WorldWideScience

Sample records for perform site preparation

  1. Machine site preparation improves seedling performance on a high-elevation site in southwest Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNabb, D.H.; Baker-Katz, K.; Tesch, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings planted on areas receiving one of four site-preparation treatments (scarify, scarify/till, soil removal, and soil removal/till) and on unprepared control areas were compared for 5 yr at a high-elevation, nutrient-poor site in the western Siskiyou Mountains of southwest Oregon. Fifth-year survival of seedlings was at least 85% among machine-prepared plots, compared to 42% on control plots. Cover of competing vegetation remained less than 25% during the period for all machine treatments. In contrast, vegetation cover on control plots was 30% at the time of planting and increased to nearly 75% after 5 yr. Competing vegetation clearly impeded seedling performance. The effects of unusually droughty conditions at the time of planting in 1982 were examined further by interplanting additional seedlings in the soil-removal treatment in 1985. The interplanting was followed by more normal spring precipitation, and seedlings grew better over 5 yr than those planted in 1982. The slow recovery of competing vegetation and generally poor seedling growth on all treatments during both planting years are attributed to low soil fertility

  2. Overview of Site Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of Cadarache as the host of ITER is organised at a double level: Europe, since the beginning of the candidature in 2001, is coordinating the so-called European ITER Site Studies; France, as the host country, has put in place a dedicated structure at a decisional level (close to the government), and operational level in the PACA region with two entities: The Agency Iter France (AIF), inside the CEA, interlocutor of international and European entities, in charge of site preparation and fund recollection; An accompanying prefectoral mission, in charge mainly of road adaptation and the international school. The paper will cover all the aspects related to the preparation of the implementation of ITER: Technical aspects: the progress of site preparation itself, its servicing (water supply, electrical supply, Internet...), the road adaptation between the large harbour of Fos-sur-mer and Cadarache, etc. will be detailed. Regulatory procedures: in the framework of the delegation that the ITER partners gave to the CEA/AIF on 14 th September 2005, two main large files are in progress: The public debate, organised by an independent authority, informs the population of the challenges and impacts of ITER in Provence; The safety documents: the writing of the preliminary safety report, which will be submitted to the Nuclear Safety Authority and the files submitted to the public during the public enquiries are ongoing. Socioeconomic aspects: the welcome of ITER staff and their families is operational, via a dedicated Welcome Office; the location of an international school in Manosque leads now to its pre-figuration. The overall organisation will be described, as well as all planning forecast for the coming years, leading to the start of construction. (author)

  3. Evaluation of accuracy in implant site preparation performed in single- or multi-step drilling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marheineke, Nadine; Scherer, Uta; Rücker, Martin; von See, Constantin; Rahlf, Björn; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Stoetzer, Marcus

    2018-06-01

    Dental implant failure and insufficient osseointegration are proven results of mechanical and thermal damage during the surgery process. We herein performed a comparative study of a less invasive single-step drilling preparation protocol and a conventional multiple drilling sequence. Accuracy of drilling holes was precisely analyzed and the influence of different levels of expertise of the handlers and additional use of drill template guidance was evaluated. Six experimental groups, deployed in an osseous study model, were representing template-guided and freehanded drilling actions in a stepwise drilling procedure in comparison to a single-drill protocol. Each experimental condition was studied by the drilling actions of respectively three persons without surgical knowledge as well as three highly experienced oral surgeons. Drilling actions were performed and diameters were recorded with a precision measuring instrument. Less experienced operators were able to significantly increase the drilling accuracy using a guiding template, especially when multi-step preparations are performed. Improved accuracy without template guidance was observed when experienced operators were executing single-step versus multi-step technique. Single-step drilling protocols have shown to produce more accurate results than multi-step procedures. The outcome of any protocol can be further improved by use of guiding templates. Operator experience can be a contributing factor. Single-step preparations are less invasive and are promoting osseointegration. Even highly experienced surgeons are achieving higher levels of accuracy by combining this technique with template guidance. Hereby template guidance enables a reduction of hands-on time and side effects during surgery and lead to a more predictable clinical diameter.

  4. Grimsel test site: preparation and performance of migration experiments with radioisotopes of sodium, strontium and iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikenberg, J.; Hoehn, E.; Fierz, T.; Frick, U.

    1994-09-01

    During 1991 four migration experiments with 22 Na (run 50), 24 Na (run 48), 85 Sr (run 50) and 123 I (run 47,49) were carried out in the migration fracture at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) using a two-well injection -extraction technique (dipole configuration). All tests were accompanied by simultaneous injection of Na-fluorescein (uranine) as a conservative tracer. The dipole flow field was installed between boreholes 86.004 (injection well) and 87.006 (extraction well). The extraction flow rate was always held constant at 150 mL/min, while two different injection flow rates of 50 mL/min (runs 47,48) and 10 mL/min (runs 49, 50) were chosen to vary the flow field geometry. These exercises advance the transport model studies to evaluate important fracture specific parameters. Prior to the field tests with radiotracers of cationic Na + and Sr 2+ , the potential sorption of these elements onto equipment materials such as tubing, pumps, detectors was investigated in the field rock laboratory under identical flow conditions and test arrangements as for the fracture tests. In contrast to Na + , bivalent Sr 2+ sorbed strongly, especially onto stainless steel tubing surrounding the NaI scintillation counters used for on-line γ-detection of the radiotracers. To minimize sorption of Sr 2+ on equipment, all exposed materials were then completely replaced by PRFE (Teflon). Further tests revealed that this material proved to be chemically inert with respect to Na + and Sr 2+ . Calibration of the field data was made by check laboratory analyses of water samples. The detection limits of all tracers were below 0.05 Bp/mL. (author) 38 figs., 13 tabs., refs

  5. Site preparation savings through better utilization standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Watson; B.J. Stokes; I.W. Savelle

    1984-01-01

    This reports preliminary paper results of a study to determine the savings in the cost of site preparation that can be accomplished by the intensive utiliiation of understory biomass. mechanized sys terns can potentially be used for recovering this material.

  6. Cooperative Robot Teams Applied to the Site Preparation Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, LE

    2001-01-01

    Prior to human missions to Mars, infrastructures on Mars that support human survival must be prepared. robotic teams can assist in these advance preparations in a number of ways. This paper addresses one of these advance robotic team tasks--the site preparation task--by proposing a control structure that allows robot teams to cooperatively solve this aspect of infrastructure preparation. A key question in this context is determining how robots should make decisions on which aspect of the site preparation t6ask to address throughout the mission, especially while operating in rough terrains. This paper describes a control approach to solving this problem that is based upon the ALLIANCE architecture, combined with performance-based rough terrain navigation that addresses path planning and control of mobile robots in rough terrain environments. They present the site preparation task and the proposed cooperative control approach, followed by some of the results of the initial testing of various aspects of the system

  7. Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Lof; Daniel C. Dey; Rafael M. Navarro; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Forest restoration projects have become increasingly common around the world and planting trees is almost always a key component. Low seedling survival and growth may result in restoration failures and various mechanical site preparation techniques for treatment of soils and vegetation are important tools used to help counteract this. In this article, we synthesize the...

  8. DOE site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions

  9. Lessons drawn in matters of preparation, conduct and planning of ''off-site'' nuclear security exercises on basis of three drills recently performed in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginot, P.

    1993-01-01

    Most exercises on nuclear security have, up to now, be devoted to the accident phase of the installation and the reflex protection measures during the first hours. The post accidental phase, which deals with the characterization of the contaminated zones and the management of the economic and social life, has been much less tested in exercises. Three recent exercises performed in France bring the following propositions to work out an off site exercise policy: - to benefit from the analysis of the non nuclear accidents - to select the technical and professional aspects of the off site management and to give them priority in the orientation of the exercises or the manoeuvres - to involve representatives of local population - to let the initiative to local Prefect, to enhance the value of the local exercises by specialized services, to accumulate these experiences at a national level

  10. GES [Ground Engineering System] test site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.; Schade, A.R.; Toyoda, K.G.

    1987-10-01

    Activities are under way at Hanford to convert the 309 containment building and its associated service wing to a nuclear test facility for the Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Conceptual design is about 80% complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system, a test article cell and handing system, control and data handling systems, and safety andl auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 25% complete. Cleanout of some 1000 m 3 of equipment from the earlier reactor test in the facility is 85% complete. An Environmental Assessment was prepared and revised to incorporate Department of Energy (DOE) comments. It is now in the DOE approval chain, where a Finding of No Significant Impact is expected. During the next year, definite design will be well advanced, long-lead procurements will be initiated, construction planning will be completed, an operator training plan will be prepared, and the site (preliminary) safety analysis report will be drafted

  11. Salt site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  12. Studies for site preparation for ITER construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, A.; Blanc, F.; Cardettini, J.D.; Mandine, J.R.; Guerin, R.; Patisson, L.; Bergegere, P.; Santagiustina, A.; Garin, P.

    2004-01-01

    The implantation of a nuclear facility such as ITER (about 20 buildings on 40 ha) requires many preparatory studies, particularly with respect to: Underground characteristics; Topography, layout; Deforestation, excavations; Networks, fences and roads; Impact of seismic hazard on design. This paper presents the main results of these studies, carried out within the European ITER Site Studies framework. A dedicated paper in the conference deals with the transport studies. To choose the site for ITER implantation, detailed geological, hydrogeological and geophysical investigations have been carried out. Taking into account the meteorological data (particularly the main wind direction), topography, access, electrical supply, fluids needs and constraints (gravity systems), buildings and roads have been implemented. (authors)

  13. Soil an-d nutrient loss following site preparation burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.A. Carter; J.P. Field; K.W. Farrish

    2000-01-01

    Sediment loss and nutrient cpncentrations in runoff were evaluated to determine the effects of site preparation burning on a recently harvested loblolly pine (Pinur taeda L.) site in east Texas. Sediment and nutrient losses prior to treatment were approximately the same from control plots and pretreatment burn plots. Nutrient analysis of runoff samples indicated that...

  14. Soil and Nutrient Loss Following Site Preparation Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Field; E.A. Carter

    2000-01-01

    Sediment loss and nutrient cpncentrations in runoff were evaluated to determine the effects of site preparation burning on a recently harvested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) site in east Texas. Sediment and nutrient losses prior to treatment were approximately the same from control plots and pretreatment burn plots. Nutrient analysis of runoff...

  15. Paradox Basin site characterization report: preparation papers, Gibson Dome location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    This document contains Part C, Identification of Pertinent Issues, of the site characterization report. The site characterization report, preparation papers, includes a description of detailed field studies and efforts to collect data to resolve key geologic and environmental issues in the Gibson Dome location within the Paradox Basin Region of Utah

  16. The channeling experiment - instrumentation and site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Aagren, T.

    1990-01-01

    Physical properties of in situ single fractures have been investigated by drilling large diameter holes (200 mm) 2.5 to 3 m into and along prominent single fractures. Photo logs as well as hydraulic- tracer tests have been performed. The experiment is divided into two parts, (1) the single hole experiments and (2) the double hole experiment. In the single hole experiment water was injected into the fracture and the injection flowrates over 50 mm sections along the fracture plane were monitored. In the double hole test two parallel large diameter holes, in the same fracture, 1.75 m apart, have been used for pressure pulse tests and a tracer test where 5 different nonsorbing tracers were injected. Equipment has been designed for water injection into single fractures where injection flowrates and pressure responses are simultaneously monitored in twenty 50 mm sections along the intersection of the fracture with the bore hole. The Multipede injection packer designed to be used in diameter 200 mm bore hole with a maximum depth of 2.5 m. Injection is done with constant pressure which is stable within ±0.0025 bar, and can be separately adjusted for each of the 20 injection zones. Injection flowrates can be monitored with a resolution of 1/100 ml/h, which equals one drop of water every five hours. The injection and pressure pulse tests are run by a computer and all data are stored on magnetic disks. A fracture survey at the 360 m level and adjacent levels has been done. The survey focused on prominent planar fractures with extension of more than 2 m. Approximately 100 fractures were found. (authors)

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  19. Supplementary Report on the Regulation of Site Selection and Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), based on the regulatory actions underway or being considered in different members countries concerning the design and construction of advanced nuclear power plants, established a working group responsible of the regulatory issues of siting, licensing and regulatory oversight of generation III+ and generation IV nuclear reactors. The Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) main purposes are to improve regulatory reviews by comparing practices in member countries; improve the licensing process of new reactors by learning from best practices in member countries; ensure that construction inspection issues and construction experience is shared; promote cooperation among member countries to improve safety; and enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the regulatory process. The WGRNR has established a programme of work which includes: the collection of construction experience and the assessing of the information collected in order to share lessons learned and good practices; the review of regulatory practices concerning the regulation of nuclear sites selection and preparation; and the review of recent regulatory experience concerning the licensing structure of regulatory staff and regulatory licensing process. The WGRNR began in May 2008 a task of examining and documenting the various practices used by regulatory authorities in the regulation of nuclear power plant siting. The purpose of the task was to provide the member countries with practical information that would be helpful in assessing and potentially improving their regulatory practices and requirements on the regulation of sites. The task considered also regulatory practices on sites where a mixture of activities are taking place (e.g. operating units, new construction, and decommissioning, etc.). This work led to the publication in 2010 of the Report on the Survey on Regulation of Site Selection and Preparation NEA/CNRA/R(2010)3. This

  20. SITE-94. Site specific base data for the performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.; Tiren, S.; Dverstorp, B.; Glynn, P.

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the site specific base data that were available, and the utilization of these data within SITE-94. A brief summary is given of SKB's preliminary site investigations for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), which were the main source of site-specific data for SITE-94, and an overview is given of the field methods and instrumentation for the preliminary investigations. A compilation is given of comments concerning the availability and quality of the data for Aespoe, and specific recommendations are given for future site investigations. It was found that the HRL pre-investigations produced a large quantity of data which were, for the most part, of sufficient quality to be valuable for a performance assessment. However, some problems were encountered regarding documentation, procedural consistency, positional information, and storage of the data from the measurements. 77 refs, 4 tabs

  1. Preparation of site emergency preparedness plans for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Safety of public, occupational workers and the protection of environment should be assured while activities for economic and social progress are pursued. These activities include the establishment and utilisation of nuclear facilities and use of radioactive sources. This safety guidelines is issued as a lead document to facilitate preparation of specific site manuals by the responsible organisation for emergency response plans at each site to ensure their preparedness to meet any eventuality due to site emergency in order to mitigate its consequences on the health and safety of site personnel. It takes cognizance of an earlier AERB publications on the subject: Safety manual on site emergency plan on nuclear installations. AERB/SM/NISD-1, 1986 and also takes into consideration the urgent need for promoting public awareness and drawing up revised emergency response plans, which has come about in a significant manner after the accidents at Chernobyl and Bhopal

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  4. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the TechCity East Campus Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Site in Kingston, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Healey, Victoria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the TechCity East Campus site in Kingston, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Fort Ord Army Base Site in Marina, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Fort Ord Army Base (FOAB) site in Marina, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kerr McGee Site in Columbus, Mississippi. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kerr McGee site in Columbus, Mississippi, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant Brownfield Site in Lackawanna, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant site in Lackawanna, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  11. Guidance document for preparing water sampling and analysis plans for UMTRA Project sites. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is prepared for each Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide the rationale for routine ground water sampling at disposal sites and former processing sites. The WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine ground water monitoring stations at each site. This guidance document has been prepared by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Its purpose is to provide a consistent technical approach for sampling and monitoring activities performed under the WSAP and to provide a consistent format for the WSAP documents. It is designed for use by the TAC in preparing WSAPs and by the DOE, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state and tribal agencies, other regulatory agencies, and the public in evaluating the content of WSAPS

  12. Preparing to perform an awake fiberoptic intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, M E

    2012-02-03

    Fiberoptically guided tracheal intubation represents one of the most important advances in airway management to occur in the past thirty years. Perhaps its most important role is in management of the anticipated difficult airway. This is a situation in which the dangers of encountering the life-threatening "can\\'t intubate, can\\'t ventilate" situation can be avoided by placement of an endotracheal tube while the patient is awake. Although skill at the procedure of endoscopy is obviously necessary in this setting, these authors hold that success or failure of the technique frequently depends on the adequacy of preparation. These measures include 1) pre-operative assessment of the patient; 2) careful explanation of what lies in store; 3) "setting the stage"; 4) preparing the equipment to be used; and 5) preparing the patient (antisialogue, sedation, application of topical anesthesia to the upper airway). If these preparatory measures are carried out meticulously, the likelihood of performing a successful and comfortable awake fiberoptic tracheal intubation is greatly increased.

  13. Architecting Web Sites for High Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Iyengar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Web site applications are some of the most challenging high-performance applications currently being developed and deployed. The challenges emerge from the specific combination of high variability in workload characteristics and of high performance demands regarding the service level, scalability, availability, and costs. In recent years, a large body of research has addressed the Web site application domain, and a host of innovative software and hardware solutions have been proposed and deployed. This paper is an overview of recent solutions concerning the architectures and the software infrastructures used in building Web site applications. The presentation emphasizes three of the main functions in a complex Web site: the processing of client requests, the control of service levels, and the interaction with remote network caches.

  14. Performance of a radioactive waste internment site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, D.E.; Owen, D.H.; Mishub, R.J.; Prewett, S.V.; Cole, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Aerojet disposed of 30,000 cubic meters of uranium and thorium wastes in an engineered 12,000 square meter (3 acre) internment site in Tennessee. The operation, performed under a State of Tennessee source material license, is based on termination of the license with the material remaining in place, and the option of future commercial use of the site. The closure plan included a long-term monitoring program. Yearly monitoring of the site has verified performance within the design criteria. Full-time construction monitored by a licensed engineer and extensive testing of materials ensured construction of the site according to or better than the specifications. Surface subsidence of the site has averaged about 2.2 cm with a range of 0 to 4.3 cm at 11 settlement markers after 4 years. The anticipated settlement, based on design parameters, was between 15 and 25 cm. The present anticipated settlement is 8 to 15 cm, based on the as-built parameters, and the long-term monitoring results. Slope stability analysis indicates the stability has improved with time due to consolidation of materials and reduced groundwater activity as a result of site construction. There has been no need for corrective action maintenance due to erosion, sluffing of slopes, or subsidence. Groundwater monitoring indicates the materials have been isolated, and there have also been no indications of springs or leakage from the site. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Hanford Site Performance Report - March 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDER, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Site Performance Report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's performance by: U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) through Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors, Environmental Restoration Contract through Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and its subcontractors, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) for Science and Technology (S and T) Mission and support to the Environmental Management (EM). This report is published monthly with the intent of relating work performance and progress in the context of the Success Indicators and Critical Success Factors as outlined in the Hanford Strategic Plan. On a quarterly basis, the report also addresses performance and progress related to the Science and Technology Mission's Critical Outcomes as derived from the Hanford Strategic Plan. Section A of this report is the Executive Summary, encapsulating high-level data in this report into an overall brief. Summary information provided includes Notable Accomplishments, a performance profile with associated analyses, Critical Issues, Key Integration Activities, and a ''quick list'' of Upcoming Key Events. Section B of this report, the Site Summary section, provides Environmental Management performance data specifically organized to the pertinent Critical Success Factors and Success Indicators, and Science and Technology data in the context of the Critical Outcomes. The Site Summary demonstrates the various missions' overall progress against these strategic objectives. The information is presented in both narrative and graphical formats. The remaining sections provide performance data relative to each individual mission area (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear Fuels, etc.). The information provided in the Mission Area sections is at a level of greater detail than is presented in either the Executive Summary or

  16. Hanford Site Performance Report - May 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDER, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Site Performance Report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's performance by: U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) through Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors, Environmental Restoration Contract through Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and its subcontractors, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) for Science and Technology (S and T) Mission and support to the Environmental Management (EM). This report is published monthly with the intent of relating work performance and progress in the context of the Success Indicators and Critical Success Factors as outlined in the Hanford Strategic Plan. On a quarterly basis, the report also addresses performance and progress related to the Science and Technology Mission's Critical Outcomes as derived from the Hanford Strategic Plan. Section A of this report is the Executive Summary, encapsulating high-level data in this report into an overall brief. Summary information provided includes Notable Accomplishments, a performance profile with associated analyses, Critical Issues, Key Integration Activities, and a ''quick list'' of Upcoming Key Events. Section B of this report, the Site Summary section, provides Environmental Management performance data specifically organized to the pertinent Critical Success Factors and Success Indicators, and Science and Technology data in the context of the Critical Outcomes. The Site Summary demonstrates the various missions' overall progress against these strategic objectives. The information is presented in both narrative and graphical formats. The remaining sections provide performance data relative to each individual mission area (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear Fuels, etc.). The information provided in the Mission Area sections is at a level of greater detail than is presented in either the Executive Summary or

  17. Hanford Site Performance Report - April 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDER, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Site Performance Report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's performance by: U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) through Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors, Environmental Restoration Contract through Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and its subcontractors, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) for Science and Technology (S and T) Mission and support to the Environmental Management (EM). This report is published monthly with the intent of relating work performance and progress in the context of the Success Indicators and Critical Success Factors as outlined in the Hanford Strategic Plan. On a quarterly basis, the report also addresses performance and progress related to the Science and Technology Mission's Critical Outcomes as derived from the Hanford Strategic Plan. Section A of this report is the Executive Summary, encapsulating high-level data in this report into an overall brief. Summary information provided includes Notable Accomplishments, a performance profile with associated analyses, Critical Issues, Key Integration Activities, and a ''quick list'' of Upcoming Key Events. Section B of this report, the Site Summary section, provides Environmental Management performance data specifically organized to the pertinent Critical Success Factors and Success Indicators, and Science and Technology data in the context of the Critical Outcomes. The Site Summary demonstrates the various missions' overall progress against these strategic objectives. The information is presented in both narrative and graphical formats. The remaining sections provide performance data relative to each individual mission area (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear Fuels, etc.). The information provided in the Mission Area sections is at a level of greater detail than is presented in either the Executive Summary or

  18. Hanford Site performance report - December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDER, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Site Performance Report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's performance by: U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) through Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors, Environmental Restoration Contract through Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and its subcontractors, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) for Science and Technology support to the Environmental Management (EM) mission. This report is published monthly with the intent of relating work performance and progress in the context of the Success Indicators and Critical Success Factors as outlined in the Hanford Strategic Plan. Currently, the report focuses on the EM mission, and will be expanded in the future to include non-EM activities. Section A of this report is the Executive Summary, encapsulating high-level data in this report into an overall brief. Summary information provided includes Notable Accomplishments, a tabular performance profile with associated analyses, Critical Issues, Key Integration Activities, a look at Significant Trends, and a ''quick list'' of Upcoming Key Events. Section B of this report, the Site Summary section, provides Environmental Management performance data specifically organized to the pertinent Critical Success Factors and Success Indicators. The Site Summary is a compilation of performance data from all of the Mission Areas and the Projects that comprise these Mission Areas; the information is presented in both narrative and graphical formats. The remaining sections provide performance data relative to each individual mission area (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear Fuels, etc.). The information provided in the Mission Area sections is at a level of greater detail than is presented in either the Executive Summary or the Site Summary sections. At the end of this report, a glossary of terms is provided

  19. Prospective safety performance evaluation on construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianguo; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Limao; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J; Wang, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based approach for Prospective Safety Performance Evaluation (PSPE) on construction sites, with causal relationships and interactions between enablers and the goals of PSPE taken into account. According to a sample of 450 valid questionnaire surveys from 30 Chinese construction enterprises, a SEM model with 26 items included for PSPE in the context of Chinese construction industry is established and then verified through the goodness-of-fit test. Three typical types of construction enterprises, namely the state-owned enterprise, private enterprise and Sino-foreign joint venture, are selected as samples to measure the level of safety performance given the enterprise scale, ownership and business strategy are different. Results provide a full understanding of safety performance practice in the construction industry, and indicate that the level of overall safety performance situation on working sites is rated at least a level of III (Fair) or above. This phenomenon can be explained that the construction industry has gradually matured with the norms, and construction enterprises should improve the level of safety performance as not to be eliminated from the government-led construction industry. The differences existing in the safety performance practice regarding different construction enterprise categories are compared and analyzed according to evaluation results. This research provides insights into cause-effect relationships among safety performance factors and goals, which, in turn, can facilitate the improvement of high safety performance in the construction industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Williston Reservoir: Site preparation and post-flood cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Williston Reservoir is the second largest in Canada and ranks ninth on the world scale. It was formed by the construction of the W.A.C. Bennet Dam and is the most important hydroelectric storage reservoir and largest body of fresh water in British Columbia. Site preparation for the reservoir began in 1962, with pre-flood clearing involving salvage of merchantable timber, handfalling, machine downing, burning of slash and burial. Post-flood cleanup included timber salvage, bailing and burning debris, tractor piling and burning, crane piling in shallows, underwater cutting, and hand cutting during low drawdown. Various types of floating debris have presented problems for recreational use, log booming and transport, waterways and aviation. Protection of the spillway is accomplished with a floating boom upstream of the channel. Administration, funding, forest clearance, salvage methods, clearing standards, wood volumes, project costs, environmental concerns, and future priorities are discussed. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Pre-Shipment Preparations at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will provide a detailed description of each of the pre-shipment process steps WSRC performs to produce the technical basis for approving the receipt and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site. It is intended to be a guide to reactor operators who plan on returning ''U.S. origin'' SNF and to emphasize the need for accurate and timely completion of pre-shipment activities

  2. Assessment of sites concerning radioactive contamination during preparation of a Contamination Site Register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, Rainer; Flesch, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Experience gained since 1990 in the new, but also old German Federal States has shown that there are radioactive contaminated sites beside the legacies of uranium mining in Germany which caused exposures exceeding the radiation protection limits for members of the public. The reason for this situation is that radioactivity has been excluded in the compilation of the register for potentially hazardous sites that are prepared routinely in the context of soil protection assessments. Moreover, the information contained in these registers is not yet evaluated regarding aspects of radioactivity. In many cases, the information existing at the soil protection authorities needs only to be additionally filtered in order to identify potentially hazardous sites for radioactive contamination. For that reason, the working group ''Natural radioactivity'' (AKNAT) of the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association developed a specific catalogue of business branches that provides indications for radioactive legacies.

  3. 30 CFR 827.12 - Coal preparation plants: Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal preparation plants: Performance standards...-COAL PREPARATION PLANTS NOT LOCATED WITHIN THE PERMIT AREA OF A MINE § 827.12 Coal preparation plants..., modification, reclamation, and removal activities at coal preparation plants shall comply with the following...

  4. Performance Potential at one Complex, Specific Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    disciplines: performance, drama, dance and music. Complex rules of “borders” between audience and actors/performers appeared to be present and active during this long happening. Different narrative genres were active simultaneously during the experimental session. A lot of complex and surprising phenomena...... and combinations of spatial, dramaturgical, narrative and interactive challenges, which appear to be of special interest for the kind of experiences an audience might gather in a site like this, originally created with totally different intentions. Or was it?...

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tronox Facility in Savannah, Georgia. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tronox Facility site in Savannah, Georgia, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Chino Mine in Silver City, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Chino Mine site in Silver City, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Long distance triathlon: demands, preparation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Laursen, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    The rise in worldwide popularity of long distance triathlon racing comes with it an increased interest into how to train and prepare optimally for such an event. This paper examines the physiologic and bioenergetic demands of long distance triathlon racing, including energy requirements, muscle damage consequences, thermoregulatory demands and water turnover rates. In response to these physiological challenges, the second part of the paper describes the training goals and race practices that ...

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Ft. Hood Military Base Outside Killeen, Texas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative through the Region 6 contract, selected Ft. Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for possible photovoltaic (PV) system installations and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  13. On-site preparation of technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin for clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuhfeng; Chuang Meihua; Cham Thauming; Chung Meiing; Chiu Jainnshiun

    2007-01-01

    Technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin (Tc-99m HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical for clinical applications, such as cardiac function tests or protein-losing gastroenteropathy assessment. However, because of transfusion-induced infectious diseases, the safety of serum products is a serious concern. In this context, serum products acquired from patients themselves are the most ideal tracer. However, the development of rapid separation and easy clinical labeling methods is not yet well established. Under such situation, products from the same ethnic group or country are now recommended by the World Health Organization as an alternative preparation. This article describes the on-site preparation of Tc-99m HSA from locally supplied serum products. Different formulations were prepared and the labeling efficiency and stability were examined. Radio-labeling efficiencies were more than 90% in all preparation protocols, except for one that omitted the stannous solution. The most cost-effective protocol contained HSA 0.1 mg, treated with stannous fluoride 0.2 mg, and mixed with Tc-99m pertechnetate 30 mCi. A biodistribution study was performed in rats using a gamma camera immediately after intravenous administration of radiolabeled HSA. Tissue/organ uptake was obtained by measuring the radioactivity in organs after sacrificing the rats at timed intervals. The biologic half-life was about 32 min, determined from sequential venous blood collections. These data indicate that our preparation of Tc-99m HSA is useful and potentially applicable clinically. In addition, this on-site preparation provides the possibility of labeling a patient's own serum for subsequent clinical application. (author)

  14. Guidance for performing site inspections under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This guidance presents EPA`s site inspection (SI) strategy. The strategy discusses procedural guidelines to investigate potential Superfund (CERCLA) sites for evaluation pursuant to the Hazard Ranking System (HRS), revised in accordance with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The HRS is the primary means by which EPA evaluates sites for superfund`s National Priorities List (NPL).

  15. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  16. Artificially regenerating longleaf pine on wet sites: preliminary analysis of effects of site preparation treatments on early survival and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Our study, conducted over two years on poorly drained, sandy sites in Onslow County, NC, compared the effects of eight common site preparation treatments on early survival and growth of planted longleaf pine seedlings. Through two growing seasons, we found survival to be similar across all treatments (p = 0.8806), but root collar diameter was greatest with combinations...

  17. Experimental Analysis of Temperature Differences During Implant Site Preparation: Continuous Drilling Technique Versus Intermittent Drilling Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Adolfo; Sivolella, Stefano; Stocco, Elena; Favero, Vittorio; Stellini, Edoardo

    2018-02-01

    Implant site preparation through drilling procedures may cause bone thermonecrosis. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate, using a thermal probe, overheating at implant sites during osteotomies through 2 different drilling methods (continuous drilling technique versus intermittent drilling technique) using irrigation at different temperatures. Five implant sites 13 mm in length were performed on 16 blocks (fresh bovine ribs), for a total of 80 implant sites. The PT-100 thermal probe was positioned 5 mm from each site. Two physiological refrigerant solutions were used: one at 23.7°C and one at 6.0°C. Four experimental groups were considered: group A (continuous drilling with physiological solution at 23.7°C), group B (intermittent drilling with physiological solution at 23.7°C), group C (continuous drilling with physiological solution at 6.0°C), and group D (intermittent drilling with physiological solution at 6.0°C). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test (2-tailed) was used to compare groups. While there was no difference between group A and group B (W = 86; P = .45), statistically significant differences were observed between experimental groups A and C (W = 0; P =.0001), B and D (W = 45; P =.0005), and C and D (W = 41; P = .003). Implant site preparation did not affect the overheating of the bone. Statistically significant differences were found with the refrigerant solutions. Using both irrigating solutions, bone temperature did not exceed 47°C.

  18. Hanford Site Guidelines for Preparation and Presentation of Geologic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanigan, David C.; Last, George V.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Thorne, Paul D.; Webber, William D.

    2010-04-30

    A complex geology lies beneath the Hanford Site of southeastern Washington State. Within this geology is a challenging large-scale environmental cleanup project. Geologic and contaminant transport information generated by several U.S. Department of Energy contractors must be documented in geologic graphics clearly, consistently, and accurately. These graphics must then be disseminated in formats readily acceptable by general graphics and document producing software applications. The guidelines presented in this document are intended to facilitate consistent, defensible, geologic graphics and digital data/graphics sharing among the various Hanford Site agencies and contractors.

  19. Feedback from performance assessment to site characterisation. The SITE-94 example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, B.; Geier, J.

    1999-01-01

    Interaction and information exchange between site characterisation and performance assessment are key features of any successful radioactive waste management programme. Some examples are presented of the types of feedback that can be offered from performance assessment to site characterisation, based on SKI's most recent performance assessment project, SITE-94. SITE-94 in Sweden was an assessment of a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on real data gathered in the surface-based investigation of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory site. Examples of feedback are given concerning quality control of data and site investigation procedures, identification of key parameters for the performance assessment, use of models for planning and evaluation of a site investigation, data sampling strategies, and guidance on future priorities for further development of site investigation methods. Because site characterisation serves multiple purposes, including provision of data for repository design and construction, it must account for and compromise among requirements from several lines of analyses in the performance assessment. (author)

  20. 7 CFR 1948.83 - Performance of site development work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Performance of site development work. 1948.83 Section 1948.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Development Assistance Program § 1948.83 Performance of site development work. Site development work will be...

  1. Preparing for Memorized Cello Performance: The Role of Performance Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Roger; Lisboa, Tania; Logan, Topher; Begosh, Kristen T.

    2010-01-01

    An experienced cello soloist recorded her practice as she learned and memorized the Prelude from J.S. Bach's Suite No. 6 for solo cello and gave 10 public performances over a period of more than three years. She described the musical structure, decisions about basic technique (e.g., bowing), interpretation (e.g., dynamics), and five kinds of…

  2. Psychological Preparation for Peak Performance in Sports Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuruogu, Ben; Jonathan, Ugwuanyi I.; Ikechukwu, Ugwu Jude

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to make an overview of various techniques, sport psychologist adopt in psychological preparation of athletes for peak performance. To attain peak performance in sports competitions, coaches and athletes should not base their prospect on physical training on sport skills alone rather should integrate both the mental and physical…

  3. A guide for preparing Hanford Site facility effluent monitoring plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    This document provides guidance on the format and content of effluent monitoring plans for facilities at the Hanford Site. The guidance provided in this document is designed to ensure compliance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), 5400.3 (DOE 1989a), 5400.4 (DOE 1989b), 5400.5 (DOE 1990a), 5480.1 (DOE 1982), 5480.11 (DOE 1988b), and 5484.1 (DOE 1981). These require environmental monitoring plans for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants of radioactive or hazardous materials. In support of DOE Orders 5400.5 (Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment) and 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program), the DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE 1991) should be used to establish elements of a radiological effluent monitoring program in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. Evaluation of facilities for compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act of 1977 requirements also is included in the airborne emissions section of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Sampling Analysis Plans for Liquid Effluents, as required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), also are included in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans shall include complete documentation of gaseous and liquid effluent sampling and monitoring systems

  4. SITE-94. Scenario development FEP audit list preparation: methodology and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.; Chapman, N.; Sumerling, T.

    1993-04-01

    This report concerns a study which is part of the SKI performance assessment project SITE-94. SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. Other important elements of SITE-94 are the development of a practical and defensible methodology for defining, constructing and analyzing scenarios, the development of approaches for treatment of uncertainties , evaluation of canister integrity, and the development and application of an appropriate quality assurance plan for performance assessments

  5. Even Faster Web Sites Performance Best Practices for Web Developers

    CERN Document Server

    Souders, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Performance is critical to the success of any web site, and yet today's web applications push browsers to their limits with increasing amounts of rich content and heavy use of Ajax. In this book, Steve Souders, web performance evangelist at Google and former Chief Performance Yahoo!, provides valuable techniques to help you optimize your site's performance. Souders' previous book, the bestselling High Performance Web Sites, shocked the web development world by revealing that 80% of the time it takes for a web page to load is on the client side. In Even Faster Web Sites, Souders and eight exp

  6. Performance Art at the Campusphere: Pedagogical Experiments On-Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shaul, Daphna

    2018-01-01

    Following a unique practice and research laboratory entitled "Performance: Site/Self" that took place in 2013-2015, this article discusses the implementation of performance art at an academic site--the Tel Aviv University campus. This pedagogical and artistic initiative, characterised by the transgressive pedagogy of performance art…

  7. Data Preparation Process for the Buildings Performance Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Travis; Dunn, Laurel; Mercado, Andrea; Brown, Richard E.; Mathew, Paul

    2014-06-30

    The Buildings Performance Database (BPD) includes empirically measured data from a variety of data sources with varying degrees of data quality and data availability. The purpose of the data preparation process is to maintain data quality within the database and to ensure that all database entries have sufficient data for meaningful analysis and for the database API. Data preparation is a systematic process of mapping data into the Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES), cleansing data using a set of criteria and rules of thumb, and deriving values such as energy totals and dominant asset types. The data preparation process takes the most amount of effort and time therefore most of the cleansing process has been automated. The process also needs to adapt as more data is contributed to the BPD and as building technologies over time. The data preparation process is an essential step between data contributed by providers and data published to the public in the BPD.

  8. Outage preparation milestones - A tool to improve planned outage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplatney, Jere; Hwang, Euiyoub

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable development of Nuclear Energy depends heavily on excellent performance of the existing fleet which in turn depend heavily on the performance of planned outages. Nuclear Power Plants who have successfully undertaken outage optimization projects have demonstrated than an effective Outage Preparation Milestone program is a key component of their improvement programs. This paper will provide background into the field of 'Outage Optimization' including the philosophy, general approach, and results obtained in the U. S. industry. The significant safety improvements afforded by properly implementing outage improvement programs will be explained. Some specific examples of outage improvements will be given including the adoption of a strong Outage Preparation Milestone Program. The paper will then describe the attributes of an effective Outage Preparation Milestone Program and list a set of specific key milestones. The key milestones are defined and the reasons for each are explained. Suggested due dates for each key milestone relative to the outage start date are provided. Successful implementation of an Outage Preparation Milestone program depends heavily upon the management tools and methods used to assure that the organization meets the milestones on time and in a quality fashion. These include methods to handle cases where milestones are not met - either partially or fully. KHNP is investigating implementing an improved Outage Preparation Milestone program for its fleet of reactors as part of its overall program to improve its performance of planned outages

  9. Fruiting of browse plants affected by pine site preparation in east Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Stransky; Douglas Richardson

    1977-01-01

    Pine planting sites prepared by burning yielded 120 kg/ha of browse fruits the third growing season after site treatment. Control plots yielded 74, KG-bladed plots 57, and chopped plots 41 kg/ha. Blackberries, American beautyberry, sumac, Sebastian bush, muscadine grape, blueberries, and southern wax-myrtle were the principal species. Most fruit was available in summer...

  10. ICT and Teachers' Performance in Terms of Lesson Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a report of a study carried out to examine how information and Communication Technology (ICT) and teachers' performance in terms of lesson preparation and delivery in primary schools in Ogoja Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of the study, one research question was ...

  11. Some aspects of success performing in departments preparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In France, secondary teachers are public sector employees. Becoming a language teacher in secondary education is subject to passing public competitive entry examinations. Preparation for these examinations is provided in College Departments, which are essentially assessed on the basis of their success performance in ...

  12. Probabilistic performance assessments for evaluations of the Yucca Mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Noronha, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Site suitability evaluations are conducted to determine if a repository system at a particular site will be able to meet the performance objectives for that system. Early evaluations to determine if the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development have been made in the face of large uncertainties in site features and conditions. Because of these large uncertainties, the evaluations of the site have been qualitative in nature, focusing on the presence or absence of particular features or conditions thought to be important to performance, rather than on results of quantitative performance assessments. Such a qualitative approach was used in the recently completed evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site, the Early Site-Suitability Evaluation (ESSE). In spite of the qualitative approach, the ESSE was able to conclude that no disqualifying conditions are likely to be present at the site and that all of the geologic conditions that would qualify the site are likely to be met. At the same time, because of the qualitative nature of the approach used in the ESSE, the precise importance of the identified issues relative to performance could not be determined. Likewise, the importance of the issues relative to one another could not be evaluated, and, other than broad recommendations, specific priorities for future testing could not be set. The authors have conducted quantitative performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain site to address these issues

  13. Hanford Site performance summary: EM funded programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    1995-09-01

    Hanford performance at fiscal year end reflects a three percent unfavorable schedule variance ($46.3 million*) which was an improvement over August 1995 ($46.3 million for September versus $65.9 million for August) and is below established reporting thresholds (greater than 3 percent). The majority of the behind schedule condition (53 percent) is attributed to EM-40 (Office of Environmental Restoration [ER]) and is a result of late receipt of funds, procurement delays, and US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) work planned but not accomplished. Other primary contributors to the behind schedule condition are associated with tank farm upgrades, high-level waste disposal and work for others (support to the US Department of Energy-Headquarters [DOE-HQ]). The remaining behind schedule condition is distributed throughout the remaining Hanford programs and do not share common causes. A breakdown of individuals listed on page 8

  14. Preparation of substituting seaweed field mounds accompanying site preparation for No.3 plant in Ikata Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Oshima, Teruhiko; Fujisaki, Yuichi; Saeki, Taketoshi

    1987-01-01

    Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. is constructing No.3 plant adjacently to No.1 and No.2 plants in operation in Ikata Nuclear Power Station. In the coastal area of Iyo-nada, many seaweed fields are distributed, which are important biologically and for fishery. In the works of site preparation for No.3 plant, a part of the site is created by reclamation of sea area, therefore the natural seaweed fields in the area disappear. From the viewpoint of various circumstances and environment preservation, it was decided to create about 60,000 m 2 of seaweed field mounds on the seabed around the site as the substitute for disappearing natural seaweed fields. The Seaweed Field Study Group composed of the men of learning and experience was organized to obtain the guidance on the possibility of creating artificial seaweed fields, the techniques for creation and the effect on environment accompanying the creation of mounds. The creation works were started in October, 1985, and are in progress smoothly utilizing effectively the stones and rocks cut in the site preparation works. The topographic and geological features, sea conditions, the present state of seaweed fields, the experiment on creating artificial seaweed fields, the design and construction of mounds and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Distribution of basic fibroblast growth factor binding sites in various tissue membrane preparations from adult guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, D.; Mereau, A.; Dauchel, M.C.; Barritault, D.; Courty, J.

    1989-01-01

    In order to localize a rich source of basic FGF receptor, we examined the distribution of basic FGF binding sites in brain, stomach, lung, spleen, kidney, liver and intestine membrane preparations from adult guinea pig. Comparative binding studies using iodinated basic FGF showed that a specific binding was detected in all the membrane preparations tested. Scatchard plots from iodinated basic FGF competition experiment with native basic FGF in various membrane preparations, suggested the presence of one class of binding sites in some tissues such as liver, kidney, spleen, lung, stomach, and intestine with an apparent dissociation constant (appKD) value ranging from 4 to 7.5 nM and the existence of a second class of higher affinity sites in brain membranes with appKD value of 15 pM. Characterization of these basic FGF high affinity interaction sites was performed using a cross-linking reagent. These results show for the first time that specific interaction sites for basic FGF are widely distributed, suggesting that this growth factor might play a role in the physiological functions of a number of adult organs

  16. Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan; Teddy Sumantry; Heru Sriwahyuni; Hendra A Pratama; Nurul Efri E; Achmad Sjarmufni; Pratomo Budiman; Dadang Suganda; Soegeng Waluyo; Ari Pudyo; Dewi Susilowati; Marwoto

    2008-01-01

    The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

  17. SC-HTGR Performance Impact for Arid Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lommers, L.; Geschwindt, J.; Southworth, F.; Shahrokhi, F.

    2014-01-01

    The SC-HTGR provides high temperature steam which can support industrial process heat applications as well as high efficiency electricity generation. The increased generating efficiency resulting from using high steam temperature provides greater plant output than lower temperature concepts, and it also reduces the fraction of waste heat which must be rejected. This capability is particularly attractive for sites with little or no water for heat rejection. This high temperature capability provides greater flexibility for these sites, and it results in a smaller performance penalty than for lower temperature systems when dry cooling must be used. The performance of the SC-HTGR for a conventional site with wet cooling is discussed first. Then the performance for arid sites is evaluated. Dry cooling performance is evaluated for both moderately arid sites and very hot sites. Offdesign performance of the dry cooling system under extreme conditions is also considered. Finally, operating strategies are explored for sites where some cooling water may be available but only in very limited quantities. Results of these assessments confirm that the higher operating temperatures of the SC-HTGR are very beneficial for arid sites, providing significant advantages for both gross and net power generation. (author)

  18. Quantifying and visualizing site performance in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Yang

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: The use of operational data from Covance Central Laboratories provides a unique perspective into the performance of clinical sites with respect to many important metrics such as patient enrollment and retention. These metrics can, in turn, be used to guide operational planning and site selection for new clinical trials, thereby accelerating recruitment, improving quality, and reducing cost.

  19. Report on the Survey on Regulation of Site Selection and Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Philip

    2010-01-01

    At its first meeting in May 2008, the Working Group discussed a task to 'Prepare a report reviewing the various practices used by regulators in the regulation of nuclear power plant siting. The report should consider regulator practices on sites where a mixture of activities are taking place (e.g. operating units, new construction, decommissioning, etc) including organization of the regulators organisation, methods, systems, etc.'. Following discussion, the Working Group assigned an Action 1-5 to 'develop a survey on the regulation of nuclear sites including seismicity issues, security issues, multi-units aspects and regulator practices on sites where a mixture of activities are taking place (e.g. operating units, new construction, decommissioning, etc.)'. The Survey was prepared and issued by the NEA in July 2008 with a request to the member states to provide their responses by the next meeting of the Working Group in October 2008. In addition to addressing the specific topics actioned by the Working Group, the Survey also investigated the broader context of siting, in order to address the Mandate that had been approved by the CNRA. The questions in the survey therefore covered the topics of site evaluation, site selection, regulatory approval, site preparation and regulatory oversight. A topic of particular interest was to what extent IAEA guidance on site evaluation was followed. The survey considered the possibility that a body other than the safety regulator may approve the choice of site or permit the applicant to start to prepare it. The survey also investigated the existence of formal requirements and informal expectations, recognizing that these both form part of the regulatory tool-kit. Responses were received from all twelve member states that were then members of the Working Group. The responses were reviewed at the second meeting of the Working Group in October 2008. In general, it could be stated that new reactors are licensed in

  20. Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.

    2012-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and

  1. Polymeric ionic liquid-based portable tip microextraction device for on-site sample preparation of water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Pei, Junxian; Huang, Xiaojia; Lu, Min

    2018-06-05

    On-site sample preparation is highly desired because it avoids the transportation of large-volume samples and ensures the accuracy of the analytical results. In this work, a portable prototype of tip microextraction device (TMD) was designed and developed for on-site sample pretreatment. The assembly procedure of TMD is quite simple. Firstly, polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based adsorbent was in-situ prepared in a pipette tip. After that, the tip was connected with a syringe which was driven by a bidirectional motor. The flow rates in adsorption and desorption steps were controlled accurately by the motor. To evaluate the practicability of the developed device, the TMD was used to on-site sample preparation of waters and combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection to measure trace estrogens in water samples. Under the most favorable conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) for the target analytes were in the range of 4.9-22 ng/L, with good coefficients of determination. Confirmatory study well evidences that the extraction performance of TMD is comparable to that of the traditional laboratory solid-phase extraction process, but the proposed TMD is more simple and convenient. At the same time, the TMD avoids complicated sampling and transferring steps of large-volume water samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Conventional drilling versus piezosurgery for implant site preparation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendyk, Daniel Isaac; Oliveira, Natacha Kalline; Pannuti, Claudio Mendes; Naclério-Homem, Maria da Graça; Wennerberg, Ann; Zindel Deboni, Maria Cristina

    2018-03-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the evidence of a correlation between the stability of dental implants placed by piezosurgery, compared with implants placed by conventional drilling. An electronic search in MEDLINE, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library was undertaken until August 2016 and was supplemented by manual searches and by unpublished studies at OpenGray. Only randomized controlled clinical trials that reported implant site preparation with piezosurgery and with conventional drilling were considered eligible for inclusion in this review. Meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of piezosurgery on implant stability. Of 456 references electronically retrieved, 3 were included in the qualitative analysis and quantitative synthesis. The pooled estimates suggest that there is no significant difference between piezosurgery and conventional drilling at baseline (WMD: 2.20; 95% CI: -5.09, 9,49; p = 0.55). At 90 days, the pooled estimates revealed a statistically significant difference (WMD: 3.63; 95% CI: 0.58, 6.67, p = 0.02) favouring piezosurgery. Implant stability is slightly improved when osteotomy was performed by a piezoelectric device. More randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to verify these findings.

  3. Practicing perfection: How concert soloists prepare for performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chaffin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical performances by concert soloists in the Western classical tradition are normally memorized. For memory to work reliably under the pressures of the concert stage, the performance must be practiced until it is thoroughly automatic. At the same time, the performance must be fresh and spontaneous in order to communicate emotionally with the audience. The resolution of this apparent contradiction is provided by longitudinal case studies of concert soloists preparing new works for performance. Like expert memorists in other domains, experienced musicians use highly practiced retrieval schemes to accomplish their extraordinary feats of memory. Performers have a mental map of the piece in mind as they perform that tells them where they are and what comes next - a series of landmarks, hierarchically organized by the sections and subsections of the music. The musician attends to these performance cues in order to ensure that the performance unfolds as planned. Performance cues are established by thinking about a particular feature of the music during practice so that it later comes to mind automatically. Performance cues help the soloist consciously monitor and control the rapid, automatic actions of playing, while adjusting to the needs of the moment. During practice, the musician attends mostly to basic performance cues representing critical technical features (e.g., fingerings,andinterpretive performance cues, representing phrasings, and changes in dynamics, tempo, and timbre. During performance, the musician hopes to attend mainly to expressive performance cues representing the musical feelings to be conveyed to the audience (e.g. excitement. We illustrate this analysis with a typical case study of a concert pianist learning J.S. Bach's Italian Concerto (Presto.

  4. Site calibration for the wind turbine performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Yoon Su; Yoo, Neung Soo; Lee, Jung Wan

    2004-01-01

    The accurate wind speed information at the hub height of a wind turbine is very essential to the exact estimation of the wind turbine power performance testing. Several method on the site calibration, which is a technique to estimate the wind speed at the wind turbine's hub height based on the measured wind data using a reference meteorological mast, are introduced. A site calibration result and the wind resource assessment for the TaeKwanRyung test site are presented using three-month wind data from a reference meteorological mast and the other mast temporarily installed at the site of wind turbine. Besides, an analysis on the uncertainty allocation for the wind speed correction using site calibration is performed

  5. Response of Competing Vegetation to Site Preparation on West Gulf Coastal Plain Commercial Forest Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale L. Wolters; Henry A. Pearson; Ronald E. Thill; V. Clark Baldwin; Alton Martin

    1995-01-01

    The response of woody and herbaceous vegetation to site preparation, subsoil texture, and fertilization was measured on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The influences of these treatments on competing vegetation were short-term. Drastic soil disturbance and fertilization briefly increased herbage production. Shear-windrow and shear-disk were generally the most effective...

  6. Organic Matter Decomposition following Harvesting and Site Preparation of a Forested Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; M. Davidian; M.F. Jurgensen; R. Lea

    1996-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation is an important process that affects ecosystem function in many northern wetlands. The cotton strip assay (CSA)was used to measure the effect of harvesting and two different site preparation treatments, bedding and trenching, on organic matter decomposition in a forested wetland. A Latin square experimental design was used to determine the...

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of a Hydroelectric Installation at the Jeddo Mine Drainage Tunnel. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Jeddo Tunnel discharge site for a feasibility study of renewable energy potential. The purpose of this report is to assess technical and economic viability of the site for hydroelectric and geothermal energy production. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  8. Preparation of off-site emergency preparedness plans for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Safety of public, occupational workers and the protection of environment should be assured while activities for economic and social progress are pursued. These activities include the establishment and utilisation of nuclear facilities and use of radioactive sources. This document is issued as a lead document to facilitate preparation of specific site manuals by the Responsible Organisation for emergency response plans at each site to ensure their preparedness to meet any eventuality due to site emergency in order to mitigate its consequences on the health and safety of site personnel. It takes cognizance of an earlier AERB publication on the subject: Safety Manual on Off-Site Emergency Plan for Nuclear Installations, AERB/SM/NISD-2, 1988 and also takes into consideration the urgent need for promoting public awareness and drawing up revised emergency response plans, which has come out in a significant manner after the accidents at Chernobyl and Bhopal

  9. Site Characterization and Preliminary Performance Assessment Calculation Applied To JAEA-Horonobe URL Site of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Doo Hyun; Hatanaka, Koichiro; Ishii, Eiichi

    2010-01-01

    JAEA-Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is designed for research and development on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in sedimentary rock. For a potential HLW repository, understanding and implementing fracturing and faulting system, with data from the site characterization, into the performance assessment is essential because fracture and fault will be the major conductors or barriers for the groundwater flow and radionuclide release. The objectives are i) quantitative derivation of characteristics and correlation of fracturing/faulting system with geologic and geophysics data obtained from the site characterization, and ii) preliminary performance assessment calculation with characterized site information

  10. Site Characterization and Preliminary Performance Assessment Calculation Applied To JAEA-Horonobe URL Site of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Doo Hyun [NE Union Hill Road, Suite 200, WA 98052 (United States); Hatanaka, Koichiro; Ishii, Eiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    JAEA-Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is designed for research and development on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in sedimentary rock. For a potential HLW repository, understanding and implementing fracturing and faulting system, with data from the site characterization, into the performance assessment is essential because fracture and fault will be the major conductors or barriers for the groundwater flow and radionuclide release. The objectives are i) quantitative derivation of characteristics and correlation of fracturing/faulting system with geologic and geophysics data obtained from the site characterization, and ii) preliminary performance assessment calculation with characterized site information

  11. Effects of Mechanical Site Preparation on Growth of Oaks Planted on Former Agricultural Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Hodges

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate problematic soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, any seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor growth and survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood afforestation are proven, there is a substantial void in research comparing subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing treatments. A total of 4,320 bare-root Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley, Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii Buckley, and swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt. seedlings were planted in February 2008 on three Mississippi sites. All sites were of comparable soils and received above average precipitation throughout the three-year duration of the study. Four site preparation treatments were replicated at each site, with 480 seedlings planted in each of nine replications, and a total of 1,440 seedlings per species planted across all sites. Mechanical treatments were installed using 3.1 m row centers, with treatments as follows: control, subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing. Treatment effects on seedling height, groundline diameter (GLD, and survival were analyzed. Seedlings exhibited greater height in bedded and combination plowed areas (79.7 cm to 102.7 cm and 82.6 cm to 100.1 cm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (70.4 cm to 84.6 cm and 71.4 cm to 86.9 cm, respectively. Greater GLD was observed in bedded and combination plowed areas (11.9 mm to 18.4 mm and 12.2 mm to 18.3 mm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (10.2 mm to 14.6 mm and 10.5 mm to 15.6 mm, respectively. Survival was high for this study (94.%, and no differences were detected among treatments.

