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Sample records for perform important functions

  1. How the choice of safety performance function affects the identification of important crash prediction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ketong; Simandl, Jenna K; Porter, Michael D; Graettinger, Andrew J; Smith, Randy K

    2016-03-01

    Across the nation, researchers and transportation engineers are developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to predict crash rates and develop crash modification factors to improve traffic safety at roadway segments and intersections. Generalized linear models (GLMs), such as Poisson or negative binomial regression, are most commonly used to develop SPFs with annual average daily traffic as the primary roadway characteristic to predict crashes. However, while more complex to interpret, data mining models such as boosted regression trees have improved upon GLMs crash prediction performance due to their ability to handle more data characteristics, accommodate non-linearities, and include interaction effects between the characteristics. An intersection data inventory of 36 safety relevant parameters for three- and four-legged non-signalized intersections along state routes in Alabama was used to study the importance of intersection characteristics on crash rate and the interaction effects between key characteristics. Four different SPFs were investigated and compared: Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, regularized generalized linear model, and boosted regression trees. The models did not agree on which intersection characteristics were most related to the crash rate. The boosted regression tree model significantly outperformed the other models and identified several intersection characteristics as having strong interaction effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance evaluation of the short-time objective intelligibility measure with different band importance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann Andersen, Asger; de Haan, Jan Mark; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    performance measures: root-mean-squared-error, Pearson correlation, and Kendall rank correlation. The results show substantially improved performance when fitting and evaluating on the same dataset. However, this advantage does not necessarily subsist when fitting and evaluating on different datasets. When...... with a filter bank, 2) envelopes are extracted from each band, 3) the temporal correlation between clean and degraded envelopes is computed in short time segments, and 4) the correlation is averaged across time and frequency bands to obtain the final output. An unusual choice in the design of the STOI measure...

  3. The Importance of Trunk Muscle Strength for Balance, Functional Performance, and Fall Prevention in Seniors : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Kressig, Reto W.; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    Background The aging process results in a number of functional (e.g., deficits in balance and strength/power performance), neural (e.g., loss of sensory/motor neurons), muscular (e.g., atrophy of type-II muscle fibers in particular), and bone-related (e.g., osteoporosis) deteriorations.

  4. Enhancing importance-performance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The interpretation of the importance/performance map is based on an assumption of independence between importance and performance but many studies question the validity of this assumption. The aim of this research is to develop a new typology for job satisfaction attributes as well...... as a new importance/performance map that can be an aid for organizations when they prioritize their improvement actions based on a job satisfaction study. Design/methodology/approach: A typology for possible relationships between importance and performance in job satisfaction studies is developed based...... on theoretical considerations. This typology is then applied and validated on approximately 10,000 responses from the European Employee Index 2002. Ultimately a new importance/performance map for priority setting in job satisfaction studies is developed based on the new typology for possible relationships...

  5. Soft Skills in Higher Education: Importance and Improvement Ratings as a Function of Individual Differences and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Arteche, Adriane; Bremner, Andrew J.; Greven, Corina; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Three UK studies on the relationship between a purpose-built instrument to assess the importance and development of 15 "soft skills" are reported. "Study 1" (N = 444) identified strong latent components underlying these soft skills, such that differences "between-skills" were over-shadowed by differences…

  6. Importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2011-01-01

    Rayleigh scattering is used frequently in Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering. The Rayleigh phase function is quite simple, and one might expect that it should be simple to importance sample it efficiently. However, there seems to be no one good way of sampling it in the literature....... This paper provides the details of several different techniques for importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function, and it includes a comparison of their performance as well as hints toward efficient implementation....

