paced representative volleyball task involving in situ data collection. Altogether, 27 female volleyball players performed as centre backcourt defenders in simulated sessions while wearing an eye-tracking device. After each sequence, athletes were questioned concerning their perception of the situation. The visual search strategies employed by the highly-skilled players were more exploratory than those used by skilled players, involving more fixations to a greater number of locations. Highly-skilled participants spent more time fixating on functional spaces between two or more display areas, while the skilled participants fixated on the ball trajectory and specific players. Moreover, highly-skilled players generated more condition concepts with higher levels of sophistication than their skilled counterparts. Findings highlight the value of using representative task designs to capture performance in situ. Key pointsDecision-making in complex sports relies deeply on perceptual-cognitive expertise. In turn, the effect of expertise is highly dependent on the nature and complexity of the task.Nonetheless, most researchers use simple tasks in their research designs, risking not capturing performance in a meaningful way. We proposed to use a live action setting with a complex task design, representative of real world situations.We combined eye movement registration with collection of immediate retrospective verbal reports. Although the two data sets are not directly comparable, they may be used in a complementary manner, providing a deeper and fuller understanding of the processes underpinning superior performance.Highly-skilled

  13. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  14. The predictive value of general movement tasks in assessing occupational task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; McGill, Stuart M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of evaluating individuals' movement behavior it is generally assumed that the tasks chosen will predict their competency to perform activities relevant to their occupation. This study sought to examine whether a battery of general tasks could be used to predict the movement patterns employed by firefighters to perform select job-specific skills. Fifty-two firefighters performed a battery of general and occupation-specific tasks that simulated the demands of firefighting. Participants' peak lumbar spine and frontal plane knee motion were compared across tasks. During 85% of all comparisons, the magnitude of spine and knee motion was greater during the general movement tasks than observed during the firefighting skills. Certain features of a worker's movement behavior may be exhibited across a range of tasks. Therefore, provided that a movement screen's tasks expose the motions of relevance for the population being tested, general evaluations could offer valuable insight into workers' movement competency or facilitate an opportunity to establish an evidence-informed intervention.

  15. Skill-Based and Planned Active Play Versus Free-Play Effects on Fundamental Movement Skills in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Lindsay; Keats, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill interventions are important for promoting physical activity, but the optimal intervention model for preschool children remains unclear. We compared two 8-week interventions, a structured skill-station and a planned active play approach, to a free-play control condition on pre- and postintervention fundamental movement skills. We also collected data regarding program attendance and perceived enjoyment. We found a significant interaction effect between intervention type and time. A Tukey honest significant difference analysis supported a positive intervention effect showing a significant difference between both interventions and the free-play control condition. There was a significant between-group difference in group attendance such that mean attendance was higher for both the free-play and planned active play groups relative to the structured skill-based approach. There were no differences in attendance between free-play and planned active play groups, and there were no differences in enjoyment ratings between the two intervention groups. In sum, while both interventions led to improved fundamental movement skills, the active play approach offered several logistical advantages. Although these findings should be replicated, they can guide feasible and sustainable fundamental movement skill programs within day care settings.

  16. A System of Movement and Motor Skill Challenges for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Grant M.; Turner, Bud

    2012-01-01

    Given increasing childhood inactivity and obesity, and minimal time for quality physical education in elementary and secondary schools, it is essential that children are motivated and held accountable for independent motor and movement skill practice. The Movement and Motor Skill Challenge System provides a comprehensive set of stimulating,…

  17. Fine-motor skills testing and prediction of endovascular performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bo; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V

    2013-01-01

    Performing endovascular procedures requires good control of fine-motor digital movements and hand-eye coordination. Objective assessment of such skills is difficult. Trainees acquire control of catheter/wire movements at various paces. However, little is known to what extent talent plays for novice...

  18. Reliability of the teen risk screen: A movement skill screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of fundamental movement skills (FMS) are often taken for granted. It is expected that these movement skills will be adequate to get children through their school career, however, some children struggle. Teachers play an important role, as they are able to observe children in the classroom, as well as in a ...

  19. Reduction of errors during practice facilitates fundamental movement skill learning in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, C M; Poolton, J M; Sit, C H P; Eguia, K F; Masters, R S W

    2013-04-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been found to have inferior motor proficiencies in fundamental movement skills (FMS). This study examined the effects of training the FMS of overhand throwing by manipulating the amount of practice errors. Participants included 39 children with ID aged 4-11 years who were allocated into either an error-reduced (ER) training programme or a more typical programme in which errors were frequent (error-strewn, ES). Throwing movement form, throwing accuracy, and throwing frequency during free play were evaluated. The ER programme improved movement form, and increased throwing activity during free play to a greater extent than the ES programme. Furthermore, ER learners were found to be capable of engaging in a secondary cognitive task while manifesting robust throwing accuracy performance. The findings support the use of movement skills training programmes that constrain practice errors in children with ID, suggesting that such approach results in improved performance and heightened movement engagement in free play. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Protocols for the Investigation of Information Processing in Human Assessment of Fundamental Movement Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brodie J; Thornton, Ashleigh; Lay, Brendan; Rosenberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill (FMS) assessment remains an important tool in classifying individuals' level of FMS proficiency. The collection of FMS performances for assessment and monitoring has remained unchanged over the last few decades, but new motion capture technologies offer opportunities to automate this process. To achieve this, a greater understanding of the human process of movement skill assessment is required. The authors present the rationale and protocols of a project in which they aim to investigate the visual search patterns and information extraction employed by human assessors during FMS assessment, as well as the implementation of the Kinect system for FMS capture.

  1. Development of fundamental movement skills through games and PA in preschool chldren

    OpenAIRE

    Kašparová, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Characterization work: Fundamental locomotor skills are: walking, running, jumping, crawling and throwing. Their development is influenced primarily by games and movement activities. Control over those skills guarantees proper physical development of children and also make important prerequisites for an adoption of heavier and more complex skills. The levels of fundamental locomotor skills are evaluated by the diagnostic resources. Goal and purpose:I created inspiromat of games and movement a...

  2. FREE MOVEMENT OF SKILLED LABOR WITHIN THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Adhisti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss how the free movement of skilled labor policy under the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC scenario enhances opportunities for labor mobility from low-skilled labor countries, what challenges will be faced, and how this policy impacts their economies. The implementation of the AEC’s free movement of skilled labor policy is projected to face challenges such as mismatched labor qualifications, fulfilling ASEAN commitment, time for implementation of ASEAN commitments, and controlling the flow of illegal migrant workers. However, ASEAN leaders already set some supporting policies to overcome challenges from this system by improving labor market information, encouraging language and skills training, managing government and public supports, expanding mutual recognition arrangements and enhancing social protection for migrant workers. If these supporting policies can be implemented, the AEC’s free movement of skilled labor policy will improve the quality of human resources in ASEAN, especially from lower-middle income countries including Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Thailand. As the results, those six countries are expected to increase the high-skilled employment rates by 0.3 to 1.4 percent and the wage rates up to 10-20 percent in 2025. Thus, the projected increases in the employment and wage rates of ASEAN skilled labor will induce an expansion of the ASEAN economic growth to 7.1 percent in 2025.

  3. Functional relationship between cognitive representations of movement directions and visuomotor adaptation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to explore whether or not different types of learners in a sensorimotor task possess characteristically different cognitive representations. Participants' sensorimotor adaptation performance was measured with a pointing paradigm which used a distortion of the visual feedback in terms of a left-right reversal. The structure of cognitive representations was assessed using a newly established experimental method, the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions. A post hoc analysis revealed inter-individual differences in participants' adaptation performance, and three different skill levels (skilled, average, and poor adapters) have been defined. These differences in performance were correlated with the structure of participants' cognitive representations of movement directions. Analysis of these cognitive representations revealed performance advantages for participants possessing a global cognitive representation of movement directions (aligned to cardinal movement axes), rather than a local representation (aligned to each neighboring direction). Our findings are evidence that cognitive representation structures play a functional role in adaptation performance.

  4. Impulse-variability theory: implications for ballistic, multijoint motor skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbin, M A; Stodden, David F; Fischman, Mark G; Weimar, Wendi H

    2011-01-01

    Impulse-variability theory (R. A. Schmidt, H. N. Zelaznik, B. Hawkins, J. S. Frank, & J. T. Quinn, 1979) accounts for the curvilinear relationship between the magnitude and resulting variability of the muscular forces that influence the success of goal-directed limb movements. The historical roots of impulse-variability theory are reviewed in the 1st part of this article, including the relationship between movement speed and spatial error. The authors then address the relevance of impulse-variability theory for the control of ballistic, multijoint skills, such as throwing, striking, and kicking. These types of skills provide a stark contrast to the relatively simple, minimal degrees of freedom movements that characterized early research. However, the inherent demand for ballistic force generation is a strong parallel between these simple laboratory tasks and multijoint motor skills. Therefore, the authors conclude by recommending experimental procedures for evaluating the adequacy of impulse variability as a theoretical model within the context of ballistic, multijoint motor skill performance. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  5. Fundamental Movement Skills: An Important Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Stodden, David; Cohen, Kristen E.; Smith, Jordan J.; Lubans, David Revalds; Lenoir, Matthieu; Iivonen, Susanna; Miller, Andrew D.; Laukkanen, Arto; Dudley, Dean; Lander, Natalie J.; Brown, Helen; Morgan, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent international conference presentations have critiqued the promotion of fundamental movement skills (FMS) as a primary pedagogical focus. Presenters have called for a debate about the importance of, and rationale for teaching FMS, and this letter is a response to that call. The authors of this letter are academics who actively…

  6. Relations among physical activity patterns, lifestyle activities, and fundamental movement skills for Finnish students in grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jutila, Ari; Virtanen, Petri; Watt, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the relations among leisure time physical activity and in sport clubs, lifestyle activities, and the locomotor, balance manipulative skills of Grade 7 students participating in Finnish physical education at a secondary school in central Finland completed self-report questionnaires on their physical activity patterns at leisure time and during sport club participation, and time spent watching television and using the computer and other electronic media. Locomotor skills were analyzed by the leaping test, balance skills by the flamingo standing test, and manipulative skills by the accuracy throwing test. Analysis indicated physical activity in sport clubs positively explained scores on balance and locomotor tests but not on accuracy of throwing. Leisure time physical activity and lifestyle activities were not statistically significant predictors of performance on any movement skill tests. Girls scored higher on the static balance skill and boys higher on the throwing task. Overall, physical activity in sport clubs was more strongly associated with performance on the fundamental movement tasks than was physical activity during leisure.

  7. Refinement of learned skilled movement representation in motor cortex deep output layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ko, Ho; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Yan, Leo Y. C.; Chan, Danny C. W.; Arbuthnott, Gordon; Ke, Ya; Yung, Wing-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the emergence of learned motor skill representation in primary motor cortex (M1) are not well understood. Specifically, how motor representation in the deep output layer 5b (L5b) is shaped by motor learning remains virtually unknown. In rats undergoing motor skill training, we detect a subpopulation of task-recruited L5b neurons that not only become more movement-encoding, but their activities are also more structured and temporally aligned to motor execution with a timescale of refinement in tens-of-milliseconds. Field potentials evoked at L5b in vivo exhibit persistent long-term potentiation (LTP) that parallels motor performance. Intracortical dopamine denervation impairs motor learning, and disrupts the LTP profile as well as the emergent neurodynamical properties of task-recruited L5b neurons. Thus, dopamine-dependent recruitment of L5b neuronal ensembles via synaptic reorganization may allow the motor cortex to generate more temporally structured, movement-encoding output signal from M1 to downstream circuitry that drives increased uniformity and precision of movement during motor learning. PMID:28598433

  8. Development and use of an observation tool for active gaming and movement (OTAGM) to measure children's movement skill components during active video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rita L; Ridgers, Nicola D; Barnett, Lisa M

    2013-12-01

    This article presents a direct observational tool for assessing children's body movements and movement skills during active video games. The Observation Tool of Active Gaming and Movement (OTGAM) was informed by the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. 18 elementary school children (12 boys, 6 girls; M age = 6.1 yr., SD = 0.9) were observed during Nintendo Wii game play. Using the OTAGM, researchers were able to capture and quantify the children's body movements and movement skills during active play of video games. Furthermore, the OTAGM captured specific components of object control skills: strike, throw, and roll. Game designers, health promotion practitioners, and researchers could use this information to enhance children's physical activity and movement skills.

  9. Fundamental Movement Skills among Iranian Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalizadeh, Bahman; Mohamadzadeh, Hassan; Hosseini, Fatemeh Sadat

    2014-12-01

    To determine the relationship between anthropometric indicators, physical activity (PA) and socioeconomic status (SES) with fundamental movement skills (FMS) among Iranian male students. In this descriptive study, based on SES scores, 241 students (7-10 years) were randomly selected and classified in high, medium and low groups. All children were measured by 8 morphology anthropometric measures. In order to examine a subset of manipulative skills and to measure physical activity and socioeconomic status, Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD2) and, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used, respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression. There was a significant positive correlation between SES and body mass index (BMI), while a significant negative correlation existed between PA and BMI. Object control skills were significantly correlated with height, foot length, forearm length, hand length and physical activity. Students with low socioeconomic status were more qualified in movements than other students who were in medium and high socioeconomic status. Therefore, parents need to encourage students to be more active in order to prevent obesity and to facilitate development of object control skills in high socioeconomic status.

  10. Fundamental Movement Skills among Iranian Primary School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Aalizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between anthropometric indicators, physical activity (PA and socioeconomic status (SES with fundamental movement skills (FMS among Iranian male students.In this descriptive study, based on SES scores, 241 students (7-10 years were randomly selected and classified in high, medium and low groups. All children were measured by 8 morphology anthropometric measures. In order to examine a subset of manipulative skills and to measure physical activity and socioeconomic status, Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD2 and, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used, respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression.There was a significant positive correlation between SES and body mass index (BMI, while a significant negative correlation existed between PA and BMI. Object control skills were significantly correlated with height, foot length, forearm length, hand length and physical activity.Students with low socioeconomic status were more qualified in movements than other students who were in medium and high socioeconomic status. Therefore, parents need to encourage students to be more active in order to prevent obesity and to facilitate development of object control skills in high socioeconomic status.

  11. Children show limited movement repertoire when learning a novel motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Hua; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2017-09-27

    Examining age differences in motor learning using real-world tasks is often problematic due to task novelty and biomechanical confounds. Here, we investigated how children and adults acquire a novel motor skill in a virtual environment. Participants of three different age groups (9-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults) learned to use their upper body movements to control a cursor on a computer screen. Results showed that 9-year-old and 12-year-old children showed poorer ability to control the cursor at the end of practice. Critically, when we investigated the movement coordination, we found that the lower task performance of children was associated with limited exploration of their movement repertoire. These results reveal the critical role of motor exploration in understanding developmental differences in motor learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The relationship between fundamental movement skills and the extent of daily physical activity in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 玲子; 石沢, 順子; 楠原, 慶子; 奥山, 靜代

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills are significantly associated with habitual physical activity. Recently, it has become clear that children have become less physically active than in the past, and some studies have shown that children's fundamental movement skills have been declining in recent decades. Human movements have various characteristics, and not all movement skills are associated with physical activity level. In this study, we investigated the relationship between 5 fundamental movements ...

  13. Motor skills of first year students in Human Movement Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    should also be a clear distinction between movement activities as part of the formal academic programme and activities as part of an extra mural activity plan. Keywords: Motor skills; Movement; Physical development; First year students. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation Vol.

  14. Fundamental movement skills and weight status in British primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth S; Duncan, Michael J; Birch, Samantha L

    2014-01-01

    Weight status has been shown to have a negative impact on children's competence in performing fundamental movement skills (FMSs). Following ethics approval and informed consent, 281 children in years 2-6 from a school in central England volunteered to participate. Each child performed eight FMSs (run, hop, gallop, jump, balance, kick, throw and catch) three times, all attempts were video-recorded. Video analysis was performed (Quintic Biomechanics software) using the Process Orient Checklist (subjective measurement). Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and weight status was determined. Results highlighted that year group (age) had a significant effect on seven out of the eight skills (not kick). Year 4 (aged 8-9 years) significantly scored lower in all three locomotor skills (run, hop and gallop) at this age, whereas Year 5 (aged 9-10 years) all significantly peaked at the object control skills (catch and throw) at this age. Weight status (BMI) significantly affected the run, identifying that a child with a larger BMI will have a lower mastery level of the run. Gender significantly affected the kick, throw and balance, with girls outperforming in the balance and the boys in the kick and throw. By highlighting that children at different ages will have a lower score in different skills, the effect of BMI and gender on certain FMS is important knowledge for the target of intervention in primary school children.

  15. Use of electronic games by young children and fundamental movement skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Hinkley, Trina; Okely, Anthony D; Hesketh, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated associations between pre-school children's time spent playing electronic games and their fundamental movement skills. In 2009, 53 children had physical activity (Actigraph accelerometer counts per minute), parent proxy-report of child's time in interactive and non-interactive electronic games (min./week), and movement skill (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) assessed. Hierarchical linear regression, adjusting for age (range = 3-6 years), sex (Step 1), and physical activity (cpm; M=687, SD=175.42; Step 2), examined the relationship between time in (a) non-interactive and (b) interactive electronic games and locomotor and object control skill. More than half (59%, n=31) of the children were female. Adjusted time in interactive game use was associated with object control but not locomotor skill. Adjusted time in non-interactive game use had no association with object control or locomotor skill. Greater time spent playing interactive electronic games is associated with higher object control skill proficiency in these young children. Longitudinal and experimental research is required to determine if playing these games improves object control skills or if children with greater object control skill proficiency prefer and play these games.

  16. Using support vector machines to identify literacy skills: Evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ya; Liu, Yanping; Kaakinen, Johanna K; Li, Xingshan

    2017-06-01

    Is inferring readers' literacy skills possible by analyzing their eye movements during text reading? This study used Support Vector Machines (SVM) to analyze eye movement data from 61 undergraduate students who read a multiple-paragraph, multiple-topic expository text. Forward fixation time, first-pass rereading time, second-pass fixation time, and regression path reading time on different regions of the text were provided as features. The SVM classification algorithm assisted in distinguishing high-literacy-skilled readers from low-literacy-skilled readers with 80.3 % accuracy. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining eye tracking and machine learning techniques to detect readers with low literacy skills, and suggest that such approaches can be potentially used in predicting other cognitive abilities.

  17. Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Beholder? Aesthetic Quality versus Technical Skill in Movement Evaluation of Tai Chi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamparo, Paola; Zorzi, Elena; Marcantoni, Sara; Cesari, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare experts to naïve practitioners in rating the beauty and the technical quality of a Tai Chi sequence observed in video-clips (of high and middle level performances). Our hypothesis are: i) movement evaluation will correlate with the level of skill expressed in the kinematics of the observed action but ii) only experts will be able to unravel the technical component from the aesthetic component of the observed action. The judgments delivered indicate that both expert and non-expert observers are able to discern a good from a mediocre performance; however, as expected, only experts discriminate the technical from the aesthetic component of the action evaluated and do this independently of the level of skill shown by the model (high or middle level performances). Furthermore, the judgments delivered were strongly related to the kinematic variables measured in the observed model, indicating that observers rely on specific movement kinematics (e.g. movement amplitude, jerk and duration) for action evaluation. These results provide evidence of the complementary functional role of visual and motor action representation in movement evaluation and underline the role of expertise in judging the aesthetic quality of movements.

  18. Readers in Adult Basic Education: Component Skills, Eye Movements, and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Vorstius, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the reading skills of a sample of 48 adults enrolled in a basic education program in northern Florida, United States. Previous research has reported on reading component skills for students in adult education settings, but little is known about eye movement patterns or their relation to reading skills for this…

  19. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zask Avigdor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: ‘Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools’. Methods Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1, five (T2 and eight years (T3 for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0 was used. Results Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560. Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73. Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002, but intervention boys did not (p = .591. At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801. Conclusion Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  20. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zask, Avigdor; Barnett, Lisa M; Rose, Lauren; Brooks, Lyndon O; Molyneux, Maxine; Hughes, Denise; Adams, Jillian; Salmon, Jo

    2012-10-22

    Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick) is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: 'Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools'. Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1), five (T2) and eight years (T3) for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide) and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no) and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0) was used. Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560). Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73). Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002), but intervention boys did not (p = .591). At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801). Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  1. Footwear and locomotor skill performance in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Rudisill, Mary E; Weimar, Wendi H; Breslin, Casey M; Shroyer, Justin F; Morera, Maria

    2011-10-01

    The effect of footwear on locomotor skill performance was examined. 12 children (4 boys, 8 girls; M age = 56.3 mo., SD = 3.3) served as participants. Participants were randomly assigned to perform the locomotor subscale of Ulrich's Test of Gross Motor Development in two shoe conditions (Condition 1: Stride Rite athletic shoes, and Condition 2: flip flop sandals). Children scored significantly higher when wearing athletic shoes than flip-flop sandals. This finding is relevant for motor performance and safety in physical education and movement programs.

  2. Curriculum enrichment with self-testing activities in development of fundamental movement skills of first-grade children in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabourniotis, Dimitrios; Evaggelinou, Christina; Tzetzis, George; Kourtessis, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of self-testing activities on the development of fundamental movement skills in first-grade children in Greece. Two groups of children were tested. The Control group (n = 23 children) received the regular 12-wk. physical education school program and the Experimental group (n = 22 children) received a 12-wk. skill-oriented program with an increasing allotment of self-testing activities. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess fundamental movement skills, while the content areas of physical education courses were estimated with an assessment protocol, based on the interval recording system called the Academic Learning Time-Physical Education. A 2 x 2 repeated measures analysis of variance with group as the between factor and testing time (pretest vs posttest) as the repeated-measures factor was performed to assess differences between the two groups. A significant interaction of group with testing time was found for the Test of Gross Motor Development total score, with the Experimental group scoring higher then the Control group. A significant main effect was also found for test but not for group. This study provides evidence supporting the notion that a balanced allotment of the self-testing and game activities beyond the usual curriculum increases the fundamental motor-skill development of children. Also, it stresses the necessity for content and performance standards for the fundamental motor skills in educational programs. Finally, it seems that the Test of Gross Motor Development is a useful tool for the assessment of children's fundamental movement skills.

  3. Enhancing Cognitive Understanding to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Daniel K.; Todorovich, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of fundamental movement skills in physical education is an important contributor toward children's' lifetime interest and participation in physical activity. Physical education teachers and their curricula follow national and state standards to provide learning experiences and instruction that support the acquisition of…

  4. Reducing errors benefits the field-based learning of a fundamental movement skill in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, C M; Poolton, J M; Sit, C H P; Holmstrom, M; Masters, R S W

    2013-03-01

    Proficient fundamental movement skills (FMS) are believed to form the basis of more complex movement patterns in sports. This study examined the development of the FMS of overhand throwing in children through either an error-reduced (ER) or error-strewn (ES) training program. Students (n = 216), aged 8-12 years (M = 9.16, SD = 0.96), practiced overhand throwing in either a program that reduced errors during practice (ER) or one that was ES. ER program reduced errors by incrementally raising the task difficulty, while the ES program had an incremental lowering of task difficulty. Process-oriented assessment of throwing movement form (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) and product-oriented assessment of throwing accuracy (absolute error) were performed. Changes in performance were examined among children in the upper and lower quartiles of the pretest throwing accuracy scores. ER training participants showed greater gains in movement form and accuracy, and performed throwing more effectively with a concurrent secondary cognitive task. Movement form improved among girls, while throwing accuracy improved among children with low ability. Reduced performance errors in FMS training resulted in greater learning than a program that did not restrict errors. Reduced cognitive processing costs (effective dual-task performance) associated with such approach suggest its potential benefits for children with developmental conditions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Fundamental movement skills and physical activity among children living in low-income communities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kristen E; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Callister, Robin; Lubans, David R

    2014-04-08

    Although previous studies have demonstrated that children with high levels of fundamental movement skill competency are more active throughout the day, little is known regarding children's fundamental movement skill competency and their physical activity during key time periods of the school day (i.e., lunchtime, recess and after-school). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between fundamental movement skill competency and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) throughout the school day among children attending primary schools in low-income communities. Eight primary schools from low-income communities and 460 children (8.5 ± 0.6 years, 54% girls) were involved in the study. Children's fundamental movement skill competency (TGMD-2; 6 locomotor and 6 object-control skills), objectively measured physical activity (ActiGraph GT3X and GT3X + accelerometers), height, weight and demographics were assessed. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to assess the cross-sectional associations between fundamental movement skills and MVPA. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status, locomotor skill competency was positively associated with total (P=0.002, r=0.15) and after-school (P=0.014, r=0.13) MVPA. Object-control skill competency was positively associated with total (Pskill competency appears to be a better predictor of children's MVPA during school-based physical activity opportunities than locomotor skill competency. Improving fundamental movement skill competency, particularly object-control skills, may contribute to increased levels of children's MVPA throughout the day. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12611001080910.

  6. The Relationship between Fundamental Movement Skills and Body Mass Index in Korean Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Il; Lee, Kang-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood obesity is a serious worldwide problem, and fundamental movement skills (FMS) are very important factors in human movement. Thus, several advanced studies have examined the associations between FMS and body mass index (BMI). The purpose of this study was to investigate BMI and FMS (locomotion and object control skills) in Korean…

  7. Teachers' Perceptions of a Fundamental Movement Skill (FMS) Assessment Battery in a School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Natalie; Morgan, Philip J.; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) competence is low in adolescent girls. An assessment tool for teachers is needed to monitor FMS in this demographic. The present study explored whether the Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment (CAMSA) is feasible for use by physical education (PE) teachers of Australian Year 7 girls in a school setting.…

  8. Effect of a 9-wk. after-school multiskills club on fundamental movement skill proficiency in 8- to 9-yr.-old children: an exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foweather, Lawrence; McWhannell, Nicola; Henaghan, Jayne; Lees, Adrian; Stratton, Gareth; Batterham, Alan M

    2008-06-01

    This exploratory study examined the effects of a 9-wk. after-school multiskills club on fundamental movement skill proficiency in 8- to 9-yr.-old children. Two schools were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 15 children) or multiskill club (n = 19 children) condition. The multiskill club received 18 coaching sessions designed to improve fundamental movement skills. The control group followed normal routines. 7 skills were assessed using process-oriented measures with video analysis. Participation in the multiskill club yielded significant improvements in proficiency at posttest only in static balance, while potentially practically important improvements were observed in performance of the catch, throw, and kick skills. The after-school multiskill club offered a viable opportunity for movement skill acquisition, but any such programme would need to run for a longer duration to assess whether this type of activity could benefit all skills.

  9. Motor Skill Interventions to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills of Preschoolers with Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Megan A.; Rhodes, Ryan E.

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers with developmental delay (DD) are at risk for poor fundamental movement skills (FMS), but a paucity of early FMS interventions exist. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the existing interventions to establish direction for future trials targeting preschoolers with DD. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion…

  10. Effect of a 6-Week Active Play Intervention on Fundamental Movement Skill Competence of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an active play intervention on fundamental movement skills of 3- to 5-year-old children from deprived communities. In a cluster randomized controlled trial design, six preschools received a resource pack and a 6-week local authority program involving staff training with help implementing 60-minute weekly sessions and postprogram support. Six comparison preschools received a resource pack only. Twelve skills were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at a 6-month follow-up using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. One hundred and sixty-two children (Mean age = 4.64 ± 0.58 years; 53.1% boys) were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between groups for total fundamental movement skill, object-control skill or locomotor skill scores, indicating a need for program modification to facilitate greater skill improvements.

  11. A study of psychomotor skills in minimally invasive surgery: what differentiates expert and nonexpert performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Våpenstad, Cecilie; Chmarra, Magdalena Karolina; Langø, Thomas; Kuhry, Esther; Mårvik, Ronald

    2013-03-01

    A high level of psychomotor skills is required to perform minimally invasive surgery (MIS) safely. To assure high quality of skills, it is important to be able to measure and assess these skills. For that, it is necessary to determine aspects that indicate the difference between performances at various levels of proficiency. Measurement and assessment of skills in MIS are best done in an automatic and objective way. The goal of this study was to investigate a set of nine motion-related metrics for their relevance to assess psychomotor skills in MIS during the performance of a labyrinth task. Thirty-two surgeons and medical students were divided into three groups according to their level of experience in MIS; experts (>500 MIS procedures), intermediates (31-500 MIS), and novices (no experience in MIS). The participants performed the labyrinth task in the D-box Basic simulator (D-Box Medical, Lier, Norway). The task required bimanual maneuvering and threading a needle through a labyrinth of 10 holes. Nine motion-related metrics were used to assess the MIS skills of each participant. Experts (n = 7) and intermediates (n = 14) performed significantly better than the novices (n = 11) in terms of time and parameters measuring the amount of instrument movement. The experts had significantly better bimanual dexterity, which indicated that they made more simultaneous movements of the two instruments compared to the intermediates and novices. The experts also performed the task with a shorter instrument path length with the nondominant hand than the intermediates. The surgeon's performance in MIS can be distinguished from a novice by metrics such as time and path length. An experienced surgeon in MIS can be differentiated from a less experienced one by the higher ability to control the instrument in the nondominant hand and the higher degree of simultaneous (coordinated) movements of the two instruments.

  12. Does Weight Status Influence Associations between Children's Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Clare; Okely, Anthony; Bagley, Sarah; Telford, Amanda; Booth, Michael; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether weight status influences the association among children's fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA). Two hundred forty-eight children ages 9-12 years participated. Proficiency in three object-control skills and two locomotor skills was examined. Accelerometers objectively assessed physical…

  13. Influence of a Physical Education Methods Course on Elementary Education Majors' Knowledge of Fundamental Movement Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Melanie A.

    2005-01-01

    With an increase concern for childhood obesity, many individuals and organizations are emphasizing the importance of quality physical education. The need for quality physical education at the elementary level is extremely important as research has shown a relationship between the performance of fundamental movement skills and children's body…

  14. Fundamental movement skills in relation to weekday and weekend physical activity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foweather, Lawrence; Knowles, Zoe; Ridgers, Nicola D; O'Dwyer, Mareesa V; Foulkes, Jonathan D; Stratton, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    To examine associations between fundamental movement skills and weekday and weekend physical activity among preschool children living in deprived communities. Cross-sectional observation study. Six locomotor skills and 6 object-control skills were video-assessed using The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. Physical activity was measured via hip-mounted accelerometry. A total of 99 children (53% boys) aged 3-5 years (M 4.6, SD 0.5) completed all assessments. Multilevel mixed regression models were used to examine associations between fundamental movement skills and physical activity. Models were adjusted for clustering, age, sex, standardised body mass index and accelerometer wear time. Boys were more active than girls and had higher object-control skill competency. Total skill score was positively associated with weekend moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p = 0.034) but not weekday physical activity categories (p > 0.05). When subdomains of skills were examined, object-control skills was positively associated with light physical activity on weekdays (p = 0.008) and with light (p = 0.033), moderate-to-vigorous (p = 0.028) and light- and moderate-to-vigorous (p = 0.008) physical activity at weekends. Locomotor skill competency was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on weekdays (p = 0.016) and light physical activity during the weekend (p = 0.035). The findings suggest that developing competence in both locomotor and object-control skills may be an important element in promoting an active lifestyle in young children during weekdays and at weekends. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, u...

  16. Level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre-school children in their ordinary lives

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    and keywords The level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre- school children in their ordinary lives. The diploma thesis deals with the issue of movement activity of pre-school children. Movement activities are vital part of healthy life, especially for children. It should be an essential part of every activity, no matter if it is sport, game, relaxation or just a walk to school. It should be a common part of every pre-school child daily programme. The ac...

  17. The associations among fundamental movement skills, self-reported physical activity and academic performance during junior high school in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Hillman, Charles; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the longitudinal associations between (1) fundamental movement skills (FMSs) and academic performance, and (2) self-reported physical activity and academic performance through junior high school in Finland. The participants of the study were 325 Finnish students (162 girls and 163 boys), who were 13 years old at the beginning of the study at Grade 7. Students performed three FMS tests and responded to a self-reported physical activity questionnaire at Grades 7 and 8. Marks in Finnish language, mathematics and history from Grades 7, 8 and 9 were collected. Structural equation modelling with multigroup method demonstrated that in the boys' group, a correlation (0.17) appeared between FMS and academic performance measured at Grade 7. The results also indicated that FMS collected at Grade 8 were significantly but weakly (path coefficient 0.14) associated with academic performance at Grade 9 for both gender groups. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that self-reported physical activity was not significantly related to academic performance during junior high school. The findings of this study suggest that mastery of FMS may contribute to better student achievement during junior high school.

  18. The Relationship between Fundamental Movement Skills and Self-Reported Physical Activity during Finnish Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Washington, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity are related. Specifically, earlier studies have demonstrated that the ability to perform a variety of FMS increases the likelihood of children participating in a range of physical activities throughout their lives. To date, however, there have not…

  19. Do Irish adolescents have adequate functional movement skill and confidence?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Wesley; Duncan, Michael J.; Farmer, Orlagh; Lester, Diarmuid

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has shown that post-primary Irish youth are insufficiently active and fail to reach a level of proficiency across basic fundamental movement skills. The purpose of the current research was to gather cross-sectional data on adolescent youth, differentiated by gender, specifically to inform the development of a targeted movement-oriented intervention. Data were collected on adolescents (N=219; mean age: 14.45 ± 0.96 years), within two, mixed gender schools. Data collection inclu...

  20. What can the parkour craftsmen tell us about bodily expertise and skilled movement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre Larsen, Signe

    2016-01-01

    up, repetitions and material consciousness in developing perceptual and physical skills in parkour. The parkour craftsmen conduct a constant dialogue between concrete, material practices and thinking. It is argued in the article that Sennett’s ideas about craftsmanship are, in many ways, similar......The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion of expertise and skilled movement in sport by analysing the bodily practice of learning a new movement at a high level of skill in parkour. Based on Sennett’s theory of craftsmanship and an ethnographic field study with experienced...... practitioners, the analysis offers insight into the skilful, contextual and unique practice of parkour, and contributes to the renewed discussion of consciousness in sport at a high level of skill. With Sennett’s concept of craftsmanship, it is possible to describe and grasp important aspects of obstacles put...

  1. A Monitoring Tool of Infant and Toddler Movement Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitschuh, Carol A.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Dunn, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity in infancy is essential for early brain development. Development in the early years is the most rapid at any time during life. Monitoring functional movement skills of infants and toddlers frequently (3-week intervals) and quickly (minutes) produces information on whether development is on track or in need of intervention. To…

  2. Motor Cortical Networks for Skilled Movements Have Dynamic Properties That Are Related to Accurate Reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Putrino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the Primary Motor Cortex (MI are known to form functional ensembles with one another in order to produce voluntary movement. Neural network changes during skill learning are thought to be involved in improved fluency and accuracy of motor tasks. Unforced errors during skilled tasks provide an avenue to study network connections related to motor learning. In order to investigate network activity in MI, microwires were implanted in the MI of cats trained to perform a reaching task. Spike trains from eight groups of simultaneously recorded cells (95 neurons in total were acquired. A point process generalized linear model (GLM was developed to assess simultaneously recorded cells for functional connectivity during reaching attempts where unforced errors or no errors were made. Whilst the same groups of neurons were often functionally connected regardless of trial success, functional connectivity between neurons was significantly different at fine time scales when the outcome of task performance changed. Furthermore, connections were shown to be significantly more robust across multiple latencies during successful trials of task performance. The results of this study indicate that reach-related neurons in MI form dynamic spiking dependencies whose temporal features are highly sensitive to unforced movement errors.

  3. Can Constraint Induced Movement Therapy Improve In-Hand Manipulation Skills: A Single Subject Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Kavousipor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes a single subject design (ABA that shows the effective use of constraint induced movement therapy in improvement of quality and performance of in-hand manipulation skills for a 10 year old boy and a 9 years old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, as Dickerson (2007 showed it in arm movement and function. Methods: To determine the effectiveness of CIMT by the use of C-statistic analysis and visual analysis. Approach: The first step was to design a child friendly group activity and home based intervention program through occupation. The possible effectiveness of CIMT was evaluated by daily measurements and video recording of 6 sub skills of in-hand manipulation according to Pont category (2009 in defined activity. Results: For making the treatment more cost effective, families can produce a simple clinical setting at home and participate in their child treatment plan actively. Discussion: A client center intervention will facilitate the use and quality of fingers and hand motion. Also a group activity can motivate participants to participate more and better.

  4. Cross-country skiing movement factorization to explore relationships between skiing economy and athletes' skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, B; Zoppirolli, C; Boccia, G; Bortolan, L; Schena, F

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the relationships between the biomechanics of the double poling (DP) technique in cross-country skiing, its economy, and athletes' skill. To this aim, skiers' motion has been factorized into components through principal component analysis (PCA). Eight high-level (HL) and eight regional level (RL) male cross-country skiers performed a 5-minute submaximal DP trial while roller skiing on a treadmill at 14 km h -1 and 2° incline. Whole-body kinematics was recorded with a motion capture system. PCA was applied to markers coordinates to extract principal movements (PM k ), which were ranked by their variance. Energy cost (EC) of locomotion was calculated from ergospirometric measurements. Results showed that 96.7%±0.6% of total skiing pattern variance can be described with the first three PM k. (Shoulder and trunk flexion-extension are described PM 1 and PM 2 and elbow flexion-extension are mainly represented in PM 2 and PM 3. The variance of further components, consisting of residual movements (eg, slow postural changes or high-frequency vibrations), was greater for the RL than the HL skiers (4.0%±0.5% vs 2.6%±0.3%; P<.001) and was positively correlated with EC (R 2 =.646; P<.001). PCA permitted to describe the biomechanics of the DP technique through a limited set of principal movements. Skiing skills and economy appeared to be related to a skier's ability to simplify movement complexity, suggesting that an efficient skier is better able to reduce superfluous movement components during DP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Learning fast accurate movements requires intact frontostriatal circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britne eShabbott

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia are known to play a crucial role in movement execution, but their importance for motor skill learning remains unclear. Obstacles to our understanding include the lack of a universally accepted definition of motor skill learning (definition confound, and difficulties in distinguishing learning deficits from execution impairments (performance confound. We studied how healthy subjects and subjects with a basal ganglia disorder learn fast accurate reaching movements, and we addressed the definition and performance confounds by: 1 focusing on an operationally defined core element of motor skill learning (speed-accuracy learning, and 2 using normal variation in initial performance to separate movement execution impairment from motor learning abnormalities. We measured motor skill learning learning as performance improvement in a reaching task with a speed-accuracy trade-off. We compared the performance of subjects with Huntington’s disease (HD, a neurodegenerative basal ganglia disorder, to that of premanifest carriers of the HD mutation and of control subjects. The initial movements of HD subjects were less skilled (slower and/or less accurate than those of control subjects. To factor out these differences in initial execution, we modeled the relationship between learning and baseline performance in control subjects. Subjects with HD exhibited a clear learning impairment that was not explained by differences in initial performance. These results support a role for the basal ganglia in both movement execution and motor skill learning.

  6. Fundamental movement skills among Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Farrell, Louise; Macniven, Rona; Howlett, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Children who do not master FMS are more likely to experience failure in the motor domain and less likely to participate in sport and games during childhood and adolescence. Studies among primary school aged children report low levels of FMS mastery indicating the need to implement FMS programs during the preschool years. Cross-sectional study of 425 children attending preschools in the Sydney, Australia in 2008. FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 including locomotor (run, gallop, hop, horizontal jump) and object control (strike, catch, kick overhand throw) skills. Data were analysed using linear regression and chi-squared analyses. Total locomotor score was higher among girls compared with boys (pskills and boys had higher mastery of object control skills. These findings highlight the need to provide structured opportunities which facilitate children's acquisition of FMS, which may include providing gender separated games, equipment and spaces. That mastery of FMS is low in primary school children indicates the importance of early intervention programs in preschools. Preschools and child care centers hold promise as a key setting for implementing FMS programs.

  7. Differences between Estimation and Real Performance in School-Age Children: Fundamental Movement Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations in studies of estimation compared to actual performance in motor skills revealed that children are not always accurate and have a tendency to overestimate the maximum distance at which an action can be performed. The relationship between estimated and real motor competences was analyzed for several tasks: standing long jump (SLJ, throwing and kicking, and walking backwards (WB on a balance beam. Children were asked to predict their maximum distance prior to performing those tasks. Participants were 303 children (160 boys, which were between 6 and 10 years of age (M=8.63, SD=1.16. Children’s estimations were compared with their real performance to determine their accuracy. Absolute error (|real performance − estimation| and error tendency, that is, the direction of the error (overestimation, accuracy, and underestimation bias, were calculated. Children had a tendency to overestimate their performance and were more conservative in the WB task, a noncommon action. In general, it is possible to conclude that children, in the studied age span, tend to overestimate their performance, particularly in familiar skills. This fact may be determinant to the development of their motor competences, since they are more likely to engage and persist in motor tasks, but it might also be a problem in terms of child safety because it could increase the occurrence of unintended injuries.

  8. Fundamental Movement Skills and Balance of Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, C. M.; Mak, T. C. T.; Tse, M. A.; Masters, R. S. W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Conclusive evidence supports the importance of fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency in promoting physical activity and countering obesity. In children with Down Syndrome (DS), FMS development is delayed, which has been suggested to be associated with balance deficits. This study therefore examined the relationship between FMS…

  9. Polyphasic Temporal Behavior of Finger-Tapping Performance: A Measure of Motor Skills and Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Leyla; Kiziltan, Erhan; Gundogan, Nimet Unay

    2016-01-01

    Successive voluntary motor movement involves a number of physiological mechanisms and may reflect motor skill development and neuromuscular fatigue. In this study, the temporal behavior of finger tapping was investigated in relation to motor skills and fatigue by using a long-term computer-based test. The finger-tapping performances of 29 healthy male volunteers were analyzed using linear and nonlinear regression models established for inter-tapping interval. The results suggest that finger-tapping performance exhibits a polyphasic nature, and has several characteristic time points, which may be directly related to muscle dynamics and energy consumption. In conclusion, we believe that future studies evaluating the polyphasic nature of the maximal voluntary movement will lead to the definition of objective scales that can be used in the follow up of some neuromuscular diseases, as well as, the determination of motor skills, individual ability, and peripheral fatigue through the use of a low cost, easy-to-use computer-based finger-tapping test.

  10. Influence of closed skill and open skill warm-ups on the performance of speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and reactive agility in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Pritchard-Peschek, Kellie R; Leveritt, Michael D; Aldred, Murry J

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two different dynamic warm-up conditions, one that was inclusive of open skills (i.e., reactive movements) and one that included only preplanned dynamic activities (i.e., closed skills) on the performance of speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and reactive agility in team sport athletes. Fourteen (six male, eight female) junior (mean +/- SD age, 16.3 +/- 0.7 year) basketball players participated in this study. Testing was conducted on 2 separate days using a within-subjects cross-over study design. Each athlete performed a standardized 7-minute warm-up consisting of general dynamic movements and stretching. After the general warm-up, athletes were randomly allocated into one of two groups that performed a dynamic 15-minute warm-up consisting entirely of open or closed skills. Each of the warm-up conditions consisted of five activities of 3 minute duration. At the completion of the warm-up protocol, players completed assessments of reactive agility, speed (5-, 10-, and 20-m sprints), change of direction speed (T-test), and vertical jump. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected among warm-up conditions for speed, vertical jump, change of direction speed, and reactive agility performances. The results of this study demonstrate that either open skill or closed skill warm-ups can be used effectively for team sport athletes without compromising performance on open skill and closed skill tasks.

  11. Comparison of performance on process- and product-oriented assessments of fundamental motor skills across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W; Barnett, Lisa M; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Stodden, David F

    2017-04-01

    Process-oriented motor competence (MC) assessments evaluate how a movement is performed. Product-oriented assessments evaluate the outcome of a movement. Determining the concurrent validity of process and product assessments is important to address the predictive utility of motor competence for health. The current study aimed to: (1) compare process and product assessments of the standing long jump, hop and throw across age groups and (2) determine the capacity of process assessments to classify levels of MC. Participants included 170 children classified into three age groups: 4-5, 7-8 and 10-11 years old. Participants' skills were examined concurrently using three process assessments ((Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd edition [TGMD-2]), Get Skilled; Get Active, and developmental sequences) and one product measure (throw speed, jump and hop distance). Results indicate moderate to strong correlations between (1) process assessments across skills and age groups (r range = .37-70) and (2) process and product assessments across skills and age groups (r range = .26-.88). In general, sensitivity to detect advanced skill level is lowest for TGMD-2 and highest for developmental sequences for all three skills. The use of process and product assessments is suggested to comprehensively capture levels of MC in human movement.

  12. Interpreting Measures of Fundamental Movement Skills and Their Relationship with Health-Related Physical Activity and Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Stuart; Williams, Morgan; Rainer, Paul; Jones, Eleri Sian; Saunders, John; Mullen, Richard

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine proficiency levels of fundamental movement skills using cluster analysis in a cohort of U.K. primary school children; and to further examine the relationships between fundamental movement skills proficiency and other key aspects of health-related physical activity behavior. Participants were 553 primary…

  13. Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…

  14. Effectiveness of exercise intervention on improving fundamental movement skills and motor coordination in overweight/obese children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ahreum; Fu, Allan; Cobley, Stephen; Sanders, Ross H

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity is negatively associated with fundamental movement skill and motor coordination, which in turn constrains physical activity participation and adherence thereby forming a 'vicious cycle'. However, developing motor skill and coordination in childhood could help to break the vicious cycle to reduce childhood obesity. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of exercise and physical activity interventions on improving fundamental movement skill and motor coordination in overweight/obese children and adolescents. A systematic review with quality assessment. A comprehensive systematic search was conducted from MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE without date restriction for randomized control trials, interventions or longitudinal studies of movement skill/motor skill/motor coordination in overweight/obese participants between 0-18 years of age. A total of 3944 publications were screened, and 17 published studies were included. Altogether 38 tests for locomotor, object-control, balance and complex task tests were examined in selected studies, with 33 reporting increases after interventions, while only five tests indicated no change. The evidence strongly suggests that exercise/physical activity interventions were effective in improving locomotor skill, object-control skill and complex tasks in overweight/obese peers. However, the results for balance were equivocal. Results from existing studies suggest overweight/obese peers have lower levels of fundamental movement skill than their healthy weight peers. However, exercise/physical activity interventions are effective in improving their skills. To maximize skill improvement, we recommend focused fundamental movement skill and motor coordination activities for skill development. These progressions in interventions may help break the vicious cycle of childhood obesity. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Mixed movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....