  12. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is neither a safety assessment nor a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The main report (SKI-R--96-36) gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project, while the present report presents a condensed summary of the main report. 46 refs

  13. SKI SITE-94, deep repository performance assessment project, summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    SITE-94 is a comprehensive performance assessment exercise for a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel at a real site in Sweden. SITE-94 was carried out to develop the capability and tools to enable Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to review fully the proposals for a deep repository which are expected to be made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, SKB (the implementor). Sweden is one of the leading countries in the research and development of geological disposal of radioactive waste. The developed methodology for performance assessment has attracted interests from other countries. The Summary of the main report of the SITE-94 project is translated here into Japanese to allow to make the information on the methodology and the related issues available among Japanese concerned. (author)

  14. Benchmarking and performance improvement at Rocky Flats Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, C.; Doyle, G.; Featherman, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes

  15. Quantifying and visualizing site performance in clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Yang; Christopher O'Donovan; JodiLyn Phillips; Leone Atkinson; Krishnendu Ghosh; Dimitris K. Agrafiotis

    2018-01-01

    Background: One of the keys to running a successful clinical trial is the selection of high quality clinical sites, i.e., sites that are able to enroll patients quickly, engage them on an ongoing basis to prevent drop-out, and execute the trial in strict accordance to the clinical protocol. Intuitively, the historical track record of a site is one of the strongest predictors of its future performance; however, issues such as data availability and wide differences in protocol complexity can co...

  16. Quantifying and visualizing site performance in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eric; O'Donovan, Christopher; Phillips, JodiLyn; Atkinson, Leone; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Agrafiotis, Dimitris K

    2018-03-01

    One of the keys to running a successful clinical trial is the selection of high quality clinical sites, i.e., sites that are able to enroll patients quickly, engage them on an ongoing basis to prevent drop-out, and execute the trial in strict accordance to the clinical protocol. Intuitively, the historical track record of a site is one of the strongest predictors of its future performance; however, issues such as data availability and wide differences in protocol complexity can complicate interpretation. Here, we demonstrate how operational data derived from central laboratory services can provide key insights into the performance of clinical sites and help guide operational planning and site selection for new clinical trials. Our methodology uses the metadata associated with laboratory kit shipments to clinical sites (such as trial and anonymized patient identifiers, investigator names and addresses, sample collection and shipment dates, etc.) to reconstruct the complete schedule of patient visits and derive insights about the operational performance of those sites, including screening, enrollment, and drop-out rates and other quality indicators. This information can be displayed in its raw form or normalized to enable direct comparison of site performance across studies of varied design and complexity. Leveraging Covance's market leadership in central laboratory services, we have assembled a database of operational metrics that spans more than 14,000 protocols, 1400 indications, 230,000 unique investigators, and 23 million patient visits and represents a significant fraction of all clinical trials run globally in the last few years. By analyzing this historical data, we are able to assess and compare the performance of clinical investigators across a wide range of therapeutic areas and study designs. This information can be aggregated across trials and geographies to gain further insights into country and regional trends, sometimes with surprising results. The

  17. Regulatory Issues and Challenges in Preparing for the Regulation of New Reactor Siting: Malaysia's Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jais, Azlina Mohammad; Hassan, Halimah; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Roslan, Ridha

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at giving an overview about the issues and challenges facing regulatory authority, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) in ensuring nuclear safety, security and safeguards (3S's) and other relevant authorities to meet an impending nuclear power programme post-2020, in particular at the beginning stage of preparation for the regulation of nuclear power reactor siting. A comparison with an international framework and guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other countries' practice was made to get an overview of the present adequacy of Malaysia's nuclear regulatory framework in preparation for Malaysia to consider and perhaps decide for a safe, secure and peaceful nuclear power project in Malaysia, in utilising nuclear power in a quest for energy diversity and security. The important stage in the development of a nuclear power project is the evaluation of a suitable site to establish the site-related design inputs for the NPP. The evaluation of suitable site is the result of a process to ensure adequate protection of workers, public and the environment from the undue risk of ionizing radiation arising from NPP taking into account impact to the social communities and public acceptance, thus it will depend on the regulators to ensure a high level safety standards and security are met, in addition to its peaceful uses. Development of regulatory criteria for the site evaluation is a pre-initiatives licensing work for a possible nuclear power plant to performing effective nuclear safety and security reviews in an efficient and timely manner regardless whether Malaysia embarks on a nuclear power programme with anticipating challenges, learning from others' experiences in preparing for the demands for new licensing processes by collaborating internationally, in an expanding global environment

  18. Scalp flora in Indian patients undergoing craniotomy for brain tumors - Implications for pre-surgical site preparation and surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasgar V Moiyadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Causation of surgical site infection (SSI following craniotomy is multifactorial. Most preventive strategies (including site preparation and antibiotic prophylaxis revolve around reducing preoperative contamination of the local site. There is little evidence, however, linking site contamination with postoperative infections. This is important given the preference for performing non-shaved cranial surgery. We undertook a prospective study to document the scalp flora in neurosurgical patients in an Indian setting and to assess possible association with SSI. Materials and Methods: A prospective study recruited 45 patients undergoing non-shaved clean craniotomies for various brain tumors. Standard perioperative procedures and antibiotic policy were employed. Prior to and immediately following the pre-surgical scrubbing, we collected swabs and evaluated their growth qualitatively. SSI was documented adhering to CDC guidelines. The association of swab-positivity with various parameters (including SSI was evaluated. Results: Pre-scrub positivity was seen in 18 of 44 patients, three of them developed subsequent SSI. Most were known skin contaminants. Five patients had swab positivity after scrubbing, though none of these developed any SSI. Four of these five had pre-scrub positivity. In three the same organisms persisted (two being Staphylococcus aureus, and one had different growth post-scrub, whereas one patient developed new growth (contaminant mycelial fungus in the post-scrub swab. We did not find any association between swab positivity and SSI. Swab positivity was also not related to hair-length or hygiene. Conclusion: Scalp flora in Indian patients is similar to that described. Pre-surgical preparation does not always eliminate this contamination (especially staphylococcus. However, this does not necessarily translate into increased SSI. Moreover, the results also provide objective evidence to support the performance of non

  19. Basic considerations for the preparation of performance testing materials as related to performance evaluation acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, D.E.; Morton, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of performance testing (PT) materials for environmental and radiobioassay applications involves the use of natural matrix materials containing the analyte of interest, the addition (spiking) of the analyte to a desired matrix (followed by blending for certain matrices) or a combination of the two. The distribution of the sample analyte concentration in a batch of PT samples will reflect the degree of heterogeneity of the analyte in the PT material and/or the reproducibility of the sample preparation process. Commercial and government implemented radioanalytical performance evaluation programs have a variety of acceptable performance criteria. The performance criteria should take into consideration many parameters related to the preparation of the PT materials including the within and between sample analyte heterogeneity, the accuracy of the quantification of an analyte in the PT material and to what 'known' value will a laboratory's result be compared. How sample preparation parameters affect the successful participation in performance evaluation (PE) programs having an acceptance criteria established as a percent difference from a 'known' value or in PE programs using other acceptance criteria, such as the guidance provided in ANSI N42.22 and N13.30 is discussed. (author)

  20. Ten-Year Effect of Six Site-Preparation Treatments on Piedmont Loblolly Pine Survival and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Boyd Edwards

    1994-01-01

    Limited information is available on growth responses to different levels of intensity for site preparation in the Piedmont. In the present study, six intensities of site preparation were compared for their effect on survival, height and diameter growth, total volume produced, and basal area per acre for the first 10 years after treatment. Rates of survival and growth...

  1. 30 CFR 827.13 - Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal preparation plants: Interim performance...-COAL PREPARATION PLANTS NOT LOCATED WITHIN THE PERMIT AREA OF A MINE § 827.13 Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards. (a) Persons operating or who have operated coal preparation plants after...

  2. Preparation and desalination performance of multiwall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dengsong; Shi Liyi; Fang Jianhui; Dai Kai; Li Xuanke

    2006-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by catalytic decomposition of methane at 680-700 deg. C, using nickel oxide-silica binary aerogels as the catalyst. The morphological structure of MWCNTs was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that MWCNTs had a diameter of 40-60 nm, with high quality and high length/diameter ratio, and some metal catalyst particles were encapsulated at the tip of nanotubes. Using MWCNTs as the electrodes of flow-through capacitor (FTC), desalination performance was investigated. The results showed that modification methods had great effect on desalination performance of MWCNTs. The removal amount of NaCl was generally dependent on the surface area and pore volume of MWCNTs. After modification in diluted HNO 3 solution with ultrasonic and then ball milling, the metal catalyst particles at the tip of nanotubes disappeared, the nanotube length became short, the cap at the tip of nanotubes was opened, the internal surface area could be effectively used, leading to increasing the specific surface area and pore volume for MWCNTs, and thus, the desalination performance thereof was the best of all

  3. Effect of Perovskite Film Preparation on Performance of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxian Pei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the perovskite solar cells (PSCs, the performance of the PSCs has become the focus of the research by improving the crystallization and morphology of the perovskite absorption layer. In this thesis, based on the structure of mesoporous perovskite solar cells (MPSCs, we designed the experiments to improve the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs by improved processing technique, which mainly includes the following two aspects. Before spin-coating PbI2 solution, we control the substrate temperature to modify the crystal quality and morphology of perovskite films. On the other hand, before annealing, we keep PbI2 films for the different drying time at room temperature to optimize films morphology. In our trials, it was found that the substrate temperature is more important in determining the photovoltaic performance than drying time. These results indicate that the crystallization and morphology of perovskite films affect the absorption intensity and obviously influence the short circuit current density of MPSCs. Utilizing films prepared by mentioning two methods, MPSCs with maximum power conversion efficiency of over 4% were fabricated for the active area of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2.

  4. Umbilical Microflora, Antiseptic Skin Preparation, and Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeff, Jörg; Erkan, Mert; Jäger, Carsten; Menacher, Maximilian; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Hartel, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) following abdominal surgery are frequent and a major cause of postoperative morbidity and prolonged hospital stay. Besides antibiotic prophylaxis, antiseptic skin preparation is an important measure to prevent SSI. Here we prospectively analyzed the effectiveness of antiseptic skin preparation in a cohort of 93 patients undergoing laparotomy, with special emphasis on the umbilical region. The microflora of the umbilicus contained a large number of resident (mostly staphylococci species and corynebacteria) and transient germs (including enterococci species). Following antiseptic skin preparation, bacteria could still be cultured from 24.7% of the patients' umbilici. In case of postoperative SSI, only one of seven SSI was caused by the microorganism that was present in the umbilicus before and after skin preparation. Antiseptic skin preparation fails to completely eradicate the microflora of the umbilical region in one quarter of the patients. However, at least in abdominal surgery, the vast majority of SSI are caused by intra-abdominal contamination rather than the skin microflora.

  5. Hanford performance evaluation program for Hanford site analytical services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, L.P.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830.120, Quality Assurance Requirements, states that it is the responsibility of DOE contractors to ensure that ''quality is achieved and maintained by those who have been assigned the responsibility for performing the work.'' Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) is designed to meet the needs of the Richland Operations Office (RL) for maintaining a consistent level of quality for the analytical chemistry services provided by contractor and commmercial analytical laboratory operations. Therefore, services supporting Hanford environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, and waste management analytical services shall meet appropriate quality standards. This performance evaluation program will monitor the quality standards of all analytical laboratories supporting the Hanforad Site including on-site and off-site laboratories. The monitoring and evaluation of laboratory performance can be completed by the use of several tools. This program will discuss the tools that will be utilized for laboratory performance evaluations. Revision 0 will primarily focus on presently available programs using readily available performance evaluation materials provided by DOE, EPA or commercial sources. Discussion of project specific PE materials and evaluations will be described in section 9.0 and Appendix A

  6. Total-System Performance Assessment for the Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment simulations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Features, events, and processes have been systematically evaluated to determine which ones are significant to the safety assessment. Computer models of the disposal system have been developed within a probabilistic framework, including both engineered and natural components. Selected results are presented for three different total-system simulations, and the behavior of the disposal system is discussed. The results show that risk is dominated by igneous activity at early times, because the robust waste-package design prevents significant nominal (non-disruptive) releases for tens of thousands of years or longer. The uncertainty in the nominal performance is dominated by uncertainties related to waste-package corrosion at early times and by uncertainties in the natural system, most significantly infiltration, at late times

  7. Benchmarking and Performance Improvement at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. [Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC, Golden, CO (United States)], Doyle, D. [USDOE Rocky Flats Office, Golden, CO (United States)], Featherman, W.D. [Project Performance Corp., Sterline, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  8. Overview of the Hanford Site Performance Assurance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, M.R.; Billings, M.P.; Delvin, W.L.; Scott, D.D.; Weatherby, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a safeguards and security performance assurance program which encompasses the routine and special activities carried out to assure that safeguards and security subsystems and components are operating in a effective and reliable manner. At the Hanford Site, performance assurance involves widely varied activities, e.g., force-on-force exercises, functional testing of security components, and limited scope performance testing of material control and accountability subsystems. These activities belong to one of four categories: performance testing, functional testing, inspection, and preventive maintenance. Using categories has aided in identifying and assessing the relevant contribution each activity makes to the performance assurance program. Efforts have progressed toward incorporating performance assurance activities into the assessment of protection effectiveness required for Master Safeguards and Security Agreement development and its associated verification and validation process

  9. Preparation, Characterization and Performance of Conch Ceramics Added With Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The conch ceramics bodies with different ratios were prepared by compression moulding technology using shell, kaolin, and calcium oxide etc. as the raw materials, and then calcined at the high temperature to obtain the conch ceramics. The effects of raw material ratios and calcination temperatures on the performance of conch ceramics were investigated by rotational viscometer, vernier caliper, digital display whiteness meter, thermal analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FT-IR. The results indicated that the viscosity, line shrinkage rate, and whiteness of the conch ceramics were 1.29 Pa·s, 17.9%, and 54.1%, respectively, when the content of the shell powder was 20 wt% and kaolin was 65 wt%. The density of the conch ceramics was the largest (3.8 g/cm3 when calcination temperature was 1200 °C. The results of FT-IR spectrum showed that the addition of the shell powders changed the structure of the ceramic body, which improved the performance of the conch ceramics.

  10. Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-10-02

    As mandated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been investigating a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it is suitable for development of the nation's first repository for permanent geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 directed that only Yucca Mountain be characterized to evaluate the site's suitability. Three main components of the DOE site characterization program are testing, design, and performance assessment. These program components consist of: Investigation of natural features and processes by analyzing data collected from field tests conducted above and below ground and from laboratory tests of rock, gas, and water samples Design of a repository and waste packages tailored to the site features, supported by laboratory testing of candidate materials for waste packages and design related testing in the underground tunnels where waste would be emplaced Quantitative estimates of the performance of the total repository system, over a range of possible conditions and for different repository configurations, by means of computer modeling techniques that are based on site and materials testing data and accepted principles of physics and chemistry. To date, DOE has completed and documented four major iterations of total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site: TSPA-91 (Barnard et al. 1992), TSPA-93 (Wilson et al. 1994; CRWMS M and O 1994), TSPA-95 (CRWMS M and O 1995), and the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) (DOE 1998a, Volume 3). Each successive TSPA iteration has advanced the technical understanding of the performance attributes of the natural features and processes and enhanced engineering designs. The next major iteration of TSPA is to be conducted in support of the next major programmatic milestone for the DOE, namely the

  11. Monitoring the performance of off-site processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants have been able to utilize the latest technologies and achieve large volume reduction by obtaining off-site waste processor services. Although the use of such services reduce the burden of waste processing it also reduces the utility's control over the process. Monitoring the performance of off-site processors is important so that the utility is cognizant of the waste disposition for required regulatory reporting. In addition to obtaining data for Reg Guide 1.21 reporting, Performance monitoring is important to determine which vendor and which services to utilize. Off-site processor services were initially offered for the decontamination of metallic waste. Since that time the list of services has expanded to include supercompaction, survey for release, incineration and metal melting. The number of vendors offering off-site services has increased and the services they offer vary. processing rates vary between vendors and have different charge bases. Determining which vendor to use for what service can be complicated and confusing

  12. Progress on building design and site layout, and preparation for procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haange, R.

    2004-01-01

    The ITER site layout and buildings retain many of the major features worked out for the original 1998 design of ITER. By mid-2001, the design had been adjusted to take account of the reductions in size of the tokamak and in the performance and capability of its supporting plant systems, with a view to providing a building construction cost reduction near the target of 50%. The present status of the site layout and buildings is that, with the exception of the hot cell building, designs are available for the ITER buildings and site layout, in different degrees of detail, ready for final review as soon as the drawings and 3D models have been updated. The ITER site layout is determined by the functions of the various plant systems provided in support of the ITER tokamak. These systems are located in different buildings on the ITER site. Changes in the plant layout inside buildings can, therefore, have an important impact on the overall site layout. The general layout of the site assumes electrical power comes in from the west, heat rejection is on the east, access into the main building for assembly is from the south, and removal of waste is from the north. These orientations are purely notional, determining only the relative positions. Both the European and Japanese potential ITER sites will most likely use seismic isolation of the main tokamak complex. As a result, the detailed design of these buildings and in particular the piping connections to them developed for the 'generic' ITER site will require redesign. Also, the footprint of the main tokamak complex will increase, and hence the layout of the utility tunnel network will have to be updated. A draft Site Facilities Procurement Specification has been written by the International Team. This will require considerable specific input when the site has been selected. Furthermore, the present site layout will have to be reviewed in detail. The generic site has been kept compact. Once a site is available, it may be

  13. The PIOTRON: initial performance, preparation and experience with pion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Essen, C.F.; Blattmann, H.; Crawford, J.F.; Fessenden, P.; Pedroni, E.; Perret, C.; Salzmann, M.; Shortt, K.; Walder, E.

    1982-01-01

    The PIOTRON is a large solid angle superconducting channel built for the use of negative pi-mesons in radiotherapy. The pions are produced by protons of 590 MeV striking a target of molybdenum or beryllium. The pions are divided into 60 channels and deflected twice to enter the treatment volume radially. The momentum and the momentum band for all 60 channels can be chosen and the beam spot of Bragg peak pions at the isocenter of the applicator is a few centimeters in each direction. Dynamic scanning can thus achieve 3-dimensionally shaped treatment volumes. Two different methods are available: the ring scan, using changes of pion range; and the spot scan, involving translation of the patient through the fixed beam spot. Dose distributions of individual and multiple beams were plotted in a cylindrical water phantom. Radiobiological experiments with mammalian cells in gel and with mouse feet were performed. A special beam geometry using a sector of 15 beams was selected for the first treatments of patients with metastatic skin nodules. Six patients were treated. Acute skin reactions were scored and compared with those from orthovoltage therapy with comparable beam geometry. The RBE for 10 fractions is between 1.4 and 1.5. The next step involved treatment of patients inside water-bolus rings in preparation for dynamic therapy. Patients were then treated with the spot scan dynamic mode in the water bolus. The initial responses and reactions are favorable and confirm the feasibility and accuracy of dynamic pion therapy

  14. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.; Martinez, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ''chirped'' FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site

  15. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification

  16. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Fenerator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and (300501) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMinn ) Assessments (WMAs); Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification

  17. Roadmap and performance carried out during Ciemat site decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones, Javier; Diaz Diaz, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    Ciemat (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology) located in the heart of the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid, occupies a property of 20 Ha. Since its creation in 1951 as JEN, and in 1986 renowned as Ciemat, it has involved on R and D projects in the field of Energy and Environment, i.e., Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Fusion, Fossils Fuels, Renewable Energy. As a consequence of the R and D projects developed between 1951 - 1986 on Nuclear Fission field (fuel design, fabrication, characterization on irradiated fuels, safety studies, etc) and to the diversification of the goals as well, it is necessary to Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) from nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor, Hot Cells, Irradiation facility), buildings and soils. Preparations for D and D included a staged shutdown of operations, planning documentation and licensing for decommissioning. As a prerequisite to Ciemat application for a decommissioning license and nuclear environmental assessment was carried out according to Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN) and approval of the site decommissioning project was obtained in 2000 and valid until December 31, 2006. Since 2001 - 2003 is underway and focussed on the radiological characterization of the site (divided in pieces of ground), when each piece of ground is characterized a planning for D and D is presented to CSN in order to obtain a license for actuation. Nowadays several pieces of ground are decontaminated and modifications have been done in order to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already on temporally storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of facilities and buildings and cleaning of contaminants from soils and removal of waste from the site. This paper describes the planning, nuclear and environment assessment and descriptions of decommissioning activities currently underway at Ciemat. (Author)

  18. Special Physical Preparation of High Schoolers for Performing Parkour Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Кравчук

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to ground and develop a methodology of special physical preparation of high schoolers for performing parkour elements, and to experimentally verify its effectiveness. Materials and methods: Kharkiv secondary school No. 84 served as the grounds for the study. The participants in the study were boys aged 15-17: 10 persons – in the reference group, and 10 persons – in the experimental group. The methods of the study: theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation; video recording; biomechanical analysis; talks with experts; pedagogical experiment; mathematical and statistical methods of research materials processing. Results: The experimental group showed positive improvement in the balancing technique from 3.5 points before the experiment to 6.3 after the experiment (p < 0.05; a considerable increase in points in the jumping technique, including jumps onto the wall bars hand-gripping its edge, jumps into landing with a roll, and jumps over obstacle – from 2.9, 4.2 and 4.6 points respectively at the beginning of the experiment to 5.9, 6.7 and 7.8 points respectively after the experiment (p < 0.05; positive significant improvement in the wall bars running results – from 3.2 points at the beginning of the experiment to 6.7 after the experiment (p < 0.05. Conclusions: special sets of exercises have been designed to develop and improve these abilities in parkour, and the effectiveness of the designed methodology has been experimentally verified. The study has proved that, when used in physical training of high schoolers, the special sets of exercises intended to develop parkourists’ speed, strength and coordination abilities contribute to a significant increase in the level of the technique of execution of the main parkour elements.

  19. Coal Preparation and Processing Plants New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NSPS regulation for coal preparation and processing plants by reading the rule summary, the rule history, the code of federal regulation text, the federal register, and additional docket documents

  20. Preparation and performance of Ecobras/bentonite biodegrading films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Ana Nery M.; Melo, Nadja M.C.; Canedo, Eduardo L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Araujo, Arthur R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds based on the biodegradable polymer Ecobras and bentonite clay in its pristine, sonicated, and organically modified with a quaternary ammonium salt forms were prepared as flat films. Clays and compounds were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the films were determined according to pertinent ASTM standards. Reasonable properties, higher than those of the matrix, were obtained with compounds prepared with purified clays and organoclays, particularly for low clay loading. (author)

  1. 3D site specific sample preparation and analysis of 3D devices (FinFETs) by atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambham, Ajay Kumar; Kumar, Arul; Gilbert, Matthieu; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2013-09-01

    With the transition from planar to three-dimensional device architectures such as Fin field-effect-transistors (FinFETs), new metrology approaches are required to meet the needs of semiconductor technology. It is important to characterize the 3D-dopant distributions precisely as their extent, positioning relative to gate edges and absolute concentration determine the device performance in great detail. At present the atom probe has shown its ability to analyze dopant distributions in semiconductor and thin insulating materials with sub-nm 3D-resolution and good dopant sensitivity. However, so far most reports have dealt with planar devices or restricted the measurements to 2D test structures which represent only limited challenges in terms of localization and site specific sample preparation. In this paper we will discuss the methodology to extract the dopant distribution from real 3D-devices such as a 3D-FinFET device, requiring the sample preparation to be carried out at a site specific location with a positioning accuracy ∼50 nm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preoperative skin antiseptic preparations for preventing surgical site infections: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Chris; McGahan, Lynda; Polisena, Julie; Mierzwinski-Urban, Monika; Embil, John M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of preoperative skin antiseptic preparations and application techniques for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). Systematic review of the literature using Medline, EMBASE, and other databases, for the period January 2001 to June 2011. Comparative studies (including randomized and nonrandomized trials) of preoperative skin antisepsis preparations and application techniques were included. Two researchers reviewed each study and extracted data using standardized tables developed before the study. Studies were reviewed for their methodological quality and clinical findings. Twenty studies (n = 9,520 patients) were included in the review. The results indicated that presurgical antiseptic showering is effective for reducing skin flora and may reduce SSI rates. Given the heterogeneity of the studies and the results, conclusions about which antiseptic is more effective at reducing SSIs cannot be drawn. The evidence suggests that preoperative antiseptic showers reduce bacterial colonization and may be effective at preventing SSIs. The antiseptic application method is inconsequential, and data are lacking to suggest which antiseptic solution is the most effective. Disinfectant products are often mixed with alcohol or water, which makes it difficult to form overall conclusions regarding an active ingredient. Large, well-conducted randomized controlled trials with consistent protocols comparing agents in the same bases are needed to provide unequivocal evidence on the effectiveness of one antiseptic preparation over another for the prevention of SSIs.

  3. The use of chemical and radionuclide risk estimates in site performance evaluation of mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Many radioactive waste sites contain not only radioactive material but also varying amounts of chemical waste. The use of such procedures implies some risk at any exposure level, and thus requires that an exposure level be determined that corresponds to an acceptable risk to an individual or a population. Although the uncertainties and limitations of these methods are of concern, the assumption has been generally adopted that the human dose response for all carcinogens is linear, with no threshold occurring at low levels of exposure. With the move toward decontamination programs and clean-up of various mixed waste sites throughout the US, there is interest in the possibility that risk estimates calculated individually for radionuclides and for chemicals may be combined to reflect the total risk for each site. The purpose of this paper is to examine the feasibility of combining risk estimates during risk/benefit analyses. For a variety of reasons, the state of radiation risk assessment is more advanced than that of chemical risk assessment. The reasons for this disparity are summarized in this paper. Quantitative radiation risk assessment is currently being performed, but involves a high degree of uncertainty. Chemical risk assessment in general does not allow quantitative results bracketed by uncertainty analysis. Therefore, it is concluded that it is currently not possible to develop a useful, quantitative combined risk assessment for a mixed waste site, but that it may be possible to develop such a capability in the future

  4. Performance of TESLA Cavities After Fabrication and Preparation in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Pekeler, Michael; Bauer, Stefan; Knobloch, Jens; Vom Stein, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In order to demonstrate cw operation of TESLA cavities in linear accelerators driving FEL applications, two TESLA cavities were manufactured and prepared by ACCEL for BESSY. After production, both cavities were prepared for vertical test at ACCEL's premises using state of the art chemical polishing and high pressure water rinsing techniques. The cavities were tested in DESY's vertical RF test installation. Accelerating gradients close to 25 MV/m were reached. One cavity was completed with a helium vessel modified for cw operation and prepared with chemical polishing, high pressure water rinsing, and assembled with the required High Power Coupler at ACCEL. The fully dressed cavity was then shipped under vacuum to BESSY and tested in the horizontal cryostat HoBiCaT. Horizontal RF test results will be presented and compared with the vertical test results.

  5. AIChe equipment testing procedure centrifugal compressors : a guide to performance evaluation and site testing

    CERN Document Server

    AIChE

    2013-01-01

    With its engineer-tested procedures and thorough explanations, Centrifugal Compressors is an essential text for anyone engaged in implementing new technology in equipment design, identifying process problems, and optimizing equipment performance.  This condensed book presents a step by step approach to preparing for, planning, executing, and analyzing tests of centrifugal compressors, with an emphasis on methods that can be conducted on-site and with an acknowledgement of the strengths and limitations of these methods. The book opens with an extensive and detailed section offering definitions

  6. Survival and growth of restored Piedmont riparian forests as affected by site preparation, planting stock, and planting aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea M. Curtis; W. Michael Aust; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm

    2015-01-01

    Forest mitigation sites may have poor survival and growth of planted trees due to poor drainage, compacted soils, and lack of microtopography. The effects of five replications of five forestry mechanical site preparation techniques (Flat, Rip, Bed, Pit, and Mound), four regeneration sources (Direct seed, Bare root, Tubelings, and Gallon), and three planting aids (None...

  7. Preparation of Potentially Site Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Java Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction plan of NPP in Indonesia raised public attentions specially for its radwaste management and its disposal activity. In the next 5 year (2007-2011) will be provided some sites for radwaste disposal, both for near surface disposal and geological disposal systems with suitable and safely based on the IAEA standard. To find out a save and suitable location, field investigation programme is needed. Prior entering into investigation programme, preliminary activities are necessary to be arranged such as secondary data collecting: identification of host rock, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes. Through desktop study with limited references hopefully information of some areas in Java Island with widely enough, thick and exposed into surface of clay deposit indication could be obtained. Objective of the activity is to prepare important supporting data before actualize as a field survey programme. Results showed that secondary data such as rock identification, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes are found out. (author)

  8. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs)

  9. Carbon storage as affected by different site preparation techniques two years after mixed forest stand installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, F.; Figueiredo, T. de; Martins, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: This study aims at evaluating the impact of site preparation techniques prior to plantation on carbon storage and distribution in a young mixed stand of Pseudotsuga menziesii (PM) and Castanea sativa (CS). Area of study: The experimental field was established near Macedo de Cavaleiros, Northern Portugal, at 700 m elevation, mean annual temperature 12 degree centigrade and mean annual rainfall 678 mm. Material and methods: The experimental layout includes three replicates, where the different treatments corresponding to different tillage intensities were randomly distributed (high, moderate and slight intensity), in plots with an area of 375 m{sup 2} each. Twenty six months after forest stand installation, samples of herbaceous vegetation (0.49 m{sup 2} quadrat), forest species (8 PM and 8 CS) and mineral soil (at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were collected in 15 randomly selected points in each treatment, processed in laboratory and analyzed for carbon by elemental carbon analyzer. Main results: The results obtained showed that: (i) more than 90% of the total carbon stored in the system is located in the soil, increasing in depth with tillage intensity; (ii) the contribution of herbaceous vegetation and related roots to the carbon storage is very low; (iii) the amount of carbon per tree is higher in CS than in PM; (iv) the global carbon storage was affected by soil tillage generally decreasing with the increase of tillage intensity. Accordingly, carbon storage capacity as affected by the application of different site preparation techniques should be a decision support tool in afforestation schemes. (Author)

  10. Effects of seedbed preparation, irrigation, and water harvesting of seedling emergence at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Lyon, G.E.

    1994-02-01

    Approximately 800 hectares on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and vicinity are contaminated with plutonium. As part of a cleanup effort, both the indigenous vegetation and the top 5--10 cm of soil may be removed, and the soil may or may not be replaced. Technologies must be developed to stabilize and revegetate these lands. A study was developed to determine adaptable plant species, methods to prepare seedbeds for direct seeding and water harvesting, and proper irrigation rates. Plots were cleared of indigenous vegetation, and then prepared with various seedbed/water harvesting treatments including, pitting, land imprinting, and mulching. Other plots were treated with large water harvesting structures. Three irrigation treatments were superimposed over the seedbed/water harvesting treatments. Seedling emergence data was collected, and the treatment combinations compared. Supporting meteorological and soil data were collected with an automatic data-logger. Specific data included precipitation, and air temperature. In a year of above-average precipitation, irrigation did not generally aid germination and emergence of seeded species, and only slightly increased densities of species from the native seedbank. With the exception of increased shrub seedling densities in desert strips, there were no strong seedbed preparation/water harvesting treatment effects. In years of above-average rainfall, mulching and water harvesting treatments, irrigation may not be necessary to insure adequate germination and emergence of adapted perennial grasses, forbs, and shrubs in the Mojave/Great Basin Transition Desert. Future collection of survival data will determine whether a maintenance irrigation program is necessary to ensure establishmnent of native plants

  11. Improving Site-Specific Radiological Performance Assessments - 13431

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauxe, John; Black, Paul; Catlett, Kate; Lee, Robert; Perona, Ralph; Stockton, Tom; Sully, Mike

    2013-01-01

    An improved approach is presented for conducting complete and defensible radiological site-specific performance assessments (PAs) to support radioactive waste disposal decisions. The basic tenets of PA were initiated some thirty years ago, focusing on geologic disposals and evaluating compliance with regulations. Some of these regulations were inherently probabilistic (i.e., addressing uncertainty in a quantitative fashion), such as the containment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, Chap. 191.13 [1]. Methods of analysis were developed to meet those requirements, but at their core early PAs used 'conservative' parameter values and modeling approaches. This limited the utility of such PAs to compliance evaluation, and did little to inform decisions about optimizing disposal, closure and long-term monitoring and maintenance, or, in general, maintaining doses 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). This basic approach to PA development in the United States was employed essentially unchanged through the end of the 20. century, principally by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Performance assessments developed in support of private radioactive waste disposal operations, regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its agreement states, were typically not as sophisticated. Discussion of new approaches to PA is timely, since at the time of this writing, the DOE is in the midst of revising its Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management [2], and the NRC is revising 10 CFR 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste [3]. Over the previous decade, theoretical developments and improved computational technology have provided the foundation for integrating decision analysis (DA) concepts and objective-focused thinking, plus a Bayesian approach to

  12. Improving Site-Specific Radiological Performance Assessments - 13431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauxe, John; Black, Paul; Catlett, Kate; Lee, Robert; Perona, Ralph; Stockton, Tom; Sully, Mike [Neptune and Company, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An improved approach is presented for conducting complete and defensible radiological site-specific performance assessments (PAs) to support radioactive waste disposal decisions. The basic tenets of PA were initiated some thirty years ago, focusing on geologic disposals and evaluating compliance with regulations. Some of these regulations were inherently probabilistic (i.e., addressing uncertainty in a quantitative fashion), such as the containment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, Chap. 191.13 [1]. Methods of analysis were developed to meet those requirements, but at their core early PAs used 'conservative' parameter values and modeling approaches. This limited the utility of such PAs to compliance evaluation, and did little to inform decisions about optimizing disposal, closure and long-term monitoring and maintenance, or, in general, maintaining doses 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). This basic approach to PA development in the United States was employed essentially unchanged through the end of the 20. century, principally by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Performance assessments developed in support of private radioactive waste disposal operations, regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its agreement states, were typically not as sophisticated. Discussion of new approaches to PA is timely, since at the time of this writing, the DOE is in the midst of revising its Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management [2], and the NRC is revising 10 CFR 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste [3]. Over the previous decade, theoretical developments and improved computational technology have provided the foundation for integrating decision analysis (DA) concepts and objective-focused thinking, plus

  13. High-performance supercapacitor electrode materials prepared from various pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Zhang, Fan; Yang, Xi; Leng, Kai; Huang, Yi; Chen, Yongsheng

    2013-04-22

    Supercapacitors based on activated carbon prepared from various pollens show good specific capacitance (207 F g(-1) ) and large gravimetric and volumetric energy density (∼88 Wh kg(-1) and ∼44 Wh L(-1) , respectively) in ionic liquid electrolytes, which are much better than those of RP20 (commercial activated carbon) or graphene-based supercapacitors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Performance of MarSite Multi parameter Borehole Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Ozel, Oguz; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Necmioglu, Ocal

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present two year results obtained from the integrated multiparameter borehole system at Marsite. The very broad band (VBB) system have been operating since installation in November 2014; one year in a water filled borehole and one year in a dry Borehole. from January 2016. The real time data has been available to the community. The two Borehole environments are compared showing the superior performance of dry borehole environ- ment compared to water filled for a very broad band (VBB) seismometer. The practical considerations applied in both borehole installations are compared and the best borehole practical installation techniques are presented and discussed. The data is also compared with a surface 120 second broad band sensor and the seismic arrays with in MarSite region. The very long term performance, (one year data in a dry hole) of the VBB Borehole seismometer and the Dilatometer will be presented The high frequency performance of the VBB seismometer which extends to 150 Hz and the dilatometer are compared characterizing the results from the dilatometer.

  15. Incidence of surgical site infection with pre-operative skin preparation using 10% polyvidone-iodine and 0.5% chlorhexidine-alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Luzia; Simões, Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the incidence of surgical site infection when the preoperative skin preparation was performed with 10% povidone-iodine and 0.5% chlorhexidine-alcohol. We conducted a randomized, longitudinal study based on variables obtained from patients undergoing clean and potentially contaminated operations. Those involved were divided into two groups. In group 1 (G1) we included 102 patients with skin prepared with povidone-iodine, and in group 2 (G2), 103, whose skin was prepared with chlorhexidine. In the third, seventh and 30th postoperative days we evaluated the surgical site, searching for signs of infection. Data related to clinical profile, such as diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcoholism, haematological data (Hb, VG and leukocytes), age and gender, and the related variables, such as number of days of preoperative hospitalization, shaving, topography of incision, antibiotic prophylaxis and resident participation in the operation were not predisposing factors for surgical site infection. Two patients in G1 and eight in G2 undergoing clean operations had some type of infection (p = 0.1789), five in G1 and three in G2 undergoing potentially contaminated operations had some type of infection (p = 0.7205). The incidence of surgical site infection in operations classified as clean and as potentially contaminated for which skin preparation was done with 10% povidone-iodine and 0.5% chlorhexidine-alcohol was similar.

  16. Appreciating "Thirdspace": An Alternative Way of Viewing and Valuing Site-Specific Dance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjee, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific dance performance involves the presentation of choreography in connection with a site. The context of the site combined with a viewer's personal history, beliefs, and identity impact the reading and appreciation of the performance. Although both stage and site dance performance valuing elicit multiple interpretations of artistic…

  17. The effect of sample preparation methods on glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, M.S.; Oversby, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted using SRL 165 synthetic waste glass to investigate the effects of surface preparation and leaching solution composition on the alteration of the glass. Samples of glass with as-cast surfaces produced smooth reaction layers and some evidence for precipitation of secondary phases from solution. Secondary phases were more abundant in samples reacted in deionized water than for those reacted in a silicate solution. Samples with saw-cut surfaces showed a large reduction in surface roughness after 7 days of reaction in either solution. Reaction in silicate solution for up to 91 days produced no further change in surface morphology, while reaction in DIW produced a spongy surface that formed the substrate for further surface layer development. The differences in the surface morphology of the samples may create microclimates that control the details of development of alteration layers on the glass; however, the concentrations of elements in leaching solutions show differences of 50% or less between samples prepared with different surface conditions for tests of a few months duration. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  18. Iterative performance assessments as a regulatory tool for evaluating repository safety: How experiences from SKI Project-90 were used in formulating the new performance assessment project SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, regulatory research program has to prepare for the process of licensing a repository for spent nuclear fuel, by building up the necessary knowledge and review capacity. SKIs main strategy for meeting this demand is to develop an independent performance assessment capability. SKIs first own performance assessment project, Project-90, was completed in 1991 and is now followed by a new project, SITE-94. SITE-94 is based on conclusions reached within Project-90. An independent review of Project-90, carried out by a NEA team of experts, has also contributed to the formation of the project. Another important reason for the project is that the implementing organization in Sweden, SKB, has proposed to submit an application to start detailed investigation of a repository candidate site around 1997. SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process, and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. This will be addressed by exploring multiple interpretations, conceptual models, and parameters consistent with the site data. The site evaluation will strive for consistency between geological, hydrological, rock mechanical, and geochemical descriptions. Other important elements of SITE-94 are the development of a practical and defensible methodology for defining, constructing and analyzing scenarios, the development of approaches for treatment of uncertainties, evaluation of canister integrity, and the development and application of an appropriate quality assurance plan for performance assessments

  19. A survey of the mechanical properties of concrete for structural purposes prepared on construction sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. J. RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to study the concrete dosage conditions for structural purposes in construction sitesl, and the impacts of non-compliance of structural concrete for structural safety, having as study case the city of Angicos / RN. Were analyzed the dynamic elasticity modulus, static elasticity modulus and the compressive strength of concrete samples. Was conducted to collect the survey data, a field research aiming to gather information about dosage of concrete used in the works, as well as the collection of cylindrical specimens of 150 mm diameter by 300 mm of height, prepared according to practice of those professionals. The study indicated a clear necessity to reflection on the subject, since there is no concern, or even, a lack of knowledge by the interviewed professionals regarding the care and procedures necessary for the production of concrete with satisfactory quality, once at least 50% of evaluated construction sites presented compressive strength lower than 20 MPa, minimal strength to structural concrete, as recommended by ABNT-NBR 6118:2014.

  20. Three-Dimensional Implant Positioning with a Piezosurgery Implant Site Preparation Technique and an Intraoral Surgical Navigation System: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Gerardo; Taraschi, Valerio; Vercellotti, Tomaso; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Marchetti, Claudio

    This case report describes new implant site preparation techniques joining the benefits of using an intraoral navigation system to optimize three-dimensional implant site positioning in combination with an ultrasonic osteotomy. A report of five patients is presented, and the implant positions as planned in the navigation software with the postoperative scan image were compared. The preliminary results are useful, although further clinical studies with larger populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance

  2. Using existing growth models to predict RCW habitat development following site preparation: pitfalls of the process and potential growth response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Land managers throughout the Southeast are interested in restoring the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem, due in part to its value as habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). In 2003, we established a study at Camp Lejeune, NC, to determine the effects of common site preparation...

  3. Pine growth and plant community response to chemical vs. mechanical site preparation for establishing loblolly and slash pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Zhijuan Qiu

    1995-01-01

    Chemical and mechanical site preparation methods were studied for establishing loblolly (Pinus taeda L) and slash (P. elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) pine following both integrated fuelwood-pulpwood harvesting and conventional whole-tree harvesting of pines and hardwoods in southem Alabama's Middle Coastal...

  4. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. 36.4251 Section 36.4251 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured...

  5. Radionuclide Transport: Preparation During 2009 for the SR-Site Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Peter; Maul, Philip; Watson, Claire (Quintessa Ltd. (United Kingdom))

    2009-12-15

    Post-closure safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories involve radioecological modelling for an underground source term. Following several decades of research and development, the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company (SKB) is approaching a phase of license application. According to SKB's plans, an application to construct a geological repository will be submitted by the end of 2010. The application will be supported by a post-closure safety assessment. In order to prepare for the review of the oncoming license application the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, has performed research and development projects in the area of performance assessment (PA) modelling during recent years. Independent modelling teams have been established, including both 'in house' as well as consultant's competence. Four areas were identified where further research during 2009 would be beneficial: 1. spatially varying transport properties; 2. choices of PDFs (probability density functions) and parameter correlations; 3. SKB's approach to quantifying the role of the various barriers; and 4. combining scenarios. This report documents the research that was undertaken

  6. Radionuclide Transport: Preparation During 2009 for the SR-Site Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Peter; Maul, Philip; Watson, Claire

    2009-12-01

    Post-closure safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories involve radioecological modelling for an underground source term. Following several decades of research and development, the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company (SKB) is approaching a phase of license application. According to SKB's plans, an application to construct a geological repository will be submitted by the end of 2010. The application will be supported by a post-closure safety assessment. In order to prepare for the review of the oncoming license application the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, has performed research and development projects in the area of performance assessment (PA) modelling during recent years. Independent modelling teams have been established, including both 'in house' as well as consultant's competence. Four areas were identified where further research during 2009 would be beneficial: 1. spatially varying transport properties; 2. choices of PDFs (probability density functions) and parameter correlations; 3. SKB's approach to quantifying the role of the various barriers; and 4. combining scenarios. This report documents the research that was undertaken

  7. Improving web site performance using commercially available analytical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, James A

    2010-10-01

    It is easy to accurately measure web site usage and to quantify key parameters such as page views, site visits, and more complex variables using commercially available tools that analyze web site log files and search engine use. This information can be used strategically to guide the design or redesign of a web site (templates, look-and-feel, and navigation infrastructure) to improve overall usability. The data can also be used tactically to assess the popularity and use of new pages and modules that are added and to rectify problems that surface. This paper describes software tools used to: (1) inventory search terms that lead to available content; (2) propose synonyms for commonly used search terms; (3) evaluate the effectiveness of calls to action; (4) conduct path analyses to targeted content. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) uses SurfRay's Behavior Tracking software (Santa Clara CA, USA, and Copenhagen, Denmark) to capture and archive the search terms that have been entered into the site's Google Mini search engine. The AAOS also uses Unica's NetInsight program to analyze its web site log files. These tools provide the AAOS with information that quantifies how well its web sites are operating and insights for making improvements to them. Although it is easy to quantify many aspects of an association's web presence, it also takes human involvement to analyze the results and then recommend changes. Without a dedicated resource to do this, the work often is accomplished only sporadically and on an ad hoc basis.

  8. Coordinated site characterization and performance assessment - an iterative approach for the site evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, T.; Ericsson, L.O.; Thegerstroem, C.; Almen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    SKB planning for siting a deep repository involves feasibility studies in 5-10 municipalities surface based characterization and drilling on two candidate sites and detailed characterization of one site including a shaft to proposed repository depth. The selection of a site or the detailed layout of the repository defines characteristics that might influence safety in a broad sense. There is a strong ling between the safety, technical (engineering) and functional aspects. The site selection will be based on general geoscientific information, i.e. mechanical stability, ground-water chemistry, slow ground-water movements and complicating factors like high potential for mineralization. The general layout of the repository in the actual geological structure of the site must be done with regard to a number of guidelines, e.g. to hydraulically separate the parts of the repository containing the spent nuclear fuel from those for other types of long lived waste and to separate the two stages of the spent fuel repository so they can be handled separately in the licensing process. When the various parts of the repository have been tentatively located the consequence of the multiple barrier principle is that the layout of the various parts should be made with the aim to utilize the available natural barrier system at the site as well as possible. (authors). 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Assessment of sites concerning radioactive contamination during preparation of a Contamination Site Register; Bewertung der radiologischen Altlastenrelevanz von gewerblichen und industriellen Standorten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Flesch, Klaus [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (LfULG), Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Experience gained since 1990 in the new, but also old German Federal States has shown that there are radioactive contaminated sites beside the legacies of uranium mining in Germany which caused exposures exceeding the radiation protection limits for members of the public. The reason for this situation is that radioactivity has been excluded in the compilation of the register for potentially hazardous sites that are prepared routinely in the context of soil protection assessments. Moreover, the information contained in these registers is not yet evaluated regarding aspects of radioactivity. In many cases, the information existing at the soil protection authorities needs only to be additionally filtered in order to identify potentially hazardous sites for radioactive contamination. For that reason, the working group ''Natural radioactivity'' (AKNAT) of the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association developed a specific catalogue of business branches that provides indications for radioactive legacies.

  10. Pre-shipment preparations at the Savannah River Site - WSRC's technical basis to support DOE's approval to ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Jay E.; Bickley, Donald W.; Conatser, E. Ray

    2000-01-01

    Store', to provide a disciplined method for ensuring that all of the pre-shipment receipt preparations have been completed. This paper will provide a detailed description of each of the pre-shipment process steps WSRC performs to produce the technical basis for approving the receipt and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site. It is intended to be a guide to reactor operators who plan on returning 'U.S. origin' SNF and to emphasize the need for accurate and timely completion of pre-shipment activities. (author)

  11. Diameter Growth, Biological Rotation Age and Biomass of Chinese Fir in Burning and Clearing Site Preparations in Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustained forest management of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China is restricted by the limited availability of quantitative data. This study combines inventory data and tree-ring analysis of Chinese fir from natural and plantation forests that were subjected to controlled burning or brush clearing site preparations. Inter-annual variation of Chinese fir tree-ring widths were measured for the controlled burning, brush clearing and natural forest sites. The mean annual diametric growth of Chinese fir was 0.56 cm·year−1 for the natural forest, 0.80 cm·year−1 for the brush clearing site and 1.10 cm·year−1 for the controlled burning site. The time needed to reach the minimum cutting/logging diameter of 15 cm was 14 years in the controlled burning site, 19 years in the brush clearing site and >40 years in the natural forest. The biological rotation ages for the burning, cutting and natural forest sites were 15, 26 and >100 years, respectively. The total aboveground biomasses for the burning and clearing sites were 269.8 t·ha−1 and 252 t·ha−1, respectively. These results suggest that the current 25-year cutting cycle greatly underestimates the growth rate of Chinese fir plantations.

  12. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  13. Hanford site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This manual provides the necessary guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of their pollution prevention (P2) program activities. Preparation of program documentation will demonstrate compliance with contractor and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. Contractor waste generator groups are no longer required to prepare and update facility waste minimization plans. Developing and maintaining program documentation replace this requirement

  14. The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Coumbe-Lilley, John E; Kim, Hajwa; McFarland, Jose A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

    2013-10-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons over the past several years. The 26.2-mile race requires physical and mental stamina to successfully complete it. However, studies have not investigated how running and mental skills preparation influence injury and performance. The purpose of our study was to describe the training and mental skills preparation of a typical group of runners as they began a marathon training program, assess the influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence, and examine how training and mental skills preparation influence marathon performance. Healthy adults (N = 1,957) participating in an 18-week training program for a fall 2011 marathon were recruited for the study. One hundred twenty-five runners enrolled and received 4 surveys: pretraining, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, posttraining. The pretraining survey asked training and mental skills preparation questions. The 6- and 12-week surveys asked about injury incidence. The posttraining survey asked about injury incidence and marathon performance. Tempo runs during training preparation had a significant positive relationship to injury incidence in the 6-week survey (ρ[93] = 0.26, p = 0.01). The runners who reported incorporating tempo and interval runs, running more miles per week, and running more days per week in their training preparation ran significantly faster than did those reporting less tempo and interval runs, miles per week, and days per week (p ≤ 0.05). Mental skills preparation did not influence injury incidence or marathon performance. To prevent injury, and maximize performance, while marathon training, it is important that coaches and runners ensure that a solid foundation of running fitness and experience exists, followed by gradually building volume, and then strategically incorporating runs of various speeds and distances.

  15. Utilization of surface active sites on gold in preparation of highly reactive interfaces for alcohols electrooxidation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherevko, Serhiy; Kulyk, Nadiia; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Pt/Au and Pd/Au surface interfaces show very high activity in electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline media. In this work, we present a method for preparation of such structures, which is based on galvanic displacement of the more noble gold with the less noble elements, and investigate their electrocatalytic properties. We propose that active states atoms on the surface of gold may be replaced with Pt and Pd. The generation of active sites on gold is achieved by cathodization in acidic solution. We show that depending on the cathodization time (active sites amount) gold surface electrochemistry changes from that resembling Au to the one typical for pure Pt. The Pt/Au structures prepared with a trace amount of platinum show extremely high electrocatalytic activity. The peak current of methanol oxidation on the Pt/Au electrode is more than an order of magnitude higher than that of the platinum film electrode and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that on the gold unactivated electrode. The difference in the peak current of ethanol oxidation between the Pt/Au and Pt electrodes is ca. 25 times. Moreover, similar deposition of Pt and Pd on active sites on high surface area gold prepared by hydrogen evolution assisted deposition and improved electrocatalytic properties of such structures toward alcohols oxidation is shown.

  16. Sleep Patterns and Academic Performance during Preparation for College Entrance Exam in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghai; Ren, Fen; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangxing; Jiang, Fan; Skora, Elizabeth; Lewin, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deficient sleep is linked to detrimental outcomes in health and school performance for adolescents. This study characterized sleep patterns in Chinese adolescents preparing for the College Entrance Exam (CEE) and evaluated the association between sleep patterns, self-rated academic performance, and the CEE scores. Methods: A sample of…

  17. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12... of Principles Employees âsuffered Or Permittedâ to Work § 785.12 Work performed away from the premises or job site. The rule is also applicable to work performed away from the premises or the job site...

  18. Hydrological performance assessment on siting the high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Wang Ju; Wang Zhiming; Su Rui; Lv Chuanhe; Zong Zihua

    2007-01-01

    Based on the research experiences in China and some developed countries in the world, the processes and methods on hydrological performance assessment for the siting of high radioactive repository are discussed in this paper. The methods and contents of hydrological performance assessment are discussed respectively for region, area and site hydrological investigation stages. At the same time, the hydrological performance assessment of the potential site for high level radioactive waste in China is introduced. (authors)

  19. A validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Jihan M Badr

    2013-01-01

    Background: Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid used as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. A number of methods were reported for the analysis of yohimbine in the bark or in pharmaceutical preparations. Materials and Method: In the present work, a simple and sensitive high performance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for determination of yohimbine (occurring as yohimbine hydrochloride) in pharmaceutical preparations and validated according to International Conference of Ha...

  20. Theophylline Cocrystals Prepared by Spray Drying: Physicochemical Properties and Aerosolization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem; Buckton, Graham; Gill, Hardyal; Nokhodchi, Ali; Velaga, Sitaram P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials ...