  7. What is the importance of the psychopedagogical function of a sports trainer in improving club players’ performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria González Campos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the more evolved tag games are defined and analyzed, that is, those characterized for throwing a soft object in order to hunt running away players. After reviewing the controversy about the adequacy of one of the clearest examples of this group of games, dodgeball, we argue the need to modify the rules to ensure their educational potential, and we consider a proposal of a new games category which could be addressed from an understanding approach. This family of games comes to complement the Almond’s taxonomy (1986 and its curricular consideration could lead to possible implications on the transfer of tactical principles. Similarly, the article analyzes the structural and functional characteristics of this group of games, and defends the use of an, easy to create, homemade equipment, reducing the risk of causing damage to the opponent, and giving students the opportunity to invent their own games

  8. Functional importance of PAI-1 glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anni; Naessens, Dominik; Skottrup, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Structure-function studies of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have previously been performed mostly with non-glycosylated material expressed in E. coli. We have now studied the importance of PAI-1 glycosylation for its functional properties. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N......-glycosylated PAI-1 could be conferred upon PAI-1 expressed in HEK293 cells by mutational inactivation of one or the other glycosylation site. These findings reveal a novel functional role for glycosylation of a serpin. The glycosylation sites are localised between a-helix H and b-strand 2C and b-strand 3C and a...

  9. Adaptive Importance Sampling with a Rapidly Varying Importance Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    It is known well that zero-variance Monte Carlo solutions are possible if an exact importance function is available to bias the random walks. Monte Carlo can be used to estimate the importance function. This estimated importance function then can be used to bias a subsequent Monte Carlo calculation that estimates an even better importance function; this iterative process is called adaptive importance sampling.To obtain the importance function, one can expand the importance function in a basis such as the Legendre polynomials and make Monte Carlo estimates of the expansion coefficients. For simple problems, Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15 are able to represent the importance function well enough to reduce the error geometrically by ten orders of magnitude or more. The more complicated problems are addressed in which the importance function cannot be represented well by Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15. In particular, a problem with a cross-section notch and a problem with a discontinuous cross section are considered

  10. Functional importance of PAI-1 glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anni; Naessens, Dominik; Skottrup, Peter

    susceptible PAI-1 variant was not necessarily the one used when raising the antibody. This and other observations indicated that the carbohydrate moieties or the glycosylation sites are unlikely to be part of the epitopes for these antibodies. The antibody susceptibility characteristic for non......Structure-function studies of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have previously been performed mostly with non-glycosylated material expressed in E. coli. We have now studied the importance of PAI-1 glycosylation for its functional properties. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N......-linked glycosylation. Biochemical analysis of PAI-1 variants with substitutions of the Asn residues in each of these sites and expression in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells showed that only Asn211 and Asn 267, but not Asn331 are glycosylated, and revealed a differential composition of the carbohydrate...

  11. Chief Business Officers' Functions: Responsibilities and Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, Richard A.; Vogler, Daniel E.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 177 chief business officers of public community colleges regarding their responsibilities and the importance they assigned to various role functions. Highlights findings concerning the perceived importance of fiscal/financial duties; endowments as a job function; role in shared planning; and personal attention given to…

  12. Dangers and uses of cross-correlation in analyzing time series in perception, performance, movement, and neuroscience: The importance of constructing transfer function autoregressive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Roger T; Dunsmuir, William T M

    2016-06-01

    Many articles on perception, performance, psychophysiology, and neuroscience seek to relate pairs of time series through assessments of their cross-correlations. Most such series are individually autocorrelated: they do not comprise independent values. Given this situation, an unfounded reliance is often placed on cross-correlation as an indicator of relationships (e.g., referent vs. response, leading vs. following). Such cross-correlations can indicate spurious relationships, because of autocorrelation. Given these dangers, we here simulated how and why such spurious conclusions can arise, to provide an approach to resolving them. We show that when multiple pairs of series are aggregated in several different ways for a cross-correlation analysis, problems remain. Finally, even a genuine cross-correlation function does not answer key motivating questions, such as whether there are likely causal relationships between the series. Thus, we illustrate how to obtain a transfer function describing such relationships, informed by any genuine cross-correlations. We illustrate the confounds and the meaningful transfer functions by two concrete examples, one each in perception and performance, together with key elements of the R software code needed. The approach involves autocorrelation functions, the establishment of stationarity, prewhitening, the determination of cross-correlation functions, the assessment of Granger causality, and autoregressive model development. Autocorrelation also limits the interpretability of other measures of possible relationships between pairs of time series, such as mutual information. We emphasize that further complexity may be required as the appropriate analysis is pursued fully, and that causal intervention experiments will likely also be needed.