  16. Traces of Discourses and Governmentality within the Content and Implementation of the Western Australian Fundamental Movement Skills Programme (STEPS Professional Development)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson-Buchanan, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years or more, a plethora of movement programmes have been adopted within primary physical education in the UK and across Australia. One particular programme, Fundamental Movement Skills (STEPS Professional Development), became of interest to the researcher during her dual role as the UK Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS)…

  17. Sex Differences in Fundamental Movement Skills of a Selected Group of 6-Year-Old South African Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Anita E.; van Reenen, Irma; Weber, Angelique M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motor competence is emerging as an important marker of health, while adequate basic movement patterns, body control and body awareness are important building blocks of more specialized body movements and scholastic adjustment during early childhood. This study examined fundamental movement skill competency and explored sex differences…

  18. Fundamental movement skills and physical fitness as predictors of physical activity: A 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, T; Yli-Piipari, S; Huotari, P; Watt, A; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which fundamental movement skills and physical fitness scores assessed in early adolescence predict self-reported physical activity assessed 6 years later. The sample comprised 333 (200 girls, 133 boys; M age = 12.41) students. The effects of previous physical activity, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled in the main analyses. Adolescents' fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, self-report physical activity, and BMI were collected at baseline, and their self-report energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents: METs) and intensity of physical activity were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 6 years later. Results showed that fundamental movement skills predicted METs, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity levels, whereas fitness predicted METs, moderate, and vigorous physical activity levels. Hierarchical regression analyses also showed that after controlling for previous levels of physical activity, sex, and BMI, the size of the effect of fundamental movement skills and physical fitness on energy expenditure and physical activity intensity was moderate (R(2) change between 0.06 and 0.15), with the effect being stronger for high intensity physical activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Motor-Life-Skills of Toddlers--A Comparative Study of Norwegian and British Boys and Girls Applying the Early Years Movement Skills Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Reikerås, Elin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses motor-life-skills in a sample (n?=?1083) of 33 months (2.9-year-old) children in Norwegian early childhood education and care institutions (ECEC-institutions) and to compare the findings with the results from a similar British sample. The Early Years Movement Skills Checklist (EYMSC) (Chambers and Sugden 2006) was applied.…

  20. How important is young children's actual and perceived movement skill competence to their physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slykerman, Sarah; Ridgers, Nicola D; Stevenson, Christopher; Barnett, Lisa M

    2016-06-01

    To determine the associations between young children's actual and perceived object control and locomotor skills and physical activity and whether associations differ by sex. Cross sectional study. A total of 136 children consented. Children had actual skill (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), perceived skill (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometers) assessed. Independent t-tests assessed sex differences. A regression (with MVPA as the outcome) was performed with all predictor variables (i.e. Actual Object Control, Actual Locomotor, Perceived Object Control, and Perceived Locomotor). Model 2 also adjusted for age, sex, accelerometer wear time and whether the child was from an English speaking background. Interaction terms between the respective actual or perceived skill factor and sex were added to assess sex differences. Analyses were conducted on 109 children (59 boys, 50 girls; mean age=6.5 years, SD=1.0). Boys had higher actual and perceived object control skill and were more active by an average of 19min per day. There were no sex differences in locomotor skills. There were no associations between skill factors and MVPA, except for girls, where locomotor skill was a significant predictor of MVPA (B=3.66, p=0.016). Actual rather than perceived skill competence was more important to MVPA in this sample. Locomotor skill competence may be more important than object control skill competence for girls as they may engage in types of physical activity that do not require object control mastery. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gaze training enhances laparoscopic technical skill acquisition and multi-tasking performance: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Vine, Samuel J; Bright, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W; Defriend, David; McGrath, John S

    2011-12-01

    The operating room environment is replete with stressors and distractions that increase the attention demands of what are already complex psychomotor procedures. Contemporary research in other fields (e.g., sport) has revealed that gaze training interventions may support the development of robust movement skills. This current study was designed to examine the utility of gaze training for technical laparoscopic skills and to test performance under multitasking conditions. Thirty medical trainees with no laparoscopic experience were divided randomly into one of three treatment groups: gaze trained (GAZE), movement trained (MOVE), and discovery learning/control (DISCOVERY). Participants were fitted with a Mobile Eye gaze registration system, which measures eye-line of gaze at 25 Hz. Training consisted of ten repetitions of the "eye-hand coordination" task from the LAP Mentor VR laparoscopic surgical simulator while receiving instruction and video feedback (specific to each treatment condition). After training, all participants completed a control test (designed to assess learning) and a multitasking transfer test, in which they completed the procedure while performing a concurrent tone counting task. Not only did the GAZE group learn more quickly than the MOVE and DISCOVERY groups (faster completion times in the control test), but the performance difference was even more pronounced when multitasking. Differences in gaze control (target locking fixations), rather than tool movement measures (tool path length), underpinned this performance advantage for GAZE training. These results suggest that although the GAZE intervention focused on training gaze behavior only, there were indirect benefits for movement behaviors and performance efficiency. Additionally, focusing on a single external target when learning, rather than on complex movement patterns, may have freed-up attentional resources that could be applied to concurrent cognitive tasks.

  2. Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment (CAMSA: Validity, objectivity, and reliability evidence for children 8–12 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E. Longmuir

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment is a feasible measure of selected fundamental, complex and combined movement skills, which are an important building block for childhood physical literacy. Moderate-to-excellent objectivity was demonstrated for children 8–12 years of age. Test–retest reliability has been established over an interval of at least 1 week. The time and skill scores can be accurately estimated by 1 trained examiner.

  3. Dissociable effects of a single dose of ecstasy (MDMA) on psychomotor skills and attentional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, C T J; Ramaekers, J G; Muntjewerff, N D; Sikkema, K L; Samyn, N; Read, N L; Brookhuis, K A; Riedel, W J

    2003-12-01

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is a psychoactive recreational drug widely used by young people visiting dance parties, and has been associated with poor cognitive function. The current study assessed the influence of a single dose of MDMA 75 mg and alcohol 0.5 g/kg on cognition, psychomotor performance and driving-related task performance. Twelve healthy recreational ecstasy users participated in an experimental study conducted according to a double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled three-way cross-over design. MDMA improved psychomotor performance, such as movement speed and tracking performance in a single task, as well as in a divided attention task. MDMA impaired the ability to predict object movement under divided attention. However, the inability to accurately predict object movement after MDMA may indicate impairment of particular performance skills relevant to driving. There was no effect of MDMA on visual search, planning or retrieval from semantic memory.

  4. Movement skills proficiency and physical activity: a case for Engaging and Coaching for Health (EACH)-Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziviani, Jenny; Poulsen, Anne; Hansen, Carla

    2009-08-01

    Supporting children's participation in health-enhancing physical activities is an important occupational goal for therapists. Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are thought to underpin and enable many activity options. This study had two goals: first, to examine the relationship between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity, and second, to use this and existing evidence to inform strategies whereby children's motivation for and engagement in physical activity can be supported. A cross-sectional investigation of 124 children, aged 6-12 years, was undertaken. FMS were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) and physical activity by pedometer step counts. A weak but significant association was found between weekend physical activity and balance skills for girls. Correlations between physical activity and ball skills or manual dexterity were not significant for either gender, however, having age appropriate ball skills did result in greater but not significant levels of physical activity for all children when grouped together. Findings from this study question the magnitude of the relationship between children's FMS and physical activity as measured by pedometers. If the goal of health enhancement through physical activity engagement is to be realised, it is proposed that community, occupation-based approaches may offer more potential than skills-based interventions at increasing activity participation. The concept of Engaging and Coaching for Health (EACH)-Child is introduced to this end. Occupational therapists are encouraged to work collaboratively with school and community organisations to assist children to find the physical activities that best accommodate their interests, abilities and offer opportunities for lifelong engagement.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF BODY COMPOSITION, HORMONE PROFILE, PHYSICAL FITNESS, GENERAL PERCEPTUAL MOTOR SKILLS, SOCCER SKILLS AND ON-THE-BALL PERFORMANCE IN SOCCER-SPECIFIC LABORATORY TEST AMONG ADOLESCENT SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Vänttinen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group. The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (λ = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01 of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01 in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05, dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01 and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01 in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01, counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01, dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01 and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05 in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05, fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05, 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01 and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05 in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05 in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific

  6. Fundamental movement skills proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: does physical self-concept matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sit, Cindy H P; Capio, Catherine M; Burnett, Angus; Ha, Amy S C; Huang, Wendy Y J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) examine differences in fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity in children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and (2) determine the association of FMS proficiency with physical self-concept while considering key confounding factors. Participants included 43 children with DCD and 87 age-matched typically developing (TD) children. FMS proficiency was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - second edition. Physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed using self-report questionnaires. A two-way (group by gender) ANCOVA was used to determine whether between-group differences existed in FMS proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity after controlling for age and BMI. Partial correlations and hierarchical multiple regression models were used to examine the relationship between FMS proficiency and physical self-concept. Compared with their TD peers, children with DCD displayed less proficiency in various components of FMS and viewed themselves as being less competent in physical coordination, sporting ability, and physical health. Physical coordination was a significant predictor of ability in object control skills. DCD status and gender were significant predictors of FMS proficiency. Future FMS interventions should target children with DCD and girls, and should emphasize improving object control skills proficiency and physical coordination. Children with DCD tend to have not only lower FMS proficiency than age-matched typically developing children but also lower physical self-concept. Self-perceptions of physical coordination by children with DCD are likely to be valuable contributors to development of object control skills. This may then help to develop their confidence in performing motor skills. Children with DCD need supportive programs that facilitate the development of object control skills. Efficacy of training

  7. Electro-encephalogram based brain-computer interface: improved performance by mental practice and concentration skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Babak; Erfanian, Abbas

    2006-11-01

    Mental imagination is the essential part of the most EEG-based communication systems. Thus, the quality of mental rehearsal, the degree of imagined effort, and mind controllability should have a major effect on the performance of electro-encephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI). It is now well established that mental practice using motor imagery improves motor skills. The effects of mental practice on motor skill learning are the result of practice on central motor programming. According to this view, it seems logical that mental practice should modify the neuronal activity in the primary sensorimotor areas and consequently change the performance of EEG-based BCI. For developing a practical BCI system, recognizing the resting state with eyes opened and the imagined voluntary movement is important. For this purpose, the mind should be able to focus on a single goal for a period of time, without deviation to another context. In this work, we are going to examine the role of mental practice and concentration skills on the EEG control during imaginative hand movements. The results show that the mental practice and concentration can generally improve the classification accuracy of the EEG patterns. It is found that mental training has a significant effect on the classification accuracy over the primary motor cortex and frontal area.

  8. The influence of a real job on upper limb performance in motor skill tests: which abilities are transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangiardi, Vivian Farahte; Alouche, Sandra Regina; de Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Pires, Raquel Simoni; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2018-06-01

    To investigate whether the specificities of real jobs create distinctions in the performance of workers in different motor tests for the upper limbs, 24 participants were divided into two groups according to their specific job: fine and repetitive tasks and general tasks. Both groups reproduced tasks related to aiming movements, handling and strength of the upper limbs. There were no significant differences between groups in the dexterity and performance of aiming movements. However, the general tasks group had higher grip strength than the repetitive tasks group, demonstrating differences according to job specificity. The results suggest that a particular motor skill in a specific job cannot improve performance in other tasks with the same motor requirements. The transfer of the fine and gross motor skills from previous experience in a job-specific task is the basis for allocating training and guidance to workers.

  9. Physical Activity into Socialization: A Movement-Based Social Skills Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Vargo, Kristina K.

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit deficits in social-communicative behaviors. Given the increased prevalence of children with ASD, programs designed to teach social-communicative behaviors are necessary. This article introduces a movement-based program that embeds social-skill components to improve the motor skills and…

  10. The movements made by performers in a skilled quartet: a distinctive pattern, and the function that it serves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald eGlowinski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When people perform a task as part of a joint action, their behavior is not the same as it would be if they were performing the same task alone, since it has to be adapted to facilitate shared understanding (or sometimes to prevent it. Joint performance of music offers a test bed for ecologically valid investigations of the way non-verbal behavior facilitates joint action. Here we compare the expressive movement of violinists when playing in solo and ensemble conditions. The first violinists of two string quartets, professional and student, were asked to play the same musical fragments in a solo condition and with the quartet. Synchronized multimodal recordings were created from the performances, using a specially developed software platform. Different patterns of head movement were observed. By quantifying them using an appropriate measure of entropy, we showed that head movements are more predictable in the quartet scenario. Rater evaluations showed that the change does not, as might be assumed, entail markedly reduced expression. They showed some ability to discriminate between solo and ensemble performances, but did not distinguish them in terms of emotional content or expressiveness. The data raise provocative questions about joint action in realistically complex scenarios.

  11. Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Smith, Leif M; McKeen, Kim

    2009-11-01

    Gender differences in cross-sectional relationships between fundamental movement skill (FMS) subdomains (locomotor skills, object-control skills) and physical activity were examined in preschool children. Forty-six 3- to 5-year-olds (25 boys) had their FMS video assessed (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and their physical activity objectively monitored (Actigraph 7164 accelerometers). Among boys, object-control skills were associated with physical activity and explained 16.9% (p = .024) and 13.7% (p = .049) of the variance in percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity, respectively, after controlling for age, SES and z-BMI. Locomotor skills were inversely associated with physical activity among girls, and explained 19.2% (p = .023) of the variance in percent of time in MVPA after controlling for confounders. Gender and FMS subdomain may influence the relationship between FMS and physical activity in preschool children.

  12. Motivational state, reward value, and Pavlovian cues differentially affect skilled forelimb grasping in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clauser, Larissa; Kasper, Hansjörg; Schwab, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    Motor skills represent high-precision movements performed at optimal speed and accuracy. Such motor skills are learned with practice over time. Besides practice, effects of motivation have also been shown to influence speed and accuracy of movements, suggesting that fast movements are performed to maximize gained reward over time as noted in previous studies. In rodents, skilled motor performance has been successfully modeled with the skilled grasping task, in which animals use their forepaw to grasp for sugar pellet rewards through a narrow window. Using sugar pellets, the skilled grasping task is inherently tied to motivation processes. In the present study, we performed three experiments modulating animals’ motivation during skilled grasping by changing the motivational state, presenting different reward value ratios, and displaying Pavlovian stimuli. We found in all three studies that motivation affected the speed of skilled grasping movements, with the strongest effects seen due to motivational state and reward value. Furthermore, accuracy of the movement, measured in success rate, showed a strong dependence on motivational state as well. Pavlovian cues had only minor effects on skilled grasping, but results indicate an inverse Pavlovian-instrumental transfer effect on movement speed. These findings have broad implications considering the increasing use of skilled grasping in studies of motor system structure, function, and recovery after injuries. PMID:27194796

  13. Development of Estimating Equation of Machine Operational Skill by Utilizing Eye Movement Measurement and Analysis of Stress and Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For an establishment of a skill evaluation method for human support systems, development of an estimating equation of the machine operational skill is presented. Factors of the eye movement such as frequency, velocity, and moving distance of saccade were computed using the developed eye gaze measurement system, and the eye movement features were determined from these factors. The estimating equation was derived through an outlier test (to eliminate nonstandard data and a principal component analysis (to find dominant components. Using a cooperative carrying task (cc-task simulator, the eye movement and operational data of the machine operators were recorded, and effectiveness of the derived estimating equation was investigated. As a result, it was confirmed that the estimating equation was effective strongly against actual simple skill levels (r=0.56–0.84. In addition, effects of internal condition such as fatigue and stress on the estimating equation were analyzed. Using heart rate (HR and coefficient of variation of R-R interval (Cvrri. Correlation analysis between these biosignal indexes and the estimating equation of operational skill found that the equation reflected effects of stress and fatigue, although the equation could estimate the skill level adequately.

  14. Relationships between Body Composition and Fundamental Movement Skills among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D.; Booth, Michael L.; Chey, Tien

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations of fundamental movement skills (FMS) with measures of body composition. among children and adolescents. Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data collected from 4,363 children and adolescents in Grades 4, 6, 8, and 10 as part of the 1997 New South Wales Schools Fitness and Physical Activity…

  15. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  16. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  17. Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity among Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Masters, Rich S. W.

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency is believed to influence children's physical activity (PA), with those more proficient tending to be more active. Children with cerebral palsy (CP), who represent the largest diagnostic group treated in pediatric rehabilitation, have been found to be less active than typically developing children. This…

  18. Fundamental movement skills testing in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Sit, Cindy H P; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    To examine the inter-rater reliability and comparative validity of product-oriented and process-oriented measures of fundamental movement skills among children with cerebral palsy (CP). In total, 30 children with CP aged 6 to 14 years (Mean = 9.83, SD = 2.5) and classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-III performed tasks of catching, throwing, kicking, horizontal jumping and running. Process-oriented assessment was undertaken using a number of components of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), while product-oriented assessment included measures of time taken, distance covered and number of successful task completions. Cohen's kappa, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and tests to compare correlated correlation coefficients were performed. Very good inter-rater reliability was found. Process-oriented measures for running and jumping had significant associations with GMFCS, as did seven product-oriented measures for catching, throwing, kicking, running and jumping. Product-oriented measures of catching, kicking and running had stronger associations with GMFCS than the corresponding process-oriented measures. Findings support the validity of process-oriented measures for running and jumping and of product-oriented measures of catching, throwing, kicking, running and jumping. However, product-oriented measures for catching, kicking and running appear to have stronger associations with functional abilities of children with CP, and are thus recommended for use in rehabilitation processes.

  19. Intervention to enhance skilled arm and hand movements after stroke: A feasibility study using a new virtual reality system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaughlin Margaret

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rehabilitation programs designed to develop skill in upper extremity (UE function after stroke require progressive practice that engage and challenge the learner. Virtual realty (VR provides a unique environment where the presentation of stimuli can be controlled systematically for optimal challenge by adapting task difficulty as performance improves. We describe four VR tasks that were developed and tested to improve arm and hand movement skills for individuals with hemiparesis. Methods Two participants with chronic post-stroke paresis and different levels of motor severity attended 12 training sessions lasting 1 to 2 hours each over a 3-week period. Behavior measures and questionnaires were administered pre-, mid-, and post-training. Results Both participants improved VR task performance across sessions. The less impaired participant averaged more time on task, practiced a greater number of blocks per session, and progressed at a faster rate over sessions than the more impaired participant. Impairment level did not change but both participants improved functional ability after training. The less impaired participant increased the number of blocks moved on the Box & Blocks test while the more impaired participant achieved 4 more items on the Functional Test of the Hemiparetic UE. Conclusion Two participants with differing motor severity were able to engage in VR based practice and improve performance over 12 training sessions. We were able to successfully provide individualized, progressive practice based on each participant's level of movement ability and rate of performance improvement.

  20. Fundamental Movement Skills Development under the Influence of a Gymnastics Program and Everyday Physical Activity in Seven-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culjak, Zoran; Miletic, Durdica; Kalinski, Suncica Delas; Kezic, Ana; Zuvela, Frane

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were: a) to examine the influence of an 18-week basic artistic gymnastics program on fundamental movement skills (FMS) development in seven-year-old children; b) to determine correlations between children's daily activities and successful performance of FMS and basic artistic gymnastics skills. Seventy five first grade primary school children took part in this study. A physical education teacher specialized in artistic gymnastics conducted a gymnastics program for 18 weeks, three times a week. The level of gymnastics skills and FMS were identified at the beginning and at the end of the program. The level of gymnastics skills was evaluated by performance of eight artistic gymnastics skills, while FMS were evaluated by the use of FMS-polygon. Physical activity and inactivity was evaluated by using a proxy-questionnaire "Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire˝ (NPAQ). According to the dependent samples t test, significant differences were found in the FMS-polygon and all gymnastics skills before and after the 18-week gymnastics program. Increasing correlations were established over time between gymnastics skills and the FMS-polygon. Unorganized daily activity of children significantly correlated with their mastering of gymnastics skills and FMS. The presented findings confirm: (1) the thesis that basic artistic gymnastics skills and FMS could be developed simultaneously, (2) the theory of positive transfer of similar skills between FMS and artistic gymnastic skills. Mastering basic artistic gymnastics skills will provoke improvement of FMS and finally become a prerequisite for successful introduction of learning more complex gymnastics skills. The obtained results imply that an increase of children's unorganized daily activities can improve the mastering of basic gymnastics skills and simultaneously the development of FMS.

  1. Evaluation of a Direct-Instruction Intervention to Improve Movement and Preliteracy Skills among Young Children: A Within-Subject Repeated-Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Bedard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSchool readiness involves the development of foundational skills such as emergent literacy and fundamental movement skills as well as the capacity to attentively engage in instructional situations. Children do not develop these skills naturally; therefore, they need the opportunity to develop these skills in their early years prior to entering school. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy intervention in children aged 3–4 years.MethodsA within-subject repeated-measures design, embedded within a wait-list control study, was used to evaluate the intervention. The intervention was run across 10 weeks with 1 h weekly sessions. Each weekly session consisted of 30-min of movement skill instruction (e.g., through single-step acquisition strategies, 15-min of free play during which time children had access to a variety of equipment (e.g., balls, hula hoops, etc. or toys (e.g., puzzles, building blocks, and a 15-min interactive reading circle during which children read a storybook and were taught 1–2 preliteracy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge, narrative knowledge, etc.. A convenience sample of 11 children (mean age = 45.6 months, SD = 7.3 was recruited. All children were assessed four times: baseline (Time 1, pre-intervention (Time 2, post-intervention (Time 3, and 5-week follow-up (Time 4. Gross motor skills and preliteracy skills were assessed at each time point.ResultsThere was a statistically significant effect of time on the change in gross motor skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .002, print-concept skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .001, and alphabet knowledge (Wilks’ lambda = 0.29, p = .046. Post hoc analyses reveal non-significant changes between time 1 and 2 for motor and print-concept skills and significant changes in all three outcomes between time 2 and time 3.ConclusionParticipation in a

  2. Evaluation of a Direct-Instruction Intervention to Improve Movement and Preliteracy Skills among Young Children: A Within-Subject Repeated-Measures Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Chloe; Bremer, Emily; Campbell, Wenonah; Cairney, John

    2017-01-01

    School readiness involves the development of foundational skills such as emergent literacy and fundamental movement skills as well as the capacity to attentively engage in instructional situations. Children do not develop these skills naturally; therefore, they need the opportunity to develop these skills in their early years prior to entering school. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy intervention in children aged 3-4 years. A within-subject repeated-measures design, embedded within a wait-list control study, was used to evaluate the intervention. The intervention was run across 10 weeks with 1 h weekly sessions. Each weekly session consisted of 30-min of movement skill instruction (e.g., through single-step acquisition strategies), 15-min of free play during which time children had access to a variety of equipment (e.g., balls, hula hoops, etc.) or toys (e.g., puzzles, building blocks), and a 15-min interactive reading circle during which children read a storybook and were taught 1-2 preliteracy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge, narrative knowledge, etc.). A convenience sample of 11 children (mean age = 45.6 months, SD = 7.3) was recruited. All children were assessed four times: baseline (Time 1), pre-intervention (Time 2), post-intervention (Time 3), and 5-week follow-up (Time 4). Gross motor skills and preliteracy skills were assessed at each time point. There was a statistically significant effect of time on the change in gross motor skills (Wilks' lambda = 0.09, p  = .002), print-concept skills (Wilks' lambda = 0.09, p  = .001), and alphabet knowledge (Wilks' lambda = 0.29, p  = .046). Post hoc analyses reveal non-significant changes between time 1 and 2 for motor and print-concept skills and significant changes in all three outcomes between time 2 and time 3. Participation in a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy

  3. Motivational State, Reward Value, and Pavlovian Cues Differentially Affect Skilled Forelimb Grasping in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosberger, Alice C.; de Clauser, Larissa; Kasper, Hansjörg; Schwab, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    Motor skills represent high-precision movements performed at optimal speed and accuracy. Such motor skills are learned with practice over time. Besides practice, effects of motivation have also been shown to influence speed and accuracy of movements, suggesting that fast movements are performed to maximize gained reward over time as noted in…

  4. Psychomotor skills in medical ultrasound imaging: an analysis of the core skill set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Hyett, Jon

    2014-08-01

    Sonographers use psychomotor skills to perform medical ultrasound examinations. Psychomotor skills describe voluntary movements of the limb, joints, and muscles in response to sensory stimuli and are regulated by the motor neural cortex in the brain. We define a psychomotor skill in relation to medical ultrasound imaging as "the unique mental and motor activities required to execute a manual task safely and efficiently for each clinical situation." Skills in clinical ultrasound practice may be open or closed; most skills used in medical ultrasound imaging are open. Open skills are both complex and multidimensional. Visuomotor and visuospatial psychomotor skills are central components of medical ultrasound imaging. Both types of skills rely on learners having a visual exemplar or standard of performance with which to reference their skill performance and evaluate anatomic structures. These are imperative instructional design principles when teaching psychomotor skills. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Physical activity and movement skills proficiency of young Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Sit, Cindy H P; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Abernethy, Bruce

    2014-08-01

    Recent reports indicate an increasing prevalence of overweight among Filipino children. Considering the known association of physical activity (PA) with obesity, this study reports the findings of an objective monitoring of PA in a sample of Filipino children. The study also explores the relationship of PA with fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency. Thirty-two children (6.54 ± 2.45 years old) wore an accelerometer for 7 days of PA monitoring and were assessed on five FMS (throw, catch, kick, run, jump). The children met the World Health Organization's recommendation of 60 min of PA per day, with more active time being accrued during weekdays than weekends. Children with greater FMS proficiency were found to spend more time in PA than those who were less skillful during weekends. Further research is recommended to examine PA and FMS proficiency associations, exploring the role of social interactions on weekends and weekdays. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of low fundamental movement skill competency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; Reinten-Reynolds, Tracie; Espinel, Paola; Zask, Avigdor; Okely, Anthony D

    2012-08-01

    To describe the demographic and health-related characteristics of school-aged children with low competency in fundamental movement skills (FMS). Cross-sectional representative school-based survey of Australian elementary and high school students (n = 6917) conducted in 2010. Trained field staff measured students' height, weight, and assessed FMS and cardiorespiratory endurance (fitness). Information on students' demographics and physical activity was collected by questionnaire. Overall, the prevalence of students with low motor skill competency was high. Girls with low socioeconomic status (SES) were twice as likely to be less competent in locomotor skills compared with high SES peers. Among boys, there was a strong association between low competency in FMS and the likelihood of being from non-English-speaking cultural backgrounds. There was a clear and consistent association between low competency in FMS and inadequate cardiorespiratory fitness. For boys, there was a clear association between low competency in object-control skills and not meeting physical activity recommendations. Conversely, the odds of being inactive were double among girls who had low competency in locomotor skills. Low competency in FMS is strongly associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels in children and adolescents. The characteristics of students with competency in FMS differ by gender and skills types and show that interventions need to target girls from low SES backgrounds and boys from non-English-speaking cultural backgrounds. The high prevalence of low competency in FMS among Grade 4 students indicates that FMS interventions need to start during the preschool and early school years.

  7. Fundamental movement skills, physical fitness and physical activity among Australian children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.; Henschke, N; Mckay, D.M.; Chaitow, J.; West, K.; Broderick, C.; Singh-Grewal, D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To describe fundamental movement skills (FMS), physical fitness and level of physical activity among Australian children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and compare this with healthy peers. Methods: Children aged 6-16 years with JIA were recruited from hospital rheumatology clinics and

  8. Acquisition and improvement of human motor skills: Learning through observation and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.

  9. Improving a bimanual motor skill through unimanual training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Hayashi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat, we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm. Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of 3 different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts. According to this scheme, unimanual training appears to be less effective, as its training effect is only partially transferred to the same limb for bimanual movement. In the present study, counter-intuitively, we demonstrate that, even after the bimanual skill is almost fully learned by means of bimanual training, additional unimanual training could further improve bimanual skill. We hypothesized that this effect occurs because unimanual training increases the memory content in the overlapping part, which might contribute to an increase in the memory for bimanual movement. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the unimanual training performed after sufficient bimanual training could improve the bimanual performance. Participants practiced performing bimanual reaching movements in the presence of a novel force-field imposed only on their left arm. As an index for the motor performance, we used the error-clamp method (i.e., after-effect of the left arm to evaluate the force output to compensate for the force-field during the reaching movement. After sufficient bimanual training, the training effect reached a plateau. However, unimanual training performed subsequently improved the bimanual performance significantly. In contrast, when the same amount of bimanual training was continued, the bimanual performance remained unchanged, highlighting the

  10. Personality, political skill, and job performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blickle, G.; Meurs, J.A.; Zettler, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    constructs of agreeableness and conscientiousness with political skill predict job performance. Our results supported our hypothesis for the agreeableness-political skill interaction. Additionally, after correcting for the unreliability and restricted range of conscientiousness, we found that its interaction...... with political skill also significantly predicted job performance, although not precisely as hypothesized. Implications of the results and directions for future research are provided....

  11. Does water temperature influence the performance of key survival skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, C; Button, C; Seifert, L; Armbrust, G; Croft, J L

    2018-03-01

    Aquatic survival skills may be compromised in cold water thereby increasing the likelihood of drowning. This study compared physiological, psychological, and behavioral responses of humans treading water and swimming in cold and temperate water. Thirty-eight participants were classified as inexperienced (n = 9), recreational (n = 15), or skilled (n = 10) swimmers. They performed 3 tasks: treading water (120 seconds), swim at "comfortable" pace, and swim at "fast" pace in 2 water conditions (28°C vs 10°C). Heart rate, oxygen uptake, psychometric variables, spatio-temporal (swim speed, stroke rate, and stroke length), and coordination type were examined as a function of expertise. Tasks performed in cold water-generated higher cardiorespiratory responses (HR = 145 ± 16 vs 127 ± 21 bpm) and were perceived about 2 points more strenuous on the Borg scale on average (RPE = 14.9 ± 2.8 vs 13.0 ± 2.0). The voluntary durations of both treading water (60 ± 32 vs 91 ± 33 seconds) and swimming at a comfortable pace (66 ± 22 vs 103 ± 34 seconds) were significantly reduced in cold water. However, no systematic changes in movement pattern type could be determined in either the treading water task or the swimming tasks. Water temperature influences the physical demands of these aquatic skills but not necessarily the behavior. Training treading water and swimming skills in temperate water seems to transfer to cold water, but we recommend training these skills in a range of water conditions to help adapt to the initial "cold-shock" response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Does Intervening in Childcare Settings Impact Fundamental Movement Skill Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Kristi B; Wilson, Shanna; Harvey, Alysha L J; Grattan, Kimberly P; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Temple, Viviene A; Goldfield, Gary S

    2016-05-01

    Knowing that motor skills will not develop to their full potential without opportunities to practice in environments that are stimulating and supportive, we evaluated the effect of a physical activity (PA)-based intervention targeting childcare providers on fundamental movement skills (FMS) in preschoolers attending childcare centers. In this two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial, six licensed childcare centers in Ottawa, Canada, were randomly allocated into one of two groups (three controls, n = 43; three interventions, n = 40). Participants were between the ages of 3 and 5 yr. Childcare providers in the experimental condition received two 3-h workshops and a training manual at program initiation aimed at increasing PA through active play and several in-center "booster" sessions throughout the 6-month intervention. Control childcare centers implemented their standard curriculum. FMS were measured at baseline and 6 months using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Groups did not differ on sociodemographic variables. Compared with control, children in the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in their standardized gross motor quotient (score, 5.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74-10.67; P = 0.025 and gross motor quotient percentile, 13.33; 95% CI, 2.17-24.49; P = 0.020). Over the 6-month study period, the intervention group showed a significantly greater increase in locomotor skills score (1.20; 95% CI, 0.18-2.22; P = 0.022) than the control group. There was a significant decrease in the object control scores in the control group over the study period. A childcare provider-led PA-based intervention increased the FMS in preschoolers, driven by the change in locomotor skills. The childcare environment may represent a viable public health approach for promoting motor skill development to support future engagement in PA.

  13. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  14. Employees' Political Skill and Job Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Lang, Jonas W.B.

    2015-01-01

    skill received higher job performance ratings compared to those with lower and higher levels, respectively. In addition, the nature of the relationships between employees and their raters was found to moderate this curvilinear effect. Specifically, besides the fact that employees who had close working......During the past decade, the construct of political skill has attracted a lot of attention. In particular, its relation to job performance has been examined. With regard to this link, it is typically proposed that political skill affects job performance in a positive linear manner. However......, in this article it is suggested that intermediate levels of employees' political skill yield the highest job performance, implying that this association is in fact represented by an inverted U-shape. Findings from two field studies (N = 178, N = 115 employee-supervisor-colleague triads) that incorporated...

  15. Implementing Intervention Movement Programs for Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Eleni; Bakle, Iliana; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2006-01-01

    The reported study aimed to identify the effects of two 10-week intervention programs on fundamental locomotor skill performance in kindergarten children. Seventy-five children with mean age 5.4 plus or minus 0.5 years participated. Experimental Group A followed a movement program, experimental Group B followed a music and movement program, and…

  16. A Closer Look at Social Skills and School Performance: Students' Peer Relations Skills and Assertion Skills as Predictors for Their Written and Oral Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Susanne; Hänze, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Students' individual learning is supposed to be based on cognitive and social processes. Therefore, students' social skills are assumed to play an important role for school performance. This study set out to investigate the links between students' peer relations skills and assertion skills and their grades for written performances and oral…

  17. Immediate Effects of a Single Session of Motor Skill Training on the Lumbar Movement Pattern During a Functional Activity in People With Low Back Pain: A Repeated-Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marich, Andrej V; Lanier, Vanessa M; Salsich, Gretchen B; Lang, Catherine E; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2018-04-06

    People with low back pain (LBP) may display an altered lumbar movement pattern of early lumbar motion compared to people with healthy backs. Modifying this movement pattern during a clinical test decreases pain. It is unknown whether similar effects would be seen during a functional activity. The objective of this study is was to examine the lumbar movement patterns before and after motor skill training, effects on pain, and characteristics that influenced the ability to modify movement patterns. The design consisted of a repeated-measures study examining early-phase lumbar excursion in people with LBP during a functional activity test. Twenty-six people with chronic LBP received motor skill training, and 16 people with healthy backs were recruited as a reference standard. Twenty minutes of motor skill training to decrease early-phase lumbar excursion during the performance of a functional activity were used as a treatment intervention. Early-phase lumbar excursion was measured before and after training. Participants verbally reported increased pain, decreased pain, or no change in pain during performance of the functional activity test movement in relation to their baseline pain. The characteristics of people with LBP that influenced the ability to decrease early-phase lumbar excursion were examined. People with LBP displayed greater early-phase lumbar excursion before training than people with healthy backs (LBP: mean = 11.2°, 95% CI = 9.3°-13.1°; healthy backs: mean = 7.1°, 95% CI = 5.8°-8.4°). Following training, the LBP group showed a decrease in the amount of early-phase lumbar excursion (mean change = 4.1°, 95% CI = 2.4°-5.8°); 91% of people with LBP reported that their pain decreased from baseline following training. The longer the duration of LBP (β = - 0.22) and the more early-phase lumbar excursion before training (β = - 0.82), the greater the change in early-phase lumbar excursion following training. The long

  18. Reduction of Errors during Practice Facilitates Fundamental Movement Skill Learning in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, C. M.; Poolton, J. M.; Sit, C. H. P.; Eguia, K. F.; Masters, R. S. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been found to have inferior motor proficiencies in fundamental movement skills (FMS). This study examined the effects of training the FMS of overhand throwing by manipulating the amount of practice errors. Methods: Participants included 39 children with ID aged 4-11 years who were…

  19. Assessment of Fundamental Movement Skills in Childhood Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Fiona L; Hunt, Mitchell; Hunt, Mitchel; Ali, Dulfikar; Wakefield, Claire E; Moultrie, Kevin; Cohn, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    The improved treatment protocols and subsequent improved survival rates among childhood cancer patients have shifted the focus toward the long-term consequences arising from cancer treatment. Children who have completed cancer treatment are at a greater risk of delayed development, diminished functioning, disability, compromised fundamental movement skill (FMS) attainment, and long-term chronic health conditions. The aim of the study was to compare FMS of childhood cancer patients with an aged matched healthy reference group. Pediatric cancer patients aged 5-8 years (n = 26; median age 6.91 years), who completed cancer treatment (<5 years) at the Sydney Children's Hospital, were assessed performing seven key FMS: sprint, side gallop, vertical jump, catch, over-arm throw, kick, and leap. Results were compared to the reference group (n = 430; 6.56 years). Childhood cancer patients scored significantly lower on three out of seven FMS tests when compared to the reference group. These results equated to a significantly lower overall score for FMS. This study highlighted the significant deficits in FMS within pediatric patients having completed cancer treatment. In order to reduce the occurrence of significant FMS deficits in this population, FMS interventions may be warranted to assist in recovery from childhood cancer, prevent late effects, and improve the quality of life in survivors of childhood cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Teaching Striking Skills in Elementary Physical Education Using Woodball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seung Ho; Lee, Jihyun

    2017-01-01

    Object control (OC) skills are a part of fundamental motor skills and basic functional skills, which work as a prerequisite to becoming a skilled performer in many sports. Of various OC skills, striking is one of the most difficult to master due to a variety of interrelated movement components. A form of vertical or underarm striking is a more…

  1. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  2. Profiles of Motor Laterality in Young Athletes' Performance of Complex Movements: Merging the MOTORLAT and PATHoops Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañer, Marta; Andueza, Juan; Hileno, Raúl; Puigarnau, Silvia; Prat, Queralt; Camerino, Oleguer

    2018-01-01

    Laterality is a key aspect of the analysis of basic and specific motor skills. It is relevant to sports because it involves motor laterality profiles beyond left-right preference and spatial orientation of the body. The aim of this study was to obtain the laterality profiles of young athletes, taking into account the synergies between the support and precision functions of limbs and body parts in the performance of complex motor skills. We applied two instruments: (a) MOTORLAT, a motor laterality inventory comprising 30 items of basic, specific, and combined motor skills, and (b) the Precision and Agility Tapping over Hoops (PATHoops) task, in which participants had to perform a path by stepping in each of 14 hoops arranged on the floor, allowing the observation of their feet, left-right preference and spatial orientation. A total of 96 young athletes performed the PATHoops task and the 30 MOTORLAT items, allowing us to obtain data about limb dominance and spatial orientation of the body in the performance of complex motor skills. Laterality profiles were obtained by means of a cluster analysis and a correlational analysis and a contingency analysis were applied between the motor skills and spatial orientation actions performed. The results obtained using MOTORLAT show that the combined motor skills criterion (for example, turning while jumping) differentiates athletes' uses of laterality, showing a clear tendency toward mixed laterality profiles in the performance of complex movements. In the PATHoops task, the best spatial orientation strategy was “same way” (same foot and spatial wing) followed by “opposite way” (opposite foot and spatial wing), in keeping with the research assumption that actions unfolding in a horizontal direction in front of an observer's eyes are common in a variety of sports. PMID:29930527

  3. Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.

  4. Skill learning from kinesthetic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, David; Vega, Roberto; Sanchez, Yerly Paola; Zheng, Bin

    2017-10-01

    It is important for a surgeon to perform surgical tasks under appropriate guidance from visual and kinesthetic feedback. However, our knowledge on kinesthetic (muscle) memory and its role in learning motor skills remains elementary. To discover the effect of exclusive kinesthetic training on kinesthetic memory in both performance and learning. In Phase 1, a total of twenty participants duplicated five 2 dimensional movements of increasing complexity via passive kinesthetic guidance, without visual or auditory stimuli. Five participants were asked to repeat the task in the Phase 2 over a period of three weeks, for a total of nine sessions. Subjects accurately recalled movement direction using kinesthetic memory, but recalling movement length was less precise. Over the nine training sessions, error occurrence dropped after the sixth session. Muscle memory constructs the foundation for kinesthetic training. Knowledge gained helps surgeons learn skills from kinesthetic information in the condition where visual feedback is limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Purposeful Goal-Directed Movements Give Rise to Higher Tactile Discrimination Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Juravle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tactile perception is inhibited during goal-directed reaching movements (sensory suppression. Here, participants performed simple reaching or exploratory movements (where contact with the table surface was maintained. We measured tactile discrimination thresholds for vibratory stimuli delivered to participants' wrists while executing the movement, and while at rest. Moreover, we measured discrimination performance (in a same vs. different task for the materials covering the table surface, during the execution of the different movements. The threshold and discrimination tasks could be performed either singly or together, both under active movement and passive conditions (ie, no movement required, but with tactile stimulation. Thresholds measured at rest were significantly lower than thresholds measured during both active movements and passive touches. This provides a clear indication of sensory suppression during movement execution. Moreover, the discrimination data revealed main effects of task (single vs. dual, movement execution type (passive vs. active, and movement type (reach vs. exploration: Discrimination performance was significantly higher under conditions of single-tasking, active movements, as well as exploratory movements. Therefore, active movement of the hand with the purpose of gaining tactual information about the surface of the table gives rise to enhanced performance, thus suggesting that we feel more when we need to; It would appear that tactual information is prioritized when relevant for the movement being executed.

  6. Fundamental movement skills in preschoolers: a randomized controlled trial targeting object control proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Faude, O; Hagmann, S; Roth, R; Zahner, L

    2015-11-01

    Adequately developed fundamental movement skills, particularly object control dimensions, are considered essential to learn more complex movement patterns and to increase the likelihood to successfully participate in organized and non-organized sports during later years. Thus, the present randomized controlled trial aimed at improving object control dimensions at an early state in a kindergarten setting. Catching, throwing, kicking, rolling and stationary dribbling were assessed via gross motor development 2 (TGMD-2) testing in 41 normally developed preschoolers. On a cluster-randomized basis [strata: age, sex and body mass index (BMI)], three kindergartens were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 22, INT, age: 4.6 ± 1.0 years; BMI: 16.2 ± 1.1 kg/m(2) ) and three to a control group (n = 19, CON: age: 4.5 ± 1.2 years; BMI: 16.8 ± 1.2 kg/m(2) ). Twelve structured training sessions were given within 6 weeks (12 sessions). The total training volume was 330 min. Moderate time × group interaction were observed for the total sum score (Δ+22%, P = 0.05) and dribbling (Δ+41%, P = 0.002). Adjusting for baseline differences analyses of covariance did not affect these results. Interestingly, likely to most likely practically worthwhile effects were detected for the total sum score, catching and dribbling. Object control dimensions such as dribbling and catching that apparently rely on rhythmical movement patterns and anticipatory eye-hand coordination seem to benefit from short-term object control training. These skills are considered important for successful team-sport participation and appropriate sportive motor development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fundamental Movement Skills in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chu, Chia-Hua

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the movement skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and those without disabilities. Ninety-one children (ASD, n = 28; ADHD, n = 29; control, n = 34), ages 6-10 years, were of average IQ participated. After controlling for age, both ASD and…

  8. POLYGON - A NEW FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS TEST FOR 8 YEAR OLD CHILDREN: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Zuvela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005. The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97 and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98 and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2. Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice.

  9. Inclusive intervention to enhance the fundamental movement skills of children without hearing: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursel, Ferda

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess an intervention program on the fundamental movement skill of students with and without hearing impairment, using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) standardized Turkish norm. Preschool children with and without hearing impairment participated in this study. At the beginning of the study, most of the children with hearing impairment demonstrated developmental delay on the Locomotor subscale (6/7), as did about one-third (4/11) of the children without hearing impairment. For the Object control subscale, 4/7 of children with hearing impairment and none without hearing impairment showed developmental delay prior to the intervention program. After the intervention program, 3/7 children with hearing impairment had developmental delay on the Locomotor subscale. On the Object control subscale, 2/7 children with hearing impairment and none without hearing impairment showed developmental delay. The six-week intervention program improved TGMD-2 scores of children with hearing impairment, yet did not yield statistically significant improvement of fundamental movement skills.

  10. The role of visual skills and its impact on skill performance of cricket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the role and the impact of a visual skills training programme on the skills performance of cricket players, and whether visual training programmes are beneficial to competitive sports performance. Highly skilled cricket players (n=13) who were actively participating at a provincial level of ...

  11. Conscious motor processing and movement self-consciousness: two dimensions of personality that influence laparoscopic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neha; Poolton, Jamie M; Wilson, Mark R; Fan, Joe K M; Masters, Rich S W

    2014-01-01

    Identifying personality factors that account for individual differences in surgical training and performance has practical implications for surgical education. Movement-specific reinvestment is a potentially relevant personality factor that has a moderating effect on laparoscopic performance under time pressure. Movement-specific reinvestment has 2 dimensions, which represent an individual's propensity to consciously control movements (conscious motor processing) or to consciously monitor their 'style' of movement (movement self-consciousness). This study aimed at investigating the moderating effects of the 2 dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment in the learning and updating (cross-handed technique) of laparoscopic skills. Medical students completed the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale, a psychometric assessment tool that evaluates the conscious motor processing and movement self-consciousness dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment. They were then trained to a criterion level of proficiency on a fundamental laparoscopic skills task and were tested on a novel cross-handed technique. Completion times were recorded for early-learning, late-learning, and cross-handed trials. Propensity for movement self-consciousness but not conscious motor processing was a significant predictor of task completion times both early (p = 0.036) and late (p = 0.002) in learning, but completion times during the cross-handed trials were predicted by the propensity for conscious motor processing (p = 0.04) rather than movement self-consciousness (p = 0.21). Higher propensity for movement self-consciousness is associated with slower performance times on novel and well-practiced laparoscopic tasks. For complex surgical techniques, however, conscious motor processing plays a more influential role in performance than movement self-consciousness. The findings imply that these 2 dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment have a differential influence in the learning and updating

  12. Movement retraining using real-time feedback of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Michael Anthony

    2013-01-17

    Any modification of movement - especially movement patterns that have been honed over a number of years - requires re-organization of the neuromuscular patterns responsible for governing the movement performance. This motor learning can be enhanced through a number of methods that are utilized in research and clinical settings alike. In general, verbal feedback of performance in real-time or knowledge of results following movement is commonly used clinically as a preliminary means of instilling motor learning. Depending on patient preference and learning style, visual feedback (e.g. through use of a mirror or different types of video) or proprioceptive guidance utilizing therapist touch, are used to supplement verbal instructions from the therapist. Indeed, a combination of these forms of feedback is commonplace in the clinical setting to facilitate motor learning and optimize outcomes. Laboratory-based, quantitative motion analysis has been a mainstay in research settings to provide accurate and objective analysis of a variety of movements in healthy and injured populations. While the actual mechanisms of capturing the movements may differ, all current motion analysis systems rely on the ability to track the movement of body segments and joints and to use established equations of motion to quantify key movement patterns. Due to limitations in acquisition and processing speed, analysis and description of the movements has traditionally occurred offline after completion of a given testing session. This paper will highlight a new supplement to standard motion analysis techniques that relies on the near instantaneous assessment and quantification of movement patterns and the display of specific movement characteristics to the patient during a movement analysis session. As a result, this novel technique can provide a new method of feedback delivery that has advantages over currently used feedback methods.