  1. performance assessment of substation site earthing using fluke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Earthing is the fundamental requirement for protection in all electrical ... for the performance assessment of this instrument as compare to the conventional system. ... tem and the reference earth at a given operating fre- quency ...

  2. Concept and Planning of Site Preparation for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Jawa and Surrounding Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heru Sriwahyuni; Sastrowardoyo, Pratomo B.; Teddy Sumantri; Dewi Susilowati; Hendra Adhi Pratama; Syarmufni, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)

  3. Site Sustainability Plan with FY2015 Performance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hudey, Bryce D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is both the largest science and energy laboratory in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex and one of the oldest national laboratories still operating at its original site. ORNL implemented an aggressive modernization program in 2000, providing modern, energy-efficient facilities that help to support the growth of important national scientific missions while faced with the unique and challenging opportunity to integrate sustainability into legacy assets. ORNL is committed to leveraging the outcomes of DOE-sponsored research programs to maximize the efficient use of energy and natural resources across a diverse campus. ORNL leadership in conjunction with the Sustainable Campus Initiative (SCI) maintains a commitment to the integration of technical innovations into new and existing facilities, systems, and processes with a comprehensive approach to achieving DOE directives and the new Executive Order 13693. Energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reductions, climate change resiliency, and other pursuits toward integrated sustainability factor in all we do. ORNL continues to pursue and deploy innovative solutions and initiatives to advance regional, national, and worldwide sustainability and continues to transform its culture and engage employees in supporting sustainability at work, at home, and in the community.

  4. The SocioEconomic analysis of repository siting (SEARS): Guide to data base preparation: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Kiel, B.; Parpia, B.

    1984-11-01

    This guide describes the data bases in the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system. This model is a user-interactive, computerized model for projecting the economic, demographic, public service, and fiscal impacts of repository siting. This guide provides a description of the data bases, sources of data, data formats, and preprocessing programs for adapting and implementing the SEARS system and is seen as an essential reference for technical users of the model. It should be used in conjunction with reports describing the model's features and characteristics. 95 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Evaluation of disposal site geochemical performance using a containment factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerman, A.; Domenico, P.A.; Bartlett, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The containment factor is a measure of retention by geologic setting of wastes released from a repository. The factor is alternatively defined either in terms of several measurable hydrological and geochemical parameters, or in terms of amounts of waste components that may be released to the geologic setting and, subsequently, to the environment. Containment factors for individual waste components in a given geologic setting are functions of groundwater to rock volume ratios, sorption or exchange characteristics of the rocks, and containment time to groundwater travel time ratios. For high-level radioactive wastes, containment factors based on the NRC and EPA limit values for cumulative releases from waste and to the environment provide a measure of the geochemical performance of the geologic setting in tuff, basalt, and salt. The containment factor values for individual nuclides from high-level wastes indicate that for some of the nuclides containment may be achieved by groundwater travel time along. For other nuclides, additional performance functions need to be allocated to geochemical retention by such processes as sorption, ion-exchange or precipitation

  6. Hanford Site performance summary -- EM funded programs, July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.A.

    1995-07-01

    Performance data for July 1995 reflects a 4% unfavorable schedule variance and is an improvement over June 1995. The majority of the behind schedule condition is attributed to EM-30, (Office of Waste Management). The majority of the EM-30 schedule variance is associated with the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The TWRS schedule variance is attributed to the delay in obtaining key decision 0 (KD-0) for Project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations'' and the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) workscope still being a part of the baseline. Baseline Change Requests (BCRs) are in process rebaselining Project W-314 and deleting the MWTF from the TWRS baseline. Once the BCR's are approved and implemented, the overall schedule variance will be reduced to $15.0 million. Seventy-seven enforceable agreement milestones were scheduled FYTD. Seventy-one (92%) of the seventy-seven were completed on or ahead of schedule, two were completed late and four are delinquent. Performance data reflects a continued significant favorable cost variance of $124.3 million (10%). The cost variance is attributed to process improvements/efficiencies, elimination of low-value work, workforce reductions and is expected to continue for the remainder of this fiscal year. A portion of the cost variance is attributed to a delay in billings which should self-correct by fiscal year-end

  7. Fieldwork and Fashion: Gendered and Classed Performances in Research Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Lisiak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers' performances in the field are gendered, classed, and ethnicized. We are watched and judged by our respondents based on how we look, what we say, and how we say it. Our appearance in the field may increase or decrease our chances of creating rapport, it may encourage respondents to talk to us or discourage them entirely from taking part in our research. Whereas we have no absolute control over all the factors determining how we present ourselves in the field, we do have some power over our dress. Although the act of getting dressed for fieldwork may appear inconspicuous and mundane, I argue in this article that its implications are most relevant for our thinking about how we design and perform fieldwork. Particularly the assumptions regarding our respondents' and our own class, gender, and ethnicity that we make before entering the field are worthy of careful consideration as they display our thought processes and, as such, are part of academic analysis. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1502146

  8. Site characterization and performance assessment for a low-level radioactive waste management site in the American Southwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, G.J.; Sully, M.J.; Muller, C.J.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Ginanni, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site located in southern Nevada, has been used for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste since 1961. The site is located in the Mohave Desert of the American Southwest, an extremely arid region receiving as little as 0.1 m/yr of precipitation. Site characterization studies have measured the physical, hydrologic, and geochemical properties of core samples collected from 10 shallow boreholes and 3 deep boreholes that extend through the unsaturated zone to the uppermost aquifer. Results indicate that the unsaturated zone consists of 240 m of dry alluvial sediments and is remarkably uniform with respect to most physical parameters. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity with depth showed no evidence of trends, layering, or anisotropy. Parameters for hydraulic functions were not highly variable and exhibited little trend with depth. Water potential profiles indicate that water movement in the upper alluvium is upward, except immediately following a precipitation event. Below the evaporative zone, the liquid flux was downward and of the same order of magnitude as the upward thermal vapor flux induced by the geothermal gradient. The extreme climatic conditions at the site reduce or eliminate many radionuclide release and transport mechanisms. Downward transport of radionuclides to the uppermost aquifer appears unlikely under current climatic conditions. Important radionuclide transport pathways appear to be limited to upward diffusion and advection of gases and biologically-mediated transport. Conceptual models of disposal site performance have been developed based on site characterization studies. The limited transport pathways and limited land use potential of the site provide reasonable assurance that regulatory performance objectives can be met

  9. Performance of immunoassay kits for site characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.C.; Palausky, A.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting efforts to identify, validate and implement the use of effective, low-cost alternatives to currently used analytical methods for environmental management. As part of that program, we have evaluated the performances of a number of immunoassay (IA) kits with specificities for environmental contaminants of concern to the DOE. The studies were done in the laboratory using both spiked and field test samples. The analyte specificity and manufacturers of the kits evaluated were the following: mercury, BioNebraska; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), EnSys and Millipore; petroleum fuel hydrocarbons, Millipore and Ohmicron; and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Ohmicron and Millipore. The kits were used in either a semiquantitative or quantitative format according to the preference of the manufacturers

  10. The Role of the Character Structure in Performer's Psychological Preparation to Concert Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmanaev, Yermek M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the correlation between performer's personal characteristics and the features of his/her artistic activity. The authors analyze various interpretations, proving that the character and temperament influence the properties of the performed musical material, including: the nature of sound; an attitude to the…

  11. Identification of leukotriene D4 specific binding sites in the membrane preparation isolated from guinea pig lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mong, S.; Wu, H.L.; Clark, M.A.; Stadel, J.M.; Gleason, J.G.; Crooke, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    A radioligand binding assay has been established to study leukotriene specific binding sites in the guinea pig and rabbit tissues. Using high specific activity [ 3 H]-leukotriene D4 [( 3 H]-LTD4), in the presence or absence of unlabeled LTD4, the diastereoisomer of LTD4 (5R,6S-LTD4), leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and the end-organ antagonist, FPL 55712, the authors have identified specific binding sites for [ 3 H]-LTD4 in the crude membrane fraction isolated from guinea pig lung. The time required for [ 3 H]-LTD4 binding to reach equilibrium was approximately 20 to 25 min at 37 degrees C in the presence of 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5) containing 150 mM NaCl. The binding of [ 3 H]-LTD4 to the specific sites was saturable, reversible and stereospecific. The maximal number of binding sites (Bmax), derived from Scatchard analysis, was approximately 320 +/- 200 fmol per mg of crude membrane protein. The dissociation constants, derived from kinetic and saturation analyses, were 9.7 nM and 5 +/- 4 nM, respectively. The specific binding sites could not be detected in the crude membrane fraction prepared from guinea pig ileum, brain and liver, or rabbit lung, trachea, ileum and uterus. In radioligand competition experiments, LTD4, FPL 55712 and 5R,6S-LTD4 competed with [ 3 H]-LTD4. The metabolic inhibitors of arachidonic acid and SKF 88046, an antagonist of the indirectly-mediated actions of LTD4, did not significantly compete with [ 3 H]-LTD4 at the specific binding sites. These correlations indicated that these specific binding sites may be the putative leukotriene receptors in the guinea-pig lung

  12. Theophylline cocrystals prepared by spray drying: physicochemical properties and aerosolization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem; Buckton, Graham; Gill, Hardyal; Nokhodchi, Ali; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials were determined. The in vitro aerosol performance of the spray-dried cocrystals, drug-alone and a drug-carrier aerosol, was assessed. The spray-dried particles had different size distributions, morphologies and surface energies. The milled samples had higher surface energy than those prepared by spray drying. Good agreement was observed between multi-stage liquid impinger and next-generation impactor in terms of assessing spray-dried THF particles. The fine particle fractions of both formulations were similar for THF, but drug-alone formulations outperformed drug-carrier formulations for the THF cocrystals. The aerosolization performance of different THF cocrystals was within the following rank order as obtained from both drug-alone and drug-carrier formulations: THF-NIC>THF-URE>THF-SAC. It was proposed that micromeritic properties dominate over particle surface energy in terms of determining the aerosol performance of THF cocrystals. Spray drying could be a potential technique for preparing cocrystals with modified physical properties.

  13. Extraction and Purification of Glucoraphanin by Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iris; Boyce, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    A student activity that focuses on the isolation of glucoraphanin from broccoli using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is presented here. Glucoraphanin is a glucosinolate, whose byproducts are known to possess anticancer properties. It is present naturally at high levels in broccoli and other "Brassica" vegetables. This…

  14. Effect of chlorine on performance of Pd catalysts prepared via colloidal immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yingnan; Liang, Wanwei; Li, Yongdan; Lefferts, Leon

    2017-01-01

    This contribution shows the effect of residual chlorine on the catalytic performance of a Pd-based catalyst in the hydrogenation of nitrite for cleaning of drinking water. The catalyst was prepared via immobilization a colloidal Pd nanoparticles using activated carbon as support. Different amount of

  15. elPrep: High-Performance Preparation of Sequence Alignment/Map Files for Variant Calling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Herzeel

    Full Text Available elPrep is a high-performance tool for preparing sequence alignment/map files for variant calling in sequencing pipelines. It can be used as a replacement for SAMtools and Picard for preparation steps such as filtering, sorting, marking duplicates, reordering contigs, and so on, while producing identical results. What sets elPrep apart is its software architecture that allows executing preparation pipelines by making only a single pass through the data, no matter how many preparation steps are used in the pipeline. elPrep is designed as a multithreaded application that runs entirely in memory, avoids repeated file I/O, and merges the computation of several preparation steps to significantly speed up the execution time. For example, for a preparation pipeline of five steps on a whole-exome BAM file (NA12878, we reduce the execution time from about 1:40 hours, when using a combination of SAMtools and Picard, to about 15 minutes when using elPrep, while utilising the same server resources, here 48 threads and 23GB of RAM. For the same pipeline on whole-genome data (NA12878, elPrep reduces the runtime from 24 hours to less than 5 hours. As a typical clinical study may contain sequencing data for hundreds of patients, elPrep can remove several hundreds of hours of computing time, and thus substantially reduce analysis time and cost.

  16. Asymmetric polivinylidenfluoride (PVDF) radiation grafted membranes: Preparation and performance in reverse osmosis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigo, F.; Capannelli, G.; Uliana, C.; Munari, S.

    1981-01-01

    A new type of reverse osmosis membrane has been synthesized. Membranes were prepared starting from asymmetric PVDF films, obtained by the casting and gelation technique and modified by radiochemical grafting and sulphonation. These membranes were tested in an RO laboratory plant and their performances were determined as a function of preparative parameters. The influences of evaporation time and temperature grafting and solvents were investigated. These membranes exhibit permeabilities as high as 2000 1/m 2 d and sodium chloride rejections up to 70%. (orig.)

  17. Preparation and supercapacitive performance of clew-like porous nanocarbons derived from sucrose by catalytic graphitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tiantian; Liu, Enhui; Ding, Rui; Luo, Zhenyu; Hu, Tiantian; Li, Zengpeng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Nanocarbons with highly graphitic clew-like nanostructures are firstly reported. •The novel nanostructure contains interconnected and curled carbon nanowires. •The influences of the amount of nickel acetate were investigated. •GCPN-2 has a high degree of graphitization and a low equivalent series resistance. •The specific capacitance is 248 F g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 , and it remains 85% at 5 A g −1 . -- Abstract: Highly graphitic clew-like porous nanocarbons (GCPNs) were prepared by using sucrose and nickel acetate as the carbon source and nickel catalyst precursor, respectively. The influences of the amount of nickel acetate on the microstructure, morphology, degree of graphitization, surface area and pore texture of GCPNs were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, power X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, respectively. Electrochemical performance of GCPNs was studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol L −1 KOH aqueous electrolytes. GCPNs exhibit interestingly novel clew-like nanostructures, which are composed of interconnected and curled carbon nanowires with sizes ranging from 10 to 25 nm. Especially, GCPN-2 (the mass ratio of nickel acetate to porous activated carbon was 0.22) shows the largest specific surface area of 691 m 2 g −1 , the highest degree of graphitization (0.81) and the lowest equivalent series resistance (ESR) of 0.53 Ω, which ensures sufficient electro-active sites and rapid charge-discharge rates. In addition, GCPN-2 exhibits the hierarchical micro-meso porous architecture which favors the fast diffusion of electrolyte ions. Consequently, GCPN-2 delivers a high specific capacitance (248 F g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 ), a high rate performance (210 F g −1 at 5 A g −1 ) and an excellent cycling stability (94.3% retention after

  18. Preparation, installation, and calibration of a 152-fiber imaging experiment at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.R.; Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.; Manning, J.P.; Malone, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Fiber-optic transmission lines are being used with increasing frequency in the demanding environment of nuclear device diagnostic tests at the Nevada Test Site. Previous reports have described diagnostic experiments that utilize properties of fiber-optic cables to provide capabilities that are extremely difficult to obtain with coaxial cable systems. This paper describes an imaging experiment conducted during the last quarter of 1980 at the Nevada Test Site involving 152 approx. 0.6-km long GI fibers in 18 cables. An imager cell sensitive to neutron and gamma radiation was located at approx. 8 m from the source. Individual elements of the fluor were coupled by approx. 10 m PCS fibers (for radiation damage resistance) to the GI fibers used for the uphole and surface lines to the detector station. Light from the imager cell in a 9-nm band, centered at 540 nm, was detected by photomultipliers and the electrical signals then recorded on oscilloscopes. Overall system bandwidth, including the fluor, was approx. 80 MHz. Due to the complexity of the experiment and the conditions associated with field testing, the PCS and GI fibers were cut and terminated under laboratory shop conditions prior to installation at the field site. Procedures used for quality assurance of the fiber assemblies as well as procedures used in checking fiber throughput during installation are described. The application of a large star coupler (5 input x 200 output fibers) used for system time and amplitude calibration and an attempt to shutter fibers with neutrons for a multiplexing application are also discussed

  19. Layer-by-Layer Assembly for Preparation of High-Performance Forward Osmosis Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Libin; Zhang, Jinglong; Song, Peng; Wang, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) membrane with high separation performance is needed to promote its practical applications. Herein, layer-by-layer (LbL) approach was used to prepare a thin and highly cross-linked polyamide layer on a polyacrylonitrile substrate surface to prepare a thin-film composite forward osmosis (TFC-FO) membrane with enhanced FO performance. The effects of monomer concentrations and assembly cycles on the performance of the TFC-FO membranes were systematically investigated. Under the optimal preparation condition, TFC-FO membrane achieved the best performance, exhibiting the water flux of 14.4/6.9 LMH and reverse salt flux of 7.7/3.8 gMH under the pressure retarded osmosis/forward osmosis (PRO/FO) mode using 1M NaCl as the draw against a DI-water feed, and a rejection of 96.1% for 2000 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. The result indicated that layer-by-layer method was a potential method to regulate the structure and performance of the TFC-FO membrane.

  20. Cobalt sulfide aerogel prepared by anion exchange method with enhanced pseudocapacitive and water oxidation performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuyue; Shi, Zhenyu; Xue, Kaiming; Ye, Ziran; Hong, Zhanglian; Yu, Xinyao; Zhi, Mingjia

    2018-05-01

    This work introduces the anion exchange method into the sol-gel process for the first time to prepare a metal sulfide aerogel. A porous Co9S8 aerogel with a high surface area (274.2 m2 g‑1) and large pore volume (0.87 cm3 g‑1) has been successfully prepared by exchanging cobalt citrate wet gel in thioacetamide and subsequently drying in supercritical ethanol. Such a Co9S8 aerogel shows enhanced supercapacitive performance and catalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER) compared to its oxide aerogel counterpart. High specific capacitance (950 F g‑1 at 1 A g‑1), good rate capability (74.3% capacitance retention from 1 to 20 A g‑1) and low onset overpotential for OER (220 mV) were observed. The results demonstrated here have implications in preparing various sulfide chalcogels.

  1. Prediction of Lunar- and Martian-Based Intra- and Site-to-Site Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Carl J; Broxterman, Ryan M; Craig, Jesse C; Schlup, Susanna J; Wilcox, Samuel L; Warren, Steve; Kuehl, Phillip; Gude, Dana; Jia, Chen; Barstow, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of determining the physiological parameters associated with the ability to complete simulated exploration type tasks at metabolic rates which might be expected for lunar and Martian ambulation. Running V̇O2max and gas exchange threshold (GET) were measured in 21 volunteers. Two simulated extravehicular activity field tests were completed in 1 G in regular athletic apparel at two intensities designed to elicit metabolic rates of ∼20.0 and ∼30.0 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1), which are similar to those previously reported for ambulation in simulated lunar- and Martian-based environments, respectively. All subjects were able to complete the field test at the lunar intensity, but 28% were unable to complete the field test at the Martian intensity (non-Finishers). During the Martian field test there were no differences in V̇O2 between Finishers and non-Finishers, but the non-Finishers achieved a greater %V̇O2max compared to Finishers (78.4 ± 4.6% vs. 64.9 ± 9.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed fitness thresholds for a predicted probability of 0.5, at which Finishing and non-Finishing are equally likely, and 0.75, at which an individual has a 75% chance of Finishing, to be a V̇O2max of 38.4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) and 40.0 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) or a GET of 20.1 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) and 25.1 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1), respectively (χ(2) = 10.2). Logistic regression analysis also revealed that the expected %V̇O2max required to complete a field test could be used to successfully predict performance (χ(2) = 19.3). The results of the present investigation highlight the potential utility of V̇O2max, particularly as it relates to the metabolic demands of a surface ambulation, in defining successful completion of planetary-based exploration field tests.

  2. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary

  3. Bioinjection Performance Review for the Building 100 Area and 4.5 Acre Site at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Survochak, Scott [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Daniel, Joe [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This document provides a summary of a review of the performance of bioinjection activities at the Building 100 Area and the 4.5 Acre Site at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site since 2010, determines how best to optimize future injection events, and identifies the approach for the bioinjection event in 2016 at (1) the 4.5 Acre Site and (2) the Essentra property at the Building 100 Area. Because this document describes the next bioinjection event at the 4.5 Acre Site, it also serves as an addendum to the Interim Remedial Action Plan for Emulsified Edible Oil Injection at the 4.5 Acre Site (DOE 2013). In addition, this document revises the injection layout and injection intervals for the Essentra property that were originally described in the Interim Corrective Measure Work Plan for Source and Plume Treatment at the Building 100 Area (DOE 2014), and is a de facto update of that document. Bioinjection consists of injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and the microorganism Dehalococcoides mccartyi (DHM; formerly known as Dehalococcoides ethenogenes) into the subsurface to enhance biodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE), dichloroethene (DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). VC is the only contaminant that exceeds its maximum contaminant level (10 micrograms per liter onsite and 1 microgram per liter onsite) on the 4.5 Acre Site and the Essentra property. Bioinjection was conducted at the 4.5 Acre Site in 2010 and 2013. Approximately 49,900 gallons of EVO and DHM were injected at 95 injection points in February 2010, and approximately 22,900 gallons of EVO and DHM were injected at 46 injection points in July 2013. The injection locations are shown on Figure 1. The goal of bioinjection at the 4.5 Acre Site is to decrease contaminant concentrations to maximum contaminant levels along the west and southwest property boundaries (to meet risk–based corrective action requirements) and to minimize the extent of the contaminant plume in the interior of the site. Bioinjection was

  4. MEMORANDUM: Application of Best Management Practices to Mechanical Silvicultural Site Preparation Activities for the Establishment of Pine Plantations in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum to the Field, November 28, 1995, clarifying the applicability of forested wetlands best management practices to mechanical silvicultural site preparation activities for the establishment of pine plantations in the Southeast.

  5. Preparation and performance of manganese-oxide-coated zeolite for the removal of manganese-contamination in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Cong; Yang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Shengyu; Zhang, Qihui; Su, Xiaosi

    2017-12-29

    A promising and easily prepared catalytic filler media, manganese-oxide-coated zeolite (MOCZ), for the removal of Mn (II) contamination in groundwater was studied. The optimal condition for MOCZ preparation was given as follows: acid activation of zeolite with 5% HCl mass percent for 12 h, then soaking of acid-activated zeolite with 7% KMnO 4 mass percent for 8 h, and finally calcination at 300°C for 5 h. Acid activation significantly enlarged the specific surface area of the zeolite (>79 m 2  g -1 ), subsequently enhancing the coating of manganese oxides onto the surface of the zeolite. This was further supported by the manganese-to-zeolite ratio (γ Mn ) and Energy dispersive analysis-mapping. The γ Mn was over 12.26 mg Mn g -1 zeolite, representing more active sites for the adsorption and catalytic-oxidation of Mn (II). As such, great performance of Mn (II) removal by MOCZ was obtained in the filter experiment. An estimated 98-100% removal efficiency of Mn (II) was achieved in a greatly short startup time (only 2 h). During the filtration process, newborn flocculent manganese oxides with a mixed-valence of manganese (Mn (II) and Mn (IV)) were generated on the MOCZ surface, further facilitating the adsorption and catalytic-oxidation of Mn (II). The filter with MOCZ as adsorbent had a great performance on the Mn (II) removal in a wide range of hydraulic retention time (HRT) (4-40 min), particularly in a short HRT. Besides, the filter prolonged the filtration period (60 days), which would significantly reduce the frequency of backwash. Thus, it could be concluded that MOCZ prepared in this study showed a good performance in terms of Mn (II) removal in waterworks, especially small waterworks in the villages/towns.

  6. Myricetin solid lipid nanoparticles: Stability assurance from system preparation to site of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Dina M; Nafee, Noha; Abdallah, Osama Y

    2017-11-15

    Myricetin - a natural flavonoid - has attracted a great interest due to its antioxidant and free-radical scavenging potential. However, its physicochemical instability critically impairs its dosage form design, evaluation and administration. In an attempt to protect from degradation, MYR was encapsulated into Gelucire-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). The impact of medium pH, processing temperature and different additives on the drug degradation either in free or nanoencapsulated form was assessed. MYR stability was further monitored in essential biorelevant fluids. Investigations have led to the recommendation that the presence of fat-soluble antioxidant is necessary during SLN preparation to protect the drug at high temperature. Meanwhile, physiological buffers as well as simulated fluids should be supplemented with stabilizers as tween 80 and Poloxamer 407, in addition to water-soluble antioxidant such as sodium sulfite. Interestingly, mucin-containing fluids are suggested to provide better protection to MYR, in contrast, cell culture media do not guarantee MYR stability. The degradation kinetics changed from 1st to 2nd order mechanism after MYR nanoencapsulation. In presence of the aforementioned additives, MYR-SLNs significantly reduced the drug degradation rate constant up to 300-folds and prolonged the half-life time up to 4500-folds compared to free MYR in physiological buffers (One-way ANOVA, p8h with no signs of degradation. The study emphasizes virtuous guidance regarding appropriate nanoencapsulation conditions and evaluation attributes ensuing MYR physicochemical stability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Aqueous preparation of polyethylene glycol/sulfonated graphene phase change composite with enhanced thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hairong; Jiang, Ming; Li, Qi; Li, Denian; Chen, Zongyi; Hu, Waping; Huang, Jing; Xu, Xizhe; Dong, Lijie; Xie, Haian; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We report an aqueous preparation technique of PEG/graphene phase change composite. • Hydrophilic sulfonated graphene (SG) nanosheets were synthesized. • Large increase in thermal conductivity is attained at low SG loading. • High latent heat is retained due to the low filler loading. • Affinity between SG and PEG contributes to the enhanced thermal performance. - Abstract: A polyethylene glycol (PEG)/sulfonated graphene (SG) phase change composite with enhanced thermal performance was prepared by solution processing in aqueous medium. It is remarkable that the addition of only 4 wt.% of SG to PEG could lead to a four times higher increase in thermal conductivity and a slight decrease in the phase change enthalpy, which is attributed to the formation of efficient thermal conductive network within the PEG matrix relevant to the excellent thermal property and unique 2-dimensional morphology of graphene as well as strong interface affinity between PEG matrix and SG nanosheets. The aqueous preparation technique is expected to pioneer a new way to prepare environment friendly organic phase change materials, and the production of PEG/SG composites is potentially scalable due to the facile fabricating process

  8. Medical Student Psychiatry Examination Performance at VA and Non-VA Clerkship Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Phebe; von Schlageter, Margo Shultes; Park, EunMi; Rosenberg, Emily; Benjamin, Ashley B.; Nawar, Ola

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the effects of medical student assignment to U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center inpatient and outpatient psychiatry clerkship sites versus other university and community sites on the performance outcome measure of National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject examination scores. Methods:…

  9. Site specificity of biosphere parameter values in performance assessments of near-surface repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, Th.; Volckaert, G.; Vandecasleele

    1993-01-01

    The contribution is dealing with the performance assessment model for near surface repositories in Belgium. It consists of four submodels called: site, aquifer, biosphere and dose. For some characteristic radionuclides, results of the study are shown for a typical site, and differences in doses assessed with the generic approach discussed. Shortcomings are indicated

  10. Mechanochemical preparation of polydiphenylamine and its electrochemical performance in hybrid supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaniappan, SP. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Alagappa University, Alagappapuram, Karaikudi 630003, Tamil Nadu (India); Manisankar, P., E-mail: pms11@rediffmail.com [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Alagappa University, Alagappapuram, Karaikudi 630003, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > For the first time, a simple to adopt, greener, rapid and efficient alternative route was successfully developed for preparing different PDPA salts. > For the first time, a judicial attempt was made to evaluate the performance of mechanochemically prepared PDPA-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as cathode material in asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. > The results obtained are highly promising and the physicochemical properties of PDPA salts could be fine-tuned in the future for large scale applications in energy storage devices. - Abstract: A simple mechanochemical route for the synthesis of high quality inorganic anion doped polydiphenylamines (PDPAs) is reported in this article. Elemental analysis performed for the PDPAs indicated the presence of dopant anions in the polymeric chain. PDPA prepared in the presence of 96 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (PDPA-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was found to be better doped than the other polymeric salts. Spectroscopic profiles of the polymers showed that the PDPAs were in a doped conducting state. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the as-prepared polymeric powders revealed the presence of more crystalline phases in PDPA-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) images highlighted the formation of inorganic anion doped PDPA particles with different sizes (80-100 nm). Electrochemical studies performed for the polymeric particles depicted the redox behavior and good electrochemical activity of PDPA salts. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) proved that all the PDPA salts were thermally stable up to 300 deg. C. The electrochemical performance of PDPA-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hybrid supercapacitors was evaluated due to its superior physicochemical properties. The maximum specific capacitance of the hybrid supercapacitor constructed out of PDPA-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} powder was found to be 108 F g{sup -1}.

  11. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfei; Zhong, Yuliang; Rong, Xian; Min, Chunhua; Qi, Chengying

    2016-01-25

    This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP). The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP), which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM) was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP) through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1) the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2) the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3) in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  12. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP. The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP, which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1 the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2 the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3 in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  13. Preparation of 99mTc-HYNIC-PEG-liposomes for imaging of the focal sites infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Pyo; Awh, Ok Doo; Kim, Hyun Suk; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Tae Sup; Choi, Tae Hyun; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2002-01-01

    A new linker, hydrazino nicotinamide (HYNIC), was recently introduced for labelling of liposome with 99m Tc. In this study we synthesized HYNIC derivatized PEG (polyethylene glycol)-liposomes radiolabeled with 99m Tc. In order to synthesize HYNIC-DSPE (distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine) which is a crucial component for 99m Tc chelation, first of all succinimidyl 6-BOC-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid was synthesized from 6-chloronicotinic acid by three sequential reactions. A DSPE derivative of succinimidyl 6-BOC-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid was transformed into HYNIC-DSPE by HCI/dioxane. HYNIC-PEG-liposomes were prepared by hydration of the dried lipid mixture of EPC (egg phosphatidyl choline): PEG-DSPE : HYNIC-DSPE: cholesterol (1.85:0.15:0.07:1, molar ratio). The HYNIC-PEG-liposomes were labeled with 99m Tc in the presence of SnCl 2 ·2H 2 O (a reducing agent) and tricine (a colignad). To investigate the level of in vivo transchelation of 99m Tc in the liposomes, the 99m Tc-HYNIC-PEG-liposomes were incubated with a molar excess of DTPA, cysteine or glutathione solutions at 37 .deg. C for 24 hours. 6-BOC-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid was synthesized with 77.3% overall yield. The HYNIC concentration in the PEG-coated liposome dispersion was 1.08 mM. In condition of considering the measured liposome size of 106 nm, the phospholipid concentration of 77.5 μmol/ ml and the liposomal particle number of 5.2x10 14 liposomes/ml, it is corresponded to approximate 1,250 nicotinyl hydrazine group per liposome in HYNIC-PEG-liposome. The removal of free 99m Tc was not necessary because the labeling efficiency were above 99%. The radiolabeled liposomes maintained 98%, 96% and 99%, respectively, of radioactivity after incubation with transchelators. The radiolabeled liposomes possessed above 90% of the radioactivity in serum. These results suggest that the HYNIC can be synthesized easily and applied in labelling of PEG-liposomes with 99m Tc

  14. Atmospheric Characterization of the US Offshore Sites and Impact on Turbine Performance (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Dhiraj [Alstom Renewable US LLC; Ehrmann, Robert [Alstom Renewable US LLC; Zuo, Delong [Texas Tech University; Xiao, Jingting [Texas Tech University

    2016-10-25

    Reliable, long term offshore atmospheric data is critical to development of the US offshore wind industry. There exists significant lack of meteorological, oceanographic, and geological data at potential US offshore sites. Assessment of wind resources at heights in the range of 25-200m is needed to understand and characterize offshore wind turbine performance. Data from the US Department of Energy owned WindSentinel buoy from two US offshore sites and one European site is analyzed. Low Level Jet (LLJ) phenomena and its potential impact on the performance of an offshore wind turbine is investigated.

  15. A facile and scalable method to prepare carbon nanotube-grafted-graphene for high performance Li-S battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. Q.; Huang, J. B.; Li, G. R.; Lin, Z.; Liu, B. H.; Li, Z. P.

    2017-01-01

    A carbon nanotube-grafted-graphene (CNT-g-Gr) is developed for enhancements of electrical conduction and polysulfide (PS) absorption to improve rate performance and cycleability of lithium-sulfur battery. The CNT-g-Gr is prepared through CNT growth on Ni-deposited graphene sheet which is fabricated via pyrolysis of glucose in a molten salt. The obtained CNT-g-Gr shows much higher specific surface area and PS adsorption capability than graphene. The in-situ formed Ni nanoparticles on graphene sheet not only serve as the catalytic sites for CNT growth, but also function as the anchor-sites for polar PS absorption. The CNT-g-Gr contributes a superb PS adsorption capability arising from graphene and CNT absorbing weakly-polar PS species, and Ni nanoparticles absorbing the species with stronger polarity. The resultant Li-S battery with the CNT-g-Gr shows excellent cycleability and rate performance. A stable discharge capacity of 900 mAh g-1 (with low capacity degradation rate) and a rate capacity of 260 mAh g-1 at 30 C discharge rate have been achieved.

  16. Performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility on the Nevada Test Site: Comparing the performance of two conceptual site models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, T.A.; Price, L.L.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    A small amount of transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site located on the Nevada Test Site's (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The waste has been buried in several deep (37 m) boreholes dug into the floor of an alluvial basin. For the waste to remain in its current configuration, the DOE must demonstrate compliance of the site with the TRU disposal requirements, 40 CFR 191. Sandia's approach to process modelling in performance assessment is to use demonstrably conservative models of the site. Choosing the most conservative model, however, can be uncertain. As an example, diffusion of contaminants upward from the buried waste in the vadose zone water is the primary mechanism of release. This process can be modelled as straight upward planar diffusion or as spherical diffusion in all directions. The former has high fluxes but low release areas, the latter has lower fluxes but is spread over a greater area. We have developed analytic solutions to a simple test problem for both models and compared the total integrated discharges. The spherical diffusion conceptual model results in at least five times greater release to the accessible environment than the planar model at all diffusivities. Modifying the planar model to allow for a larger release, however, compensated for the smaller original planar discharge and resulted in a new planar model that was more conservative that the spherical model except at low diffusivities

  17. Linkage between site characterization program and performance and design data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, M.B.; Dobson, D.C.; Younker, J.L.; Voegele, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    The basis for identifying site-specific data needs for the Yucca Mountain site was a thorough review and evaluation of the regulatory requirements for a geologic repository. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulation governing disposal of high-level waste in a geologic repository utilizes a multiple barrier approach that includes reliance on both engineered and natural elements. Given an understanding of the regulatory requirements, the next step was to identify the natural features of the site and the components of the engineered barriers considered most likely to make significant contributions to isolation of waste at Yucca Mountain. The intent was to develop a site testing program that focused on understanding those natural site characteristics and processes most likely to contribute to waste isolation; and providing site data necessary to design and assess the performance of engineered barriers. 3 refs., 3 figs

  18. Effects of site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Susan Cohen

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of eight site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. Treatments included an untreated check, six combinations of two initial vegetation control treatments (chopping or herbicide) with three planting site conditions (flat [no additional treatment],...

  19. An analysis of high-performing science students' preparation for collegiate science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Karen

    This mixed-method study surveyed first year high-performing science students who participated in high-level courses such as International Baccalaureate (IB), Advanced Placement (AP), and honors science courses in high school to determine their perception of preparation for academic success at the collegiate level. The study used 52 students from an honors college campus and surveyed the students and their professors. The students reported that they felt better prepared for academic success at the collegiate level by taking these courses in high school (pstudent GPA with honors science courses (n=55 and Pearson's r=-0.336), while AP courses (n=47 and Pearson's r=0.0016) and IB courses (n=17 and Pearson's r=-0.2716) demonstrated no correlation between perception of preparation and GPA. Students reported various themes that helped or hindered their perception of academic success once at the collegiate level. Those themes that reportedly helped students were preparedness, different types of learning, and teacher qualities. Students reported in a post-hoc experience that more lab time, rigorous coursework, better teachers, and better study techniques helped prepare them for academic success at the collegiate level. Students further reported on qualities of teachers and teaching that helped foster their academic abilities at the collegiate level, including teacher knowledge, caring, teaching style, and expectations. Some reasons for taking high-level science courses in high school include boosting GPA, college credit, challenge, and getting into better colleges.

  20. Performance of PZC-Mo generator and labeling results prepared with its eluate and MDP kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yishu Liu

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the performance of Tc-99m generator prepared with Mo adsorbent PZC and irradiated nature MoO 3 , and the labeling results of MDP kit prepared with Tc-99m eluted from PZC-Mo generator and MDP was report as well. ThreeTc-99m generators was prepared with different batches of PZC and reactor irradiated nature Mo. The adsorption efficiency of two batches of the PZC is good (96.4% and 93.4%) and that of one batch of PZC is not satisfy (77.8%). The elution efficiency is not so high, and it increases along with the elution date. The elution file is very broad till to 30 ml and the Mo breakthrough is high to unacceptable. The labelling efficiency of MDP kit, prepared with Tc-99m eluate eluted with saline containing 0.05% NaClO from Mo-PZC generator, is approximately 77∼84% and it can reach to >98% labelling with eluate without containing 0.05%HClO in eluate. (author)

  1. The PZC-based Tc-99m generator preparation and its performance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2007-01-01

    This paper described the preparation of Tc-99m generator prepared with Japan distributing Mo adsorbent PZC and irradiated nature MoO 3 and its performance test. Four Tc-99m generators were prepared with different batches of PZC and reactor irradiated nature MoO 3 . The adsorption capacity of PZC to Mo is approximately 200mgMo/gPZC. The adsorption efficiency of three batches PZC is good (>90%) and that of one batch of PZC is not good enough (∼83%). The loss of fine powder (The PZC is fragile) is quite different with the different preparation process of PZC. The elution efficiency is 80-90% and has the up trend with the elution date. The Mo breakthrough can be controlled to acceptable level by connecting HZO safe column containing 1.0g HZO. All the specifications of eluted from PZC-based Tc-99m generator can meet the requirements under Sodium Pertechnetate injection in China Pharmacopoeia. (author)

  2. Performing Materiality: Rethinking the Subject-Object Relationship as a Site of Exchange in Performance Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Nesreen

    2011-01-01

    This thesis reconsiders the relationship between the human subject and the physical object in performance practice, which has been commonly perceived within hierarchical systems of instrumentalisation. The thesis demonstrates that in processes of performance making and reception, the role of physical objects goes beyond mimesis and direct representation. Physical objects and materials have the capacity to take active parts in a complex and multilayered performance dynamic, articulating ways o...

  3. [Preparation and performance characterization of gold nanoparticles modified chiral capillary electrochromatography stationary phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lele; Li, Ruijun; Ji, Yibing

    2017-07-08

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs, 15 nm) were prepared and introduced to amino groups derived silica monolithic column. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was immobilized via covalent modification method onto the carboxylic functionalized GNPs to afford chiral stationary phase (CSP) for enantioseparation. GNPs were well dispersed and successfully incorporated onto the columns with the contents as high as 17.18% by characterization method such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The preparation conditions of the BSA modified CSP were optimized and 10% (v/v) 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and 15 g/L BSA were selected as appropriate reaction conditions. The enantioseparation performance of the BSA modified CSP has been investigated by capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Enantiomers of tryptophan, ephedrine and atenolol were resolved, and the baseline separation of tryptophan was achieved. Meanwhile, the influences of pH value, buffer concentrations and applied voltages used on the chiral separation were studied, and the optimal separation conditions were 10 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and 15 kV applied voltages. In comparison with the BSA modified CSP prepared by physical adsorption, the CSP prepared by covalent modification method had better separation results, and the analytes could be separated directly without pre-column derivatization. In addition, the prepared BSA modified CSP exhibited good run to run repeatability with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the migration times and selectivity factors not more than 2.3% and 0.96%, respectively. This work offers a good thinking for modification with other proteins or other types of chiral selectors.

  4. Investigation on the performance of polymer zirconium compound (PZC) for chromatographic Tc-99m generator preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van So

    2004-01-01

    The performance of PZC was investigated for chromatographic Tc-99m generator preparation. Mo-adsorption of PZC in different Mo-solutions and Tc-99m elution of 99 Mo-PZC column were studied. Mo- adsorption capacity of higher than 250mgMo/gPZC and Tc-99m elution yield of higher than 80% were achieved with PZC adsorbent. Mo-99 breakthrough of 0.02% and Molybdenum element breakthrough of around 5μg Mo/ml were found in Tc-99m eluate. A good relationship between the Mo-content of adsorption solution and the Mo-adsorption capacity, adsorption percentage, Mo-breakthrough and Tc-99m elution yield was found. The preparation of PZC based Tc-99m chromatographic generator with 4 gram weight of PZC was successfully conducted. (author)

  5. Gender Differences in Introductory University Physics Performance: The Influence of High School Physics Preparation and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2006-12-01

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school has been a continuing concern for the physics education community. If females are well prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory college physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study uses HLM to identify factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that predict female and male performance in introductory college physics. The study includes controls for student demographic and academic background characteristics, and the final dataset consists of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory college physics classes. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially predict female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believe that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that similarly predict female and male performance. The results paint a dynamic picture of the factors from high school physics and the affective domain that influence the future physics performance of females and males. The implication is that there are many aspects to the teaching of physics in high school that, although widely used and thought to be effective, need reform in their implementation in order to be fully beneficial to females and/or males in college.

  6. What is the impact of commercial test preparation courses on medical examination performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Downing, Steven M; Kubilius, Ramune

    2004-01-01

    Commercial test preparation courses are part of the fabric of U.S. medical education. They are also big business with 2,000 sales for 1 firm listed at nearly $250 million. This article systematically reviews and evaluates research published in peer-reviewed journals and in the "grey literature" that addresses the impact of commercial test preparation courses on standardized, undergraduate medical examinations. Thirteen computerized English language databases were searched using 29 search terms and search concepts from their onset to October 1, 2002. Also manually searched was medical education conference proceedings and publications after the end date; and medical education journal editors were contacted about articles accepted for publication, but not yet in print, that were deemed pertinent to this review. Studies that met three criteria were selected: (a) a commercial test preparation course or service was an educational intervention, (b) the outcome variable was one of several standardized medical examinations, and (c) results are published in a peer-reviewed journal or another outlet that insures scholarly scrutiny. The criteria were applied and data extracted by consensus of 2 reviewers. The search identified 11 empirical studies, of which 10 (8 journal articles, 2 unpublished reports) are included in this review. Qualitative data synthesis and tabular presentation of research methods and outcomes are used. The articles and unpublished reports reveal that current research lacks control and rigor; the incremental validity of the commercial courses on medical examination performance, if any, is extremely small; and evidence in support of the courses is weak or nonexistent; almost no details are given about the form and conduct of the commercial test preparation courses; studies are confined to courses in preparation for the Medical College Admission Test, the former National Board of Medical Examiners Part 1, and the United States Medical Licensing Examination

  7. Site preparation works for No.3 plant in Ikata Nuclear Power Station, Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Oshima, Teruhiko

    1986-01-01

    Ikata Power Station is only nuclear power station in Shikoku located at the root of Sadamisaki Peninsula. No.1 plant started the operation in September, 1977, and No.2 plant started the operation in March, 1982. By constructing No.3 plant of 890 MWe output, the total power output will be 2.022 million kW. No.3 plant is installed adjacently to No.1 and No.2 plants on their east side. In this place, the existing facilities of the harbor and others can be effectively utilized, the nature of ground is solid, and the fundamental condition of location is perfect, it is easy to obtain the cooperation of local people as No.1 and No.2 plants have been in operation, and it is advantageous in view of the construction period for the power supply plan. The site preparation works have progressed smoothly since the start in June, 1985. About 100,000 m 2 of the site is created by cutting natural ground, and about 54,000 m 2 is created by sea reclamation. About 5 million m 3 of earth and stone generated by cutting and excavation are utilized for reclamation, revetment and others. The topographic and geological features, sea condition, the outline of geological survey, the layout, and the construction works of revetment, cutting, the creation of substitute seaweed farm, appurtenant works, and the measures for environment preservation are described. (Kako, I.)

  8. A validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Jihan M

    2013-01-01

    Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid used as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. A number of methods were reported for the analysis of yohimbine in the bark or in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present work, a simple and sensitive high performance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for determination of yohimbine (occurring as yohimbine hydrochloride) in pharmaceutical preparations and validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The method employed thin layer chromatography aluminum sheets precoated with silica gel as the stationary phase and the mobile phase consisted of chloroform:methanol:ammonia (97:3:0.2), which gave compact bands of yohimbine hydrochloride. Linear regression data for the calibration curves of standard yohimbine hydrochloride showed a good linear relationship over a concentration range of 80-1000 ng/spot with respect to the area and correlation coefficient (R(2)) was 0.9965. The method was evaluated regarding accuracy, precision, selectivity, and robustness. Limits of detection and quantitation were recorded as 5 and 40 ng/spot, respectively. The proposed method efficiently separated yohimbine hydrochloride from other components even in complex mixture containing powdered plants. The amount of yohimbine hydrochloride ranged from 2.3 to 5.2 mg/tablet or capsule in preparations containing the pure alkaloid, while it varied from zero (0) to 1.5-1.8 mg/capsule in dietary supplements containing powdered yohimbe bark. We concluded that this method employing high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) in quantitative determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations is efficient, simple, accurate, and validated.

  9. Cone penetrometer testing at the Hanford Site: Final performance evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richterich, L.R.; Cassem, B.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated demonstrations designed to support the testing of emerging environmental characterization and remediation technologies in support of the Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) Programs. The primary objective of the VOC Arid ID at the Hanford Site is to characterize, remediate, and monitor arid and semi-arid sites containing volatile organic compounds with or without associated contamination. The main objective of the Arid Drilling Technology Technical Task Plan is to demonstrate promising subsurface access technologies; this includes using the cone penetrometer (CPT) system for source detection, characterization, monitoring, and remediation in support of environmental activities. The utility of the CPT for performing site characterization work has been the subject of much discussion and speculation at the Hanford Site and other arid sites because of the preponderance of thick units of coarse cobbles and gravel in the subsurface

  10. Updated strategy and test of new concepts for groundwater flow modelling in Forsmark in preparation of site descriptive modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden); Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB (Sweden); Leven, Jakob [Geosigma AB (Sweden); Hartley, Lee; Holton, David; McCarthy, Rachel; Roberts, David [Serco Assurance (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    As part of the preliminary Site Descriptive Modelling (SDM version 1.2) for the Initial Site Investigation (ISI) stage at Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar, a methodology was developed for constructing hydrogeological models of the crystalline bedrock. The methodology achieved reasonable success given the restricted amounts and types of data available at the time. Notwithstanding, several issues of concern have surfaced following the reviews of the preliminary site descriptions of the three sites. Possible solutions to parts of the problems have been discussed internally for a longer time and an integrated view and strategy forward has been formulated. The 'new strategy' is not a complete shift in methodology, however, but a refocusing on and clarification of the key aspects that the hydrogeological SDM needs to accomplish. In broad terms the basic principle of the 'new strategy' suggested is to develop an overall conceptual model that first establishes the major flowing deformation zones, and then gradually approaches determination of the hydraulic properties of the bedrock outside these zones in the potential repository volume. On each scale, the focus of the description should be on features/structures of significance on that scale. Clearly, a detailed (although statistical) description of the repository and canister deposition hole scale is the end goal, but this approach (which also is more the traditional approach in hydrogeology) is judged to provide a much better motivated overall geometrical description. Furthermore, the 'new strategy' puts more emphasis on field testing (e.g. interference tests) and data analyses and less on numerical simulation and calibration. That is, before extensive (and costly) simulations and model calibrations are made it needs to be clearly understood what could be the potential gains of carrying them out. This report presents the conceptual model development for Forsmark in preparation of the site

  11. Tribological performance of ultrathin diamond-like carbon films prepared by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, J X; Li, E Q; Tian, Z; Pan, X F; Xu, J; Jin, L; Yang, H G

    2008-01-01

    Ultrathin diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with thicknesses of 5-60 nm have been prepared on Si by plasma-based ion implantation. Raman spectrum and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) show that these DLC films present high sp 3 /sp 2 ratios. XPS also displays that each DLC film firmly adheres to the Si substrate owing to a C-Si transition layer. Atomic force microscopy shows that the DLC films are smooth and compact with average roughness (R a ) of about 0.25 nm. Sliding friction experiments reveal that these DLC films show significantly improved tribological performance. With increase of DLC film thickness, the sp 3 /sp 2 ratio increases, the roughness decreases, the hardness increases, the adhesive wear lightens and thereby the tribological performance becomes enhanced. Also, the effects of the applied load and the reciprocating frequency on the tribological performance are discussed

  12. Studies Performed in Preparation for the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Henderson, Stuart; Holmes, Jeffrey Alan; Plum, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring will compress 1.5?1014, 1 GeV protons from a 1 ms bunch train to a single 695 ns proton bunch for use in neutron spallation. Due to the high beam power, unprecedented control of beam loss will be required in order to control radiation and allow for hands-on maintenance in most areas of the ring. A number of detailed investigations have been performed to understand the primary sources of beam loss and to predict and mitigate problems associated with radiation hot spots in the ring. The ORBIT particle tracking code is used to perform realistic simulations of the beam accumulation in the ring, including detailed modeling of the injection system, transport through the measured magnet fields including higher order multipoles, and beam loss and collimation. In this paper we present the results of a number of studies performed in preparation for the 2006 commissioning of the accumulator ring.

  13. Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in South-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is a key process in ensuring forest sustainability and one of the most crucial investments made in silviculture. This study compared the effects of three reforestation methods (planting, direct seeding, and natural regeneration and three mechanical site preparation methods (double mould-board forest plough (FP; active plough (AP; and forest mill (FM on biometric parameters, survival, and density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in the first 4 years of growth in a clear-cut area in south-eastern Poland. Planted seedlings were higher, thicker in root collar, and had higher survival rates after the fourth growing season than trees from natural regeneration and direct seeding. Site preparation methods did not affect the density of planted seedlings. After natural regeneration and direct seeding, seedling density was lower and less homogeneous (plots with no seedlings in FM soil preparation in comparison to other methods. The survival of pines in all reforestation methods was not affected significantly by site preparation methods. Our results indicate that the best mechanical site preparation method for planting is FM, as this is the one that least disturbs the soil environment. For direct seeding the best results were achieved after AP preparation. Natural regeneration of Scots pine was most effective after FP use, and in relatively wet years also after AP use.

  14. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2010-03-15

    The Savannah River Site disposes of low-activity radioactive waste within subsurface-engineered facilities. One of the tools used to establish the capacity of a given site to safely store radioactive waste (i.e., that a site does not exceed its Waste Acceptance Criteria) is the Performance Assessment (PA). The objective of this document is to provide the geochemical values for the PA calculations. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program that permits the PA to periodically update existing calculations when new data become available.

  15. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  16. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site

  17. Performance Assessment Transport Modeling of Uranium at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Following is a brief summary of the assumptions that are pertinent to the radioactive isotope transport in the GoldSim Performance Assessment model of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, with special emphasis on the water-phase reactive transport of uranium, which includes depleted uranium products. The Area 5 PA model assumes activity disposed in trenches is well mixed within the native alluvium of the trench at the time the facility is closed. Waste containers and waste forms are assumed not to limit the release of radionuclides for transport. In the Area 5 RWMS PA model, the pathways that are considered to bring radioactivity in the waste zone to the surface soils of the closure covers are (1) plant uptake, (2) burrowing animal activity, and (3) advection/dispersion/diffusion in the pore water. Water-phase transport is a minor component of the transport, which is dominated by plant uptake and burrowing animal activity. Because the soil column is mostly dry, upward water flux rates are extremely small, resulting in small advective/dispersive transport of radioactive isotopes in pore water of the unsaturated zone. Reactive transport of radioactive elements in the Area 5 soil pore water are modeled using element-specific partition coefficients (Kds) that partition radioactivity between pore water and soil of the disposal cell, and solubility limits that control the solubility of elements in pore water. Geochemical modeling is not performed in the Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA model; however, Kds and solubility limits were derived from previous geochemical modeling performed using Area 5 geochemical data. Kds for uranium were developed based on geochemical modeling using the mineral characteristics of soil (alluvium) and the chemical characteristics of water at the site (Carle et al., 2002). In the GoldSim model, uranium Kd is represented with a lognormal distribution with a mean value of 0.8 milliliter per gram (taken from Figure 4.11, Page 4-19 of Carle et al

  18. Facile preparation of highly hydrophilic, recyclable high-performance polyimide adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jieyang; Zheng, Yaxin; Luo, Longbo; Feng, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Material and Engineering, College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhang, Chaoliang [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Xu, E-mail: wx19861027@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Material and Engineering, College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Liu, Xiangyang, E-mail: lxy6912@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Material and Engineering, College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • High-performance polyimide was used as heavy metal adsorbents. • The contradiction between hydrophilicity and high performance of PI was solved. • Adsorption amount for Cu{sup 2+} of PI/silica was 77 times higher than that of PI. • The adsorption ability remained steady for more than 50 recycling processes. - Abstract: To obtain high-performance adsorbents that combine excellent adsorption ability, thermal stability, service life and recycling ability, polyimide (PI)/silica powders were prepared via a facile one-pot coprecipitation process. A benzimidazole unit was introduced into the PI backbone as the adsorption site. The benzimidazole unit induced more hydroxyls onto the silica, which provided hydrophilic sites for access by heavy metal ions. By comprehensively analyzing the effect of hydrophilcity, agglomeration, silica polycondensation, specific surface area and PI crystallinity, 10% was demonstrated to be the most proper feed silica content. The equilibrium adsorption amount (Q{sub e}) for Cu{sup 2+} of PI/silica adsorbents was 77 times higher than that of pure PI. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) was used as a desorbent for heavy metal ions and could be decomplexed with benzimidazole unit at around 300 °C, which was lower than the glass transition temperature of PI. The complexation and decomplexation process of HCl made PI/silica adsorbents recyclable, and the adsorption ability remained steady for more than 50 recycling processes. As PI/silica adsorbents possess excellent thermal stability, chemical resistance and radiation resistance and hydrophilicity, they have potential as superior recyclable adsorbents for collecting heavy metal ions from waste water in extreme environments.