  13. Growth of a Functionally Important Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister, Eugene B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Uses a dictionary-sampling method and multiple-choice testing of word knowledge to estimate the lexicon size of junior-high students, college students, and older adults. Suggests that there may yet be a role for direct instruction in affecting lexicon size of functionally important words. (SR)

  14. Numerical computation of generalized importance functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomit, J.M.; Nasr, M.; Ngyuen van Chi, G.; Pasquet, J.P.; Planchard, J.

    1981-01-01

    Thus far, an important effort has been devoted to developing and applying generalized perturbation theory in reactor physics analysis. In this work we are interested in the calculation of the importance functions by the method of A. Gandini. We have noted that in this method the convergence of the iterative procedure adopted is not rapid. Hence to accelerate this convergence we have used the semi-iterative technique. Two computer codes have been developed for one and two dimensional calculations (SPHINX-1D and SPHINX-2D). The advantage of our calculation was confirmed by some comparative tests in which the iteration number and the computing time were highly reduced with respect to classical calculation (CIAP-1D and CIAP-2D). (orig.) [de

  15. Importance and functions of European grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, L; De Vliegher, A; Van Cleemput, O; Boeckx, P

    2005-01-01

    The European agricultural policy is not simple and needs to accommodate also social and environmental requirements. Grassland will continue to be an important form of land use in Europe, but with increased diversity in management objectives and systems used. Besides its role as basic nutrient for herbivores and ruminants grasslands have opportunities for adding value by exploiting positive health characteristics in animal products from grassland and through the delivery of environmental benefits. In fact grasslands contribute to a high degree to the struggle against erosion and to the regularizing of water regimes, to the purification of fertilizers and pesticides and to biodiversity. Finally they have aesthetic role and recreational function as far as they provide public access that other agricultural uses do not allow. But even for grassland it is very difficult to create a good frame for its different tasks (1) the provision of forage for livestock, (2) protection and conservation of soil and water resources, (3) furnishing a habitat for wildlife, both flora and fauna and (4) contribution to the attractiveness of the landscape. Nevertheless it is the only crop, able to fulfil so many tasks and to fit so many requirements.

  16. Importance of cochlear health for implant function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfingst, Bryan E; Zhou, Ning; Colesa, Deborah J; Watts, Melissa M; Strahl, Stefan B; Garadat, Soha N; Schvartz-Leyzac, Kara C; Budenz, Cameron L; Raphael, Yehoash; Zwolan, Teresa A

    2015-04-01

    Amazing progress has been made in providing useful hearing to hearing-impaired individuals using cochlear implants, but challenges remain. One such challenge is understanding the effects of partial degeneration of the auditory nerve, the target of cochlear implant stimulation. Here we review studies from our human and animal laboratories aimed at characterizing the health of the implanted cochlea and the auditory nerve. We use the data on cochlear and neural health to guide rehabilitation strategies. The data also motivate the development of tissue-engineering procedures to preserve or build a healthy cochlea and improve performance obtained by cochlear implant recipients or eventually replace the need for a cochlear implant. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptively Learning an Importance Function Using Transport Constrained Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that a Monte Carlo estimate can be obtained with zero-variance if an exact importance function for the estimate is known. There are many ways that one might iteratively seek to obtain an ever more exact importance function. This paper describes a method that has obtained ever more exact importance functions that empirically produce an error that is dropping exponentially with computer time. The method described herein constrains the importance function to satisfy the (adjoint) Boltzmann transport equation. This constraint is provided by using the known form of the solution, usually referred to as the Case eigenfunction solution

  18. estimating an aggregate import demand function for ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    we estimate an import demand function for Ghana for the period 1970 to ... results also indicate that economic growth (real GDP) and depreciation in the ... 80% of shocks to real exchange rates, merchandise imports and GDP ... imports; capital goods, 43 percent; intermediate ... merchandise imports (World Bank, 2004). For.