  13. Judging complex movement performances for excellence: a principal components analysis-based technique applied to competitive diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Cole; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2014-08-01

    Athletes rely on subjective assessment of complex movements from coaches and judges to improve their motor skills. In some sports, such as diving, snowboard half pipe, gymnastics, and figure skating, subjective scoring forms the basis for competition. It is currently unclear whether this scoring process can be mathematically modeled; doing so could provide insight into what motor skill is. Principal components analysis has been proposed as a motion analysis method for identifying fundamental units of coordination. We used PCA to analyze movement quality of dives taken from USA Diving's 2009 World Team Selection Camp, first identifying eigenpostures associated with dives, and then using the eigenpostures and their temporal weighting coefficients, as well as elements commonly assumed to affect scoring - gross body path, splash area, and board tip motion - to identify eigendives. Within this eigendive space we predicted actual judges' scores using linear regression. This technique rated dives with accuracy comparable to the human judges. The temporal weighting of the eigenpostures, body center path, splash area, and board tip motion affected the score, but not the eigenpostures themselves. These results illustrate that (1) subjective scoring in a competitive diving event can be mathematically modeled; (2) the elements commonly assumed to affect dive scoring actually do affect scoring (3) skill in elite diving is more associated with the gross body path and the effect of the movement on the board and water than the units of coordination that PCA extracts, which might reflect the high level of technique these divers had achieved. We also illustrate how eigendives can be used to produce dive animations that an observer can distort continuously from poor to excellent, which is a novel approach to performance visualization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fundamental Movement Skills of Children Living in England: The Role of Ethnicity and Native English Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Emma L J; Walker, Leanne Jaye; Duncan, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    The development of fundamental movement skills (FMS) has been associated with children's general health, and, while there is evidence to suggest that age, gender, physical activity, and socioeconomic status relate to FMS, the relationship of ethnicity and language barriers to FMS competence has been underexplored. These factors may be of particular interest for South Asian (SA) children who have lower physical activity and increased risk of metabolic disease. This cross-sectional study examined ethnic and language differences in FMS among 218 ethnically diverse five-year-old children (61 White ethnic background, 91 SA, 29 Black ethnic background, and 37 other), some with English as a native language ( n = 90) and some with English as an additional language ( n = 75), all recruited from within central England. Each child was assessed performing five locomotor skills (run, gallop, hop, leap, and jump) and six object skills (catch, kick, bounce, strike, underarm roll, and overarm throw) on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 . A 2 (gender) × 4 (ethnicity) factor analysis of covariance assessed differences in the locomotor and object composite scores and total FMS score, while controlling for body mass index. A two-factor analysis of covariance assessed native language differences in their impact on FMS. We found ethnic and gender differences in FMS ( p skills ( p  .05). The findings of low FMS competency in SA children and girls, irrespective of body mass index, suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions targeting SA children and girls are needed in early years. We discuss some unclear factors related to these differences.

  15. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill. PMID:26844136

  16. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control and time (pre and post and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no. Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95 participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006 but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913 between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835. A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406 or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill.

  17. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and 'real life' activities. Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill.

  18. Enabling performance skills: Assessment in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Jenny Kristina

    Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team processes, behavior, and student learning.

  19. Relationship between masticatory performance using a gummy jelly and masticatory movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Hanako; Shiga, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between masticatory performance using a gummy jelly and masticatory movement. Thirty healthy males were asked to chew a gummy jelly on their habitual chewing side for 20s, and the parameters of masticatory performance and masticatory movement were calculated as follows. For evaluating the masticatory performance, the amount of glucose extraction during chewing of a gummy jelly was measured. For evaluating the masticatory movement, the movement of the mandibular incisal point was recorded using the MKG K6-I, and ten parameters of the movement path (opening distance and masticatory width), movement rhythm (opening time, closing time, occluding time, and cycle time), stability of movement (stability of path and stability of rhythm), and movement velocity (opening maximum velocity and closing maximum velocity) were calculated from 10 cycles of chewing beginning with the fifth cycle. The relationship between the amount of glucose extraction and parameters representing masticatory movement was investigated and then stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed. The amount of glucose extraction was associated with 7 parameters representing the masticatory movement. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that the opening distance, closing time, stability of rhythm, and closing maximum velocity were the most important factors affecting the glucose extraction. From these results it was suggested that there was a close relation between masticatory performance and masticatory movement, and that the masticatory performance could be increased by rhythmic, rapid and stable mastication with a large opening distance. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical Education Teacher Training in Fundamental Movement Skills Makes a Difference to Instruction and Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Natalie Jayne; Barnett, Lisa M.; Brown, Helen; Telford, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate instruction and assessment of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) by Physical Education (PE) teachers of Year 7 girls. Of 168 secondary school PE teachers, many had received little FMSs professional development, and although most assessed student FMSs proficiency, the quality of assessment was variable.…

  1. Shared periodic performer movements coordinate interactions in duo improvisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Moran, Nikki; Keller, Peter E.

    2018-01-01

    Human interaction involves the exchange of temporally coordinated, multimodal cues. Our work focused on interaction in the visual domain, using music performance as a case for analysis due to its temporally diverse and hierarchical structures. We made use of two improvising duo datasets—(i) performances of a jazz standard with a regular pulse and (ii) non-pulsed, free improvizations—to investigate whether human judgements of moments of interaction between co-performers are influenced by body movement coordination at multiple timescales. Bouts of interaction in the performances were manually annotated by experts and the performers’ movements were quantified using computer vision techniques. The annotated interaction bouts were then predicted using several quantitative movement and audio features. Over 80% of the interaction bouts were successfully predicted by a broadband measure of the energy of the cross-wavelet transform of the co-performers’ movements in non-pulsed duos. A more complex model, with multiple predictors that captured more specific, interacting features of the movements, was needed to explain a significant amount of variance in the pulsed duos. The methods developed here have key implications for future work on measuring visual coordination in musical ensemble performances, and can be easily adapted to other musical contexts, ensemble types and traditions. PMID:29515867

  2. Relationship of ocular accommodation and motor skills performance in developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Face validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing fundamental movement skill perceived competence in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Zask, Avigdor; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    To determine reliability and face validity of an instrument to assess young children's perceived fundamental movement skill competence. Validation and reliability study. A pictorial instrument based on the Test Gross Motor Development-2 assessed perceived locomotor (six skills) and object control (six skills) competence using the format and item structure from the physical competence subscale of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Acceptance for Young Children. Sample 1 completed object control items in May (n=32) and locomotor items in October 2012 (n=23) at two time points seven days apart. Children were asked at the end of the test-retest their understanding of what was happening in each picture to determine face validity. Sample 2 (n=58) completed 12 items in November 2012 on a single occasion to test internal reliability only. Sample 1 children were aged 5-7 years (M=6.0, SD=0.8) at object control assessment and 5-8 years at locomotor assessment (M=6.5, SD=0.9). Sample 2 children were aged 6-8 years (M=7.2, SD=0.73). Intra-class correlations assessed in Sample 1 children were excellent for object control (intra-class correlation=0.78), locomotor (intra-class correlation=0.82) and all 12 skills (intra-class correlations=0.83). Face validity was acceptable. Internal consistency was adequate in both samples for each subscale and all 12 skills (alpha range 0.60-0.81). This study has provided preliminary evidence for instrument reliability and face validity. This enables future alignment between the measurement of perceived and actual fundamental movement skill competence in young children. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Missing depth cues in virtual reality limit performance and quality of three dimensional reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerig, Nicolas; Mayo, Johnathan; Baur, Kilian; Wittmann, Frieder; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Goal-directed reaching for real-world objects by humans is enabled through visual depth cues. In virtual environments, the number and quality of available visual depth cues is limited, which may affect reaching performance and quality of reaching movements. We assessed three-dimensional reaching movements in five experimental groups each with ten healthy volunteers. Three groups used a two-dimensional computer screen and two groups used a head-mounted display. The first screen group received the typically recreated visual depth cues, such as aerial and linear perspective, occlusion, shadows, and texture gradients. The second screen group received an abstract minimal rendering lacking those. The third screen group received the cues of the first screen group and absolute depth cues enabled by retinal image size of a known object, which realized with visual renderings of the handheld device and a ghost handheld at the target location. The two head-mounted display groups received the same virtually recreated visual depth cues as the second or the third screen group respectively. Additionally, they could rely on stereopsis and motion parallax due to head-movements. All groups using the screen performed significantly worse than both groups using the head-mounted display in terms of completion time normalized by the straight-line distance to the target. Both groups using the head-mounted display achieved the optimal minimum in number of speed peaks and in hand path ratio, indicating that our subjects performed natural movements when using a head-mounted display. Virtually recreated visual depth cues had a minor impact on reaching performance. Only the screen group with rendered handhelds could outperform the other screen groups. Thus, if reaching performance in virtual environments is in the main scope of a study, we suggest applying a head-mounted display. Otherwise, when two-dimensional screens are used, achievable performance is likely limited by the reduced depth

  5. Dissociable effects of practice variability on learning motor and timing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramiaux, Baptiste; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Wanderley, Marcelo M; Palmer, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Motor skill acquisition inherently depends on the way one practices the motor task. The amount of motor task variability during practice has been shown to foster transfer of the learned skill to other similar motor tasks. In addition, variability in a learning schedule, in which a task and its variations are interweaved during practice, has been shown to help the transfer of learning in motor skill acquisition. However, there is little evidence on how motor task variations and variability schedules during practice act on the acquisition of complex motor skills such as music performance, in which a performer learns both the right movements (motor skill) and the right time to perform them (timing skill). This study investigated the impact of rate (tempo) variability and the schedule of tempo change during practice on timing and motor skill acquisition. Complete novices, with no musical training, practiced a simple musical sequence on a piano keyboard at different rates. Each novice was assigned to one of four learning conditions designed to manipulate the amount of tempo variability across trials (large or small tempo set) and the schedule of tempo change (randomized or non-randomized order) during practice. At test, the novices performed the same musical sequence at a familiar tempo and at novel tempi (testing tempo transfer), as well as two novel (but related) sequences at a familiar tempo (testing spatial transfer). We found that practice conditions had little effect on learning and transfer performance of timing skill. Interestingly, practice conditions influenced motor skill learning (reduction of movement variability): lower temporal variability during practice facilitated transfer to new tempi and new sequences; non-randomized learning schedule improved transfer to new tempi and new sequences. Tempo (rate) and the sequence difficulty (spatial manipulation) affected performance variability in both timing and movement. These findings suggest that there is a

  6. Reliability of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence in 2 Diverse Samples of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Robinson, Leah E; Webster, E Kipling; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose was to determine the reliability of an instrument designed to assess young children's perceived movement skill competence in 2 diverse samples. A pictorial instrument assessed 12 perceived Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) based on the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition. Intra-Class Correlations (ICC) and internal consistency analyses were conducted. Paired sample t tests assessed change in mean perceived skill scores. Bivariate correlations between the intertrial difference and the mean of the trials explored proportional bias. Sample 1 (S1) were culturally diverse Australian children (n = 111; 52% boys) aged 5 to 8 years (mean = 6.4, SD = 1.0) with educated parents. Sample 2 (S2) were racially diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged American children (n = 110; 57% boys) aged 5 to 10 years (mean = 6.8, SD = 1.1). For all children, the internal consistency for 12 FMS was acceptable (S1 = 0.72, 0.75, S2 = 0.66, 0.67). ICCs were higher in S1 (0.73) than S2 (0.50). Mean changes between trials were small. There was little evidence of proportional bias. Lower values in S2 may be due to differences in study demographic and execution. While the instrument demonstrated reliability/internal consistency, further work is recommended in diverse samples.

  7. A Comparison of Athletic Movement Among Talent-Identified Juniors From Different Football Codes in Australia: Implications for Talent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Keller, Brad S; McKeown, Ian; Robertson, Sam

    2016-09-01

    Woods, CT, Keller, BS, McKeown, I, and Robertson, S. A comparison of athletic movement among talent-identified juniors from different football codes in Australia: implications for talent development. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2440-2445, 2016-This study aimed to compare the athletic movement skill of talent-identified (TID) junior Australian Rules football (ARF) and soccer players. The athletic movement skill of 17 TID junior ARF players (17.5-18.3 years) was compared against 17 TID junior soccer players (17.9-18.7 years). Players in both groups were members of an elite junior talent development program within their respective football codes. All players performed an athletic movement assessment that included an overhead squat, double lunge, single-leg Romanian deadlift (both movements performed on right and left legs), a push-up, and a chin-up. Each movement was scored across 3 essential assessment criteria using a 3-point scale. The total score for each movement (maximum of 9) and the overall total score (maximum of 63) were used as the criterion variables for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of football code (2 levels) on the criterion variables, whereas a 1-way analysis of variance identified where differences occurred. A significant effect was noted, with the TID junior ARF players outscoring their soccer counterparts when performing the overhead squat and push-up. No other criterions significantly differed according to the main effect. Practitioners should be aware that specific sporting requirements may incur slight differences in athletic movement skill among TID juniors from different football codes. However, given the low athletic movement skill noted in both football codes, developmental coaches should address the underlying movement skill capabilities of juniors when prescribing physical training in both codes.

  8. Causes of Low-Skilled Workers’ Performance in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhaji Ali Zannah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skilled workers’ performance is one of the crucial aspects of labour productivity that requires proper attention for effective projects delivery in the construction industry. The level of skilled workers’ low performance has been seen to be a major factor which contributes toward inefficient construction projects productivity. Therefore, the objective of this research is to identify the causes of low-skilled workers’ performance in construction projects in the Nigeria. The objective was achieved through a structured quantitative method of questionnaire distributed to 150 respondents that comprise of active stakeholders in the Nigerian construction industry. 111 responses representing 74 % were retrieved. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The finding shows that; low wages of skilled, lack of sufficient skill acquisition centres and lack of incentive schemes for skilled workers were the most significant causes of low-skilled workers’ performance in the Nigerian construction industry. The homogenous analysis indicates that there are significant differences in perception of respondents on few variables whereas majority of respondents have similarities in most of the variables. The research findings indicate the need for stakeholders in the Nigerian construction industry to provide incentives and motivate skilled workers, provide training and retraining, conducive working condition, supply of quality materials and equipment, and proper site management in order improve low-skilled workers’ performance in Nigerian construction industry towards optimal performance.

  9. A Comparison of Independent Event-Related Desynchronization Responses in Motor-Related Brain Areas to Movement Execution, Movement Imagery, and Movement Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duann, Jeng-Ren; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) event-related desynchronization (ERD) induced by movement imagery or by observing biological movements performed by someone else has recently been used extensively for brain-computer interface-based applications, such as applications used in stroke rehabilitation training and motor skill learning. However, the ERD responses induced by the movement imagery and observation might not be as reliable as the ERD responses induced by movement execution. Given that studies on the reliability of the EEG ERD responses induced by these activities are still lacking, here we conducted an EEG experiment with movement imagery, movement observation, and movement execution, performed multiple times each in a pseudorandomized order in the same experimental runs. Then, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to the EEG data to find the common motor-related EEG source activity shared by the three motor tasks. Finally, conditional EEG ERD responses associated with the three movement conditions were computed and compared. Among the three motor conditions, the EEG ERD responses induced by motor execution revealed the alpha power suppression with highest strengths and longest durations. The ERD responses of the movement imagery and movement observation only partially resembled the ERD pattern of the movement execution condition, with slightly better detectability for the ERD responses associated with the movement imagery and faster ERD responses for movement observation. This may indicate different levels of involvement in the same motor-related brain circuits during different movement conditions. In addition, because the resulting conditional EEG ERD responses from the ICA preprocessing came with minimal contamination from the non-related and/or artifactual noisy components, this result can play a role of the reference for devising a brain-computer interface using the EEG ERD features of movement imagery or observation.

  10. Age, psychological skills, and golf performance: a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayslip, Bert; Petrie, Trent A

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games.

  11. Functional Movement Screening and Paddle-Sport Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hatchett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the relationship between an endurance paddle-sport athlete’s total functional movement screening (FMS score and individual race performance. Fifty elite level endurance canoeists and kayakers completed the seven-stage FMS protocol prior to the 2016 United States Canoe and Kayak Association National Championship race. Time taken to finish the race was then associated to overall FMS score and respective sub-scores. Total FMS score and various sub-scores were significantly related to race performance. Female and male athletes differed in which sub-scores were shown to be significantly correlated to finishing time. Outcomes from this study indicate that limitations in functional movement are related to endurance paddle-sport race performance.

  12. Contributions of After School Programs to the Development of Fundamental Movement Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, E Jean; Keats, Melanie R; Kolen, Angela M

    Fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency or the ability to perform basic skills (e.g., throwing, catching and jumping) has been linked to participation in lifelong physical activity. FMS proficiency amongst children has declined in the previous 15 years, with more children performing FMS at a low-mastery level. These declines may help explain the insufficient levels of participation in health promoting physical activity seen in today's youth. The after school time period (e.g., 3 to 6 p.m.), is increasingly considered an opportune time for physical activity interventions. To date, little research has examined the potential for after school programming to improve FMS proficiency. Participants (n=40, 6-10 years) of two existent physical activity based after school programs, a low-organized games and a sports-based program, were pre- and post-tested for FMS proficiency using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) over an 11-week period. The sports-based program participants showed no improvement in FMS over the 11-week study ( p =0.91, eta 2 =0.00) and the games-based program participants significantly improved their proficiency ( p =0.00, eta 2 =0.30). No significant ( p =0.13, eta 2 = 0.06), differences were found in change in FMS scores between the low-organized games program participants and the sport-based program participants. These results suggest that after school programs with a low-organized games-based focus may support a moderate improvement in FMS proficiency in young children. Better training of after school program leaders on how to teach FMS may be necessary to assist children in acquiring sufficient proficiency in FMS.

  13. Mixed Movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. The project experiments with drawing-series as montages of materials and forces, making the drawing appear in its changing character. The moving components are conditioned by different circumstances...... that question each other, working as well with space-time motives as with expressions and techniques. A series poses questions both to the kind of forces it raises as well as to the kind of sensual affects it produces – to how the body resonates with the rhythms and tensions that appear in the drawing....... A drawing-series is then both a machine, a diagram, and an appearance, what we call a resonance-model, creating links between tectonic and drawing constructions, kinaesthetic competences and actual body-movements....

  14. Reliability of Visual and Somatosensory Feedback in Skilled Movement: The Role of the Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizelle, J C; Oparah, Alexis; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2016-01-01

    The integration of vision and somatosensation is required to allow for accurate motor behavior. While both sensory systems contribute to an understanding of the state of the body through continuous updating and estimation, how the brain processes unreliable sensory information remains to be fully understood in the context of complex action. Using functional brain imaging, we sought to understand the role of the cerebellum in weighting visual and somatosensory feedback by selectively reducing the reliability of each sense individually during a tool use task. We broadly hypothesized upregulated activation of the sensorimotor and cerebellar areas during movement with reduced visual reliability, and upregulated activation of occipital brain areas during movement with reduced somatosensory reliability. As specifically compared to reduced somatosensory reliability, we expected greater activations of ipsilateral sensorimotor cerebellum for intact visual and somatosensory reliability. Further, we expected that ipsilateral posterior cognitive cerebellum would be affected with reduced visual reliability. We observed that reduced visual reliability results in a trend towards the relative consolidation of sensorimotor activation and an expansion of cerebellar activation. In contrast, reduced somatosensory reliability was characterized by the absence of cerebellar activations and a trend towards the increase of right frontal, left parietofrontal activation, and temporo-occipital areas. Our findings highlight the role of the cerebellum for specific aspects of skillful motor performance. This has relevance to understanding basic aspects of brain functions underlying sensorimotor integration, and provides a greater understanding of cerebellar function in tool use motor control.

  15. Skill-related performance in soccer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Rodrigo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and organize systematically the available literature on skill-related performance in young and adult male soccer players in an attempt to identify the most common topics, ascertain the weaknesses, and elucidate the main contributions of the scientific papers on this issue. A systematic review of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI Web of Knowledge database was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines. The keywords ‘football’ and ‘soccer’ were used, each associated with the following terms: ‘technical analysis,’ ‘technical performance,’ ‘technical activity,’ ‘technical skill,’ ‘technical demands,’ ‘technical profiles,’ ‘technical characteristics,’ ‘technical actions,’ ‘technical scores,’ ‘technical ability,’ ‘motor skills,’ and ‘skill acquisition’. From the 2830 papers, only 60 were reviewed, of which 75% had been published in years 2011-2015 and 53.3% concerned professional or seniors players (above the U-20 category. Out of the 41 papers that analysed the skill-related performance in the match, 48.8% evaluated the performance in small-sided and conditioned games. Among the 27 papers that used validated instruments, 88.9% assessed technical actions outside the match context (e.g. dribbling, shooting tests. Future research should pay attention to the definition and classification of the skill-related variables under investigation in match context and propose tests for measured skill-related performance in soccer, considering that the representativeness task design allies the players’ possibilities of action to the situation of the match.

  16. The relationship between fundamental movement skill proficiency and physical self-confidence among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Bronagh; Belton, Sarahjane; Powell, Danielle; Issartel, Johann

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to assess fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency, physical self-confidence levels, and the relationship between these variables and gender differences among adolescents. Three hundred and ninety five adolescents aged 13.78 years (SD = ±1.2) from 20 schools were involved in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD), TGMD-2 and Victorian Skills Manual were used to assess 15 FMS. Participants' physical self-confidence was also assessed using a valid skill-specific scale. A significant correlation was observed between FMS proficiency and physical self-confidence for females only (r = 0.305, P < 0.001). Males rated themselves as having significantly higher physical self-confidence levels than females (P = 0.001). Males scored significantly higher than females in FMS proficiency (P < 0.05), and the lowest physical self-confidence group were significantly less proficient at FMS than the medium (P < 0.001) and high physical self-confidence groups (P < 0.05). This information not only highlights those in need of assistance to develop their FMS but will also facilitate in the development of an intervention which aims to improve physical self-confidence and FMS proficiency.

  17. A School-Based Movement Programme for Children with Motor Learning Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannisto, Juha-Pekka; Cantell, Marja; Huovinen, Tommi; Kooistra, Libbe; Larkin, Dawne

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of a school-based movement programme for a population of 5 to 7 year old children. Performance profiles on the Movement ABC were used to classify the children and to assess skill changes over time. Children were assigned to four different groups: motor learning difficulty (n = 10), borderline motor learning…

  18. Perceiving movement patterns: Implications for skill evaluation, correction and development. [Percepción de los patrones de movimiento: Implicaciones para la evaluación, corrección y el desarrollo de habilidades].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Giblin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skill practitioners such as coaches, judges, and rehabilitation specialists rely heavily on the visual observation of movement to analyse performance, concomitantly performers of movement rely heavily on kinaesthetic sensitivity to produce movements of desired precision. The observation of movement errors (by coaches or therapists and the correction of movement errors (by performers or patients depend on fundamentally different perceptual systems that may differ in their sensitivity, units of control and trainability. This paper first examines the skill of perceiving fundamental movement characteristics and patterns (i.e., movement kinematics by reviewing sport expertise literature that has investigated the capabilities of both expert performers and expert observers. Important expertise related differences in visual perceptual skill are discussed with a focus on perceptual and motor contributions to perceptual skill. Theories related to the perception of others movement patterns such as common coding are reviewed with a focus on implications for skill practitioners. Limitations in the current visual observation literature are considered, in particular the need to more directly examine the perceptual capabilities of skill practitioners to reliably differentiate changes in kinematics. The critical parallel issue of the kinaesthetic sensitivity of the patient or athlete is also reviewed, highlighting the need to know the magnitude of the differences between visual and kinaesthetic sensitivities for changes in movement kinematics in order to understand some of the challenges involved in matching detection of movement pattern errors to correction of these errors. Future research directions are discussed; particularly key methodological issues which may help directly establish perceptual sensitivity. Resumen Profesionales en habilidades, tales como entrenadores, jueces y especialistas en rehabilitación, dependen en gran medida de la observaci

  19. The Effects of a Developmentally Appropriate Music and Movement Program on Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachopoulou, E.; Tsapakidou, A.; Derri, V.

    2004-01-01

    Basic motor skills development is achieved through the implementation of different types of physical education programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of a developmentally appropriate music and movement program and of a developmentally appropriate physical education program on the development of jumping and…

  20. Movement Issues Identified in Movement ABC2 Checklist Parent Ratings for Students with Persisting Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD and Typical Literacy Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Henderson, Sheila; Barnett, Anna L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Movement, which draws on motor skills and executive functions for managing them, plays an important role in literacy learning (e.g., movement of mouth during oral reading and movement of hand and fingers during writing); but relatively little research has focused on movement skills in students with specific learning disabilities as the current…

  1. Causes of Low-Skilled Workers’ Performance in Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaji Ali Zannah; Aryani Ahmad Latiffi; Abdulazeez Umar Raji; Abdullahi Abba Waziri; Usman Mohammed 4

    2017-01-01

    Skilled workers’ performance is one of the crucial aspects of labour productivity that requires proper attention for effective projects delivery in the construction industry. The level of skilled workers’ low performance has been seen to be a major factor which contributes toward inefficient construction projects productivity. Therefore, the objective of this research is to identify the causes of low-skilled workers’ performance in construction projects in the Nigeria. The objective was achie...

  2. Questioning the Role of Children's Indigenous Games of Africa on Development of Fundamental Movement Skills: A Preliminary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoka, Philemon A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper interrogates the role children's indigenous games of Africa can play in the development of fundamental movement skills relevant in modernized sports. On a daily basis, children in Africa play varieties of traditional games that vary between tribes, communities and distances. However, the efficacy of these games in the development of…

  3. Step Up-Not On-The Step 2 Clinical Skills Exam: Directors of Clinical Skills Courses (DOCS) Oppose Ending Step 2 CS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, David J; Milan, Felise B; Cassese, Todd; Farnan, Jeanne M; Madigosky, Wendy S; Massie, F Stanford; Mendez, Paul; Obadia, Sharon; Ovitsh, Robin K; Silvestri, Ronald; Uchida, Toshiko; Daniel, Michelle

    2018-05-01

    Recently, a student-initiated movement to end the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills and the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation has gained momentum. These are the only national licensing examinations designed to assess clinical skills competence in the stepwise process through which physicians gain licensure and certification. Therefore, the movement to end these examinations and the ensuing debate merit careful consideration. The authors, elected representatives of the Directors of Clinical Skills Courses, an organization comprising clinical skills educators in the United States and beyond, believe abolishing the national clinical skills examinations would have a major negative impact on the clinical skills training of medical students, and that forfeiting a national clinical skills competency standard has the potential to diminish the quality of care provided to patients. In this Perspective, the authors offer important additional background information, outline key concerns regarding the consequences of ending these national clinical skills examinations, and provide recommendations for moving forward: reducing the costs for students, exploring alternatives, increasing the value and transparency of the current examinations, recognizing and enhancing the strengths of the current examinations, and engaging in a national dialogue about the issue.

  4. Improvement of fundamental movement skills through support and mentorship of class room teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brooke; McLennan, Stephanie; Latimer, Kasha; Graham, David; Gilmore, Janine; Rush, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Project Energize, a multicomponent through-school programme aims to improve the overall health and reducing weight gain of Waikato primary school children by increasing their physical activity and encouraging healthy eating. The aim of this report is to describe the efficacy of one intervention that provided classroom teachers with tools for improving fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency in years 0-8 school children. In 2008 the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) was used to measure the FMS proficiency of children from 11 schools and 41 classes; before (n = 701) and after (n = 598) the teacher support was provided. Children were identified only by class years. At baseline less than half of the children exhibited proficiency in kicking (21%), throwing (31%) and striking (40%) while most children were able to run (84.6%) and slide (78.0%). All skills were substantially improved (P < 0.001) after the intervention with the biggest changes in kicking, throwing and striking; 49.8%, 63.5% and 76.3% proficient. At baseline children in years 0-3 from higher decile schools performed better than lower decile schools and after intervention this gap was reduced or removed. After receiving tailored FMS physical education classes led by the teacher, younger children were more competent than the older children were at baseline. The large, positive effects of the intervention have implications for long term physical activity participation and fitness with subsequent health benefits. The school-based FMS teacher support intervention by Team Energize is an effective way to improve outcomes for children. © 2011 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Associations between Seventh Grade Finnish Students' Motivational Climate, Perceived Competence, Self-Determined Motivation, and Fundamental Movement Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaja, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Watt, Anthony; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between motivational climate, perceived competence, self-determined motivation towards physical education (PE) and the fundamental movement skills of Finnish secondary school students. A sample of 370 seventh-grade PE students (girls n = 189; boys n = 181; mean age = 13.08; SD = 0.25)…

  6. Motor Skill Learning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl P.

    The purpose of this article is to briefly describe schema theory and indicate its relevance to early childhood development, with specific reference to children's acquisition of motor skills. Schema theory proposes an explanation of how individuals learn and perform a seemingly endless variety of movements. According to Schmidt (1975), goal…

  7. A comparative study of the mastery of fundamental movement skills between different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Garbeloto dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that guidance, encouragement and opportunity are crucial factors for children’s motor development. They are especially important to promote the mastery of fundamental movement skills. The present study investigated the association between two elements related to those factors – proposed curriculum of physical education and the most popular sport in a given country – and the incidence of mastery in the FMS in children from 4 to 10 years of age. In order to carry out a cross-cultural comparison, three studies from different countries (Portugal, China and USA that used TGMD-II were selected. The results indicated association between proposed curriculum and the number of children mastering FMS. This association increases in older age groups of children from USA, the most structured curriculum related to FMS, presenting the highest average percentage of mastery.  Additionally, we did not find association of the most popular sports in a given country with the mastery of the related skill. These results are interpreted as evidence for the importance of guidance on the mastery of FMS.

  8. Improvements in fundamental movement skill competency mediate the effect of the SCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kristen E; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Barnett, Lisa M; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified a positive association between fundamental movement skill (FMS) competency and physical activity in children; however, the causal pathways have not been established. The aim of this study is to determine if changes in FMS competency mediated the effect of the Supporting Children's Outcomes using Rewards, Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children. Eight primary schools (25 classes) and 460 children (aged 8.5 ± 0.6, 54% girls) were randomised to the SCORES intervention or control group for the 12-month study. The outcomes were accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness. The hypothesised mediators were actual FMS competency and perceived sport competence. Mediation analyses were conducted using multilevel linear analysis in MPlus. From the original sample, 138 (30.0%) and 370 (80.4%) children provided useable physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness data at post-test assessments. There were significant treatment effects for locomotor skills and overall FMSs. Changes in MVPA were associated with changes in object-control skills, overall FMSs and perceived competence. The overall FMSs had a significant mediating effect on MVPA (AB = 2.09, CI = 0.01-4.55). Overall FMSs (AB = 1.19, CI = 0.002-2.79) and locomotor skills (AB = 0.74, CI = 0.01-1.69) had a significant mediating effect on cardiorespiratory fitness. The results of this study conclude that actual but not perceived movement skill competency mediated the effect of the SCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

  9. Skill-based immigration, economic integration, and economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Studies for major immigrant-receiving countries provide evidence on the comparative economic performance of immigrant classes (skill-, kinship-, and humanitarian-based). Developed countries are increasingly competing for high-skilled immigrants, who perform better in the labor market. However, there are serious challenges to their economic integration, which highlights a need for complementary immigration and integration policies.

  10. Fundamental movement skill interventions in youth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip J; Barnett, Lisa M; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Scott, Hayley A; Cohen, Kristen E; Lubans, David R

    2013-11-01

    Fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency is positively associated with physical activity and fitness levels. The objective of this study was to systematically review evidence for the benefits of FMS interventions targeting youth. A search with no date restrictions was conducted across 7 databases. Studies included any school-, home-, or community-based intervention for typically developing youth with clear intent to improve FMS proficiency and that reported statistical analysis of FMS competence at both preintervention and at least 1 other postintervention time point. Study designs included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using experimental and quasi-experimental designs and single group pre-post trials. Risk of bias was independently assessed by 2 reviewers. Twenty-two articles (6 RCTs, 13 quasi-experimental trials, 3 pre-post trials) describing 19 interventions were included. All but 1 intervention were evaluated in primary/elementary schools. All studies reported significant intervention effects for ≥ 1 FMS. Meta-analyses revealed large effect sizes for overall gross motor proficiency (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-2.16, Z = 3.77, P skill competency (SMD = 1.42, 95% CI 0.56-2.27, Z = 3.25, P = .001). A medium effect size for object control skill competency was observed (SMD = 0.63, 95% CI 0.28-0.98, Z = 3.53, P = .0004). Many studies scored poorly for risk of bias items. School- and community-based programs that include developmentally appropriate FMS learning experiences delivered by physical education specialists or highly trained classroom teachers significantly improve FMS proficiency in youth.

  11. Short Term Motor-Skill Acquisition Improves with Size of Self-Controlled Virtual Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement), manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.

  12. Short Term Motor-Skill Acquisition Improves with Size of Self-Controlled Virtual Hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Ossmy

    Full Text Available Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement, manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.

  13. Gender and practical skill performance in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Roger

    The performance of 18 boys and 18 girls on four problem-solving tasks set in science contexts was compared. The tasks were administered in a one-to-one testing situation and assessments were made by direct observation, questioning, and by using written records. The tasks were valid and reliable, and the samples of boys and girls were matched for ability and curriculum background. Past studies have identified gender differences in performance on science tasks; however, this study found little evidence to support these findings. Few significant differences in performance were found. No gender differences were detected in observation, reporting, or planning skills, and there was no differential performance on the use of scientific language. Girls performed less well in relation to self-reliance, and performance differences on the interpretation skill approached significance with boys' performance superior.

  14. Assessment of psychomotor skills acquisition during laparoscopic cholecystectomy courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Julian; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Undre, Shabnam; Darzi, Ara

    2005-09-01

    Standardized short courses in laparoscopic cholecystectomy aim to teach laparoscopic skills to surgical trainees, although end-of-course assessments of performance remain subjective. The current study aims to objectively assess psychomotor skills acquisition of trainees attending laparoscopic cholecystectomy courses. Thirty-seven junior surgical trainees had their laparoscopic skills assessed before and after attending 1 of 3 separate 2-day courses (A, B, and C), all with identical format. Assessments were comprised of a standardized simulated laparoscopic task, with performance measured using a valid electromagnetic hand-motion tracking device. Overall, trainees made significant improvements in path length (P=.006), number of movements (Ppsychomotor skills on courses. In addition to providing participants with an insight into their skills, these data can be used to demonstrate course efficacy.

  15. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key pointsAll 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98).A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test's concurrent validity.The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas.New and validated test can be of great use

  16. Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency and Body Composition Measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Eight-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotte, Sari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Metsämuuronen, Jari; Rintala, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim was to examine the association between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and objectively measured body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: A study of 304 eight-year-old children in Finland. FMS were assessed with the "Test of gross motor development," 2nd ed. Total body fat…

  17. Laterality of repetitive finger movement performance and clinical features of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth; Zaman, Andrew; MacKinnon, Colum D; Tillman, Mark D; Hass, Chris J; Okun, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    Impairments in acoustically cued repetitive finger movement often emerge at rates near to and above 2Hz in persons with Parkinson's Disease (PD) in which some patients move faster (hastening) and others move slower (bradykinetic). The clinical features impacting this differential performance of repetitive finger movement remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare repetitive finger movement performance between the more and less affected side, and the difference in clinical ratings among performance groups. Forty-one participants diagnosed with idiopathic PD completed an acoustically cued repetitive finger movement task while "on" medication. Eighteen participants moved faster, 10 moved slower, and 13 were able to maintain the appropriate rate at rates above 2Hz. Clinical measures of laterality, disease severity, and the UPDRS were obtained. There were no significant differences between the more and less affected sides regardless of performance group. Comparison of disease severity, tremor, and rigidity among performance groups revealed no significant differences. Comparison of posture and postural instability scores revealed that the participants that demonstrated hastening had worse posture and postural instability scores. Consideration of movement rate during the clinical evaluation of repetitive finger movement may provide additional insight into varying disease features in persons with PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow during rest and skilled hand movements by xenon-133 inhalation and emission computerized tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, M; Henriksen, L; Lassen, N A

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 16 normal adult volunteers during rest and in 10 the study was repeated during skilled hand movements. A fast-rotating ("dynamic"), single-photon emission computerized tomograph (ECT) with four detector heads was used. Xenon-133 was inhaled over a 1...... motor area on both sides by 34 +/- 15% (p less than 0.025)....

  19. Movement patterns of limb coordination in infant rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2016-12-01

    Infants must perform dynamic whole-body movements to initiate rolling, a key motor skill. However, little is known regarding limb coordination and postural control in infant rolling. To address this lack of knowledge, we examined movement patterns and limb coordination during rolling in younger infants (aged 5-7 months) that had just begun to roll and in older infants (aged 8-10 months) with greater rolling experience. Due to anticipated difficulty in obtaining measurements over the second half of the rolling sequence, we limited our analysis to the first half. Ipsilateral and contralateral limbs were identified on the basis of rolling direction and were classified as either a stationary limb used for postural stability or a moving limb used for controlled movement. We classified the observed movement patterns by identifying the number of stationary limbs and the serial order of combinational limb movement patterns. Notably, older infants performed more movement patterns that involved a lower number of stationary limbs than younger infants. Despite the wide range of possible movement patterns, a small group of basic patterns dominated in both age groups. Our results suggest that the fundamental structure of limb coordination during rolling in the early acquisition stages remains unchanged until at least 8-10 months of age. However, compared to younger infants, older infants exhibited a greater ability to select an effective rotational movement by positioning themselves with fewer stationary limbs and performing faster limb movements.

  20. A developmental study of the effect of music training on timed movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thenille eBraun Janzen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When people clap to music, sing, play a musical instrument, or dance, they engage in temporal entrainment. We examined the effect of music training on the precision of temporal entrainment in 57 children aged 10 to 14 years (31 musicians, 26 nonmusicians. Performance was examined for two tasks: self-paced finger tapping (discrete movements and circle drawing (continuous movements. For each task, participants synchronized their movements with a steady pacing signal and then continued the movement at the same rate in the absence of the pacing signal. Analysis of movements during the continuation phase revealed that musicians were more accurate than nonmusicians at finger tapping and, to a lesser extent, circle drawing. Performance on the finger-tapping task was positively associated with the number of years of formal music training, whereas performance on the circle-drawing task was positively associated with the age of participants. These results indicate that music training and maturation of the motor system reinforce distinct skills of timed movement.

  1. Observations on Experience and Flow in Movement-Based Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Pasch, Marco; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; England, David

    2011-01-01

    Movement-based interfaces assume that their users move. Users have to perform exercises, they have to dance, they have to golf or football, or they want to train particular bodily skills. Many examples of those interfaces exist, sometimes asking for subtle interaction between user and interface and

  2. Individual differences in motor timing and its relation to cognitive and fine motor skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Lorås

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100 performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measures included the digit-span and symbol search subtasks from the Wechsler battery as well as the Raven SPM. Fine motor skills were assessed with the Purdue Pegboard test. Motor timing performance was significantly related (mean r = .3 to cognitive measures, and explained both unique and shared variance with information-processing speed of Raven's scores. No significant relations were found between motor timing measures and fine motor skills. These results show that individual differences in cognitive and motor timing performance is to some extent dependent upon shared processing not associated with individual differences in manual dexterity.

  3. Social skills knowledge and performance among adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tina R; Miklowitz, David J; Mullen, Kimberley L

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated social skills deficits among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Adolescents with DMS-IV bipolar disorder (n = 18) and their parents completed social skills assessments when they were experiencing minimal mood symptoms. The control group (n = 18) consisted of adolescents with no history of psychiatric disorders. Participants and their parents rated the adolescents' social performance using the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters. We measured the adolescents' knowledge of appropriate social skills using the Interpersonal Negotiation Strategy Interview. Raters 'blind' to psychiatric status rated the adolescents' responses and their social interactions with an examiner during the assessment. Adolescents with bipolar disorder displayed significantly more social skills performance deficits than controls. No significant differences emerged between the groups in social skills knowledge. Ratings of social interactions with the examiner failed to distinguish bipolar from control teens, but raters were successful in guessing the psychiatric status of the participants. These findings indicate that bipolar adolescents lag behind their peers in social skills performance, but not social skills knowledge. Results support the hypothesis that difficulties with emotion regulation interfere with the consistent exhibition of appropriate social behaviors.

  4. Automated robot-assisted surgical skill evaluation: Predictive analytics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Mahtab J; Ameri, Sattar; Darin Ellis, R; Chinnam, Ratna B; Pandya, Abhilash K; Klein, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Surgical skill assessment has predominantly been a subjective task. Recently, technological advances such as robot-assisted surgery have created great opportunities for objective surgical evaluation. In this paper, we introduce a predictive framework for objective skill assessment based on movement trajectory data. Our aim is to build a classification framework to automatically evaluate the performance of surgeons with different levels of expertise. Eight global movement features are extracted from movement trajectory data captured by a da Vinci robot for surgeons with two levels of expertise - novice and expert. Three classification methods - k-nearest neighbours, logistic regression and support vector machines - are applied. The result shows that the proposed framework can classify surgeons' expertise as novice or expert with an accuracy of 82.3% for knot tying and 89.9% for a suturing task. This study demonstrates and evaluates the ability of machine learning methods to automatically classify expert and novice surgeons using global movement features. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Moved through Music: The Effect of Experienced Emotions on Performers' Movement Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zijl, Anemone G. W.; Luck, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Do performers who feel sad move differently compared to those who express sadness? Although performers' expressive movements have been widely studied, little is known about how performers' experienced emotions affect such movements. To investigate this, we made 72 motion-capture recordings of eight violinists playing a melodic phrase in response…

  6. Performance Evaluation and Market Timing: the Skill Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Roberto Otoni de Brito

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available MERTON (1981 examines the creation of value by fund managers selecting between stocks and fixed income instruments through market timing. HENRIKSON and MERTON (1981 proceed to propose empirical tests of funds and manager performance in market timing. BRITO, BONA and TACIRO (2003 generalize the results of MERTON (1981 and HENRIKSON and MERTON (1981 for actively managed funds with a clearly defined benchmark portfolio. In the generalized context of active portfolio management, this paper proposes a new index – the Skill Index of Brito (SIB – to measure the performance and efficiency in market timing of actively managed funds. The paper proceeds to test the performance and skill of hedge funds in Brazil using the SIB. A representative sample of 32 hedge funds with a window of 90 trading days on October 31, 1999 was obtained. The empirical tests of performance and skill use the interbank borrowing and lending rate as the passive benchmark. The results indicate the significance at the 5% level of the SIB for ten hedge funds in the sample. Among them seven funds also have shown significance at the 1% level. In sum the results indicate a majority of hedge funds with no significant skill in the Brazilian market in the examined period.

  7. Key properties of expert movement systems in sport : an ecological dynamics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Button, Chris; Davids, Keith

    2013-03-01

    This paper identifies key properties of expertise in sport predicated on the performer-environment relationship. Weaknesses of traditional approaches to expert performance, which uniquely focus on the performer and the environment separately, are highlighted by an ecological dynamics perspective. Key properties of expert movement systems include 'multi- and meta-stability', 'adaptive variability', 'redundancy', 'degeneracy' and the 'attunement to affordances'. Empirical research on these expert system properties indicates that skill acquisition does not emerge from the internal representation of declarative and procedural knowledge, or the imitation of expert behaviours to linearly reduce a perceived 'gap' separating movements of beginners and a putative expert model. Rather, expert performance corresponds with the ongoing co-adaptation of an individual's behaviours to dynamically changing, interacting constraints, individually perceived and encountered. The functional role of adaptive movement variability is essential to expert performance in many different sports (involving individuals and teams; ball games and outdoor activities; land and aquatic environments). These key properties signify that, in sport performance, although basic movement patterns need to be acquired by developing athletes, there exists no ideal movement template towards which all learners should aspire, since relatively unique functional movement solutions emerge from the interaction of key constraints.

  8. Effect of depression on psychomotor skills, eye movements and recognition memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deijen, J.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; Rijsdijk, F.V.

    1993-01-01

    In this study 12 depressed outpatients were compared to 12 healthy controls with respect to their performance on a number of cognitive tasks, including a recognition-memory task, and their eye movements and pupil size were recorded while watching a traffic film. The recognition-memory task consisted

  9. Biological Movement and Laws of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2017-07-01

    Living systems may be defined as systems able to organize new, biology-specific, laws of physics and modify their parameters for specific tasks. Examples include the force-length muscle dependence mediated by the stretch reflex, and the control of movements with modification of the spatial referent coordinates for salient performance variables. Low-dimensional sets of referent coordinates at a task level are transformed to higher-dimensional sets at lower hierarchical levels in a way that ensures stability of performance. Stability of actions can be controlled independently of the actions (e.g., anticipatory synergy adjustments). Unintentional actions reflect relaxation processes leading to drifts of corresponding referent coordinates in the absence of changes in external load. Implications of this general framework for movement disorders, motor development, motor skill acquisition, and even philosophy are discussed.

  10. Sleep-Dependent Reactivation of Ensembles in Motor Cortex Promotes Skill Consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhakshin S Ramanathan

    Full Text Available Despite many prior studies demonstrating offline behavioral gains in motor skills after sleep, the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. To investigate the neurophysiological basis for offline gains, we performed single-unit recordings in motor cortex as rats learned a skilled upper-limb task. We found that sleep improved movement speed with preservation of accuracy. These offline improvements were linked to both replay of task-related ensembles during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep and temporal shifts that more tightly bound motor cortical ensembles to movements; such offline gains and temporal shifts were not evident with sleep restriction. Interestingly, replay was linked to the coincidence of slow-wave events and bursts of spindle activity. Neurons that experienced the most consistent replay also underwent the most significant temporal shift and binding to the motor task. Significantly, replay and the associated performance gains after sleep only occurred when animals first learned the skill; continued practice during later stages of learning (i.e., after motor kinematics had stabilized did not show evidence of replay. Our results highlight how replay of synchronous neural activity during sleep mediates large-scale neural plasticity and stabilizes kinematics during early motor learning.

  11. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONDUCTIVE EDUCATION ON MOTOR SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Khoshvaght

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive neuro-developmental disorders that are caused by damage to the developing brain and affect movement and posture. Children with cerebral palsy suffer difficulty in motor function (coordination and control.The present inquiry investigated the impact of conductive education on motor skills in children having cerebral palsy. Methods: A quasi-experimental research was done using pretest-posttest and control group design. The study subjects consisted of all children with cerebral palsy in Shiraz. A sample of 30 subjects was randomly chosen to employ convenience sampling procedure and classified to two groups of treatment (15 subjects and control (15 subjects. The pretest was performed for both groups, and the experimental group received conductive education in 20 sessions. While the control subjects did not have this education, finally, the post-test was performed for both groups. The Lincoln-Oseretsky test was used to measure motor skills. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA and MANCOVA. Results: The results showed that conductive education had a significant effect on motor skills (P<0.001 and its subscales such as speed of movement (P<0.001, general static coordination (P<0.001, general dynamic coordination (P<0.001, dynamic manual coordination (P<0.001, synchronous-asymmetrical voluntary movements (P<0.001, and asynchronous-asymmetrical voluntary movements (P<0.001 in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusion: The findings indicated the effectiveness of conductive education on cerebral palsy children’s motor skills. Therefore, it is recommended to design and implement a conductive education program to improve motor skills of cerebral palsy children.