  19. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project Volume I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry`s R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is not a safety assessment or a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The report gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project. As a general conclusion it is noted that the SITE-94 project has significantly advanced SKI`s capability of reviewing performance assessments and has led to the development of a tool-kit for carrying out assessment calculations, both in terms of numerical and scoping analyses. The study has highlighted a number of key issues for safety assessment (and consequently for disposal system design): Canister performance; Derived parameters of geosphere retention properties; Spatial variability of groundwater flow and geochemistry of migration paths; Time dependency (more emphasis on transient, time-dependent processes); Buffer evolution over long time. 488 refs.

  20. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is not a safety assessment or a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The report gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project. As a general conclusion it is noted that the SITE-94 project has significantly advanced SKI's capability of reviewing performance assessments and has led to the development of a tool-kit for carrying out assessment calculations, both in terms of numerical and scoping analyses. The study has highlighted a number of key issues for safety assessment (and consequently for disposal system design): Canister performance; Derived parameters of geosphere retention properties; Spatial variability of groundwater flow and geochemistry of migration paths; Time dependency (more emphasis on transient, time-dependent processes); Buffer evolution over long time. 488 refs

  1. An Efficient Protocol for Preparation of Gallic Acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb by Combination of Macroporous Resin and Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Denglang; Chen, Tao; Chen, Chen; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Yongling; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    In this article, macroporous resin column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography were applied for preparation of gallic acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. In the first step, six kinds of resins were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests and AB-8 macroporous resin was selected for the enrichment of gallic acid. As a result, 20 g of gallic acid at a purity of 71% could be separated from 100 g of crude extract in which the content of gallic acid was 16.7% and the recovery of gallic acid reached 85.0%. In the second step, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was selected to purify gallic acid. As a result, 640 mg of gallic acid at a purity of 99.1% was obtained from 1 g of sample in 35 min. The results demonstrated that macroporous resin coupled with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was suitable for preparation of gallic acid from T. bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The performance of double layer structure membrane prepared from flowing coagulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieow Kee, Chan; Xeng, Anthony Leong Chan; Regal, Sasiskala; Singh, Balvinder; Raoo, Preeshaath; Koon Eu, Yap; Sok Choo, Ng

    2017-12-01

    Membrane with double layer structure is favourable as it exhibits smooth surface and macrovoids free structure. However, its’ performance in terms of permeability, porosity and strength has not been studied thoroughly. Additionally, the effect of flowing coagulant on the formation of double layer membrane has not been reported. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the performance of double layer membranes, which were prepared using flowing coagulant. Results showed that when the coagulant flow changed from laminar to turbulent, the pure water permeation of the membrane increased. It was due to the higher porosity in the membrane, which prepared by turbulent flow (CA-Turbulent) compared to the membrane which fabricated under laminar condition (CA-Laminar). This can be explained by the rapid solvent-coagulant exchange rate between the polymer solution and the turbulent coagulant. In term of strength, the tensile strength of the CA-Turbulent was ~32 MPa, which was 100% higher compared to CA-Laminar. This may due to the presence of large amount of nodules on its surface, which reduced the surface integrity. In conclusion, flowing coagulant altered the membrane properties and adopting turbulent coagulant flow in membrane fabrication would improve the porosity, surface roughness and the strength of the membrane.

  3. A High Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitor with Both Electrodes Prepared from Sri Lanka Graphite Ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Changzhen; Yu, Xiaoliang; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Ruitao; Gai, Guosheng; Shen, Wanci; Kang, Feiyu; Huang, Zheng-Hong

    2017-04-14

    The natural Sri Lanka graphite (vein graphite) is widely-used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), due to its high crystallinity and low cost. In this work, graphitic porous carbon (GPC) and high-purity vein graphite (PVG) were prepared from Sri Lanka graphite ore by KOH activation, and high temperature purification, respectively. Furthermore, a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is fabricated with GPC as cathode, and PVG as anode. The assembled GPC//PVG LIC shows a notable electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of 86 W·h·kg -1 at 150 W·kg -1 , and 48 W·h·kg -1 at a high-power density of 7.4 kW·kg -1 . This high-performance LIC based on PVG and GPC is believed to be promising for practical applications, due to its low-cost raw materials and industrially feasible production.

  4. Preparation of Pd-Diimine@SBA-15 and Its Catalytic Performance for the Suzuki Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahuan Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient and stable Pd-diimine@SBA-15 catalyst was successfully prepared by immobilizing Pd onto diimine-functionalized mesoporous silica SBA-15. With the help of diimine functional groups grafted onto the SBA-15, Pd could be anchored on a support with high dispersion. Pd-diimine@SBA-15 catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic performance for the Suzuki coupling reaction of electronically diverse aryl halides and phenylboronic acid under mild conditions with an ultralow amount of Pd (0.05 mol % Pd. When the catalyst amount was increased, it could catalyze the coupling reaction of chlorinated aromatics with phenylboronic acid. Compared with the catalytic performances of Pd/SBA-15 and Pd-diimine@SiO2 catalysts, the Pd-diimine@SBA-15 catalyst exhibited higher hydrothermal stability and could be repeatedly used four times without a significant decrease of its catalytic activity.

  5. Preparation and Evaluation of Surface Modified Lactose Particles for Improved Performance of Fluticasone Propionate Dry Powder Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepak J; Jain, Rajesh R; Soni, P S; Abdul, Samad; Darshana, Hegde; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Menon, Mala D

    2015-08-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPI) are generally formulated by mixing micronized drug particles with coarse lactose carrier particles to assist powder handling during the manufacturing and powder aerosol delivery during patient use. In the present study, surface modified lactose (SML) particles were produced using force control agents, and their in vitro performance on dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of Fluticasone propionate was studied. With a view to reduce surface passivation of high surface free energy sites on the most commonly used DPI carrier, α- lactose monohydrate, effects of various force control agents such as Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate, polyethylene glycol 6000, magnesium stearate, and soya lecithin were studied. DPI formulations prepared with SML showed improved flow properties, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies revealed decrease in surface roughness. The DSC and X-ray diffraction patterns of SML showed no change in the crystal structure and thermal behavior under the experimental conditions. The fine particle fraction (FPF) values of lactose modified with Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate were improved, with increase in concentration up to 0.5%. Soya lecithin and PEG 6000 modified lactose showed decrease in FPF value with increase in concentration. Increase in FPF value was observed with increasing concentration of magnesium stearate. Two different DPI devices, Rotahaler(®) and Diskhaler(®), were compared to evaluate the performance of SML formulations. FPF value of all SML formulations were higher using both devices as compared to the same formulations prepared using untreated lactose. One month stability of SML formulations at 40°C/75% RH, in permeable polystyrene tubes did not reveal any significant changes in FPF values. SML particles can help in reducing product development hindrances and improve inhalational properties of DPI.

  6. Sleep Patterns and Academic Performance During Preparation for College Entrance Exam in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghai; Ren, Fen; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangxing; Jiang, Fan; Skora, Elizabeth; Lewin, Daniel S

    2016-04-01

    Deficient sleep is linked to detrimental outcomes in health and school performance for adolescents. This study characterized sleep patterns in Chinese adolescents preparing for the College Entrance Exam (CEE) and evaluated the association between sleep patterns, self-rated academic performance, and the CEE scores. A sample of 481 Chinese adolescents in 12th grade (ages 16-19 years) completed questionnaires about sleep patterns, academic performance, academic stress, and sociodemographic factors 4-6 weeks before the CEE in June 2013. The CEE scores for each student also were obtained. A total of 21% of the students had bedtimes after 12:00 am, 78.3% had sleep latency longer than 30 minutes, 14.6% had wake time earlier than 6:00 am, and the vast majority (94.4%) had sleep duration less than 8 hours. After adjusting for selected confounders such as academic stress, prolonged sleep latency was associated with poorer self-reported academic performance, and late bedtime was associated with higher CEE score. Our findings highlight the complex association between sleep and academic performance. Assessing and monitoring sleep patterns in adolescents during periods of high academic demand and stress may yield important recommendations for their health and safety as well as establishing optimal sleep and study habits. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Test Preparation and "TOEFL iBT"® Performance. Research Report. ETS RR-14-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between test preparation and test performance on the "TOEFL iBT"® exam. Information on background variables and test preparation strategies was gathered from 14,593 respondents in China through an online survey. A Chinese standardized English test was used as a control for prior English ability.…

  8. Contaminant fluxes through site containment barriers: Performance assessment and illustrative results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vita, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Contaminant mass flux by advective and diffusive transport is predicted for five containment barriers that use one or more clay liners, flexible membrane liners (FMLs), or liquid collection and removal systems (LCRS)s. Barriers are engineered systems intended to contain and isolate site contaminants from the environment. Barriers include liners, caps, and cutoff walls. Barriers may be used in contaminated-site cleanups (including CERCLA and RCRA), RCRA landfills, or other RCRA TSDFs. Concepts are provided for barrier performance assessment, including analysis and optimization, for meeting performance requirements and controlling risk at minimum cost. Concepts and results can help in planning, designing, or evaluating and communicating, the use or effectiveness of proposed or existing barriers for site cleanups or waste containment. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Preparation by site-directed mutagenesis and characterization of the E211Q mutant of yeast enolase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangadala, V S; Glover, C V; Robson, R L; Holland, M J; Lebioda, L; Brewer, J M

    1995-08-16

    The published 'charge shuttle' mechanism of enolase (Lebioda, L. and Stec, B. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 2817-2822) assigns Glu-211 the task of orienting a water molecule that serves as the catalytic base which removes the proton from carbon-2 of the substrate. We prepared the E211Q mutant of yeast enolase 1 by site-directed mutagenesis. It appears to be folded correctly and to respond similarly to many of the normal ligands of enolase: it is stabilized against thermal denaturation by conformational Mg2+ and by Mg2+ and substrate and binds the chromophoric substrate analogue D-tartronate semialdehyde-2-phosphate (TSP) with affinity comparable to that of the native enzyme. However, it has only 0.01% (10(-4)) of the activity of native enolase under standard assay conditions and does not exhibit significantly more activity at various pH values or higher concentrations of substrate and Mg2+. Its ability to produce the form of enzyme-bound and reacted TSP that absorbs at shorter wavelengths is greatly slowed, while the longer wavelength absorbing form is produced rapidly. Overall, these observations are consistent with the hypothetical mechanism.

  10. Gender differences in introductory university physics performance: The influence of high school physics preparation and affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra Sana

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school is a concern to the science education community. Most undergraduate science programs require introductory physics coursework. Thus, success in introductory physics is necessary for students to progress to higher levels of science study. Success also influences attitudes; if females are well-prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study using multilevel modeling focused on determining factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that influenced female and male performance in introductory university physics. The study controlled for some university/course level characteristics as well as student demographic and academic background characteristics. The data consisted of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory physics courses within 35 universities across the US. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially influenced female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects, cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believed that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that had a similar influence on female and male performance. Positively related to performance were: covering fewer topics for longer periods of time, the history of physics as a recurring topic, physics-related videos, and test/quiz questions that involved calculations and/or were drawn from standardized tests. Negatively related to performance were: student-designed projects, reading/discussing labs the day before performing them, microcomputer based laboratories, discussion after demonstrations, and family

  11. A Cross-cultural Qualitative Examination of Social-networking Sites and Academic Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozer, Ipek; Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Social-networking site (SNS) use, specifically Facebook®, has remained a controversial subject for many educators and media. Recent studies discuss the negative and positive impacts of SNSs on students’ academic performance. This qualitative study examines the impact of SNSs on students’ academic

  12. A Qualitative Multi-Site Case Study: Examining Principals' Leadership Styles and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyear, Loukisha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative multi-site case study was to explore the impact of principals' leadership styles on student academic achievement in a high-poverty low-performing school district in Louisiana. A total of 17 participants, principals and teachers, from this school district were used in this study. Data source triangulation of…

  13. United States and European students’ social-networking site activities and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul A.; Shreffler, Anthony; Albert, Patricia; Tomko, Carrie

    2018-01-01

    Different cultures communicate differently. Research is beginning to examine the differences in culture related to social-networking site (SNS) use. Differences in specific SNS activities related to academic performance among United States (US; n = 446) and European (n = 394) university students

  14. 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa R. Meachum

    2004-02-01

    The 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe the conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operations of the facilities during the 2003 permit year are discussed.

  15. Effects of the Use of Social Network Sites on Task Performance: Toward a Sustainable Performance in a Distracting Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Min

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the use of social network sites (SNS has become increasingly prevalent, its effect on sustainable performance has received much attention. The existing literature has taken either a positive or negative view of SNS, arguing that it either decreases performance by taking time and effort away from work, or increases performance by providing social benefits for enhancing performance. In contrast, this experimental study, investigates how SNS use can disturb or enhance the performance of different types of tasks differently, thus influencing the sustainability of task performance. Based on distraction-conflict theory, this study distinguishes between simple and complex tasks, examines the role of SNS, and analyzes data including electroencephalography data captured by a brain-computer interface. The results show that task performance can be sustainable such that SNS use positively influences performance when participants are engaged in a simple task and influences performance neither positively nor negatively when participants are engaged in a complex task. The study finds the former result is attributable to the positive effect of the psychological arousal induced by SNS use and the latter result to the negative effect of the psychological arousal offsetting the positive effect of reduced stress resulting from SNS use.

  16. Nanotubes within transition metal silicate hollow spheres: Facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; An, Yongling; Zhai, Wei; Gao, Xueping [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, Jinkui, E-mail: jinkui@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Ci, Lijie [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Xiong, Shenglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using SiO{sub 2} nanosphere. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were tested as anode materials for lithium batteries. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} delivered superior electrochemical performance. • The lithium storage mechanism is probe via cyclic voltammetry and XPS. - Abstract: A series of transition metal silicate hollow spheres, including cobalt silicate (Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), manganese silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) and copper silicate (CuSiO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O, CuSiO{sub 3} as abbreviation in the text) were prepared via a simple and economic hydrothermal method by using silica spheres as chemical template. Time-dependent experiments confirmed that the resultants formed a novel type of hierarchical structure, hollow spheres assembled by numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes building blocks. For the first time, the transition metal silicate hollow spheres were characterized as novel anode materials of Li-ion battery, which presented superior lithium storage capacities, cycle performance and rate performance. The 1D nanotubes assembly and hollow interior endow this kind of material facilitate fast lithium ion and electron transport and accommodate the big volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that low-cost transition metal silicate with rationally designed nanostructures can be promising anode materials for high capacity lithium-ion battery.

  17. A facile method to prepare a high performance solid-state flexible paper-based supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Zhang, Sheng-Hui; Wu, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: A flexible paper-based supercapacitor was assembled into a sandwich structure, which exhibits well-retained triangular-shaped curves. The cycle life stability of this device still retains about 96% of the initial capacitance after 2000 cycles at a scan rate of 400 mV/s. An as-fabricated paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED well after charging at constant potential of 3 V. - Highlights: • A facile approach is proposed to fabricate paper-based supercapacitors. • Apple pectin is an excellent dispersant for MWCNTs. • Paper provides a strong binding and flexible characteristic for electrode. • A paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED after charging. • This device shows excellent electrochemical performance and cycling stability. - Abstract: We propose a low cost and simple method to prepare a paper-based supercapacitor in this study. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed with a pectin solution under an ultrasonic homogenizer. Carbon nanotube suspension was prepared using a centrifuge to eliminate impurities. The dispersed MWCNTs suspension was dropped and dried onto the shallow surface of commercial copy paper. A paper-based conductive paper was formed as the electrodes. The electrical conductivity and dispersed morphology of the paper-based conductive paper were examined by four probes, atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The solid-state electrolyte was prepared by casting a solution of phosphoric acid and polyvinyl alcohol onto a glass plate. The paper-based supercapacitor was constructed with one solid-state electrolyte inserted between two electrodes, which were assembled into a sandwich structure by hot press. The specific capacitance and cycle-life stability of the paper-based supercapacitor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry analysis.

  18. Facile preparation of nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon with high performance in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Kun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Kong, Ling-Bin, E-mail: konglb@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Shen, Kui-Wen; Dai, Yan-Hua; Shi, Ming; Hu, Bing [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Luo, Yong-Chun; Kang, Long [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: Preparing and activating process of nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon (NHPC). - Highlights: • The well-defined PAN-b-PMMA copolymer was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization with narrow molecular weight distribution. • Nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous structure (NHPC) was prepared through a simple carbonization procedure of PAN-b-PMMA precursor. • NHPC possessed hierarchical porous structure with high BET surface area of 257 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and DFT mesopore size of 14.61 nm. • Effects of activation conditions on supercapacitive behavior were systematically studied. - Abstract: The nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon (NHPC) material was successfully prepared through a simple carbonization procedure of well-defined diblock copolymer precursor containing nitrogen-enriched carbon source, i.e., polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and asacrificial block, i.e., polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). PAN-b-PMMA diblock copolymer was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymeriation (ATRP) with narrow molecular weight distribution. The as-obtained NHPC possessed nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous structure with high BET surface area of 257 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and Nonlocal density functional theory (NLDFT) mesopore size of 14.61 nm. Surface activated nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon (A-NHPC) materials were obtained by subsequent surface activation with HNO{sub 3} solution. The effects of activation conditions on supercapacitive behavior were systematically studied, a maximum specific capacitance of 314 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1} was achieved in 2 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Simultaneously, it exhibited excellent rate capability of 67.8% capacitance retention as the current density increased from 0.5 to 20 A g{sup −1} and superior cycling performance of 90% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles at the current density of 2 A g{sup −1}.

  19. Facile preparation of nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon with high performance in supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Kun; Kong, Ling-Bin; Shen, Kui-Wen; Dai, Yan-Hua; Shi, Ming; Hu, Bing; Luo, Yong-Chun; Kang, Long

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Preparing and activating process of nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon (NHPC). - Highlights: • The well-defined PAN-b-PMMA copolymer was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization with narrow molecular weight distribution. • Nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous structure (NHPC) was prepared through a simple carbonization procedure of PAN-b-PMMA precursor. • NHPC possessed hierarchical porous structure with high BET surface area of 257 m"2 g"−"1 and DFT mesopore size of 14.61 nm. • Effects of activation conditions on supercapacitive behavior were systematically studied. - Abstract: The nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon (NHPC) material was successfully prepared through a simple carbonization procedure of well-defined diblock copolymer precursor containing nitrogen-enriched carbon source, i.e., polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and asacrificial block, i.e., polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). PAN-b-PMMA diblock copolymer was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymeriation (ATRP) with narrow molecular weight distribution. The as-obtained NHPC possessed nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous structure with high BET surface area of 257 m"2 g"−"1 and Nonlocal density functional theory (NLDFT) mesopore size of 14.61 nm. Surface activated nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon (A-NHPC) materials were obtained by subsequent surface activation with HNO_3 solution. The effects of activation conditions on supercapacitive behavior were systematically studied, a maximum specific capacitance of 314 F g"−"1 at a current density of 0.5 A g"−"1 was achieved in 2 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Simultaneously, it exhibited excellent rate capability of 67.8% capacitance retention as the current density increased from 0.5 to 20 A g"−"1 and superior cycling performance of 90% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles at the current density of 2 A g"−"1.

  20. Evaluation of the OnSite malaria rapid test performance in Miandrivazo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaoarisoa, E; Andriamiandranoro, T; Raherinjafy, R; Jahevitra, M; Razanatsiorimalala, S; Andrianaranjaka, V; Randrianarivelojosia, M

    2017-10-01

    The performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic test OnSite-for detecting pan specific pLDH and Plasmodium falciparum specific HRP2 - was assessed during the malaria transmission peak period in Miandrivazo, in the southwestern part of Madagascar from April 20 to May 6, 2010. At the laboratory, the quality control OnSite Malaria Rapid Test according to the WHO/TDR/FIND method demonstrated that the test had good sensitivity. Of the 218 OnSite tests performed at the Miandrivazo Primary Health Center on patients with fever or a recent history of fever, four (1.8%, 95% CI: 0.6-4.9%) were invalid. Ninety four (43,1%) cases of malaria were confirmed by microscopy, of which 90 were P. falciparum malaria and 4 Plasmodium vivax malaria. With a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.94, the agreement between microscopy and OnSite is excellent. Compared with the rapid test CareStart™ commonly used within the public health structures in Madagascar, the sensitivity and specificity of the OnSite test were 97.9% and 96.8%.

  1. Performance of on-site Medical waste disinfection equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of studies available on the performance of on-site medical waste treatment facilities is rare, to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of onsite medical waste treatment equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A various range of the on-site medical waste disinfection equipment (autoclave, chemical disinfection, hydroclave, and dry thermal treatment was considered to select 10 out of 22 hospitals in Tabriz to be included in the survey. The apparatus were monitored mechanically, chemically, and biologically for a six months period in all of the selected hospitals. Results: The results of the chemical monitoring (Bowie-Dick tests indicated that 38.9% of the inspected autoclaves had operational problems in pre-vacuum, air leaks, inadequate steam penetration into the waste, and/or vacuum pump. The biological indicators revealed that about 55.55% of the samples were positive. The most of applied devices were not suitable for treating anatomical, pharmaceutical, cytotoxic, and chemical waste. Conclusion: Although on-site medical waste treating facilities have been installed in all the hospitals, the most of infectious-hazardous medical waste generated in the hospitals were deposited into a municipal solid waste landfill, without enough disinfection. The responsible authorities should stringently inspect and evaluate the operation of on-site medical waste treating equipment. An advanced off-site central facility with multi-treatment and disinfection equipment and enough capacity is recommended as an alternative.

  2. Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Gold Nanoparticles in Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamiar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was preparation, physicochemical characterization and performance evaluation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs in radiotherapy. Another objective was the investigation of anti-bacterial efficacy of gold nanoparticle against E. coli clinical strains. Methods: Gold nanoparticles prepared by controlled reduction of an aqueous HAuCl4 solution using Tri sodium citrate. Particle size analysis and Transmission electron microscopy were used for physicochemical characterization. Polymer gel dosimetry was used for evaluation of the enhancement of absorbed dose. Diffusion method in agar media was used for investigation of anti-bacterial effect. Results: Gold nanoparticles synthesized in size range from 57 nm to 346 nm by planning different formulation. Gold nanoparticle in 57 nm size increased radiation dose effectiveness with the magnitude of about 21 %. At the concentration of 400 ppm, Nano gold exhibited significant anti-bacterial effect against E. coli clinical strains. Conclusion: It is concluded that gold nanoparticles can be applied as dose enhancer in radiotherapy. The Investigation of anti-bacterial efficacy showed that gold nanoparticle had significant effect against E. coli clinical strains.

  3. Oxidation-etching preparation of MnO2 tubular nanostructures for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jixin; Shi, Wenhui; Xiao, Ni; Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Lu, Xuehong; Hng, Huey Hoon; Ma, Jan; Yan, Qingyu

    2012-05-01

    1D hierarchical tubular MnO(2) nanostructures have been prepared through a facile hydrothermal method using carbon nanofibres (CNFs) as sacrificial template. The morphology of MnO(2) nanostructures can be adjusted by changing the reaction time or annealing process. Polycrystalline MnO(2) nanotubes are formed with a short reaction time (e.g., 10 min) while hierarchical tubular MnO(2) nanostructures composed of assembled nanosheets are obtained at longer reaction times (>45 min). The polycrystalline MnO(2) nanotubes can be further converted to porous nanobelts and sponge-like nanowires by annealing in air. Among all the types of MnO(2) nanostructures prepared, tubular MnO(2) nanostructures composed of assembled nanosheets show optimized charge storage performance when tested as supercapacitor electrodes, for example, delivering an power density of 13.33 kW·kg(-1) and a energy density of 21.1 Wh·kg(-1) with a long cycling life over 3000 cycles, which is mainly related to their features of large specific surface area and optimized charge transfer pathway.

  4. Preparation, Characterization and Performances of Powdered Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer with Bulk Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE was synthesized in a non-solvent system with bulk polymerization and then was pulverized into powdered form to achieve a rapid transportation and convenient preparation. PCE synthesized by using isopentenyl polyethylene glycol (TPEG or isobutenyl polyethylene glycol (IPEG as a macromonomer exhibited the best fluidities and retaining properties at 80 °C and 75 °C, respectively. Besides, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN was suitable as an initiator, and the fumaric acid was suitable as the third monomer. The test results of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR confirmed the occurrences of polymerization, and the measurement results of molecular weight and distribution showed that PCE molecular weight characteristics were in accordance with their fluidity properties in cement paste. The application performances in cement showed that PCEs with the best paste fluidity retentions had the longest final setting time and the shortest setting time interval, and the PCEs with good fluidity properties can obviously delay the hydration process and lower the hydration heat. Accordingly, this is a novel, energy-saving and economical method to prepare powdered PCE in the field of concrete admixtures.

  5. Preparation of carbonaceous electrodes and evaluation of their performance by electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.S.; Manolkar, R.B.; Kamat, J.V.; Marathe, S.G.; Biswas, A.R.; Kulkarni, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    Carbonaceous electrodes, from glassy carbon (GC), graphite rod or graphite powder, have been prepared for coulometric and voltammetric investigation. Beaker type graphite electrode of larger surface area was used as working electrode for the analysis of uranium and plutonium in solution by coulometry. Results have shown usefulness of the electrode for both uranium and plutonium analysis. Thus the graphite electrode can be used in place of mercury for uranium analysis and in place of platinum gauze for plutonium analysis. GC electrode ( from French and Indian material ), graphite or carbon paste electrode of smaller surface area prepared here have also been found to give satisfactory performance as could be observed from cyclic voltammetric (cv) patterns for standard K 9 Fe(CN) 6 /K 4 Fe(CN) 6 redox system. Especially the GC electrode, (French) polished to 1μ finish with diamond paste gave very low values (1μ amp.) of background current in 1M KCl and the difference in cathodic and anodic peak potentials (δE values) was close to 60 mV from one electron transfer. Therefore the electrode can be used for various types of electrochemical studies relating to redox potentials, reaction mechanism, kinetic parameters etc. of different electrode processes. (author). 20 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs., 8 photographs

  6. The effect of load on heat production, thermal effects and expenditure of time during implant site preparation - an experimental ex vivo comparison between piezosurgery and conventional drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Frenkel, Carsten; Riemann, Max; Knipfer, Christian; Stockmann, Philipp; Nkenke, Emeka

    2014-02-01

    Piezoelectric surgery (PS) is meant to be a gentle osteotomy method. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgical vs. conventional drilling methods for implant site preparation (ISP) - focusing on load-dependent thermal effect on hard tissue and the expenditure of ISP time. Three hundred and sixty ISP were performed on ex vivo pig heads using piezosurgery, spiral burs (SB) and trephine burs (TB). The load applied was increased from 0 to 1000 g in 100-g intervals. Temperature within the bone was measured with a thermocouple, and duration was recorded with a stop watch. Thermal effects were histomorphometrically analysed. Twelve ISPs per technique were performed at the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. PS yields the highest mean temperatures (48.6 ± 3.4°C) and thermal effects (200.7 ± 44.4 μm), both at 900-1000 g. Duration is reduced with a plus of load and significantly longer in either case for PS (P < 0.05). There is a correlation of the applied load with all other examined factors for PS and TB. Temperature and histological effects decrease for SB beyond 500 g. PS yields significantly higher temperatures and thermal tissue alterations on load levels higher than 500 g and is significantly slower for ISP compared to SB and TB. For ISP with PS, a maximum load of 400 g should be maintained. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Annual Performance Report April 2015 Through March 2016 for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Miller, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This annual report evaluates the performance of the groundwater remediation system at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site (Shiprock site) for the period April 2015 through March 2016. The Shiprock site, a former uranium-ore processing facility remediated under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act, is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management. This annual report is based on an analysis of groundwater quality and groundwater level data obtained from site monitoring wells and the groundwater flow rates associated with the extraction wells, drains, and seeps. Background The Shiprock mill operated from 1954 to 1968 on property leased from the Navajo Nation. Remediation of surface contamination, including stabilization of mill tailings in an engineered disposal cell, was completed in 1986. During mill operation, nitrate, sulfate, uranium, and other milling-related constituents leached into underlying sediments and contaminated groundwater in the area of the mill site. In March 2003, DOE initiated active remediation of groundwater at the site using extraction wells and interceptor drains. At that time, DOE developed a baseline performance report that established specific performance standards for the Shiprock site groundwater remediation system. The Shiprock site is divided into two distinct areas: the floodplain and the terrace. The floodplain remediation system consists of two groundwater extraction wells, a seep collection drain, and two collection trenches (Trench 1 and Trench 2). The terrace remediation system consists of nine groundwater extraction wells, two collection drains (Bob Lee Wash and Many Devils Wash), and a terrace drainage channel diversion structure. All extracted groundwater is pumped into a lined evaporation pond on the terrace. Compliance Strategy and Remediation Goals As documented in the Groundwater Compliance Action Plan, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission–approved compliance strategy for the

  8. Anode performance of boron-doped graphites prepared from shot and sponge cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Luo, Ruiying [School of Science, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    The structures and anode performances of graphitized pristine and boron-doped shot and sponge cokes have been comparatively studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and galvanostatic measurement. The results show that high degree of graphitization can be obtained by the substituted boron atom in the carbon lattice, and boron in the resultant boron-doped graphites mainly exist in the form of boron carbide and boron substituted in the carbon lattice. Both of boron-doped graphites from shot and sponge cokes obtain discharge capacity of 350 mAh g{sup -1} and coulombic efficiency above 90%. Apart from commonly observed discharge plateau for graphite, boron-doped samples in this study also show a small plateau at ca. 0.06 V. This phenomenon can be explained that Li ion stores in the site to be void-like spaces that are produced by ''molecular bridging'' between the edge sites of graphene layer stack with a release of boron atoms substituted at the edge of graphene layer. The effect of the amount of boron dopant and graphitization temperature on the anode performance of boron-doped graphite are also investigated in this paper. (author)

  9. Anode performance of boron-doped graphites prepared from shot and sponge cokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Luo, Ruiying; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao

    The structures and anode performances of graphitized pristine and boron-doped shot and sponge cokes have been comparatively studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and galvanostatic measurement. The results show that high degree of graphitization can be obtained by the substituted boron atom in the carbon lattice, and boron in the resultant boron-doped graphites mainly exist in the form of boron carbide and boron substituted in the carbon lattice. Both of boron-doped graphites from shot and sponge cokes obtain discharge capacity of 350 mAh g -1 and coulombic efficiency above 90%. Apart from commonly observed discharge plateau for graphite, boron-doped samples in this study also show a small plateau at ca. 0.06 V. This phenomenon can be explained that Li ion stores in the site to be void-like spaces that are produced by "molecular bridging" between the edge sites of graphene layer stack with a release of boron atoms substituted at the edge of graphene layer. The effect of the amount of boron dopant and graphitization temperature on the anode performance of boron-doped graphite are also investigated in this paper.

  10. Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxide/MnO Composite and Its Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangtao; Li, Kunzhen; Liu, Zhongfei; Jin, Shaowei; Li, Shikuo; Zhang, Hui

    2018-02-01

    The composite containing reduced graphene oxide and MnO nanoparticles (RGO/MnO) has been prepared via a one step pyrolysis method. The MnO nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on the surface of RGO nanosheets forming MnO/RGO composite. The composite displays a maximum absorption of ‒38.9 dB at 13.5 GHz and the bandwidth of reflection loss corresponding to -10 dB can reach 4.9 GHz (from 11.5 to 16.4 GHz) with a coating layer thickness of only 2 mm. Therefore, the obtained RGO/MnO composite a perfect lightweight and high-performance electromagnetic wave absorbent.

  11. Preparation and performances of porous polyacrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate membrane for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.Y.; Wang, G.Z.; Tan, C.L.; Rao, M.M.; Liao, Y.H. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, W.S.; Li, G.L. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2008-10-01

    A copolymer, polyacrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate P(AN-MMA), was synthesized by suspension polymerization with acrylonitrile (AN) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomers. With this copolymer, polymer membrane was prepared by phase inversion. The performances of the polymer were characterized by FTIR, SEM, DSC/TG, EIS and LSV. The copolymer contains CH{sub 2}, CN and CO bonds, and shows its thermal stability up to 300 C. The polymer membrane has a porous structure with an average pore diameter of 0.5 {mu}m. The conductivity of the polymer electrolyte is 1.25 mS cm{sup -1} at room temperature, and it is electrochemically stable up to 5 V (vs. Li). Using the polymer electrolyte as the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), the cell Li/GPE/LiCoO{sub 2} shows its cyclic stability as good as the cell with liquid electrolyte. (author)

  12. Preparation of highly dispersed palladium–phosphorus nanoparticles and its electrocatalytic performance for formic acid electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hanjun; Xu Jiangfeng; Fu Gengtao; Mao Xinbiao; Zhang, Lu; Chen Yu; Zhou Yiming; Lu Tianhong; Tang Yawen

    2012-01-01

    Highly dispersed and ultrafine palladium–phosphorus (Pd–P) nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared with a novel phosphorus reduction method. The structural and electronic properties of Pd–P NPs are characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrooxidation of formic acid on Pd–P NPs are investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and CO-stripping measurements. The physical characterizations indicate the doped P element can enhance the content of Pd 0 species in Pd NPs, decrease the particle size and improve the dispersion of Pd–P NPs. The electrochemical measurements show the Pd–P NPs have a better catalytic performance for formic acid electrooxidation than Pd NPs.

  13. Preparation and DMFC performance of a sulfophenylated poly(arylene ether ketone) polymer electrolyte membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Baijun, E-mail: liubj@jlu.edu.c [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Hu Wei [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Electronic and Electrochemical Materials and Devices, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zou Haifeng [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Robertson, Gilles P. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Jiang Zhenhua [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Guiver, Michael D. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily prepared PEEKK by post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported similarly structured analogues and MEAs derived from comparative Nafion membranes.

  14. Preparation, characterisation, engine performance and emission characteristics of coconut oil based hybrid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pranil J.; Singh, Anirudh [Division of Physics, School of Engineering and Physics, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, 325 Fletcher Road, Suva (Fiji); Khurma, Jagjit [Division of Chemistry, School of Biological, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, hybrid fuels consisting of coconut oil, aqueous ethanol and a surfactant (butan-1-ol) were prepared and tested as a fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. After determining fuel properties such as the density, viscosity and gross calorific values of these fuels, they were used to run a diesel engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with that of diesel. The experimental results show that the efficiency of the hybrid fuels is comparable to that of diesel. As the viscosity of the hybrid fuels decreased and approached that of diesel, the efficiency increased progressively towards that of diesel. The exhaust emissions were lower than those for diesel, except carbon monoxide emissions, which increased. Hence, it is concluded that these hybrid fuels can be used successfully as an alternative fuel in diesel engines without any modifications. Their completely renewable nature ensures that they are environmentally friendly with regard to their emissions characteristics. (author)

  15. Study of data I/O performance on distributed disk system in mask data preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shuichiro; Odaira, Hiroyuki; Chikanaga, Tomoyuki; Hamaji, Masakazu; Yoshioka, Yasuharu

    2010-09-01

    Data volume is getting larger every day in Mask Data Preparation (MDP). In the meantime, faster data handling is always required. MDP flow typically introduces Distributed Processing (DP) system to realize the demand because using hundreds of CPU is a reasonable solution. However, even if the number of CPU were increased, the throughput might be saturated because hard disk I/O and network speeds could be bottlenecks. So, MDP needs to invest a lot of money to not only hundreds of CPU but also storage and a network device which make the throughput faster. NCS would like to introduce new distributed processing system which is called "NDE". NDE could be a distributed disk system which makes the throughput faster without investing a lot of money because it is designed to use multiple conventional hard drives appropriately over network. NCS studies I/O performance with OASIS® data format on NDE which contributes to realize the high throughput in this paper.

  16. Ionic liquid assisted mechanochemical preparation and electrochemical performance of graphene nanosheets/polypyrrole composite for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.J.; Zhang, X.G.; Yang, S.D.; Hao, L. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Carbons, metal oxides, and conducting polymers are the main materials used to construct supercapacitor electrodes. As a conducting polymer, polypyrrole (PPy) is both environmentally friendly and has high capacitive characteristics. In this study, an ionic liquid (IL) assisted mechanochemical technique was used to prepare a graphene nanosheet (GNS) PPy composite. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate (Bmim[FeC1{sub 4}]) was used as a bifunctional IL, as both the dispersant of the GNS and as the oxidant of the PPy. The specific capacitance of the GNS, PPy, and GNS-PPy composites were calculated. Results of the study suggested that the superior performance of the GNS-PPy composite was caused by the synergistic effect between the GNS and PPy. Use of the GNS as a supporting material provided a relatively large area on which to deposit PPy particles, which allowed more PPy to participate in faradaic redox reactions. Electrical conductivity was also improved. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Preparation and electrochemical capacitance performances of super-hydrophilic conducting polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xingwei; Li, Xiaohan; Dai, Na; Wang, Gengchao; Wang, Zhun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Meilong Road 130, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Super-hydrophilic conducting polyaniline was prepared by surface modification of polyaniline using tetraethyl orthosilicate in water/ethanol solution, whereas its conductivity was 4.16 S cm{sup -1} at 25 C. And its electrochemical capacitance performances as an electrode material were evaluated by the cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge test in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution. Its initial specific capacitance was 500 F g{sup -1} at a constant current density of 1.5 A g{sup -1}, and the capacitance still reached about 400 F g{sup -1} after 5000 consecutive cycles. Moreover, its capacitance retention ratio was circa 70% with the growth of current densities from 1.5 to 20 A g{sup -1}, indicating excellent rate capability. It would be a promising electrode material for aqueous redox supercapacitors. (author)

  18. Electrochemical performance of trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate-based gel polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ thermal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dong; Fan, Li-Zhen; Fan, Huanhuan; Shi, Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Cross-linked trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate-based gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) were prepared by in situ thermal polymerization. The ionic conductivity of the GPEs are >10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C, and continuously increased with the increase of liquid electrolyte content. The GPEs have excellent electrochemical stability up to 5.0 V versus Li/Li + . The LiCoO 2 |TMPTMA-based GPE|graphite cells exhibit an initial discharge capacity of 129 mAh g −1 at the 0.2C, and good cycling stability with around 83% capacity retention after 100 cycles. Both the simple fabricating process of polymer cell and outstanding electrochemical performance of such new GPE make it potentially one of the most promising electrolyte materials for next generation lithium ion batteries

  19. Preparation of three-dimensional graphene foam for high performance supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Ping

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitor is a new type of energy-storage device, and has been attracted widely attentions. As a two dimensional (2D nanomaterials, graphene is considered to be a promising material of supercapacitor because of its excellent properties involving high electrical conductivity and large surface area. In this paper, the large-scale graphene is successfully fabricated via environmental-friendly electrochemical exfoliation of graphite, and then, the three dimensional (3D graphene foam is prepared by using nickel foam as template and FeCl3/HCl solution as etchant. Compared with the regular 2D graphene paper, the 3D graphene foam electrode shows better electrochemical performance, and exhibits the largest specific capacitance of approximately 128 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g in 6 M KOH electrolyte. It is expected that the 3D graphene foam will have a potential application in the supercapacitors.

  20. Development, preparation, and characterization of high-performance superconducting materials for space applications. Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, A.N.; Barkatt, A.

    1991-12-01

    The preparation of high-temperature superconducting ceramics in bulk form is a major challenge in materials science. The current status of both partial melting and melt quenching techniques, with or without an intermediate powder processing stage, is described in detail, and the problems associated with each of the methods are discussed. Results of studies performed on melt-processed materials are reported and discussed. The discussion places emphasis on magnetization and on other physical properties associated with it, such as critical current density, levitation force, and flux creep. The nature of structural features which give rise to flux pinning, including both small and large defects, is discussed with reference to theoretical considerations. The rates of flux creep and the factors involved in attempting to retard the decay of the magnetization are surveyed

  1. Dye-Affinity Nanofibrous Membrane for Adsorption of Lysozyme: Preparation and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Sheng-Shih Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibrous membrane was prepared by an electrospinning technique. After heat treatment and alkaline hydrolysis, the weak ion exchange membrane was grafted with chitosan molecule and then covalently immobilized with a Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB. Fibre diameter, porosity and pore size of the membrane and immobilized dye density were characterized. Furthermore, the membrane was applied to evaluate the binding performance of lysozyme under various operating parameters (pH, chitosan mass per volume ratio, dye concentration, ionic strength and temperature in batch mode. The experimental results were directly applied to purify lysozyme from chicken egg white by membrane chromatography. The results showed that the capture efficiency, recovery yield and purification factor were 90 and 87 %, and 47-fold, respectively, in a single step. The binding capacity remained consistent after five repeated cycles of adsorption-desorption operations. This work demonstrates that the dye-affinity nanofibrous membrane holds great potential for purification of lysozyme from real feedstock.

  2. Performance of a 1-micron, 1-joule Coherent Launch Site Atmospheric Wind Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James G.; Targ, Russell; Bruner, Richard; Henderson, Sammy W.; Hale, Charles P.; Vetorino, Steven; Lee, R. W.; Harper, Scott; Khan, Tayyab

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the design and performance of the Coherent Launch Site Atmospheric Wind Sounder (CLAWS), which is a test and demonstration program designed for monitoring winds with a solid-state lidar in real time for the launch site vehicle guidance and control application. Analyses were conducted to trade off CO2 (9.11- and 10.6-microns), Ho:YAG (2.09 microns), and Nd:YAG (1.06-micron) laser-based lidars. The measurements set a new altitude record (26 km) for coherent wind measurements in the stratosphere.

  3. An efficient preparative procedure for main flavonoids from the peel of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. using polyamide resin followed by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aifeng; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Zhang, Yongqing; Cui, Jichun

    2014-08-15

    In this study, a simple and efficient preparative procedure was developed for preparation of seven flavonoids from the peel of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. using polyamide resin followed by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography (SPHPLC). First, the ethyl acetate fraction from the peel of T. kirilowii Maxim. obtained "prefractionation" using polyamide resin, which yielded two subfractions. And then the two subfractions were isolated by SPHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, seven known flavonoids were purified from 35 g of ethyl acetate extract including quercetin-3-O-[α-l-rhamnose (1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (19 mg), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (24 mg), apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10mg), diosmetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (45 mg), luteolin (21 mg), apigenin (15 mg), and diosmetin (56 mg). The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. In the present study, a simple, effective, and rapid procedure was established for preparative separation of multiple components from the peel of T. kirilowii Maxim. Furthermore, it was scalable and economical, so it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of flavonoids from other plant extracts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of preparation time and trial type probability on performance of anti- and pro-saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jordan E; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control optimizes responses to relevant task conditions by balancing bottom-up stimulus processing with top-down goal pursuit. It can be investigated using the ocular motor system by contrasting basic prosaccades (look toward a stimulus) with complex antisaccades (look away from a stimulus). Furthermore, the amount of time allotted between trials, the need to switch task sets, and the time allowed to prepare for an upcoming saccade all impact performance. In this study the relative probabilities of anti- and pro-saccades were manipulated across five blocks of interleaved trials, while the inter-trial interval and trial type cue duration were varied across subjects. Results indicated that inter-trial interval had no significant effect on error rates or reaction times (RTs), while a shorter trial type cue led to more antisaccade errors and faster overall RTs. Responses following a shorter cue duration also showed a stronger effect of trial type probability, with more antisaccade errors in blocks with a low antisaccade probability and slower RTs for each saccade task when its trial type was unlikely. A longer cue duration yielded fewer errors and slower RTs, with a larger switch cost for errors compared to a short cue duration. Findings demonstrated that when the trial type cue duration was shorter, visual motor responsiveness was faster and subjects relied upon the implicit trial probability context to improve performance. When the cue duration was longer, increased fixation-related activity may have delayed saccade motor preparation and slowed responses, guiding subjects to respond in a controlled manner regardless of trial type probability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Factor Structure of Content Preparation for E-Business Web Sites: Results of a Survey of 428 Industrial Employees in the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yinni; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2009-01-01

    To better fulfil customer satisfaction, a study of what content e-business web sites should contain is conducted. Based on background literature, a content preparation survey of 70 items was developed and completed by 428 white collar employees of an electronic company in mainland China. The survey aimed at examining the significant content…

  6. Soil organic matter and nitrogen cycling in response to harvesting, mechanical site preparation, and fertilization in a wetland with a mineral substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. McLaughlin; Margaret R. Gale; Martin F. Jurgensen; Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    Forested wetlands are becoming an important timber resource in the Upper Great Lakes Region of the US. However, there is limited information on soil nutrient cycling responses to harvesting and post-harvest manipulations (site preparation and fertilization). The objective of this study was to examine cellulose decomposition, nitrogen mineralization, and soil solution...

  7. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Gray

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  8. Single-Site Palladium(II) Catalyst for Oxidative Heck Reaction: Catalytic Performance and Kinetic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.

  9. Clinical analysis of the stability of dental implants after preparation of the site by conventional drilling or piezosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Neto, Ulisses Tavares; Joly, Julio Cesar; Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    We used resonance frequency analysis to evaluate the implant stability quotient (ISQ) of dental implants that were installed in sites prepared by either conventional drilling or piezoelectric tips. We studied 30 patients with bilateral edentulous areas in the maxillary premolar region who were randomised to have the implant inserted with conventional drilling, or with piezoelectric surgery. The stability of each implant was measured by resonance frequency analysis immediately after placement to assess the immediate stability (time 1) and again at 90 days (time 2) and 150 days (time 3). In the conventional group the mean (SD) ISQ for time 1 was 69.1 (6.1) (95% CI 52.4-77.3); for time 2, 70.7 (5.7) (95% CI 60.4-82.8); and for time 3, 71.7 (4.5) (95% CI 64.2-79.2). In the piezosurgery group the corresponding values were: 77.5 (4.6) (95% CI 71.1-84.3) for time 1, 77.0 (4.2) (95% CI, 69.7-85.2) for time 2, and 79.1 (3.1) (95% CI 74.5-87.3) for time 3. The results showed significant increases in the ISQ values for the piezosurgery group at each time point (p=0.04). The stability of implants placed using the piezoelectric method was greater than that of implants placed using the conventional technique. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Site preparation and excavation works for the foundation of station main building among construction works for No. 1 unit in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Pwer Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueyama, Koreyasu

    1982-01-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., is planning the nuclear power station of final capacity 8,000 MW (7 units) in the region spread over Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village in Niigata Prefecture. For No. 1 unit (1100 MWe BWR), the reactor installation license was obtained in September, 1977, the site preparation and road construction started in April, 1978, and harbour construction works started in August, 1979. The construction works are now at the peak, and the overall progressing rate as of the end of June, 1982, is about 51 %. The site is a hilly region of dune along the coast of the Sea of Japan, and No. 1 unit is located in the southern part of the site. This paper reports on the outline of the project, site preparation and excavation works for the foundation of the station main building. For the site preparation and the excavation works for the foundation the main building, the shape of slope cutting, the design of landslide-preventing wall for the vertical excavation for the reactor complex building, and the construction plan and the result are reported. For underground water impermeable wall works, its outline, groundwater condition, groundwater simulation analysis, the investigation of wall installation, the wall structure and construction are described in detail. Also the outline of the control of slope face measurement, the control standards and the measured results are reported. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Site preparation and excavation works for the foundation of station main building among construction works for No. 1 unit in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueyama, Koreyasu [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1982-09-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., is planning the nuclear power station of final capacity 8,000 MW (7 units) in the region spread over Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village in Niigata Prefecture. For No. 1 unit (1100 MWe BWR), the reactor installation license was obtained in September, 1977, the site preparation and road construction started in April, 1978, and harbour construction works started in August, 1979. The construction works are now at the peak, and the overall progressing rate as of the end of June, 1982, is about 51 %. The site is a hilly region of dune along the coast of the Sea of Japan, and No. 1 unit is located in the southern part of the site. This paper reports on the outline of the project, site preparation and excavation works for the foundation of the station main building. For the site preparation and the excavation works for the foundation the main building, the shape of slope cutting, the design of landslide-preventing wall for the vertical excavation for the reactor complex building, and the construction plan and the result are reported. For underground water impermeable wall works, its outline, groundwater condition, groundwater simulation analysis, the investigation of wall installation, the wall structure and construction are described in detail. Also the outline of the control of slope face measurement, the control standards and the measured results are reported.

  12. Ultrasonic implant site preparation using piezosurgery: a multicenter case series study analyzing 3,579 implants with a 1- to 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellotti, Tomaso; Stacchi, Claudio; Russo, Crescenzo; Rebaudi, Alberto; Vincenzi, Giampaolo; Pratella, Umberto; Baldi, Domenico; Mozzati, Marco; Monagheddu, Chiara; Sentineri, Rosario; Cuneo, Tommaso; Di Alberti, Luca; Carossa, Stefano; Schierano, Gianmario

    2014-01-01

    This multicenter case series introduces an innovative ultrasonic implant site preparation (UISP) technique as an alternative to the use of traditional rotary instruments. A total of 3,579 implants were inserted in 1,885 subjects, and the sites were prepared using a specific ultrasonic device with a 1- to 3-year follow-up. No surgical complications related to the UISP protocol were reported for any of the implant sites. Seventy-eight implants (59 maxillary, 19 mandibular) failed within 5 months of insertion, for an overall osseointegration percentage of 97.82% (97.14% maxilla, 98.75% mandible). Three maxillary implants failed after 3 years of loading, with an overall implant survival rate of 97.74% (96.99% maxilla, 98.75% mandible).

  13. Performance Assessment Program for the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Facilities - 13610

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberger, Kent H.

    2013-01-01

    The Liquid Waste facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) are operated by Liquid Waste Operations contractor Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR). A separate Performance Assessment (PA) is prepared to support disposal operations at the Saltstone Disposal Facility and closure evaluations for the two liquid waste tank farm facilities at SRS, F-Tank Farm and H-Tank Farm. A PA provides the technical basis and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements identified in operations and closure regulatory guidance. The Saltstone Disposal Facility is subject to a State of South Carolina industrial solid waste landfill permit and the tank farms are subject to a state industrial waste water permit. The three Liquid Waste facilities are also subject to a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Due to the regulatory structure, a PA is a key technical document reviewed by the DOE, the State of South Carolina and the EPA. As the waste material disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility and the residual material in the closed tank farms is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is also a reviewing agency for the PAs. Pursuant to the Act, the NRC also has a continuing role to monitor disposal actions to assess compliance with stated performance objectives. The Liquid Waste PA program at SRS represents a continual process over the life of the disposal and closure operations. When the need for a PA or PA revision is identified, the first step is to develop a conceptual model to best represent the facility conditions. The conceptual model will include physical dimensions of the closed system, both the engineered and natural system, and modeling

  14. Performance Assessment Program for the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Facilities - 13610

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, Kent H. [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Building 705-1C, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Liquid Waste facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) are operated by Liquid Waste Operations contractor Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR). A separate Performance Assessment (PA) is prepared to support disposal operations at the Saltstone Disposal Facility and closure evaluations for the two liquid waste tank farm facilities at SRS, F-Tank Farm and H-Tank Farm. A PA provides the technical basis and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements identified in operations and closure regulatory guidance. The Saltstone Disposal Facility is subject to a State of South Carolina industrial solid waste landfill permit and the tank farms are subject to a state industrial waste water permit. The three Liquid Waste facilities are also subject to a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Due to the regulatory structure, a PA is a key technical document reviewed by the DOE, the State of South Carolina and the EPA. As the waste material disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility and the residual material in the closed tank farms is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is also a reviewing agency for the PAs. Pursuant to the Act, the NRC also has a continuing role to monitor disposal actions to assess compliance with stated performance objectives. The Liquid Waste PA program at SRS represents a continual process over the life of the disposal and closure operations. When the need for a PA or PA revision is identified, the first step is to develop a conceptual model to best represent the facility conditions. The conceptual model will include physical dimensions of the closed system, both the engineered and natural system, and

  15. The use of site characterization data in the Nirex 97 performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.; Watson, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Over a number of years, Nirex examined the possibility of a deep radioactive waste repository at Sellafield. Extensive site investigations were carried out, using both surface geophysics and a number of deep boreholes. Hydrogeological measurements were carried out over a wide range of length scales. The work culminated in the Nirex 97 performance assessment. The use of the site characterization data in Nirex 97 is described. The hydrogeological data can be divided into two main categories: direct measurements of the hydrogeological properties of the rocks on various length scales, and measurements of 'derived' properties such as groundwater head, salinity and temperature. The former data were used to derive initial values of the effective hydrogeological parameters for use in groundwater flow and transport models on various length scales. In order to do this, it was necessary to relate the measurements to the underlying variability and then upscale from the underlying variability to the length scales of interest. The quantification of the uncertainties, relating these to the available data, formed a major part of the analysis. The models were then calibrated using the second category of data. This led, using a Bayesian approach, to revised characterizations of the uncertainty, which were used in the calculations of repository performance. An important feature of the analysis is the systematic treatment of the uncertainties and their relation to data. When allied to an ongoing evaluation of the suitability of a site for a repository, this enables the key uncertainties to be identified as a focus for future site characterisation work

  16. Preparation and characterization of ZnO/graphene nanocomposite for improved photovoltaic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabal, P.; Gayathri, S.; Sasirekha, V.; Mayandi, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and ZnO/graphene (ZG) nanocomposite were synthesized via simple chemical route and its application as a photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was demonstrated. The prepared ZnO and ZG were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman techniques. The scanning electron micrograph of ZG revealed the spherical-shaped ZnO nanoparticles of particle size 160 nm was anchored on the two-dimensional graphene sheets. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy showed that the ZG nanocomposite has enriched visible light absorption. The DSSCs were fabricated using the synthesized ZnO and ZG nanocomposite as photoanode and the effect of low-cost organic dyes on the photovoltaic performances of the solar cells were investigated. Comprehensive performances of ZG are better than that of ZnO-based DSSCs. The ZG DSSCs show power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.5 and 0.98 % for RB and EY sensitized electrodes, respectively. Moreover, the ZG dominates in many aspects due to the presence of graphene.

  17. Glass sample preparation and performance investigations. [solar x-ray imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1992-01-01

    This final report details the work performed under this delivery order from April 1991 through April 1992. The currently available capabilities for integrated optical performance modeling at MSFC for large and complex systems such as AXAF were investigated. The Integrated Structural Modeling (ISM) program developed by Boeing for the U.S. Air Force was obtained and installed on two DECstations 5000 at MSFC. The structural, thermal and optical analysis programs available in ISM were evaluated. As part of the optomechanical engineering activities, technical support was provided in the design of support structure, mirror assembly, filter wheel assembly and material selection for the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program. As part of the fabrication activities, a large number of zerodur glass samples were prepared in different sizes and shapes for acid etching, coating and polishing experiments to characterize the subsurface damage and stresses produced by the grinding and polishing operations. Various optical components for AXAF video microscope and the x-ray test facility were also fabricated. A number of glass fabrication and test instruments such as a scatter plate interferometer, a gravity feed saw and some phenolic cutting blades were fabricated, integrated and tested.

  18. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs were characterized and packed into columns, and their enantioseparation performance was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that CPMs exhibited uniform surface morphology and core-shell structures. Various types of chiral compounds were efficiently separated under normal and reversed phase mode. Moreover, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase additives could obviously improve the resolution during the chiral separation processes. CPMs still have good chiral separation property when eluted with solvent systems with a high content of tetrahydrofuran and chloroform, which proved the high solvent resistance of this new material.

  19. Night shift preparation, performance, and perception: are there differences between emergency medicine nurses, residents, and faculty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Stayton, Taylor L; Wells, Jason A; Parikh, Aman K; Laurin, Erik G

    2018-04-30

    Determine differences between faculty, residents, and nurses regarding night shift preparation, performance, recovery, and perception of emotional and physical health effects. Survey study performed at an urban university medical center emergency department with an accredited residency program in emergency medicine. Forty-seven faculty, 37 residents, and 90 nurses completed the survey. There was no difference in use of physical sleep aids between groups, except nurses utilized blackout curtains more (69%) than residents (60%) and faculty (45%). Bedroom temperature preference was similar. The routine use of pharmacologic sleep aids differed: nurses and residents (both 38%) compared to faculty (13%). Residents routinely used melatonin more (79%) than did faculty (33%) and nurses (38%). Faculty preferred not to eat (45%), whereas residents (24%) preferred a full meal. The majority (>72%) in all groups drank coffee before their night shift and reported feeling tired despite their routine, with 4:00 a.m. as median nadir. Faculty reported a higher rate (41%) of falling asleep while driving compared to residents (14%) and nurses (32%), but the accident rate (3% to 6%) did not differ significantly. All had similar opinions regarding night shift-associated health effects. However, faculty reported lower level of satisfaction working night shifts, whereas nurses agreed less than the other groups regarding increased risk of drug and alcohol dependence. Faculty, residents, and nurses shared many characteristics. Faculty tended to not use pharmacologic sleep aids, not eat before their shift, fall asleep at a higher rate while driving home, and enjoy night shift work less.

  20. Preparation and performance study of a novel liquid scintillator with mixed solvent as the matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Zhanlong; Zhu, Jiayi; Luo, Xuan; Xu, Yewei; Zhang, Qianfeng; Zhang, Xing; Bi, Yutie; Zhang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    A novel liquid scintillator with the mixed solvent as the matrix was prepared for obtaining a good comprehensive performance. In this ternary liquid scintillator, the combination of 20% pseudocumene (PC) and 80% linear-alkyl benzene (LAB) by volume was chosen as the mixed solvent, and 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 1,4-bis(2-Methylstyryl) benzene (bis-MSB) were as the primary fluor and wavelength shifter, respectively. The optimum prescription was obtained with regard to the light yield. Some characterizations based on the optimal formulation were conducted. The fluorescence emission spectra and wavelength-dependent optical attenuation length of the sample were measured by the fluorescence spectrophotometer and an UV–Vis spectrometer, respectively. The light yield was characterized by adopting the home-made optical platform device. The decay time was tested by adopting the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technique featured in high dynamic range of several orders of magnitude in light intensity. The experimental test results showed that the sample had a fairly good comprehensive performance.

  1. High Dehumidification Performance of Amorphous Cellulose Composite Membranes prepared from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    KAUST Repository

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2018-04-11

    Cellulose is widely regarded as an environmentally friendly, natural and low cost material which can significantly contribute the sustainable economic growth. In this study, cellulose composite membranes were prepared via regeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC), an easily synthesized cellulose derivative. The amorphous hydrophilic feature of the regenerated cellulose enabled fast permeation of water vapour. The pore-free cellulose layer thickness was adjustable by the initial TMSC concentration and acted as an efficient gas barrier. As a result, a 5,000 GPU water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) at the highest ideal selectivity of 1.1 x 106 was achieved by the membranes spin coated from a 7% (w/w) TMSC solution. The membranes maintained a 4,000 GPU WVTR with selectivity of 1.1 x 104 in the mixed-gas experiments, surpassing the performances of the previously reported composite membranes. This study provides a simple way to not only produce high performance membranes but also to advance cellulose as a low-cost and sustainable membrane material for dehumidification applications.

  2. Preparation and performance study of a novel liquid scintillator with mixed solvent as the matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zhanlong [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhu, Jiayi [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Luo, Xuan, E-mail: luox76@gmail.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu, Yewei [School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhang, Qianfeng [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhang, Xing [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Bi, Yutie, E-mail: biyutie@sina.com [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhang, Lin [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2017-04-01

    A novel liquid scintillator with the mixed solvent as the matrix was prepared for obtaining a good comprehensive performance. In this ternary liquid scintillator, the combination of 20% pseudocumene (PC) and 80% linear-alkyl benzene (LAB) by volume was chosen as the mixed solvent, and 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 1,4-bis(2-Methylstyryl) benzene (bis-MSB) were as the primary fluor and wavelength shifter, respectively. The optimum prescription was obtained with regard to the light yield. Some characterizations based on the optimal formulation were conducted. The fluorescence emission spectra and wavelength-dependent optical attenuation length of the sample were measured by the fluorescence spectrophotometer and an UV–Vis spectrometer, respectively. The light yield was characterized by adopting the home-made optical platform device. The decay time was tested by adopting the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technique featured in high dynamic range of several orders of magnitude in light intensity. The experimental test results showed that the sample had a fairly good comprehensive performance.

  3. Excellent electrochemical performance of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids prepared using a microwave spark assistance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugharaj, A.M.; Ryu, Sung Hun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple synthesis route is explored in preparing graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids using cost effective microwave radiation process. ► Electrochemical performance of the synthesized graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids have been compared with graphite and silver nanoparticle based anode materials. ► Graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrid exhibits stable charge/discharge characteristics of 714 mAh g −1 and it is significantly higher compared to natural graphite and silver based electrodes. - Abstract: A simple method is described for the synthesis of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids from graphite and silver precursors using microwave spark ignition process. Adding ecofriendly free radical initiators, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide solution leads to the expansion of graphite to graphene nanosheets. Simultaneously, silver ions intercalated between the graphene layers are reduced to silver nanocrystals leading to the development of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies reveal the successful formation of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the silver nanoparticles formed on the graphene surfaces are face centered cubic crystals. The surface composition and functional groups present on the graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids are corroborated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The lithium storage capacity of the synthesized material, when used as an anode material for rechargeable lithium secondary batteries is investigated. Its first specific discharge capacity is observed to be 580 mAh g −1 and this has been increased to 827 mAh g −1 , by incorporating the silver nanoparticles between the graphene platelets. The reversible capacity of the graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids is observed to be 714 mAh g −1 , which is significantly higher compared to that of graphene (420 mAh g −1

  4. Knowledge, Attitude and Performance of Shiraz General Dentists about Infection Control Principles during Preparing Intraoral Radiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolaziz Hagh Negahdar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Infection control in dental centers is affected by the persons’ attitude and knowledge about mechanisms of infection transmission. This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and the attitude of Shiraz dentists about infection control during intraoral radiographies preparation. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional, and analytical research, the attitude and the knowledge of 45 male and 25 female, randomly selected dentists, were obtained through completion of a researcher- planed questioner which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. Data were analyzed using Cronbach`s alpha, one-way ANOVA, student’s t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient in SPSS (V.21. Results: The average of the dentists’ age was 40.59±10.72 and their average occupational experience was 13.49±9.75 years. The mean score obtained for knowledge about infection control during intraoral radiographic procedures was less than fifty percent of total obtainable score, and was assessed as weak knowledge. There was no significant difference in the level of knowledge between studied male and female dentists (P>0.05. In addition, no significant relationship was detected between level, age/experience, and the university of education (P>0.05. The attitude of the dentists about infection control during intraoral radiography preparation assessed as moderate to good level. Conclusions: The results showed that the main reason for the present problems is insufficient knowledge of the dentists in related subjects. Therefore, the solution, which is recommended among dentists, is to raise their awareness and to change their attitudes and culture in order to improve their performance.

  5. Simulation of the job processing performance at an ALICE Tier-2 site with MONARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, C; Adamová, D; Betev, L

    2011-01-01

    The MONARC (MOdels of Networked Analysis at Regional Centers) framework has been developed and designed with the aim to provide a tool for realistic simulations of large scale distributed computing systems, with a special focus on the Grid systems of the experiments at the CERN LHC. In this paper, we describe a usage of the MONARC framework and tools for a simulation of the job processing performance at an ALICE Tier-2 site.

  6. Comments on ''Use of conditional simulation in nuclear waste site performance assessment'' by Carol Gotway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses Carol Gotway's paper, ''The Use of Conditional Simulation in Nuclear Waste Site Performance Assessment.'' The paper centers on the use of conditional simulation and the use of geostatistical methods to simulate an entire field of values for subsequent use in a complex computer model. The issues of sampling designs for geostatistics, semivariogram estimation and anisotropy, turning bands method for random field generation, and estimation of the comulative distribution function are brought out

  7. The performance of silicon solar cells prepared by screen-printing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mursyidah; Mohamed Yahaya; Muhammad Mohd Salleh

    2000-01-01

    Screen-printing technique is known to produce low cost solar cells. A study has been done to prepare silicon solar cells of n + -p and n + -p-p + structures. The p-type silicon wafers were used as substrates. The phosphorous layer was deposited on top of the substrate using the screen-printing technique. The wafer was then annealed at temperature 1000 degree C for 10 minutes, so that phosphorous atoms are thermally diffused into the wafer to form an n + -p junction. Meanwhile the boron film was deposited at the back surface of the substrate and annealed at temperature 900 degree C for 10 minutes to form a p + layer in the n + -p-p + device. The back and front metal contacts were made using screen-printing technique. The performance of the devices was evaluated from I-V curves measured in the dark and under illumination. It was found that the n + -p-p + device with short circuit current, I SC = 32 mA, open circuit voltage, V OC = 0.46 volt, fill factor, FF=0.63 and efficiency, η = 2.3%, was better than that of the n + -p device. The performance of the n + -p-p + device was successfully improved by depositing titanium dioxide on top of the device as anti-reflection coating using the screen-printing technique. The improved performance was I SC = 38 mA, V OC = 0.48 volt, FF = 0.67 and η = 3. 1%. (Author)

  8. Preparation of Co-Zn ferrite nano-based materials and their enhanced magnetic performance via inverse miniemulsion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Juejin; Zhang, Zhenqian; Fang, Bijun; Ding, Jianning

    2017-11-01

    The well dispersed CZF/PAM nanoparticles were prepared by the inverse miniemulsion method, which present high calcining and sintering activity for preparing Co0.875Zn0.125Fe2O4 (CZF) films, powders and ceramics at rather low temperatures. The prepared CZF/PAM inverse miniemulsion exhibits excellent film-formation performance, which is feasible for coating CZF films. XRD and FT-IR measurements confirmed that phase pure spinel structure and well crystalline CZF powders can be prepared calcined at the least temperature of 400 °C. The 450 °C-calcined CZF powders exhibit nearly spherical shape grains with average particle size 20-30 nm accompanied by apparent conglomeration. Improved external magnetic performance and electrical properties are obtained in the synthesized CZF powders and ceramics, which provide versatile promising applications.

  9. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  10. Preparation of H-mordenite/MCM-48 composite and its catalytic performance in the alkylation of toluene with tert-butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Cheng, Fuling; Qin, Juan; Yu, Pengcheng; Xu, Lin; Gu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xiaoqin; Wu, Wenliang

    2017-09-01

    A series of HM/MCM-48 samples with different SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio were prepared by sol-gel method. The prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, NH3-TPD, FT-IR, SEM, and TEM techniques, and their catalytic performance was investigated in alkylation of toluene with tert-butanol. The adsorption capacity and the acid sites amount of HM/MCM-48-4 sample prepared by growing MCM-48 on the surface of HM zeolite are much higher than that of their mechanical mixture (HM/MCM-48(4) sample) due to its biporous structure; it shows higher catalytic performance than other HM/MCM-48 samples. The influence of reaction conditions on the catalytic performance of HM/MCM-48-4 zeolite was discussed. Toluene conversion of 41.4% and p-tert-butyltoluene selectivity of 73.5% were obtained at the weight ratio of toluene to HM/MCM-48-4 of 5, reaction temperature of 453 K, reaction time of 5 h and the molar ratio of toluene to tert-butanol of 0.5.

  11. Formic acid as additive for the preparation of high-performance FePO4 materials by spray drying method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yanga, F

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available International, vol. 43(18): 16652-16658 Formic acid as additive for the preparation of high-performance FePO4 materials by spray drying method Yanga F Zhang H Shao Y Song H Liao S Ren J ABSTRACT: High-performance ferric phosphate (FePO4...

  12. Site-Specific Analyses for Demonstrating Compliance with 10 CFR 61 Performance Objectives - 12179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, C.J.; Esh, D.W.; Yadav, P.; Carrera, A.G. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its regulations at 10 CFR Part 61 to require low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to conduct site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives in Subpart C. The amendments would require licensees to conduct site-specific analyses for protection of the public and inadvertent intruders as well as analyses for long-lived waste. The amendments would ensure protection of public health and safety, while providing flexibility to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives, for current and potential future waste streams. NRC staff intends to submit proposed rule language and associated regulatory basis to the Commission for its approval in early 2012. The NRC staff also intends to develop associated guidance to accompany any proposed amendments. The guidance is intended to supplement existing low-level radioactive waste guidance on issues pertinent to conducting site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. The guidance will facilitate implementation of the proposed amendments by licensees and assist competent regulatory authorities in reviewing the site-specific analyses. Specifically, the guidance provides staff recommendations on general considerations for the site-specific analyses, modeling issues for assessments to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives including the performance assessment, intruder assessment, stability assessment, and analyses for long-lived waste. This paper describes the technical basis for changes to the rule language and the proposed guidance associated with implementation of the rule language. The NRC staff, per Commission direction, intends to propose amendments to 10 CFR Part 61 to require licensees to conduct site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with performance objectives for the protection of public health and the environment. The amendments would require a

  13. Bibliography of publications related to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project prepared by U.S. Geological Survey personnel through April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    Personnel of the US Geological Survey have participated in nuclear-waste management studies in the State of Nevada since the mid-1970's. A bibliography of publications prepared principally for the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (formerly Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations) through April 1991 contains 475 entries in alphabetical order. The listing includes publications prepared prior to the inception of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project in April 1977 and selected publications of interest to the Yucca Mountain region. 480 refs

  14. Evaluation and modelling of SWIW tests performed within the SKB site characterisation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordqvist, Rune

    2008-08-01

    In this report, a comprehensive overview of SWIW (Single Well Injection-Withdrawal) tests carried out within the SKB site investigations at Oskarshamn and Forsmark is presented. The purpose of this study is to make a general review and a comparison of performed SWIW tests within the site investigation programmes at the two sites. The study summarises experimental conditions for each test and discusses factors that may influence the experimental results and evaluation of the tests. Further, an extended model evaluation is carried out using a one- dimensional radial flow and transport model with matrix diffusion and matrix sorption. The intended outcome is an improved understanding of various mechanisms that may influence the SWIW test results and also to improve interpretation of the tests. Six SWIW test at each site have been carried out, generally resulting in high-quality and well documented experimental data with high tracer recovery. The tests have been performed in surface boreholes at repository depth, ranging approximately between 300 to 700 m borehole lengths. In all of the tests, a non-sorbing tracer (Uranine) and one or two sorbing tracers (cesium and rubidium) have been used simultaneously. A general result is that all of the tests demonstrate a very clear and relatively large retardation effect for the sorbing tracers. Basic initial modelling of the SWIW tests data, using a one-dimensional radial flow model with advection and dispersion, generally resulted in relatively good agreement between model and experimental data. However, a consistent feature of the initial modelling was a discrepancy between model and experimental data in the later parts of the recovery tracer breakthrough curve. It was concluded that this likely was caused by processes occurring in the tested rock formation and therefore an extended model evaluation (presented in this report) including matrix diffusion was carried out on all of the performed tests. Evaluated retardation

  15. Evaluation and modelling of SWIW tests performed within the SKB site characterisation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordqvist, Rune (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (SE))

    2008-08-15

    In this report, a comprehensive overview of SWIW (Single Well Injection-Withdrawal) tests carried out within the SKB site investigations at Oskarshamn and Forsmark is presented. The purpose of this study is to make a general review and a comparison of performed SWIW tests within the site investigation programmes at the two sites. The study summarises experimental conditions for each test and discusses factors that may influence the experimental results and evaluation of the tests. Further, an extended model evaluation is carried out using a one- dimensional radial flow and transport model with matrix diffusion and matrix sorption. The intended outcome is an improved understanding of various mechanisms that may influence the SWIW test results and also to improve interpretation of the tests. Six SWIW test at each site have been carried out, generally resulting in high-quality and well documented experimental data with high tracer recovery. The tests have been performed in surface boreholes at repository depth, ranging approximately between 300 to 700 m borehole lengths. In all of the tests, a non-sorbing tracer (Uranine) and one or two sorbing tracers (cesium and rubidium) have been used simultaneously. A general result is that all of the tests demonstrate a very clear and relatively large retardation effect for the sorbing tracers. Basic initial modelling of the SWIW tests data, using a one-dimensional radial flow model with advection and dispersion, generally resulted in relatively good agreement between model and experimental data. However, a consistent feature of the initial modelling was a discrepancy between model and experimental data in the later parts of the recovery tracer breakthrough curve. It was concluded that this likely was caused by processes occurring in the tested rock formation and therefore an extended model evaluation (presented in this report) including matrix diffusion was carried out on all of the performed tests. Evaluated retardation

  16. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  17. Performance-Based Acquisition: A tool to reduce costs and improve performance at US Army environmental remediation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosko, Nancy; Gilman, Janet; White, Debbie

    2007-01-01

    The US Army, like most US federal and state environmental organizations, is faced with limited resources to conduct environmental work, an increasing workload, and challenges in achieving closeout of its environmental cleanup programs. In 2001, in an effort to incorporate proven private sector tools into federal cleanup programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) Business Initiative Council (BIC), initiated the use of Performance-Based Acquisition (PBA) for environmental cleanup. Since fiscal year 2000, the US Army Environmental Command (USAEC) has successfully awarded more than 55 performance-based contracts for environmental remediation. These contracts range in size from $500,000 to $52.4 million, and include closing properties (Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)) and some of the US Army's most complex active installations. The contracts address a range of activities including investigation through monitoring and site completion, as well as various technical challenges including dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in ground water, karst systems, munitions and explosives of concern, and biological agents. The contracts are most often firm-fixed price, and 50 percent of the contracts required contractors to purchase environmental insurance in the form of remediation stop loss insurance (also known as cleanup cost cap insurance). The USAEC has conducted continuous process improvement since inception of the initiative. This paper presents results of two studies that were conducted in 2005-2006 to determine what lessons learned can be applied to future activities and to measure performance of contractors currently executing work under the performance based contracts. (authors)

  18. Effective connectivity among the working memory regions during preparation for and during performance of the n-back task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manelis, Anna; Reder, Lynne M

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that working memory (WM) task difficulty can be decoded from patterns of brain activation in the WM network during preparation to perform those tasks. The inter-regional connectivity among the WM regions during task preparation has not yet been investigated. We examined this question using the graph modeling methods IMaGES and LOFS, applied to the previously published fMRI data of Manelis and Reder (2013). In that study, subjects performed 1-, 2-, and 3-back tasks. Each block of n-back was preceded by a preparation period and followed by a rest period. The analyses of task-related brain activity identified a network of 18 regions that increased in activation from 1- to 3-back (Increase network) and a network of 17 regions that decreased in activation from 1- to 3-back (Decrease network). The graph analyses revealed two types of connectivity sub-networks within the Increase and Decrease networks: "default" and "preparation-related." The "default" connectivity was present not only during task performance, but also during task preparation and during rest. We propose that this sub-network may serve as a core system that allows one to quickly activate cognitive, perceptual and motor systems in response to the relevant stimuli. The "preparation-related" connectivity was present during task preparation and task performance, but not at rest, and depended on the n-back condition. The role of this sub-network may be to pre-activate a connectivity "road map" in order to establish a top-down and bottom-up regulation of attention prior to performance on WM tasks.

  19. Effective connectivity among the working memory regions during preparation for and during performance of the n-back task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eManelis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that working memory (WM task difficulty can be decoded from patterns of brain activation in the WM network during preparation to perform those tasks. The inter-regional connectivity among the WM regions during task preparation has not yet been investigated. We examined this question using the graph modeling methods IMaGES and LOFS, applied to the previously published fMRI data of Manelis and Reder (2013. In that study, subjects performed 1-, 2-, and 3-back tasks. Each block of n-back was preceded by a preparation period and followed by a rest period. The analyses of task-related brain activity identified a network of 18 regions that increased in activation from 1- to 3-back (Increase network and a network of 17 regions that decreased in activation from 1- to 3-back (Decrease network. The graph analyses revealed two types of connectivity sub-networks within the Increase and Decrease networks: default and preparation-related. The default connectivity was present not only during task performance, but also during task preparation and during rest. We propose that this sub-network may serve as a core system that allows one to quickly activate cognitive, perceptual and motor systems in response to the relevant stimuli. The preparation-related connectivity was present during task preparation and task performance, but not at rest, and depended on the n-back condition. The role of this sub-network may be to pre-activate a connectivity road map in order to establish a top-down and bottom-up regulation of attention prior to performance on WM tasks.

  20. [Preparation of HDTMA-modified Zeolite and Its Performance in Nitro-phenol Adsorption from Wastewaters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun-yuan; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-15

    In this study, natural zeolite was modified by HDTMA. Effects of the modified conditions, HDTMA-modified zeolite doses, solution pH values, and reaction time on nitro-phenol removal were investigated, and the adsorption kinetics and isotherms were discussed. Compared with natural zeolite, HDTMA-modified zeolite showed better performance in nitro-phenol removal. An adsorption capacity of 2.53 mg · g⁻¹ was achieved when the concentration of HDTMA solution (pH = 10) was 1.2% in preparation of modified zeolite. This adsorption capacity was higher than that obtained by natural zeolite (0.54 mg · g⁻¹). In adsorption tests, when HDTMA- modified zeolite dose was adjusted to 8 g · L⁻¹, the removal efficiency of nitro-phenol reached 93.9% after 90 min reaction, with wastewater pH of 6. Furthermore, the nitro-phenol adsorption process could be well fitted to the pseudo-first-order kinetics model (R² > 0.90), whereas the adsorption isotherm results indicated that Langmuir model provided the best fitting for the equilibrium data at different temperatures, with R² of higher than 0.90.

  1. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  2. Preparation and electrochemical performances of nanoporous/cracked cobalt oxide layer for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobal, Fereydoon; Faraji, Masoud

    2014-12-01

    Nanoporous/cracked structures of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) electrodes were successfully fabricated by electroplating of zinc-cobalt onto previously formed TiO2 nanotubes by anodizing of titanium, leaching of zinc in a concentrated alkaline solution and followed by drying and annealing at 400 °C. The structure and morphology of the obtained Co3O4 electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, EDX analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the obtained Co3O4 electrodes were composed of the nanoporous/cracked structures with an average pore size of about 100 nm. The electrochemical capacitive behaviors of the nanoporous Co3O4 electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M NaOH solution. The electrochemical data demonstrated that the electrodes display good capacitive behavior with a specific capacitance of 430 F g-1 at a current density of 1.0 A g-1 and specific capacitance retention of ca. 80 % after 10 days of being used in electrochemical experiments, indicating to be promising electroactive materials for supercapacitors. Furthermore, in comparison with electrodes prepared by simple cathodic deposition of cobalt onto TiO2 nanotubes(without dealloying procedure), the impedance studies showed improved performances likely due to nanoporous/cracked structures of electrodes fabricated by dealloying of zinc, which provide fast ion and electron transfer routes and large reaction surface area with the ensued fast reaction kinetics.

  3. Potassium vapor assisted preparation of highly graphitized hierarchical porous carbon for high rate performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Zeng, Ying; Tang, Qunli; Hu, Aiping; Xiao, Kuikui; Zhang, Shiying; Deng, Weina; Fan, Binbin; Zhu, Yanfei; Chen, Xiaohua

    2017-09-01

    Ultrahigh graphitized carbon microspheres with rich hierarchical pores (AGHPCM-1) have been successfully synthesized through the one-step activation-carbonization strategy (OACS) with porous sulfonated poly-divinylbenzene as the carbon precursor, iron as the hard template and catalyst, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as activation agent. Through the XRD, TEM, Raman and BET analysis, AGHPCM-1 shows very high graphitization degree and rich micro-, meso- and macro-pores. More importantly, the mechanism for KOH to improve the graphitization degree of carbon materials in OACS has been illustrated by the thermodynamical theory. The tremendous heat releasing from the reaction between the catalyst precursor of Fe2O3 and potassium vapor plays a key role in the formation of graphitized carbon. It may provide a general direction to prepare highly graphitized porous carbon at a moderate temperature. Integrating the advantages of high graphitization degree and rich hierarchical porous structure, the AGHPCM-1 exhibits an excellent rate performance with a response to up to the high current density of 150 A g-1 and high scan rate of 2000 mV s-1. No obvious capacitance decay can be observed after 10000 charge/discharge cycles even at the high current density of 20 A g-1.

  4. Preparation and electrochemical performance of polyaniline-based carbon nanotubes as electrode material for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Miaomiao; Cheng Bin; Song Huaihe; Chen Xiaohong

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with open end and low specific surface area were prepared via the carbonization of polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes synthesized by a rapidly mixed reaction. On the basis of analyzing the morphologies and structures of the original and carbonized PANI nanotubes, the electrochemical properties of PANI-based CNTs obtained at different temperatures as electrode materials for supercapacitors using 30 wt.% aqueous solution of KOH as electrolyte were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the carbonized PANI nanotubes at 700 o C exhibit high specific capacitance of 163 F g -1 at a current density of 0.1 A g -1 and excellent rate capability in KOH solution. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement the nitrogen state and content in PANI-CNTs were analysed, which could play important roles for the enhancement of electrochemical performance. When the appropriate content of nitrogen is present, the presence of pyrrole or pyridone and quaternary nitrogen is beneficial for the improvement of electron mobility and the wettability of electrode.

  5. Preparation and application of tea to a tritium performance testing programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daka, J. N.; Moodie, G.; Dinardo, A.; Kramer, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    A simple, but novel technique, for adjusting steeps of black tea to produce fluids, which are visually and spectroscopically similar to urine, has been developed at the National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring in Canada. The method uses scans of absorbance versus wavelength, in the UV-VIS range (200-800 nm) to select diluted tea steeps that simulate urine. Tea solutions (1 and 10 %) were spiked with tritium and distributed to laboratories for performance testing (PT). The PT exercise was done as in a regular bioassay programme. The results showed that all samples satisfied the pass/fail conditions of the S-106 standard of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, suggesting that adjusted tea successfully simulated urine for the tritium PT programmes. Also, since unlike urine whose use may increase the probability of contaminating and transmitting diseases (e.g. hepatitis C), tea is a safer alternative. When needed, it can readily be prepared for the laboratories. (authors)

  6. Improved antifouling performance of ultrafiltration membrane via preparing novel zwitterionic polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haitao; Yu, Jiayu; Guo, Hanxiang; Shen, Yibo; Yang, Fan; Wang, Han; Liu, Rong; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of the outstanding fouling resistance of zwitterionic polymers, an antifouling ultrafiltration membrane was fabricated through phase inversion induced by immersion precipitation method, directly using the novel zwitterionic polyimide (Z-PI), which was synthesized via a two-step procedure including polycondensation and quaternary amination reaction, as membrane material. The chemical structure and composition of the obtained polymer were confirmed by using FTIR, 1H NMR and XPS analysis, and its thermal stability was thoroughly characterized by TGA measurement, respectively. The introduction of zwitterionic groups into polyimide could effectively increase membrane pore size, porosity and wettability, and convert the membrane surface from hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. As a result, Z-PI membrane displayed significantly improved water permeability compared with that of the reference polyimide (R-PI) membrane without having an obvious compromise in protein rejection. According to the static adsorption and dynamic cycle ultrafiltration experiments of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution, Z-PI membrane exhibited better fouling resistant ability, especially irreversible fouling resistant ability, suggesting superior antifouling property and long-term performance stability. Moreover, Z-PI membrane had a water flux recovery ratio of 93.7% after three cycle of BSA solution filtration, whereas only about 68.5% was obtained for the control R-PI membrane. These findings demonstrated the advantages of Z-PI membrane material and aimed to provide a facile and scalable method for the large-scale preparation of low fouling ultrafiltration membranes for potential applications.

  7. Preparation and electrochemical performance of polyaniline-based carbon nanotubes as electrode material for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Miaomiao; Cheng Bin [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Song Huaihe, E-mail: songhh@mail.buct.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-09-30

    Nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with open end and low specific surface area were prepared via the carbonization of polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes synthesized by a rapidly mixed reaction. On the basis of analyzing the morphologies and structures of the original and carbonized PANI nanotubes, the electrochemical properties of PANI-based CNTs obtained at different temperatures as electrode materials for supercapacitors using 30 wt.% aqueous solution of KOH as electrolyte were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the carbonized PANI nanotubes at 700 {sup o}C exhibit high specific capacitance of 163 F g{sup -1} at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup -1} and excellent rate capability in KOH solution. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement the nitrogen state and content in PANI-CNTs were analysed, which could play important roles for the enhancement of electrochemical performance. When the appropriate content of nitrogen is present, the presence of pyrrole or pyridone and quaternary nitrogen is beneficial for the improvement of electron mobility and the wettability of electrode.

  8. Preparation and Performance of a New-Type Alkali-Free Liquid Accelerator for Shotcrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of alkali-free liquid accelerator for shotcrete was prepared. Specifically, the setting time and strength and shrinkage performance of two kinds of Portland cement with the accelerator were fully investigated. Moreover, the accelerating mechanism of alkali-free liquid accelerator and the hydration process of the shotcrete with accelerator were explored. Results show that alkali-free liquid accelerator significantly shortened the setting time of cement paste, where the initial setting time of cement paste with 8 wt% of the accelerator was about 3 min and the final setting time was about 7 min. Compressive strength at 1 day of cement mortar with the accelerator could reach 23.4 MPa, which increased by 36.2% compared to the strength of cement mortar without the accelerator, and the retention rate of 28-day compressive strength reached 110%. In addition, the accelerator still shows a good accelerating effect under low temperature conditions. However, the shrinkage rate of the concrete increased with the amount of the accelerator. 5~8% content of accelerator is recommended for shotcrete in practice. XRD and SEM test results showed that the alkali-free liquid accelerator promoted the formation of ettringite crystals due to the increase of Al3+ and SO42- concentration.

  9. Preparation and Performance Validation of Nano-Perovskite Type for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taegyu; Park, Daeil

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the La0.8Sr0.2NiO3 perovskite-type catalysts supported on α-Al2O3 that were prepared by polyol method and used as a catalyst for the carbon dioxide reforming of methane. The effect of the molar concentration of polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) on the reducibility, structural properties and carbon deposition was characterized by XRD, and TGA. The carbon dioxide reforming of methane on the catalyst was performed at the different concentration of PVP. At the 1 M PVP, main characteristic peaks of perovskite structure were established without impurities, thus showing the highest catalytic activity; 87.7% and 92.1% in CH4 and CO2 conversion, respectively. After the reaction, carbon deposition was 0.4-0.6%, while 6.2% on the existing Ni catalyst, indicating the perovskite-type catalyst has a superior characteristic preventing it from the carbon deposition at the carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

  10. Preparation and electrochemical performance of AgxLi1-xV3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Junli; Jiao Lifang; Yuan Huatang; Liu Li; Wei Xin; Miao Yanli; Yang Lin; Wang Yongmei

    2009-01-01

    We report here the preparation of Ag-doped LiV 3 O 8 for use as a cathode material in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Synthesis was carried out by sol-gel methods and low temperature calcination using V 2 O 5 wet gel, LiOH.H 2 O, and AgNO 3 as raw materials. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and its electrochemical behavior as a cathode material was studied by galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry, and ac impedance techniques. The experimental results show that Ag-doped LiV 3 O 8 cathodes have greater initial discharge capacity than undoped cathode. And those Ag-doped LiV 3 O 8 electrodes, especially Ag 0.04 Li 0.96 V 3 O 8 , show the best long-life cycling performance. All of the doped powders show better stability at the 2.6 V plateau efficiency, due to their more stable cell impedance

  11. Rambutan-like FeCO3 hollow microspheres: facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yiren; Su, Liwei; Yang, Mei; Wei, Jinping; Zhou, Zhen

    2013-11-13

    Rambutan-like FeCO3 hollow microspheres were prepared via a facile and economic one-step hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology evolution mechanism was disclosed through time-dependent experiments. After undergoing the symmetric inside-out Ostwald ripening, the resultants formed microporous/nanoporous constructions composed of numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanofiber building blocks. Tested as anode materials of Li-ion batteries, FeCO3 hollow microspheres presented attractive electrochemical performances. The capacities were over 1000 mAh g(-1) for initial charge, ~880 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 50 mA g(-1), and ~710 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 200 mA g(-1). The 1D nanofiber assembly and hollow interior endow this material efficient contact with electrolyte, short Li(+) diffusion paths, and sufficient void spaces to accommodate large volume variation. The cost-efficient FeCO3 with rationally designed nanostructures is a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries.

  12. Nickel foam-supported polyaniline cathode prepared with electrophoresis for improvement of rechargeable Zn battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Zhu, Derong; Si, Shihui; Li, Degeng; Wu, Sen

    2015-06-01

    Porous nickel foam is used as a substrate for the development of rechargeable zinc//polyaniline battery, and the cathode electrophoresis of PANI microparticles in non-aqueous solution is applied to the fabrication of Ni foam supported PANI electrode, in which the corrosion of the nickel foam substrate is prohibited. The Ni foam supported PANI cathode with high loading is prepared by PANI electrophoretic deposition, and followed by PANI slurry casting under vacuum filtration. The electrochemical charge storage performance for PANI material is significantly improved by using nickel foam substrate via the electrophoretic interlayer. The specific capacity of the nickel foam-PANI electrode with the electrophoretic layer is higher than the composite electrode without the electrophoretic layer, and the specific capacity of PANI supported by Ni foam reaches up to 183.28 mAh g-1 at the working current of 2.5 mA cm-2. The present electrophoresis deposition method plays the facile procedure for the immobilization of PANI microparticles onto the surface of non-platinum metals, and it becomes feasible to the use of the Ni foam supported PANI composite cathode for the Zn/PANI battery in weak acidic electrolyte.

  13. Preparation and Preliminary Dialysis Performance Research of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinglei; Lu, Xiaolong; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the separation properties of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes were improved by optimizing membrane morphology and structure. The results showed that the PVDF membrane had better mechanical and separation properties than Fresenius Polysulfone High-Flux (F60S) membrane. The PVDF membrane tensile stress at break, tensile elongation and bursting pressure were 11.3 MPa, 395% and 0.625 MPa, respectively. Ultrafiltration (UF) flux of pure water reached 108.2 L∙h−1∙m−2 and rejection of Albumin from bovine serum was 82.3%. The PVDF dialyzers were prepared by centrifugal casting. The influences of membrane area and simulate fluid flow rate on dialysis performance were investigated. The results showed that the clearance rate of urea and Lysozyme (LZM) were improved with increasing membrane area and fluid flow rate while the rejection of albumin from bovine serum (BSA) had little influence. The high-flux PVDF dialyzer UF coefficient reached 62.6 mL/h/mmHg. The PVDF dialyzer with membrane area 0.69 m2 has the highest clearance rate to LZM and urea. The clearance rate of LZM was 66.8% and urea was 87.7%. PMID:25807890

  14. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    As directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Fluor Hanford, Inc. will implement the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, as the requirements relate to the continued operation of the low-level waste disposal facilities on the Hanford Site. DOE Order 435.1 requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) of a low-level waste disposal facility. The objective of this Order is to ensure that all DOE radioactive waste is managed in a manner that protects the environment and personnel and public health and safety. The manual (DOE Order 435.1 Manual) implementing the Order states that a disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility. In fulfillment of the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds. The disposal authorization statement constitutes approval of the performance assessment and composite analysis, authorizes operation of the facility, and includes conditions that the disposal facility must meet. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds be written and approved by the DOE-RL. The monitoring plan is to be updated and implemented within 1 year following issuance of the disposal authorization statement to

  15. INITIAL SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The ''Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site [1] (SST PA) presents the analysis of the long-term impacts of residual wastes assumed to remain after retrieval of tank waste and closure of the SST farms at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SST PA supports key elements of the closure process agreed upon in 2004 by DOE, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The SST PA element is defined in Appendix I of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) [2], the document that establishes the overall closure process for the SST and double-shell tank (DST) systems. The approach incorporated in the SST PA integrates substantive features of both hazardous and radioactive waste management regulations into a single analysis. The defense-in-depth approach used in this analysis defined two major engineering barriers (a surface barrier and the grouted tank structure) and one natural barrier (the vadose zone) that will be relied on to control waste release into the accessible environment and attain expected performance metrics. The analysis evaluates specific barrier characteristics and other site features that influence contaminant migration by the various pathways. A ''reference'' case and a suite of sensitivity/uncertainty cases are considered. The ''reference case'' evaluates environmental impacts assuming central tendency estimates of site conditions. ''Reference'' case analysis results show residual tank waste impacts on nearby groundwater, air resources; or inadvertent intruders to be well below most important performance objectives. Conversely, past releases to the soil, from previous tank farm operations, are shown to have groundwater impacts that re significantly above most performance objectives. Sensitivity/uncertainty cases examine single and multiple parameter variability along with plausible alternatives

  16. Savannah River Site plan for performing maintenance in Federal Facility Agreement areas (O and M Plan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Site was placed on the National Priority List (NPL) in December 1989 and became subject to comprehensive remediation in accordance with CERCLA. The FFA, effective August 16, 1993, establishes the requirements for Site investigation and remediation of releases and potential releases of hazardous substances, and interim status corrective action for releases of hazardous wastes or hazardous constituents. It was determined that further direction was needed for the Operating Departments regarding operation and maintenance activities within those areas listed in the FFA. The Plan for Performing Maintenance (O and M Plan) provides this additional direction. Section 4.0 addresses the operation and maintenance activities necessary for continued operation of the facilities in areas identified as RCRA/CERCLA Units or Site Evaluation Areas. Certain types of the O and M activity could be construed as a remedial or removal action. The intent of this Plan is to provide direction for conducting operation and maintenance activities that are not intended to be remedial or removal actions. The Plan identifies the locations of the units and areas, defines intrusive O and M activities, classifies the intrusive activity as either minor or major, and identifies the requirements, approvals, and documentation necessary to perform the activity in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; and minimizes any potential impact to any future removal and remedial actions

  17. Preparation and investigation of nano-AlN lubricant with high performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Yu; Tao, Yuxiao; Wang, Biaobing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 201326 (China); Tai, Yanlong, E-mail: ytai@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A new kind of macromolecular coupling agent (LMW-a-PP-g-MAH) of maleic anhydride (MAH) onto low-molecular-weight atactic polypropylene (LMW-a-PP) was synthesized according to molecular design and was used as modifier for surface modification of nano-Aluminum nitride (AlN) by a high-pressure homogenization (HPH) process. IR was conducted to confirm the chemical structure of the step products of LMW-a-PP-g-MAH. The availability as a modifier for surface modification of nano-AlN was distinguished by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle experiments and the dispersion stability in dimethylbenzene and Greatwall lubrication oil. It can be inferred that the optimal loading is 10 wt. %–12 wt. % of LMW-a-PP-g-MAH to modify nano-AlN particles. Nano-AlN lubricating composite materials (LMW-a-PP-g-MAH-AlN) was used to improve the antifriction performance and the load capability of Greatwall lubrication oil, and maximum non-seizure load (P{sub B}) can increase highly from 1000 N to 1490 N when the loading is 0.3 wt. %. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of macromolecular coupling agent (a-PP-g-MAH). • Surface modification and characterization of nano-AlN by HPH process. • Preparation and investigation of nano-AlN/lubricating oil with high performance.

  18. Effect of preparation methods on dispersion stability and electrochemical performance of graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li, E-mail: chenli1981@lut.cn; Li, Na; Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Pinnan; Lin, Zhengping

    2017-05-15

    Chemical exfoliation is one of the most important strategies for preparing graphene. The aggregation of graphene sheets severely prevents graphene from exhibiting excellent properties. However, there are no attempts to investigate the effect of preparation methods on the dispersity of graphene sheets. In this study, three chemical exfoliation methods, including Hummers method, modified Hummers method, and improved method, were used to prepare graphene sheets. The influence of preparation methods on the structure, dispersion stability in organic solvents, and electrochemical properties of graphene sheets were investigated. Fourier transform infrared microscopy, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and UV–vis spectrophotometry were employed to analyze the structure of the as-prepared graphene sheets. The results showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits excellent dispersity and stability in organic solvents without any additional stabilizer or modifier, which is attributed to the completely exfoliation and regular structure. Moreover, cyclic voltammetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits superior electrochemical properties than that prepared by the other two methods. - Graphical abstract: Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three methods, and then graphene with different crystal structures were created by chemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxides. - Highlights: • Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three oxidation methods. • The influence of oxidation methods on microstructure of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on dispersion stability of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on electrochemical properties of graphene was discussed.

  19. Effect of preparation methods on dispersion stability and electrochemical performance of graphene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Li, Na; Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Pinnan; Lin, Zhengping

    2017-01-01

    Chemical exfoliation is one of the most important strategies for preparing graphene. The aggregation of graphene sheets severely prevents graphene from exhibiting excellent properties. However, there are no attempts to investigate the effect of preparation methods on the dispersity of graphene sheets. In this study, three chemical exfoliation methods, including Hummers method, modified Hummers method, and improved method, were used to prepare graphene sheets. The influence of preparation methods on the structure, dispersion stability in organic solvents, and electrochemical properties of graphene sheets were investigated. Fourier transform infrared microscopy, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and UV–vis spectrophotometry were employed to analyze the structure of the as-prepared graphene sheets. The results showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits excellent dispersity and stability in organic solvents without any additional stabilizer or modifier, which is attributed to the completely exfoliation and regular structure. Moreover, cyclic voltammetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits superior electrochemical properties than that prepared by the other two methods. - Graphical abstract: Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three methods, and then graphene with different crystal structures were created by chemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxides. - Highlights: • Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three oxidation methods. • The influence of oxidation methods on microstructure of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on dispersion stability of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on electrochemical properties of graphene was discussed.

  20. Guidelines for radiological performance assessment of DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Otis, M.D.

    1988-07-01

    This document provides guidance for conducting radiological performance assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The guidance is specifically intended to provide the fundamental approach necessary to meet the performance assessment requirements. The document is written for LLW facility operators or other personnel who will manage the performance assessment task. The document is meant to provide guidance for conducting performance assessments in a generally consistent manner at all DOE LLW disposal facilities. The guidance includes a summary of performance objectives to be met by LLW disposal facilities (these objectives are derived from current DOE and other applicable federal regulatory guidelines); specific criteria for an adequate performance assessment and from which a minimum set of required calculations may be determined; recommendations of methods for screening critical components of the analysis system so that these components can be addressed in detail; recommendations for the selection of existing models and the development of site-specific models; recommendations of techniques for comparison of assessment results with performance objectives; and a summary of reporting requirements

  1. HIV misdiagnosis in sub-Saharan Africa: performance of diagnostic algorithms at six testing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosack, Cara S.; Shanks, Leslie; Beelaert, Greet; Benson, Tumwesigye; Savane, Aboubacar; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Andre, Bita; Zahinda, Jean-Paul BN; Fransen, Katrien; Page, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of HIV testing algorithms at six programmes in five sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: In this prospective multisite diagnostic evaluation study (Conakry, Guinea; Kitgum, Uganda; Arua, Uganda; Homa Bay, Kenya; Doula, Cameroun and Baraka, Democratic Republic of Congo), samples from clients (greater than equal to five years of age) testing for HIV were collected and compared to a state-of-the-art algorithm from the AIDS reference laboratory at the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium. The reference algorithm consisted of an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay, a line-immunoassay, a single antigen-enzyme immunoassay and a DNA polymerase chain reaction test. Results: Between August 2011 and January 2015, over 14,000 clients were tested for HIV at 6 HIV counselling and testing sites. Of those, 2786 (median age: 30; 38.1% males) were included in the study. Sensitivity of the testing algorithms ranged from 89.5% in Arua to 100% in Douala and Conakry, while specificity ranged from 98.3% in Doula to 100% in Conakry. Overall, 24 (0.9%) clients, and as many as 8 per site (1.7%), were misdiagnosed, with 16 false-positive and 8 false-negative results. Six false-negative specimens were retested with the on-site algorithm on the same sample and were found to be positive. Conversely, 13 false-positive specimens were retested: 8 remained false-positive with the on-site algorithm. Conclusions: The performance of algorithms at several sites failed to meet expectations and thresholds set by the World Health Organization, with unacceptably high rates of false results. Alongside the careful selection of rapid diagnostic tests and the validation of algorithms, strictly observing correct procedures can reduce the risk of false results. In the meantime, to identify false-positive diagnoses at initial testing, patients should be retested upon initiating antiretroviral therapy. PMID:28691437

  2. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N.; Price, L.L.; Olague, N.E.

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions

  3. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, L.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions.

  4. Versatile High-Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes Prepared using Trimethylsilyl Cellulose as a Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2018-05-01

    Cellulose has emerged as an indispensable membrane material due to its abundant availability, low cost, fascinating physiochemical properties and environment benignancy. However, it is believed that the potential of this polymer is not fully explored yet due to its insolubility in the common organic solvents, encouraging the use of derivatization-regeneration method as a viable alternative to the direct dissolution in exotic or reactive solvents. In this work, we use trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC), a highly soluble cellulose derivative, as a precursor for the fabrication of cellulose thin film composite membranes. TMSC is an attractive precursor to assemble thin cellulose films with good deposition behavior and film morphology; cumbersome solvents used in the one step cellulose processing are avoided. This derivative is prepared from cellulose by the known silylation reaction. The complete transformation of TMSC back into cellulose after the membrane formation is carried out by vapor-phase acid treatment, which is simple, scalable and reproducible. This process along with the initial TMSC concentration determines the membrane sieving characteristics. Unlike the typical regenerated cellulose membranes with meso- or macropores, membranes regenerated from TMSC display micropores suitable for the selective separation of nanomolecules in aqueous and organic solvent nanofiltration. The membranes introduced in this thesis represent the first polymeric membranes ever reported for highly selective separation of similarly sized small organic molecules based on charge and size differences with outstanding fluxes. Owing to its strong hydrophilic and amorphous character, the membranes also demonstrate excellent air-dehumidification performance as compared to previously reported thin film composite membranes. Moreover, the use of TMSC enables the creation of the previously unfeasible cellulose–polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and cellulose–polyethyleneimine (PEI) blend membranes

  5. Assessment of radiation impact on the environment components while preparing for construction site of centralized storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (CSSNF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovs'kij, L.Yi.; Gorodets'kij, D.V.; Syizov, A.O.; Kholodyuk, A.O.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive assessment of radiation impacts on the air environment, soil cover, staff, which is located in a residential area, staff of an adjacent to the CSSNF enterprises as a result of work to prepare the site for construction of CSSNF at the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone is presented. It is shown that radiation effects on components of the environment will not result in exceeding the reference levels of radiation safety

  6. Postclosure performance assessment of the SCP [Site Characterization Plan] conceptual design for horizontal emplacement: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report is a preliminary postclosure performance assessment of the repository design specified in the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (SCP-CDR) for horizontal emplacement of high-level nuclear waste. At the time that these analyses were done, horizontal emplacement was the preferred orientation for the waste packages but vertical emplacement is now the reference design. This assessment consists of (1) a review of the regulatory requirements and strategy to demonstrate compliance with these requirements, (2) an analysis of the performance of the total repository system, (3) an analysis of the thermomechanical behavior of the repository, (4) an analysis of brine mobility in the repository, (5) an analysis of the waste package performance, (6) an analysis of the performance of seals, and (7) comments on the sensitivity of the various performance measures to uncertainties in the data and models. These are preliminary analyses and, in most cases, involve bounding calculations of the repository behavior. They have several purposes including (1) assessing how well this conceptual design ''measures up'' against requirements, (2) gaining experience in implementing the performance assessment strategy and tools and thereby learning where improvements are needed, (3) helping to identify needed data, and (4) helping to indicate required design modifications. 26 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  7. Evaluation of JULES-crop performance against site observations of irrigated maize from Mead, Nebraska

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Karina; Gornall, Jemma; Harper, Anna; Wiltshire, Andy; Hemming, Debbie; Quaife, Tristan; Arkebauer, Tim; Scoby, David

    2016-01-01

    The JULES-crop model (Osborne et al., 2015) is a parameterisation of crops within the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), which aims to simulate both the impact of weather and climate on crop productivity and the impact of crop-lands on weather and climate. In this evaluation paper, observations of maize at three FLUXNET sites in Nebraska (US-Ne1, US-Ne2, US-Ne3) are used to test model assumptions and make appropriate input parameter choices. JULES runs are performed for the irrigate...

  8. Internationally Standardized Reporting (Checklist) on the Sustainable Development Performance of Uranium Mining and Processing Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Internationally Standardized Reporting Checklist on the Sustainable Development Performance of Uranium Mining and Processing Sites: • A mutual and beneficial work between a core group of uranium miners and nuclear utilities; • An approach based on an long term experience, international policies and sustainable development principles; • A process to optimize the reporting mechanism, tools and efforts; • 11 sections focused on the main sustainable development subject matters known at an operational and headquarter level. The WNA will make available the sustainable development checklist for member utilities and uranium suppliers. Utilities and suppliers are encouraged to use the checklist for sustainable development verification.

  9. Preparation of porous Al2O3-Ti-C perform by combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Granat

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Using combustion synthesis porous ceramic preforms for composite reinforcing were produced. Prepared mixture of alumina Saffilfibres, Ti powder and graphite flakes, after drying were placed in waveguide of microwave reactor. Supplied with constant power of 540Wmagnetron ignited and maintained reaction in flowing stream of CO2 gas. Al2O3 fibres should improve preliminary endurance of perform,whereas Ti powder processed to hard titanium carbides and oxides. During microwave heating ignited plasma additionally improveprocess and partly fused metallic Ti. Recorded temperature curves were similar for various samples. The highest synthesis temperature revealed samples containing 10% of Al2O3 , 10% of Ti and 5% of graphite, all percentages atomic. Microscopic observation showed considerable microstructure inhomogeneity of some samples. Both irregular component ordering and partly processed Ti particles inside preform exclude them for subsequent infiltration. Chemical analyze EDS of Ti based compounds partly confirmed work purpose, evidencing presence of Ti oxides and carbides. Independently of graphite content these compounds formed folded strips around solid or empty volume. Depends on CO2 availability, reaction could be slowed down resulting in more compacted Ti compounds. Created as a result of combustion synthesis Ti compound after infiltration with liquid metal properly bounded with the matrix. It could be assumed that redox reaction proceeded and on surface of Ti compound alumina and Al-Ti compounds were created. The preforms of proper strength and homogeneous structure were infiltrated with AlSi7Mg by squeeze casting method. In relation to typical composite reinforced only with fibres no significant increase of defects quantity was observed. Preliminary examination of mechanical properties confirmed that assumed work purpose is reasonable.