  12. Student-Directed Video Validation of Psychomotor Skills Performance: A Strategy to Facilitate Deliberate Practice, Peer Review, and Team Skill Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBourgh, Gregory A; Prion, Susan K

    2017-03-22

    Background Essential nursing skills for safe practice are not limited to technical skills, but include abilities for determining salience among clinical data within dynamic practice environments, demonstrating clinical judgment and reasoning, problem-solving abilities, and teamwork competence. Effective instructional methods are needed to prepare new nurses for entry-to-practice in contemporary healthcare settings. Method This mixed-methods descriptive study explored self-reported perceptions of a process to self-record videos for psychomotor skill performance evaluation in a convenience sample of 102 pre-licensure students. Results Students reported gains in confidence and skill acquisition using team skills to record individual videos of skill performance, and described the importance of teamwork, peer support, and deliberate practice. Conclusion Although time consuming, the production of student-directed video validations of psychomotor skill performance is an authentic task with meaningful accountabilities that is well-received by students as an effective, satisfying learner experience to increase confidence and competence in performing psychomotor skills.

  13. The Skill-Biased Effects of Exchange Rate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Kaiser; Michael Siegenthaler

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the linkages between real exchange rate movements and firms' skill demand. Real exchange rate movements may affect unskilled workers differently than skilled workers because of skill-specific adjustment costs, or because exchange rates lead to changes in relative factor prices and firms' competition intensity. Using panel data on Swiss manufacturers, we find that an appreciation increases high-skilled and reduces low-skilled employment in most firms, while total employment...

  14. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  15. The Impact of Virtual Reality Environments on Body Movement and Concentration Skills. A Successful Attempt at Teaching Novice Computer Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zaretsky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at investigating the impact of virtual reality technology on body movement and concentration skills by physical education MA students and pupils through action research. The design and manipulation of virtual reality is based on applying the virtual reality environment to the real world as much as possible by controlling space. The researcher taught the method to 55 MA students majoring in physical education. Such procedures were held among various populations. The findings showed that the connection between virtual and human movements and the application of this connection in physical education lessons became clear to the students as they practiced the simulation design and manipulation through specific simulative software. The students used their unique disciplinary programs in their teaching work and reported their pupils' improvement in physical activities and concentration skills. The students were able to integrate theory and practice in their teaching and improved their level of academic writing. The motivation of the students and their pupils to control, design and manipulate virtual environments was also enhanced.

  16. Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents: review of associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Cliff, Dylan P; Barnett, Lisa M; Okely, Anthony D

    2010-12-01

    The mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) has been purported as contributing to children's physical, cognitive and social development and is thought to provide the foundation for an active lifestyle. Commonly developed in childhood and subsequently refined into context- and sport-specific skills, they include locomotor (e.g. running and hopping), manipulative or object control (e.g. catching and throwing) and stability (e.g. balancing and twisting) skills. The rationale for promoting the development of FMS in childhood relies on the existence of evidence on the current or future benefits associated with the acquisition of FMS proficiency. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between FMS competency and potential health benefits in children and adolescents. Benefits were defined in terms of psychological, physiological and behavioural outcomes that can impact public health. A systematic search of six electronic databases (EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and SportDiscus®) was conducted on 22 June 2009. Included studies were cross-sectional, longitudinal or experimental studies involving healthy children or adolescents (aged 3-18 years) that quantitatively analysed the relationship between FMS competency and potential benefits. The search identified 21 articles examining the relationship between FMS competency and eight potential benefits (i.e. global self-concept, perceived physical competence, cardio-respiratory fitness [CRF], muscular fitness, weight status, flexibility, physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviour). We found strong evidence for a positive association between FMS competency and physical activity in children and adolescents. There was also a positive relationship between FMS competency and CRF and an inverse association between FMS competency and weight status. Due to an inadequate number of studies, the relationship between FMS competency and the remaining benefits was classified as

  17. Counting skills intervention for low-performing first graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Mononen

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: A relatively short counting skills intervention that applied explicit teaching showed promising effects in improving low-performing children’s mathematical performance as a supplemental instruction.

  18. Skill Learning and Skill Transfer Mediated by Cooperative Haptic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Mireles, Edwin Johnatan; Zenzeri, Jacopo; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; De Santis, Dalia

    2017-07-01

    It is known that physical coupling between two subjects may be advantageous in joint tasks. However, little is known about how two people mutually exchange information to exploit the coupling. Therefore, we adopted a reversed, novel perspective to the standard one that focuses on the ability of physically coupled subjects to adapt to cooperative contexts that require negotiating a common plan: we investigated how training in pairs on a novel task affects the development of motor skills of each of the interacting partners. The task involved reaching movements in an unstable dynamic environment using a bilateral non-linear elastic tool that could be used bimanually or dyadically. The main result is that training with an expert leads to the greatest performance in the joint task. However, the performance in the individual test is strongly affected by the initial skill level of the partner. Moreover, practicing with a peer rather than an expert appears to be more advantageous for a naive; and motor skills can be transferred to a bimanual context, after training with an expert, only if the non-expert subject had prior experience of the dynamics of the novel task.

  19. The Relationship between Life Skills and Family Performance in Addicted Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Komasi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Among ingredients of success of family and decreasing mental and social damages are be some skills in the family. This study was aimed The Relationship between life skills (self awareness, interpersonal relationships, and decision making and, family performance in addicted women of Kermanshah city. Methods: The research design of current study was correlation method. Research population was all addicted women who were referred to Methadone therapy centers of Kermanshah city in summer of 1390. First 15 centers selected randomly and among 82 referred women 22 women discarded because of illiteracy, old age, or lack of cooperating. Thus, Sample of this study was 60 women. Bloom family performance and Ghiasi’s life skills questionnaires were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed there is significant correlation between family performance and decision making skill in addicted women, but there is not significant correlation between family performance and self awareness and interpersonal relationships. Conclusion: Existing some of special skills in family such as decision making skill can be impressing on the level of family performance and incidence of social damages such as addiction.

  20. Movement Education Framework (MEF) Made EZ!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiller-Abels, Karen; Bridges, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    All physical educators want to provide lessons that foster success. Particularly essential to the movement education framework is not only providing lessons that foster motor success, but also to develop knowledge about movement to help the learner develop skill in executing all different types of movement. The framework and examples provided in…

  1. Movement games in sports training of children

    OpenAIRE

    Komoň, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Title: Movement Games in Sports Training of Children Objectives: Create a systemized inventory of movement games. Movement games categorized according to which football skills can developed. Verify popularity of the each movement game in simple questionnaire. Methods: The literature search and data analysis. Also, quantitative research in the form of a simple questionnaire. Results: Systematized inventory of 39 movement games with methodological descriptions. Each movement game has feedback i...

  2. Prediction of habitual physical activity level and weight status from fundamental movement skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth Sarah; James, Rob S; Birch, Samantha Louise; Duncan, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) have been assessed in children in order to investigate the issues of the low proportion of children who meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and rising levels of obesity. The aim of this research was to identify whether previous or current FMS level is a better predictor of PA levels and weight status in children. In January 2012 (year 1), 281 children were recruited from one primary school in the West Midlands, UK. Children performed eight FMS three times, which were videoed and assessed using a subjective checklist. Sprint speed and jump height were measured objectively. Height and mass were measured to calculate the body mass index to determine the weight status. Skinfold calliper readings were used to calculate body fat percentage. One year later, in January 2013, all these tests were repeated on the same children, with the additional collection of PA data via the use of pedometers. Following multiple linear regression, it was identified that prior mastery in FMS was a better predictor of current PA, whereas current FMS was a better predictor of current weight status. Overall, FMS mastery is needed in childhood to be able to participate in PA and maintain a healthy weight status.

  3. Differences in learning volitional (manual and non-volitional (posture aspects of a complex motor skill in young adult dyslexic and skilled readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Sela

    Full Text Available The 'Cerebellar Deficit Theory' of developmental dyslexia proposes that a subtle developmental cerebellar dysfunction leads to deficits in attaining 'automatic' procedures and therefore manifests as subtle motor impairments (e.g., balance control, motor skill learning in addition to the reading and phonological difficulties. A more recent version of the theory suggests a core deficit in motor skill acquisition. This study was undertaken to compare the time-course and the nature of practice-related changes in volitional (manual and non-volitional (posture motor performance in dyslexic and typical readers while learning a new movement sequence. Seventeen dyslexic and 26 skilled young adult readers underwent a three-session training program in which they practiced a novel sequence of manual movements while standing in a quiet stance position. Both groups exhibited robust and well-retained gains in speed, with no loss of accuracy, on the volitional, manual, aspects of the task, with a time-course characteristic of procedural learning. However, the dyslexic readers exhibited a pervasive slowness in the initiation of volitional performance. In addition, while typical readers showed clear and well-retained task-related adaptation of the balance and posture control system, the dyslexic readers had significantly larger sway and variance of sway throughout the three sessions and were less efficient in adapting the posture control system to support the acquisition of the novel movement sequence. These results support the notion of a non-language-related deficit in developmental dyslexia, one related to the recruitment of motor systems for effective task performance rather than to a general motor learning disability.

  4. Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.

  5. Speed invariance of independent control of finger movements in pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Soechting, John F

    2012-10-01

    Independent control of finger movements characterizes skilled motor behaviors such as tool use and musical performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of movement frequency (tempo) on individuated finger movements in piano playing. Joint motion at the digits was recorded while 5 expert pianists were playing 30 excerpts from musical pieces with different fingering and key locations either at a predetermined normal tempo or as fast as possible. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm determined three distinct patterns of finger movement coordination for a keypress with each of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers at each of the two tempi. The finger kinematics of each coordination pattern was overall similar across the tempi. Tone sequences assigned into each cluster were also similar for both tempi. A linear regression analysis determined no apparent difference in the amount of movement covariation between the striking and nonstriking fingers at both metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal joints across the two tempi, which indicated no effect of tempo on independent finger movements in piano playing. In addition, the standard deviation of interkeystroke interval across strokes did not differ between the two tempi, indicating maintenance of rhythmic accuracy of keystrokes. Strong temporal constraints on finger movements during piano playing may underlie the maintained independent control of fingers over a wider range of tempi, a feature being likely to be specific to skilled pianists.

  6. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  7. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    subjects the teaching style should be characterized by more variation and motivate the pupils. Research has shown that there is a correlation between physical activity and intellectual capital (e.g. educational attainment and academic performance), physical capital (e.g. physical fitness and reduction...... of the risk for diseases and risk factors) and emotional capital (e.g. fun, enjoyment and self-esteem) (Bailey, Hillman, Arent, & Petitpas, 2013). The school reform prescribes that all pupils from grade 1-9 must have at least 45 minutes of movement activities in average every day.Next to the well-known PE...... without prerequisites but part of discourses and at the same time individual interpretations of specific practices. The teaching role is something that is constantly produced and reproduced in the bodily interaction. Understanding teaching as performativity means that teachers are not acting in certain...

  8. The Age-Related Association of Movement in Irish Adolescent Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarmuid Lester

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Research has shown that post-primary Irish youth are insufficiently active and fail to reach a level of proficiency across basic movement skills. The purpose of the current research was to gather cross-sectional baseline data on Irish adolescent youth, specifically the prevalence of movement skills and patterns, in order to generate an overall perspective of movement within the first three years (Junior Certificate level of post-primary education. (2 Methods: Data were collected on adolescents (N = 181; mean age: 14.42 ± 0.98 years, attending two, mixed-gender schools. Data collection included 10 fundamental movement skills (FMS and the seven tests within the Functional Movement Screen (FMS™. The data set was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0 for Windows. (3 Results: Overall, levels of actual mastery within fundamental and functional movement were low. There were statistically significant age-related differences observed, with a progressive decline as age increased in both the object control (p = 0.002 FMS sub-domain, and the in-line lunge (p = 0.048 test of the FMS™. (4 Conclusion: In summary, we found emerging evidence that school year group is significantly associated with mastery of movement skills and patterns. Results from the current study suggest that developing a specifically tailored movement-oriented intervention would be a strategic step towards improving the low levels of adolescent fundamental and functional movement proficiency.

  9. Validity and Reliability of Field-Based Measures for Assessing Movement Skill Competency in Lifelong Physical Activities: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Lander, Natalie J; Morgan, Philip J; Barnett, Lisa M; Robertson, Samuel J; Lubans, David R

    2015-10-01

    It has been suggested that young people should develop competence in a variety of 'lifelong physical activities' to ensure that they can be active across the lifespan. The primary aim of this systematic review is to report the methodological properties, validity, reliability, and test duration of field-based measures that assess movement skill competency in lifelong physical activities. A secondary aim was to clearly define those characteristics unique to lifelong physical activities. A search of four electronic databases (Scopus, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, and PubMed) was conducted between June 2014 and April 2015 with no date restrictions. Studies addressing the validity and/or reliability of lifelong physical activity tests were reviewed. Included articles were required to assess lifelong physical activities using process-oriented measures, as well as report either one type of validity or reliability. Assessment criteria for methodological quality were adapted from a checklist used in a previous review of sport skill outcome assessments. Movement skill assessments for eight different lifelong physical activities (badminton, cycling, dance, golf, racquetball, resistance training, swimming, and tennis) in 17 studies were identified for inclusion. Methodological quality, validity, reliability, and test duration (time to assess a single participant), for each article were assessed. Moderate to excellent reliability results were found in 16 of 17 studies, with 71% reporting inter-rater reliability and 41% reporting intra-rater reliability. Only four studies in this review reported test-retest reliability. Ten studies reported validity results; content validity was cited in 41% of these studies. Construct validity was reported in 24% of studies, while criterion validity was only reported in 12% of studies. Numerous assessments for lifelong physical activities may exist, yet only assessments for eight lifelong physical activities were included in this review

  10. Overthinking skilled motor performance: or why those who teach can't do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Kristin E; Anderson, Michael C

    2008-10-01

    Skilled athletes often maintain that overthinking disrupts performance of their motor skills. Here, we examined whether these experiences have a basis in verbal overshadowing, a phenomenon in which describing memories for ineffable perceptual experiences disrupts later retention. After learning a unique golf-putting task, golfers of low and intermediate skill either described their actions in detail or performed an irrelevant verbal task. They then performed the putting task again. Strikingly, describing their putting experience significantly impaired higher skill golfers' ability to reachieve the putting criterion, compared with higher skill golfers who performed the irrelevant verbal activity. Verbalization had no such effect, however, for lower skill golfers. These findings establish that the effects of overthinking extend beyond dual-task interference and may sometimes reflect impacts on long-term memory. We propose that these effects are mediated by competition between procedural and declarative memory, as suggested by recent work in cognitive neuroscience.

  11. Key Principles of Open Motor-Skill Training for Peak Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Motor-skill training is an imperative element contributing to overall sport performance. In order to help coaches, athletes and practitioners to capture the characteristics of motor skills, sport scientists have divided motor skills into different categories, such as open versus closed, serial or discrete, outcome- or process-oriented, and…

  12. Computational Model-Based Prediction of Human Episodic Memory Performance Based on Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    Subjects' episodic memory performance is not simply reflected by eye movements. We use a ‘theta phase coding’ model of the hippocampus to predict subjects' memory performance from their eye movements. Results demonstrate the ability of the model to predict subjects' memory performance. These studies provide a novel approach to computational modeling in the human-machine interface.

  13. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9-12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades

  14. Electromyography and the study of sports movements: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, J P; Cabri, J

    1993-10-01

    Within electromyography (EMG), a particular specialty has been developed wherein the aim is to use EMG for the study of muscular function and co-ordination. This area of research is usually called kinesiological EMG. The general aims of kinesiological EMG are to analyse the function and co-ordination of muscles in different movements and postures, in healthy subjects as well as in the disabled, in skilled actions as well as during training, in humans as well as in animals, under laboratory conditions as well as during daily or vocational activities. This is often done by a combination of electromyographical and kinesiological or biomechanical measurement techniques. Because there are over 400 skeletal muscles in the human body and both irregular and complex involvement of the muscles may occur in neuromuscular diseases and in voluntary occupational or sports movements, it is impossible to sample all of the muscles of the entire body during the performance of complex motor skills. In addition, the measurement of kinesiological EMG in sport and specific field circumstances, such as the track and/or soccer field, the alpine ski slope, the swimming pool and the ice rink, demands a specific technological and methodological approach, adaptable to both the field and the sport circumstances. Sport movement techniques and skills, training approaches and methods, ergonomic verification of the human-machine interaction have, amongst others, a highly specialized muscular activity in common. The knowledge of such muscular action in all its aspects, its evaluation and its feedback should allow for the optimization of movement, of sports materials, of training possibilities and, in the end, of sports performance. Drawing conclusions from a review of the EMG research of 32 sports, covering over 100 different complex skills, including methodological approaches, is an impossible task. We have attempted to set standards concerning the EMG methodology at the beginning of this review

  15. 49 CFR 240.211 - Procedures for making the determination on performance skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance skills. 240.211 Section 240.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... determination on performance skills. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially certifying or recertifying any person... demonstrated, in accordance with the requirements of § 240.127 of this part, the skills to safely operate...

  16. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in "turnout".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve "turning out" or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in "turned out" postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat.

  17. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the amount... another job, the equal pay standard cannot apply even though the jobs may be equal in all other respects...

  18. The efficacy of acute nutritional interventions on soccer skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Kingsley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The use of nutritional ergogenic aids in team sports such as soccer is now commonplace. Aligned with the primary aim of soccer, which is to score more goals than the opposition within the allotted time, the quality of performance of technical actions (i.e., skills) executed during soccer-specific exercise is likely to determine success. However, when seeking to maintain soccer skill performance, information about the efficacy of nutritional interventions is lacking and factors which might modulate the efficacy of such strategies are unclear. This review aimed (i) to systematically evaluate the current research that examines the efficacy of nutritional interventions on soccer skills, and (ii) to provide a qualitative commentary on factors that have the potential to modulate the efficacy of such strategies. Relevant databases (PubMed and SPORTDiscus) were searched up to and including 1 July, 2013 for studies that investigated the efficacy of acute nutritional interventions on soccer skill performances. Overall, 279 records were retrieved. Articles were sequentially excluded from the review based on specific criteria, being: (A) articles that did not report outcomes directly relating to skilled performances in soccer, (B) articles that examined the influence of interventions that were not nutritional in origin and/or were nutritional in origin but provided >3 hours before skill testing commenced, (C) articles that were review papers, and (D) post-acceptance withdrawal of articles methods from database. Articles were independently assessed for the quality of the methods employed based upon the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Records achieving a minimum PEDro score of 5 out of 10 were included in this review. Qualitative appraisal of 13 articles was performed after the application of exclusion criteria and quality assurance processes. The majority (n = 8) of articles examined the influence of carbohydrates on technical performance whereas fewer studies

  19. Effects of Fundamental Movement Skills Training on Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sit, Cindy H; Burnett, Angus; Capio, Catherine M; Ha, Amy S; Huang, Wendy Y

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fundamental movement skills (FMS) training on FMS proficiency, self-perceived physical competence (SPC), physical activity (PA), and sleep disturbance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) compared with children with typical development (TD). A total of 84 children were allocated into either experimental group (DCD[exp], TD[exp]) who received 6 weeks of FMS training or control groups (DCD[con], TD[con]). FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, whereas PA was monitored using accelerometers. SPC and sleep disturbance were evaluated using questionnaires. Results showed that the DCD[exp] group had significantly higher scores in FMS and SPC compared with the DCD[con] group at posttest. The DCD[exp] group scored lower in sleep disturbance at follow-up when compared with posttest. It is suggested that short-term FMS training is effective in improving FMS and SPC and reducing sleep disturbances for children with DCD.

  20. Technical and tactical skills related to performance levels in tennis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Nikki S; Kramer, Tamara; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Visscher, Chris

    2018-06-11

    The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of outcome measures and instruments identified in the literature for examining technical and tactical skills in tennis related to performance levels. Such instruments can be used to identify talent or the specific skill development training needs of particular players. Searches for this review were conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases. Out of 733 publications identified through these searches, 40 articles were considered relevant and included in this study. They were divided into three categories: (1) technical skills, (2) tactical skills and (3) integrated technical and tactical skills. There was strong evidence that technical skills (ball velocity and to a lesser extent ball accuracy) and tactical skills (decision making, anticipation, tactical knowledge and visual search strategies) differed among players according to their performance levels. However, integrated measurement of these skills is required, because winning a point largely hinges on a tactical decision to perform a particular stroke (i.e., technical execution). Therefore, future research should focus on examining the relationship between these skills and tennis performance and on the development of integrated methods for measuring these skills.

  1. Can a virtual reality assessment of fine motor skill predict successful central line insertion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadipanah, Hossein; Parthiban, Chembian; Nathwani, Jay; Rutherford, Drew; DiMarco, Shannon; Pugh, Carla

    2016-10-01

    Due to the increased use of peripherally inserted central catheter lines, central lines are not performed as frequently. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a virtual reality (VR)-based assessment of fine motor skills can be used as a valid and objective assessment of central line skills. Surgical residents (N = 43) from 7 general surgery programs performed a subclavian central line in a simulated setting. Then, they participated in a force discrimination task in a VR environment. Hand movements from the subclavian central line simulation were tracked by electromagnetic sensors. Gross movements as monitored by the electromagnetic sensors were compared with the fine motor metrics calculated from the force discrimination tasks in the VR environment. Long periods of inactivity (idle time) during needle insertion and lack of smooth movements, as detected by the electromagnetic sensors, showed a significant correlation with poor force discrimination in the VR environment. Also, long periods of needle insertion time correlated to the poor performance in force discrimination in the VR environment. This study shows that force discrimination in a defined VR environment correlates to needle insertion time, idle time, and hand smoothness when performing subclavian central line placement. Fine motor force discrimination may serve as a valid and objective assessment of the skills required for successful needle insertion when placing central lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Automatic Human Movement Assessment With Switching Linear Dynamic System: Motion Segmentation and Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Baptista, Roberto; Bo, Antonio P L; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Performance assessment of human movement is critical in diagnosis and motor-control rehabilitation. Recent developments in portable sensor technology enable clinicians to measure spatiotemporal aspects to aid in the neurological assessment. However, the extraction of quantitative information from such measurements is usually done manually through visual inspection. This paper presents a novel framework for automatic human movement assessment that executes segmentation and motor performance parameter extraction in time-series of measurements from a sequence of human movements. We use the elements of a Switching Linear Dynamic System model as building blocks to translate formal definitions and procedures from human movement analysis. Our approach provides a method for users with no expertise in signal processing to create models for movements using labeled dataset and later use it for automatic assessment. We validated our framework on preliminary tests involving six healthy adult subjects that executed common movements in functional tests and rehabilitation exercise sessions, such as sit-to-stand and lateral elevation of the arms and five elderly subjects, two of which with limited mobility, that executed the sit-to-stand movement. The proposed method worked on random motion sequences for the dual purpose of movement segmentation (accuracy of 72%-100%) and motor performance assessment (mean error of 0%-12%).

  3. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Education and School Sport Interventions Targeting Physical Activity, Movement Skills and Enjoyment of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dean; Okely, Anthony; Pearson, Philip; Cotton, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of published literature on the effectiveness of physical education in promoting participation in physical activity, enjoyment of physical activity and movement skill proficiency in children and adolescents. The review utilized a literature search, specifically publications listed in Ovid, A+ Education,…

  4. Can We Use Creativity to Improve Generic Skills in Our Higher Education Students? A Proposal Based on Non-Verbal Communication and Creative Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Rosa Maria; Castilla, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, general skills and personal growth have been developed through cognitive processes within academic contexts. Development based on experience may be an alternative route to achieve cognitive knowledge. Enact-learning is based on the biunivocal relationship between knowledge and action. Action is movement. Participants interact with…

  5. Computer games and fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, Lukasz; Tolstych, Katarzyna; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2013-01-01

    The study seeks to determine the influence of computer games on fine motor skills in young adults, an area of incomplete understanding and verification. We hypothesized that computer gaming could have a positive influence on basic motor skills, such as precision, aiming, speed, dexterity, or tremor. We examined 30 habitual game users (F/M - 3/27; age range 20-25 years) of the highly interactive game Counter Strike, in which players impersonate soldiers on a battlefield, and 30 age- and gender-matched subjects who declared never to play games. Selected tests from the Vienna Test System were used to assess fine motor skills and tremor. The results demonstrate that the game users scored appreciably better than the control subjects in all tests employed. In particular, the players did significantly better in the precision of arm-hand movements, as expressed by a lower time of errors, 1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 s, a lower error rate, 13.6 ± 0.3 vs. 20.4 ± 2.2, and a shorter total time of performing a task, 14.6 ± 2.9 vs. 32.1 ± 4.5 s in non-players, respectively; p computer games on psychomotor functioning. We submit that playing computer games may be a useful training tool to increase fine motor skills and movement coordination.

  6. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy on reach-to-grasp movements and functional performance after chronic stroke: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K-C; Wu, C-Y; Wei, T-H; Lee, C-Y; Liu, J-S

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate changes in (1) motor control characteristics of the hemiparetic hand during the performance of a functional reach-to-grasp task and (2) functional performance of daily activities in patients with stroke treated with modified constraint-induced movement therapy. Two-group randomized controlled trial with pretreatment and posttreatment measures. Rehabilitation clinics. Thirty-two chronic stroke patients (21 men, 11 women; mean age=57.9 years, range=43-81 years) 13-26 months (mean 16.3 months) after onset of a first-ever cerebrovascular accident. Thirty-two patients were randomized to receive modified constraint-induced movement therapy (restraint of the unaffected limb combined with intensive training of the affected limb) or traditional rehabilitation for three weeks. Kinematic analysis was used to assess motor control characteristics as patients reached to grasp a beverage can. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the Motor Activity Log and Functional Independence Measure. There were moderate and significant effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy on some aspects of motor control of reach-to-grasp and on functional ability. The modified constraint-induced movement therapy group preplanned reaching and grasping (P=0.018) more efficiently and depended more on the feedforward control of reaching (P=0.046) than did the traditional rehabilitation group. The modified constraint-induced movement therapy group also showed significantly improved functional performance on the Motor Activity Log (Pcontrol strategy during goal-directed reaching, a possible mechanism for the improved movement performance of stroke patients undergoing this therapy.

  7. Effectiveness of the teaching of perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement on motor development in children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Ghorban Zadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fundamental motor skills are the foundation of special skills. The purpose of this study was to study the effectiveness of the teaching of perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement on motor development in children with intellectual disability. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-excremental study, 30 children aged 7 to 10 years old were selected through random cluster sampling method from elementary schools in Tabriz city. They were homogenized in two experimental groups (perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement and one control group based on their age and IQ. Programs were held in 9 weeks, two sessions per week, and each session was 45 minutes. Before beginning the training and at the end of the last session, pre-test and post-test were conducted. In order to assess motor development TGMD-2 test was used, and to analyze data covariance and bonferroni postdoc test were used. Results: The results showed that both perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement groups performed better in locomotors and object control skills than the control group (P&le 0.05 and there was no significant difference between these two groups  (P&ge0.05Perceptual-motor skills training group had a greater impact on the development of control object skills than rhythmic movement group. Program rhythmic movement group had a greater impact on the development of object control skills than the control group. Conclusion: According to the results, educational programs which are used can be as an appropriate experiencing motion for children. These programs can be used at schools to to provide suitable program and the opportunity for training and developing motor skills.

  8. A Group Motor Skills Program for Children with Coordination Difficulties: Effect on Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra J; Staples, Kerri L

    2016-01-01

    Children with coordination difficulties are at risk of low levels of physical activity (PA) participation. This intervention examined the effects of a multidisciplinary program that emphasized parent participation on motor skill performance and PA. Ten boys (5-7 years) completed a group program consisting of conditioning exercises and activities designed to address child-selected goals. Motor proficiency and PA participation were assessed before and after the program using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and triaxial accelerometers, respectively. Rating scales captured child and parent perceptions of performance for each child's goals. TGMD-2 subtest raw scores, age equivalent and percentile scores improved, along with parent ratings of their child's performance. Six children reported skill improvements. On average, moderate to vigorous PA improved by 10 min per day although these gains were not significant. Time spent in sedentary activities was unchanged. None of the children met the Canadian PA and sedentary behaviour guidelines. The results support effectiveness of a group program to improve gross motor performance and levels of PA in children with coordination difficulties. Gains in both of these domains also have the potential to impact quality of life and reduce health risks associated with inactivity.

  9. Training to acquire psychomotor skills for endoscopic endonasal surgery using a personal webcam trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Umegaki, Masao; Kagawa, Naoki; Kinoshita, Manabu; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2013-05-01

    Existing training methods for neuroendoscopic surgery have mainly emphasized the acquisition of anatomical knowledge and procedures for operating an endoscope and instruments. For laparoscopic surgery, various training systems have been developed to teach handling of an endoscope as well as the manipulation of instruments for speedy and precise endoscopic performance using both hands. In endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES), especially using a binostril approach to the skull base and intradural lesions, the learning of more meticulous manipulation of instruments is mandatory, and it may be necessary to develop another type of training method for acquiring psychomotor skills for EES. Authors of the present study developed an inexpensive, portable personal trainer using a webcam and objectively evaluated its utility. Twenty-five neurosurgeons volunteered for this study and were divided into 2 groups, a novice group (19 neurosurgeons) and an experienced group (6 neurosurgeons). Before and after the exercises of set tasks with a webcam box trainer, the basic endoscopic skills of each participant were objectively assessed using the virtual reality simulator (LapSim) while executing 2 virtual tasks: grasping and instrument navigation. Scores for the following 11 performance variables were recorded: instrument time, instrument misses, instrument path length, and instrument angular path (all of which were measured in both hands), as well as tissue damage, max damage, and finally overall score. Instrument time was indicated as movement speed; instrument path length and instrument angular path as movement efficiency; and instrument misses, tissue damage, and max damage as movement precision. In the novice group, movement speed and efficiency were significantly improved after the training. In the experienced group, significant improvement was not shown in the majority of virtual tasks. Before the training, significantly greater movement speed and efficiency were demonstrated in

  10. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9–12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aart, Ingrid; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Mombarg, Remo; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    : Many children aged 9–12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of

  11. Relations among Basic Psychological Needs, PE-Motivation and Fundamental Movement Skills in 9-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of elementary school. Therefore, more insight in…

  12. Development of performance assessment instrument based contextual learning for measuring students laboratory skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningsih, E.; Khotimah, K.; Nurhayati, S.

    2018-04-01

    The assessment of laboratory skill in general hasn’t specific guideline in assessment, while the individual assessment of students during a performance and skill in performing laboratory is still not been observed and measured properly. Alternative assessment that can be used to measure student laboratory skill is use performance assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the performance assessment instrument that the result of research can be used to assess basic skills student laboratory. This research was conducted by the Research and Development. The result of the data analysis performance assessment instruments developed feasible to implement and validation result 62.5 with very good categories for observation sheets laboratory skills and all of the components with the very good category. The procedure is the preliminary stages of research and development stages. Preliminary stages are divided in two, namely the field studies and literature studies. The development stages are divided into several parts, namely 1) development of the type instrument, 2) validation by an expert, 3) a limited scale trial, 4) large-scale trials and 5) implementation of the product. The instrument included in the category of effective because 26 from 29 students have very high laboratory skill and high laboratory skill. The research of performance assessment instrument is standard and can be used to assess basic skill student laboratory.

  13. The Influence of Motor Skills on Measurement Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brychta, Petr; Sadílek, Marek; Brychta, Josef

    2016-10-01

    This innovative study trying to do interdisciplinary interface at first view different ways fields: kinantropology and mechanical engineering. A motor skill is described as an action which involves the movement of muscles in a body. Gross motor skills permit functions as a running, jumping, walking, punching, lifting and throwing a ball, maintaining a body balance, coordinating etc. Fine motor skills captures smaller neuromuscular actions, such as holding an object between the thumb and a finger. In mechanical inspection, the accuracy of measurement is most important aspect. The accuracy of measurement to some extent is also dependent upon the sense of sight or sense of touch associated with fine motor skills. It is therefore clear that the level of motor skills will affect the precision and accuracy of measurement in metrology. Aim of this study is literature review to find out fine motor skills level of individuals and determine the potential effect of different fine motor skill performance on precision and accuracy of mechanical engineering measuring.

  14. Distinct interjoint coordination during fast alternate keystrokes in pianists with superior skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi eFuruya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Musical performance requires motor skills to coordinate the movements of multiple joints in the hand and arm over a wide range of tempi. However, it is unclear whether the coordination of movement across joints would differ for musicians with different skill levels and how inter-joint coordination would vary in relation to music tempo. The present study addresses these issues by examining the kinematics and muscular activity of the hand and arm movements of professional and amateur pianists who strike two keys alternately with the thumb and little finger at various tempi. The professionals produced a smaller flexion velocity at the thumb and little finger and greater elbow pronation and supination velocity than did the amateurs. The experts also showed smaller extension angles at the metacarpo-phalangeal joint of the index and middle fingers, which were not being used to strike the keys. Furthermore, muscular activity in the extrinsic finger muscles was smaller for the experts than for the amateurs. These findings indicate that pianists with superior skill reduce the finger muscle load during keystrokes by taking advantage of differences in proximal joint motion and hand postural configuration. With an increase in tempo, the experts showed larger and smaller increases in elbow velocity and finger muscle co-activation, respectively, compared to the amateurs, highlighting skill-level-dependent differences in movement strategies for tempo adjustment. Finally, when striking as fast as possible, individual differences in the striking tempo among players were explained by their elbow velocities but not by their digit velocities. These findings suggest that pianists who are capable of faster keystrokes benefit more from proximal joint motion than do pianists who are not capable of faster keystrokes. The distinct movement strategy for tempo adjustment in pianists with superior skill would therefore ensure a wider range of musical expression.

  15. Applying Aspects of the Expert Performance Approach to Better Understand the Structure of Skill and Mechanisms of Skill Acquisition in Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Sumner, Anna; Towne, Tyler J; Rodriguez, Paola; Anders Ericsson, K

    2017-04-01

    Video games are ideal platforms for the study of skill acquisition for a variety of reasons. However, our understanding of the development of skill and the cognitive representations that support skilled performance can be limited by a focus on game scores. We present an alternative approach to the study of skill acquisition in video games based on the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. Our investigation was motivated by a detailed analysis of the behaviors responsible for the superior performance of one of the highest scoring players of the video game Space Fortress (Towne, Boot, & Ericsson, ). This analysis revealed how certain behaviors contributed to his exceptional performance. In this study, we recruited a participant for a similar training regimen, but we collected concurrent and retrospective verbal protocol data throughout training. Protocol analysis revealed insights into strategies, errors, mental representations, and shifting game priorities. We argue that these insights into the developing representations that guided skilled performance could only easily have been derived from the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. We propose that the described approach could be applied to understand performance and skill acquisition in many different video games (and other short- to medium-term skill acquisition paradigms) and help reveal mechanisms of transfer from gameplay to other measures of laboratory and real-world performance. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Psychomotor skills assessment in practicing surgeons experienced in performing advanced laparoscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Smith, C Daniel; Bowers, Steven P; Seymour, Neal E; Pearson, Adam; McNatt, Steven; Hananel, David; Satava, Richard M

    2003-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has introduced a new and unique set of psychomotor skills for a surgeon to acquire and master. Although assessment technologies have been proposed, precise and objective psychomotor skills assessment of surgeons performing laparoscopic procedures has not been detailed. Two hundred ten surgeons attending the 2001 annual meeting of the American College of Surgeons in New Orleans who reported having completed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures participated. Subjects were required to complete one box-trainer laparoscopic cutting task and a similar virtual reality task. These tasks were specifically designed to test only psychomotor and not cognitive skills. Both tasks were completed twice. Performance of tasks was assessed and analyzed. Demographic and laparoscopic experience data were also collected. Complete data were available on 195 surgeons. In this group, surgeons performed the box-trainer task better with their dominant hand (p psychomotor skills is now possible. Surgeons who had performed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures showed considerable variability in their performance on a simple laparoscopic and virtual reality task. Approximately 10% of surgeons tested performed the task significantly worse than the group's average performance. Studies such as this may form the methodology for establishing criteria levels and performance objectives in objective assessment of the technical skills component of determining surgical competence.

  17. The impact of nontechnical skills on technical performance in surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Louise; Arora, Sonal; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Failures in nontechnical and teamwork skills frequently lie at the heart of harm and near-misses in the operating room (OR). The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the impact of nontechnical skills on technical performance in surgery. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO databases were searched, and 2,041 articles were identified. After limits were applied, 341 articles were retrieved for evaluation. Of these, 28 articles were accepted for this review. Data were extracted from the articles regarding sample population, study design and setting, measures of nontechnical skills and technical performance, study findings, and limitations. Of the 28 articles that met inclusion criteria, 21 articles assessed the impact of surgeons' nontechnical skills on their technical performance. The evidence suggests that receiving feedback and effectively coping with stressful events in the OR has a beneficial impact on certain aspects of technical performance. Conversely, increased levels of fatigue are associated with detriments to surgical skill. One article assessed the impact of anesthesiologists' nontechnical skills on anesthetic technical performance, finding a strong positive correlation between the 2 skill sets. Finally, 6 articles assessed the impact of multiple nontechnical skills of the entire OR team on surgical performance. A strong relationship between teamwork failure and technical error was empirically demonstrated in these studies. Evidence suggests that certain nontechnical aspects of performance can enhance or, if lacking, contribute to deterioration of surgeons' technical performance. The precise extent of this effect remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic Utility of the Social Skills Improvement System Performance Screening Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, S. Kathleen; McCreery, Michael P.; Wang, Ye; Mohammadiamin, Houra; Cirks, Christen K.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers investigated the diagnostic utility of the Social Skills Improvement System: Performance Screening Guide (SSIS-PSG). Correlational, regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and conditional probability analyses were run to compare ratings on the SSIS-PSG subscales of Prosocial Behavior, Reading Skills, and Math Skills, to…

  19. Especial Skills in Experienced Archers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavinik, Mahdi; Abaszadeh, Ali; Mehranmanesh, Mehrab; Rosenbaum, David A

    2017-09-05

    Especial skills are skills that are distinctive by virtue of massive practice within the narrow contexts in which they are expressed. In the first demonstration of especial skills, Keetch, Schmidt, Lee, and Young (2005) showed that experienced basketball players are better at shooting baskets from the foul line, where they had massive amounts of practice, than would expected from their success at other locations closer to or farther from the basket. Similar results were obtained for baseball throwing. The authors asked whether especial skills hold in archery, a sport requiring less movement. If the emergence of especial skills depends on large-scale movement, one would expect archery to escape so-called especialism. But if the emergence of especial skills reflects a more general tendency for highly specific learning, experienced archers should show especial skills. The authors obtained evidence consistent with the latter prediction. The expert archers did much better at their most highly practiced distance than would be expected by looking at the overall function relating shooting score to distance. We offer a mathematical model to account for this result. The findings attest to the generality of the especial skills phenomenon.

  20. Retention of fundamental surgical skills learned in robot-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Irene H; Mukherjee, Mukul; Shah, Bhavin C; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2012-12-01

    Evaluation of the learning curve for robotic surgery has shown reduced errors and decreased task completion and training times compared with regular laparoscopic surgery. However, most training evaluations of robotic surgery have only addressed short-term retention after the completion of training. Our goal was to investigate the amount of surgical skills retained after 3 months of training with the da Vinci™ Surgical System. Seven medical students without any surgical experience were recruited. Participants were trained with a 4-day training program of robotic surgical skills and underwent a series of retention tests at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months post-training. Data analysis included time to task completion, speed, distance traveled, and movement curvature by the instrument tip. Performance of the participants was graded using the modified Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) for robotic surgery. Participants filled out a survey after each training session by answering a set of questions. Time to task completion and the movement curvature was decreased from pre- to post-training and the performance was retained at all the corresponding retention periods: 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. The modified OSATS showed improvement from pre-test to post-test and this improvement was maintained during all the retention periods. Participants increased in self-confidence and mastery in performing robotic surgical tasks after training. Our novel comprehensive training program improved robot-assisted surgical performance and learning. All trainees retained their fundamental surgical skills for 3 months after receiving the training program.

  1. Fine Motor Function Skills in Patients with Parkinson Disease with and without Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdal, Philippe; Meyer, Antonia; Chaturvedi, Menorca; Nowak, Karolina; Roesch, Anne D; Fuhr, Peter; Gschwandtner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between impaired fine motor skills in Parkinson disease (PD) patients and their cognitive status, and to determine whether fine motor skills are more impaired in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) than in non-MCI patients. Twenty PD MCI and 31 PD non-MCI patients (mean age 66.7 years, range 50-84, 36 males/15 females), all right-handed, took part in a motor performance test battery. Steadiness, precision, dexterity, velocity of arm-hand movements, and velocity of wrist-finger movements were measured and compared across groups and analyzed for confounders (age, sex, education, severity of motor symptoms, and disease duration). Statistical analysis included t tests corrected for multiple testing, and a linear regression with stepwise elimination procedure was used to select significant predictors for fine motor function. PD MCI patients performed significantly worse in precision (p motor function skills were confounded by age. Fine motor skills in PD MCI patients are impaired compared to PD non-MCI patients. Investigating the relation between the fine motor performance and MCI in PD might be a relevant subject for future research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Banyard, Harry G; McKeown, Ian; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam

    2016-09-01

    Talent identification (TID) is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF). This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18) AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives) and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives). Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA), consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs), single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs), and a push up (six movement criterions). Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 - 0.87; p = 0.01 - 0.02). Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE) = -0.89(0.44); p talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent identification approaches in junior AF, as it may provide coaches with

  3. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  4. Improving fundamental movement skills in Hong Kong students through an assessment for learning intervention that emphasizes fun, mastery, and support: the A + FMS randomized controlled trial study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cecilia; Ha, Amy; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Assessment for learning has been identified as an effective strategy to help children learn more effectively. Developing children to master basic movement skills in primary school requires formative assessments to inform instruction and learning. This study reports the rationale and methods for an assessment-based intervention that emphasizes fun, mastery and support (A + FMS) designed to improve fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency of primary schoolchildren. Utilizing a cluster randomized controlled trial, the A + FMS intervention was designed to improve FMS proficiency of Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren. A target sample of 282 students or more from 10 Grade 3 classes (from five schools) will be recruited and randomly assigned into an experimental group or a wait-list control group. Competence motivation theory provided a framework for the intervention that emphasizes fun activities to develop basic fundamentals, improving mastery of movement, and providing support for teaching and learning skills. Primary outcome measures are the raw scores of six objectively measured FMS (i.e., jump, hop, skip, dribble, catch, and overhand throw). Secondary outcomes include self-reported measures: enjoyment in physical education, perceived physical competence, perceived skill competence, and perceived social support. Teachers in the experimental group are required to attend a six-h training workshop and integrate 550 min of assessment for learning strategies into their physical education lessons. Resources such as videos, skills checklists, and equipment will also be provided to support children to accumulate extra learning and practice time after school. The rate of changes in primary and secondary outcomes across the experimental and control groups will be compared to determine the effectiveness of the program. The A + FMS is an innovative school-based intervention targeting improvements in movement mastery by supporting physical education teachers in FMS

  5. The Effect of Soft Skills and Training Methodology on Employee Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rosli; Boerhannoeddin, Ali; Bakare, Kazeem Kayode

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of soft skill acquisition and the training methodology adopted on employee work performance. In this study, the authors study the trends of research in training and work performance in organisations that focus on the acquisition of technical or "hard skills" for employee…

  6. Nonverbal imitation skills in children with specific language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-10-01

    Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two different motor learning mechanisms contribute to learning reaching movements in a rotated visual environment [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Way Tong Chu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Practice of movement in virtual-reality and other artificially altered environments has been proposed as a method for rehabilitation following neurological injury and for training new skills in healthy humans.  For such training to be useful, there must be transfer of learning from the artificial environment to the performance of desired skills in the natural environment.  Therefore an important assumption of such methods is that practice in the altered environment engages the same learning and plasticity mechanisms that are required for skill performance in the natural environment.  We test the hypothesis that transfer of learning may fail because the learning and plasticity mechanism that adapts to the altered environment is different from the learning mechanism required for improvement of motor skill.  In this paper, we propose that a model that separates skill learning and environmental adaptation is necessary to explain the learning and aftereffects that are observed in virtual reality experiments.  In particular, we studied the condition where practice in the altered environment should lead to correct skill performance in the original environment. Our 2-mechanism model predicts that aftereffects will still be observed when returning to the original environment, indicating a lack of skill transfer from the artificial environment to the original environment. To illustrate the model prediction, we tested 10 healthy participants on the interaction between a simple overlearned motor skill (straight hand movements to targets in different directions and an artificially altered visuomotor environment (rotation of visual feedback of the results of movement.  As predicted by the models, participants show adaptation to the altered environment and after-effects on return to the baseline environment even when practice in the altered environment should have led to correct skill performance.  The presence of aftereffect under all conditions that

  8. Gross Motor Skill Acquisition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Sarah; Maraj, Brian K. V.; Weeks, Daniel; Chua, Romeo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether verbal-motor performances deficits exhibited by individuals with Down syndrome limited their ability to acquire gross motor skills when given visual and verbal instruction together and then transferred to either a visual or verbal instructional mode to reproduce the movement. Nine individuals with…

  9. Match score affects activity profile and skill performance in professional Australian Football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cianciosi, Michael; Hocking, Joel; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-05-01

    To examine the influence of quarter outcome and the margin of the score differential on both the physical activity profile and skill performance of players during professional Australian Football matches. Prospective, longitudinal. Physical activity profiles were assessed via microtechnology (Global Positioning System and accelerometer) from 40 professional AF players from the same team during 15 Australian Football League games. Skill performance measures (involvement and effectiveness) and player rank scores (Champion Data(©) Rank) were provided by a commercial statistical provider. The physical performance variables, skill involvements and individual player performance scores were expressed relative to playing time for each quarter. The influence of the quarter result (i.e. win vs. loss) and score margin (i.e. small: 19 points) on activity profile and skill involvements and skill efficiency performance of players were examined. Skill involvements (total disposals/min, long kicks/min, marks/min, running bounces/min and player rank/min) were greater in quarters won (all p14.5 km h(-1), HSR/min), sprints/min and peak speed were higher in losing quarters (all pProfessional AF players are likely to have an increased physical activity profile and decreased skill involvement and proficiency when their team is less successful. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Labour Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spill-overs, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labour market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector or in both sectors. Discrimination may induce workers to train more or less than natives after having lost...... their skills, dependent upon which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to the be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers....