  10. Mechanical performance of styrene-butadiene-rubber filled with carbon nanoparticles prepared by mechanical mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatchi, M.M. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojaei, A., E-mail: akbar.shojaei@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We compare influence of carbon blacks and carbon nanotube on properties of SBR. {yields} We model mechanical behavior of SBR nanocomposites by the micromechanical model. {yields} Mechanical properties of carbon black/SBR is greatly dominated by bound rubber. {yields} Mechanical properties of SBR/nanotube is governed by big aspect ratio of nanotube. - Abstract: Reinforcement of styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) was investigated using two different carbon blacks (CBs) with similar particle sizes, including highly structured CB and conventional CB, as well as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) prepared by mechanical mixing. The attempts were made to examine reinforcing mechanism of these two different classes of carbon nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurement were used to investigate morphology. Tensile, cyclic tensile and stress relaxation analyses were performed. A modified Halpin-Tsai model based on the concept of an equivalent composite particle, consisting of rubber bound, occluded rubber and nanoparticle, was proposed. It was found that properties of CB filled SBR are significantly dominated by rubber shell and occluded rubber in which molecular mobility is strictly restricted. At low strains, these rubber constituents can contribute in hydrodynamic effects, leading to higher elastic modulus. However, at higher strains, they contribute in stress hardening resulting in higher elongation at break and higher tensile strength. These elastomeric regions can also influence stress relaxation behaviors of CB filled rubber. For SBR/MWCNT, the extremely great inherent mechanical properties of nanotube along with its big aspect ratio were postulated to be responsible for the reinforcement while their interfacial interaction was not so efficient.

  11. Long term effects of wet site timber harvesting and site preparation on soil properties and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity in the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Neaves III, Charles Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Short term studies have suggested that ground based timber harvesting on wet sites can alter soil properties and inhibit early survival and growth of seedlings. Persistence of such negative effects may translate to losses in forest productivity over a rotation. During the fall and winter of 1989, numerous salvage logging operations were conducted during high soil moisture conditions on wet pine flats in the lower coastal plain of South Carolina following Hurricane Hugo. A long-term experim...

  12. High Dehumidification Performance of Amorphous Cellulose Composite Membranes prepared from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    KAUST Repository

    Puspasari, Tiara; Akhtar, Faheem Hassan; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Alharbi, Ohoud; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2018-01-01

    Cellulose is widely regarded as an environmentally friendly, natural and low cost material which can significantly contribute the sustainable economic growth. In this study, cellulose composite membranes were prepared via regeneration

  13. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe Site: 3. Predictions of hydrogeological parameters for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.E.

    1996-12-01

    A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Predicted parameters for the near field include fracture spacing, fracture aperture, and Darcy velocity at each of forty canister deposition holes. Parameters for the far field include discharge location, Darcy velocity, effective longitudinal dispersion coefficient and head gradient, flow porosity, and flow wetted surface, for each canister source that discharges to the biosphere. Results are presented in the form of statistical summaries for a total of 42 calculation cases, which treat a set of 25 model variants in various combinations. The variants for the SITE-94 Reference Case model address conceptual and parametric uncertainty related to the site-scale hydrogeologic model and its properties, the fracture network within the repository, effective semi regional boundary conditions for the model, and the disturbed-rock zone around the repository tunnels and shafts. Two calculation cases simulate hydrologic conditions that are predicted to occur during future glacial episodes. 30 refs

  14. Synthesis of robust and high-performance aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes by interfacial polymerization-membrane preparation and RO performance characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yang; Qiu, Changquan; Li, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    -free ABMs that can be easily scaled up. In the current study, a thin film composite (TFC) ABM was prepared by the interfacial polymerization method, where AquaporinZ-containing proteoliposomes were added to the m-phenylene-diamine aqueous solution. Control membranes, either without aquaporins......Aquaporins are water channel proteins with excellent water permeability and solute rejection, which makes them promising for preparing high-performance biomimetic membranes. Despite the growing interest in aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes (ABMs), it is challenging to produce robust and defect...... or with inactive (mutant) aquaporins, were also similarly prepared. The separation performance of these membranes was evaluated by cross-flow reverse osmosis (RO) tests. Compared to the controls, the active ABM achieved significantly higher water permeability (∼4L/m2hbar) with comparable NaCl rejection (∼97...

  15. The Performance of Early-Generation Perennial Winter Cereals at 21 Sites across Four Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Hayes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A network of 21 experiments was established across nine countries on four continents and spanning both hemispheres, to evaluate the relative performance of early generation perennial cereal material derived from wheat, rye, and barley and to inform future breeding strategies. The experimental lines were grown in replicated single rows, and first year production and phenology characteristics as well as yield and persistence for up to three years were monitored. The study showed that the existing experimental material is all relatively short-lived (≤3 years, with environments that are milder in summer and winter generally conferring greater longevity. No pedigree was superior across this diverse network of sites although better performing lines at the higher latitude sites were generally derived from Thinopyrum intermedium. By contrast, at lower latitudes the superior lines were generally derived from Th. ponticum and Th. elongatum parentage. The study observed a poor relationship between year 1 performance and productivity in later years, highlighting the need for perennial cereal material with greater longevity to underpin future experimental evaluation, and the importance for breeding programs to emphasize post-year 1 performance in their selections. Hybrid lines derived from the tetraploid durum wheat generally showed greater longevity than derivatives of hexaploid wheat, highlighting potential for greater use of Triticum turgidum in perennial wheat breeding. We advocate a model in future breeding initiatives that develops perennial cereal genotypes for specific target environments rather than a generic product for one global market. These products may include a diversity of cultivars derived from locally adapted annual and perennial parents. In this scenario the breeding program may have access to only a limited range of adapted perennial grass parents. In other situations, such as at very high latitude environments, perennial crops derived

  16. Summary of operations and performance of the Murdock site restoration project in 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-06-04

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater and surface water restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Murdock, Nebraska, during the third full year of system operation, from January 1 through December 31, 2008. Performance in June 2005 through December 2007 was reported previously (Argonne 2007, 2008). In the Murdock project, several innovative technologies are being used to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town, as well as from water naturally discharged to the surface at the headwaters of a small creek (a tributary to Pawnee Creek) north of the town (Figure 1.1). The restoration activities at Murdock are being conducted by the CCC/USDA as a non-time-critical removal action under the regulatory authority and supervision of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII. Argonne National Laboratory assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the restoration effort and facilities during this review period. Included in this report are the results of all sampling and monitoring activities performed in accord with the EPA-approved Monitoring Plan for this site (Argonne 2006), as well as additional investigative activities conducted during the review period. The annual performance reports for the Murdock project assemble information that will become part of the five-year review and evaluation of the remediation effort. This review will occur in 2010. This document presents overviews of the treatment facilities (Section 2) and site operations and activities (Section 3), then describes the groundwater, surface water, vegetation, and atmospheric monitoring results (Section 4) and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 5). Section 6 summarizes the current period of operation. A gallery of photographs of the Murdock project is in Appendix A.

  17. Time-dependent performance of soil mix technology stabilized/solidified contaminated site soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Hailing; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2015-04-09

    This paper presents the strength and leaching performance of stabilized/solidified organic and inorganic contaminated site soil as a function of time and the effectiveness of modified clays applied in this project. Field trials of deep soil mixing application of stabilization/solidification (S/S) were performed at a site in Castleford in 2011. A number of binders and addictives were applied in this project including Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS), pulverised fuel ash (PFA), MgO and modified clays. Field trial samples were subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS), BS CN 12457 batch leaching test and the extraction of total organics at 28 days and 1.5 years after treatment. The results of UCS test show that the average strength values of mixes increased from 0-3250 kPa at 28 days to 250-4250 kPa at 1.5 years curing time. The BS EN 12457 leachate concentrations of all metals were well below their drinking water standard, except Ni in some mixes exceed its drinking water standard at 0.02 mg/l, suggesting that due to varied nature of binders, not all of them have the same efficiency in treating contaminated soil. The average leachate concentrations of total organics were in the range of 20-160 mg/l at 28 days after treatment and reduced to 18-140 mg/l at 1.5 years. In addition, organo clay (OC)/inorgano-organo clay (IOC) slurries used in this field trial were found to have a negative effect on the strength development, but were very effective in immobilizing heavy metals. The study also illustrates that the surfactants used to modify bentonite in this field trail were not suitable for the major organic pollutants exist in the site soil in this project. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Summary of operations and performance of the Murdock site restoration project in June 2005-December 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-05-31

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater and surface water restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Murdock, Nebraska, during the initial period of systems operation, from June 2005 through December 2006. In the Murdock project, several innovative technologies are being used to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town, as well as from water naturally discharged to the surface at the headwaters of a small creek (a tributary to Pawnee Creek) north of the town (Figure 1.1). The restoration activities at Murdock are being conducted by the CCC/USDA as a non-time-critical removal action under the regulatory authority and supervision of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII. Argonne National Laboratory assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the restoration effort and facilities during this review period. Included in this report are the results of all sampling and monitoring activities performed in accord with the EPA-approved Monitoring Plan for this site (Argonne 2006), as well as additional investigative activities conducted during the review period. This document presents overviews of the treatment facilities (Section 2) and site operations and activities (Section 3), then describes the groundwater, surface water, vegetation, and atmospheric monitoring results (Section 4) and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 5). Section 6 summarizes the initial period of operation.

  19. Ligand Binding Site Detection by Local Structure Alignment and Its Performance Complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui Sun; Im, Wonpil

    2013-01-01

    Accurate determination of potential ligand binding sites (BS) is a key step for protein function characterization and structure-based drug design. Despite promising results of template-based BS prediction methods using global structure alignment (GSA), there is a room to improve the performance by properly incorporating local structure alignment (LSA) because BS are local structures and often similar for proteins with dissimilar global folds. We present a template-based ligand BS prediction method using G-LoSA, our LSA tool. A large benchmark set validation shows that G-LoSA predicts drug-like ligands’ positions in single-chain protein targets more precisely than TM-align, a GSA-based method, while the overall success rate of TM-align is better. G-LoSA is particularly efficient for accurate detection of local structures conserved across proteins with diverse global topologies. Recognizing the performance complementarity of G-LoSA to TM-align and a non-template geometry-based method, fpocket, a robust consensus scoring method, CMCS-BSP (Complementary Methods and Consensus Scoring for ligand Binding Site Prediction), is developed and shows improvement on prediction accuracy. The G-LoSA source code is freely available at http://im.bioinformatics.ku.edu/GLoSA. PMID:23957286

  20. Low-level waste disposal site performance assessment with the RQ/PQ methodology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Grant, M.W.; Sutherland, A.A.

    1982-12-01

    A methodology called RQ/PQ (retention quotient/performance quotient) has been developed for relating the potential hazard of radioactive waste to the natural and man-made barriers provided by a disposal facility. The methodology utilizes a systems approach to quantify the safety of low-level waste disposed in a near-surface facility. The main advantages of the RQ/PQ methodology are its simplicity of analysis and clarity of presentation while still allowing a comprehensive set of nuclides and pathways to be treated. Site performance and facility designs for low-level waste disposal can be easily investigated with relatively few parameters needed to define the problem. Application of the methodology has revealed that the key factor affecting the safety of low-level waste disposal in near surface facilities is the potential for intrusion events. Food, inhalation and well water pathways dominate in the analysis of such events. While the food and inhalation pathways are not strongly site-dependent, the well water pathway is. Finally, burial at depths of 5 m or more was shown to reduce the impacts from intrusion events

  1. Performance of Food Safety Management Systems in Poultry Meat Preparation Processing Plants in Relation to Campylobacter spp. Contamination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampers, I.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Dumoulin, F.H.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the

  2. Improved electrochemical performances of CuO nanotube array prepared via electrodeposition as anode for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: CuO nanotube array electrodes prepared by electrodeposition method exhibit an excellent lithium ion storage ability as anode of Li-ion battery. - Highlights: • CuO nanotube arrays are synthesized by an electrodeposition method. • CuO nanotube shows a high-rate performance. • CuO nanotube shows an excellent cycling performance. - Abstract: We report a facile strategy to prepared CuO nanotube arrays directly grown on Cu plate through the electrodeposition method. The as-prepared CuO nanotubes show a quasi-cylinder nanostructure with internal diameters of ca. ∼100 nm, external diameters of ca. ∼120 nm, and average length of ∼3 μm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the CuO nanotube arrays are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Due to the unique nanotube nanostructure, the as-prepared CuO electrodes exhibit good rate performance (550 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 464 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C) and cycling performance (581 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 538 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 C)

  3. Use of a holder-vacuum tube device to save on-site hands in preparing urine samples for head-space gas-chromatography, and its application to determine the time allowance for sample sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Toshio; Sumino, Kimiaki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate urine sample preparation prior to head-space gas-chromatographic (HS-GC) analysis. Urine samples containing one of the five solvents (acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and toluene) at the levels of biological exposure limits were aspirated into a vacuum tube via holder, a device commercially available for venous blood collection (the vacuum tube method). The urine sample, 5 ml, was quantitatively transferred to a 20-ml head-space vial prior to HS-GC analysis. The loaded tubes were stored at +4 ℃ in dark for up to 3 d. The vacuum tube method facilitated on-site procedures of urine sample preparation for HS-GC with no significant loss of solvents in the sample and no need of skilled hands, whereas on-site sample preparation time was significantly reduced. Furthermore, no loss of solvents was detected during the 3-d storage, irrespective of hydrophilic (acetone) or lipophilic solvent (toluene). In a pilot application, high performance of the vacuum tube method in sealing a sample in an air-tight space succeeded to confirm that no solvent will be lost when sealing is completed within 5 min after urine voiding, and that the allowance time is as long as 30 min in case of toluene in urine. The use of the holder-vacuum tube device not only saves hands for transfer of the sample to air-tight space, but facilitates sample storage prior to HS-GC analysis.

  4. Optimization and development of a high-performance liquid chromatography-based one-site immunometric assay with chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, Matthew R.; Clarke, William; Zimlich, Alden; Hage, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Various practical and theoretical considerations were examined in the creation and optimization of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based one-site immunometric assay. This method used an HPLC analyte analog column and post-column chemiluminescence detection. The specific analyte chosen as the model for this study was L-thyroxine (also known as T 4 ). In this technique, a sample containing thyroxine was first combined with an excess of anti-T 4 antibody Fab fragments that had earlier been conjugated with chemiluminescent acridinium ester labels. After incubation, the mixture was injected onto a column that contained immobilized T 4 . The amount of thyroxine in the original sample was then determined by measuring the labeled Fab fragments that appeared in the non-retained fraction, or the decrease in excess Fab fragments that were bound to and later eluted from the column. Items considered in creating this assay included the preparation of acridinium ester-labeled Fab fragments, the detection of these fragments with a post-column reactor, and the creation of a suitable immobilized analog column for capturing excess labeled Fab fragments. The final method could measure T 4 in standards at clinically-relevant concentrations and provided a response within 1.5 min of sample injection, following a 20-45 min incubation with the labeled Fab fragments. Possible applications of this method include its use in clinical chemistry and the screening of proteomic or combinatorial libraries

  5. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedures for maintenance site: application to replacement of steam generator; Propositions d'organisation et procedures ALARA pour la preparation des chantiers de maintenance: application au RGV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, J; Lefaure, C

    1989-08-01

    This report proposes generic organization and ALARA procedures for preparing a maintenance site at a NPP. After a short description of the ALARA principle, it describes the proposition for French sites. They are grouped according to the following: motivation, organisation, means. They are illustrated by the example of steam generator replacement. Three special points concerning preparation of the site are developed: education; training of operators; review of the project.

  6. Sample preparation of environmental samples using benzene synthesis followed by high-performance LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippis, S. De; Noakes, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) techniques have been widely employed as the detection method for determining environmental levels of tritium and 14 C. Since anthropogenic and nonanthropogenic inputs to the environment are a concern, sampling the environment surrounding a nuclear power facility or fuel reprocessing operation requires the collection of many different sample types, including agriculture products, water, biota, aquatic life, soil, and vegetation. These sample types are not suitable for the direct detection of tritium of 14 C for liquid scintillation techniques. Each sample type must be initially prepared in order to obtain the carbon or hydrogen component of interest and present this in a chemical form that is compatible with common chemicals used in scintillation counting applications. Converting the sample of interest to chemically pure benzene as a sample preparation technique has been widely accepted for processing samples for radiocarbon age-dating applications. The synthesized benzene is composed of the carbon or hydrogen atoms from the original sample and is ideal as a solvent for LSC with excellent photo-optical properties. Benzene synthesis followed by low-background scintillation counting can be applied to the preparation and measurement of environmental samples yielding good detection sensitivities, high radionuclide counting efficiency, and shorter preparation time. The method of benzene synthesis provides a unique approach to the preparation of a wide variety of environmental sample types using similar chemistry for all samples

  7. Different paths to high-quality care: three archetypes of top-performing practice sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifer, Chris; Nemeth, Lynne; Nietert, Paul J; Wessell, Andrea M; Jenkins, Ruth G; Roylance, Loraine; Ornstein, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    Primary care practices use different approaches in their quest for high-quality care. Previous work in the Practice Partner Research Network (PPRNet) found that improved outcomes are associated with strategies to prioritize performance, involve staff, redesign elements of the delivery system, make patients active partners in guideline adherence, and use tools embedded in the electronic medical record. The aim of this study was to examine variations in the adoption of improvements among sites achieving the best outcomes. This study used an observational case study design. A practice-level measure of adherence to clinical guidelines was used to identify the highest performing practices in a network of internal and family medicine practices participating in a national demonstration project. We analyzed qualitative and quantitative information derived from project documents, field notes, and evaluation questionnaires to develop and compare case studies. Nine cases are described. All use many of the same improvement strategies. Differences in the way improvements are organized define 3 distinct archetypes: the Technophiles, the Motivated Team, and the Care Enterprise. There is no single approach that explains the superior performance of high-performing practices, though each has adopted variations of PPRNet's improvement model. Practices will vary in their path to high-quality care. The archetypes could prove to be a useful guide to other practices selecting an overall quality improvement approach.

  8. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) for low-level waste disposal facilities. In fulfillment of these requirements, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area burial grounds and the 200 West Area burial grounds. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area low-level burial grounds be written and approved by the Richland Operations Office. As a result of a record of decision for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Program and acceptance of the Hanford Site Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement, the use of the low-level burial ground (LLBG) as a disposal facility for low-level and mixed low-level wastes has been restricted to lined trenches and the Navy reactor-compartment trench only. Hence, as of July 2004, only the two lined trenches in burial ground 218-W-5 (trenches 31 and 34, see Appendix A) and the Navy reactor-compartment trench in burial ground 218 E 12B (trench 94) are allowed to receive waste. When the two lined trenches are filled, the LLBG will cease to operate except for reactor compartment disposal at trench 94. Remaining operational lifetime of the LLBG is dependent on waste volume disposal rates. Existing programs for air sampling and analyses and subsidence monitoring are currently adequate for performance assessment at the LLBG. The waste disposal authorization for the Hanford Site is based (in part) on the post-closure performance assessments for the LLBG. In order to maintain a useful link between operational monitoring (e.g., Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA], Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, and State Waste Discharge Permits), constituents, monitoring frequencies, and boundaries require

  9. Preparation and performance of ZnO/Polyaniline nano-composite for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.P.; Chang, X.C.; Wang, Z.M.; Han, K.F.; Zhu, H. [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China). School of Science

    2010-07-01

    Supercapacitors combine the advantages of traditional capacitors and batteries. In this study, a zinc oxide (ZnO-PANI) nano-composite material was fabricated in order to investigate its behaviour in a supercapacitor application. The ZnO nano-powder was synthesized using the sol-gel method. An inverted emulsion polymerization method was then used to prepare the ZnO/PANI nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses demonstrated that the prepared ZnO had a hexagonal structure. The ZnO/PANI composite electrode was prepared. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses indicated that the nano-composite material functioned well as an electrode. The highest capacitance rating achieved by the electrode was 31.82 F per g. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded preparations from human isolates in unusual tissue sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizem, A; M'rad, S; Oudni-M'rad, M; Mestiri, S; Hammedi, F; Mezhoud, H; Zakhama, A; Mokni, M; Babba, H

    2016-07-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus remains a serious problem worldwide for issues relating to public health and the economy. The most predominantly affected sites are the liver and the lungs, but other organs such as the heart, the spleen and the peritoneum can also be infected. Access to cysts from uncommon sites has limited genomic and molecular investigations. In the present study, genotypes of E. granulosus sensu lato were identified from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FF-PETs) implicated in human CE. Tissue samples were obtained from 57 patients with histologically confirmed CE. DNA samples were analysed using Egss 1 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific to the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of E. granulosus sensu stricto. All cysts were typed as E. granulosus sensu stricto with up to 35% of the liver and 16.6% of lungs being the most frequently infected, and up to 48.4% of samples being from rare sites. No correlation was found between cyst site and either the gender or the age of patients. This study demonstrates the possibility of exploiting atypical cysts using FF-PET samples and highlights the predominance of E. granulosus sensu stricto species in the Tunisian population, even in unusual infection sites.

  11. Preparative isolation by high performance liquid chromatography of human insulin B chain produced in escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, N.; Antonio, S.; De Anda, R.; Gosset, G.; Bolivar, F. (Centro de Investigacion sobre Ingenieria Genetica y Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 510-3 Cuernavaca, Mor. 62271 (MX))

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple method developed for the analytical and preparative purification of human insulin B chain from recombinant origin. Three solvent systems: acetonitrile, isopropanol and methanol, were studied to determine their capacity to resolve the insulin B chain from a mixture of cyanogen bromide generated bacterial peptides. Using a {mu}Bondapak C18 column, it was possible to resolve the insulin B chain in all three systems. On a preparative scale, using a PrePak 500 C18 column with the isopropanol system, it was possible to purify insulin B chain and to obtain a 95% protein recovery.

  12. Effect of the solvent in the catalyst ink preparation on the properties and performance of unsupported PtRu catalyst layers in direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaide, Francisco; Álvarez, Garbiñe; Cabot, Pere L.; Genova-Koleva, Radostina; Grande, Hans-Jürgen; Miguel, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the organic solvent polarity on the properties of unsupported PtRu catalyst inks and on the performance of the catalyst layers prepared with them for the methanol electrooxidation, has been studied. The light scattering results indicate that the PtRu-Nafion ® aggregates in the inks prepared with n-butyl acetate (NBA) are larger than those prepared with 2-propanol (IPA). The lower polarity of the former favours the aggregation of Nafion ® and nanoparticles. The electron microscopy images and porosimetry measurements of the catalyst layers show that the secondary pore volume between the agglomerates is larger for NBA. The linear sweep voltammetry and eis results for the methanol electrooxidation in the three-electrode cell denote the higher active surface area for NBA and comparable specific oxidation rates of the intermediates in both catalysts layers. The current densities for PtRu anode catalyst layers in single DMFC are higher when the solvent is NBA, the mass transport limitations being much more apparent with IPA. The adapted transmission line equivalent circuit to interpret the impedance results in single DMFC indicates that the proton resistance for NBA is significantly lower than for IPA, thus suggesting that the greater number of accessible active sites for methanol oxidation in the former are well connected to the Nafion ® ionomers and easier transported to the membrane.

  13. Site-specific seismic probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis: performances and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Volpe, Manuela; Lorito, Stefano; Selva, Jacopo; Orefice, Simone; Graziani, Laura; Brizuela, Beatriz; Smedile, Alessandra; Romano, Fabrizio; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Maramai, Alessandra; Piatanesi, Alessio; Pantosti, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Seismic Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (SPTHA) provides probabilities to exceed different thresholds of tsunami hazard intensity, at a specific site or region and in a given time span, for tsunamis caused by seismic sources. Results obtained by SPTHA (i.e., probabilistic hazard curves and inundation maps) represent a very important input to risk analyses and land use planning. However, the large variability of source parameters implies the definition of a huge number of potential tsunami scenarios, whose omission could lead to a biased analysis. Moreover, tsunami propagation from source to target requires the use of very expensive numerical simulations. At regional scale, the computational cost can be reduced using assumptions on the tsunami modeling (i.e., neglecting non-linear effects, using coarse topo-bathymetric meshes, empirically extrapolating maximum wave heights on the coast). On the other hand, moving to local scale, a much higher resolution is required and such assumptions drop out, since detailed inundation maps require significantly greater computational resources. In this work we apply a multi-step method to perform a site-specific SPTHA which can be summarized in the following steps: i) to perform a regional hazard assessment to account for both the aleatory and epistemic uncertainties of the seismic source, by combining the use of an event tree and an ensemble modeling technique; ii) to apply a filtering procedure which use a cluster analysis to define a significantly reduced number of representative scenarios contributing to the hazard of a specific target site; iii) to perform high resolution numerical simulations only for these representative scenarios and for a subset of near field sources placed in very shallow waters and/or whose coseismic displacements induce ground uplift or subsidence at the target. The method is applied to three target areas in the Mediterranean located around the cities of Milazzo (Italy), Thessaloniki (Greece) and

  14. Preparing undergraduates for the future of scientific collaboration: Benefits, challenges and technological solutions in Distributed REU Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, M.; Anagnos, T.

    2012-12-01

    As research problems increasingly require multi-disciplinary approaches they naturally foster scientific collaborations between geographically distributed colleagues. This increasing trend in scientific research, the rapid evolution of communication technology, cognitive research into distance education, and the current generation of undergraduate students' eagerness to embrace and use technology, increases the relevance of distributed REU sites. Like traditional REU sites that host a cohort of students in one geographic location, distributed REU sites also seek to attract, nurture, and retain students in a STEM career pipeline. Distributed REU sites are unique in that some or all of the interns are geographically distributed during the research period. This arrangement allows the REU site to capitalize on distributed scientific resources such as field sites, research facilities, or human capital. At their core, distributed REU sites are fundamentally constructed of elements that have proven to be effective components of any undergraduate research experience. They also strive to develop and employ specialized programming that leverages collaboration tools through a cyberinfrastructure to enable interns to develop meaningful social and academic relationships with one another. Since 2006 the IRIS Consortium and NEES have facilitated separate, NSF funded, distributed REU Sites. Implementation and evaluations of these programs have revealed a number of successes and benefits. Longitudinal tracking indicates that distributed REU Sites are at least as successful as traditional sites in attracting, nurturing, and retaining students in a STEM career pipeline. A distributed arrangement also offers benefits over a traditional REU site, such as the flexibility to place interns at a variety of institutions with mentors making only an annual commitment to participate. This ensures that all mentors are eager to participate and are concerned with their intern's growth. It also

  15. Environmental analysis and data report prepared for the environmental assessment of remedial action at the Lowman uranium mill tailings site near Lowman, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains information and data gathered in support of the preparation of the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lowman, Idaho. The Lowman EA was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the effects of their actions on the environment. It examines the short-term and the long-term effects of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) proposed remedial action for the Lowman site as well as the no action alternative. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented in the EA to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the impacts are not judged to be significant, the DOE may issue a Finding of No Significant Impact and implement the proposed action. The information and data presented in this environmental analyses and data report are for background purposes only and are not required as part of the NEPA decision-making process

  16. Environmental analysis and data report prepared for the environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains information and data gathered in support of the preparation of the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Falls City, Texas. The Falls City EA was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the impacts of their actions on the environment. It examines the short- and long-term effects of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) remedial action for the Falls City site as well as the no action alternative. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented in the EA to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared. If the impacts are not determined to be significant, the DOE may issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and implement the proposed action. The information and data presented in this report are for background purposes only and are not required as part of the NEPA decision-making process

  17. Preparation and characterization of high performance Schiff-base liquid crystal diepoxide polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huan; Fu Zien; Xu Kai; Cai Hualun; Liu Xin; Chen Mingcai

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The specific effects of highly conjugated Schiff-base moiety on thermal properties of the Schiff-base epoxy polymer were proposed first by us. From the point of view of structure-properties relationship, it can be considered that owing to the presence of the Schiff-base group, the high performance liquid crystal diepoxide polymer displayed improved thermal stability. Highlights: ► In this work, we first proposed that specific effects of highly conjugated Schiff-base moiety on thermal properties of the Schiff-base epoxy polymer. ► As one aim of this study, the thermal and thermal-oxidative stabilities of the thermosets were studied by TGA under nitrogen and under air. ► The second aim of this study was to further understand the thermal degradation mechanism. ► For thermal degradation mechanism of this polymer under nitrogen, TG-IR was used to investigate volatile components, and SEM/EDS was used to explore morphologies and chemical components of the residual char. ► From the point of view of structure-properties relationship, it can be considered that owing to the presence of the Schiff-base group, the high performance liquid crystal diepoxide polymer displayed the improved thermal stability. - Abstract: A novel Schiff-base liquid crystal diepoxide polymer was prepared via a thermal copolymerization of a Schiff-base epoxy monomer (PBMBA) with a diamine co-monomer (MDA). We first proposed that specific effects of highly conjugated Schiff-base moiety on thermal properties of the Schiff-base epoxy polymer (PBMBA/MDA). Thermal degradation behavior of the polymer was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen and under air, respectively. Thermogravimetric data obtained from TGA under nitrogen and under air reveal that PBMBA/MDA exhibits higher thermal stability compared with bisphenol-A type epoxy polymer (DGEBA/MDA) and other mesogene-containing epoxy polymer. It is worth pointing out that the outstanding residual

  18. Hydrogen Evolution and Sludge Suspension During the Preparation of the First Batch of Sludge at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.; Lee, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The first batch of High Level Radioactive Sludge for the Defense Waste Processing Facility is being prepared in two 4.9 million liter waste tanks. The preparation involves removing water soluble salts by washing (water addition, sludge suspension, settling and decantation). Sludge suspension is accomplished using long shafted slurry pumps that are mounted on rotating turntables. During the sludge suspension runs in 1993 and 1994, the slurry pumps' cleaning radius was determined to be less than that expected from previous determinations using synthetic sludge in a full size waste tank mockup. Hydrogen concentrations in the tanks' vapor space were monitored during the sludge suspension activities. As expected, the initial agitation of the sludge increased the hydrogen concentration, however, with the controls in place the hydrogen concentration was maintained below seven percent of the lower flammability limit

  19. MnO2 prepared by hydrothermal method and electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Xuan, Zhewen; Zhao, Hongbo; Bai, Yang; Guo, Junming; Su, Chang-Wei; Chen, Xiaokai

    2014-01-01

    Two α-MnO2 crystals with caddice-clew-like and urchin-like morphologies are prepared by the hydrothermal method, and their structure and electrochemical performance are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), galvanostatic cell cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The morphology of the MnO2 prepared under acidic condition is urchin-like, while the one prepared under neutral condition is caddice-clew-like. The identical crystalline phase of MnO2 crystals is essential to evaluate the relationship between electrochemical performances and morphologies for lithium-ion battery application. In this study, urchin-like α-MnO2 crystals with compact structure have better electrochemical performance due to the higher specific capacity and lower impedance. We find that the relationship between electrochemical performance and morphology is different when MnO2 material used as electrochemical supercapacitor or as anode of lithium-ion battery. For lithium-ion battery application, urchin-like MnO2 material has better electrochemical performance.

  20. Surficial geology and performance assessment for a Radioactive Waste Management Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, K.E.; Gustafson, D.L.; Huckins-Gang, H.E.; Miller, J.J.; Rawlinson, S.E.

    1995-02-01

    At the Nevada Test Site, one potentially disruptive scenario being evaluated for the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) Facility Performance Assessment is deep post-closure erosion that would expose buried radioactive waste to the accessible environment. The GCD Facility located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) lies at the juncture of three alluvial fan systems. Geomorphic surface mapping in northern Frenchman Flat indicates that reaches of these fans where the RWMS is now located have been constructional since at least the middle Quaternary. Mapping indicates a regular sequence of prograding fans with entrenchment of the older fan surfaces near the mountain fronts and construction of progressively younger inset fans farther from the mountain fronts. At the facility, the oldest fan surfaces are of late Pleistocene and Holocene age. More recent geomorphic activity has been limited to erosion and deposition along small channels. Trench and pit wall mapping found maximum incision in the vicinity of the RWMS to be less than 1.5 m. Based on collected data, natural geomorphic processes are unlikely to result in erosion to a depth of more than approximately 2 m at the facility within the 10,000-year regulatory period

  1. An automated radiological survey method for performing site remediation and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handy, R.G.; Bolch, W.E.; Harder, G.F.; Tolaymat, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable, computer-based method of performing environmental monitoring and assessment for site remediation and decommissioning has been developed. The integrated system has been developed to provide for survey time reductions and real-time data analysis. The technique utilizes a notebook 486 computer with the necessary hardware and software components that makes it possible to be used in an almost unlimited number of environmental monitoring and assessment scenarios. The results from a pilot, open-quotes hide-and-seekclose quotes gamma survey and an actual alpha decontamination survey were elucidated. It was found that a open-quotes hide-and-seekclose quotes survey could come up with timely and accurate conclusions about the position of the source. The use of the automated system in a Th-232 alpha survey resulted in a reduction in the standard time necessary to do a radiological survey. In addition, the ability to analyze the data on-site allowed for identification and location of areas which needed further decontamination. Finally, a discussion on possible future improvements and field conclusions was made

  2. A report on upgraded seismic monitoring stations in Myanmar: Station performance and site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Hrin Nei; Min Htwe, Yin Myo; Kyaw, Tun Lin; Tun, Pa Pa; Min, Zaw; Htwe, Sun Hninn; Aung, Tin Myo; Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Aung, Myat Min; De Cristofaro, Jason; Franke, Mathias; Radman, Stefan; Lepiten, Elouie; Wolin, Emily; Hough, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar is in a tectonically complex region between the eastern edge of the Himalayan collision zone and the northern end of the Sunda megathrust. Until recently, earthquake monitoring and research efforts have been hampered by a lack of modern instrumentation and communication infrastructure. In January 2016, a major upgrade of the Myanmar National Seismic Network (MNSN; network code MM) was undertaken to improve earthquake monitoring capability. We installed five permanent broadband and strong‐motion seismic stations and real‐time data telemetry using newly improved cellular networks. Data are telemetered to the MNSN hub in Nay Pyi Taw and archived at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. We analyzed station noise characteristics and site response using noise and events recorded over the first six months of station operation. Background noise characteristics vary across the array, but indicate that the new stations are performing well. MM stations recorded more than 20 earthquakes of M≥4.5 within Myanmar and its immediate surroundings, including an M 6.8 earthquake located northwest of Mandalay on 13 April 2016 and the Mw 6.8 Chauk event on 24 August 2016. We use this new dataset to calculate horizontal‐to‐vertical spectral ratios, which provide a preliminary characterization of site response of the upgraded MM stations.

  3. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  4. Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

    1979-11-05

    At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

  5. IELTS Preparation Course and Student IELTS Performance: A Case Study in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengdong, Gan

    2009-01-01

    Since the University Grants Committee (UGC) selected the academic module of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) as the common English proficiency assessment for graduating undergraduate degree students in 2002, almost all the tertiary institutions in Hong Kong have offered IELTS preparation courses that aim at providing…

  6. Lyophilized Carnobacterium divergens AS7 bacteriocin preparation improves performance of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Sip, A; Rutkowski, A

    2012-01-01

    isolates. In total, 480 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups (12 replicate pens of 10 birds per treatment). The diets were either nonsupplemented or supplemented with a lyophilized preparation of divercin AS7. On d 18, 19, and 20, half of the birds were...

  7. Parameters concerning the preparation and performance of a magnetic microparticle antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rongsen, Shen; Ruiyun, Xing; Fengqi, Zhou; Xiuzhen, Liu; Dingquan, Wang

    1997-01-01

    We have described 'Magnetic Microparticle Antibodies and Their Application to RIAs' in a recently published paper. In this article operative parameters for the preparation of a magnetic second antibody (MSA-II) including results of purification of donkey anti-rabbit (D X R) serum by an (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 precipitation method, rates of recovery of products in preparation of magnetic nucleus (MN, Fe 3 O 4 microparticle), in distillation of acrolein (AL) and in preparation of polyacrolein magnetic particle (PAMP), change in pH value of suspension irradiated before and after 60 Co γ-irradiation and volume of wet sediment in separation of magnetic particles by a magnetic separator, etc., as well as correlation of levels of quality control (QC) sera obtained with liquid-phase double antibody assay (LDA) and MSA-II assay during four years were supplementarily summarized. These operative parameters would be helpful to mastering the procedures for preparation and/or use of the magnetic particles. The better correlation of levels of QC sera for both the assays showed the reliability of the magnetic antibody. (author)

  8. School Leadership Preparation and Development in Kenya: Evaluating Performance Impact and Return on Leadership Development Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuga, Gladys; Eacott, Scott; Scevak, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the quality of the current provision for school leadership in Kenya, the extent to which they have an impact on student outcomes and the return on school leadership preparation and development investment. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper draws from educational leadership, management and…

  9. Combining Ru, Ni and Ni(OH){sub 2} active sites for improving catalytic performance in benzene hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lihua, E-mail: lihuazhu@stu.xmu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Hanlei; Zheng, Jinbao [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yu, Changlin, E-mail: yuchanglinjx@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Zhang, Nuowei [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Shu, Qing [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Chen, Bing H., E-mail: chenbh@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts were successfully prepared by the simple methods of hydrazine-reduction and galvanic replacement, where 0.04/0.96 and T represented the Ru/Ni atomic ratio and reducing temperature of the catalyst in N{sub 2}+10%H{sub 2}, respectively. The nanostructures of the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96} nanoparticles in the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts were controlled by modulating their annealing temperature in N{sub 2}+10%H{sub 2} and characterized by an array of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) mapping and high-sensitivity low-energy ion scattering (HS-LEIS). The Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(30) catalyst, which was composed of Ru clusters or single atoms supported on Ni/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles, exhibited much better catalytic performance for benzene hydrogenation than the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts reduced at above 30 °C, such as Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(160) with the nanostructure of partial Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.9} alloy and Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(280) with the nanostructure of complete Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.9} alloy. The reason was that the synergistic effect of multiple active sites – Ru, Ni and Ni(OH){sub 2} sites was present in the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(30) catalyst, where hydrogen was preferentially activated at Ru sites, benzene was probably activated at Ni(OH){sub 2} surface and Ni acted as a “bridge” for transferring activated H{sup ∗} species to activated benzene by hydrogen spillover effect, hydrogenating and forming product – cyclohexane. This study also provided a typical example to illustrate that the synergy effect of multiple active sites can largely improve the catalytic hydrogenation performance. - Highlights: • The Ru

  10. Efficient preparation of highly hydrogenated graphene and its application as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wufeng; Zhu, Zhiye; Li, Sirong; Chen, Chunhua; Yan, Lifeng

    2012-03-01

    A novel method has been developed to prepare hydrogenated graphene (HG) via a direct synchronized reduction and hydrogenation of graphene oxide (GO) in an aqueous suspension under 60Co gamma ray irradiation at room temperature. GO can be reduced by the aqueous electrons (eaq-) while the hydrogenation takes place due to the hydrogen radicals formed in situ under irradiation. The maximum hydrogen content of the as-prepared highly hydrogenated graphene (HHG) is found to be 5.27 wt% with H/C = 0.76. The yield of the target product is on the gram scale. The as-prepared HHG also shows high performance as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  11. Meeting performance objectives for Low-Level Radioactive Disposal Waste Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    A new Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Savannah River Site is presently being constructed. The facility was designed to meet specific performance objectives (derived from DOE Order 5820.2A and proposed EPA Regulation 40CFR 193) in the disposal of containerized Class A and B wastes. The disposal units have been designed as below-grade concrete vaults. These vaults will be constructed using uniquely designed blast furnace slag + fly as concrete mix, surrounded by a highly permeable drainage layer, and covered with an engineered clay cap to provide the necessary environmental isolation of the waste form to meet the stated performance objectives. The concrete mix used in this facility, is the first such application in the United States. These vaults become operational in September 1992 and will become the first active facility of its kind, several years ahead of those planned in the commercial theater. This paper will discuss the selection of the performance objectives and conceptual design

  12. A multi-site study on medical school selection, performance, motivation and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, A; Croiset, G; Schripsema, N R; Cohen-Schotanus, J; Spaai, G W G; Hulsman, R L; Kusurkar, R A

    2017-05-01

    Medical schools seek ways to improve their admissions strategies, since the available methods prove to be suboptimal for selecting the best and most motivated students. In this multi-site cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the value of (different) selection procedures compared to a weighted lottery procedure, which includes direct admission based on top pre-university grade point averages (≥8 out of 10; top-pu-GPA). We also considered whether students had participated in selection, prior to being admitted through weighted lottery. Year-1 (pre-clinical) and Year-4 (clinical) students completed standard validated questionnaires measuring quality of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire), strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student). Performance data comprised GPA and course credits in Year-1 and clerkship performance in Year-4. Regression analyses were performed. The response rate was 35% (387 Year-1 and 273 Year-4 students). Top-pu-GPA students outperformed selected students. Selected Year-1 students reported higher strength of motivation than top-pu-GPA students. Selected students did not outperform or show better quality of motivation and engagement than lottery-admitted students. Participation in selection was associated with higher engagement and better clerkship performance in Year-4. GPA, course credits and strength of motivation in Year-1 differed between students admitted through different selection procedures. Top-pu-GPA students perform best in the medical study. The few and small differences found raise questions about the added value of an extensive selection procedure compared to a weighted lottery procedure. Findings have to be interpreted with caution because of a low response rate and small group sizes.

  13. Design and performance of the Savannah River Site Billet Active Well Coincidence Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.C.; Sadowski, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has acquired, installed, and tested a custom-built Billet Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counter (BAWCC). The BAWCC is used to make accountability measurements of the 235 U content of U-Al coextrusion billets in the SRS fuel fabrication facility. The instrument design incorporates a unique center-source configuration, with two moderated americium-lithium (AmLi) neutron sources located in a central spindle that inserts through the center hole of the U-Al billets. This configuration, a result of earlier experimental studies at SRS, yields improved response and precision for billet assay when compared to the standard AWCC source arrangement. Initial tests of the BAWCC at SRS have yielded one-sigma uncertainties of 0.8--1.0% for a fifteen-minute assay. This paper will describe the design, testing program and performance characteristics of the BAWCC

  14. Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    2001-09-04

    This numeric data package provides data sets, and accompanying documentation, on site characterization, system performance, weather, species composition, and growth for the Throughfall Displacement Experiment, which was established in the Walker Branch Watershed of East Tennessee to provide data on the responses of forests to altered precipitation regimes. The specific data sets include soil water content and potential, coarse fraction of the soil profile, litter layer temperature, soil temperature, monthly weather, daily weather, hourly weather, species composition of trees and saplings, mature tree and sapling annual growth, and relative leaf area index. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  15. Sustainability, Participatory Culture, and the Performance of Democracy: Ascendant Sites of Theory and Practice in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandy, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Art education is a systemic and extensive network within which children, youth, and adults make and learn about material culture. This lecture considers three sites of theory and practice that I see as ascendant in circulating through this network. These sites are sustainability, participatory culture, and performing democracy. I argue that…

  16. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 2: Site performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains twelve papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics of this volume include: performance assessment methodology; remedial action alternatives; site selection and site characterization procedures; intruder scenarios; sensitivity analysis procedures; mathematical models for mixed waste environmental transport; and risk assessment methodology. Individual papers were processed separately for the database. (TEM)

  17. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 2: Site performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains twelve papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics of this volume include: performance assessment methodology; remedial action alternatives; site selection and site characterization procedures; intruder scenarios; sensitivity analysis procedures; mathematical models for mixed waste environmental transport; and risk assessment methodology. Individual papers were processed separately for the database

  18. On-site sampling and sample-preparation approach with a portable sampler based on hollow-fiber/graphene bars for the microextraction of nitrobenzene compounds in lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Rongrong; Hu, Shuang; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiaohong; Feng, Meiqin

    2015-02-01

    A novel on-site sampling and sample-preparation approach was developed and evaluated in the present work. In this procedure, hollow-fiber/graphene bars (HF/GBs) were used for sampling and sample preparation. A handheld battery-operated electric egg beater was utilized to support the HF/GBs and stir the sample solution to facilitate extraction at the sampling site. Four nitrobenzene compounds (nitrobenzene, o-nitrophenol, m-nitrophenol, and p-nitrophenol) were used as model compounds. Several factors affecting performance, including types and amount of graphene used and extraction and desorption times, were investigated and optimized in the laboratory. Under optimized conditions, the enrichment factors of the four nitrobenzene compounds ranged from 46 to 69. Good linearities of 0.01-10 μg/mL with regression coefficients between 0.9917 and 0.9973 were obtained for all analytes. The LOD of the method was 0.3 ng/mL. Satisfactory recoveries (98-102%) and precision (1.0-5.8%) were also achieved. The ultrastructures and extraction mechanism of the HF/GBs were characterized and analyzed. The proposed approach coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was successfully applied in the extraction and determination of trace nitrobenzene compounds in lake water. Experimental results showed that the approach is simple, convenient, rapid, and practical for routine environmental monitoring. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. V S30, slope, H 800 and f 0: performance of various site-condition proxies in reducing ground-motion aleatory variability and predicting nonlinear site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derras, Boumédiène; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Cotton, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the ability of various site-condition proxies (SCPs) to reduce ground-motion aleatory variability and evaluate how SCPs capture nonlinearity site effects. The SCPs used here are time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the top 30 m ( V S30), the topographical slope (slope), the fundamental resonance frequency ( f 0) and the depth beyond which V s exceeds 800 m/s ( H 800). We considered first the performance of each SCP taken alone and then the combined performance of the 6 SCP pairs [ V S30- f 0], [ V S30- H 800], [ f 0-slope], [ H 800-slope], [ V S30-slope] and [ f 0- H 800]. This analysis is performed using a neural network approach including a random effect applied on a KiK-net subset for derivation of ground-motion prediction equations setting the relationship between various ground-motion parameters such as peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and pseudo-spectral acceleration PSA ( T), and M w, R JB, focal depth and SCPs. While the choice of SCP is found to have almost no impact on the median ground-motion prediction, it does impact the level of aleatory uncertainty. V S30 is found to perform the best of single proxies at short periods ( T < 0.6 s), while f 0 and H 800 perform better at longer periods; considering SCP pairs leads to significant improvements, with particular emphasis on [ V S30- H 800] and [ f 0-slope] pairs. The results also indicate significant nonlinearity on the site terms for soft sites and that the most relevant loading parameter for characterising nonlinear site response is the "stiff" spectral ordinate at the considered period.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Preparation of octahedral CuO micro/nanocrystals and electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lili; Xuan, Zhewen; Bai, Yang; Zhao, Hongbo; Li, Li; Chen, Yashun; Yang, Xianqin; Su, Changwei; Guo, Junming; Chen, Xiaokai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Octahedral cupric oxides with hollow structure were prepared. • No hard template was used in the preparation of hollow cupric oxides. • The cupric oxides show good reversible capacity. - Abstract: Herein we report that three octahedral CuO samples with hollow or solid structure are successfully prepared by firstly preparation of Cu 2 O products using a chemical reduction method, then by calcination in a muffle furnace at 300 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. The obtained CuO samples serve as a good model system for the study as anodes for lithium ion batteries. All the three CuO samples have high discharge specific capacity and good cycling stability from the 2nd cycling to the 50th cycling. Octahedral CuO hollow crystals with 400 nm in size have the highest reversible capacity and the smallest resistance. So their electrochemical performances are partly related to their morphologies. The results suggest that the as-prepared CuO samples, especially the 400 nm hollow octahedral CuO crystals could be a promising material for the anode of lithium-ion battery

  1. Summary of operations and performance of the Murdock site restoration project in 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-06-03

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater and surface water restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Murdock, Nebraska, during the second full year of system operation, from January 1 through December 31, 2007. Performance in June 2005 through December 2006 was reported previously (Argonne 2007). In the Murdock project, several innovative technologies are being used to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town, as well as from water naturally discharged to the surface at the headwaters of a small creek (a tributary to Pawnee Creek) north of the town (Figure 1.1). The restoration activities at Murdock are being conducted by the CCC/USDA as a non-time-critical removal action under the regulatory authority and supervision of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII. Argonne National Laboratory assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the restoration effort and facilities during this review period. Included in this report are the results of all sampling and monitoring activities performed in accord with the EPA-approved Monitoring Plan for this site (Argonne 2006), as well as additional investigative activities conducted during the review period. The annual performance reports for the Murdock project assemble information that will become part of the five-year review and evaluation of the remediation effort. This review will occur in 2010. This document presents overviews of the treatment facilities (Section 2) and site operations and activities (Section 3), then describes the groundwater, surface water, vegetation, and atmospheric monitoring results (Section 4) and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 5). Section 6 summarizes the current period of operation. A gallery of photographs of the Murdock project is in Appendix A. A brief

  2. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) unmasks specific high affinity FSH-binding sites in cell-free membrane preparations of porcine granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, K.A.; LaBarbera, A.R.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine whether changes in FSH receptors correlated with FSH-induced attenuation of FSH-responsive adenylyl cyclase in immature porcine granulosa cells. Cells were incubated with FSH (1-1000 ng/ml) for up to 24 h, treated with acidified medium (pH 3.5) to remove FSH bound to cells, and incubated with (125I)iodo-porcine FSH to quantify FSH-binding sites. FSH increased binding of FSH in a time-, temperature-, and FSH concentration-dependent manner. FSH (200 ng/ml) increased binding approximately 4-fold within 16 h. Analysis of equilibrium saturation binding data indicated that the increase in binding sites reflected a 2.3-fold increase in receptor number and a 5.4-fold increase in apparent affinity. The increase in binding did not appear to be due to 1) a decrease in receptor turnover, since the basal rate of turnover appeared to be very slow; 2) an increase in receptor synthesis, since agents that inhibit protein synthesis and glycosylation did not block the increase in binding; or 3) an increase in intracellular receptors, since agents that inhibit cytoskeletal components had no effect. Agents that increase intracellular cAMP did not affect FSH binding. The increase in binding appeared to result from unmasking of cryptic FSH-binding sites, since FSH increased binding in cell-free membrane preparations to the same extent as in cells. Unmasking of cryptic sites was hormone specific, and the sites bound FSH specifically. Unmasking of sites was reversible in a time- and temperature-dependent manner after removal of bound FSH. The similarity between the FSH dose-response relationships for unmasking of FSH-binding sites and attenuation of FSH-responsive cAMP production suggests that the two processes are functionally linked.

  3. Changes in implant stability using different site preparation techniques: twist drills versus piezosurgery. A single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacchi, Claudio; Vercellotti, Tomaso; Torelli, Lucio; Furlan, Fabio; Di Lenarda, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to longitudinally monitor stability changes of implants inserted using traditional rotary instruments or piezoelectric inserts, and to follow their variations during the first 90 days of healing. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 20 patients. Each patient received two identical, adjacent implants in the upper premolar area: the test site was prepared with piezosurgery, and the control site was prepared using twist drills. Resonance frequency analysis measurements were taken by a blinded operator on the day of surgery and after 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 days. At 90 days, 39 out of 40 implants were osseointegrated (one failure in the control group). Both groups showed an initial decrease in mean implant stability quotient (ISQ) values: a shift in implant stability to increasing ISQ values occurred after 14 days in the test group and after 21 days in the control group. The lowest mean ISQ value was recorded at 14 days for test implants (97.3% of the primary stability) and at 21 days for the control implants (90.8% of the primary stability). ISQ variations with respect to primary stability differed significantly between the two groups during the entire period of observation: from day 14 to day 42, in particular, the differences were extremely significant (p < .0001). All 39 implants were in function successfully at the visit scheduled 1 year after insertion. The findings from this study suggest that ultrasonic implant site preparation results in a limited decrease of ISQ values and in an earlier shifting from a decreasing to an increasing stability pattern, when compared with the traditional drilling technique. From a clinical point of view, implants inserted with the piezoelectric technique demonstrated a short-term clinical success similar to those inserted using twist drills. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses of the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vefa Yucel

    2007-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual M 435.1-1 requires that performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs) for low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities be maintained by the field offices. This plan describes the activities performed to maintain the PA and the CA for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This plan supersedes the Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (DOE/NV/11718--491-REV 1, dated September 2002). The plan is based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a), DOE Manual M 435.1-1 (DOE, 1999b), the DOE M 435.1-1 Implementation Guide DOE G 435.1-1 (DOE, 1999c), and the Maintenance Guide for PAs and CAs (DOE, 1999d). The plan includes a current update on PA/CA documentation, a revised schedule, and a section on Quality Assurance

  5. Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance of Bamboo-Charcoal-Supported Nano-ZnO Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong ZHOU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-ZnO/bamboo charcoal composites were prepared by precipitation with bamboo charcoal as support. Nano-ZnO/bamboo charcoal composites were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS. Photocatalytic degradation processes of methyl orange were studied. The results indicate that the structure of nano-ZnO is of the wurtzite type and the grain size is about 19-54 nm. The best preparation temperature for these composites is 500℃. The composites have better photocatalytic degradation ability than pure ZnO under UV irradiation. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with the composites obeys first-order kinetics, and the composites can be recycled.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17397

  6. A doped activated carbon prepared from polyaniline for high performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Limin; Liu, Enhui; Li, Jian; Yang, Yanjing; Shen, Haijie; Huang, Zhengzheng; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Li, Wen [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2010-03-01

    A novel doped activated carbon has been prepared from H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-doped polyaniline which is prepared by the oxypolymerization of aniline. The morphology, surface chemical composition and surface area of the carbon have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunaner-Emmett-Teller measurement, respectively. Electrochemical properties of the doped activated carbon have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol l{sup -1} KOH. The specific capacitance of the carbon is as high as 235 F g{sup -1}, the specific capacitance hardly decreases at a high current density 11 A g{sup -1} after 10,000 cycles, which indicates that the carbon possesses excellent cycle durability and may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors. (author)

  7. In vitro assessment of cardiac performance after irradiation using an isolated working rat heart preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.; Laarse, A. van der; Ravels, F.J.M. van; Wermeskerken, A.-M. van; Verhoeve, H.R.; Graaf, B.W. de; Leer, J.W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on cardiac function was assessed using an isolated working rat heart preparation. The animals were given single doses of X-rays in the range 15-30 Gy to their hearts. Cardiac output (CO = aortic flow + coronary flow), heart weight and body weight were followed for a period of 10 months after treatment. Irradiation led to a decrease in cardiac function. This reduction was dose-dependent and progressive with time after treatment. The shape of the Frank-Starling curves constructed for irradiated hearts suggests a loss of contractile function of the myocardium. Coronary flow rates measured in 'working' hearts and in 'Langendorff' hearts were not significantly changed by the irradiation treatment. The isolated working rat heart preparation proved to be a simple and suitable animal model for the investigation of irradiation-induced cardiotoxicity. (author)

  8. Interrelation of technologies for RW preparation and sites for final isolation of the wastes from pyrochemical processing of SNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupalo, V.S.; Chistyakov, V.N. [JSC - Design-Prospecting and Scientific-Research Institute of Industrial Technology -, Kashirskoye Highway, 33, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Kormilitsyna, L.A. [JSC - State Scientific Center - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors -, Ulyanovsk region, Dimitrovgrad - 10, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    For the justification of engineering solutions and practical testing of the radiochemical component of the perspective nuclear power complex with on-site variant of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), it is planned to establish a multi-functional research-development complex (MFCRC) for radiochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from fast reactors. MFCRC is being established at the NIIAR site, it comprises technological process lines, where innovation pyro-electrochemical and hydrometallurgical technologies are realized, with an option for closing the inter-chain material flows for testing the combined radiochemically converted materials. The technological flowchart for processing at the MFCRC is subdivided into 3 segments: -) complex of the lead operations for dismantling the fuel elements (FE) and fuel assemblies (FA), -) pyrochemical extraction flowchart for processing SNF, and -) hydrometallurgical flowchart for processing SNF. The engineered solutions for the management and disposition of the radioactive wastes from MFCRC are reviewed.

  9. Preparation of hierarchical porous Zn-salt particles and their superhydrophobic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dahai; Jia, Mengqiu, E-mail: jiamq@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical particles with high roughness were prepared by modified hydrothermal route. • The high roughness is provided by extremely low thickness of sheet crystals. • FEVE polymer derivative was used for surface treatment of hierarchical surface. • The novel particles via surface treatment were firstly used as superhydrophobic materials. • The product properties were compared with multi-scale ZnO particles via conventional route. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces arranged by hierarchical porous particles were prepared using modified hydrothermal routes under the effect of sodium citrate. Two particle samples were generated in the medium of hexamethylenetetramine (P1) and urea (P2), respectively. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope were adopted for the investigation, and results revealed that the P1 and P2 particles are porous microspheres with crosslinked extremely thin (10–30 nm) sheet crystals composed of Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Ac{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O and Zn{sub 5}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}, respectively. The prepared particles were treated with a fluoroethylene vinyl ether derivative and studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Results showed that the hierarchical surfaces of these particles were combined with low-wettable fluorocarbon layers. Moreover, the fabricated surface composed of the prepared hierarchical particles displayed considerably high contact angles, indicating great superhydrophobicity for the products. The wetting behavior of the particles was analyzed with a theoretical wetting model in comparison with that of chestnut-like ZnO products obtained through a conventional hydrothermal route. Correspondingly, this study provided evidence that high roughness surface plays a great role in superhydrophobic behavior.

  10. Preparation of novel polyamine-type chelating resin with hyperbranched structures and its adsorption performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Huan; Li, Yuhong; Li, Chenxi

    2018-01-01

    This paper explored the method of combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technology and hyperbranched polymer principle to prepare the high capacity chelating resin. First, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on chloromethylated cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene resin, and then the novel polyamine chelating resin with a kind of hyperbranched structure was prepared through the amination reaction between amino group of (2-aminoethyl) triamine and epoxy group in GMA. This resin had a selective effect on As(V) and Cr(VI) at a relatively low pH and can be used for the disposal of waste water containing As(V) and Cr(VI). It had a relatively strong adsorption effect on Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) and can be used for the disposal of heavy metal ion waste water. The finding was that, the adsorption capacity of resin on the studied heavy metal ions was higher than that of the chelating resin synthesized by traditional technology and also higher than that of the resin modified by ATRP technology and bifunctional chelator, indicating that the combination of ATRP and hyperbranched polymer concept is an effective method to prepare chelating resin with high capacity. PMID:29515875

  11. Preparation of novel polyamine-type chelating resin with hyperbranched structures and its adsorption performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youning; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Huan; Li, Yuhong; Li, Chenxi

    2018-02-01

    This paper explored the method of combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technology and hyperbranched polymer principle to prepare the high capacity chelating resin. First, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on chloromethylated cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene resin, and then the novel polyamine chelating resin with a kind of hyperbranched structure was prepared through the amination reaction between amino group of (2-aminoethyl) triamine and epoxy group in GMA. This resin had a selective effect on As(V) and Cr(VI) at a relatively low pH and can be used for the disposal of waste water containing As(V) and Cr(VI). It had a relatively strong adsorption effect on Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) and can be used for the disposal of heavy metal ion waste water. The finding was that, the adsorption capacity of resin on the studied heavy metal ions was higher than that of the chelating resin synthesized by traditional technology and also higher than that of the resin modified by ATRP technology and bifunctional chelator, indicating that the combination of ATRP and hyperbranched polymer concept is an effective method to prepare chelating resin with high capacity.

  12. Novel Cu@SiO2/bacterial cellulose nanofibers: Preparation and excellent performance in antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Bo; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Chunlin; Chen, Chuntao; Chen, Xiao; Fan, Mengmeng; Sun, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial composite based on bacterial cellulose (BC) was successfully prepared by in-situ synthesis of SiO 2 coated Cu nanoparticles (Cu@SiO 2 /BC) and its properties were characterized. Its chemical structures and morphologies were evaluated by Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrated that the SiO 2 coated Cu particles were well homogeneously precipitated on the surface of BC. The Cu@SiO 2 /BC was more resistant to oxidation than the Cu nanoparticles impregnated into BC (Cu/BC) and then Cu@SiO 2 /BC could prolong the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the preparation of Cu@SiO 2 /BC. Due to its unique structure, the Cu@SiO 2 /BC membrane shows excellent antibacterial effects and can be used for a long time. - Highlights: • This work paves the novel way to fabricate antibacterial nanomaterial with good efficiency. • We prepare the antibacterial membrane based on bacterial cellulose by in-situ synthesis of SiO 2 -coated Cu nanoparticles. • The antibacterial membrane is more resistant to oxidation and can prolong the antimicrobial activity.

  13. Savannah River Site - Salt-stone Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Salt-stone Facility is currently in the midst of a Performance Assessment revision to estimate the effect on human health and the environment of adding new disposal units to the current Salt-stone Disposal Facility (SDF). These disposal units continue the ability to safely process the salt component of the radioactive liquid waste stored in the underground storage tanks at SRS, and is a crucial prerequisite for completion of the overall SRS waste disposition plan. Removal and disposal of low activity salt waste from the SRS liquid waste system is required in order to empty tanks for future tank waste processing and closure operations. The Salt-stone Production Facility (SPF) solidifies a low-activity salt stream into a grout matrix, known as salt-stone, suitable for disposal at the SDF. The ability to dispose of the low-activity salt stream in the SDF required a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of 2005 and was approved in January 2006. One of the requirements of Section 3116 of the NDAA is to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives set out in Subpart C of Part 61 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations. The PA is the document that is used to ensure ongoing compliance. (authors)

  14. A strategy for the derivation and use of sorption coefficients in performance assessment calculations for the Yucca Mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, A.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical interactions of dissolved radionuclides with mineral surfaces along flowpaths from the proposed repository to the accessible environment around Yucca Mountain constitute one of the potential barriers to radionuclide migration at the site. Our limited understanding of these interactions suggests their details will be complex and will involve control by numerous chemical and physical parameters. It appears unlikely that we will understand all the details of these reactions or obtain all the site data required to evaluate each of them in the time available for site characterization. Yet, performance assessment calculations will require some form of coupling of chemical interaction models will hydrologic flow models for the site. Clearly, strategies will be needed to bound the problem without compromising the reliability of the performance assessment calculations required for site suitability analysis. The main purpose of this paper is to describe such a strategy. 39 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Performance: A Strategy for Professional Development in Early Childhood Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann; Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Palmer, Susan; Peck, Nancy F.; Zheng, Yu Zhu; Kruse, Aryn; Haines, Shana J.; Weigel, Cindy J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose performance as a creative instructional strategy to convey complex competencies related to understanding and working effectively with families in early childhood education. Performance derives from performance ethnography, which is a qualitative research methodology. Its application to professional…

  16. Determination of glycation sites by tandem mass spectrometry in a synthetic lactose-bovine serum albumin conjugate, a vaccine model prepared by dialkyl squarate chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahouh, Farid; Hou, Shu-jie; Kováč, Pavol; Banoub, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE Neoglycoconjugate vaccines synthesized by the squaric acid spacer method allow single point attachment of the carbohydrate antigen to the protein carrier. However, the localization of the carbohydrate antigen sites of conjugation on the protein carrier has been an elusive task difficult to achieve. METHOD Covalent attachment of the lactose antigen to the bovine serum albumin (BSA) was prepared by the squaric acid method using a hapten:BSA ratio of 20:1. Different reaction times were used during the conjugation reaction and two different lactose-BSA glycoconjugate vaccines were obtained. The carbohydrate antigen hapten:BSA ratios of these lactose-BSA glycoconjugate vaccines were determined by MALDI-TOF/RTOF-MS and the glycation sites in the neoglycoconjugates were determined using nano-LC/ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS analysis of the trypsin and GluC V8 digests of the conjugates. RESULTS We have identified a total of 15 glycation sites located on the BSA lysine residues for the neoglycoconjugate vaccine formed with a hapten:BSA ratio of 5.1:1, However, the tryptic and GluC V8 digests of the hapten-BSA glycoconjugate with a hapten:BSA ratio of 19.0:1 allowed identification of 30 glycation sites located on the BSA. These last results seem to indicate that this conjugation results in formation of various glycoforms. CONCLUSIONS It was observed that the number of identified glycation sites increased when the hapten:BSA ratio of glycoconjugate formation increased, and that the location of the glycation sites appears to be mainly on the outer surface of the BSA carrier molecule which is in line with the assumption that the sterically more accessible lysine residues, namely those located on the outer surface of the BSA, would be conjugated preferentially. PMID:22368054

  17. Nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon materials prepared from meta-aminophenol formaldehyde resin for supercapacitor with high rate performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Zhongshen; Xing, Wei; Yu, Jing; Han, Guoxing; Si, Weijiang; Zhuo, Shuping

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: N-doped hierarchical porous carbons with high rate capacitive performance are prepared by a combination method of nano-SiO 2 template/KOH activation. - Highlights: • A mass produced nano-SiO 2 is used to prepared hierarchical porous carbon. • N-doped hierarchical porous carbon materials are easily prepared. • The NHPCs materials exhibit a very high capacitance of up to 260.5 F g −1 . • The NHPC-800 sample shows very high rate capability. • Hierarchical porosity and N-doping synergistically enhances the whole capacitance. - Abstract: In this work, nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon materials (NHPCs) are prepared by a two-step method combined of a hard template process and KOH-activation treatment. Low cost and large-scale commercial nano-SiO 2 are used as a hard template. The hierarchical porosity, structure and nitrogen-doped surface chemical properties are proved by a varies of means, such as scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, N 2 sorption, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When the prepared NHPCs materials are used as the electrode materials for supercapacitors in KOH electrolyte, they exhibit very high specific capacitance, good power capability and excellent cyclic stability. NHPC-800 carbon shows a high capacitance of 114.0 F g −1 at the current density of 40 A g −1 , responding to a high energy and power densities of 4.0 Wh kg −1 and 10 000 W kg −1 , and a very short drain time of 1.4 s. The excellent capacitive performance may be due to the synergistic effect of the hierarchical porosity, high effective surface area and heteroatom doping, resulting in both electrochemical double layer and Faradaic capacitance contributions

  18. Stereospecific recognition sites for [3H]inositol(1,4,5)-triphosphate in particulate preparations of rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willcocks, A.L.; Cooke, A.M.; Potter, B.V.; Nahorski, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    A very high density of stereospecific binding sites for inositol-(1,4,5)P3 have been identified in rat cerebellar membranes using [ 3 H]inositol-(1,4,5)P3 and a rapid centrifugation step to separate free and bound ligand. Binding was shown to be rapid and reversible and of relatively high affinity (KD 23 nM). Incubations were carried out at 4 degrees and under these conditions HPLC analysis demonstrated that there was no significant metabolism of [ 3 H]-(1,4,5)P3 in the presence or absence of ATP over 15 min. The specificity of the site has been carefully evaluated using both natural and novel synthetic inositol phosphates. The stereospecificity is very marked with the D-, DL- and L-isomers of Ins(1,4,5)P3 showing a 1:4:2000 ratio of affinity for the binding site. D-Ins(2,4,5)P3 was the only other phosphate to show relatively high affinity (KD 1500 nM). HPLC-pure Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 were substantially weaker and Ins(1,4)P2, Ins-2-P1, Ins-1-P1, Ins(1,2)-cyclic P1 and inositol were totally inactive at concentrations less than 50 microM. These data are discussed in relation to a putative receptor on the endoplasmic reticulum by which Ins(1,4,5)P3 can initiate the release of bound Ca 2+

  19. The relationship between educational preparation and performance on the ARRT examination in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Mark R.; Washington, Charles M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if graduates of different types of educational programs obtain similar scores on the Examination in Radiation Therapy administered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists. The results will help inform discussions regarding educational requirements for radiation therapists. Methods and Materials: Test scores were obtained for 531 candidates who had taken the examination for the first time in 1997, 1998, or 1999. Candidates were divided into the following three categories, based on the type of educational program attended: hospital-based certificate, associate's degree, or bachelor's degree. To determine if test scores were related to the type of educational preparation, analyses of variance were conducted separately to test for differences in total scores and section scores, and scores on test questions intended to measure critical thinking skills. Results: Candidates with an associate's degree scored slightly lower than candidates with a bachelor's degree on the total test (p<0.10) and lower than candidates with either a certificate or bachelor's degree on Section B of the examination (Treatment Planning and Delivery, p<0.10). Baccalaureate candidates did not obtain higher scores than those prepared in certificate programs. On critical thinking questions, candidates with certificates scored higher than those with associate's degrees (p<0.10). Some evidence suggested that candidates with a certificate scored higher on critical thinking than those with a bachelor's degree (p<0.10), and that candidates with a bachelor's degree scored higher than candidates with an associate's degree (p<0.10). Conclusions: Although some of the differences in the mean test scores among the three educational groups were statistically significant, all differences were small and do not support one type of educational preparation over another

  20. How to Prepare SMC and BMC-like Compounds to Perform Relevant Rheological Experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, Olivier; Dumont, Pierre J. J.; Orgéas, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    The study of the rheology of injected or compression moulded compounds like SMC or BMC is made particularly difficult by the high content and the intricate arrangement of their fibrous reinforcement. For these two types of compounds, inappropriate rheological testing protocols and rheometers are often used, which leads to a very large scatter of the experimental data. This study describes specific sampling and specimen's preparation methods, as well as dedicated rheometry devices to test their rheology. Following the proposed protocols, it is possible to obtain rheological measurements showing low scatter of the recorded stress values: about ±10% for SMC and about ±15% for BMC-like compounds.

  1. Using performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal decision making -- implementation of the methodology into the third performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Baer, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the disposal of a variety of radioactive wastes. Some of these wastes are prohibited from shallow land burial and also do not meet the waste acceptance criteria for proposed waste repositories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and Yucca Mountain. These have been termed ''special-case'' waste and require an alternative disposal method. From 1984 to 1989, the Department of Energy disposed of a small quantity of special-case transuranic wastes at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site at the Nevada Test Site. In this paper, an iterative performance assessment is demonstrated as a useful decision making tool in the overall compliance assessment process for waste disposal. The GCD site has been used as the real-site implementation and test of the performance assessment approach. Through the first two performance assessment iterations for the GCD site, and the transition into the third, we demonstrate how the performance assessment methodology uses probabilistic risk concepts to guide affective decisions about site characterization activities and how it can be used as a powerful tool in bringing compliance decisions to closure

  2. Study on Gas Sensing Performance of In2O3 Thick Film Resistors Prepared by Screen Printing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. KULKARNI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Indium Oxide (In2O3 thick films were prepared on alumina substrate by using standard screen printing technique. These films were dried and fired at temperatures between 750 0C to 950 0C for two hours in air atmosphere. The compositional, morphological and structural properties of In2O3 films were performed by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX, XRD, and Scanning electron Microscopy respectively. We explore the various gases to study sensing performance of In2O3 thick films. The maximum response was reported to film fired at 750 0C for H2S gas at 150 0C operating temperature.

  3. Effect of A-site deficiency in LaMn_0_._9Co_0_._1O_3 perovskites on their catalytic performance for soot combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinamarca, Robinson; Garcia, Ximena; Jimenez, Romel; Fierro, J.L.G.; Pecchi, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A-site defective perovskites increases the oxidation state of the B-cation. • Not always non-stoichiometric perovskites exhibit higher catalytic activity in soot combustion. • The highly symmetric cubic crystalline structure diminishes the redox properties of perovskites. - Abstract: The influence of lanthanum stoichiometry in Ag-doped (La_1_-_xAg_xMn_0_._9Co_0_._1O_3) and A-site deficient (La_1_-_xMn_0_._9Co_0_._1O_3_-_δ) perovskites with x equal to 10, 20 and 30 at.% has been investigated in catalysts for soot combustion. The catalysts were prepared by the amorphous citrate method and characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, XPS, O_2-TPD and TPR. The formation of a rhombohedral excess-oxygen perovskite for Ag-doped and a cubic perovskite structure for an A-site deficient series is confirmed. The efficient catalytic performance of the larger Ag-doped perovskite structure is attributed to the rhombohedral crystalline structure, Ag_2O segregated phases and the redox pair Mn"4"+/Mn"3"+. A poor catalytic activity for soot combustion was observed with A-site deficient perovskites, despite the increase in the redox pair Mn"4"+/Mn"3"+, which is attributed to the cubic crystalline structure.

  4. Using an Inducible Promoter of a Gene Encoding Penicillium verruculosum Glucoamylase for Production of Enzyme Preparations with Enhanced Cellulase Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G Bulakhov

    Full Text Available Penicillium verruculosum is an efficient producer of highly active cellulase multienzyme system. One of the approaches for enhancing cellulase performance in hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates is to enrich the reaction system with β -glucosidase and/or accessory enzymes, such as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO displaying a synergism with cellulases.Genes bglI, encoding β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger (AnBGL, and eglIV, encoding LPMO (formerly endoglucanase IV from Trichoderma reesei (TrLPMO, were cloned and expressed by P. verruculosum B1-537 strain under the control of the inducible gla1 gene promoter. Content of the heterologous AnBGL in the secreted multienzyme cocktails (hBGL1, hBGL2 and hBGL3 varied from 4 to 10% of the total protein, while the content of TrLPMO in the hLPMO sample was ~3%. The glucose yields in 48-h hydrolysis of Avicel and milled aspen wood by the hBGL1, hBGL2 and hBGL3 preparations increased by up to 99 and 80%, respectively, relative to control enzyme preparations without the heterologous AnBGL (at protein loading 5 mg/g substrate for all enzyme samples. The heterologous TrLPMO in the hLPMO preparation boosted the conversion of the lignocellulosic substrate by 10-43%; however, in hydrolysis of Avicel the hLPMO sample was less effective than the control preparations. The highest product yield in hydrolysis of aspen wood was obtained when the hBGL2 and hLPMO preparations were used at the ratio 1:1.The enzyme preparations produced by recombinant P. verruculosum strains, expressing the heterologous AnBGL or TrLPMO under the control of the gla1 gene promoter in a starch-containing medium, proved to be more effective in hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic substrate than control enzyme preparations without the heterologous enzymes. The enzyme composition containing both AnBGL and TrLPMO demonstrated the highest performance in lignocellulose hydrolysis, providing a background for developing a fungal strain capable

  5. Performance study of molybdenum gels with titanium for preparation of 99Mo-99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Vanessa; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2005-01-01

    99m Tc is the most used radioisotope in Nuclear Medicine, due to nuclear characteristics. It is obtained by the radioactive decay of 99 Mo, generator of radioisotope system. When 99 Mo is produced by the activation in reactor, the most used technique for the preparation of the generators is the gel type generator, which incorporates 99 Mo to the gel that is insoluble, chemically inert to the solutions and with properties of ion exchange. Several countries had already studied this methodology, as is the case of Vietnam, India, China, Australian. This work has the objective of studying the performance and characterization of molybdenum gels with titanium. Four variables in the preparation of the gel were studied: mass ratio between Mo and Ti (1.80 and 2.25), concentration of NaOH (2 and 4 mol/L), final temperature (25 and 50 deg C) and pH (3.5 and 4.5). The prepared gels were analyzed with relation to the size of its particles, identification of its structure, amount of molybdenum, amount of titanium, profile of elution, pH of the elution, determination of the radioisotopes in the eluate and final radiochemical purity. The final result is a formularization of the gel with the best characteristics for posterior preparation of the generator of 99m Tc- 99 Mo. (author)

  6. International Review Team (IRT) Safety Case Recommendations for the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Supporting the Site Recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, Abraham E.

    2004-01-01

    The session started with Abe Van Luik (IGSC Chair, US-DOE-YM, USA) who presented the feedback of the international peer review of the US-DOE Yucca Mountain TSPA (Total System Performance Assessment) supporting the successful designation of the site by the Congress and the President of the U.S. In particular, he listed key implications of the IRT (International Review team) recommendations on the forthcoming US-DOE documentation of its case for safety to be submitted to the regulator, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, mainly: - The documentation submitted to the licensing authority should address technical aspects and compliance with regulatory criteria. - That documentation should reflect sound science and good engineering practice; it should present detailed and rigorous modelling. - In addition, it should present both quantitative and qualitative arguments, make a statement on why there can be confidence in the face of uncertainty, acknowledge remaining issues and provide the strategy to resolve them. - Demonstrating understanding is as important as demonstrating compliance. - There is a need to provide a clear explanation of the case made to the regulator for more general audiences to complement the large amount of technical documents that will be produced. The US-DOE response to these recommendations for the License Application, which is under preparation, is that the recommendations will be implemented to the maximum extent possible. In subsequent discussion, with respect to the License Application, it was acknowledged that detailed guidance from the U.S. regulator was very useful, and guidance of this type would be generally useful. At the current time, the words 'safety case' are not mentioned in U.S. regulations, but if one reads both the regulation and guidance documents it becomes evident that all aspects of a safety case need to be provided in the License Application and its accompanying documents

  7. Composite nanofibers prepared from metallic iron nanoparticles and polyaniline: high performance for water treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Madhumita; Choi, Hyoung J; McCrindle, Rob I; Maity, Arjun

    2014-07-01

    Presented here is a simple preparation of metallic iron nanoparticles, supported on polyaniline nanofibers at room temperature. The preparation is based on polymerization of interconnected nanofibers by rapid mixing of the aniline monomer with Fe(III) chloride as the oxidant, followed by reductive deposition of Fe(0) nanoparticles, using the polymerization by-products as the Fe precursor. The morphology and other physico-chemical properties of the resulting composite were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating-sample magnetometry. The composite fibers were 80-150 nm in diameter and exhibited the expected ferromagnetic behavior. The composite rapidly and efficiently removed As(V), Cr(VI), and also Congo red dye, from aqueous solutions suggesting their usefulness for removal of toxic materials from wastewater. The composite fibers have high capacity for toxin removal: 42.37 mg/g of As(V), 434.78 mg/g of Cr(VI), and 243.9 mg/g of Congo red. The fibers are easily recovered from fluids by exploiting their ferromagnetic properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of some guaiphenesin-containing cough-cold preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Korany

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents different HPLC methods for the simultaneous determination of some guaiphenesin-containing cough-cold preparations. Three pharmaceutically available combinations were analyzed: salbutamol sulfate (SAL and guaiphenesin (GUA, combination I; ascorbic acid (ASC, paracetamol (PAR and guaiphenesin (GUA, combination II; and theophylline anhydrous (THE, guaiphenesin (GUA and ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB, combination III. A 250 × 4.6 mm C-18 column was used for all combinations. The mobile phase for the three combinations consisted of a mixture of methanol and 0.01 M aqueous phosphate buffer solution. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 3.2, 6.2 and 3.8 for combinations I, II and III, respectively. The proposed HPLC methods were successfully applied to the determination of the investigated drugs, both in synthetic mixtures and in pharmaceutical preparations, without any matrix interference and with high precision and accuracy. Different aspects of analytical validation are presented in the text.

  9. Lithium storage performance of carbon nanotubes prepared from polyaniline for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xiaoxia; Huang Zhengzheng; Liu Enhui; Shen Haijie; Tian Yingying; Xie Hui; Wu Yuhu; Wu Zhilian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polyaniline nanotube is synthesized by the self-assembly method in aqueous media. → Carbon nanotubes were prepared from polyaniline nanotube by physical activation. → Activation leads to large surface area, and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups. → Such physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. → After 20 cycles, a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 was obtained. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes with large surface area and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups are prepared by carbonizing and activating of polyaniline nanotubes, which is synthesized by polymerization of aniline with the self-assembly method in aqueous media. The physicochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes are characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, elemental analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The surface area and pore diameter are 618.9 m 2 g -1 and 3.10 nm. The electrochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes as anode materials in lithium ion batteries are evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g -1 , the activated carbon nanotube shows an enormously first discharge capacity of about 1370 mAh g -1 and a charge capacity of 907 mAh g -1 . After 20 cycling tests, the activated carbon nanotube retains a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 . These indicate it may be a promising candidate for an anode material for lithium secondary batteries.

  10. Preparation and performance evaluation of novel alkaline stable anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Bakangura, Erigene; Afsar, Noor Ul; Hossain, Md. Masem; Ran, Jin; Xu, Tongwen

    2017-07-01

    Novel alkaline stable anion exchange membranes are prepared from various amounts of N-methyl dipicolylamine (MDPA) and brominated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO). The dipicolylamine and MDPA are synthesized through condensation reaction and confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The morphologies of prepared membranes are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical and physical properties of AEMs are tested comprising water uptake (WU), ion exchange capacity (IEC), alkaline stability, linear expansion ratio (LER), thermal stability and mechanical stability. The obtained hydroxide conductivity of MDPA-4 is 66.5 mS/cm at 80 °C. The MDPA-4 membrane shows good alkaline stability, high hydroxide conductivity, low methanol permeability (3.43 × 10-7 cm2/s), higher selectivity (8.26 × 107 mS s/cm3), less water uptake (41.1%) and lower linear expansion (11.1%) despite of high IEC value (1.62 mmol/g). The results prove that MDPA membranes have great potential application in anion exchange membrane fuel cell.

  11. Mathematical models of hydrocyclone performance in various copper ores preparation circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedoba Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ores located in the Lubin-Glogow Copper Basin contain three main lithological fractions: sandstone, carbonate and shale. This fact is the basic problem of organization and conducting ore preparation to flotation. The existing circuit of feed preparation contains (in ZG Rudna five classification nodes of hydrocyclones which fit for various purposes. The elaboration of concept of monitoring work of these nodes should be based on appropriate mathematical models of process. It was decided that either regressive or non-dimensional models that is classification according to Svarovsky, and particularly Plitt’s, will be suitable, in the aspects of d50 and partition sharpness. Errors resulting from determination of the features being part of the equations were also important. In this paper the errors were divided into technical and technological. The issue of experiments organization (mineralogical investigation connected with each classification node was also addressed. It is obvious that each classification node must obtain its characteristics because of various comminution products directed to classification.

  12. Preparation and performance of Pt/PTFE/Foam SiC as a hydrophobic catalyst for LPCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jianchao; Wang, Heyi, E-mail: hywang@caep.cn; Xiao, Chengjian; Li, Jiamao; Chen, Ping; Hou, Jingwei

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A new type of foam material, Foam SiC with three-dimensional network structure, was chosen as the carrier of catalyst. • Foam SiC was hydrophobic treated by PTFE, and achieved a good hydrophobic property. • Pt/PTFE/Foam SiC was prepared by impregnation method with Pt-organic solution and gaseous phase reduction method. • The hydrophobic catalysts were packed with Dixon phosphor bronze gauze rings (about 3 mm × 3 mm) in LPCE system to test the catalytic performance. • The effect of different size of the catalyst on LPCE was been tested. - Abstract: Platinum catalysts supported on a composite of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Foam SiC (Pt/PTFE/Foam SiC) have been proposed and prepared by an impregnation method. The as-prepared Pt/PTFE/Foam SiC was characterized by compression load testing, dynamic contact angle measurement, SEM, XRD, and TEM. The results show that the catalyst prepared by triple hydrophobic treatment had an initial contact angle of 134.2°, a good compression performance of 3.2 MPa, and platinum nanoparticles of 12.1 nm (average size). The catalytic activity of the catalyst was tested with different packing methods, reaction temperatures, and gas-liquid ratios. An excellent hydrogen isotope exchange performance was observed using a hydrophilic packing material-to-catalyst ratio of 25% and reaction temperature of 80 °C. Pt/PTFE/Foam SiC may be used as a hydrophobic catalyst for a water detritiation system (WDS) via a liquid-phase catalytic exchange process (LPCE).

  13. Preparation and performance of Pt/PTFE/Foam SiC as a hydrophobic catalyst for LPCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jianchao; Wang, Heyi; Xiao, Chengjian; Li, Jiamao; Chen, Ping; Hou, Jingwei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new type of foam material, Foam SiC with three-dimensional network structure, was chosen as the carrier of catalyst. • Foam SiC was hydrophobic treated by PTFE, and achieved a good hydrophobic property. • Pt/PTFE/Foam SiC was prepared by impregnation method with Pt-organic solution and gaseous phase reduction method. • The hydrophobic catalysts were packed with Dixon phosphor bronze gauze rings (about 3 mm × 3 mm) in LPCE system to test the catalytic performance. • The effect of different size of the catalyst on LPCE was been tested. - Abstract: Platinum catalysts supported on a composite of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Foam SiC (Pt/PTFE/Foam SiC) have been proposed and prepared by an impregnation method. The as-prepared Pt/PTFE/Foam SiC was characterized by compression load testing, dynamic contact angle measurement, SEM, XRD, and TEM. The results show that the catalyst prepared by triple hydrophobic treatment had an initial contact angle of 134.2°, a good compression performance of 3.2 MPa, and platinum nanoparticles of 12.1 nm (average size). The catalytic activity of the catalyst was tested with different packing methods, reaction temperatures, and gas-liquid ratios. An excellent hydrogen isotope exchange performance was observed using a hydrophilic packing material-to-catalyst ratio of 25% and reaction temperature of 80 °C. Pt/PTFE/Foam SiC may be used as a hydrophobic catalyst for a water detritiation system (WDS) via a liquid-phase catalytic exchange process (LPCE).

  14. Seismic design of circular-section concrete-lined underground openings: Preclosure performance considerations for the Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, A.M.; Blejwas, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, the potential site of a repository for high-level radioactive waste, is situated in a region of natural and man-made seismicity. Underground openings excavated at this site must be designed for worker safety in the seismic environment anticipated for the preclosure period. This includes accesses developed for site characterization regardless of the ultimate outcome of the repository siting process. Experience with both civil and mining structures has shown that underground openings are much more resistant to seismic effects than surface structures, and that even severe dynamic strains can usually be accommodated with proper design. This paper discusses the design and performance of lined openings in the seismic environment of the potential site. The types and ranges of possible ground motions (seismic loads) are briefly discussed. Relevant historical records of underground opening performance during seismic loading are reviewed. Simple analytical methods of predicting liner performance under combined in situ, thermal, and seismic loading are presented, and results of calculations are discussed in the context of realistic performance requirements for concrete-lined openings for the preclosure period. Design features that will enhance liner stability and mitigate the impact of the potential seismic load are reviewed. The paper is limited to preclosure performance concerns involving worker safety because present decommissioning plans specify maintaining the option for liner removal at seal locations, thus decoupling liner design from repository postclosure performance issues

  15. Environmental Performance Report 2013: Annual Site Environmental Report per the U.S. Department of Energy Order 231.1-1B (Management Publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomberg, K.; Eickhoff, J.; Beatty, B.; Braus, G.; Durbin, L.; Fiehweg, R.; Ray, M.; Ryon, T.; Schmitz, E.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2013, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  16. 2014 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Douglas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Remien, Jason [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Foley, Brian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Burke, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dorsch, William [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ratel, Karen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Howe, Robert [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Welty, Tim [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Williams, Jeffrey [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pohlpt, Peter [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lagattolla, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Metz, Robert [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Milligan, James [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lettieri, Lawrence [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    BNL prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory’s environmental performance during the calendar year in review.

  17. Interpretations of Tracer Tests Performed in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MEIGS, LUCY C.; BEAUHEIM, RICHARD L.; JONES, TOYA L.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides (1) an overview of all tracer testing conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) site, (2) a detailed description of the important information about the 1995-96 tracer tests and the current interpretations of the data, and (3) a summary of the knowledge gained to date through tracer testing in the Culebra. Tracer tests have been used to identify transport processes occurring within the Culebra and quantify relevant parameters for use in performance assessment of the WIPP. The data, especially those from the tests performed in 1995-96, provide valuable insight into transport processes within the Culebra. Interpretations of the tracer tests in combination with geologic information, hydraulic-test information, and laboratory studies have resulted in a greatly improved conceptual model of transport processes within the Culebra. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is low ( -6 m 2 /s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a single-porosity medium in which advection occurs largely through the primary porosity of the dolomite matrix. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is high (> 4 x 10 -6 m 2 /s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a heterogeneous, layered, fractured medium in which advection occurs largely through fractures and solutes diffuse between fractures and matrix at multiple rates. The variations in diffusion rate can be attributed to both variations in fracture spacing (or the spacing of advective pathways) and matrix heterogeneity. Flow and transport appear to be concentrated in the lower Culebra. At all locations, diffusion is the dominant transport process in the portions of the matrix that tracer does not access by flow

  18. Interpretations of Tracer Tests Performed in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEIGS,LUCY C.; BEAUHEIM,RICHARD L.; JONES,TOYA L.

    2000-08-01

    This report provides (1) an overview of all tracer testing conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) site, (2) a detailed description of the important information about the 1995-96 tracer tests and the current interpretations of the data, and (3) a summary of the knowledge gained to date through tracer testing in the Culebra. Tracer tests have been used to identify transport processes occurring within the Culebra and quantify relevant parameters for use in performance assessment of the WIPP. The data, especially those from the tests performed in 1995-96, provide valuable insight into transport processes within the Culebra. Interpretations of the tracer tests in combination with geologic information, hydraulic-test information, and laboratory studies have resulted in a greatly improved conceptual model of transport processes within the Culebra. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is low (< 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a single-porosity medium in which advection occurs largely through the primary porosity of the dolomite matrix. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is high (> 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a heterogeneous, layered, fractured medium in which advection occurs largely through fractures and solutes diffuse between fractures and matrix at multiple rates. The variations in diffusion rate can be attributed to both variations in fracture spacing (or the spacing of advective pathways) and matrix heterogeneity. Flow and transport appear to be concentrated in the lower Culebra. At all locations, diffusion is the dominant transport process in the portions of the matrix that tracer does not access by flow.

  19. Tino Sehgal, site-specifics performances e as instituições da arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Dionísio Gomes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é debater a produção artística de Tino Sehgal enquanto site-specifics performances produzidas em instituições museológicas convencionais. Para tanto, operamos com as noções de sítio e contexto, tomando o museu como componente da obra, e não sua exterioridade. Dois operadores são observados em nossas reflexões. O primeiro é a ativação do público do museu como participante privilegiado da obra, dentro de uma pedagogia museal singular. O segundo é o controle sobre os registros das obras pelo artista, enquanto parte da ação poética e, simultaneamente, ação política debruçada sobre economias simbólicas complexas, pois coloca em evidência a relação entre obras, artistas, discursos mediadores e o público.

  20. Cold climate performance analysis of on-site domestic wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Household on-site septic systems with secondary wastewater treatment in Anchorage, Alaska, were sampled and analyzed for performance parameters during the winter to spring months. System types included intermittent dosing sand filters (ISF), three types of recirculating trickling filters (RTF), and suspended-growth aeration tanks. Total nitrogen from the trickling filter and aeration tank effluent was fairly uniform, at approximately 30 mg/L. Total suspended solids (TSS) means were mostly less than 15 mg/L. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) showed considerable variability, with means ranging from 9.2 mg/ L for ISFs up to 39.5 mg/L for one type of RTF, even though this type has shown excellent results in several test programs. The data suggested that effluent temperature within the sample range had almost no effect on effluent concentrations of BOD5 or TSS and only a small effect on the removal of total nitrogen. Non-climatic factors were probably of equal importance to treatment results.

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory DOE Site Sustainability Plan (SSP) with FY 2013 Performance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is both the largest science and energy laboratory of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and one of the oldest national laboratories still operating at its original site. These characteristics provide the Sustainable Campus Initiative (SCI) both a unique opportunity and a unique challenge to integrate sustainability into facilities and activities. As outlined in this report, SCI is leveraging the outcomes of ORNL’s DOE-sponsored research and development programs to maximize the efficient use of energy and natural resources across ORNL. Wherever possible, ORNL is integrating technical innovations into new and existing facilities, systems, and processes with a widespread approach to achieving Executive Order 13514. ORNL continues to pursue and deploy innovative solutions and initiatives to advance regional, national, and worldwide sustainability and continues to transform its culture and engage employees in supporting sustainability at work, at home, and in the community. Table 1 summarizes ORNL's FY 2013 performance and planned actions to attain future goals. ORNL has achieved numerous successes during FY 2013, which are described in detail throughout this document.

  2. Preliminary Performance Assessment for the Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Singleton, Kristin M.; Eberlein, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    A performance assessment (PA) of Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area C (WMA C) located at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington is being conducted to satisfy the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), as well as other Federal requirements and State-approved closure plans and permits. The WMP C PA assesses the fate, transport, and impacts of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals within residual wastes left in tanks and ancillary equipment and facilities in their assumed closed configuration and the subsequent risks to humans into the far future. The part of the PA focused on radiological impacts is being developed to meet the requirements for a closure authorization under DOE Order 435.1 that includes a waste incidental to reprocessing determination for residual wastes remaining in tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities. An additional part of the PA will evaluate human health and environmental impacts from hazardous chemical inventories in residual wastes remaining in WMA C tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities needed to meet the requirements for permitted closure under RCRA.

  3. Preliminary Performance Assessment for the Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Singleton, Kristin M. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Eberlein, Susan J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    A performance assessment (PA) of Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area C (WMA C) located at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington is being conducted to satisfy the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), as well as other Federal requirements and State-approved closure plans and permits. The WMP C PA assesses the fate, transport, and impacts of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals within residual wastes left in tanks and ancillary equipment and facilities in their assumed closed configuration and the subsequent risks to humans into the far future. The part of the PA focused on radiological impacts is being developed to meet the requirements for a closure authorization under DOE Order 435.1 that includes a waste incidental to reprocessing determination for residual wastes remaining in tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities. An additional part of the PA will evaluate human health and environmental impacts from hazardous chemical inventories in residual wastes remaining in WMA C tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities needed to meet the requirements for permitted closure under RCRA.

  4. Nucleation sites of Ge nanoislands grown on pit-patterned Si substrate prepared by electron-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagina, Zh. V.; Zinovyev, V. A.; Rudin, S. A.; Novikov, P. L.; Rodyakina, E. E.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Regular pit-patterned Si(001) substrates were prepared by electron-beam lithography followed by plasma chemical etching. The geometry of the pits was controlled by varying the etching conditions and the electron-beam exposure duration. It was shown that the location of three-dimensional (3D) Ge nanoislands subsequently grown on the pit-patterned Si substrates depends on the shape of the pit bottom. In the case of pits having a sharp bottom, 3D Ge islands nucleate inside the pits. For pits with a wide flat bottom, the 3D Ge island nucleation takes place at the pit periphery. This effect is attributed to the strain relaxation depending not only on the initial pit shape, but also on its evolution during the Ge wetting layer deposition. It was shown by Monte Carlo simulations that in the case of a pit with a pointed bottom, the relaxation is most effective inside the pit, while for a pit with a wide bottom, the most relaxed area migrates during Ge deposition from the pit bottom to its edges, where 3D Ge islands nucleate.

  5. Electrochemical preparation of MnO2 nanobelts through pulse base-electrogeneration and evaluation of their electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mustafa; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Faridbod, Farnoush

    2016-02-01

    Cathodic electrodeposition of MnO2 from a nitrate solution, via pulsed base (OH-) electrogeneration was performed for the first time. The deposition experiments were performed in a pulse current mode in typical on-times and off-times (i.e. ton = 1 s and toff = 1 s) with a peak current density of 2 mA cm-2 (Ia = 2 mA cm-2). The structural characterizations conducted by XRD and FTIR techniques revealed that the prepared MnO2 is composed of both α and γ phases. Morphological observation by SEM and TEM showed that the prepared MnO2 is made up of nanobelts with uniform shapes (an average diameter and length of 50 nm and 1 μm, respectively). Further electrochemical measurements by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge techniques revealed that the prepared MnO2 nanostructures have excellent capacitive behaviors, like a specific capacitance of 235.5 F g-1 and capacity retention of 91.3% after 1000 cycling at the scan rate of 25 mV s-1.

  6. A Cocatalytic Effect between Meldrum's Acid and Benzoxazine Compounds in Preparation of High Performance Thermosetting Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Lin, Liang-Kai; Chiang, Shu-Jen; Liu, Ying-Ling

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a cocatalytic effect between Meldrum's acid (MA) and benzoxazine (Bz) compounds has been explored to build up a self-promoting curing system. Consequently, the MA/Bz reactive blend exhibits a relatively low reaction temperature compared to the required temperatures for the cross-linking reactions of the pure MA and Bz components. This feature is attractive for energy-saving processing issues. Moreover, the thermosetting resins based on the MA/Bz reactive blends have been prepared. The MA component can generate additional free volume in the resulting resins, so as to trap air in the resin matrix and consequently to bring low dielectric constants to the resins. The MA-containing agent is an effective modifier for benzoxazine resins to reduce their dielectric constants. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Preparation and Adsorption Performances of Phragmites australis Activated Carbon with High Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Cheng-kai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For removal of heavy metals from wastewater and recycling the wetland plants, the present study investigated the viability of using silage of Phragmites australis (PA to prepare activated carbons (ACs with high acidity. BET surface area, porous texture and surface functional characteristics of ACs were analyzed by N2 adsorption/desorption, elemental analysis and Boehm titration method. ACs presented well-developed micro-porosity and favorable surface acidity. The sorption equilibrium data for Ni (Ⅱ and Cd (Ⅱ sorption onto ACs were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model was fitted well to the adsorption behavior. The properties of high surface acidity promoted the adsorption of heavy metals by the silage-treated ACs and the chemical sorption played the key role in the sorption process.

  8. Preparing teachers for the performance and evaluation of gaming-simulation in experiential learning climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, P; Norman, I

    1989-02-01

    Gaming-simulation exercises have become an established teaching strategy for nursing education. This paper suggests that nurse educators must now attempt to evaluate their effect on learning. Problems of evaluation are discussed and alternative approaches critically considered. The dominant 'classical' approach is rejected in favour of 'illuminative' evaluation and the approach of 'new paradigm research'. Nurse teachers are encouraged to apply the principles of therapeutic community practice and 'gestalt awareness' to the learning environment to enhance gains from experiential approaches. Finally the need to prepare teachers is examined. It is suggested that personal and interpersonal sensitivity, plus the ability to meaningfully facilitate groupwork are necessary prerequisites for effective gaming-simulation and its qualitative evaluation.

  9. Preparation and performance optimization of TPBISi green-light organic luminescent material devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Huajing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Study analyzed and tested the absorption spectrum, photoluminescence spectrum, and device’s electroluminescence spectrum of a new silole material. The device with Silol as an emitting layer, emitted green-light whose structure is ITO/NPB/2,2,3,3-tetraphenyl-4,4-bisthienylsilole(TPBTSi/Alq3/Mg: A by improvement of preparation technology and optimization of thin film. It reaches the maximum luminescence of 11290.2 cd/m2, the maximum luminous efficiency of 0.84 lm/W, luminescence spectrum of 516 nm, chromaticity diagram CIE coordinate of(0.275, 0.4568 when voltage is 15V. All of the above is the green characteristic spectrum of TPBTSi.

  10. Preparation and Performance of an Adsorption Type Gel Plugging Agent as Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel adsorption type gel plugging agent (ATGPA was prepared using acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate (AMPS, formaldehyde (HCHO, resorcinol (C6H6O2, and thiocarbamide (CH4N2S as raw materials under mild conditions. ATGPA was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was found that ATGPA exhibited higher elastic modulus (G′ and viscous modulus (G′′ than AM/AA gel plugging agent (AAGPA under the same scanning frequency. It was also found that ATGPA had moderate temperature resistance and salt tolerance. Core plugging tests results indicated that ATGPA could achieve up to higher plugging rate (PR than AAGPA (97.2% versus 95.7% at 65°C. In addition, ATGPA possessed stronger antiscouring ability by core plugging experiments at 65°C.

  11. [Preparation and Performance of Ultrafast γ-CuI Scintillation Conversion Screen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ming; Gu, Mu; Liu, Xiao-lin; Liu, Bo; Huang, Shi-ming; Ni, Chen

    2015-04-01

    Micro-columnar structured γ-CuI scintillation conversion screen with columnar diameter in the micrometer and thickness about 17 µm were prepared by thermal evaporation method on quartz substrates with different temperatures. X-ray excited luminescence spectra of the screens show two peaks located at 430 nm and near 700 nm, which correspond to the fast and slow emission components, respectively. The fast one dominated. The intensity of 430 nm peak decreased as the substrate temperature rose from 170 °C to 210 °C. At the same time the intensity of 700 nm band increased. The changes may be attributed to the iodine loss from screen caused by the substrate temperature. The phenomenon of iodine loss was observed by the Rutherford backscattering experiment. The crystal structure of the screens presents (111) preferred orientation, which is independent of the substrate temperature. As the temperature rose to 210 °C, two weak additional peaks of (220) and (420) γ-CuI crystal planes in X-ray diffraction patterns appeared due to the increase in kinetic energy of CuI molecules. The scanning electron microscopy images of the screens showed that the columnar structure was improved when the substrate temperature increased from 170 °C to 190 °C, but it would be degenerated when the temperature continued to rise to 210 °C because of the surface and bulk diffusion effects of the depositing molecules. Finally, the spatial resolution of the γ-CuI scintillation screens was measured by knife-edge method, and they are 4.5, 7.2 and 5.6lp · mm(-1) for the screens prepared at the substrates temperatures of 170, 190 and 210 °C, respectively. The result shows that micro-column structure could improve the spatial resolution of γ-CuI scintillation screen.

  12. Activated carbon/ZnO composites prepared using hydrochars as intermediate and their electrochemical performance in supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yueming, E-mail: liyueming@ysu.edu.cn; Liu, Xi

    2014-11-14

    We report a new methodology to prepare activated carbon and activated carbons/ZnO composites from walnut shell-derived hydrothermal carbons (hydrochars), which were prepared under hydrothermal condition in presence of ZnCl{sub 2}. For this method, activated carbon/ZnO composites were prepared via heat treatment of hydrochars under inert environment and activated carbons were prepared by removing the ZnO in activated carbon/ZnO composites. The chemical structure of walnut shell, hydrochars, activated carbon/ZnO and activated carbon was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements. It is found ZnCl{sub 2} plays multiple roles, i.e., helping to remove the oxygen-containing groups during hydrothermal stage, improving the surface area of activated carbon and acting as the precursor of ZnO in heat-treatment stage. The specific surface areas up to 818.9 and 1072.7 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} have been achieved for activated carbon/ZnO composites and activated carbon, respectively. The activated carbon/ZnO as electrode materials for supercapacitors showed that specific capacitance of up to 117.4 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1} in KOH aqueous solution can be achieved and keeps stable in 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Hydrochars as intermediate to prepare activated carbon/ZnO composites. • Activated carbon/ZnO showed excellent electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. • Activated carbon with large surface area can be obtained by removing ZnO.

  13. Activated carbon/ZnO composites prepared using hydrochars as intermediate and their electrochemical performance in supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yueming; Liu, Xi

    2014-01-01

    We report a new methodology to prepare activated carbon and activated carbons/ZnO composites from walnut shell-derived hydrothermal carbons (hydrochars), which were prepared under hydrothermal condition in presence of ZnCl 2 . For this method, activated carbon/ZnO composites were prepared via heat treatment of hydrochars under inert environment and activated carbons were prepared by removing the ZnO in activated carbon/ZnO composites. The chemical structure of walnut shell, hydrochars, activated carbon/ZnO and activated carbon was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N 2 adsorption/desorption measurements. It is found ZnCl 2 plays multiple roles, i.e., helping to remove the oxygen-containing groups during hydrothermal stage, improving the surface area of activated carbon and acting as the precursor of ZnO in heat-treatment stage. The specific surface areas up to 818.9 and 1072.7 m 2  g −1 have been achieved for activated carbon/ZnO composites and activated carbon, respectively. The activated carbon/ZnO as electrode materials for supercapacitors showed that specific capacitance of up to 117.4 F g −1 at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 in KOH aqueous solution can be achieved and keeps stable in 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Hydrochars as intermediate to prepare activated carbon/ZnO composites. • Activated carbon/ZnO showed excellent electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. • Activated carbon with large surface area can be obtained by removing ZnO

  14. Association of the Addition of Oral Antibiotics to Mechanical Bowel Preparation for Left Colon and Rectal Cancer Resections With Reduction of Surgical Site Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Elaine; Massarweh, Nader N; Chai, Christy Y; Tran Cao, Hop S; Zamani, Nader; Abraham, Sherry; Adigun, Kafayat; Awad, Samir S

    2018-02-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) after colorectal surgery remain a significant complication, particularly for patients with cancer, because they can delay the administration of adjuvant therapy. A combination of oral antibiotics and mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is a potential, yet controversial, SSI prevention strategy. To determine the association of the addition of oral antibiotics to MBP with preventing SSIs in left colon and rectal cancer resections and its association with the timely administration of adjuvant therapy. A retrospective review was performed of 89 patients undergoing left colon and rectal cancer resections from October 1, 2013, to December 31, 2016, at a single institution. A bowel regimen of oral antibiotics and MBP (neomycin sulfate, metronidazole hydrochloride, and magnesium citrate) was implemented August 1, 2015. Patients receiving MBP and oral antibiotics and those undergoing MBP without oral antibiotics were compared using univariate analysis. Multivariable logistic regression controlling for factors that may affect SSIs was used to evaluate the association between use of oral antibiotics and MBP and the occurrence of SSIs. Surgical site infections within 30 days of the index procedure and time to adjuvant therapy. Of the 89 patients (5 women and 84 men; mean [SD] age, 65.3 [9.2] years) in the study, 49 underwent surgery with MBP but without oral antibiotics and 40 underwent surgery with MBP and oral antibiotics. The patients who received oral antibiotics and MBP were younger than those who received only MBP (mean [SD] age, 62.6 [9.1] vs 67.5 [8.8] years; P = .01), but these 2 cohorts of patients were otherwise similar in baseline demographic, clinical, and cancer characteristics. Surgical approach (minimally invasive vs open) and case type were similarly distributed; however, the median operative time of patients who received oral antibiotics and MBP was longer than that of patients who received MBP only (391 minutes

  15. Preparation of high-performance ultrafine-grained AISI 304L stainless steel under high temperature and pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulk ultra-fine grained (UFG AISI 304L stainless steel with excellent mechanical properties was prepared by a high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP method using nanocrystalline AISI 304L stainless steel powders obtained from ball milling. Samples were sintered in high-pressure conditions using the highest martensite content of AISI 304L stainless steel powders milled for 25 h. Analyses of phase composition and grain size were accomplished by X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement. By comparing the reverse martensite transformation under vacuum and HTHP treat, we consider that pressure can effectively promote the change in the process of transformation. Compared with the solid-solution-treated 304L, the hardness and yield strength of the samples sintered under HTHP are considerably higher. This method of preparation of UFG bulk stainless steel may be widely popularised and used to obtain UFG metallic materials with good comprehensive performance.