  11. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT TESTS AND PERFORMANCE TESTS IN YOUNG ELITE MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Serna, Jorge; Rhea, Matthew R; Marín, Pedro J

    2015-10-01

    Sprinting and jumping are two common and important components of high-level sport performance. The weight-bearing dorsiflexion test (WB-DF) and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) are tools developed to identify athletes at risk for lower extremity injury and may be related to running and jumping performance among athletes. The purposes of the present study were: 1) to identify any relationships between functional movement tests (WB-DF and SEBT) and performance tests (jumping, sprinting and changing direction); 2) to examine any relationships between asymmetries in functional movements and performance tests. Descriptive cohort study. Fifteen elite male basketball players (age: 15.4 ± 0.9 years) were assessed during a three-week period to determine the reliability of functional screening tools and performance tests and to examine the relationships between these tests. Relative (intraclass correlation coefficient) and absolute (coefficient of variation) reliability were used to assess the reproducibility of the tests. Significant correlations were detected between certain functional movement tests and performance tests. Both left and right excursion composite scores related to slower performance times in sprint testing, demonstrating that greater dynamic reach relates to decreased quickness and acceleration among these elite basketball athletes. The various relationships between dynamic functional movement testing, speed, and jump performance provide guidance for the strength and conditioning professional when conducting and evaluating data in an effort to improve performance and reduce risk of injury. The results of the present study suggest that these functional and performance tests do not measure the same components of human movement, and could be paired as outcome measures for the clinical and sport assessment of lower extremity function. 2b.

  12. A Comparative Study on Motor Skills in 5-Year-Old Children with Phonological and Phonetic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hasanati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Speech as a motor phenomenon requires repetitive and rapid function of articulatory organs performing extremely fine movements. Practice on motor skills results in facilitation in treatment progress of children with phonological disorders. The purpose of this study was to compare motor skills in 5-year-old children with phonological and phonetic disorders.Methods: Thirty-two children age 5 years, 16 with phonemical speech sound disorders and 16 with difficulty at a phonetic level participated in this study. TOLD Test was performed for linguistic skills investigation among children. Phonetic test, Wepman test, diadochokinesis and oral assessment was used for diagnosis between phonological and phonetic disorders. The children were also evaluated with Oseretsky motor developmental scale .Results: In comparison, mean scores of movement skills between both groups showed significant difference (p=0.006 and children with phonetic disorder got significantly higher scores on all part of this test.Conclusions: The findings of this study support the idea that speech sound disorders are frequently associated with motor problems, and that type of articulation disorder affects the motor performance in a different way. Phonological disorders seem to have more impact on motor performance than phonetic disorders. The results authenticate the need to pay more attention to the motor skills of children with articulation disorders.

  13. Getting to the Root of Fine Motor Skill Performance in Dentistry: Brain Activity During Dental Tasks in a Virtual Reality Haptic Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Suzanne; Bridges, Susan M; Zhu, Frank; Leung, W Keung; Burrow, Michael F; Poolton, Jamie; Masters, Rich Sw

    2017-12-12

    There is little evidence considering the relationship between movement-specific reinvestment (a dimension of personality which refers to the propensity for individuals to consciously monitor and control their movements) and working memory during motor skill performance. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measuring oxyhemoglobin demands in the frontal cortex during performance of virtual reality (VR) psychomotor tasks can be used to examine this research gap. The aim of this study was to determine the potential relationship between the propensity to reinvest and blood flow to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices of the brain. A secondary aim was to determine the propensity to reinvest and performance during 2 dental tasks carried out using haptic VR simulators. We used fNIRS to assess oxygen demands in 24 undergraduate dental students during 2 dental tasks (clinical, nonclinical) on a VR haptic simulator. We used the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale questionnaire to assess the students' propensity to reinvest. Students with a high propensity for movement-specific reinvestment displayed significantly greater oxyhemoglobin demands in an area associated with working memory during the nonclinical task (Spearman correlation, r s =.49, P=.03). This small-scale study suggests that neurophysiological differences are evident between high and low reinvesters during a dental VR task in terms of oxyhemoglobin demands in an area associated with working memory. ©Suzanne Perry, Susan M Bridges, Frank Zhu, W Keung Leung, Michael F Burrow, Jamie Poolton, Rich SW Masters. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 12.12.2017.

  14. Thirteen-year trends in child and adolescent fundamental movement skills: 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; Barnett, Lisa; Espinel, Paola; Okely, Anthony D

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to describe 13-yr trends in children's fundamental movement skill (FMS) competency. Secondary analysis of representative, cross-sectional, Australian school-based surveys was conducted in 1997, 2004, and 2010 (n = 13,752 children age 9-15 yr). Five FMS (sprint run, vertical jump, catch, kick, and overarm throw) were assessed using process-oriented criteria at each survey and children's skills classified as competent or not competent. Covariates included sex, age, cardiorespiratory endurance (20-m shuttle run test), body mass index (kg·m), and socioeconomic status (residential postcode). At each survey, the children's FMS competency was low, with prevalence rarely above 50%. Between 1997 and 2004, there were significant increases in all students' competency in the sprint run, vertical jump, and catch. For boys, competency increased in the kick (primary) and the overarm throw (high school), but among high school girls, overarm throw competency decreased. Between 2004 and 2010, competency increased in the catch (all students), and in all girls, competency increased in the kick, whereas competency in the vertical jump decreased. Overall, students' FMS competency was low especially in the kick and overarm throw in girls. The observed increase in FMS competency in 2004 was attributed to changes in practice and policy to support the teaching of FMS in schools. In 2010, competency remained low, with improvements in only the catch (all) and kick (girls) and declines in vertical jump. Potentially, the current delivery of FMS programs requires stronger positioning within the school curriculum. Strategies to improve children's physical activity should consider ensuring children are taught FMS to competency level, to enjoy being physically active.

  15. Self-confidence of medical students in performing clinical skills acquired during their surgical rotation. Assessing clinical skills education in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Jumanah A; Marwan, Yousef A; Dawas, Ahmed M; Akhtar, Saeed

    2012-12-01

    To assess the self-confidence of clinical years` medical students in performing clinical skills/procedures. A cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2011 at the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait. A questionnaire was used to collect data from students who had completed their surgical rotation of their first clinical year. The students reported their level of self-confidence in performing specific skills/procedures related to that rotation. Data were presented using frequencies and percentages. A total score of confidence was calculated for each student. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the association between the students` sociodemographic characteristics and confidence score. Of the 122 students invited to participate in the study, only 15 (12.3%) declined to comply. Most students reported high confidence level (more than 75%) in performing 7 of the 13 history taking/physical examination skills, and 2 of the 39 diagnostic/treatment procedure skills. The highest confidence level was in performing abdominal examination, while the lowest level was in care of Jackson-Pratt drain site and emptying the drain bulb. The total confidence score was significantly higher among males (p=0.021), and students with higher monthly income (p=0.002). Medical students appeared to have poor self-confidence in performing clinical skills/procedures. Curriculum planners should explore potential reasons, and methods for the improvement of confidence level among medical students in performing skills/procedures they were expected to learn during their surgical rotation.

  16. Effects of basic clinical skills training on objective structured clinical examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Jana; Schäfer, Sybille; Roth, Christiane; Schellberg, Dieter; Friedman Ben-David, Miriam; Nikendei, Christoph

    2005-10-01

    The aim of curriculum reform in medical education is to improve students' clinical and communication skills. However, there are contradicting results regarding the effectiveness of such reforms. A study of internal medicine students was carried out using a static group design. The experimental group consisted of 77 students participating in 7 sessions of communication training, 7 sessions of skills-laboratory training and 7 sessions of bedside-teaching, each lasting 1.5 hours. The control group of 66 students from the traditional curriculum participated in equally as many sessions but was offered only bedside teaching. Students' cognitive and practical skills performance was assessed using Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) testing and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), delivered by examiners blind to group membership. The experimental group performed significantly better on the OSCE than did the control group (P < 0.01), whereas the groups did not differ on the MCQ test (P < 0.15). This indicates that specific training in communication and basic clinical skills enabled students to perform better in an OSCE, whereas its effects on knowledge did not differ from those of the traditional curriculum. Curriculum reform promoting communication and basic clinical skills are effective and lead to an improved performance in history taking and physical examination skills.

  17. Does playing a sports active video game improve object control skills of children with autism spectrum disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Edwards

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The use of AVGs as a play-based intervention may not provide enough opportunity for children to perform the correct movement patterns to influence skill. However, play of such games may influence perceptions of skill ability in children with ASD, which could improve motivation to participate in physical activities.

  18. Spatial abilities and technical skills performance in health care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between spatial abilities and technical skills performance in health care in beginners and to compare this relationship with those in intermediate and autonomous learners. Search criteria included 'spatial abilities' and 'technical skills'. Keywords related to these criteria were defined. A literature search was conducted to 20 December, 2013 in Scopus (including MEDLINE) and in several databases on EBSCOhost platforms (CINAHL Plus with Full Text, ERIC, Education Source and PsycINFO). Citations were obtained and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Articles related to retained citations were reviewed and a final list of eligible articles was determined. Articles were assessed for quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network-50 assessment instrument. Data were extracted from articles in a systematic way. Correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were identified. A series of 8289 citations was obtained. Eighty articles were retained and fully reviewed, yielding 36 eligible articles. The systematic review found a tendency for spatial abilities to be negatively correlated with the duration of technical skills and positively correlated with the quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners. Pooled correlations of studies were -0.46 (p = 0.03) and -0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.53 to -0.21) for duration and 0.33 (95% CI 0.20-0.44) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.26-0.54) for quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners, respectively. However, correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were not statistically significant in autonomous learners. Spatial abilities are an important factor to consider in selecting and training individuals in technical skills in health care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Brief Report: Suitability of the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) for the Assessment of Social Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at examining whether the "Social Skills Performance Assessment" (SSPA; Patterson et al. in "Schizophr Res" 48(2-3):351-360, 2001) is a suitable performance-based measure to assess social skills in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). For this purpose, social skills of individuals with ASD and…

  20. Internet skills performance tests: are people ready for eHealth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deursen, Alexander J A M; van Dijk, Jan A G M

    2011-04-29

    Despite the amount of online health information, there are several barriers that limit the Internet's adoption as a source of health information. One of these barriers is highlighted in conceptualizations of the digital divide which include the differential possession of Internet skills, or "eHealth literacy". Most measures of Internet skills among populations at large use self-assessments. The research discussed here applies a multifaceted definition of Internet skills and uses actual performance tests. The purpose of this study was to assess how ready a sample of the general population is for eHealth. More specifically, four types of Internet skills were measured in a performance test in which subjects had to complete health-related assignments on the Internet. From November 1, 2009, through February 28, 2010, 88 subjects participated in the study. Subjects were randomly selected from a telephone directory. A selective quota sample was used divided over equal subsamples of gender, age, and education. Each subject had to accomplish assignments on the Internet. The Internet skills accounted for were categorized as operational (basic skills to use the Internet), formal (navigation and orientation), information (finding information), and strategic (using the information for personal benefits). The tests took approximately 1.5 hours and were conducted in a University office, making the setting equally new for all. Successful completion and time spent on the assignments-the two main outcomes-were directly measured by the test leader. The subjects successfully completed an average of 73% (5.8/8) of the operational Internet skill tasks and an average of 73% (2.9/4) of the formal Internet skill tasks. Of the information Internet skills tasks, an average of 50% (1.5/3) was completed successfully and, of the strategic Internet skills tasks, 35% (0.7/2). Only 28% (25/88) of the subjects were able to successfully complete all operational skills tasks, 39% (34/88), all formal

  1. Internet Skills Performance Tests: Are People Ready for eHealth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jan A G M

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the amount of online health information, there are several barriers that limit the Internet’s adoption as a source of health information. One of these barriers is highlighted in conceptualizations of the digital divide which include the differential possession of Internet skills, or “eHealth literacy”. Most measures of Internet skills among populations at large use self-assessments. The research discussed here applies a multifaceted definition of Internet skills and uses actual performance tests. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess how ready a sample of the general population is for eHealth. More specifically, four types of Internet skills were measured in a performance test in which subjects had to complete health-related assignments on the Internet. Methods From November 1, 2009, through February 28, 2010, 88 subjects participated in the study. Subjects were randomly selected from a telephone directory. A selective quota sample was used divided over equal subsamples of gender, age, and education. Each subject had to accomplish assignments on the Internet. The Internet skills accounted for were categorized as operational (basic skills to use the Internet), formal (navigation and orientation), information (finding information), and strategic (using the information for personal benefits). The tests took approximately 1.5 hours and were conducted in a University office, making the setting equally new for all. Successful completion and time spent on the assignments—the two main outcomes—were directly measured by the test leader. Results The subjects successfully completed an average of 73% (5.8/8) of the operational Internet skill tasks and an average of 73% (2.9/4) of the formal Internet skill tasks. Of the information Internet skills tasks, an average of 50% (1.5/3) was completed successfully and, of the strategic Internet skills tasks, 35% (0.7/2). Only 28% (25/88) of the subjects were able to successfully complete all

  2. The Path to Presence in Performance through Movement, Physiological Response, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preeshl, Artemis; George, Gwen; Hicks, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Presence may occur when actors are alert and relaxed in performance. A positive mood is associated with physical activity, but little is known about how movement qualities affect mood and vital signs of actors. This study examined the effects of vibratory, pendular, abrupt, and sustained movement qualities on the Brief Mood Introspection Scale,…

  3. Labor Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labor market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spillovers, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labor market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector or in both. Discrimination may induce workers to train more or less than natives after having lost...... their skills, dependent upon in which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers. (JEL J15, J31, J61, J64, J71)...

  4. The development of aerobic and skill assessment in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, John; Wong, Stephen H S

    2012-12-01

    Methods of assessing soccer players' performance have developed significantly in recent times. The fitness profiles and skill levels of a prospective elite soccer player is a valuable resource for coaches in the process of identifying talent. Traditional means to measure aerobic fitness have centred on the 'aerobic capacity' or '&OV0312;O(2max)' test (also known as the maximal oxygen consumption test) but, over time, this has been shown not to be a sensitive measure for specific aspects of soccer in a match situation. Therefore, numerous soccer-specific simulations have been designed to re-create exercise patterns similar to those experienced during a match. Some of these studies have yet to be validated, while others have been shown to result in a similar physiological load to that encountered during regular match play. Further developments have led to specifically designed intermittent sprint tests, which are used as a sensitive tool to accurately measure the fluctuations in players' ability both between and within soccer seasons. Testing procedures have also been developed that incorporate elements of both skill and physical ability. Soccer-specific field tests have been designed, incorporating skill and dynamic movements, and this opens up the possibility of teams testing the aerobic capacity of their elite players using soccer-specific movements. Valid studies assessing soccer-specific skills in an ecologically sound environment have been quite rare until recently. Some test protocols have been deemed largely irrelevant to soccer match play, while others have had limited impact on scientific literature. More recently, skill tests have been developed and shown to be valid and reliable methods of assessing soccer skill performance. Many new skill tests continue to be developed, and some have been shown to be highly reliable, but further study of these relatively novel concepts is required before a more solid recommendation can be made. Overall, while significant

  5. Movement Maps: Where Should I Move and How Should I Get There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mally, Kristi

    2005-01-01

    The Skill Theme approach underlies the purpose and design of the movement maps described in this article. This approach promotes fundamental movement skill competence. Learning experiences are designed to accommodate the developmental needs of individual students. Further, an emphasis is placed on providing high repetition and variety through…

  6. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  7. Interventions to Promote Fundamental Movement Skills in Childcare and Kindergarten: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Kristin; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Monn, Nico D; Radtke, Thomas; Ott, Laura V; Rebholz, Cornelia E; Cruz, Sergio; Gerber, Natalie; Schmutz, Einat A; Puder, Jardena J; Munsch, Simone; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Jenni, Oskar G; Granacher, Urs; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-10-01

    Proficiency in fundamental movement skills (FMS) lays the foundation for being physically active and developing more complex motor skills. Improving these motor skills may provide enhanced opportunities for the development of a variety of perceptual, social, and cognitive skills. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effects of FMS interventions on actual FMS, targeting typically developing young children. Searches in seven databases (CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) up to August 2015 were completed. Trials with children (aged 2-6 years) in childcare or kindergarten settings that applied FMS-enhancing intervention programs of at least 4 weeks and meeting the inclusion criteria were included. Standardized data extraction forms were used. Risk of bias was assessed using a standard scoring scheme (Effective Public Health Practice Project-Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies [EPHPP]). We calculated effects on overall FMS, object control and locomotor subscales (OCS and LMS) by weighted standardized mean differences (SMD between ) using random-effects models. Certainty in training effects was evaluated using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation System). Thirty trials (15 randomized controlled trials and 15 controlled trials) involving 6126 preschoolers (aged 3.3-5.5 years) revealed significant differences among groups in favor of the intervention group (INT) with small-to-large effects on overall FMS (SMD between 0.46), OCS (SMD between 1.36), and LMS (SMD between 0.94). Our certainty in the treatment estimates based on GRADE is very low. Although there is relevant effectiveness of programs to improve FMS proficiency in healthy young children, they need to be interpreted with care as they are based on low-quality evidence and immediate post-intervention effects without long-term follow-up.

  8. Bodily Movement and Facial Actions in Expressive Musical Performance by Solo and Duo Instrumentalists: Two Distinctive Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jane W.

    2012-01-01

    The research literature concerning gesture in musical performance increasingly reports that musically communicative and meaningful performances contain highly expressive bodily movements. These movements are involved in the generation of the musically expressive performance, but enquiry into the development of expressive bodily movement has been…

  9. Teacher Compliance and Accuracy in State Assessment of Student Motor Skill Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tina J.; Hicklin, Lori K.; French, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher compliance with state mandated assessment protocols and teacher accuracy in assessing student motor skill performance. Method: Middle school teachers (N = 116) submitted eighth grade student motor skill performance data from 318 physical education classes to a trained monitoring…

  10. Factors that influence the non-technical skills performance of scrub nurses: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Evelyn; Massey, Debbie; Gillespie, Brigid M

    2015-12-01

    To identify and describe the factors that impact on the performance of scrub nurses' non-technical skills performance during the intra-operative phase of surgery. Non-technical skills have been identified as important precursors to errors in the operating room. However, few studies have investigated factors influencing non-technical skills of scrub nurses. Prospective observational study. Structured observations were performed on a sample of 182 surgical procedures across eight specialities by two trained observers from August 2012-April 2013 at two hospital sites. Participants were purposively selected scrub nurses. Bivariate correlations and a multiple linear regression model were used to identify associations among length of surgery, patients' acuity using the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification system, team familiarity, number of occasions scout nurses leave the operating room, change of scout nurse and the outcome, the non-technical skills performance of scrub nurses. Patient acuity and team familiarity were the strongest predictors of scrub nurses' non-technical skills performance at hospital site A. There were no correlations between the predictors and the performance of scrub nurses at hospital site B. A dedicated surgical team and patient acuity potentially influence the performance of scrub nurses' non-technical skills. Familiarity with team members foster advanced planning, thus minimizing distractions and interruptions that impact on scrub nurses' performance. Development of interventions aimed at improving non-technical skills has the potential to make a substantial difference and enhance patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pedagogical Approaches to and Effects of Fundamental Movement Skill Interventions on Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Claire; Sanders, Ross; Taylor, Caitlin; Cobley, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are assumed to be the basic prerequisite motor movements underpinning coordination of more integrated and advanced movement capabilities. FMS development and interventions have been associated with several beneficial health outcomes in individual studies. The primary aim of this review was to identify FMS intervention characteristics that could be optimised to attain beneficial outcomes in children and adolescents, while the secondary aim was to update the evidence as to the efficacy of FMS interventions on physiological, psychological and behavioural health outcomes. A systematic search [adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines] was conducted in seven databases. Studies were included if they conducted an FMS intervention and targeted at least one physiological, behavioural or psychological outcome in school-aged children (5-18 years). Twenty-nine studies examining the effect of FMS interventions relative to controls were identified. Specialist-led interventions, taught in conjunction with at-home practice and parent involvement, appeared more efficacious in enhancing FMS proficiency than school physical education alone. Intervention environments encouraging psychological autonomy were likely to enhance perceived and actual competence in FMS alongside physical activity. FMS interventions had little influence on overweight/obesity reduction, strength or flexibility. In 93% of studies, evidence indicated interventions improved FMS motor proficiency. Favourable specific physiological, psychological and behavioural outcomes were also identified across a variety of interventions. With reference to clinical and normative school-age populations, future studies should be directed toward determining validated standard FMS assessments to enable accurate effect estimates, permit intervention comparisons and improve the efficacy of FMS development.

  12. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper LS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke S Hopper,1 Nahoko Sato,2 Andries L Weidemann1 1Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley, WA, Australia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Nagoya Gakuin University, Seto, Japan Abstract: The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. Keywords: injury, motion capture, clinical assessment

  13. Looking behind the score: Skill structure explains sex differences in skilled video game performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Kyle W; Boot, Walter R; Ericsson, K Anders

    2018-01-01

    Some have explained large sex differences in visuospatial abilities by genetic adaptations to different roles in primitive hunter-gatherer societies and the interaction of innate biological differences and environmental factors. We explored the extent to which variations in behavior and acquired skills can provide alternative accounts for sex differences in the performance of a complex spatially-demanding video game (Space Fortress). Men and women with limited video game experience were given 30 hours of training, and latent curve analyses examined the development of their ship control performance and behavior. Men had significantly better control performance than women before and after training, but differences diminished substantially over the training period. An analysis of participants' joystick behaviors revealed that initially men and women relied on different patterns of control behaviors, but changes in these behaviors over time accounted for the reduced sex differences in performance. When we controlled for these differences in behavior, sex effects after training were no longer significant. Finally, examining the development of control performance and control behaviors of men and women categorized as initially high and low performers revealed the lower-performing women may have been controlling their ship using an approach that was very different from the men and higher-performing women. The potential problems of analyzing men and women's spatial performance as homogenous groups are discussed, as well as how these issues may account for sex differences in skilled video game performance and perhaps other domains involving spatial abilities.

  14. Clinical skills-related learning goals of senior medical students after performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Hauer, Karen E

    2011-09-01

    Lifelong learning is essential for doctors to maintain competence in clinical skills. With performance feedback, learners should be able to formulate specific and achievable learning goals in areas of need. We aimed to determine: (i) the type and specificity of medical student learning goals after a required clinical performance examination; (ii) differences in goal setting among low, average and high performers, and (iii) whether low performers articulate learning goals that are concordant with their learning needs. We conducted a single-site, multi-year, descriptive comparison study. Senior medical students were given performance benchmarks, individual feedback and guidelines on learning goals; each student was subsequently instructed to write two clinical skills learning goals. Investigators coded the learning goals for specificity, categorised the goals, and performed statistical analyses to determine their concordance with student performance level (low, average or high) in data gathering (history taking and physical examination) or communication skills. All 208 students each wrote two learning goals and most (n=200, 96%) wrote two specific learning goals. Nearly two-thirds of low performers in data gathering wrote at least one learning goal that referred to history taking or physical examination; one-third wrote learning goals pertaining to the organisation of the encounter. High performers in data gathering wrote significantly more patient education goals and significantly fewer history-taking goals than average or low performers. Only 50% of low performers in communication wrote learning goals related to communication skills. Low performers in communication were significantly more likely than average or high performers to identify learning goals related to improving performance in future examinations. The provision of performance benchmarking, individual feedback and brief written guidelines helped most senior medical students in our study to write specific

  15. Approaching time is important for assessment of endoscopic surgical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Masakazu; Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Yoshimitsu, Masanori; Sumitani, Daisuke; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Okajima, Masazumi; Ohdan, Hideki

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to verify whether the approaching time (the time taken to reach the target point from another point, a short distance apart, during point-to-point movement in endoscopic surgery), assessed using the Hiroshima University Endoscopic Surgical Assessment Device (HUESAD), could distinguish the skill level of surgeons. Expert surgeons (who had performed more than 50 endoscopic surgeries) and novice surgeons (who had no experience in performing endoscopic surgery) were tested using the HUESAD. The approaching time, total time, and intermediate time (total time--approaching time) were measured and analyzed using the trajectory of the tip of the instrument. The approaching time and total time were significantly shorter in the expert group than in the novice group (p time did not significantly differ between the groups (p > 0.05). The approaching time, which is a component of the total time, is very mportant in the measurement of the total time to assess endoscopic surgical skills. Further, the approaching time was useful for skill assessment by the HUESAD for evaluating the skill of surgeons performing endoscopic surgery.

  16. The Reliability of Classification Decisions for the Furtado-Gallagher Computerized Observational Movement Pattern Assessment System--FG-COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Ovande, Jr.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2012-01-01

    Mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) is an important factor in preventing weight gain and increasing physical activity. To master FMS, performance evaluation is necessary. In this study, we investigated the reliability of a new observational assessment tool. In Phase I, 110 video clips of children performing five locomotor, and six…

  17. Dance/Movement Therapy with Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Veronica

    This outline profiles two programs that use dance/movement therapy to help students with low self-esteem, poor body image, poor self-control, lack of trust in others, difficulty identifying and expressing feelings, and poor interpersonal relating skills. Students referred for dance/movement therapy services are assessed for appropriateness, and…

  18. Critical thinking skills in nursing students: comparison of simulation-based performance with metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fero, Laura J.; O’Donnell, John M.; Zullo, Thomas G.; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Kitutu, Julius; Samosky, Joseph T.; Hoffman, Leslie A.

    2018-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of an examination of the relationship between metrics of critical thinking skills and performance in simulated clinical scenarios. Background Paper and pencil assessments are commonly used to assess critical thinking but may not reflect simulated performance. Methods In 2007, a convenience sample of 36 nursing students participated in measurement of critical thinking skills and simulation-based performance using videotaped vignettes, high-fidelity human simulation, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills Test. Simulation- based performance was rated as ‘meeting’ or ‘not meeting’ overall expectations. Test scores were categorized as strong, average, or weak. Results Most (75·0%) students did not meet overall performance expectations using videotaped vignettes or high-fidelity human simulation; most difficulty related to problem recognition and reporting findings to the physician. There was no difference between overall performance based on method of assessment (P = 0·277). More students met subcategory expectations for initiating nursing interventions (P ≤ 0·001) using high-fidelity human simulation. The relationship between video-taped vignette performance and critical thinking disposition or skills scores was not statistically significant, except for problem recognition and overall critical thinking skills scores (Cramer’s V = 0·444, P = 0·029). There was a statistically significant relationship between overall high-fidelity human simulation performance and overall critical thinking disposition scores (Cramer’s V = 0·413, P = 0·047). Conclusion Students’ performance reflected difficulty meeting expectations in simulated clinical scenarios. High-fidelity human simulation performance appeared to approximate scores on metrics of critical thinking best. Further research is needed to determine if simulation-based performance correlates with critical thinking skills

  19. Critical thinking skills in nursing students: comparison of simulation-based performance with metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fero, Laura J; O'Donnell, John M; Zullo, Thomas G; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Kitutu, Julius; Samosky, Joseph T; Hoffman, Leslie A

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a report of an examination of the relationship between metrics of critical thinking skills and performance in simulated clinical scenarios. Paper and pencil assessments are commonly used to assess critical thinking but may not reflect simulated performance. In 2007, a convenience sample of 36 nursing students participated in measurement of critical thinking skills and simulation-based performance using videotaped vignettes, high-fidelity human simulation, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills Test. Simulation-based performance was rated as 'meeting' or 'not meeting' overall expectations. Test scores were categorized as strong, average, or weak. Most (75.0%) students did not meet overall performance expectations using videotaped vignettes or high-fidelity human simulation; most difficulty related to problem recognition and reporting findings to the physician. There was no difference between overall performance based on method of assessment (P = 0.277). More students met subcategory expectations for initiating nursing interventions (P ≤ 0.001) using high-fidelity human simulation. The relationship between videotaped vignette performance and critical thinking disposition or skills scores was not statistically significant, except for problem recognition and overall critical thinking skills scores (Cramer's V = 0.444, P = 0.029). There was a statistically significant relationship between overall high-fidelity human simulation performance and overall critical thinking disposition scores (Cramer's V = 0.413, P = 0.047). Students' performance reflected difficulty meeting expectations in simulated clinical scenarios. High-fidelity human simulation performance appeared to approximate scores on metrics of critical thinking best. Further research is needed to determine if simulation-based performance correlates with critical thinking skills in the clinical setting. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced

  20. The effects of 10 weeks Integrated Neuromuscular Training on fundamental movement skills and physical self-efficacy in 6-7 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma L J; Oxford, Samuel W

    2017-03-23

    Integrated neuromuscular training (INT) has been suggested as an effective means to enhance athletic potential in children. However, few studies have reported the effects of school based INT programs. This study examined the effect of INT on process and product fundamental movement skill measures and physical self-efficacy in 6-7 year old children. Ninety-four children from 2 primary schools were randomised into either a 10 week INT program or a control group CON (n =41) group. Results indicated significantly greater increases in process FMS scores in INT vs CON (P = 0.001). For product measures of FMS, 10m sprint time, counter movement jump, seated medicine ball throw and standing long jump (all P = 0.001), all significantly increased to a greater extent in the INT group vs CON. A significant group (INT vs CON) X time (pre vs post) X gender interaction for physical self-efficacy revealed increased physical self-efficacy pre to post INT, compared to CON but only for boys (P = 0.001). For girls, physical self-efficacy was not significantly different pre to post the 10 week period for INT and CON groups. The results of this study suggest that replacing 1 of the 2 weekly statutory PE lessons with an integrated neuromuscular training programme over a 10 week period results in positive improvements in fundamental movement skill quality and outcomes in 6-7 year old children. INT also appears to increase physical self-esteem to a greater extent than statutory PE but only in boys.

  1. Perceptual-cognitive skill and the in situ performance of soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maarseveen, Mariëtte J J; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Mann, David L; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2018-02-01

    Many studies have shown that experts possess better perceptual-cognitive skills than novices (e.g., in anticipation, decision making, pattern recall), but it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between performance on those tests of perceptual-cognitive skill and actual on-field performance. In this study, we assessed the in situ performance of skilled soccer players and related the outcomes to measures of anticipation, decision making, and pattern recall. In addition, we examined gaze behaviour when performing the perceptual-cognitive tests to better understand whether the underlying processes were related when those perceptual-cognitive tasks were performed. The results revealed that on-field performance could not be predicted on the basis of performance on the perceptual-cognitive tests. Moreover, there were no strong correlations between the level of performance on the different tests. The analysis of gaze behaviour revealed differences in search rate, fixation duration, fixation order, gaze entropy, and percentage viewing time when performing the test of pattern recall, suggesting that it is driven by different processes to those used for anticipation and decision making. Altogether, the results suggest that the perceptual-cognitive tests may not be as strong determinants of actual performance as may have previously been assumed.

  2. Development and validation of trauma surgical skills metrics: Preliminary assessment of performance after training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Stacy; Garofalo, Evan; Shalin, Valerie; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin F

    2015-07-01

    Maintaining trauma-specific surgical skills is an ongoing challenge for surgical training programs. An objective assessment of surgical skills is needed. We hypothesized that a validated surgical performance assessment tool could detect differences following a training intervention. We developed surgical performance assessment metrics based on discussion with expert trauma surgeons, video review of 10 experts and 10 novice surgeons performing three vascular exposure procedures and lower extremity fasciotomy on cadavers, and validated the metrics with interrater reliability testing by five reviewers blinded to level of expertise and a consensus conference. We tested these performance metrics in 12 surgical residents (Year 3-7) before and 2 weeks after vascular exposure skills training in the Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) course. Performance was assessed in three areas as follows: knowledge (anatomic, management), procedure steps, and technical skills. Time to completion of procedures was recorded, and these metrics were combined into a single performance score, the Trauma Readiness Index (TRI). Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test compared pretraining/posttraining effects. Mean time to complete procedures decreased by 4.3 minutes (from 13.4 minutes to 9.1 minutes). The performance component most improved by the 1-day skills training was procedure steps, completion of which increased by 21%. Technical skill scores improved by 12%. Overall knowledge improved by 3%, with 18% improvement in anatomic knowledge. TRI increased significantly from 50% to 64% with ASSET training. Interrater reliability of the surgical performance assessment metrics was validated with single intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.7 to 0.98. A trauma-relevant surgical performance assessment detected improvements in specific procedure steps and anatomic knowledge taught during a 1-day course, quantified by the TRI. ASSET training reduced time to complete vascular

  3. THE EFFECT OF A LEISURE TIME SPORT ACTIVITY IN DEVELOPING MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica PRODAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to see how the family members’ involvement in the practice of leisure movement games (tennis raises the children’s movement wish and psychomotor skills: coordination, balance, rhythm, precision of movement. In conducting this research were used the survey method, the observation method, the measurement-evaluation method and the statistical-mathematical method. Data was collected during 10 months from 76 children, aged from 10 to 13 years (±3 months and enrolled in a leisure movement game program. Descriptive statistics indicate a significant effect of the variables: medicine ball throwing, speed running, endurance running and throwing target with the tennis ball. One can see a positive effect due to the Evaluation – Intervention interaction: medicine ball throwing η²=0.12, speed running η² = 0.13, endurance running η²=0.16, throwing target with the tennis ball η²=0.21. Educational leisure time sport movement games raise the level of driving skill development and psychomotor qualities, based on a greater involvement in the correct performance of sport activities.

  4. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills. Advances in Health Science Education, 15(4), 517-532.

  5. Unraveling mysteries of personal performance style; biomechanics of left-hand position changes (shifting) in violin performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Peter; Li, Shiming; Tardif, Guillaume; Shan, Gongbing

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music performance ranks among the most complex of learned human behaviors, requiring development of highly nuanced powers of sensory and neural discrimination, intricate motor skills, and adaptive abilities in a temporal activity. Teaching, learning and performing on the violin generally occur within musico-cultural parameters most often transmitted through aural traditions that include both verbal instruction and performance modeling. In most parts of the world, violin is taught in a manner virtually indistinguishable from that used 200 years ago. The current study uses methods from movement science to examine the "how" and "what" of left-hand position changes (shifting), a movement skill essential during violin performance. In doing so, it begins a discussion of artistic individualization in terms of anthropometry, the performer-instrument interface, and the strategic use of motor behaviors. Results based on 540 shifting samples, a case series of 6 professional-level violinists, showed that some elements of the skill were individualized in surprising ways while others were explainable by anthropometry, ergonomics and entrainment. Remarkably, results demonstrated each violinist to have developed an individualized pacing for shifts, a feature that should influence timing effects and prove foundational to aesthetic outcomes during performance. Such results underpin the potential for scientific methodologies to unravel mysteries of performance that are associated with a performer's personal artistic style.

  6. The Quantitative and Qualitative Status of Fundamental Movement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 (BOT-2), was used to assess six fundamental movement skills quantitatively, and the Fundamental Movement Pattern Assessment Instrument (FMPAI), was applied to analyse the same ...

  7. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl T. Woods, Harry G. Banyard, Ian McKeown, Job Fransen, Sam Robertson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification (TID is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF. This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18 AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives. Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA, consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs, single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs, and a push up (six movement criterions. Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02. Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE = -0.89(0.44; p < 0.05, with a score of 4.5 classifying 64% and 88% of the talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent

  8. Effectiveness of a 16 week gymnastics curriculum at developing movement competence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, James R; Barnett, Lisa M; Farrow, Damian; Berry, Jason; Borkoles, Erika; Polman, Remco

    2017-02-01

    Internationally, children's movement competence levels are low. This study's aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 16 week gymnastics curriculum on stability, locomotive and object control skills and general body coordination. It was hypothesised that the gymnastics intervention group would demonstrate significant improvements beyond a PE comparison group. This study used a non-randomised control design. The intervention and comparison groups were drawn from three primary schools. The study followed the transparent reporting of evaluations with nonrandomized designs (TREND) statement for reporting. A total of 333 children (51% girls, 41% intervention) with a mean age of 8.1 years (SD=1.1) participated. Intervention children (16 weeks×2h of gymnastics) were compared to children who received (16×2h) standard PE curriculum. Children's movement competence was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, Stability Skills Assessment and the Körper-Koordinationstest für Kinder. Multilevel linear mixed models, accounting for variation at the class level and adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess intervention relative to comparison differences in all aspects of movement competence. Stability and object control skills showed a significant (pskills or general coordination. Gymnastics is effective at developing stability skills and object control skills without hindering the development of locomotor skills or general coordination. Accelerated learning of stability skills may support the development of more complex movement skills. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural control of finger movement via intracortical brain-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Z. T.; Schroeder, K. E.; Vu, P. P.; Bullard, A. J.; Tat, D. M.; Nu, C. S.; Vaskov, A.; Nason, S. R.; Thompson, D. E.; Bentley, J. N.; Patil, P. G.; Chestek, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a promising source of prosthesis control signals for individuals with severe motor disabilities. Previous BMI studies have primarily focused on predicting and controlling whole-arm movements; precise control of hand kinematics, however, has not been fully demonstrated. Here, we investigate the continuous decoding of precise finger movements in rhesus macaques. Approach. In order to elicit precise and repeatable finger movements, we have developed a novel behavioral task paradigm which requires the subject to acquire virtual fingertip position targets. In the physical control condition, four rhesus macaques performed this task by moving all four fingers together in order to acquire a single target. This movement was equivalent to controlling the aperture of a power grasp. During this task performance, we recorded neural spikes from intracortical electrode arrays in primary motor cortex. Main results. Using a standard Kalman filter, we could reconstruct continuous finger movement offline with an average correlation of ρ  =  0.78 between actual and predicted position across four rhesus macaques. For two of the monkeys, this movement prediction was performed in real-time to enable direct brain control of the virtual hand. Compared to physical control, neural control performance was slightly degraded; however, the monkeys were still able to successfully perform the task with an average target acquisition rate of 83.1%. The monkeys’ ability to arbitrarily specify fingertip position was also quantified using an information throughput metric. During brain control task performance, the monkeys achieved an average 1.01 bits s-1 throughput, similar to that achieved in previous studies which decoded upper-arm movements to control computer cursors using a standard Kalman filter. Significance. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of brain control of finger-level fine motor skills. We believe

  10. Unraveling mysteries of personal performance style; biomechanics of left-hand position changes (shifting in violin performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Visentin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental music performance ranks among the most complex of learned human behaviors, requiring development of highly nuanced powers of sensory and neural discrimination, intricate motor skills, and adaptive abilities in a temporal activity. Teaching, learning and performing on the violin generally occur within musico-cultural parameters most often transmitted through aural traditions that include both verbal instruction and performance modeling. In most parts of the world, violin is taught in a manner virtually indistinguishable from that used 200 years ago. The current study uses methods from movement science to examine the “how” and “what” of left-hand position changes (shifting, a movement skill essential during violin performance. In doing so, it begins a discussion of artistic individualization in terms of anthropometry, the performer-instrument interface, and the strategic use of motor behaviors. Results based on 540 shifting samples, a case series of 6 professional-level violinists, showed that some elements of the skill were individualized in surprising ways while others were explainable by anthropometry, ergonomics and entrainment. Remarkably, results demonstrated each violinist to have developed an individualized pacing for shifts, a feature that should influence timing effects and prove foundational to aesthetic outcomes during performance. Such results underpin the potential for scientific methodologies to unravel mysteries of performance that are associated with a performer’s personal artistic style.

  11. Information and strategic Internet skills of secondary students: A performance test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Diepen, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the information and strategic Internet skills of Dutch secondary students were measured in a performance test. Participating students were asked to complete assignments on the Internet. The findings reveal that the levels of both information and strategic Internet skills have much

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SALES SKILLS AND SALESPERSON PERFORMANCE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN THE MALAYSIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Sah Basir; Syed Zamberi Ahmad; Philip J. Kitchen

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to understand the influence of sales skills dimensions namely: interpersonal skills, salesmanship skills, technical skills and marketing skills on salesperson performance in Telekom Malaysia (TM) Berhad, a major Malaysian telecommunication corporation. Data was gathered based on quota sample of 114 salespersons in the company, and the findings show that effects of interpersonal skills positively influenced salesperson performance. However, unexpectedly, the fi...

  13. HCN channels segregate stimulation‐evoked movement responses in neocortex and allow for coordinated forelimb movements in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Jordan S.; Palmer, Laura A.; Singleton, Anna C.; Pittman, Quentin J.; Teskey, G. Campbell

    2016-01-01

    Key points The present study tested whether HCN channels contribute to the organization of motor cortex and to skilled motor behaviour during a forelimb reaching task.Experimental reductions in HCN channel signalling increase the representation of complex multiple forelimb movements in motor cortex as assessed by intracortical microstimulation.Global HCN1KO mice exhibit reduced reaching accuracy and atypical movements during a single‐pellet reaching task relative to wild‐type controls.Acute pharmacological inhibition of HCN channels in forelimb motor cortex decreases reaching accuracy and increases atypical movements during forelimb reaching. Abstract The mechanisms by which distinct movements of a forelimb are generated from the same area of motor cortex have remained elusive. Here we examined a role for HCN channels, given their ability to alter synaptic integration, in the expression of forelimb movement responses during intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and movements of the forelimb on a skilled reaching task. We used short‐duration high‐resolution ICMS to evoke forelimb movements following pharmacological (ZD7288), experimental (electrically induced cortical seizures) or genetic approaches that we confirmed with whole‐cell patch clamp to substantially reduce I h current. We observed significant increases in the number of multiple movement responses evoked at single sites in motor maps to all three experimental manipulations in rats or mice. Global HCN1 knockout mice were less successful and exhibited atypical movements on a skilled‐motor learning task relative to wild‐type controls. Furthermore, in reaching‐proficient rats, reaching accuracy was reduced and forelimb movements were altered during infusion of ZD7288 within motor cortex. Thus, HCN channels play a critical role in the separation of overlapping movement responses and allow for successful reaching behaviours. These data provide a novel mechanism for the encoding of multiple

  14. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T.; Banyard, Harry G.; McKeown, Ian; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Talent identification (TID) is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF). This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18) AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives) and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives). Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA), consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs), single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs), and a push up (six movement criterions). Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02). Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE) = -0.89(0.44); p talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent identification approaches in junior AF, as it may provide coaches

  16. Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrer, D; Morgan, G

    2010-10-01

    The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Improvement of Dance Composition Skills During the Study Process in the Perspective of the Newest Motor Learning Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spalva Rita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic world, where technologies have changed the understanding of time and space, the discussion about the body as a communicative performer in the new information field becomes a topic of interest. Different body techniques have become prevalent (sports, fitness, dance, which contribute to the scientific interest in the movement determination, inheritance, ergonomics and other aspects of movement quality. This article analyses recent motor learning models (Fitts, Posner, Gentile, etc and substantiates the usefulness to introduce the three-stage learning model in any field related to motor skills. The article analyses the effectiveness of the proposed model in practice as part of the study course Dance Composition at the Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy. The research results show that the ability to transfer acquired movement skills into new situations and to use them for performing independent creative tasks is a testimony to a high level of application, what is the goal of the introduction of the proposed model.

  18. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…

  19. Movement sonification: Effects on motor learning beyond rhythmic adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Oliver Effenberg

    2016-05-01

    learn a closed motor skill (technique acquisition of indoor rowing. One group was treated with visual information and two groups with audiovisual information (sonification vs. natural sounds. For all three groups learning became evident and remained stable. Participants treated with additional movement sonification showed better performance compared to both other groups. Results indicate that movement sonification enhances motor learning of a complex gross motor skill – even exceeding usually expected acoustic rhythmical effects on motor learning.

  20. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    motor skill (technique acquisition of indoor rowing). One group was treated with visual information and two groups with audiovisual information (sonification vs. natural sounds). For all three groups learning became evident and remained stable. Participants treated with additional movement sonification showed better performance compared to both other groups. Results indicate that movement sonification enhances motor learning of a complex gross motor skill-even exceeding usually expected acoustic rhythmic effects on motor learning.

  1. Multi-segmental movement patterns reflect juggling complexity and skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Pacifici, Ilaria; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Federolf, Peter Andreas; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-08-01

    The juggling action of six experts and six intermediates jugglers was recorded with a motion capture system and decomposed into its fundamental components through Principal Component Analysis. The aim was to quantify trends in movement dimensionality, multi-segmental patterns and rhythmicity as a function of proficiency level and task complexity. Dimensionality was quantified in terms of Residual Variance, while the Relative Amplitude was introduced to account for individual differences in movement components. We observed that: experience-related modifications in multi-segmental actions exist, such as the progressive reduction of error-correction movements, especially in complex task condition. The systematic identification of motor patterns sensitive to the acquisition of specific experience could accelerate the learning process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Model of practical skill performance as an instrument for supervision and formative assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten; Sommer, Irene; Larsen, Karin

    2012-01-01

    as during practice, performance and formative assessment of practical skills learning. It provided a common language about practical skills and enhanced the participants’ understanding of professionalism in practical nursing skill. In conclusion, the model helped to highlight the complexity in mastering......There are still weaknesses in the practical skills of newly graduated nurses. There is also an escalating pressure on existing clinical placements due to increasing student numbers and structural changes in health services. Innovative educational practices and the use of tools that might support...... learning are sparsely researched in the field of clinical education for nursing students. This paper reports on an action research study that promoted and investigated use of The Model of Practical Skill Performance as a learning tool during nursing students’ clinical placement. Clinical supervisors...

  3. The Effect of Movement on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Mualem

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between walking, cognitive, and academic skills. Students from elementary, middle, high school, and college were required to walk for 10 min prior to completing feature detection, Simon-type memory, and mathematical problem-solving tasks. Participants were counterbalanced to remove a time bias. Ten minutes of walking had a significant positive effect on Simon-type memory and critical feature-detection tasks among all age groups. Separately, with mathematical problem-solving ability, higher performing high-school students demonstrated significant positive effects on mathematical reasoning tasks based on the Bloom Taxonomy. However, poorly achieving high-school students performed significantly better than those with higher grades in mathematics on tests of mathematical problem-solving ability based on the Bloom’s Taxonomy. The study indicates that there is justification to employ relatively simple means to effect lifestyle, academic, and cognitive performance.

  4. Computer-assessed performance of psychomotor skills in endoscopic otolaryngology surgery: construct validity of the Dundee Endoscopic Psychomotor Otolaryngology Surgery Trainer (DEPOST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Peter D; Steven, Richard; Zhang, Dong; Li, Heng; Abel, Eric W

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to introduce and establish the value of the Dundee Endoscopic Psychomotor Otolaryngology Surgery Trainer (DEPOST) as a customisable, objective real-time scoring system for trainee assessment. The construct validity of the system was assessed by comparing the performance of experienced otolaryngologists with that of otolaryngology trainees, junior doctors and medical students. Forty two subjects (13 Consultants, 8 senior trainees, 13 junior trainees and 8 junior doctors/medical students) completed a single test on DEPOST. The test involved using a 30° rigid endoscope and a probe with position sensor, to identify a series of lights in a complex 3-dimensional model. The system scored subjects for time, success rate, and economy of movement (distance travelled). An analysis of variance and correlation analysis were used for the data analysis, with statistical significance set at 0.05. Increasing experience led to significantly improved performance with the DEPOST (p < 0.01). Senior trainees' results were significantly better than those of consultant otolaryngologists in success rate and time (p < 0.05 & p < 0.05). Consultants were the most efficient in their movement (p = 0.051) CONCLUSIONS: The system provides an accurate and customisable assessment of endoscopic skill in otolaryngologists. The DEPOST system has construct validity, with master surgeons and senior trainees completing the tasks more accurately without sacrificing execution time, success rate or efficiency of movement.

  5. Learned parametrized dynamic movement primitives with shared synergies for controlling robotic and musculoskeletal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar eRückert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A salient feature of human motor skill learning is the ability to exploitsimilarities across related tasks.In biological motor control, it has been hypothesized that muscle synergies,coherent activations of groups of muscles, allow for exploiting shared knowledge.Recent studies have shown that a rich set of complex motor skills can be generated bya combination of a small number of muscle synergies.In robotics, dynamic movement primitives are commonlyused for motor skill learning. This machine learning approach implements a stable attractor systemthat facilitates learning and it can be used in high-dimensional continuous spaces. However, it does not allow for reusing shared knowledge, i.e. for each task an individual set of parameters has to be learned.We propose a novel movement primitive representationthat employs parametrized basis functions, which combines the benefits of muscle synergiesand dynamic movement primitives. For each task asuperposition of synergies modulates a stable attractor system.This approach leads to a compact representation of multiple motor skills andat the same time enables efficient learning in high-dimensional continuous systems.The movement representation supports discrete and rhythmic movements andin particular includes the dynamic movement primitive approach as a special case.We demonstrate the feasibility of the movement representation in three multi-task learning simulated scenarios.First, the characteristics of the proposed representation are illustrated in a point-mass task.Second, in complex humanoid walking experiments,multiple walking patterns with different step heights are learned robustly and efficiently.Finally, in a multi-directional reaching task simulated with a musculoskeletal modelof the human arm, we show how the proposed movement primitives can be used tolearn appropriate muscle excitation patterns and to generalize effectively to new reaching skills.

  6. Teamwork skills, shared mental models, and performance in simulated trauma teams: an independent group design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westli Heidi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-technical skills are seen as an important contributor to reducing adverse events and improving medical management in healthcare teams. Previous research on the effectiveness of teams has suggested that shared mental models facilitate coordination and team performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether demonstrated teamwork skills and behaviour indicating shared mental models would be associated with observed improved medical management in trauma team simulations. Methods Revised versions of the 'Anesthetists' Non-Technical Skills Behavioural marker system' and 'Anti-Air Teamwork Observation Measure' were field tested in moment-to-moment observation of 27 trauma team simulations in Norwegian hospitals. Independent subject matter experts rated medical management in the teams. An independent group design was used to explore differences in teamwork skills between higher-performing and lower-performing teams. Results Specific teamwork skills and behavioural markers were associated with indicators of good team performance. Higher and lower-performing teams differed in information exchange, supporting behaviour and communication, with higher performing teams showing more effective information exchange and communication, and less supporting behaviours. Behavioural markers of shared mental models predicted effective medical management better than teamwork skills. Conclusions The present study replicates and extends previous research by providing new empirical evidence of the significance of specific teamwork skills and a shared mental model for the effective medical management of trauma teams. In addition, the study underlines the generic nature of teamwork skills by demonstrating their transferability from different clinical simulations like the anaesthesia environment to trauma care, as well as the potential usefulness of behavioural frequency analysis in future research on non-technical skills.

  7. A study on the effect of varying sequence of lab performance skills on lab performance of high school physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournia-Petrou, Ethel A.

    The main goal of this investigation was to study how student rank in class, student gender and skill sequence affect high school students' performance on the lab skills involved in a laboratory-based inquiry task in physics. The focus of the investigation was the effect of skill sequence as determined by the particular task. The skills considered were: Hypothesis, Procedure, Planning, Data, Graph, Calculations and Conclusion. Three physics lab tasks based on the simple pendulum concept were administered to 282 Regents physics high school students. The reliability of the designed tasks was high. Student performance was evaluated on individual student written responses and a scoring rubric. The tasks had high discrimination power and were of moderate difficulty (65%). It was found that, student performance was weak on Conclusion (42%), Hypothesis (48%), and Procedure (51%), where the numbers in parentheses represent the mean as a percentage of the maximum possible score. Student performance was strong on Calculations (91%), Data (82%), Graph (74%) and Plan (68%). Out of all seven skills, Procedure had the strongest correlation (.73) with the overall task performance. Correlation analysis revealed some strong relationships among the seven skills which were grouped in two distinct clusters: Hypothesis, Procedure and Plan belong to one, and Data, Graph, Calculations, and Conclusion belong to the other. This distinction may indicate different mental processes at play within each skill cluster. The effect of student rank was not statistically significant according to the MANOVA results due to the large variation of rank levels among the participating schools. The effect of gender was significant on the entire test because of performance differences on Calculations and Graph, where male students performed better than female students. Skill sequence had a significant effect on the skills of Procedure, Plan, Data and Conclusion. Students are rather weak in proposing a

  8. Motivation to Avoid Loss Improves Implicit Skill Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Danbee; Thompson, Kelsey R.; Reber, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Implicit learning reflects learning from experience that occurs without intention or awareness of the information acquired and is hypothesized to contribute to skill acquisition by improving performance with practice. The role of motivation has not been examined because this kind of memory is represented outside awareness. We manipulated…

  9. Motor performance and physical activity habits of college students in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the motor performance of fundamental motor skills and physical activity habits of students at the University of Costa Rica. A total of 92 males and 48 females (M age = 19.78 yr., SD = 4.72 yr. enrolled in different Sports Activity courses taught at the Rodrigo Facio campus was assessed. The Instrument for the Evaluation of Fundamental Movement Patterns was used to assess motor performance in eight fundamental movement patterns (running, jumping, galloping, catching, throwing, bouncing, and kicking. The physical activity level was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire developed for such purpose. Results show that 28% of the participants were physically active. Participants presented a proficient performance in kicking, running, and galloping, but a non-proficient performance in jumping, hopping, bouncing, throwing and catching. Physical activity behavior was related to the overall performance of the motor skills assessed (Rho = .233; p = .006. In conclusion, college students presented a proficient performance on three of the eight skills assessed. In addition, a relationship was found between physical activity levels and performance. Physical Education teachers are recommended to develop activities to enhance motor performance of fundamental motor skills in college students.

  10. Eye-movement patterns during nonsymbolic and symbolic numerical magnitude comparison and their relation to math calculation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J

    2017-05-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the processing of nonsymbolic (e.g. sets of dots) and symbolic (e.g. Arabic digits) numerical magnitudes serves as a foundation for the development of math competence. Performance on magnitude comparison tasks is thought to reflect the precision of a shared cognitive representation, as evidence by the presence of a numerical ratio effect for both formats. However, little is known regarding how visuo-perceptual processes are related to the numerical ratio effect, whether they are shared across numerical formats, and whether they relate to math competence independently of performance outcomes. The present study investigates these questions in a sample of typically developing adults. Our results reveal a pattern of associations between eye-movement measures, but not their ratio effects, across formats. This suggests that ratio-specific visuo-perceptual processing during magnitude processing is different across nonsymbolic and symbolic formats. Furthermore, eye movements are related to math performance only during symbolic comparison, supporting a growing body of literature suggesting symbolic number processing is more strongly related to math outcomes than nonsymbolic magnitude processing. Finally, eye-movement patterns, specifically fixation dwell time, continue to be negatively related to math performance after controlling for task performance (i.e. error rate and reaction time) and domain general cognitive abilities (IQ), suggesting that fluent visual processing of Arabic digits plays a unique and important role in linking symbolic number processing to formal math abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling and performance analysis of movement-based group location management using RFID sensing in public transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Won

    2012-11-22

    Location management, which consists of location registration and paging, is essential to provide mobile communication services to mobile stations (MSs). Since MSs riding on a public transportation system (TS) generates significant location registration signaling loads simultaneously when a TS with riding MSs moves between location areas (LAs), group location management was proposed. Under the group location management, an MS performs group registration when it gets on a TS and performs group deregistration when it gets off a TS. Then, only a TS updates its current location when it changes LA, on behalf of all riding MSs. In this paper, movement-based group location management using radio frequency identification (RFID) is proposed, where the MS's getting on and getting off behaviors are detected using RFID and only location update of a TS is carried out if the number of crossed cells from the last updated cell exceeds a predefined movement threshold, on behalf of all riding MSs. Then, we develop an analytical model for the performance analysis of the movement-based group location management and analyze the effects of various parameters on the performance. The results show that the movement-based group location management has reduced signaling cost compared with movement-based individual location management, and optimal performance can be achieved by choosing appropriate movement threshold values.

  12. Effect of skill laboratory training on academic performance of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Alamgir; Shabbir, Faizania; Qamar, Khadija; Rajput, Tausif Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    To observe the effect of skill lab training on academic performance of final year medical students in terms of marks obtained in long case, short case, objective structured clinical examination and viva. The cross-sectional comparative study was conducted at Army Medical College, Rawalpindi from February to April 2015. Two batches of final year MBBS were recruited for the study. Batch 1 received conventional training, and Batch 2 received skill lab training. The performance of students was assessed by comparing the marks obtained in long case, short case, objective structured clinical examination and viva. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. Of the 335 subjects, 168(50.1%) were male and 167(49.9%) were female students with a mean age of 21.79±1.02 years. Batch 1 had 151(45%) students and Batch 2 had 184(55%). Batch 2 got significantly higher marks in long case, short case and objective structured clinical examination (p0.05). Acquisition of clinical skills significantly improved when medial students were trained in skill laboratories.

  13. Assessment method of digital Chinese dance movements based on virtual reality technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Shao, Shuyuan; Wang, Shumin

    2008-03-01

    Virtual reality has played an increasing role in such areas as medicine, architecture, aviation, engineering science and advertising. However, in the art fields, virtual reality is still in its infancy in the representation of human movements. Based on the techniques of motion capture and reuse of motion capture data in virtual reality environment, this paper presents an assessment method in order to evaluate the quantification of dancers' basic Arm Position movements in Chinese traditional dance. In this paper, the data for quantifying traits of dance motions are defined and measured on dancing which performed by an expert and two beginners, with results indicating that they are beneficial for evaluating dance skills and distinctiveness, and the assessment method of digital Chinese dance movements based on virtual reality technology is validity and feasibility.

  14. Assessing the use of psychological skills by sports category and the relation with sports performance satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé-Lourido, David; Arce, Constantino; Vales-Vázquez, Ángel; Ponte, Dolores

    2018-05-02

    The evaluation of psychological skills by athletes and their relationship with sports performance and satisfaction has been of great interest in recent decades. Likewise, there has been an emergent tendency to focus on developing specific psychological skills for each sport. The principal aim of this study was to determine the frequency with which athletes deploy psychological skills whilst competing and whether their frequency varies in accordance with the technical, tactical and physical characteristics of the sport in question. A further objective was to establish the connection between the frequency of use of psychological skills and athletes' degree of satisfaction with their performance. The study comprised 1003 athletes practising 43 different sports, grouped into 7 categories based on the similarities between them. Frequency of use of the psychological skills was measured with the Test of Performance Strategies 3. The data analyses allowed the following conclusions to be drawn: the degree to which psychological skills are used is dependent on the technical, tactical and physical characteristics of each sport; and the higher the frequency of the use of psychological skills, the greater the athletes' degree of satisfaction with their performance. These results allow athletes and coaches to increase levels of sports performance by working on the use of psychological skills, adapted to the technical, tactical or physical requirements of the category in which their sport is included. In addition, working on different psychological skills will improve their satisfaction with sports performance.

  15. Cognitive Strategies and Skill Acquisition in Musical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Gary E.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a longitudinal study of high school instrumentalists that examined the development of four distinct types of musical performance (playing by ear, playing from memory, sight reading, and improvising) over three years. Reveals a significant improvement in these skills while also demonstrating changes in aural and creative activities. (CMK)

  16. Music experience influences laparoscopic skills performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Tanner; Jung, Inkyung; Van Sickle, Kent; Schwesinger, Wayne; Michalek, Joel; Bingener, Juliane

    2008-01-01

    Music education affects the mathematical and visuo-spatial skills of school-age children. Visuo-spatial abilities have a significant effect on laparoscopic suturing performance. We hypothesize that prior music experience influences the performance of laparoscopic suturing tasks. Thirty novices observed a laparoscopic suturing task video. Each performed 3 timed suturing task trials. Demographics were recorded. A repeated measures linear mixed model was used to examine the effects of prior music experience on suturing task time. Twelve women and 18 men completed the tasks. When adjusted for video game experience, participants who currently played an instrument performed significantly faster than those who did not (PMen who had never played an instrument or were currently playing an instrument performed better than women in the same group (P=0.002 and P<0.001). There was no sex difference in the performance of participants who had played an instrument in the past (P=0.29). This study attempted to investigate the effect of music experience on the laparoscopic suturing abilities of surgical novices. The visuo-spatial abilities used in laparoscopic suturing may be enhanced in those involved in playing an instrument.

  17. Can skills assessment on a virtual reality trainer predict a surgical trainee's talent in laparoscopic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, R; Gantert, W A; Scheidegger, D; Oertli, D

    2006-08-01

    A number of studies have investigated several aspects of feasibility and validity of performance assessments with virtual reality surgical simulators. However, the validity of performance assessments is limited by the reliability of such measurements, and some issues of reliability still need to be addressed. This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that test subjects show logarithmic performance curves on repetitive trials for a component task of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a virtual reality simulator, and that interindividual differences in performance after considerable training are significant. According to kinesiologic theory, logarithmic performance curves are expected and an individual's learning capacity for a specific task can be extrapolated, allowing quantification of a person's innate ability to develop task-specific skills. In this study, 20 medical students at the University of Basel Medical School performed five trials of a standardized task on the LS 500 virtual reality simulator for laparoscopic surgery. Task completion time, number of errors, economy of instrument movements, and maximum speed of instrument movements were measured. The hypothesis was confirmed by the fact that the performance curves for some of the simulator measurements were very close to logarithmic curves, and there were significant interindividual differences in performance at the end of the repetitive trials. Assessment of perceptual motor skills and the innate ability of an individual with no prior experience in laparoscopic surgery to develop such skills using the LS 500 VR surgical simulator is feasible and reliable.

  18. A little elastic for a better performance: kinesiotaping of the motor effector modulates neural mechanisms for rhythmic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Riccardo; Quarta, Eros; Cohen, Erez J; Gottard, Anna; Minciacchi, Diego

    2014-01-01

    A rhythmic motor performance is brought about by an integration of timing information with movements. Investigations on the millisecond time scale distinguish two forms of time control, event-based timing and emergent timing. While event-based timing asserts the existence of a central internal timekeeper for the control of repetitive movements, the emergent timing perspective claims that timing emerges from dynamic control of nontemporal movements parameters. We have recently demonstrated that the precision of an isochronous performance, defined as performance of repeated movements having a uniform duration, was insensible to auditory stimuli of various characteristics (Bravi et al., 2014). Such finding has led us to investigate whether the application of an elastic therapeutic tape (Kinesio® Tex taping; KTT) used for treating athletic injuries and a variety of physical disorders, is able to reduce the timing variability of repetitive rhythmic movement. Young healthy subjects, tested with and without KTT, have participated in sessions in which sets of repeated isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs) were performed under various auditory conditions and during their recall. Kinematics was recorded and temporal parameters were extracted and analyzed. Our results show that the application of KTT decreases the variability of rhythmic movements by a 2-fold effect: on the one hand KTT provides extra proprioceptive information activating cutaneous mechanoreceptors, on the other KTT biases toward the emergent timing thus modulating the processes for rhythmic movements. Therefore, KTT appears able to render movements less audio dependent by relieving, at least partially, the central structures from time control and making available more resources for an augmented performance.

  19. A little elastic for a better performance: kinesiotaping of the motor effector modulates neural mechanisms for rhythmic movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo eBravi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A rhythmic motor performance is brought about by an integration of timing information with movements. Investigations on the millisecond time scale distinguish two forms of time control, event-based timing and emergent timing. While event-based timing asserts the existence of a central internal timekeeper for the control of repetitive movements, the emergent timing perspective claims that timing emerges from dynamic control of nontemporal movements parameters. We have recently demonstrated that the precision of an isochronous performance, defined as performance of repeated movements having a uniform duration, was insensible to auditory stimuli of various characteristics (Bravi et al., 2014. Such finding has led us to investigate whether the application of an elastic therapeutic tape (Kinesio® Tex taping; KTT used for treating athletic injuries and a variety of physical disorders, is able to reduce the timing variability of repetitive rhythmic movement. Young healthy subjects, tested with and without KTT, have participated in sessions in which sets of repeated isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs were performed under various auditory conditions and during their recall. Kinematics was recorded and temporal parameters were extracted and analyzed. Our results show that the application of KTT decreases the variability of rhythmic movements by a twofold effect: on the one hand KTT provides extra proprioceptive information activating cutaneous mechanoreceptors, on the other KTT biases toward the emergent timing thus modulating the processes for rhythmic movements. Therefore, KTT appears able to render movements less audio dependent by relieving, at least partially, the central structures from time control and making available more resources for an augmented performance.

  20. Relationship between non-technical skills and technical performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: does stress have an influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krage, Ralf; Zwaan, Laura; Tjon Soei Len, Lian; Kolenbrander, Mark W; van Groeningen, Dick; Loer, Stephan A; Wagner, Cordula; Schober, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Non-technical skills, such as task management, leadership, situational awareness, communication and decision-making refer to cognitive, behavioural and social skills that contribute to safe and efficient team performance. The importance of these skills during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is increasingly emphasised. Nonetheless, the relationship between non-technical skills and technical performance is poorly understood. We hypothesise that non-technical skills become increasingly important under stressful conditions when individuals are distracted from their tasks, and investigated the relationship between non-technical and technical skills under control conditions and when external stressors are present. In this simulator-based randomised cross-over study, 30 anaesthesiologists and anaesthesia residents from the VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, participated in two different CPR scenarios in random order. In one scenario, external stressors (radio noise and a distractive scripted family member) were added, while the other scenario without stressors served as control condition. Non-technical performance of the team leader and technical performance of the team were measured using the 'Anaesthetists' Non-technical Skill' score and a recently developed technical skills score. Analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for statistical analyses. Non-technical performance declined when external stressors were present (adjusted mean difference 3.9 points, 95% CI 2.4 to 5.5 points). A significant correlation between non-technical and technical performance scores was observed when external stressors were present (r=0.67, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.83, ptechnical performance score (task management, team working, situation awareness, decision-making). During CPR with external stressors, the team's technical performance is related to the non-technical skills of the team leader. This may have important implications for training of

  1. Importance and performance of managerial skills in the Australian aged care sector - a middle managers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Ellen; Radford, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the importance and performance of middle managers' skills to provide a starting point for a sector-wide leadership and management framework. There is an increasing consensus that the quality of management, leadership and performance of any organisation is directly linked to the capabilities of its middle managers and the preparation and on-going training they receive. A total of 199 middle managers from three aged care organisations in Australia participated in a questionnaire conducted during 2010-2011. This study found that middle managers perceived the need to develop their communication skills, self-awareness, change management, conflict resolution and leadership skills. Middle managers perceive a discrepancy between performance and importance of various managerial skills. This study demonstrated that provision of training needs to go beyond clinical skills development and further investigation into managers' needs is necessary, particularly considering the diversity of this critical group in organisations. Future training opportunities provided to middle managers need to address the 'softer' skills (e.g. communication) rather than 'technical' skills (e.g. clinical skills). The provision of training in these skills may improve their performance, which may also lead to increased job satisfaction, continuity in leadership and management and ultimately improvements in the quality of care provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Knowledge, attitude and performance of academic members regarding effective communication skills in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifirad, Gholam R; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Jazini, Akram; Etemadi, Zinat S

    2012-01-01

    Communication is the most important part of any educational process, the aim of which is to transfer or exchange ideas and thoughts. It would be provided appropriately if academic members had the communication skills. Considering the important role of academic members in the educational process, in this study, the knowledge, attitude and performance of academic members of School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were investigated with regard to effective communication skills. In this descriptive-analytic study, all academic members of the School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were studied during the second academic semester of 2006-2007. The data were collected by a valid and reliable three-part questionnaire including knowledge (8 questions and maximum score of 8), attitude (31 questions and maximum score of 155) and observational communication skills checklist (20 questions and maximum score of 20). The obtained data were analyzed by calculating central indices using SPSS software. The mean knowledge score of studied people in terms of communicational skills, attitude and performance were 4.1 out of 8, 114.4 out of 155 and 16.3 out of 20, respectively. Although the information of the participants of this study in terms of communication skills was not sufficient, they seemed to have a positive attitude and relatively acceptable performance in communication skills.

  3. Temporal predictive mechanisms modulate motor reaction time during initiation and inhibition of speech and hand movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Karim; Behroozmand, Roozbeh

    2017-08-01

    Skilled movement is mediated by motor commands executed with extremely fine temporal precision. The question of how the brain incorporates temporal information to perform motor actions has remained unanswered. This study investigated the effect of stimulus temporal predictability on response timing of speech and hand movement. Subjects performed a randomized vowel vocalization or button press task in two counterbalanced blocks in response to temporally-predictable and unpredictable visual cues. Results indicated that speech and hand reaction time was decreased for predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. This finding suggests that a temporal predictive code is established to capture temporal dynamics of sensory cues in order to produce faster movements in responses to predictable stimuli. In addition, results revealed a main effect of modality, indicating faster hand movement compared with speech. We suggest that this effect is accounted for by the inherent complexity of speech production compared with hand movement. Lastly, we found that movement inhibition was faster than initiation for both hand and speech, suggesting that movement initiation requires a longer processing time to coordinate activities across multiple regions in the brain. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of temporal information processing during initiation and inhibition of speech and hand movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Haptic perception accuracy depending on self-produced movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulwook; Kim, Seonjin

    2014-01-01

    This study measured whether self-produced movement influences haptic perception ability (experiment 1) as well as the factors associated with levels of influence (experiment 2) in racket sports. For experiment 1, the haptic perception accuracy levels of five male table tennis experts and five male novices were examined under two different conditions (no movement vs. movement). For experiment 2, the haptic afferent subsystems of five male table tennis experts and five male novices were investigated in only the self-produced movement-coupled condition. Inferential statistics (ANOVA, t-test) and custom-made devices (shock & vibration sensor, Qualisys Track Manager) of the data were used to determine the haptic perception accuracy (experiment 1, experiment 2) and its association with expertise. The results of this research show that expert-level players acquire higher accuracy with less variability (racket vibration and angle) than novice-level players, especially in their self-produced movement coupled performances. The important finding from this result is that, in terms of accuracy, the skill-associated differences were enlarged during self-produced movement. To explain the origin of this difference between experts and novices, the functional variability of haptic afferent subsystems can serve as a reference. These two factors (self-produced accuracy and the variability of haptic features) as investigated in this study would be useful criteria for educators in racket sports and suggest a broader hypothesis for further research into the effects of the haptic accuracy related to variability.

  5. Examination of the gamma equilibrium point hypothesis when applied to single degree of freedom movements performed with different inertial loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, A; Inbar, G

    1997-01-01

    One of the theories of human motor control is the gamma Equilibrium Point Hypothesis. It is an attractive theory since it offers an easy control scheme where the planned trajectory shifts monotionically from an initial to a final equilibrium state. The feasibility of this model was tested by reconstructing the virtual trajectory and the stiffness profiles for movements performed with different inertial loads and examining them. Three types of movements were tested: passive movements, targeted movements, and repetitive movements. Each of the movements was performed with five different inertial loads. Plausible virtual trajectories and stiffness profiles were reconstructed based on the gamma Equilibrium Point Hypothesis for the three different types of movements performed with different inertial loads. However, the simple control strategy supported by the model, where the planned trajectory shifts monotonically from an initial to a final equilibrium state, could not be supported for targeted movements performed with added inertial load. To test the feasibility of the model further we must examine the probability that the human motor control system would choose a trajectory more complicated than the actual trajectory to control.

  6. MODIFIED FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENING AS A PREDICTOR OF TACTICAL PERFORMANCE POTENTIAL IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE ADULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Stephen M; Ross, Scott E

    2015-10-01

    Failure to meet minimum performance standards is a leading cause of attrition from basic combat training. A standardized assessment such as the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) could help identify movement behaviors relevant to physical performance in tactical occupations. Previous work has demonstrated only marginal association between FMS™ tests and performance outcomes, but adding a load challenge to this movement assessment may help highlight performance-limiting behaviors. The purposes of this investigation were to quantify the effect of load on FMS™ tests and determine the extent to which performance outcomes could be predicted using scores from both loaded and unloaded FMS™ conditions. Crossover Trial. Thirteen female and six male recreationally active college students (21 ± 1.37 years, 168 ± 9.8 cm, 66 ± 12.25 kg) completed the FMS™ under (1) a control condition (FMS™C), and (2) an 18.10kg weight vest condition (FMS™W). Balance was assessed using a force plate in double-legged stance and tactical physical performance was evaluated via completion times in a battery of field tests. For each condition, penalized regression was used to select models from the seven FMS™ component tests to predict balance and performance outcomes. Data were collected during a single session lasting approximately three hours per participant. For balance, significant predictors were identified from both conditions but primarily predicted poorer balance with increasing FMS™ scores. For tactical performance, models were retained almost exclusively from FMS™W and generally predicted better performance with higher item scores. The current results suggest that FMS™ screening with an external load could help predict performance relevant to tactical occupations. Sports medicine and fitness professionals interested in performance outcomes may consider assessing movement behaviors under a load. 3.

  7. Neuropsychological predictors of performance-based measures of functional capacity and social skills in individuals with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Burton, Cynthia Z; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2018-04-13

    Neuropsychological abilities may underlie successful performance of everyday functioning and social skills. We aimed to determine the strongest neuropsychological predictors of performance-based functional capacity and social skills performance across the spectrum of severe mental illness (SMI). Unemployed outpatients with SMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression; n = 151) were administered neuropsychological (expanded MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B), and social skills (Social Skills Performance Assessment; SSPA) assessments. Bivariate correlations between neuropsychological performance and UPSA-B and SSPA total scores showed that most neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with each performance-based measure. Forward entry stepwise regression analyses were conducted entering education, diagnosis, symptom severity, and neuropsychological performance as predictors of functional capacity and social skills. Diagnosis, working memory, sustained attention, and category and letter fluency emerged as significant predictors of functional capacity, in a model that explained 43% of the variance. Negative symptoms, sustained attention, and letter fluency were significant predictors of social skill performance, in a model explaining 35% of the variance. Functional capacity is positively associated with neuropsychological functioning, but diagnosis remains strongly influential, with mood disorder participants outperforming those with psychosis. Social skill performance appears to be positively associated with sustained attention and verbal fluency regardless of diagnosis; however, negative symptom severity strongly predicts social skills performance. Improving neuropsychological functioning may improve psychosocial functioning in people with SMI. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Successful Skill Transfer: Military Service Experience and Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad Özlen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business life, employees from different sectors have the opportunity to work in other industries and can have different positions through the organization. This can be considered from the perspective of skill transfer (transfer of tacit knowledge. The success can be questioned in terms of company performance. If this process can be managed well performance will be higher. This research mainly aims to identify whether veterans with military service experience can contribute to employee motivation, organizational motivation and organizational benefits. In order to test the assumed associations, the research employs a survey study on the veterans who have served for Bosnian army and are currently employees of Bosnian firms. The results provide that military service experience is significantly influential on the motivations of employees and organizations and on company performance. It can be suggested that the adaptation of external knowledge (skill transfer, military service experience, into new organizational environment can be enhanced by the help of knowledge management. This research is valuable in that it is among the few studies in its respective field and in the region.

  9. The effect of student self-video of performance on clinical skill competency: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-03-01

    Emerging technologies and student information technology literacy are enabling new methods of teaching and learning for clinical skill performance. Facilitating experiential practice and reflection on performance through student self-video, and exposure to peer benchmarks, may promote greater levels of skill competency. This study examines the impact of student self-video on the attainment of clinical skills. A total of 60 Physiotherapy students (100%) consented to participate in the randomised controlled trial. One group (50%) was taught a complex clinical skill with regular practical tutoring, whilst the other group (50%) supplemented the tutoring with a self-video task aimed at promoting reflection on performance. Student skill performance was measured in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students also completed an anonymous questionnaire, which explored their perception of their learning experiences. Students received significantly higher scores in the OSCE when the examined clinical skill had been supplemented with a self-video of performance task (P = 0.048). Descriptive analysis of the questionnaires relating to student perceptions on the teaching methods identified that the self-video of performance task utilised contributed to improvement in their clinical performance and their confidence for future clinical practice. Students identified a number of aspects of the submission process that contributed to this perception of educational value. The novel results of this study demonstrate that greater clinical skill competency is achieved when traditional tutoring methods are supplemented with student self-video of performance tasks. Additional benefits included the ability of staff and students to monitor longitudinal performance, and an increase in feedback opportunities.

  10. The Impact of Diagnosing Skill Deficiencies and Assessment-Based Communication Training on Managerial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Michael J.; Graham, Elizabeth E.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluates an organizational diagnosis program that assesses managerial communication skills and provides the frame for follow-up training programs. Finds that managers participating in follow-up communication skills training performed significantly higher on interpersonal skills, problem-solving ability, and productivity over three long-term…

  11. Predicting failing performance on a standardized patient clinical performance examination: the importance of communication and professionalism skills deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Boscardin, Christy; Chou, Calvin L; Loeser, Helen; Hauer, Karen E

    2009-10-01

    The purpose is to determine which assessment measures identify medical students at risk of failing a clinical performance examination (CPX). Retrospective case-control, multiyear design, contingency table analysis, n = 149. We identified two predictors of CPX failure in patient-physician interaction skills: low clerkship ratings (odds ratio 1.79, P = .008) and student progress review for communication or professionalism concerns (odds ratio 2.64, P = .002). No assessments predicted CPX failure in clinical skills. Performance concerns in communication and professionalism identify students at risk of failing the patient-physician interaction portion of a CPX. This correlation suggests that both faculty and standardized patients can detect noncognitive traits predictive of failing performance. Early identification of these students may allow for development of a structured supplemental curriculum with increased opportunities for practice and feedback. The lack of predictors in the clinical skills portion suggests limited faculty observation or feedback.

  12. An assessment of the impact of entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists on pharmaceutical business performance in Jos metropolis, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nmadu, Teresa M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Community pharmacy has been a lucrative area of practice for pharmacists in Jos, Nigeria, until about the turn of the millennium where a decline in viability of the business has been observed. Objective: This study assessed the entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists, the business performance of community pharmacies and the impact of their entrepreneurial skills on business performance. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted by administering a pretested questionnaire to 30 community pharmacists in Jos. An adaptation of the Bernelli model and the expanded Katz (1974)/Herron (1990) Skill Typology Model was used to assess nine entrepreneurial skills - product, organizational, industry, networking, leadership, executive, entrepreneurial, marketing and money skills; while sales growth, net profit and stock growth were used to assess business performance. Frequency distribution of results was presented, with further analysis done with the Epi-Info software using the chi square test of association. Result: The results from this study showed that community pharmacies in Jos do possess requisite entrepreneurial skills, but to varying extents. Product skills ranked highest while money skills and entrepreneurial skills ranked least, portraying a need for skills enhancement in these areas. Business performance was suboptimal, being rated as average or poor by 56.6% of respondents. However, most respondents (90%) still assessed their businesses as profitable. Money skills had a significant impact on business performance (P=0.03) and stock growth (P=0.04); while stock growth was significantly affected by leadership skills (P=0.002) and entrepreneurial skills (0.02). Net profit was significantly affected by industry skills (P=0.008). Conclusions: Community pharmacy business is still a profitable business venture in Jos though business performance is sub optimal. The entrepreneurial skills set of a community pharmacist set has an impact on business

  13. An assessment of the impact of entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists on pharmaceutical business performance in Jos metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asieba, Iyeseun O; Nmadu, Teresa M

    2018-01-01

    Community pharmacy has been a lucrative area of practice for pharmacists in Jos, Nigeria, until about the turn of the millennium where a decline in viability of the business has been observed. This study assessed the entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists, the business performance of community pharmacies and the impact of their entrepreneurial skills on business performance. A cross sectional survey was conducted by administering a pretested questionnaire to 30 community pharmacists in Jos. An adaptation of the Bernelli model and the expanded Katz (1974)/Herron (1990) Skill Typology Model was used to assess nine entrepreneurial skills - product, organizational, industry, networking, leadership, executive, entrepreneurial, marketing and money skills; while sales growth, net profit and stock growth were used to assess business performance. Frequency distribution of results was presented, with further analysis done with the Epi-Info software using the chi square test of association. The results from this study showed that community pharmacies in Jos do possess requisite entrepreneurial skills, but to varying extents. Product skills ranked highest while money skills and entrepreneurial skills ranked least, portraying a need for skills enhancement in these areas. Business performance was suboptimal, being rated as average or poor by 56.6% of respondents. However, most respondents (90%) still assessed their businesses as profitable. Money skills had a significant impact on business performance (P=0.03) and stock growth (P=0.04); while stock growth was significantly affected by leadership skills (P=0.002) and entrepreneurial skills (0.02). Net profit was significantly affected by industry skills (P=0.008). Community pharmacy business is still a profitable business venture in Jos though business performance is sub optimal. The entrepreneurial skills set of a community pharmacist set has an impact on business performance with money skills, leadership skills and

  14. An assessment of the impact of entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists on pharmaceutical business performance in Jos metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieba IO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community pharmacy has been a lucrative area of practice for pharmacists in Jos, Nigeria, until about the turn of the millennium where a decline in viability of the business has been observed. Objective: This study assessed the entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists, the business performance of community pharmacies and the impact of their entrepreneurial skills on business performance. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted by administering a pretested questionnaire to 30 community pharmacists in Jos. An adaptation of the Bernelli model and the expanded Katz (1974/Herron (1990 Skill Typology Model was used to assess nine entrepreneurial skills - product, organizational, industry, networking, leadership, executive, entrepreneurial, marketing and money skills; while sales growth, net profit and stock growth were used to assess business performance. Frequency distribution of results was presented, with further analysis done with the Epi-Info software using the chi square test of association. Result: The results from this study showed that community pharmacies in Jos do possess requisite entrepreneurial skills, but to varying extents. Product skills ranked highest while money skills and entrepreneurial skills ranked least, portraying a need for skills enhancement in these areas. Business performance was suboptimal, being rated as average or poor by 56.6% of respondents. However, most respondents (90% still assessed their businesses as profitable. Money skills had a significant impact on business performance (P=0.03 and stock growth (P=0.04; while stock growth was significantly affected by leadership skills (P=0.002 and entrepreneurial skills (0.02. Net profit was significantly affected by industry skills (P=0.008. Conclusions: Community pharmacy business is still a profitable business venture in Jos though business performance is sub optimal. The entrepreneurial skills set of a community pharmacist set has an impact on

  15. Not just trust: factors influencing learners' attempts to perform technical skills on real patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Susan L; Dolson, Mark S; Lingard, Lorelei; Keegan, David A

    2018-06-01

    As part of their training, physicians are required to learn how to perform technical skills on patients. The previous literature reveals that this learning is complex and that many opportunities to perform these skills are not converted into attempts to do so by learners. This study sought to explore and understand this phenomenon better. A multi-phased qualitative study including ethnographic observations, interviews and focus groups was conducted to explore the factors that influence technical skill learning. In a tertiary paediatric emergency department, staff physician preceptors, residents, nurses and respiratory therapists were observed in the delivery and teaching of technical skills over a 3-month period. A constant comparison methodology was used to analyse the data and to develop a constructivist grounded theory. We conducted 419 hours of observation, 18 interviews and four focus groups. We observed 287 instances of technical skills, of which 27.5% were attempted by residents. Thematic analysis identified 14 factors, grouped into three categories, which influenced whether residents attempted technical skills on real patients. Learner factors included resident initiative, perceived need for skill acquisition and competing priorities. Teacher factors consisted of competing priorities, interest in teaching, perceived need for residents to acquire skills, attributions about learners, assessments of competency, and trust. Environmental factors were competition from other learners, judgement that the patient was appropriate, buy-in from team members, consent from patient or caregivers, and physical environment constraints. Our findings suggest that neither the presence of a learner in a clinical environment nor the trust of the supervisor is sufficient to ensure the learner will attempt a technical skill. We characterise this phenomenon as representing a pool of opportunities to conduct technical skills on live patients that shrinks to a much smaller pool of

  16. The Study of the Relationship between Mother's Studies with Study Skills and Mathematics Performance of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnoush Taheri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Certainly teaching study skills of mathematics has special importance and plays important role in mathematics performance of students. As mothers spend more times with self-children then they can be effect on study and their mathematics performance. Present research implements to study of the relationship between mothers' studies with study skills and mathematics performance of their children. Population of this research is all girl students of first grade in high school at zone one of Tehran and sample is 97 people. For collecting data of this research through standard questionnaire of mathematics studies skills is used for measuring of study skill of mathematics and questions for studying information related to mothers' studies and a math exam for getting information of mathematics performance of students are used. The results indicated that there is not significant relationship between mothers' studies and study skill of mathematics among students. Also, it is indicated that there is positive significant relationship between mothers' studies and mathematic performance of students.

  17. Neuronal Substrates Underlying Performance Variability in Well-Trained Skillful Motor Task in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Uehara, Shintaro; Hirose, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Naito, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Motor performance fluctuates trial by trial even in a well-trained motor skill. Here we show neural substrates underlying such behavioral fluctuation in humans. We first scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants repeatedly performed a 10 s skillful sequential finger-tapping task. Before starting the experiment, the participants had completed intensive training. We evaluated task performance per trial (number of correct sequences in 10 s) and depicted brain regions where the activity changes in association with the fluctuation of the task performance across trials. We found that the activity in a broader range of frontoparietocerebellar network, including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices, and left cerebellar hemisphere, was negatively correlated with the task performance. We further showed in another transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) experiment that task performance deteriorated, when we applied anodal tDCS to the right DLPFC. These results indicate that fluctuation of brain activity in the nonmotor frontoparietocerebellar network may underlie trial-by-trial performance variability even in a well-trained motor skill, and its neuromodulation with tDCS may affect the task performance.

  18. Modeling attacking of high skills volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gamaliy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the model indicators of technical and tactical actions in the attack highly skilled volleyball players. Material and Methods: the study used statistical data of major international competitions: Olympic Games – 2012 World Championships – 2010, World League – 2010–2014 European Championship – 2010–2014. A total of 130 analyzed games. Methods were used: analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature, analysis of competitive activity highly skilled volleyball players, teacher observation, modeling technical and tactical actions in attacking highly skilled volleyball players. Results: it was found that the largest volume application of technical and tactical actions in the attack belongs to the group tactics «supple movement», whose indicator is 21,3%. The smallest amount of application belongs to the group tactics «flight level» model whose indicators is 5,4%, the efficiency of 3,4%, respectively. It is found that the power service in the jump from model parameters used in 51,6% of cases, the planning targets – 21,7% and 4,4% planning to reduce. Attacks performed with the back line, on model parameters used in the amount of 20,8% efficiency –13,7%. Conclusions: we prove that the performance of technical and tactical actions in the attack can be used as model in the control system of training and competitive process highly skilled volleyball players

  19. Predicting performance and injury resilience from movement quality and fitness scores in a basketball team over 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Andersen, Jordan T; Horne, Arthur D

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if specific tests of fitness and movement quality could predict injury resilience and performance in a team of basketball players over 2 years (2 playing seasons). It was hypothesized that, in a basketball population, movement and fitness scores would predict performance scores and that movement and fitness scores would predict injury resilience. A basketball team from a major American university (N = 14) served as the test population in this longitudinal trial. Variables linked to fitness, movement ability, speed, strength, and agility were measured together with some National Basketball Association (NBA) combine tests. Dependent variables of performance indicators (such as games and minutes played, points scored, assists, rebounds, steal, and blocks) and injury reports were tracked for the subsequent 2 years. Results showed that better performance was linked with having a stiffer torso, more mobile hips, weaker left grip strength, and a longer standing long jump, to name a few. Of the 3 NBA combine tests administered here, only a faster lane agility time had significant links with performance. Some movement qualities and torso endurance were not linked. No patterns with injury emerged. These observations have implications for preseason testing and subsequent training programs in an attempt to reduce future injury and enhance playing performance.

  20. Haptic feedback can provide an objective assessment of arthroscopic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, George; Ward, James W; Phillips, Roger; Sherman, Kevin P

    2008-04-01

    The outcome of arthroscopic procedures is related to the surgeon's skills in arthroscopy. Currently, evaluation of such skills relies on direct observation by a surgeon trainer. This type of assessment, by its nature, is subjective and time-consuming. The aim of our study was to identify whether haptic information generated from arthroscopic tools could distinguish between skilled and less skilled surgeons. A standard arthroscopic probe was fitted with a force/torque sensor. The probe was used by five surgeons with different levels of experience in knee arthroscopy performing 11 different tasks in 10 standard knee arthroscopies. The force/torque data from the hand and tool interface were recorded and synchronized with a video recording of the procedure. The torque magnitude and patterns generated were analyzed and compared. A computerized system was used to analyze the force/torque signature based on general principles for quality of performance using such measures as economy in movement, time efficiency, and consistency in performance. The results showed a considerable correlation between three haptic parameters and the surgeon's experience, which could be used in an automated objective assessment system for arthroscopic surgery. Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  1. Longitudinal effects of medical students' communication skills on future performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; LaRochelle, Jeffrey S; Durning, Steven J; Saguil, Aaron; Swygert, Kimberly; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    The Essential Elements of Communication (EEC) were developed from the Kalamazoo consensus statement on physician-patient communication. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) has adopted a longitudinal curriculum to use the EEC both as a learning tool during standardized patient encounters and as an evaluation tool culminating with the end of preclerkship objective-structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Medical educators have recently emphasized the importance of teaching communication skills, as evidenced by the United States Medical Licensing Examination testing both the integrated clinical encounter (ICE) and communication and interpersonal skills (CIS) within the Step 2 Clinical Skills exam (CS). To determine the associations between students' EEC OSCE performance at the end of the preclerkship period with later communication skills assessment and evaluation outcomes in the context of a longitudinal curriculum spanning both undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education. Retrospective data from preclerkship (overall OSCE scores and EEC OSCE scores) and clerkship outcomes (internal medicine [IM] clinical points and average clerkship National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] scores) were collected from 167 USU medical students from the class of 2011 and compared to individual scores on the CIS and ICE components of Step 2 CS, as well as to the communication skills component of the program directors' evaluation of trainees during their postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) residency. In addition to bivariate Pearson correlation analysis, we conducted multiple linear regression analysis to examine the predictive power of the EEC score beyond the IM clerkship clinical points and the average NBME Subject Exams score on the outcome measures. The EEC score was a significant predictor of the CIS score and the PGY-1 communication skills score. Beyond the average NBME Subject Exams score and the IM clerkship clinical points, the EEC score

  2. Career-Oriented Performance Tasks in Chemistry: Effects on Students Integrated Science Process Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Allen A. Espinosa; Sheryl Lyn C. Monterola; Amelia E. Punzalan

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Career-Oriented Performance Task (COPT) approach against the traditional teaching approach (TTA) in enhancing students’ integrated science process skills. Specifically, it sought to find out if students exposed to COPT have higher integrated science process skills than those students exposed to the traditional teaching approach (TTA). Career-Oriented Performance Task (COPT) approach aims to integrate career-oriented examples and inquiry-b...

  3. Leader–Member Skill Distance, Team Cooperation, and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Longwei; Li, Yuan; Li, Peter Ping

    2015-01-01

    –member skill distance on team performance. We find the empirical support for our views with a mixed-methods design: a qualitative study interviewing informants in different cultures to clarify the psychological mechanisms, and also a quantitative study analyzing the data from US’s National Basketball...

  4. Effectiveness of simulation-based learning on student nurses' self-efficacy and performance while learning fundamental nursing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    It was noted worldwide while learning fundamental skills and facing skills assessments, nursing students seemed to experience low confidence and high anxiety levels. Could simulation-based learning help to enhance students' self-efficacy and performance? Its effectiveness is mostly unidentified. This study was conducted to provide a shared experience to give nurse educators confidence and an insight into how simulation-based teaching can fit into nursing skills learning. A pilot study was completed with 50 second-year undergraduate nursing students, and the main study included 98 students where a pretest-posttest design was adopted. Data were gathered through four questionnaires and a performance assessment under scrutinized controls such as previous experiences, lecturers' teaching skills, duration of teaching, procedure of skills performance assessment and the inter-rater reliability. The results showed that simulation-based learning significantly improved students' self-efficacy regarding skills learning and the skills performance that nurse educators wish students to acquire. However, technology anxiety, examiners' critical attitudes towards students' performance and their unpredicted verbal and non-verbal expressions, have been found as possible confounding factors. The simulation-based learning proved to have a powerful positive effect on students' achievement outcomes. Nursing skills learning is one area that can benefit greatly from this kind of teaching and learning method.

  5. The Development of Fine Motor Skills and its Relation to Cognitive Development in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Da; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    Fine motor skills refer to any movement where an individual uses the small muscles or muscle areas of the hands and fingers; these movements serve to development of muscle while also improving the cognitive recognition of the object. Automatic fine motor skills can save limited attention resources for advanced cognition tasks as required by an individual; in the development of fine motor skills and cognition, the two abilities interact, some motor skills are the prerequisite for some cognitio...

  6. Determination of Constructs and Dimensions of Employability Skills Based Work Performance Prediction: A Triangular Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat, Normala; Buntat, Yahya; Ayub, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The level of the employability skills of the graduates as determined by job role and mapped to the employability skills, which correspond to the requirement of employers, will have significant impact on the graduates’ job performance. The main objective of this study was to identify the constructs and dimensions of employability skills, which can predict the work performance of electronic polytechnic graduate in electrical and electronics industry. A triangular qualitative approach was used i...