  16. Performance of Tc-99m generator prepared with Mo adsorbent PZC and irradiated nature MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the technical process of Tc-99m generator prepared with reactor actived Mo-99 and PZC and the performance of the generator was also reported. Two generators were prepared with different batch of PZC and by different technical process. The results show that the adsorption rate was ∼65% and the adsorption efficiency of 99 Mo can be seriously affected by the adsorption process (the temperature, intensity and frequency of shaking and the PZC volume in solution etc.). The elution efficiency was 43-73%. The Mo breakthrough 1.2 - 16% without safe column and its can be decreased to be very low by connecting a hydrate zirconia (HZO) safe column. (author)

  17. IRE (Institut National des Radioelements) site in Belgium. Report of in situ measurements and analyses performed for the RTBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    This document reports various analyses performed within the frame of the preparation and filming of a TV documentary on the Belgium National Institute of Radio-elements. It reports gamma radiation measurements performed at the vicinity of the institute, discusses the possible origin of its increase at the vicinity of the institute, analyses of sludge samples coming from a wastewater treatment works, and analyses of milk, cabbage, mosses and sediments collected by residents

  18. Psychophysiological activation during preparation, performance, and recovery in high- and low-anxious music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Regina Katharina; Danuser, Brigitta; Wild, Pascal; Hildebrandt, Horst; Gomez, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive view of (a) the time dynamics of the psychophysiological responding in performing music students (n = 66) before, during, and after a private and a public performance and (b) the moderating effect of music performance anxiety (MPA). Heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), and all affective and somatic self-report variables increased in the public session compared to the private session. Furthermore, the activation of all variables was stronger during the performances than before or after. Differences between phases were larger in the public than in the private session for HR, VE, total breath duration, anxiety, and trembling. Furthermore, while higher MPA scores were associated with higher scores and with larger changes between sessions and phases for self-reports, this association was less coherent for physiological variables. Finally, self-reported intra-individual performance improvements or deteriorations were not associated with MPA. This study makes a novel contribution by showing how the presence of an audience influences low- and high-anxious musicians' psychophysiological responding before, during and after performing. Overall, the findings are more consistent with models of anxiety that emphasize the importance of cognitive rather than physiological factors in MPA.

  19. Management of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site using Decision-based, Probabilistic Performance Assessment Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carilli, J.; Crowe, B.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Stockton, T.; Catlett, K.; Yucel, V.

    2003-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste from cleanup activities at the Nevada Test Site and from multiple sites across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex is disposed at two active Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. These facilities, which are managed by the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, were recently designated as one of two regional disposal centers and yearly volumes of disposed waste now exceed 50,000 m3 (> 2 million ft3). To safely and cost-effectively manage the disposal facilities, the Waste Management Division of Environmental Management has implemented decision-based management practices using flexible and problem-oriented probabilistic performance assessment modeling. Deterministic performance assessments and composite analyses were completed originally for the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMSs located in, respectively, Frenchman Flat and Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site. These documents provide the technical bases for issuance of disposal authorization statements for continuing operation of the disposal facilities. Both facilities are now in a maintenance phase that requires testing of conceptual models, reduction of uncertainty, and site monitoring all leading to eventual closure of the facilities and transition to long-term stewardship

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Wind Turbine Generators at the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joseph Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot site in Newport, Indiana, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the sitefor possible wind turbine electrical generator installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different wind energy options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a wind system at the site.

  1. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-09-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

  2. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of [3H]ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain

  3. One-step preparation and photocatalytic performance of vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilić, R., E-mail: rastko.vasilic@ff.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Stojadinović, S. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Radić, N. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Stefanov, P. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Dohčević-Mitrović, Z. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Grbić, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we have investigated one-step preparation of vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of titanium in electrolyte containing 10 g/L Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O + 0.5 g/L NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}. The morphology, phase structure, and elemental composition of the formed coatings were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS) was employed to evaluate the band gap energy of obtained coatings. Vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings are partly crystallized and mainly composed of anatase phase TiO{sub 2}, with up to about 2 wt% of vanadium present in the surface layer of the oxide. The valence band photoelectron spectra and UV–Vis DRS showed that vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings exhibit notable red shift with respect to the pure TiO{sub 2} coatings. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight conditions. Photocatalytic activity of vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings increases with PEO time. Prolonged PEO times result in higher roughness of obtained coatings, thus increasing surface area available for methyl orange degradation. Vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings obtained after 180 s of PEO time exhibit the best photocatalytic activity and about 67% of methyl orange is degraded after 12 h of irradiation under simulated sunlight. - Highlights: • One-step preparation of V-doped TiO{sub 2} coatings in 10 g/L Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O + 0.5 g/L NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}. • Properties of obtained coatings strongly depend on microdischarge characteristics. • Band gap of V-doped TiO{sub 2} coatings is shifted towards red side of the spectrum. • V-doped TiO{sub 2} coatings have better photocatalytic activity than pure TiO{sub 2}. • After 12 h of simulated sunlight irradiation, 67% of

  4. One-step preparation and photocatalytic performance of vanadium doped TiO2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilić, R.; Stojadinović, S.; Radić, N.; Stefanov, P.; Dohčević-Mitrović, Z.; Grbić, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated one-step preparation of vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of titanium in electrolyte containing 10 g/L Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O + 0.5 g/L NH 4 VO 3 . The morphology, phase structure, and elemental composition of the formed coatings were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS) was employed to evaluate the band gap energy of obtained coatings. Vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings are partly crystallized and mainly composed of anatase phase TiO 2 , with up to about 2 wt% of vanadium present in the surface layer of the oxide. The valence band photoelectron spectra and UV–Vis DRS showed that vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings exhibit notable red shift with respect to the pure TiO 2 coatings. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight conditions. Photocatalytic activity of vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings increases with PEO time. Prolonged PEO times result in higher roughness of obtained coatings, thus increasing surface area available for methyl orange degradation. Vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings obtained after 180 s of PEO time exhibit the best photocatalytic activity and about 67% of methyl orange is degraded after 12 h of irradiation under simulated sunlight. - Highlights: • One-step preparation of V-doped TiO 2 coatings in 10 g/L Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O + 0.5 g/L NH 4 VO 3 . • Properties of obtained coatings strongly depend on microdischarge characteristics. • Band gap of V-doped TiO 2 coatings is shifted towards red side of the spectrum. • V-doped TiO 2 coatings have better photocatalytic activity than pure TiO 2 . • After 12 h of simulated sunlight irradiation, 67% of methyl orange was decomposed

  5. Use of Historical Pump-and-Treat Data to Enhance Site Characterization and Remediation Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    Groundwater withdrawal and contaminant concentration data are routinely collected for pump-and-treat operations conducted at hazardous waste sites. These data sets can be mined to produce a wealth of information to support enhanced site characterization, optimization of remedial system operations, and improved decision making regarding long-term site management and closure. Methods that may be used to analyze and interpret pump-and-treat data to produce such assessments are presented, along with a brief illustration of their application to a site. The results presented herein illustrate that comprehensive analysis of pump-and-treat data is a powerful, cost-effective method for providing higher-resolution, value-added characterization of contaminated sites.

  6. The performance assessment impacts of disposal of high-moisture, low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Hansen, W.; Hechnova, A.; Voss, C.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of independent scientists was convened by the Department of Energy to assess the performance impacts of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. This waste stream was involved in a transportation incident in December 1997. A resulting outgrowth of investigations of the transportation incident was the recognition that the waste was transported and disposed in stress-fractured metal boxes and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high volumetric water contents). The panel was charged with determining whether disposal of this waste in the Area 5 radioactive waste management site on the Nevada Test Site has impacted the conclusions of the completed performance assessment. Three questions were developed by the panel to assess performance impacts: (1) the performance impacts of reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) the performance impacts of excess moisture. No performance or subsidence impacts were noted from disposal of the Fernald waste. The impacts of excess moisture were assessed through simulation modeling of the movement of moisture in the vadose zone assuming high water contents (wet waste) for different percentages of the waste inventory. No performance impacts were noted for either the base-case scenario (ambient conditions) or a scenario involving subsidence and flooding of the waste cells. The absence of performance impacts results form the extreme conservatism used in the Area 5-performance assessment and the robust nature of the disposal site

  7. F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment Updates through the Special Analysis Process at Savannah River Site - 12169

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Mark H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF is in the north-central portion of the SRS and occupies approximately 22 acres within F-Area. The FTF is an active radioactive waste storage facility consisting of 22 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. An FTF Performance Assessment (PA) was prepared to support the eventual closure of the FTF underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. The PA provides the technical basis and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements identified below for final closure of FTF. The FTank Farm is subject to a state industrial waste water permit and Federal Facility Agreement. Closure documentation will include an F-Tank Farm Closure Plan and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the performance assessment. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the Environmental Protection Agency must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. The projected waste tank inventories in the FTF PA provide reasonably bounding FTF inventory projections while taking into account uncertainties in the effectiveness of future tank cleaning technologies. As waste is removed from the FTF waste tanks, the residual contaminants will be sampled and the remaining residual inventory is characterized. In this manner, tank specific data for the tank inventories at closure will be available to supplement the waste tank inventory projections currently used in the FTF PA. For FTF, the new tank specific data

  8. Preparation and Performance of Amphiphilic Random Copolymer Noncovalently Modified MWCNTs/Epoxy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An amphiphilic random copolymer of polyglycidyl methacrylate-co-N-vinyl carbazole P(GMA-co-NVC was synthesized by free radical polymerization and was used to noncovalently modify multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. The obtained P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs was mixed with epoxy resin and used to reinforce epoxy resin. Polymer modified carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites were prepared by a casting molding method. Tensile test, electrical resistivity test and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC analysis were used to study the effect of polymer modified carbon nanotubes on the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of epoxy resin. The results show that the epoxy composite reinforced with P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs shows a remarkable enhancement in both tensile strength and elongation at break compared to either the pure epoxy or the pristine MWCNTs/epoxy composites. In addition, the electrical conductivity of epoxy is significantly improved and the volume resistivity decreases from 1014Ω·m to 106Ω·m with 0.25% mass fraction loading of P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs. Moreover, glass transition temperature of the epoxy composite also increases from 144℃ to 149℃.

  9. Preparation of carbon nanotube-neodymium oxide composite and research on its catalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lei; Wang Zhihua; Han Dongmei; Tao Dongliang; Guo Guangsheng

    2009-01-01

    Carbon Nanotube-Neodymium Oxide (CNT-Nd 2 O 3 ) composite was prepared by using acid treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and neodymium nitrate in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ammonia liquid. Techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) are used to characterize the morphology, structure, composition and catalytic property of the CNT-Nd 2 O 3 composite. The experimental results show that the Nd 2 O 3 nanoparticles, which have an average diameter of about 30-40 nm, are loaded on the surface of carbon nanotube. Compared with pure Nd 2 O 3 nanorods, the CNT-Nd 2 O 3 composite can catalyze the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate more effectively. The sampling methods of the experimental samples made a difference on the catalytic experiment results, and the best catalytic result was obtained when de-ionized water served as the solvent of ammonium perchlorate

  10. Preparation and characterization of high performance NBR/cobalt (II) chloride coordination composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Peng; Shao, Chengli; Li, Qiqing; Wu, Chifei

    2018-02-01

    Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) composites filled with Cobalt (II) Chloride (CoCl2) particles were prepared by a solvent dispersion method. Acetone was selected as solvent for NBR and CoCl2. To directly enhance the interaction between NBR and CoCl2, a coordination reaction was generated by hot pressing at 200 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to investigate the coordination reaction. Results showed that the coordination reaction occurred between the nitrile groups (-CN) of NBR and cobalt ions (Co2+) of CoCl2. Compared with the properties of pure NBR, the tensile strength of NBR/CoCl2 composites filled with 10 parts per hundreds of rubber (phr) CoCl2 increased 2200%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the CoCl2 particles were dispersed in the NBR matrix homogeneously. The indistinguishable interface between CoCl2 particles and NBR matrix indicated good compatibility. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that coordination reaction improved heat resistance of NBR matrix.

  11. Preparation and photocatalytic degradation performance of Ag_3PO_4 with a two-step approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiwen; Ji, Xiaojing; Li, Xian; Hu, Xianghua; Sun, Yanfang; Ma, Jingjun; Qiao, Gaowei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag_3PO_4 photocatalysts were synthesized via one-step and two-step ion-exchange reaction. • Photocatalytic properties of Ag_3PO_4 photocatalysts was investigated, the result indicated the Ag_3PO_4 (2) was higher than that of Ag_3PO_4 (1) under the same experimental condition. • Ag_3PO_4 (2) particles were larger than Ag_3PO_4 (1) particles and many polygonal-shaped surfaces could be clearly observed in the Ag_3PO_4 (2) particles. - Abstract: Ag_3PO_4 photocatalysts were prepared via two and one-step through a facile ion-exchange route. The photocatalysts were then characterized through powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated on the basis of the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under solar irradiation. The MO degradation rate of the Photocatalyst synthesized by the two-step ion-exchange route was 89.18% in 60 min. This value was four times that of the Photocatalyst synthesized by the one-step approach.The MB degradation rate was 97% in 40 min. After six cycling runs were completed, the MO degradation rate was 73%

  12. Preparation, microstructure and degradation performance of biomedical magnesium alloy fine wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Bai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of new biodegradable Mg alloy implant devices, the potential applications of biomedical Mg alloy fine wires are realized and explored gradually. In this study, we prepared three kinds of Mg alloy fine wires containing 4 wt% RE(Gd/Y/Nd and 0.4 wt% Zn with the diameter less than 0.4 μm through casting, hot extruding and multi-pass cold drawing combined with intermediated annealing process. Their microstructures, mechanical and degradation properties were investigated. In comparison with the corresponding as-extruded alloy, the final fine wire has significantly refined grain with an average size of 3–4 μm, and meanwhile shows higher yield strength but lower ductility at room temperature. The degradation tests results and surface morphologies observations indicate that Mg–4Gd–0.4Zn and Mg–4Nd–0.4Zn fine wires have similar good corrosion resistance and the uniform corrosion behavior in SBF solution. By contrast, Mg–4Y–0.4Zn fine wire shows a poor corrosion resistance and the pitting corrosion behavior.

  13. Preparation and performance of porous phase change polyethylene glycol/polyurethane membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Guizhen; Xie Huifang; Ruan Ruping; Yu Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the theory of clotty porous phase change materials, the porous membrane was prepared with the blend of polyurethane (PU) and two polyethylene glycol (PEG) systems. Studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric (TG) tests, the morphology structure, chemical composition, crystalline morphology, phase change behaviors and thermal stability of porous phase change membrane were investigated. The results showed that the PU/PEG membrane had obvious porous structural feature, suitable transition temperature and high transition enthalpy. It is a flexible membrane with good energy storage function. When it is between solid and liquid transfer state in microcosms, the membrane can still keep solid shape in macroscopic state at high temperature during phase transition processing. It means that porous membrane PCM can be regarded as functional polymer. This method solved the problem of low working materials content in phase change textile. It succeeded in introducing the porous technology into functional textile's formation, and developed a new way to improve the phase change enthalpy largely for adjustable textile.

  14. Performance of flexible capacitors based on polypyrrole/carbon fiber electrochemically prepared from various phosphate electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wei; Han, Gaoyi, E-mail: han_gaoyis@sxu.edu.cn; Chang, Yunzhen; Li, Miaoyu; Xiao, Yaoming, E-mail: ymxiao@sxu.edu.cn; Zhou, Haihan; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanping

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • PPy/CFs have been fabricated by electrodepositing polypyrrole on carbon fibers. • The electrolytes in deposition solution have effect on PPy/CFs’ capacitive behavior. • Cells of PPy/CFs obtained from NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} electrolyte has good stability in PVA/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. - Abstract: In order to investigate the influence of electrolytes in electro-deposition solution on the capacitive properties of polypyrrole (PPy), we have chosen phosphoric acid, phosphate, hydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate as electrolyte in deposition solution respectively and electrochemically deposited PPy on carbon fibers (CFs) via galvanostatic method. The morphologies of the PPy/CFs samples have been characterized by scanning electron microscope. The specific capacitance of PPy/CFs samples has been evaluated in different electrolytes through three-electrode test system. The assembled flexible capacitors by using PPy/CFs as electrodes and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/polyvinyl alcohol as gel electrolyte have been systematically measured by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the electrochemical capacitors based on PPy/CFs prepared from deposition solution containing NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O electrolyte exhibit higher specific capacitance, flexibility and excellent stability (retaining 96.8% of initial capacitance after 13,000 cycles), and that three cells connected in series can power a light-emitting diode.

  15. Nanosized Ni-Mn Oxides Prepared by the Citrate Gel Process and Performances for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxin ZHOU; Xiangqian SHEN; Maoxiang JING

    2006-01-01

    Nanosized Ni-Mn oxide powders have been successfully prepared by thermal decomposition of the Ni-Mn citrate gel precursors. The powder materials derived from calcination of the gel precursors with various molar ratios of nickel and manganese at different temperatures and time were characterized using thermal analysis (TG-DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET).The optimized processing conditions of calcination at 400℃ for 1 h with Ni/Mn molar ratio 6 were proved to produce the nanosized Ni-Mn oxide powders with a high specific surface area of 109.62 m2/g and nanometer particle sizes of 15~30 nm. The capacitance characteristics of the nanosized Ni-Mn oxide electrode in various concentrations of KOH solutions were studied by the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and exhibited both a doublelayer capacitance and a Faradaic capacitance which could be attributed to the electrode consisting of Ni-Mn oxides and residual carbons from the organic gel thermal decomposition. A specific capacitance of 194.8 F/g was obtained for the electrode at the sweep rate of 10 mV/s in 4 mol/L KOH electrolyte and the capacitor showed quite high cyclic stability and is promising for advanced electrochemical capacitors.

  16. Preparation of Stellerite Loading Titanium Dioxide Photo catalyst and Its Catalytic Performance on Methyl Orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Chen, H.; Yang, F.; Chen, H.; Zhou, J.; Fu, J.; Yang, J.; Yuan, Z.; Zheng, B.

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 /stellerite composite photo catalysts were prepared by dispersing TiO 2 onto the surface of HCl, NaOH, or NaCl treated stellerite using a sol-gel method. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), BET surface area analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). HCl and NaCl modification result in the promotion of the pore formation at the stellerite surfaces and induced the microscopic changes, while the surface morphology and structure of the stellerite were almost ruined by NaOH modification. Supported TiO 2 calcinate at 200 degree presented anatase structure. The photo catalytic degradation activities of TiO 2 loaded HCl and NaCl modified stellerite were better than that of natural stellerite, accompanied with increasing specific surface area. On the contrary, NaOH modification induced the loss of photo catalytic ability of composite due to the generation of silicates

  17. Preparation and Performance of Sb-SnO2 / Ti Electrode Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Jin-zhi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the electro-catalytic oxidation activity and stability of Sb-SnO2 /Ti electrode,the CNTs-Sb-SnO2 /Ti electrode was prepared by sol-gel-thermal decomposition method. The microstructure and electrochemical properties of the modified electrode was characterized via SEM electrochemical impedance spectroscope ( EIS ,polarization curve and congo red degradation experiments. Furthermore,its the stability was investigated by accelerated life test. The results indicate that when the optimal doping amount of CNTs is 2. 0 g /L the congo red removal rate increases by 14. 7% using the CNTs-Sb-SnO2 /Ti electrode compared with the Sb-SnO2 /Ti electrode. Meanwhile pore structure appears and roughness increases on the surface of modified electrodes leading to larger specific surface area of electrode. Then the modified electrodes exhibit higher oxygen evolution potential and lower charge transfer resistance. Additionally,accelerated life tests reveal that the modified electrode has better electro-catalytic stability while the service life increases by

  18. Electrochemical performance of Sn-Sb-Cu film anodes prepared by layer-by-layer electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qianlei; Xue Ruisheng; Jia Mengqiu

    2012-01-01

    A novel layer-by-layer electrodeposition and heat-treatment approach was attempted to obtain Sn-Sb-Cu film anode for lithium ion batteries. The preparation of Sn-Sb-Cu anodes started with galvanostatic electrochemically depositing antimony and tin sequentially on the substrate of copper foil collector. Sn-Sb and Cu-Sb alloys were formed when heated. The SEM analysis showed that the crystalline grains become bigger and the surface of the Sn-Sb-Cu anode becomes more denser after annealing. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the antimony, tin and copper were alloyed to form SnSb and Cu 2 Sb after heat treatment. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed the surface of the Sn-Sb-Cu electrode was covered by a thin oxide layer. Electrochemical measurements showed that the annealed Sn-Sb-Cu anode has high reversible capacity and good capacity retention. It exhibited a reversible capacity of about 962 mAh/g in the initial cycle, which still remained 715 mAh/g after 30 cycles.

  19. Preparation and performance of biofouling resistant PAN/chitosan hollow fiber membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthana Lakshmi, D; Jaiswar, Santlal; Saxena, Mayank; Tasselli, Franco; Raval, Hiren D

    2017-07-01

    The preparation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes has been carried out by dry-jet wet spinning. PAN HF membranes were coated with chitosan biopolymers 2 wt% by dip coating and further crosslinked by chemical reagents (Tri sodium polyphosphate). PAN HF (Virgin) and PAN/chitosan coated membrane were characterized by SEM and tested for water flux. Proteins Pepsin, Albumin, and Clay of 1000 ppm concentration were tested for separation efficiency. In addition, bacterial species Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were tested for fouling control efficiency and found out that PAN/chitosan membranes were quite superior to virgin PAN fibers. The adhesion of bacterial cells on the surface of the hollow fiber membranes assessed through alcian blue staining and SEM analysis. It was observed that PAN/chitosan membranes (310A and 310C) possessed best antibacterial activities (based on SEM results), qualifying them as a very promising candidates for anti-biofouling coatings.

  20. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-22

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) disposes of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and stabilizes high-level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks in the subsurface environment. Calculations used to establish the radiological limits of these facilities are referred to as Performance Assessments (PA), Special Analyses (SA), and Composite Analyses (CA). The objective of this document is to revise existing geochemical input values used for these calculations. This work builds on earlier compilations of geochemical data (2007, 2010), referred to a geochemical data packages. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program of the SRS PA programs that periodically updates calculations and data packages when new information becomes available. Because application of values without full understanding of their original purpose may lead to misuse, this document also provides the geochemical conceptual model, the approach used for selecting the values, the justification for selecting data, and the assumptions made to assure that the conceptual and numerical geochemical models are reasonably conservative (i.e., bias the recommended input values to reflect conditions that will tend to predict the maximum risk to the hypothetical recipient). This document provides 1088 input parameters for geochemical parameters describing transport processes for 64 elements (>740 radioisotopes) potentially occurring within eight subsurface disposal or tank closure areas: Slit Trenches (ST), Engineered Trenches (ET), Low Activity Waste Vault (LAWV), Intermediate Level (ILV) Vaults, Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDA), Components-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches, Saltstone Facility, and Closed Liquid Waste Tanks. The geochemical parameters described here are the distribution coefficient, Kd value, apparent solubility concentration, ks value, and the cementitious leachate impact factor.

  1. Performance of a Surface Barrier for Waste Isolation and Flux Reduction at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Morse, John G.; Leary, Kevin D.; Freshley, Mark D.

    2016-05-13

    Based on the knowledge gained from a decade of laboratory, field, and numerical studies, the Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was designed and constructed between late 1993 and late 1994 over the 216-B-57 Crib in the 200-BP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site. The PHB has been monitored since 1994 to evaluate the physical, hydrologic, and ecological performance. Two stress tests were carried out in the past: (1) an enhanced (about 3 times the multi-year average of 160 mm/year) precipitation test from water year (WY) 1995 to WY1997, which included a man-made 1000-year return 24-hour rainstorms in March each year, and (2) a controlled fire test in 2008. The purpose of this article is to present the main findings of the PHB demonstration since 1994. From 1994 to present, the PHB has limited drainage of less than 0.2 mm yr-1, which is below the 0.5 mm yr-1 design goal, and minimized erosion. The observations suggest the PHB is robust enough to endure the hydrological stress of three times average precipitation and 1000-year return 24-hour rainstorms. After the controlled fire, far less vegetation grows and grasses are the dominant vegetation (compared to shrubs on the unburned section). Even so, the grasses can remove nearly all the stored water in the burned section, although during a longer period of time than in the unburned section. The findings at the PHB are useful for the design and monitoring of future surface barriers at Hanford and elsewhere.

  2. Electrochemical performance of multi-element doped α-nickel hydroxide prepared by supersonic co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.J.; Zhu, Y.J.; Bao, J.; Lin, X.R.; Zheng, H.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The α-nickel hydroxides doped with several elements were prepared by supersonic co-precipitation method. → Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show sample C has the best electrochemical performance. → The charge/discharge tests show that the 0.5 C discharge capacity (346 mAh/g) of sample C is even larger than that (337 mAh/g) at 0.1 C rate, while the discharge capacity at 0.5 C rate is much lower than that at 0.1 C rate for samples A and B. - Abstract: The multi-element doped α-nickel hydroxides have been prepared by supersonic co-precipitation method. Three kinds of samples A, B, C were prepared by chemically coprecipitating Ni, Al, Co, Y, Zn. It was found that sample C produced better performance than the others. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicated that sample C has better electrochemical performance, such as better reaction reversibility, higher proton diffusion coefficient and lower charge-transfer resistance, than those of samples A and B. The charge-discharge tests showed that the discharge capacity (346 mA h/g) of sample C is even larger at 0.5 C rate than that (337mAh/g) at 0.1 C rate, while the discharge capacity at 0.5 C rate is much lower than that at 0.1 C rate for samples A and B. It indicates that all doped elements can produce the synergic effect and further improve the electrochemical properties of the active materials.

  3. Mordenite/Nafion and analcime/Nafion composite membranes prepared by spray method for improved direct methanol fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapainainar, Paweena; Du, Zehui; Kongkachuichay, Paisan; Holmes, Stuart M.; Prapainainar, Chaiwat

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to improve proton exchange membranes (PEMs) used in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). A membrane with a high proton conductivity and low methanol permeability was required. Zeolite filler in Nafion (NF matrix) composite membranes were prepared using two types of zeolite, mordenite (MOR) and analcime (ANA). Spray method was used to prepare the composite membranes, and properties of the membranes were investigated: mechanical properties, solubility, water and methanol uptake, ion-exchange capacity (IEC), proton conductivity, methanol permeability, and DMFC performance. It was found that MOR filler showed higher performance than ANA. The MOR/Nafion composite membrane gave better properties than ANA/Nafion composite membrane, including a higher proton conductivity and a methanol permeability that was 2-3 times lower. The highest DMFC performance (10.75 mW cm-2) was obtained at 70 °C and with 2 M methanol, with a value 1.5 times higher than that of ANA/Nafion composite membrane and two times higher than that of commercial Nafion 117 (NF 117).

  4. Preparation of layered graphene and tungsten oxide hybrids for enhanced performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ling-Li; Huang, Ke-Jing; Fang, Lin-Xia

    2016-11-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ), which was originally poor in capacitive performance, is made into an excellent electrode material for supercapacitors by dispersing it on graphene (Gr). The obtained Gr-WO 3 hybrids are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques, and evaluated as electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A great improvement in specific capacitance is achieved with the present hybrids, from 255 F g -1 for WO 3 nanoparticles to 580 F g -1 for Gr-WO 3 hybrids (scanned at 1 A g -1 in 2 M KOH over a potential window of 0 to 0.45 V). The Gr-WO 3 hybrid exhibits an excellent high rate capability and good cycling stability with more than 92% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles at a current density of 5 A g -1 . The enhancement in supercapacitor performance of Gr-WO 3 is not only attributed to its unique nanostructure with large specific surface area, but also its excellent electro-conductivity, which facilitates efficient charge transport and promotes electrolyte diffusion. As a whole, this work indicates that Gr-WO 3 hybrids are a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  5. The additivity of radionuclide and chemical risk estimates in performance evaluation of mixed-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for assessing radioactive waste sites that contain chemical constituents are in the formative stages. In evaluating these sites, a key concern will be the hazard to personnel involved in cleanup work and to the general population. This paper focuses on what we have learned from pathway analysis and risk assessment about providing a combined estimate of risk from exposure to both chemicals and radionuclides. Quantitative radiation risk assessment involves a high degree of uncertainty. Chemical risk assessment generally does not provide quantitative results. Thus, it is not currently possible to develop a useful, quantitative combined risk assessment for mixed-waste sites

  6. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  7. High performance supercapacitor using N-doped graphene prepared via supercritical fluid processing with an oxime nitrogen source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, S. Suresh; Elavarasan, A.; Sathish, M.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: N-doped graphene prepared via supercritical fluid processing with oxime nitrogen source (DMG) showed enhanced performance in electrochemical supercapacitor application. A maximum specific capacitance of 286 F g"−"1 at a current density of 0.5 A/g was achieved with a high specific capacity retention of 98% after 1000 cycles at 5 A/g. - Highlights: • N-functionalised graphene synthesized via supercritical fluid processing. • DMG, an oxime based nitrogen precursor. • Maximum specific capacitance of 286 F/g at 0.5 A/g in aqueous solution. • Pyridinic as well as quarternary nitrogen for enhanced capacitance. - Abstract: Heteroatom doped graphene has been proved for its promising applications in electrochemical energy storage systems. Here, nitrogen (N) doped graphene was prepared via two different techniques namely supercritical fluid assisted processing and hydrothermal heat treatment using dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as an oxime nitrogen precursor. The FT-IR and Raman spectra showed the N-containing functional group in the graphene. The XRD analysis revealed the complete reduction of graphene oxide during the supercritical fluid processing. The elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the amount and nature of N-doping in the graphene, respectively. The surface morphology and physical nature of the samples were analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopic analysis. The electrochemical performance of prepared electrode materials was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The N-doped graphene prepared via supercritical fluid assisted processing exhibit enhanced capacitive behaviour with a maximum specific capacitance of 286 F g"−"1 at a current density of 0.5 A/g. The cycling studies showed 98% specific capacity retention with 100% coulombic efficiency over 1000 cycles at 5 A/g. The enhanced specific capacitance of N

  8. Preparation, Characterization and Performance Studies of Active PVDF Ultrafiltration-Surfactants Membranes Containing PVP as Additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Izzah Md Fadilah; Abdul Rahman Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The role of surfactants in the formation of active Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ultrafiltration (AUF) membranes was studied. The effect combination of surfactants that are Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/ Tween 80 and Tween 80/ Triton X-100 formulations on performance and morphological structures were investigated for the first time. The influence of surfactants blends on the membrane pores was also examined. Experimental data showed that combination of Tween 80/ Triton X-100 give the highest BSA permeation flux with a value of 285.51 Lm -2 h -1 . With combination of SDS/ Tween 80, the AUF membrane showed the highest protein rejection up to 93 % and 79 % for Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Egg Albumin (EA), respectively. Moreover, membranes characterization demonstrated that the addition of SDS/ Tween 80 and Tween 80/ Triton X-100 were found to affect the performance, surface morphologies and membrane pores of AUF PVDF membranes. (author)

  9. Support for Maui Space Surveillance Site and Maui High Performance Computing Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ...) for the Maui Space Surveillance Site. GEMINI, not to be confused with the National Science Foundation's Gemini Telescopes Project, is a one-of-a-kind sensor package built for USAF Space Command operational use in conjunction...

  10. Wind data for wind driven plant. [site selection for optimal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodhart, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Simple, averaged wind velocity data provide information on energy availability, facilitate generator site selection and enable appropriate operating ranges to be established for windpowered plants. They also provide a basis for the prediction of extreme wind speeds.

  11. Monitoring of long-term pavement performance sites in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available of calibrated Highway Development and Management (HDM 4) type models. Generally, five years continuous data would give a complete view of the behaviour of the materials for the individual sites. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Department of Transport and Public Works... purposes. 4. FIELD DATA COLLECTION The CSIR project team in partnership with the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape province project team conduct detailed field investigation of six sites biannually. Field (monitoring) data...

  12. Preparation and performance of intermediate-temperature fuel cells based on Gd-doped ceria electrolytes with different compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhimin; Mori, Toshiyuki; Yan, Pengfei; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, ZhiPeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gd 0.1 Ce 0.9 O 1.95 electrolyte had less density of oxygen vacancies ordering. ► Gd 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 fuel cell showed better performance than Gd 0.1 Ce 0.9 O 1.95 . ► The relationship between microstructures and performance for cells were discussed. ► Gd 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 electrolyte with higher grain boundary conductivity was concluded. - Abstract: In this work, the effect of two frequently used Gd x Ce 1−x O 2−x/2 electrolytes (x = 0.1 and x = 0.2) on the performance of fuel cells operated at intermediate temperature was studied. The microstructures of ceria electrolytes responsible for the performance were discussed. Electrochemical measurements of as-prepared cells showed that the cell with Gd 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 electrolyte had a better performance than that of Gd 0.1 Ce 0.9 O 1.95 . It can be concluded that the increase of grain boundary conductivity of Gd 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 electrolyte contributes to its better cell performance.

  13. Reproductive performance and neonatal development of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed mine sites on the Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshwani, H.; Hersikorn, B.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The ability of reclaimed wetlands created from oil sand tailings to support populations of tree swallows was examined. Nests were provided on the sites of interest to allow swallows to breed, raise their young and feed on flying insects from local wetlands. In order to determine if the bird's health was affected by stressors such as contaminants accumulated through the diet, this study examined reproductive performance and neonatal development of the birds. Two experimental wetlands differing in age were used in this study, notably a 15 year old and 3 year old wetland. Reproduction was measured by clutch size, egg mass, hatchability and offspring survival. Neonatal development was assessed through body measurements, taken on 12 day old nestlings. It was shown that the reproductive success of the adults, and clutch size did not differ between the sites. However, initiation of breeding was earlier at the younger reclamation site. Neonatal development was different between sites, but body mass was not. Birds at the younger site exhibited accelerated tail and wing feather maturation, but birds on the mature site had a larger skeletal size. These findings may be attributed to different dietary, nutritional, and/or endocrine modulating substances moving through the food chain. It was noted that insect density and diversity may have been influenced by different altitudes and vegetation cover at the 2 sites.

  14. High-performance electrically conductive silver paste prepared by silver-containing precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianguo; Cao, Yu; Li, Xiangyou; Wang, Xiaoye; Zeng, Xiaoyan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Wuhan (China)

    2010-09-15

    A high-performance electrically conductive silver paste with no solid particles before drying and/or sintering is developed, in which silver-containing precursor is employed as conductive functional phase. Thermogravimetry analysis, volume electrical resistivity tests and sintering experiments show that the paste with about 14 wt.% silver pristine content is able to achieve the volume electrical resistivity of (2-3) x 10{sup -5} {omega} cm after it is sintered at 220 C. A micro-pen direct-writing process indicates that it is very suitable for the fabrication of high-resolution (25 {mu}m) and high-integration devices and apparatus. (orig.)

  15. Ecosystem Model Performance at Wetlands: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, B. N.; Desai, A. R.; Schroeder, N. M.; NACP Site Synthesis Participants

    2011-12-01

    Northern peatlands contain a significant fraction of the global carbon pool, and their responses to hydrological change are likely to be important factors in future carbon cycle-climate feedbacks. Global-scale carbon cycle modeling studies typically use general ecosystem models with coarse spatial resolution, often without peatland-specific processes. Here, seven ecosystem models were used to simulate CO2 fluxes at three field sites in Canada and the northern United States, including two nutrient-rich fens and one nutrient-poor, sphagnum-dominated bog, from 2002-2006. Flux residuals (simulated - observed) were positively correlated with measured water table for both gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) at the two fen sites for all models, and were positively correlated with water table at the bog site for the majority of models. Modeled diurnal cycles at fen sites agreed well with eddy covariance measurements overall. Eddy covariance GEP and ER were higher during dry periods than during wet periods, while model results predicted either the opposite relationship or no significant difference. At the bog site, eddy covariance GEP had no significant dependence on water table, while models predicted higher GEP during wet periods. All models significantly over-estimated GEP at the bog site, and all but one over-estimated ER at the bog site. Carbon cycle models in peatland-rich regions could be improved by incorporating better models or measurements of hydrology and by inhibiting GEP and ER rates under saturated conditions. Bogs and fens likely require distinct treatments in ecosystem models due to differences in nutrients, peat properties, and plant communities.

  16. Preparation and supercapacitance performance of manganese oxide nanosheets/graphene/carbon nanotubes ternary composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Qianqiu; Sun, Minqiang; Yu, Shuangmin; Wang, Gengchao

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The MnO 2 nanosheets/graphene/MWCNT composite film with a porous sandwich structure was fabricated through a filtration-directed self-assembly. • The introduction of graphene and MWCNT restricts dense stacking of MnO 2 nanosheets. • Ternary composite film exhibits impressive electrochemical performance compared to pure MnO 2 nanosheets. - Abstract: A novel MnO 2 nanosheets/graphene nanosheets/carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MONS/GNS/cMWCNT) ternary composite film was fabricated through a filtration-directed self-assembly method. The Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the porous sandwiched structure of MONS/GNS/cMWCNT with GNS providing a conductive substrate and cMWCNT functioning as a vertical electron pathway. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra further confirmed that the introduction of GNS and cMWCNT restricted the serious aggregation of MONS, resulting in a higher specific area (691 m 2 g −1 ). As a result, the MONS/GNS/cMWCNT composite film exhibited higher specific capacitance (248 Fg −1 at 1 Ag −1 in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 ), better rate performance (66.9% capacitance retention from 0.2 to 10 Ag −1 ) and cycling stability (86.5% retention after 3000 cycles) compared with those of pure dried MnO 2 nanosheets

  17. Preparation and photocatalytic performance of fibrous Tb3+-doped TiO2 using collagen fiber as template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Wan, Xiang-Jun; Jiang, Shang-Xuan; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Hong, Zheng-Qu; Liu, Jiao

    2018-04-01

    Fibrous Tb3+-doped TiO2 were prepared using collagen fiber as template. Morphology, crystalline structure, surface area, element content, chemical composition and elemental chemical status, microstructure and element distribution of the prepared samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and element mapping, respectively. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by following degradation of methyl orange. The results showed that the fiber structure of collagen template was fully preserved when the calcination temperature was 500-800 °C. However, with the increase of calcination temperature, crystallinity and average particle size were increased, and the photocatalytic performance was decreased. For 2% Tb3+-TiO2 calcined at 500 °C, the degradation rate of methyl orange reached 93.87% after 6 h when a high-pressure mercury lamp (150 W) was used as the light source for photocatalytic degradation. Titanium tanning agent performance was excellent, the yield of TiO2 was high, and the fiber structure was presented when 0.2 mol/L citric acid/sodium citrate buffer solution was used.

  18. The preparation and electrochemical performances of LiFePO4-multiwalled nanotubes composite cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan

    2010-01-01

    LiFePO 4 -MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes) composite cathode materials were prepared by mixing LiFePO 4 and MWCNTs in ethanol followed by heat-treatment at 500 deg. C for 5 h. The structural, morphology and electrochemical performances of LiFePO 4 -MWCNTs composite materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge cycle tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicated that MWCNTs adding improved the electronic conductivity, the discharge capacity, cycle stability and lithium ion diffusion kinetics of LiFePO 4 , but MWCNTs adding did not charge the orthorhombic olivine-type structure of LiFePO 4 . In all these prepared LiFePO 4 with x wt.% MWCNTs (x = 4, 7, 10) composites, 7 wt.% MWCNTs adding composite cathode shows the best electrochemical performance, which gets an initial discharge capacity of 152.7 mAh g -1 at 0.18 C discharge rates with capacity retention ratio of 97.77% after 100 cycles.

  19. Effects of Cycling vs. Running Training on Endurance Performance in Preparation for Inline Speed Skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Hesse, Clemens; Claen, Stephanie; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-06-01

    Winter weather conditions restrict regular sport-specific endurance training in inline speed skating. As a result, this study was designed to compare the effects of cycling and running training programs on inline speed skaters' endurance performance. Sixteen (8 men, 8 women) high-level athletes (mean ± SD 24 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (running and cycling). Both groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, one group on a treadmill and the other on a cycle ergometer. Training intensity and duration was individually calculated (maximal fat oxidation: ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak: 500 kcal per session). Before and after the training intervention, all athletes performed an incremental specific (inline speed skating) and 1 nonspecific (cycling or running) step test according to the group affiliation. In addition to blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), ventilatory equivalent (VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were measured. The specific posttest revealed significantly increased absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values (2.9 ± 0.4, 3.4 ± 0.7, p = 0.01) and submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values (p ≤ 0.01). VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and RER significantly decreased at maximal (46.6 ± 6.6, 38.5 ± 3.4, p = 0.005; 1.1 ± 0.03, 1.0 ± 0.04, p = 0.001) and submaximal intensities (p ≤ 0.04). None of the analysis revealed a significant group effect (p ≥ 0.15). The results indicate that both cycling vs. running exercise at ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak had a positive effect on the athletes' endurance performance. The increased submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values indicate a reduction in athletes' inline speed skating technique. Therefore, athletes would benefit from a focus on technique training in the subsequent period.

  20. Metal accumulation and performance of nestlings of passerine bird species at an urban brownfield site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Charles; Gallagher, Frank J.; Holzapfel, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The use of passerine species as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation is often underutilized when examining the wildlife habitat value of polluted sites. In this study we tested feathers of nestlings of two common bird species (house wren and American robin) for accumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Fe in comparison of a polluted, urban brownfield with a rural, unpolluted site. House wren nestlings at the study site accumulated significantly greater concentrations of all target metals except Zn. At the polluted site we found significant species differences of metal concentrations in feathers, with house wrens accumulating greater concentrations of Pb, Fe, and Zn but slightly lesser accumulations of Cr and Cu than American robins. Although house wren nestlings demonstrated significant accumulation of metals, these concentrations showed little effect on size metrics or fledge rates during the breeding season compared to nestlings from the control site. - Nestlings of birds in an urban brownfield accumulated soil contaminants but did not show signs of reduced breeding success or growth.

  1. Metal accumulation and performance of nestlings of passerine bird species at an urban brownfield site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Charles; Gallagher, Frank J. [Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 14 College Farm Rd., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Holzapfel, Claus, E-mail: holzapfe@andromeda.rutgers.ed [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Newark, 195 University Ave., Newark, NJ 07102-1811 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The use of passerine species as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation is often underutilized when examining the wildlife habitat value of polluted sites. In this study we tested feathers of nestlings of two common bird species (house wren and American robin) for accumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Fe in comparison of a polluted, urban brownfield with a rural, unpolluted site. House wren nestlings at the study site accumulated significantly greater concentrations of all target metals except Zn. At the polluted site we found significant species differences of metal concentrations in feathers, with house wrens accumulating greater concentrations of Pb, Fe, and Zn but slightly lesser accumulations of Cr and Cu than American robins. Although house wren nestlings demonstrated significant accumulation of metals, these concentrations showed little effect on size metrics or fledge rates during the breeding season compared to nestlings from the control site. - Nestlings of birds in an urban brownfield accumulated soil contaminants but did not show signs of reduced breeding success or growth.

  2. Improvement in Performance of ZnO based DSC Prepared by Spraying Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangga Winantyo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of TiCl4 on the performance of ZnO based DSC. ZnO was used due to its stability against photo-corrosion  and  photochemical  properties  similar  to  TiO2.  Thin  films  of  nanocrystalline  ZnO  were  deposited  on transparent conducting oxide glass using spray  method. The ZnO  films  were treated using TiCl4. The cell’s efficiency was found to be 2.5% with TiCl4 post-treatment and 1.9% without TiCl4 post-treatment.

  3. High performance of solvothermally prepared VO2(B as anode for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The VO2 (B was synthesized via a simple solvothermal route at 160oC in ethanol. The initial discharge capacity of VO2 (B anode, in saturated aqueous solution of LiNO3, was 177 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 50 mA g-1. After 50 cycles capacity fade was 4%, but from 20th-50th cycle no capacity drop was observed. The VO2 (B has shown very good cyclability at current rate of even 1000 mA g-1 with initial discharge capacity of 92 mAh g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance of VO2 (B was attributed to the stability of micro-nano structures to repeated intercalation /deintercalation process, very good electronic conductivity as well as the very low charge transfer resistance in the aqueous electrolyte. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45014

  4. Preparation of high performance NBR/HNTs nanocomposites using an electron transferring interaction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuyan; Zhou, Yanxue; Zhang, Peng; Cai, Zhuodi; Li, Yangping; Fan, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    Interfacial interaction is one of the key factors to improve comprehensive properties of polymer/inorganic filler nanocomposites. In this work, a new interfacial interaction called electron transferring interaction is reported in the nitrile-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes (NBR/HNTs) nanocomposites. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in-situ controlling temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have confirmed that electrons of electron-rich -CN groups in NBR can transfer to the electron-deficiency aluminum atoms of HNTs, which packs a part of NBR molecules onto the surface of HNTs to form bound rubber and stabilize the homogeneous dispersion of HNTs with few agglomeration as revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) performances, even at high HNTs addition, resulting in high light transmittance. The tensile strength of NBR/30wt%HNTs nanocomposites is about 291% higher than pure NBR, without sacrificing the elongation at break.

  5. Preparation and performance of photocatalytic TiO2 immobilized on palladium-doped carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yaofeng; Fu Yaqin; Ni Qingqing

    2011-01-01

    Pd-modified carbon fibers (CFs) are obtained by a facile oxidation-reduction method and then dip-coated in a sol-gel of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) to form supported TiO 2 /Pd-CF photocatalysts. The morphology of the Pd-modified CFs and the amount Pd deposited are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. X-ray diffraction is used to investigate the crystal structures of the TiO 2 photocatalyst. Acid orange II is used as a model contaminant to evaluate the photocatalytic properties of the photocatalyst under UV irradiation. TiO 2 /Pd-CF exhibits higher catalytic activity than TiO 2 /CF towards the degradation of acid orange II. Optimum photocatalytic performance and support properties are achieved when the Pd particle loading is about 10.8 mg/g.

  6. Preparing for the future by improving the performance of today's nuclear stations: The WANO perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The World Association of Nuclear Operators, (WANO) was established in 1989 in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident with the mission of maximizing the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants by exchanging information and encouraging communication, comparison and emulation among its members. All nuclear power stations in the world are WANO members. WANO conducted an Internal Review in 1997 and its report issued this January confirms that the WANO mission is still valid. As a result of the Internal Review, WANO is taking actions to further improve its programmes. WANO's effort to keep members conscious of safety culture in their daily work at plants is a key element for improving operational safety. WANO will be able to contribute to the future of the nuclear industry by encouraging members to actively participate in WANO programmes which are aimed at improving nuclear safety and plant performance. (author)

  7. Functionally graded hardmetals and cermets: preparation, performance and production scale up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, K.; Kassel, D.; Daub, H.-W.; Berg, H. van den; Lengauer, W.; Garcia, J.; Ucakar, V.

    2001-01-01

    Sintering experiments were carried out to establish graded microstructures in hardmetals and cermets. The formation of these microstructural features was investigated as a function of nitrogen pressure, sintering temperature, sintering period and sintering profile. The nitrogen pressure influences the formation of carbonitride layers at the surface. Decreasing sintering temperature yields similar results as increasing nitrogen pressure. Upon prolonged sintering time a small growth of the outer carbonitride layer can only be obtained if a substantial WC grain growth is accepted. Variation of the sintering profile after dense sintering does not principally change the type of the graded microstructure. The laboratory experiments were scaled up in an industrial sinter/HIP furnace and showing good correspondence with each other. First turning cutting tests with different alloys show excellent performance in comparison to ungraded materials. (author)

  8. Preparation of iron-modified portland cement adsorbent and the investigation of its decolorization performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Wang, Huifeng; Li, Yang; Li, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    The ordinary portland cement was modified by ferric salt impregnation method. Through the technologies of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy, the physicochemical properties of modified cement were detected and analyzed. It was found that after the modification, the main constituents of raw cement, tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate had been depleted, and the new crystal mineral of antarcticite replaced them. The iron precipitates and cement hydration products calcium silicate hydrate gel mainly existed in the form of amorphous on modified cement. The results of BET specific surface determination showed that the modified cement particles had mesoporous distribution. The results of adsorption experiment revealed modified cement exhibited excellent adsorption performance on reactive brilliant blue KNR. The combination mechanism between modified cement and adsorbate was mainly electrostatic interaction. The adsorption process satisfied with the pseudo-second order kinetics model, and the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous endothermic process.

  9. A high performance ceria based interdiffusion barrier layer prepared by spin-coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plonczak, Pawel; Joost, Mario; Hjelm, Johan

    2011-01-01

    A multiple spin-coating deposition procedure of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) for application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was developed. The thin and dense CGO layer can be employed as a barrier layer between yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and a (La, Sr)(Co, Fe)O3 based cathode....... The decomposition of the polymer precursor used in the spin-coating process was studied. The depositions were performed on anode supported half cells. By controlling the sintering temperature between each spin-coating process, dense and crack-free CGO films with a thickness of approximately 1 μm were obtained....... The successive steps of dense layer production was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was employed to monitor the crystal structure of the CGO layer sintered at different temperatures. The described spin coated barrier layer was evaluated using an anode supported cell...

  10. Preparation and electrochemical performance of copper foam-supported amorphous silicon thin films for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haixia; Cheng Fangyi; Zhu Zhiqiang; Bai Hongmei; Tao Zhanliang; Chen Jun

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Amorphous Si thin films have been deposited on copper foam substrate by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. → The as-prepared Si/Cu films with interconnected 3-dimensional structure are employed as anode materials of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, showing that the electrode properties are greatly affected by the deposition temperature. → The film electrode deposited at an optimum temperature of 300 deg. C delivers a specific capacity of ∼2900 mAh/g and a coulombic efficiency above 95% at charge/discharge current density of 0.2C after 30 cycles. → The Li + diffusion coefficiency in copper foam-supported Si thin films is determined to be 2.36 x 10 -9 cm 2 /s. → The combination of rf magnetron sputtering and cooper foam substrate is an efficient route to prepare amorphous Si films with high capacity and cyclability due to the efficient ionic diffusion and interface contact with a good conductive current collector. - Abstract: Amorphous Si thin films, which have been deposited on copper foam by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering, are employed as anode materials of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The morphologies and structures of the as-prepared Si thin films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries with the as-prepared Si films as the anode materials is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurements. The results show that the electrode properties of the prepared amorphous Si films are greatly affected by the deposition temperature. The film electrode deposited at an optimum temperature of 300 deg. C can deliver a specific capacity of ∼2900 mAh/g and a coulombic efficiency above 95% at charge/discharge current density of 0.2C after 30 cycles. The Li + diffusion coefficiency in copper foam-supported Si thin films is determined to be 2.36 x 10 -9 cm

  11. Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Yucel

    2002-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 requires that performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs) for low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities be maintained by the field offices. This plan describes the activities to be performed in maintaining the Performance Assessment (PA) and Composite Analysis (CA) for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) for the continuing operations of a LLW facility at the DOE complex specifies the conditions for operations based on approval of a PA and CA, and requires the facility to implement a maintenance program to assure that these conditions will remain protective of the public health and the environment in the future. The goal of the maintenance program is to provide that assurance. The maintenance process is an iterative one in which changing conditions may result in a revision of PA and CA; the revised PA and CA may impose a different set of conditions for facility operation, closure, and postclosure. The maintenance process includes managing uncertainty, performing annual reviews, submitting annual summary reports to DOE Headquarters (DOE/HQ), carrying out special analyses, and revising the PAs and CAs, if necessary. Management of uncertainty is an essential component of the maintenance program because results of the original PAs and CAs are understood to be based on uncertain assumptions about the conceptual models; the mathematical models and parameters; and the future state of the lands, disposal facilities, and human activities. The annual reviews for the PAs include consideration of waste receipts, facility specific factors, results of monitoring, and results of research and development (R and D) activities. Likewise, results of ongoing R and D, changes in land-use planning, new information on known sources of residual radioactive materials, and identification of new sources may warrant an evaluation to

  12. Impact of the site specialty of a continuity practice on students' clinical skills: performance with standardized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Carol A; Palley, Jane E; Harrington, Karen L

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of clinical competence and the impact of training in ambulatory settings are two issues of importance in the evaluation of medical student performance. This study compares the clinical skills performance of students placed in three types of community preceptors' offices (pediatrics, medicine, family medicine) on yearly clinical skills assessments with standardized patients. Our goal was to see if the site specialty impacted on clinical performance. The students in the study were completing a 3-year continuity preceptorship at a site representing one of the disciplines. Their performance on the four clinical skills assessments was compared. There was no significant difference in history taking, physical exam, communication, or clinical reasoning in any year (ANOVA p< or = .05) There was a small but significant difference in performance on a measure of interpersonal and interviewing skills during Years 1 and 2. The site specialty of an early clinical experience does not have a significant impact on performance of most of the skills measured by the assessments.

  13. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  14. Preparation of highly stable zeolite-alginate foam composite for strontium(90Sr) removal from seawater and evaluation of Sr adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye-Jin; Kim, Byoung-Gyu; Ryu, Jungho; Park, In-Su; Chung, Kang-Sup; Lee, Sang Moon; Lee, Jin-Bae; Jeong, Hyeon Su; Kim, Hyunchul; Ryu, Taegong

    2018-01-01

    Alginate bead is a promising strontium (Sr) adsorbent in seawater, but highly concentrated Na ions caused over-swelling and damaged the hydrogel bead. To improve the mechanical stability of alginate bead, flexible foam-type zeolite-alginate composite was synthesized and Sr adsorption performance was evaluated in seawater; 1-10% zeolite immobilized alginate foams were prepared by freeze-dry technique. Immobilization of zeolite into alginate foam converted macro-pores to meso-pores which lead to more compact structure. It resulted in less swollen composite in seawater medium and exhibited highly improved mechanical stability compared with alginate bead. Besides, Sr adsorption efficiency an