  7. Instituting a Surgical Skills Competition Increases Technical Performance of Surgical Clerkship Students Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leraas, Harold J; Cox, Morgan L; Bendersky, Victoria A; Sprinkle, Shanna S; Gilmore, Brian F; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka M; Tracy, Elisabeth T; Sudan, Ranjan

    2017-10-04

    Surgical skills training varies greatly between institutions and is often left to students to approach independently. Although many studies have examined single interventions of skills training, no data currently exists about the implementation of surgical skills assessment as a component of the medical student surgical curriculum. We created a technical skills competition and evaluated its effect on student surgical skill development. Second-year medical students enrolled in the surgery clerkship voluntarily participated in a surgical skills competition consisting of knot tying, laparoscopic peg transfer, and laparoscopic pattern cut. Winning students were awarded dinner with the chair of surgery and a resident of their choice. Individual event times and combined times were recorded and compared for students who completed without disqualification. Disqualification included compromising cutting pattern, dropping a peg out of the field of vision, and incorrect knot tying technique. Timed performance was compared for 2 subsequent academic years using Mann-Whitney U test. Overall, 175 students competed and 71 students met qualification criteria. When compared by academic year, 2015 to 2016 students (n = 34) performed better than 2014 to 2015 students (n = 37) in pattern cut (133s vs 167s, p = 0.040), peg transfer (66s vs 101s, p skills competition improves student technical performance. Further research is needed regarding long-term benefits of surgical competitions for medical students. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alpha band functional connectivity correlates with the performance of brain-machine interfaces to decode real and imagined movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisato eSugata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain signals recorded from the primary motor cortex (M1 are known to serve a significant role in coding the information brain-machine interfaces (BMIs need to perform real and imagined movements, and also to form several functional networks with motor association areas. However, whether functional networks between M1 and other brain regions, such as these motor association areas, are related to performance of BMIs is unclear. To examine the relationship between functional connectivity and performance of BMIs, we analyzed the correlation coefficient between performance of neural decoding and functional connectivity over the whole brain using magnetoencephalography. Ten healthy participants were instructed to execute or imagine three simple right upper limb movements. To decode the movement type, we extracted 40 virtual channels in the left M1 via the beamforming approach, and used them as a decoding feature. In addition, seed-based functional connectivities of activities in the alpha band during real and imagined movements were calculated using imaginary coherence. Seed voxels were set as the same virtual channels in M1. After calculating the imaginary coherence in individuals, the correlation coefficient between decoding accuracy and strength of imaginary coherence was calculated over the whole brain. The significant correlations were distributed mainly to motor association areas for both real and imagined movements. These regions largely overlapped with brain regions that had significant connectivity to M1. Our results suggest that use of the strength of functional connectivity between M1 and motor association areas has the potential to improve the performance of BMIs to perform real and imagined movements.

  9. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies—one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  10. An expressive bodily movement repertoire for marimba performance, revealed through observers’ Laban effort-shape analyses, and allied musical features: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Broughton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Musicians’ expressive bodily movements can influence observers’ perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers’ music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies – one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers’ perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players’ bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the

  11. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies-one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  12. Classroom Performance and Adaptive Skills in Children with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Thomas J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studied relationships of age at onset, seizure syndrome, seizure type, and seizure frequency to classroom performance and adaptive skills of 131 children with epilepsy. Epilepsy syndrome and frequency of seizures significantly related to some analyses. Results suggest that seizure disorder associated with diffuse or multifocal brain insult can…

  13. Study habit skills as correlate of academic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study habit is one of the major factors that could influence students' academic attainment. Thus, this study examined study habit skills as correlate of academic performance of undergraduates in Edo state, Nigeria. It employed a correlation research design, using multistage sampling technique. Two hundred and forty eight ...

  14. Increased Complexities in Visual Search Behavior in Skilled Players for a Self-Paced Aiming Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi S. Chia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The badminton serve is an important shot for winning a rally in a match. It combines good technique with the ability to accurately integrate visual information from the shuttle, racket, opponent, and intended landing point. Despite its importance and repercussive nature, to date no study has looked at the visual search behaviors during badminton service in the singles discipline. Unlike anticipatory tasks (e.g., shot returns, the serve presents an opportunity to explore the role of visual search behaviors in movement control for self-paced tasks. Accordingly, this study examined skill-related differences in visual behavior during the badminton singles serve. Skilled (n = 12 and less skilled (n = 12 participants performed 30 serves to a live opponent, while real-time eye movements were captured using a mobile gaze registration system. Frame-by-frame analyses of 662 serves were made and the skilled players took a longer preparatory time before serving. Visual behavior of the skilled players was characterized by significantly greater number of fixations on more areas of interest per trial than the less skilled. In addition, the skilled players spent a significantly longer time fixating on the court and net, whereas the less skilled players found the shuttle to be more informative. Quiet eye (QE duration (indicative of superior sports performance however, did not differ significantly between groups which has implications on the perceived importance of QE in the badminton serve. Moreover, while visual behavior differed by skill level, considerable individual differences were also observed especially within the skilled players. This augments the need for not just group-level analyses, but individualized analysis for a more accurate representation of visual behavior. Findings from this study thus provide an insight to the possible visual search strategies as players serve in net-barrier games. Moreover, this study highlighted an important aspect of

  15. Impact of the site specialty of a continuity practice on students' clinical skills: performance with standardized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Carol A; Palley, Jane E; Harrington, Karen L

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of clinical competence and the impact of training in ambulatory settings are two issues of importance in the evaluation of medical student performance. This study compares the clinical skills performance of students placed in three types of community preceptors' offices (pediatrics, medicine, family medicine) on yearly clinical skills assessments with standardized patients. Our goal was to see if the site specialty impacted on clinical performance. The students in the study were completing a 3-year continuity preceptorship at a site representing one of the disciplines. Their performance on the four clinical skills assessments was compared. There was no significant difference in history taking, physical exam, communication, or clinical reasoning in any year (ANOVA p< or = .05) There was a small but significant difference in performance on a measure of interpersonal and interviewing skills during Years 1 and 2. The site specialty of an early clinical experience does not have a significant impact on performance of most of the skills measured by the assessments.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of SensHand V1 in assessing motor skills performance in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Filippo; Esposito, Dario; Rovini, Erika; Aquilano, Michela; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Dario, Paolo; Maremmani, Carlo; Bongioanni, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Nowadays, the increasing old population 65+ as well as the pace imposed by work activities lead to a high number of people that have particular injuries for limbs. In addition to persistent or temporary disabilities related to accidental injuries we must take into account that part of the population suffers from motor deficits of the hands due to stroke or diseases of various clinical nature. The most recurrent technological solutions to measure the rehabilitation or skill motor performance of the hand are glove-based devices, able to faithfully capture the movements of the hand and fingers. This paper presents a system for hand motion analysis based on 9-axis complete inertial modules and dedicated microcontroller which are fixed on fingers and forearm. The technological solution presented is able to track the patients' hand motions in real-time and then to send data through wireless communication reducing the clutter and the disadvantages of a glove equipped with sensors through a different technological structure. The device proposed has been tested in the study of Parkinson's disease.

  17. Goal-selection and movement-related conflict during bimanual reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichsen, Jörn; Grafton, Scott; Albert, Neil; Hazeltine, Eliot; Ivry, Richard B

    2006-12-01

    Conflict during bimanual movements can arise during the selection of movement goals or during movement planning and execution. We demonstrate a behavioral and neural dissociation of these 2 types of conflict. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants performed bimanual reaching movements with symmetric (congruent) or orthogonal (incongruent) trajectories. The required movements were indicated either spatially, by illuminating the targets, or symbolically, using centrally presented letters. The processing of symbolic cues led to increased activation in a left hemisphere network including the intraparietal sulcus, premotor cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus. Reaction time cost for incongruent movements was substantially larger for symbolic than for spatial cues, indicating that the cost was primarily associated with the selection and assignment of movement goals, demands that are minimized when goals are directly specified by spatial cues. This goal-selection conflict increased activity in the pre-supplementary motor area and cingulate motor areas. Both cueing conditions led to larger activation for incongruent movements in the convexity of the superior parietal cortex, bilaterally, making this region a likely neural site for conflict that arises during the planning and execution of bimanual movements. These results suggest distinct neural loci for 2 forms of constraint on our ability to perform bimanual reaching movements.

  18. Motor skills, cognition, and work performance of people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Lena; Elgerisi, Dikla; Easterbrook, Adam; Ratzon, Navah Z

    2018-01-12

    Employment offers many benefits to people with mental illness, yet their employment rate is much lower than that of the general population. We investigated the effect of work-related motor skills, neurocognition, and job attitudes on the work performance of people with mental illness, comparing those working in sheltered workshops, with controls working in similar jobs. Twenty-nine adults with severe mental illness and 27 controls matched by gender and age were enrolled into the study using convenience sampling. They were assessed for gross and fine motor hand functioning, job attitudes, work performance, and cognition. People with mental illness scored lower on work performance, cognitive functioning, and hand dexterity while sitting and working with tools. They were assigned lower job loads than were controls, and perceived the physical environment at work as more constraining than did controls. Assembling motor skills significantly explained the work performance of people with mental illness. The results expand our understanding of the complexities involved in the employment of people with severe mental illness, and point to new paths for improving vocational outcomes of people with severe mental illness, taking into account their motor skills and job attitudes. Implications for rehabilitation Therapists should be aware that employed people with severe mental illness may have various unmet needs, affecting their work performance and experience of stress. This study results demonstrate importance of motor skills and perception of the work environment for the promotion of vocational outcomes among individuals with severe mental illness. Employment of people with severe mental illness should be viewed from holistic perspective as with general population, rather than focused on traditionally illness-related factors.

  19. Clinical Skills Performed By Iranian Emergency Nurses: Perceived Competency Levels and Attitudes Toward Expanding Professional Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Hadi; Hasanzadeh, Firooz; Powers, Kelly A; Dadash Zadeh, Abbas; Rajaie, Rouzbeh

    2018-03-01

    Emergency nurses play an important role in the care of critically ill and injured patients, and their competency to perform clinical skills is vital to safe and effective patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical skills performed and perceived competency levels among Iranian emergency nurses. In addition, attitudes toward expanding the professional roles of Iranian emergency nurses were also assessed. In this descriptive correlational study, 319 emergency nurses from 30 hospitals in northwest Iran participated. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to present the findings. Overall competency of the emergency nurses was 73.31 ± 14.2, indicating a good level of perceived competence. The clinical skills most frequently performed were in the domains of organizational and workload competencies (3.43 ± 0.76), diagnostic function (3.25 ± 0.82), and the helping role (3.17 ± 0.83). A higher level of perceived competence was found for skills within these domains. Less frequently, participants performed skills within the domains of effective management of rapidly changing situations (2.70 ± 0.94) and administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions (2.60 ± 0.97); a lower perceived level of competence was noted for these clinical skills. There was a significant correlation between frequency of performing clinical skills and perceived competency level (r = 0.651, P skills. This has implications for nurse managers and educators who may consider offering more frequent experiential and educational opportunities to emergency nurses. Expansion of nurses' roles could also result in increased experience in clinical skills and higher levels of competency. Research is needed to investigate nurses' clinical competence using direct and observed measures. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of a motor skills training program in the improvement of practiced and non-practiced tasks performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Faiçal; Hsairi, Ines; Baati, Hamza; Smits-Engelsman, B C M; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a group-based task oriented skills training program on motor and physical ability for children with DCD. It was also investigated if there was an effect on fine motor and handwriting tasks that were not specifically practiced during the training program. Forty-one children aged 6-10years took part in this study. Children were assigned to three groups: an experimental training group consisting of 14 children with DCD, a control non-training group consisted of 13 children with DCD and a control non-training group consisting of 14 typically developed children. The measurements included were, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), the Modified Agility Test (MAT), the Triple Hop Distance (THD), the 5 Jump-test (5JT) and the Handwriting Performance Test. All measures were administered pre and post an 8-week training program. The results showed that 10 children of the DCD training-group improved their performance in MABC test, attaining a score above the 15th percentile after their participation in the training program. DCD training-group showed a significant improvement on all cluster scores (manual dexterity (t (13)=5.3, pskills (t (13)=2.73, pskills, in the training program, may reflect improvement in motor skill but also transfer to other skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative assessment of finger motor performance: Normative data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Signori

    Full Text Available Finger opposition movements are the basis of many daily living activities and are essential in general for manipulating objects; an engineered glove quantitatively assessing motor performance during sequences of finger opposition movements has been shown to be useful to provide reliable measures of finger motor impairment, even subtle, in subjects affected by neurological diseases. However, the obtained behavioral parameters lack published reference values.To determine mean values for different motor behavioral parameters describing the strategy adopted by healthy people in performing repeated sequences of finger opposition movements, examining associations with gender and age.Normative values for finger motor performance parameters were obtained on a sample of 255 healthy volunteers executing sequences of finger-to-thumb opposition movements, stratified by gender and over a wide range of ages. Touch duration, inter-tapping interval, movement rate, correct sequences (%, movements in advance compared with a metronome (% and inter-hand interval were assessed.Increasing age resulted in decreased movement speed, advance movements with respect to a cue, correctness of sequences, and bimanual coordination. No significant performance differences were found between male and female subjects except for the duration of the finger touch, the interval between two successive touches and their ratio.We report age- and gender-specific normal mean values and ranges for different parameters objectively describing the performance of finger opposition movement sequences, which may serve as useful references for clinicians to identify possible deficits in subjects affected by diseases altering fine hand motor skills.

  2. Gender Differences in Musical Aptitude, Rhythmic Ability and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatou, Elisana; Karadimou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vasilios

    2005-01-01

    Most of the preschool curricula involve integrated movement activities that combine music, rhythm and locomotor skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether there are any differences between boys and girls at the age of five concerning their musical aptitude, rhythmic ability and performance in gross motor skills. Ninety-five…

  3. The influences of attributes, skills and knowledge of managers on refurbishment project performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Nurfadzillah

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the momentum on the growth of national building industry shows the increasing of the demand in refurbishment works becomes a trend spreading over the Malaysia. However, the potential of these activities normally related with the complexity in technical aspect compared to new build schemes. It will be reflecting on the unsatisfactory project performance. A competent manager is required to have the appropriate attributes, skills and knowledge in able to perform all the duties associated with managing the refurbishment building projects. Therefore, this paper is to identify the most appropriate attributes, skills and knowledge that required for managers to indicate the relationship between the influences on the refurbishment projects performance. This finding is indicate the importance of development the personal attributes, skills, and knowledge of managers and adds as benefit of raising the profile and image of managers in refurbishment building industry through a dissemination of the findings.

  4. The impacts of observing flawed and flawless demonstrations on clinical skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domuracki, Kurt; Wong, Arthur; Olivieri, Lori; Grierson, Lawrence E M

    2015-02-01

    Clinical skills expertise can be advanced through accessible and cost-effective video-based observational practice activities. Previous findings suggest that the observation of performances of skills that include flaws can be beneficial to trainees. Observing the scope of variability within a skilled movement allows learners to develop strategies to manage the potential for and consequences associated with errors. This study tests this observational learning approach on the development of the skills of central line insertion (CLI). Medical trainees with no CLI experience (n = 39) were randomised to three observational practice groups: a group which viewed and assessed videos of an expert performing a CLI without any errors (F); a group which viewed and assessed videos that contained a mix of flawless and errorful performances (E), and a group which viewed the same videos as the E group but were also given information concerning the correctness of their assessments (FA). All participants interacted with their observational videos each day for 4 days. Following this period, participants returned to the laboratory and performed a simulation-based insertion, which was assessed using a standard checklist and a global rating scale for the skill. These ratings served as the dependent measures for analysis. The checklist analysis revealed no differences between observational learning groups (grand mean ± standard error: [20.3 ± 0.7]/25). However, the global rating analysis revealed a main effect of group (d.f.2,36 = 4.51, p = 0.018), which describes better CLI performance in the FA group, compared with the F and E groups. Observational practice that includes errors improves the global performance aspects of clinical skill learning as long as learners are given confirmation that what they are observing is errorful. These findings provide a refined perspective on the optimal organisation of skill education programmes that combine physical and observational practice

  5. The impact of case specificity and generalisable skills on clinical performance: a correlated traits-correlated methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Paul F; Fung, Cha-Chi

    2008-06-01

    The finding of case or content specificity in medical problem solving moved the focus of research away from generalisable skills towards the importance of content knowledge. However, controversy about the content dependency of clinical performance and the generalisability of skills remains. This study aimed to explore the relative impact of both perspectives (case specificity and generalisable skills) on different components (history taking, physical examination, communication) of clinical performance within and across cases. Data from a clinical performance examination (CPX) taken by 350 Year 3 students were used in a correlated traits-correlated methods (CTCM) approach using confirmatory factor analysis, whereby 'traits' refers to generalisable skills and 'methods' to individual cases. The baseline CTCM model was analysed and compared with four nested models using structural equation modelling techniques. The CPX consisted of three skills components and five cases. Comparison of the four different models with the least-restricted baseline CTCM model revealed that a model with uncorrelated generalisable skills factors and correlated case-specific knowledge factors represented the data best. The generalisable processes found in history taking, physical examination and communication were responsible for half the explained variance, in comparison with the variance related to case specificity. Conclusions Pure knowledge-based and pure skill-based perspectives on clinical performance both seem too one-dimensional and new evidence supports the idea that a substantial amount of variance contributes to both aspects of performance. It could be concluded that generalisable skills and specialised knowledge go hand in hand: both are essential aspects of clinical performance.

  6. A multi-source, multi-study investigation of job performance prediction by political skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blickle, G.; Ferris, G.R.; Munyon, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    -sectional and longitudinal designs, this research tested the hypotheses that employee political skill, measured from the perspective of employees' assessor A, will positively predict job performance rated by assessor B (i.e. Hypothesis 1a), and vice versa, that employee political skill measured by assessor B will predict...

  7. Investigating the social behavioral dynamics and differentiation of skill in a martial arts technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Robert R; Coey, Charles A; Dhaim, Ashley N; Schmidt, R C

    2017-08-01

    Coordinating interpersonal motor activity is crucial in martial arts, where managing spatiotemporal parameters is emphasized to produce effective techniques. Modeling arm movements in an Aikido technique as coupled oscillators, we investigated whether more-skilled participants would adapt to the perturbation of weighted arms in different and predictable ways compared to less-skilled participants. Thirty-four participants ranging from complete novice to veterans of more than twenty years were asked to perform an Aikido exercise with a repeated attack and response, resulting in a period of steady-state coordination, followed by a take down. We used mean relative phase and its variability to measure the steady-state dynamics of both the inter- and intrapersonal coordination. Our findings suggest that interpersonal coordination of less-skilled participants is disrupted in highly predictable ways based on oscillatory dynamics; however, more-skilled participants overcome these natural dynamics to maintain critical performance variables. Interestingly, the more-skilled participants exhibited more variability in their intrapersonal dynamics while meeting these interpersonal demands. This work lends insight to the development of skill in competitive social motor activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Three-dimensional motion tracking correlates with skill level in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Sif H.; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Konge, Lars

    2015-01-01

    untrained medical students) were tested using a virtual reality simulator. A motion sensor was used to collect data regarding the distance between the hands, and height and movement of the scope hand. Test characteristics between groups were explored using Kruskal-Wallis H and Man-Whitney U exact tests......Background and study aim: Feedback is an essential part of training in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Virtual reality simulators provide limited feedback, focusing only on visual recognition with no feedback on the procedural part of training. Motion tracking identifies patterns of movement......, and this study aimed to explore the correlation between skill level and operator movement using an objective automated tool. Methods: In this medical education study, 37 operators (12 senior doctors who performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 13 doctors with varying levels of experience, and 12...

  9. The Effect of Body Movement on Listeners' Perceptions of Musicality in Trombone Quartet Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effect body movement would have on listeners' (N = 90) perceptions of a professional chamber ensemble performance. Specifically, an audio/video recording of a trombone quartet performance was used for the music stimulus. Listeners were asked to rate each performance on the basis of perceived…

  10. Do soft skills predict surgical performance?: a single-center randomized controlled trial evaluating predictors of skill acquisition in virtual reality laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschuw, K; Schlosser, K; Kupietz, E; Slater, E P; Weyers, P; Hassan, I

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR) training in minimal invasive surgery (MIS) is feasible in surgical residency and beneficial for the performance of MIS by surgical trainees. Research on stress-coping of surgical trainees indicates the additional impact of soft skills on VR performance in the surgical curriculum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of structured VR training and soft skills on VR performance of trainees. The study was designed as a single-center randomized controlled trial. Fifty first-year surgical residents with limited experience in MIS ("camera navigation" in laparoscopic cholecystectomy only) were randomized for either 3 months of VR training or no training. Basic VR performance and defined soft skills (self-efficacy, stress-coping, and motivation) were assessed prior to randomization using basic modules of the VR simulator LapSim(®) and standardized psychological questionnaires. Three months after randomization VR performance was reassessed. Outcome measurement was based on the results derived from the most complex of the basic VR modules ("diathermy cutting") as the primary end point. A correlation analysis of the VR end-point performance and the psychological scores was done in both groups. Structured VR training enhanced VR performance of surgical trainees. An additional correlation to high motivational states (P 0.05). Low self-efficacy and negative stress-coping strategies seem to predict poor VR performance. However, structured training along with high motivational states is likely to balance out this impairment.

  11. Objective assessment of movement competence in children using wearable sensors: An instrumented version of the TGMD-2 locomotor subtest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Maria Cristina; Pacini Panebianco, G; Polman, R; Stagni, R

    2017-07-01

    Movement competence (MC) is defined as the development of sufficient skill to assure successful performance in different physical activities. Monitoring children MC during maturation is fundamental to detect early minor delays and define effective intervention. To this purpose, several MC assessment batteries are available. When evaluating movement strategies, with the aim of identifying specific skill components that may need improving, widespread MC assessment is limited by high time consumption for scoring and the need for trained operators to ensure reliability. This work aims to facilitate and support the assessment by designing, implementing and validating an instrumented version of the TGMD-2 locomotor subtest based on Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) to quantify MC in children rapidly and objectively. 45 typically developing children, aged 6-10, performed the TGMD-2 locomotor subtest (six skills). During the tests, children wore five IMUs mounted on lower back, on ankles and on wrists. Sensor and video recordings of the tests were collected. Three expert evaluators performed the standard assessment of TGMD-2. Using theoretical and modelling approaches, algorithms were implemented to automatically score children tests based on IMUs' data. The automatic assessment, compared to the standard one, showed an agreement higher than 87% on average on the entire group for each skill and a reduction of time for scoring from 15 to 2min per participant. Results support the use of IMUs for MC assessment: this approach will allow improving the usability of MC assessment, supporting objectively evaluator decisions and reducing time requirement for the evaluation of large groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining Age-Related Movement Representations for Sequential (Fine-Motor) Finger Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Theory suggests that imagined and executed movement planning relies on internal models for action. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested children aged 7-11 years and adults on their ability to perform sequential finger movements. Underscoring this tactic was our desire to gain a…

  13. Short communication: final year students' deficits in physical examination skills performance in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, Markus; Diefenbacher, Katja; Koehl-Hackert, Nadja; Buss, Beate; Nagelmann, Lars; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The physical examination of patients is an important diagnostic competence, but little is known about the examination skills of final-year medical students. To investigate physical examination skills of final-year medical students. In a cross-sectional study, 40 final-year students were asked to perform a detailed physical examination on standardized patients. Their performances were video-recorded and rated by independent video assessors. Video ratings showed a mean success rate of 40.1 % (SD 8.2). As regards accompanying doctor-patient communication, final-year students achieved a mean of no more than 36.7 % (SD 8.9) in the appropriate use of the corresponding communication items. Our study revealed severe deficits among final-year medical students in performing a detailed physical examination on a standardized patient. Thus, physical examination skills training should aim to improve these deficits while also paying attention to communicative aspects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Warren B

    2006-06-01

    The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.

  15. Relationship between non-technical skills and technical performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: does stress have an influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krage, R.; Zwaan, L.; Tjon Soei Len, L.; Kolenbrander, M.; Groeningen, D. van; Loer, S.A.; Wagner, C.; Schober, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-technical skills, such as task management, leadership, situational awareness, communication and decision-making refer to cognitive, behavioural and social skills that contribute to safe and efficient team performance. The importance of these skills during cardiopulmonary

  16. Key motion characteristics of side-step movements in hip-hop dance and their effect on the evaluation by judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nahoko; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    In hip-hop dance, the elements of motion that discriminate the skill levels of dancers and that influence the evaluations by judges have not been clearly identified. This study set out to extract these motion characteristics from the side-step movements of hip-hop dancing. Eight expert and eight non-expert dancers performed side-step movements, which were recorded using a motion capture system. Nine experienced judges evaluated the dancers' performances. Several parameters, including the range of motion (ROM) of the joint angles (neck, trunk, hip, knee, and face inclination) and phase delays between these angular motions were calculated. A quarter-cycle phase delay between the neck motion and other body parts, seen only in the expert dancers, is highlighted as an element that can distinguish dancers' skill levels. This feature of the expert dancers resulted in a larger ROM during the face inclination than that for the non-expert dancers. In addition, the experts exhibited a bottom-to-top segmental sequence in the horizontal direction while the non-experts did not demonstrate any such sequential motion. Of these kinematic parameters, only the ROM of the face inclination was highly correlated to the judging score and is regarded as being the most appealing element of the side-step movement.

  17. Relationship between non-technical skills and technical performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Does stress have an influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krage, R. (Ralf); L. Zwaan (Laura); Tjon Soei Len, L. (Lian); Kolenbrander, M.W. (Mark W); Van Groeningen, D. (DIck); S.A. Loer (Stephan A.); C. Wagner (Cordula); P. Schober (P.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground Non-technical skills, such as task management, leadership, situational awareness, communication and decision-making refer to cognitive, behavioural and social skills that contribute to safe and efficient team performance. The importance of these skills during cardiopulmonary

  18. The path to presence in performance through movement, physiological response, and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis Preeshl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Presence may occur when actors are alert and relaxed in performance. A positive mood is associated with physical activity, but little is known about how movement qualities affect mood and vital signs of actors. This study examined the effects of vibratory, pendular, abrupt, and sustained movement qualities on the Brief Mood Introspection Scale, and physiology. Undergraduate theatre (n = 25 and non-theatre majors (n = 24 engaged in protocols of four movement qualities: vibratory, pendular, abrupt and sustained. Mood and heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and temperature were measured before and after four different movement protocols. The hypothesis that the sequence of vibratory, pendular, sustained, and abrupt increased the alert, relaxed state of Presence and Arousal was rejected. It was found that systolic blood pressure increased in men across protocols. A significant interaction was found between the participants’ major and “Tired.” Because Tired and Arousal indicate mental and/or physical energy, a relationship between MAJOR and “Tired,” combined with significant correlation between subjects and major, suggests that the protocols resulted in fatigue. Half of the mood variance is explained by the factor “major.” These two significant findings suggest a relationship between mood and major as well as blood pressure and gender.

  19. Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency of 6- to 9-Year-Old Singaporean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Swarup; Ting Jamie, Lye Ching; Fong, Leong Hin

    2017-06-01

    Fundamental movement proficiency (FMS) is most successfully acquired during early school years. This cross-sectional study assessed FMS proficiency in Singaporean children at the start of and following 2.5 years of primary school physical education (PE). Participants were 244 children from Primary 1 and 3 levels. Fundamental movement skills (FMS) were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD-2) that includes locomotor (LOCO) and object control (OC) subtests. Most children were rated "average" and "below average" for LOCO skills but "poor" and "below average" for OC skills without significant gender differences on either subtest or overall FMS proficiency and without FMS mastery. These young Singaporean children failed to exhibit age-appropriate FMS proficiency despite early PE exposure, and they demonstrated lags in FMS compared with the TGMD-2 U.S. normative sample. We discuss implications for sports competence perception, difficulty in coping with later movement learning expectations and reduced later motivation to participate in PE and play. We also discuss implications for preschool and lower primary school PE curricula with a particular focus on both OC skills and LOCO skills requiring muscular fitness like hopping and jumping.

  20. Fine motor skills in adult Tourette patients are task-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuner Irene

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. Methods For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls. Results The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients’ subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand. Conclusions Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.

  1. Gender, Math Confidence, and Grit: Relationships with Quantitative Skills and Performance in an Undergraduate Biology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, K M; Einarson, J

    2017-01-01

    In a world filled with big data, mathematical models, and statistics, the development of strong quantitative skills is becoming increasingly critical for modern biologists. Teachers in this field must understand how students acquire quantitative skills and explore barriers experienced by students when developing these skills. In this study, we examine the interrelationships among gender, grit, and math confidence for student performance on a pre-post quantitative skills assessment and overall performance in an undergraduate biology course. Here, we show that females significantly underperformed relative to males on a quantitative skills assessment at the start of term. However, females showed significantly higher gains over the semester, such that the gender gap in performance was nearly eliminated by the end of the semester. Math confidence plays an important role in the performance on both the pre and post quantitative skills assessments and overall performance in the course. The effect of grit on student performance, however, is mediated by a student's math confidence; as math confidence increases, the positive effect of grit decreases. Consequently, the positive impact of a student's grittiness is observed most strongly for those students with low math confidence. We also found grit to be positively associated with the midterm score and the final grade in the course. Given the relationships established in this study among gender, grit, and math confidence, we provide "instructor actions" from the literature that can be applied in the classroom to promote the development of quantitative skills in light of our findings. © 2017 K. M. Flanagan and J. Einarson. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http

  2. Fine motor movements while drawing during the encoding phase of a serial verbal recall task reduce working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindle, Richard; Longstaff, Mitchell G

    2016-02-01

    The time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model of working memory indicates that secondary tasks that capture attention for relatively long periods can result in the interference of working memory processing and maintenance. The current study investigates if discrete and continuous movements have differing effects on a concurrent, verbal serial recall task. In the listening condition, participants were asked to recall spoken words presented in lists of six. In the drawing conditions, participants performed the same task while producing discrete (star) or continuous (circle) movements. As hypothesised, participants recalled more words overall in the listening condition compared to the combined drawing conditions. The prediction that the continuous movement condition would reduce recall compared to listening was also supported. Fine-grained analysis at each serial position revealed significantly more words were recalled at mid serial positions in the listening condition, with worst recall for the continuous condition at position 5 compared to the listening and discrete conditions. Kinematic analysis showed that participants increased the size and speed of the continuous movements resulting in a similar duration and number of strokes for each condition. The duration of brief pauses in the discrete condition was associated with the number of words recalled. The results indicate that fine motor movements reduced working memory performance; however, it was not merely performing a movement but the type of the movement that determined how resources were diverted. In the context of the TBRS, continuous movements could be capturing attention for longer periods relative to discrete movements, reducing verbal serial recall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental skills training effectively minimizes operative performance deterioration under stressful conditions: Results of a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, N E; Beane, J; Yurco, A M; Howley, L D; Bean, E; Myers, E M; Stefanidis, D

    2018-02-01

    Stress can negatively impact surgical performance, but mental skills may help. We hypothesized that a comprehensive mental skills curriculum (MSC) would minimize resident performance deterioration under stress. Twenty-four residents were stratified then randomized to receive mental skills and FLS training (MSC group), or only FLS training (control group). Laparoscopic suturing skill was assessed on a live porcine model with and without external stressors. Outcomes were compared with t-tests. Twenty-three residents completed the study. The groups were similar at baseline. There were no differences in suturing at posttest or transfer test under normal conditions. Both groups experienced significantly decreased performance when stress was applied, but the MSC group significantly outperformed controls under stress. This MSC enabled residents to perform significantly better than controls in the simulated OR under unexpected stressful conditions. These findings support the use of psychological skills as an integral part of a surgical resident training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. White Matter Injury and General Movements in High-Risk Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, C; Yang, E; Msall, M E; Adde, L; Støen, R; Fjørtoft, T; Bos, A F; Einspieler, C; Zhou, Y; Schreiber, M D; Marks, J D; Drobyshevsky, A

    2017-01-01

    Very preterm infants (birth weight, cognitive and motor impairment, including cerebral palsy. These adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are associated with white matter abnormalities on MR imaging at term-equivalent age. Cerebral palsy has been predicted by analysis of spontaneous movements in the infant termed "General Movement Assessment." The goal of this study was to determine the utility of General Movement Assessment in predicting adverse cognitive, language, and motor outcomes in very preterm infants and to identify brain imaging markers associated with both adverse outcomes and aberrant general movements. In this prospective study of 47 preterm infants of 24-30 weeks' gestation, brain MR imaging was performed at term-equivalent age. Infants underwent T1- and T2-weighted imaging for volumetric analysis and DTI. General movements were assessed at 10-15 weeks' postterm age, and neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated at 2 years by using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III. Nine infants had aberrant general movements and were more likely to have adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, compared with infants with normal movements. In infants with aberrant movements, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis identified significantly lower fractional anisotropy in widespread white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, inferior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, internal capsule, and optic radiation. The subset of infants having both aberrant movements and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in cognitive, language, and motor skills had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in specific brain regions. Aberrant general movements at 10-15 weeks' postterm are associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and specific white matter microstructure abnormalities for cognitive, language, and motor delays. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. Examining the online reading behavior and performance of fifth-graders: evidence from eye-movement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ting eSung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Online reading is developing at an increasingly rapid rate, but the debate concerning whether learning is more effective when using hypertexts than when using traditional linear texts is still persistent. In addition, several researchers stated that online reading comprehension always starts with a question, but little empirical evidence has been gathered to investigate this claim. This study used eye-tracking technology and retrospective think aloud technique to examine online reading behaviors of fifth-graders (N = 50. The participants were asked to read four texts on the website. The present study employed a three-way mixed design: 2 (reading ability: high vs. low  2 (reading goals: with vs. without  2 (text types: hypertext vs. linear text. The dependent variables were eye-movement indices and the frequencies of using online reading strategy. The results show that fifth-graders, irrespective of their reading ability, found it difficult to navigate the nonlinear structure of hypertexts when searching for and integrating information. When they read with goals, they adjusted their reading speed and the focus of their attention. Their offline reading ability also influenced their online reading performance. These results suggest that online reading skills and strategies have to be taught in order to enhance the online reading abilities of elementary-school students.

  6. Examining the online reading behavior and performance of fifth-graders: evidence from eye-movement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Wu, Ming-Da; Chen, Chun-Kuang; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-01-01

    Online reading is developing at an increasingly rapid rate, but the debate concerning whether learning is more effective when using hypertexts than when using traditional linear texts is still persistent. In addition, several researchers stated that online reading comprehension always starts with a question, but little empirical evidence has been gathered to investigate this claim. This study used eye-tracking technology and retrospective think aloud technique to examine online reading behaviors of fifth-graders (N = 50). The participants were asked to read four texts on the website. The present study employed a three-way mixed design: 2 (reading ability: high vs. low) × 2 (reading goals: with vs. without) × 2 (text types: hypertext vs. linear text). The dependent variables were eye-movement indices and the frequencies of using online reading strategy. The results show that fifth-graders, irrespective of their reading ability, found it difficult to navigate the non-linear structure of hypertexts when searching for and integrating information. When they read with goals, they adjusted their reading speed and the focus of their attention. Their offline reading ability also influenced their online reading performance. These results suggest that online reading skills and strategies have to be taught in order to enhance the online reading abilities of elementary-school students. PMID:26074837

  7. Transferability of laparoscopic skills using the virtual reality simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui; Kalinitschenko, Uljana; Helmert, Jens R; Weitz, Juergen; Reissfelder, Christoph; Mees, Soeren Torge

    2018-03-30

    Skill transfer represents an important issue in surgical education, and is not well understood. The aim of this randomized study is to assess the transferability of surgical skills between two laparoscopic abdominal procedures using the virtual reality simulator in surgical novices. From September 2016 to July 2017, 44 surgical novices were randomized into two groups and underwent a proficiency-based basic training consisting of five selected simulated laparoscopic tasks. In group 1, participants performed an appendectomy training on the virtual reality simulator until they reached a defined proficiency. They moved on to the tutorial procedural tasks of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Participants in group 2 started with the tutorial procedural tasks of laparoscopic cholecystectomy directly. Finishing the training, participants of both groups were required to perform a complete cholecystectomy on the simulator. Time, safety and economy parameters were analysed. Significant differences in the demographic characteristics and previous computer games experience between the two groups were not noted. Both groups took similar time to complete the proficiency-based basic training. Participants in group 1 needed significantly less movements (388.6 ± 98.6 vs. 446.4 ± 81.6; P virtual reality simulator; however, the transfer of cognitive skills is limited. Separate training curricula seem to be necessary for each procedure for trainees to practise task-specific cognitive skills effectively. Mentoring could help trainees to get a deeper understanding of the procedures, thereby increasing the chance for the transfer of acquired skills.

  8. Fine and gross motor skills: The effects on skill-focused dual-tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisbeck, Louisa D; Diekfuss, Jed A

    2015-10-01

    Dual-task methodology often directs participants' attention towards a gross motor skill involved in the execution of a skill, but researchers have not investigated the comparative effects of attention on fine motor skill tasks. Furthermore, there is limited information about participants' subjective perception of workload with respect to task performance. To examine this, the current study administered the NASA-Task Load Index following a simulated shooting dual-task. The task required participants to stand 15 feet from a projector screen which depicted virtual targets and fire a modified Glock 17 handgun equipped with an infrared laser. Participants performed the primary shooting task alone (control), or were also instructed to focus their attention on a gross motor skill relevant to task execution (gross skill-focused) and a fine motor skill relevant to task execution (fine skill-focused). Results revealed that workload was significantly greater during the fine skill-focused task for both skill levels, but performance was only affected for the lesser-skilled participants. Shooting performance for the lesser-skilled participants was greater during the gross skill-focused condition compared to the fine skill-focused condition. Correlational analyses also demonstrated a significant negative relationship between shooting performance and workload during the gross skill-focused task for the higher-skilled participants. A discussion of the relationship between skill type, workload, skill level, and performance in dual-task paradigms is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Augmented kinematic feedback from haptic virtual reality for dental skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Haddawy, Peter; Rhienmora, Phattanapon; Jittimanee, Pannapa; Viratket, Piyanuch

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a haptic virtual reality system for dental skill training. In this study we examined several kinds of kinematic information about the movement provided by the system supplement knowledge of results (KR) in dental skill acquisition. The kinematic variables examined involved force utilization (F) and mirror view (M). This created three experimental conditions that received augmented kinematic feedback (F, M, FM) and one control condition that did not (KR-only). Thirty-two dental students were randomly assigned to four groups. Their task was to perform access opening on the upper first molar with the haptic virtual reality system. An acquisition session consisted of two days of ten trials of practice in which augmented kinematic feedback was provided for the appropriate experimental conditions after each trial. One week after, a retention test consisting of two trials without augmented feedback was completed. The results showed that the augmented kinematic feedback groups had larger mean performance scores than the KR-only group in Day 1 of the acquisition and retention sessions (ANOVA, p0.05). The trends in acquisition and retention sessions suggest that the augmented kinematic feedback can enhance the performance earlier in the skill acquisition and retention sessions.

  10. Fundamental movement skills in adolescents: Secular trends from 2003 to 2010 and associations with physical activity and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotari, P; Heikinaro-Johansson, P; Watt, A; Jaakkola, T

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the secular trends in fundamental movement skills (FMS) among 15- to 16-year-old adolescents at 2 assessment points scheduled in 2003 and 2010 and to investigate the associations between FMS, physical activity (PA), and body mass index (BMI). In 2003, self-reported PA, weight and height, and objective FMS scores were collected from 2390 students, and in 2010, similar data were generated from a second sample of 1346 students. FMS were assessed during both assessment phases using 3 identical objective FMS tests that were figure 8 dribbling, jumping laterally, and coordination track tests. This study indicated that the sum index of FMS did not change among the boys and the girls between 2 data collection points. However, findings demonstrated a secular decline in coordination test scores in both gender groups between 2 measurement points but an improvement in girls' object control skills between 2003 and 2010. The results also showed that FMS had a significant main effect on BMI in both gender groups, whereas the main effect of PA on BMI was not significant for either gender group. Results also demonstrated that there was no significant interaction effect between FMS and PA on BMI in either of the girls' or the boys' groups. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Have Basic Mathematical Skills Grown Obsolete in the Computer Age: Assessing Basic Mathematical Skills and Forecasting Performance in a Business Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noser, Thomas C.; Tanner, John R.; Shah, Situl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the comprehension of basic mathematical skills of students enrolled in statistics classes at a large regional university, and to determine if the scores earned on a basic math skills test are useful in forecasting student performance in these statistics classes, and to determine if students' basic math…

  12. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Grigoriadis, Joannis; Trulsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor...... movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with ten 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw...... task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights on into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation...

  13. Labour Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during the experience of unemployment. Within a search and matching model, we show that all natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...

  14. Peer video review and feedback improve performance in basic surgical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Carolyn J; Kim, Edward; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Huang, Emily; Lin, Matthew Y C; Wyles, Susannah; Palmer, Barnard J A; Pierce, Jonathan L; Chern, Hueylan

    2016-02-01

    Incorporation of home-video assessments allows flexibility in feedback but requires faculty time. Peer feedback (PF) may provide additional benefits while avoiding these constraints. Twenty-four surgical interns completed a 12-week skills curriculum with home-video assignments focused on knot tying and suturing. Interns were randomized into 2 groups: PF or faculty feedback (FF). Peers and faculty provided feedback on home videos with checklists, global rating, and comments. Learners' skills were assessed at baseline, during, and at the conclusion of the curriculum. Performance of the 2 groups as rated by experts was compared. FF and PF were compared. Both groups improved from baseline, and the highest rated scores were seen on their home-video assessments. The PF group performed better at the final assessment than the FF group (effect size, .84). When using a checklist, there was no significant difference between scores given by peers and faculty. The PF group performed better at the final assessment, suggesting reviewing and analyzing another's performance may improve one's own performance. With checklists as guidance, peers can serve as raters comparable to faculty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgeon-tool force/torque signatures--evaluation of surgical skills in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J; MacFarlane, M; Richards, C; Hannaford, B; Sinanan, M

    1999-01-01

    The best method of training for laparoscopic surgical skills is controversial. Some advocate observation in the operating room, while others promote animal and simulated models or a combination of surgical related tasks. The mode of proficiency evaluation common to all of these methods has been subjective evaluation by a skilled surgeon. In order to define an objective means of evaluating performance, an instrumented laparoscopic grasper was developed measuring the force/torque at the surgeon hand/tool interface. The measured database demonstrated substantial differences between experienced and novice surgeon groups. Analyzing forces and torques combined with the state transition during surgical procedures allows an objective measurement of skill in MIS. Teaching the novice surgeon to limit excessive loads and improve movement efficiency during surgical procedures can potentially result in less injury to soft tissues and less wasted time during laparoscopic surgery. Moreover the force/torque database measured in this study may be used for developing realistic virtual reality simulators and optimization of medical robots performance.

  16. The Effects of an Interactive Nursing Skills Mobile Application on Nursing Students' Knowledge, Self-efficacy, and Skills Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsun; Suh, Eunyoung E

    2018-03-01

    Clinical nursing practice is important because it helps nursing students experience realities of clinical nursing that cannot be learned through theoretical education. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an interactive nursing skills mobile application for nursing students. Sixty-six senior nursing students were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. The experimental group used an interactive nursing skills mobile application for 1 week. The control group was provided with a mobile application containing noninteractive nursing video contents for 1 week. Before (pre-test) and 1 week after (post-test) using the mobile application, participants' knowledge of clinical nursing skills, self-efficacy of nursing practice, and nursing skills performance were assessed. The experimental group showed a significantly higher value for knowledge after 1 week of treatment via their mobile application than the control group (t = 3.34, p = .001). In addition, they showed significantly improved self-efficacy before and after intervention (t = 2.46, p = .017) than the control group. The experimental group's nursing skills performance was also significantly enhanced after intervention (t = 7.05, p mobile application with systematic contents was an effective method for students to experience practical nursing skills. Developing and applying a mobile application with other nursing contents that can be effectively used across all range of nursing students is recommended. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The association between fundamental athletic movements and physical fitness in elite junior Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; McKeown, Ian; Keogh, Justin; Robertson, Sam

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the associations between fundamental athletic movement and physical fitness in junior Australian football (AF). Forty-four under 18 players performed a fundamental athletic movement assessment consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge, single leg Romanian deadlift and a push up. Movements were scored on three assessment criterions using a three-point scale. Additionally, participants performed five physical fitness tests commonly used for talent identification in AF. A Spearman's nonparametric correlation matrix was built, with correlation coefficients being visualised using a circularly rendered correlogram. Score on the overhead squat was moderately positively associated with dynamic vertical jump height on left (r s  = 0.40; P ≤ 0.05) and right (r s  = 0.30; P ≤ 0.05) leg take-off, stationary vertical jump (r s  = 0.32; P ≤ 0.05) and negatively associated with 20-m sprint time (r s  = -0.35; P ≤ 0.05). Score on the double lunge (left/right side) was moderately positively associated with the same physical fitness tests as well as score on the multistage fitness test. Results suggest that improvements in physical fitness qualities may occur through concurrent increases in fundamental athletic movement skill, namely the overhead squat and double lunge movements. These findings may assist with the identification and development of talent.

  18. Climbing fibers predict movement kinematics and performance errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streng, Martha L; Popa, Laurentiu S; Ebner, Timothy J

    2017-09-01

    Requisite for understanding cerebellar function is a complete characterization of the signals provided by complex spike (CS) discharge of Purkinje cells, the output neurons of the cerebellar cortex. Numerous studies have provided insights into CS function, with the most predominant view being that they are evoked by error events. However, several reports suggest that CSs encode other aspects of movements and do not always respond to errors or unexpected perturbations. Here, we evaluated CS firing during a pseudo-random manual tracking task in the monkey ( Macaca mulatta ). This task provides extensive coverage of the work space and relative independence of movement parameters, delivering a robust data set to assess the signals that activate climbing fibers. Using reverse correlation, we determined feedforward and feedback CSs firing probability maps with position, velocity, and acceleration, as well as position error, a measure of tracking performance. The direction and magnitude of the CS modulation were quantified using linear regression analysis. The major findings are that CSs significantly encode all three kinematic parameters and position error, with acceleration modulation particularly common. The modulation is not related to "events," either for position error or kinematics. Instead, CSs are spatially tuned and provide a linear representation of each parameter evaluated. The CS modulation is largely predictive. Similar analyses show that the simple spike firing is modulated by the same parameters as the CSs. Therefore, CSs carry a broader array of signals than previously described and argue for climbing fiber input having a prominent role in online motor control. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This article demonstrates that complex spike (CS) discharge of cerebellar Purkinje cells encodes multiple parameters of movement, including motor errors and kinematics. The CS firing is not driven by error or kinematic events; instead it provides a linear representation of each

  19. Enhancing students’ mathematical problem posing skill through writing in performance tasks strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir; Adelina, R.; Fatma, M.

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers have studied the Writing in Performance Task (WiPT) strategy in learning, but only a few paid attention on its relation to the problem-posing skill in mathematics. The problem-posing skill in mathematics covers problem reformulation, reconstruction, and imitation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of WiPT strategy on students’ mathematical problem-posing skill. The research was conducted at a Public Junior Secondary School in Tangerang Selatan. It used a quasi-experimental method with randomized control group post-test. The samples were 64 students consists of 32 students of the experiment group and 32 students of the control. A cluster random sampling technique was used for sampling. The research data were obtained by testing. The research shows that the problem-posing skill of students taught by WiPT strategy is higher than students taught by a conventional strategy. The research concludes that the WiPT strategy is more effective in enhancing the students’ mathematical problem-posing skill compared to the conventional strategy.

  20. Does teaching crisis resource management skills improve resuscitation performance in pediatric residents?*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Jaime; Duff, Jonathan P; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Djogovic, Dennis; Joynt, Chloe

    2014-05-01

    The effect of teaching crisis resource management skills on the resuscitation performance of pediatric residents is unknown. The primary objective of this pilot study was to determine if teaching crisis resource management to residents leads to improved clinical and crisis resource management performance in simulated pediatric resuscitation scenarios. A prospective, randomized control pilot study. Simulation facility at tertiary pediatric hospital. Junior pediatric residents. Junior pediatric residents were randomized to 1 hour of crisis resource management instruction or no additional training. Time to predetermined resuscitation tasks was noted in simulated resuscitation scenarios immediately after intervention and again 3 months post intervention. Crisis resource management skills were evaluated using the Ottawa Global Rating Scale. Fifteen junior residents participated in the study, of which seven in the intervention group. The intervention crisis resource management group placed monitor leads 24.6 seconds earlier (p = 0.02), placed an IV 47.1 seconds sooner (p = 0.04), called for help 50.4 seconds faster (p = 0.03), and checked for a pulse after noticing a rhythm change 84.9 seconds quicker (p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in time to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (p = 0.264). The intervention group had overall crisis resource management performance scores 1.15 points higher (Ottawa Global Rating Scale [out of 7]) (p = 0.02). Three months later, these differences between the groups persisted. A 1-hour crisis resource management teaching session improved time to critical initial steps of pediatric resuscitation and crisis resource management performance as measured by the Ottawa Global Rating Scale. The control group did not develop these crisis resource management skills over 3 months of standard training indicating that obtaining these skills requires specific education. Larger studies of crisis resource education are

  1. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Alfred O.; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    motor skill (technique acquisition of indoor rowing). One group was treated with visual information and two groups with audiovisual information (sonification vs. natural sounds). For all three groups learning became evident and remained stable. Participants treated with additional movement sonification showed better performance compared to both other groups. Results indicate that movement sonification enhances motor learning of a complex gross motor skill—even exceeding usually expected acoustic rhythmic effects on motor learning. PMID:27303255

  2. Effect of action verbs on the performance of a complex movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Rabahi

    Full Text Available The interaction between language and motor action has been approached by studying the effect of action verbs, kinaesthetic imagery and mental subtraction upon the performance of a complex movement, the squat vertical jump (SVJ. The time of flight gave the value of the height of the SVJ and was measured with an Optojump® and a Myotest® apparatuses. The results obtained by the effects of the cognitive stimuli showed a statistically significant improvement of the SVJ performance after either loudly or silently pronouncing, hearing or reading the verb saute (jump in French language. Action verbs specific for other motor actions (pince = pinch, lèche = lick or non-specific (bouge = move showed no or little effect. A meaningless verb for the French subjects (tiáo = jump in Chinese showed no effect as did rêve (dream, tombe (fall and stop. The verb gagne (win improved significantly the SVJ height, as did its antonym perds (lose suggesting a possible influence of affects in the subjects' performance. The effect of the specific action verb jump upon the heights of SVJ was similar to that obtained after kinaesthetic imagery and after mental subtraction of two digits numbers from three digits ones; possibly, in the latter, because of the intervention of language in calculus. It appears that the effects of the specific action verb jump did seem effective but not totally exclusive for the enhancement of the SVJ performance. The results imply an interaction among language and motor brain areas in the performance of a complex movement resulting in a clear specificity of the corresponding action verb. The effect upon performance may probably be influenced by the subjects' intention, increased attention and emotion produced by cognitive stimuli among which action verbs.

  3. Pragmatic evaluation of the Go2Play Active Play intervention on physical activity and fundamental movement skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Avril; Hughes, Adrienne R; Janssen, Xanne; Reilly, John J

    2017-09-01

    Active play is a novel approach to addressing low physical activity levels and fundamental movement skills (FMS) in children. This study aimed to determine if a new school-based, 'Go2Play Active Play' intervention improved school day physical activity and FMS. This was a pragmatic evaluation conducted in Scotland during 2015-16. Participants ( n  = 172; mean age = 7 years) were recruited from seven primary schools taking part in the 5-month intervention, plus 24 participants not receiving the intervention were recruited to act as a comparison group.189 participants had physical activity measured using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer at baseline and again at follow-up 5 months later. A sub-sample of participants from the intervention ( n  = 102) and comparison ( n  = 21) groups had their FMS assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) at baseline and follow-up. Changes in school day physical activity and FMS variables were examined using repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect was 'group' on 'time' from baseline to follow-up. Results indicated there was a significant interaction for mean counts per minute and percent time in sedentary behavior, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (all p  skills score and percentile (both p  = 0.02), but no significant interaction for object control skills score ( p  = 0.1) and percentile ( p  = 0.3). The Go2Play Active Play intervention may be a promising way of improving physical activity and FMS but this needs to be confirmed in an RCT.

  4. Helping Preschoolers Prepare for Writing: Developing Fine Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. Michelle; Fortenberry, Callie

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is the most intensive period for the development of physical skills. Writing progress depends largely on the development of fine motor skills involving small muscle movements of the hand. Young children need to participate in a variety of developmentally appropriate activities intentionally designed to promote fine motor control.…

  5. Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairments--research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias O; Haibach, Pamela S; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skill performance of 23, 6-12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (pskills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How Pre-Service Teachers' Understand and Perform Science Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding and performance on science process skills. A sample comprised 91 elementary pre-service teachers at a university in the Midwest of the USA. Participants were enrolled in two science education courses; introductory science teaching methods course and advanced science methods course.…

  7. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ming-Hsiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1 or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1 before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14 but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63, indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match.

  8. Soft skills, hard skills, and individual innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendarman, Achmad Fajar; Cantner, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    of Indonesian firms from different industries are used from an online survey on manager and worker perceptions related to individual innovation performance on the one hand and individual skills on the other hand. The results show that soft skills and hard skills are significantly and positively associated...... with individual level innovativeness. However, no complementarity (positive interaction effect) is found between soft skills and hard skills....

  9. Movement rehabilitation: are the principles of re-learning in the recovery of function the same as those of original learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Karl M; Verhoeven, F Martijn

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the change in movement dynamics in rehabilitation through discussing issues that pertain to the question as to whether the principles of re-learning in functional recovery are the same as those of original learning. The many varieties of disease and injury states lead to significant differences in the constraints to action and these impairments in turn influence the pathway of change in re-learning and/or recovery of function. These altered constraints channel the effectiveness of many conditions and strategies of practice that influence learning and performance. Nevertheless, it is proposed that there is a small set of principles for the change in dynamics of motor learning, which drive the continuously evolving stability and instability of movement forms through the lifespan. However, this common set of dynamical principles is realized in individual pathways of change in the movement dynamics of learning, re-learning and recovery of function. The inherent individual differences of humans and environments insure that the coordination, control and skill of movement rehabilitation are challenged in distinct ways by the changing constraints arising from the many manifestations of disease and injury. Implications for rehabilitation The many varieties of disease and injury states lead to significant differences in the constraints to action that in turn influence the pathway of change in re-learning and/or recovery of function, and the effectiveness of the many conditions/strategies of practice to influence learning and performance. There are a small set of principles for the change in dynamics of motor learning that drive the continuously evolving ebb and flow of stability and instability of movement forms through the lifespan. The inherent individual differences of humans and environments insure that the coordination, control and skill of movement rehabilitation are uniquely challenged by the changing constraints arising from the many

  10. The effect of a multi-component camp-based weight-loss program on children's motor skills and physical fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many weight-loss programs in children are performed without specific foci on training both physical fitness and motor skills. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of a one-year weight-loss program on children's motor skills and physical fitness. METHODS: Participants......-respiratory fitness test. Motor skills were assessed by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (M-ABC-2), age band 3. RESULTS: Loss to follow-up after 52 weeks was 19 % and 32 % in the DCIA and SIA, respectively. Balance skills were improved post-camp, but not after 52 weeks in children from....... CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the day-camp intervention led to improvements in physical fitness but not in motor skills compared to the standard intervention. Including both motor skills and physical fitness could advantageously be considered in future immersive intervention programmes. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  11. Early crisis nontechnical skill teaching in residency leads to long-term skill retention and improved performance during crises: A prospective, nonrandomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouras, Aristithes G; Engels, Paul T

    2017-07-01

    Medical error is common in crises, and the majority of observed errors are nontechnical in nature. The long-term impact of teaching crisis nontechnical skills to residents has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of simulation-based teaching of crisis nontechnical skills compared to controls one year after initial teaching. This was a prospective study using both historical controls and a before-and-after methodology to evaluate the effect of a high-fidelity simulation curriculum that used crisis resource management principles to teach nontechnical skills. Postgraduate year 2 and 3 residents were invited to take part in a prospective training course over 2 years. The primary outcome was leader performance evaluated by expert raters using the previously validated 7-point Ottawa Global Rating Scale. Overall, 23 residents performed 30 simulations over the 2 years with the intervention group of 7 residents being assessed in both years. After adjustment, the postgraduate year 3 intervention group who received training the previous year had significantly higher overall performance scores than all postgraduate year 2 scores (1.09 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.47, P crisis performance compared to historical postgraduate year 3 controls and untrained postgraduate year 2 residents. There were no significant differences between the crisis performance of postgraduate year 2 residents and the untrained postgraduate year 3 controls. This confirms the beneficial effect and long-term retention after crisis nontechnical skill training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prior video game utilization is associated with improved performance on a robotic skills simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbin, Andrew C; Nadhan, Kumar S; Mooney, James H; Yu, Daohai; Kaplan, Joshua; McGinley-Hence, Nora; Kim, Andrew; Gu, Yiming; Eun, Daniel D

    2017-09-01

    Laparoscopic surgery and robotic surgery, two forms of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), have recently experienced a large increase in utilization. Prior studies have shown that video game experience (VGE) may be associated with improved laparoscopic surgery skills; however, similar data supporting a link between VGE and proficiency on a robotic skills simulator (RSS) are lacking. The objective of our study is to determine whether volume or timing of VGE had any impact on RSS performance. Pre-clinical medical students completed a comprehensive questionnaire detailing previous VGE across several time periods. Seventy-five subjects were ultimately evaluated in 11 training exercises on the daVinci Si Skills Simulator. RSS skill was measured by overall score, time to completion, economy of motion, average instrument collision, and improvement in Ring Walk 3 score. Using the nonparametric tests and linear regression, these metrics were analyzed for systematic differences between non-users, light, and heavy video game users based on their volume of use in each of the following four time periods: past 3 months, past year, past 3 years, and high school. Univariate analyses revealed significant differences between heavy and non-users in all five performance metrics. These trends disappeared as the period of VGE went further back. Our study showed a positive association between video game experience and robotic skills simulator performance that is stronger for more recent periods of video game use. The findings may have important implications for the evolution of robotic surgery training.

  13. Older women with dementia can perform fast alternating forearm movements and performance is correlated with tests of lower extremity function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramell-Risberg E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bramell-Risberg,1 Gun-Britt Jarnlo,2 Sölve Elmståhl11Division of Geriatric Medicine, 2Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, SwedenBackground: The purpose of this work was to study the performance and reliability of a test of fast alternating forearm movements and its relationship with measures of lower extremity function in older women with dementia.Methods: Fast alternating movements was studied in 26 female patients (mean age 81.7 ± 5.9 years with dementia and 34 controls (mean age 87.5 ± 4.7 years. Subgroup analyses for those aged 80–89 years were performed due to significant differences in the mean ages of the study groups. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was studied in 11 patients (mean age 80.3 ± 6.7 years and 10 controls (mean age 87.4 ± 1.6 years. Pulses generated were transformed to an analog signal shown on a modified electrocardiogram. Numbers of cycles at 10 and 15 seconds were calculated for the right and left hand. Walking 2 × 15 m and the Get-Up-and Go (GUG test were performed at self-selected and maximal speed. Associations between tests of upper and lower extremity function were sought in eight patients (mean age 85 ± 2.7 years and 16 controls (mean age 85.1 ± 2.8 years and also according to types of dementia in nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 10 patients with other types of dementia.Results: Patients with dementia could perform the test and had significantly fewer cycles (P = 0.02–0.006 at both 10 and 15 seconds compared with controls after age adjustment. A higher number of cycles was associated with higher self-selected walking speeds in patients (r = -0.79. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was high for both patients (intraclass correlation 0.88–0.94 and controls (intraclass correlation 0.74–0.94.Conclusion: Alternating forearm movements at fast speed can be used as a reliable test in both

  14. Construct validity for eye-hand coordination skill on a virtual reality laparoscopic surgical simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shohei; Konishi, Kozo; Yasunaga, Takefumi; Yoshida, Daisuke; Kinjo, Nao; Kobayashi, Kiichiro; Ieiri, Satoshi; Okazaki, Ken; Nakashima, Hideaki; Tanoue, Kazuo; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Hashizume, Makoto

    2007-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate whether eye-hand coordination skill on a virtual reality laparoscopic surgical simulator (the LAP Mentor) was able to differentiate among subjects with different laparoscopic experience and thus confirm its construct validity. A total of 31 surgeons, who were all right-handed, were divided into the following two groups according to their experience as an operator in laparoscopic surgery: experienced surgeons (more than 50 laparoscopic procedures) and novice surgeons (fewer than 10 laparoscopic procedures). The subjects were tested using the eye-hand coordination task of the LAP Mentor, and performance was compared between the two groups. Assessment of the laparoscopic skills was based on parameters measured by the simulator. The experienced surgeons completed the task significantly faster than the novice surgeons. The experienced surgeons also achieved a lower number of movements (NOM), better economy of movement (EOM) and faster average speed of the left instrument than the novice surgeons, whereas there were no significant differences between the two groups for the NOM, EOM and average speed of the right instrument. Eye-hand coordination skill of the nondominant hand, but not the dominant hand, measured using the LAP Mentor was able to differentiate between subjects with different laparoscopic experience. This study also provides evidence of construct validity for eye-hand coordination skill on the LAP Mentor.

  15. Objective Assessment of Laparoscopic Force and Psychomotor Skills in a Novel Virtual Reality-Based Haptic Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M S Raghu; Manivannan, Muniyandi; Manoharan, Govindan; Chandramohan, S M

    2016-01-01

    Most of the commercially available virtual reality-based laparoscopic simulators do not effectively evaluate combined psychomotor and force-based laparoscopic skills. Consequently, the lack of training on these critical skills leads to intraoperative errors. To assess the effectiveness of the novel virtual reality-based simulator, this study analyzed the combined psychomotor (i.e., motion or movement) and force skills of residents and expert surgeons. The study also examined the effectiveness of real-time visual force feedback and tool motion during training. Bimanual fundamental (i.e., probing, pulling, sweeping, grasping, and twisting) and complex tasks (i.e., tissue dissection) were evaluated. In both tasks, visual feedback on applied force and tool motion were provided. The skills of the participants while performing the early tasks were assessed with and without visual feedback. Participants performed 5 repetitions of fundamental and complex tasks. Reaction force and instrument acceleration were used as metrics. Surgical Gastroenterology, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital; Institute of Surgical Gastroenterology, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital. Residents (N = 25; postgraduates and surgeons with 4 and ≤10 years of laparoscopic surgery). Residents applied large forces compared with expert surgeons and performed abrupt tool movements (p < 0.001). However, visual + haptic feedback improved the performance of residents (p < 0.001). In complex tasks, visual + haptic feedback did not influence the applied force of expert surgeons, but influenced their tool motion (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in complex tissue sweeping task, expert surgeons applied more force, but were within the tissue damage limits. In both groups, exertion of large forces and abrupt tool motion were observed during grasping, probing or pulling, and tissue sweeping maneuvers (p < 0.001). Modern day curriculum-based training should evaluate the skills

  16. Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Effective motor performance is important for surviving and thriving, and skilled movement is critical in many activities. Much theorizing over the past few decades has focused on how certain practice conditions affect the processing of task-related information to affect learning. Yet, existing theoretical perspectives do not accommodate significant recent lines of evidence demonstrating motivational and attentional effects on performance and learning. These include research on (a) conditions that enhance expectancies for future performance, (b) variables that influence learners' autonomy, and (c) an external focus of attention on the intended movement effect. We propose the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory of motor learning. We suggest that motivational and attentional factors contribute to performance and learning by strengthening the coupling of goals to actions. We provide explanations for the performance and learning advantages of these variables on psychological and neuroscientific grounds. We describe a plausible mechanism for expectancy effects rooted in responses of dopamine to the anticipation of positive experience and temporally associated with skill practice. Learner autonomy acts perhaps largely through an enhanced expectancy pathway. Furthermore, we consider the influence of an external focus for the establishment of efficient functional connections across brain networks that subserve skilled movement. We speculate that enhanced expectancies and an external focus propel performers' cognitive and motor systems in productive "forward" directions and prevent "backsliding" into self- and non-task focused states. Expected success presumably breeds further success and helps consolidate memories. We discuss practical implications and future research directions.

  17. Robot Guided 'Pen Skill' Training in Children with Motor Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Katy A; Hill, Liam J B; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Barber, Sally; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Motor deficits are linked to a range of negative physical, social and academic consequences. Haptic robotic interventions, based on the principles of sensorimotor learning, have been shown previously to help children with motor problems learn new movements. We therefore examined whether the training benefits of a robotic system would generalise to a standardised test of 'pen-skills', assessed using objective kinematic measures [via the Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool, CKAT]. A counterbalanced, cross-over design was used in a group of 51 children (37 male, aged 5-11 years) with manual control difficulties. Improved performance on a novel task using the robotic device could be attributed to the intervention but there was no evidence of generalisation to any of the CKAT tasks. The robotic system appears to have the potential to support motor learning, with the technology affording numerous advantages. However, the training regime may need to target particular manual skills (e.g. letter formation) in order to obtain clinically significant improvements in specific skills such as handwriting.

  18. New insight for activity intensity relativity, metabolic expenditure during object projection skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacko, Ryan S; McIver, Kerry; Brian, Ali; Stodden, David F

    2018-04-02

    This study examined the metabolic cost (METs) of performing object projection skills at three practice trial intervals (6, 12, and 30 seconds). Forty adults (female n = 20) aged 18-30 (M = 23.7 ± 2.9 years) completed three, nine-minute sessions of skill trials performed at 6, 12, and 30 second intervals. Participants performed kicking, throwing and striking trials in a blocked schedule with maximal effort. Average METs during each session were measured using a COSMED K4b2. A three (interval condition) X two (sex) ANOVA was conducted to examine differences in METs across interval conditions and by sex. Results indicated a main effect for interval condition (F(5,114) = 187.02, p < .001, η 2  = 0.76) with decreased interval times yielding significantly higher METs [30 sec = 3.45, 12 sec = 5.68, 6 sec = 8.21]. A main effect for sex (F(5, 114) = 35.39, p < .001, η 2  = 0.24) also was found with men demonstrating higher METs across all intervals. At a rate of only two trials/min, participants elicited moderate physical activity, with 12 and 6-second intervals exhibiting vigorous PA. Demonstrating MVPA during the performance of object projection skill performance has potential implications for PA interventions.

  19. Fundamental motor skills: A systematic review of terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W; Ross, Samantha M; Chee, Keanu; Stodden, David F; Robinson, Leah E

    2018-04-01

    The three aims of this systematic review are to describe: (1) use of the term fundamental motor/movement skills (FMS) in published articles; (2) the quality of definitions; and (3) relative use of process- and product- oriented assessments to measure FMS. The inclusion criteria included: (a) peer-reviewed article, (b) printed in English, (c) published between January 2000 and 31 December 2015, (d) presence of either the term "fundamental motor or movement skill" in the title and/or abstract, and (e) FMS were a measured outcome. There has been an increase in the number of publications on FMS in recent years, with the majority of studies conducted in Australia (n = 41, 33%). Approximately 24% of studies (n = 30) did not provide any explicit definition of FMS. A majority of studies reported the use of process-oriented measures (n = 98, 79%) compared to product-oriented measures (n = 23, 19%), and few studies used both (n = 6, 5%). We recommend that researchers provide: (1) an operational definition of FMS that states FMS are the "building blocks" (or similar terminology) of more advanced, complex movements; (2) specific categories of skills that compose FMS; and (3) at least one specific example of a FMS.

  20. An experimental paradigm to compare motor performance under laboratory and under everyday-like conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Otmar; Hagemann, Anne

    2010-10-30

    Research findings on human motor skills may not necessarily hold in everyday life, since laboratory and everyday scenarios typically differ with respect to the subjects' attention to the skill, their motivation to perform at their best, the goals they try to achieve, and the mode of movement initiation - extrinsic versus intrinsic. Here we present an experimental approach which can be used to substantiate the hypothesized effects of laboratory (L) versus everyday (E) settings on one type of motor skill, i.e., manual prehension. This approach is based on two tasks: In task L, subjects are told that they will participate in an experiment on grasping, and are instructed to seize and move a lever upon appearance of a visual target. In task E, they are told that they will play a computer game, and they have to seize and move the lever in order to proceed from one game level to the next. Both tasks include prehension movements from the same starting position and object to the same terminal position and object; movements differ only in their behavioural context. We exemplify the utility of our approach with a preliminary analysis of kinematic and force data. It shows that the two tasks differ with respect to several performance measures, and that some performance measures make independent contributions to that difference. The existence of independent contributions suggests that behavioural context may influence prehension via several distinct routes. Our approach can be used for comprehensive analyses of the context-dependence of motor skills in various reference groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Eccentric-Overload Training in Team-Sport Functional Performance: Constant Bilateral Vertical Versus Variable Unilateral Multidirectional Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Valero-Campo, Carlos; Berzosa, César; Bataller, Ana Vanessa; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Moras, Gerard; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the effects of 2 different eccentric-overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical pulley, on functional performance in team-sport players. A traditional movement paradigm (ie, squat) including several sets of 1 bilateral and vertical movement was compared with a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multi-directional movements. Forty-eight amateur or semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral vertical (CBV, n = 24) movement (squat) or different unilateral multidirectional (VUMD, n = 24) movements. Training programs consisted of 6 sets of 1 exercise (CBV) or 1 set of 6 exercises (VUMD) × 6-10 repetitions with 3 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, biweekly for 8 wk. Functional-performance assessment included several change-of-direction (COD) tests, a 25-m linear-sprint test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (ie, lateral, horizontal, and vertical), and a bilateral vertical-jump test. Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in all tests in both groups, with VUMD showing more robust adaptations in pooled COD tests and lateral/horizontal jumping, whereas the opposite occurred in CBV respecting linear sprinting and vertical jumping. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in lateral jumps (ES = 0.21), left-leg horizontal jump (ES = 0.35), and 10-m COD with right leg (ES = 0.42) in VUMD than in CBV. In contrast, left-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.26) was possibly better in CBV than in VUMD. Eight weeks of EOT induced substantial improvements in functional-performance tests, although the force-vector application may play a key role to develop different and specific functional adaptations.

  2. Munch and Move: evaluation of a preschool healthy eating and movement skill program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Louise

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood services have been identified as a key setting for promoting healthy eating and physical activity as a means of preventing overweight and obesity. However, there is limited evidence on effective nutrition and physical activity programs in this setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Munch and Move, a low-intensity, state-wide, professional development program designed to support early childhood professionals to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children in their care. Methods The evaluation involved 15 intervention and 14 control preschools (n = 430; mean age 4.4 years in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia and was based on a randomised-control design with pre and post evaluation of children's lunchbox contents, fundamental movement skills (FMS, preschool policies and practices and staff attitudes, knowledge and confidence related to physical activity, healthy eating and recreational screen time. Results At follow up, FMS scores for locomotor, object control and total FMS score significantly improved by 3.4, 2.1 and 5.5 points more (respectively in the intervention group compared with the control group (P Conclusion The findings suggest that a low intensity preschool healthy weight intervention program can improve certain weight related behaviours. The findings also suggest that change to food policies are difficult to initiate mid-year and potentially a longer implementation period may be required to determine the efficacy of food policies to influence the contents of preschoolers lunchboxes.

  3. A structured self-directed basic skills curriculum results in improved technical performance in the absence of expert faculty teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew S; McKenzie, Jill; Tsigonis, Abraham; Jensen, Aaron R; Figueredo, Edgar J; Kim, Sara; Horvath, Karen

    2012-06-01

    We developed a novel curriculum teaching 20 open surgical skills in 5 general domains (instrument handling, knot tying, simple wound closure, advanced wound closure, and hemostasis). The curriculum includes online didactics, skills practice, and defined performance metrics, but is entirely self-guided with no expert oversight or teaching. Subjects included first- and second-year medical students (n = 9). Subjects first viewed a demonstration video depicting proper technique. The pretest was video-recorded performance of each skill. Subjects then completed the self-guided skills curriculum at their own pace, returning for posttesting once they met defined self-assessment criteria. Performance was evaluated through both self-assessment and blinded video review by 2 expert reviewers using previously validated scales. After completion of the curriculum, performance improved significantly by both self-assessment (3,754 ± 1,742 to 6,496 ± 1,337; P performance was significantly better for all domains by self-assessment (P instrument handling). Completion of a self-guided basic surgical skills curriculum allows novice learners to significantly improve performance in basic open surgical skills, without traditional expert teaching. This curriculum is useful for medical students and incoming junior residents. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of a Self-Efficacy Instrument and Its Relationship to Performance of Crisis Resource Management Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Jennifer L.; van Schaik, Sandrijn M.; Sliwka, Diane C.; Boscardin, Christy K.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.

    2011-01-01

    Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this…

  5. Learning new skills in Multimodal Enactive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardy Benoît G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A European consortium of researchers in movement and cognitive sciences, robotics, and interaction design developed multimodal technologies to accelerate and transfer the (relearning of complex skills from virtual to real environments. The decomposition of skill into functional elements — the subskills — and the enactment of informational variables used as accelerators are here described. One illustration of accelerator using virtual reality in team rowing is described.

  6. The Impact of Digital Skills on Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Performance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Laura; Argentin, Gianluca; Gui, Marco; Stanca, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Digital skills are increasingly important for labour market outcomes and social participation. Do they also matter for academic performance? This paper investigates the effects of digital literacy on educational outcomes by merging data from the Italian National Assessment in secondary schools with an original data-set on performance tests of…

  7. The Performance of Fundamental Gross Motor Skills by Children Enrolled in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Rebecca J.; Yun, Joonkoo

    2001-01-01

    This study sought to descriptively evaluate the performance of fundamental gross motor skills among Head Start children. Levels of performance were compared and contrasted with performance profiles of the Test of Gross Motor Development. Findings suggest that Head Start curriculum should focus on the importance of developing fundamental gross…

  8. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  9. Does playing a sports active video game improve object control skills of children with autism spectrum disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jacqueline; Jeffrey, Sarah; May, Tamara; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Active video games (AVGs) encourage whole body movements to interact or control the gaming system, allowing the opportunity for skill development. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show decreased fundamental movement skills in comparison with their typically developing (TD) peers and might benefit from this approach. This pilot study investigates whether playing sports AVGs can increase the actual and perceived object control (OC) skills of 11 children with ASD aged 6–1...

  10. Complex Hand Dexterity: A Review of Biomechanical Methods for Measuring Musical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Diane Metcalf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Complex hand dexterity is fundamental to our interactions with the physical, social and cultural environment. Dexterity can be an expression of creativity and precision in a range of activities, including musical performance. Little is understood about complex hand dexterity or how virtuoso expertise is acquired, due to the versatility of movement combinations available to complete any given task. This has historically limited progress of the field because of difficulties in measuring movements of the hand. Recent developments in methods of motion capture and analysis mean it is now possible to explore the intricate movements of the hand and fingers. These methods allow us insights into the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning complex hand dexterity and motor learning. They also allow investigation into the key factors that contribute to injury, recovery and functional compensation.The application of such analytical techniques within musical performance provides a multidisciplinary framework for purposeful investigation into the process of learning and skill acquisition in instrumental performance. These highly skilled manual and cognitive tasks present the ultimate achievement in complex hand dexterity. This paper will review methods of assessing instrumental performance in music, focusing specifically on biomechanical measurement and the associated technical challenges faced when measuring highly dexterous activities.

  11. Working memory and fine motor skills predict early numeracy performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenbergen, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Early numeracy is an important precursor for arithmetic performance, academic proficiency, and work success. Besides their apparent motor difficulties, children with cerebral palsy (CP) often show additional cognitive disturbances. In this study, we examine whether working memory, non-verbal intelligence, linguistic skills, counting and fine motor skills are positively related to the early numeracy performance of 6-year-old children with CP. A total of 56 children (M = 6.0, SD = 0.61, 37 boys) from Dutch special education schools participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the total group, 81% of the children have the spastic type of CP (33% unilateral and 66% bilateral), 9% have been diagnosed as having diskinetic CP, 8% have been diagnosed as having spastic and diskinetic CP and 2% have been diagnosed as having a combination of diskinetic and atactic CP. The children completed standardized tests assessing early numeracy performance, working memory, non-verbal intelligence, sentence understanding and fine motor skills. In addition, an experimental task was administered to examine their basic counting performance. Structural equation modeling showed that working memory and fine motor skills were significantly related to the early numeracy performance of the children (β = .79 and p working memory and early numeracy (β = .57, p working memory for early numeracy performance in children with CP and they warrant further research into the efficacy of intervention programs aimed at working memory training.

  12. Easier Seen Than Done: Merely Watching Others Perform Can Foster an Illusion of Skill Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardas, Michael; O'Brien, Ed

    2018-04-01

    Modern technologies such as YouTube afford unprecedented access to the skilled performances of other people. Six experiments ( N = 2,225) reveal that repeatedly watching others can foster an illusion of skill acquisition. The more people merely watch others perform (without actually practicing themselves), the more they nonetheless believe they could perform the skill, too (Experiment 1). However, people's actual abilities-from throwing darts and doing the moonwalk to playing an online game-do not improve after merely watching others, despite predictions to the contrary (Experiments 2-4). What do viewers see that makes them think they are learning? We found that extensive viewing allows people to track what steps to take (Experiment 5) but not how those steps feel when taking them. Accordingly, experiencing a "taste" of performing attenuates the illusion: Watching others juggle but then holding the pins oneself tempers perceived change in one's own ability (Experiment 6). These findings highlight unforeseen problems for self-assessment when watching other people.

  13. Persistent Performance of Fund Managers: An Analysis of Selection and Timing Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ahmad Pandow

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence in manager’s ability to select stocks and to time risk factors is a vital issue for accessing the performance of any asset management company. The fund manager who comes out successful today, whether the same will be able to sustain the performance in the future is a matter of concern to the investors and other stake holders. More than the stock picking ability of fund managers, one would be interested in knowing whether there is consistency in selectivity and timing performance or not. If a fund manager is able to deliver better performance consistently i.e. quarter-after-quarter or year-after-year, then the mangers’ performance in selecting the right type of stocks for the portfolio would be considered satisfactory. This paper has attempted to analyze the persistence in both stock selection and timing performance of mutual fund managers in India through Henriksson & Morton; Jenson, and Fama’s model over a period of five years. It is found that the fund managers present persistence in selection skills however, the sample funds haven’t shown progressive timing skills in Indian context.

  14. Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilalić, Merim

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes.

  15. Is having similar eye movement patterns during face learning and recognition beneficial for recognition performance? Evidence from hidden Markov modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Tim; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2017-12-01

    The hidden Markov model (HMM)-based approach for eye movement analysis is able to reflect individual differences in both spatial and temporal aspects of eye movements. Here we used this approach to understand the relationship between eye movements during face learning and recognition, and its association with recognition performance. We discovered holistic (i.e., mainly looking at the face center) and analytic (i.e., specifically looking at the two eyes in addition to the face center) patterns during both learning and recognition. Although for both learning and recognition, participants who adopted analytic patterns had better recognition performance than those with holistic patterns, a significant positive correlation between the likelihood of participants' patterns being classified as analytic and their recognition performance was only observed during recognition. Significantly more participants adopted holistic patterns during learning than recognition. Interestingly, about 40% of the participants used different patterns between learning and recognition, and among them 90% switched their patterns from holistic at learning to analytic at recognition. In contrast to the scan path theory, which posits that eye movements during learning have to be recapitulated during recognition for the recognition to be successful, participants who used the same or different patterns during learning and recognition did not differ in recognition performance. The similarity between their learning and recognition eye movement patterns also did not correlate with their recognition performance. These findings suggested that perceptuomotor memory elicited by eye movement patterns during learning does not play an important role in recognition. In contrast, the retrieval of diagnostic information for recognition, such as the eyes for face recognition, is a better predictor for recognition performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of a core of transversal skills: self-perceptions of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2016-01-15

    There is an increasingly growing trend towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. Communication, research and organisational/learning skills are core competences acquired by scientific research activity. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived performance of a core of transversal skills, related with scientific research, by Portuguese medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 611 Portuguese students attending the first, fourth and sixth years of the medical course, during the same academic year. A validated questionnaire was applied for this purpose. Medical students felt confident regarding the majority of the analyzed transversal skills, particularly regarding team work capacity (72.7% perceived their own capacity as good). On the other hand, the perceived ability to manage information technology, time and to search literature was classified only as sufficient by many of them. The progression over the medical course and participation in research activities were associated with an increasing odds of a good perceived performance of skills such as writing skills (research activity: OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.34-2.97) and English proficiency (research activity: OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.06-2.38/final year medical students: OR = 3.63; 95% CI: 2.42-5.45). In this line, the early exposure to research activities along undergraduate medical education is an added value for students and the implementation of an integrated research program on medical curriculum should be considered.

  17. Multiple systems for motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Ivry, Richard B

    2010-07-01

    Motor learning is a ubiquitous feature of human competence. This review focuses on two particular classes of model tasks for studying skill acquisition. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is used to probe how people learn sequences of actions, while adaptation in the context of visuomotor or force field perturbations serves to illustrate how preexisting movements are recalibrated in novel environments. These tasks highlight important issues regarding the representational changes that occur during the course of motor learning. One important theme is that distinct mechanisms vary in their information processing costs during learning and performance. Fast learning processes may require few trials to produce large changes in performance but impose demands on cognitive resources. Slower processes are limited in their ability to integrate complex information but minimally demanding in terms of attention or processing resources. The representations derived from fast systems may be accessible to conscious processing and provide a relatively greater measure of flexibility, while the representations derived from slower systems are more inflexible and automatic in their behavior. In exploring these issues, we focus on how multiple neural systems may interact and compete during the acquisition and consolidation of new behaviors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is categorized under: Psychology > Motor Skill and Performance. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Amount of kinematic feedback affects learning of speech motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Kirrie J; Smith, Heather D; Paramatmuni, Divija; McCabe, Patricia; Theodoros, Deborah G; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of Performance (KP) feedback, such as biofeedback or kinematic feedback, is used to provide information on the nature and quality of movement responses for the purpose of guiding active learning or rehabilitation of motor skills. It has been proposed that KP feedback may interfere with long-term learning when provided throughout training. Here, twelve healthy English-speaking adults were trained to produce a trilled Russian [r] in words with KP kinematic feedback using electropalatography (EPG) and without KP (noKP). Five one-hour training sessions were provided over one week with testing pretraining and one day and one week posttraining. No group differences were found at pretraining or one day post training for production accuracy. A group by time interaction supported the hypothesis that providing kinematic feedback continually during skill acquisition interferes with retention.

  19. Students’ performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Hiong Sim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare students’ performance in the different clinical skills (CSs assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Methods: Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students’ exit examination (n=185. Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Results: Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs, procedural skills (PSs, and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. Conclusions: CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students’ unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students’ clinical reasoning development.

  20. The Effects of an Interactive Nursing Skills Mobile Application on Nursing Students' Knowledge, Self-efficacy, and Skills Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Kim, MSN, RN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Clinical nursing practice is important because it helps nursing students experience realities of clinical nursing that cannot be learned through theoretical education. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an interactive nursing skills mobile application for nursing students. Methods: Sixty-six senior nursing students were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. The experimental group used an interactive nursing skills mobile application for 1 week. The control group was provided with a mobile application containing noninteractive nursing video contents for 1 week. Before (pre-test and 1 week after (post-test using the mobile application, participants' knowledge of clinical nursing skills, self-efficacy of nursing practice, and nursing skills performance were assessed. Results: The experimental group showed a significantly higher value for knowledge after 1 week of treatment via their mobile application than the control group (t = 3.34, p = .001. In addition, they showed significantly improved self-efficacy before and after intervention (t = 2.46, p = .017 than the control group. The experimental group's nursing skills performance was also significantly enhanced after intervention (t = 7.05, p < .001, with a significant difference in the degree of improvement (t = 4.47, p < .001. Conclusion: The interactive learner-centered nursing education mobile application with systematic contents was an effective method for students to experience practical nursing skills. Developing and applying a mobile application with other nursing contents that can be effectively used across all range of nursing students is recommended. Keywords: interactive learning, mobile applications, nursing education, nursing student, practical nursing

  1. Primary School Children’s Internet Skills : A Report on Performance Tests of Operational, Formal, Information, and Strategic Internet Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Görzig, Anke; van Delzen, Marianne; Perik, Hanneke T.M.; Stegeman, Anne Grace

    2014-01-01

    The performance levels of fundamental (i.e., operational and formal) and advanced (i.e., information and strategic) Internet skills and their potential predictors were assessed among a sample of Dutch primary school children. The findings suggest that primary school children possess sufficient

  2. Performance of a wearable acoustic system for fetal movement discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lai

    Full Text Available Fetal movements (FM are a key factor in clinical management of high-risk pregnancies such as fetal growth restriction. While maternal perception of reduced FM can trigger self-referral to obstetric services, maternal sensation is highly subjective. Objective, reliable monitoring of fetal movement patterns outside clinical environs is not currently possible. A wearable and non-transmitting system capable of sensing fetal movements over extended periods of time would be extremely valuable, not only for monitoring individual fetal health, but also for establishing normal levels of movement in the population at large. Wearable monitors based on accelerometers have previously been proposed as a means of tracking FM, but such systems have difficulty separating maternal and fetal activity and have not matured to the level of clinical use. We introduce a new wearable system based on a novel combination of accelerometers and bespoke acoustic sensors as well as an advanced signal processing architecture to identify and discriminate between types of fetal movements. We validate the system with concurrent ultrasound tests on a cohort of 44 pregnant women and demonstrate that the garment is capable of both detecting and discriminating the vigorous, whole-body 'startle' movements of a fetus. These results demonstrate the promise of multimodal sensing for the development of a low-cost, non-transmitting wearable monitor for fetal movements.

  3. Pragmatic evaluation of the Go2Play Active Play intervention on physical activity and fundamental movement skills in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Johnstone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Active play is a novel approach to addressing low physical activity levels and fundamental movement skills (FMS in children. This study aimed to determine if a new school-based, ‘Go2Play Active Play’ intervention improved school day physical activity and FMS. This was a pragmatic evaluation conducted in Scotland during 2015–16. Participants (n = 172; mean age = 7 years were recruited from seven primary schools taking part in the 5-month intervention, plus 24 participants not receiving the intervention were recruited to act as a comparison group.189 participants had physical activity measured using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer at baseline and again at follow-up 5 months later. A sub-sample of participants from the intervention (n = 102 and comparison (n = 21 groups had their FMS assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 at baseline and follow-up. Changes in school day physical activity and FMS variables were examined using repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect was ‘group’ on ‘time’ from baseline to follow-up. Results indicated there was a significant interaction for mean counts per minute and percent time in sedentary behavior, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA (all p < 0.01 for school day physical activity. There was a significant interaction for gross motor quotient (GMQ score (p = 0.02 and percentile (p = 0.04, locomotor skills score and percentile (both p = 0.02, but no significant interaction for object control skills score (p = 0.1 and percentile (p = 0.3. The Go2Play Active Play intervention may be a promising way of improving physical activity and FMS but this needs to be confirmed in an RCT.

  4. The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Coumbe-Lilley, John E; Kim, Hajwa; McFarland, Jose A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

    2013-10-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons over the past several years. The 26.2-mile race requires physical and mental stamina to successfully complete it. However, studies have not investigated how running and mental skills preparation influence injury and performance. The purpose of our study was to describe the training and mental skills preparation of a typical group of runners as they began a marathon training program, assess the influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence, and examine how training and mental skills preparation influence marathon performance. Healthy adults (N = 1,957) participating in an 18-week training program for a fall 2011 marathon were recruited for the study. One hundred twenty-five runners enrolled and received 4 surveys: pretraining, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, posttraining. The pretraining survey asked training and mental skills preparation questions. The 6- and 12-week surveys asked about injury incidence. The posttraining survey asked about injury incidence and marathon performance. Tempo runs during training preparation had a significant positive relationship to injury incidence in the 6-week survey (ρ[93] = 0.26, p = 0.01). The runners who reported incorporating tempo and interval runs, running more miles per week, and running more days per week in their training preparation ran significantly faster than did those reporting less tempo and interval runs, miles per week, and days per week (p ≤ 0.05). Mental skills preparation did not influence injury incidence or marathon performance. To prevent injury, and maximize performance, while marathon training, it is important that coaches and runners ensure that a solid foundation of running fitness and experience exists, followed by gradually building volume, and then strategically incorporating runs of various speeds and distances.

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Motor Skills in Relation to Cognition and Academic Performance in Children – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A.

    2013-01-01

    Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

  6. Teachers' perceptions about children's movement and learning in early childhood education programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehris, J S; Gooze, R A; Whitaker, R C

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve the academic skills of preschool-aged children have resulted in approaches that tend to limit children's movement. However, movement experiences have long been considered important to children's learning and have received increased attention because of the obesity epidemic. Early childhood educators are important sources of information about if and how to promote learning and school readiness through movement, but little effort has been made to understand teachers' views on this topic. We conducted six focus groups with 37 teachers from a Head Start programme with centres in three cities in eastern Pennsylvania. We inquired about: (1) how movement influences children's learning; (2) what types of movement experiences are most beneficial for children; (3) what settings best support children's movement; and (4) challenges related to children's movement. To identify key themes from the focus groups, transcripts were analysed using an inductive method of coding. Teachers' views were expressed in four major themes. First, young children have an innate need to move, and teachers respond to this need by using movement experiences to prepare children to learn and to teach academic concepts and spatial awareness. However, teachers wanted more training in these areas. Second, movement prepares children for school and for life by building children's confidence and social skills. Third, teachers and children benefit from moving together because it motivates children and promotes teacher-child relationships. Finally, moving outdoors promotes learning by engaging children's senses and promoting community interaction. More training may be required to help early childhood educators use movement experiences to teach academic concepts and improve children's spatial awareness. Future interventions could examine the impacts on children's movement and learning of having teachers move with children during outdoor free play and including more natural features in the

  7. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pmotor skills (all Pmotor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.

  8. Parameterization experiments performed via synthetic mass movements prototypes generated by 3D slope stability simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Antonio C.

    2010-05-01

    The central purpose of this work is to perform a reverse procedure in the mass movement conventional parameterization approach. The idea is to generate a number of synthetic mass movements by means of the "slope stability simulator" (Colangelo, 2007), and compeer their morphological and physical properties with "real" conditions of effective mass movements. This device is an integrated part of "relief unity emulator" (rue), that permits generate synthetic mass movements in a synthetic slope environment. The "rue" was build upon fundamental geomorphological concepts. These devices operate with an integrated set of mechanical, geomorphic and hydrological models. The "slope stability simulator" device (sss) permits to perform a detailed slope stability analysis in a theoretical three dimensional space, by means of evaluation the spatial behavior of critical depths, gradients and saturation levels in the "potential rupture surfaces" inferred along a set of slope profiles, that compounds a synthetic slope unity. It's a meta-stable 4-dimensional object generated by means of "rue", that represents a sequence evolution of a generator profile applied here, was adapted the infinite slope model for slope. Any slope profiles were sliced by means of finite element solution like in Bishop method. For the synthetic slope systems generated, we assume that the potential rupture surface occurs at soil-regolith or soil-rock boundary in slope material. Sixteen variables were included in the "rue-sss" device that operates in an integrated manner. For each cell, the factor of safety was calculated considering the value of shear strength (cohesion and friction) of material, soil-regolith boundary depth, soil moisture level content, potential rupture surface gradient, slope surface gradient, top of subsurface flow gradient, apparent soil bulk density and vegetation surcharge. The slope soil was considered as cohesive material. The 16 variables incorporated in the models were analyzed for

  9. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Eye Movements as Indicators of Representational Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Elizabeth A. Beck, "Test of the Eye Movement Hypothesis of Neurolinguistic Programing : A Rebuttal of Conclu- sions," Perceptual and Motor Skills, 58: 175...Meta Publications, 1980. 64 .. .] .! S ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 - ----. 14. Maron, Davida, " Neurolinguistic Programming : The Answer to Change? Training and Development... Neurolinguistic Programming ," Perceptual and Motor Skills, 51: 230 (April 1980). 65 VITA Captain William H. Moore was born on 22 October 1949. He

  10. The effect of musical movement activities on the balance function of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Atigh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autistic children with low level performance have problems in social interaction, communication skills and sensory processing as well as motor and balance function. Musical activity is one of the most effective therapeutic strategies to manage some of these core defects. The present study examined the effect of musical movement activities on the balance function of 7 to 14 years autistic children with low performance. Methods: Twenty-two autistic students with low performance at age range of 7 to 14 years old participated in the study were assigned to experimental and control group randomly. The interventions were consisted of musical movement activities for experimental and without music for control group. Balance performance of subjects was assessed before treatment, and after 12th and 24th therapeutic sessions using balancing subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOTMP. The assessments were double blinded. Data were analyzed employing repeated measures of ANOVA. The SPSS software-version 17was used. Results: The results indicated that the effect of interventions on two groups was significantly different (F; 1.2= 52.8, P<0.001. The improvement in the balancing performance has been observed in both groups after 12th and 24th sessions although the difference in balance scores between groups was higher after 24th treatment session (P<0.001; that is in experimental group more improvement was obtained. Conclusion: The findings suggest that musical movement activities can accelerate the improvement in balance function of autistic children with low performance.