  19. Identifying Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis (IPMA) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis (IPMA) of intellectual capital and Islamic work ethics in Malaysian SMES. ... capital and Islamic work ethics significantly influenced business performance. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Importance of predictor variables for models of chemical function

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Importance of random forest predictors for all classification models of chemical function. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Isaacs , K., M....

  1. Functional High Performance Financial IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Filinski, Andrzej; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    at the University of Copenhagen that attacks this triple challenge of increased performance, transparency and productivity in the financial sector by a novel integration of financial mathematics, domain-specific language technology, parallel functional programming, and emerging massively parallel hardware. HIPERFIT......The world of finance faces the computational performance challenge of massively expanding data volumes, extreme response time requirements, and compute-intensive complex (risk) analyses. Simultaneously, new international regulatory rules require considerably more transparency and external...... auditability of financial institutions, including their software systems. To top it off, increased product variety and customisation necessitates shorter software development cycles and higher development productivity. In this paper, we report about HIPERFIT, a recently etablished strategic research center...

  2. Dynamic Biological Functioning Important for Simulating and Stabilizing Ocean Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, P. J.; Matear, R. J.; Chase, Z.; Phipps, S. J.; Bindoff, N. L.

    2018-04-01

    The biogeochemistry of the ocean exerts a strong influence on the climate by modulating atmospheric greenhouse gases. In turn, ocean biogeochemistry depends on numerous physical and biological processes that change over space and time. Accurately simulating these processes is fundamental for accurately simulating the ocean's role within the climate. However, our simulation of these processes is often simplistic, despite a growing understanding of underlying biological dynamics. Here we explore how new parameterizations of biological processes affect simulated biogeochemical properties in a global ocean model. We combine 6 different physical realizations with 6 different biogeochemical parameterizations (36 unique ocean states). The biogeochemical parameterizations, all previously published, aim to more accurately represent the response of ocean biology to changing physical conditions. We make three major findings. First, oxygen, carbon, alkalinity, and phosphate fields are more sensitive to changes in the ocean's physical state. Only nitrate is more sensitive to changes in biological processes, and we suggest that assessment protocols for ocean biogeochemical models formally include the marine nitrogen cycle to assess their performance. Second, we show that dynamic variations in the production, remineralization, and stoichiometry of organic matter in response to changing environmental conditions benefit the simulation of ocean biogeochemistry. Third, dynamic biological functioning reduces the sensitivity of biogeochemical properties to physical change. Carbon and nitrogen inventories were 50% and 20% less sensitive to physical changes, respectively, in simulations that incorporated dynamic biological functioning. These results highlight the importance of a dynamic biology for ocean properties and climate.

  3. Estimating Aggregate Import-Demand Function In Nigeria: A Co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the behaviour of Nigeria's aggregate imports between the periods 1980-2005. In the empirical analysis of the aggregate import demand function for Nigeria, cointegration and Error Correction modeling approaches have been used. Our econometric estimates suggest that real GDP largely explains ...

  4. an importance-performance assessment of delegates' satis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    attribute. The “low priority” quadrant depicts low importance of an attribute and low satisfaction with the performance of the attributes. The. “possible overkill” quadrant depicts low import- ance of an ... these were mostly limited to the hotel industry. (Bonn et al., 1994; ... mainly influenced by the responsiveness of the frontline ...

  5. Importance Performance Analysis as a Trade Show Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Tafesse, Wondwesen; Skallerud, Kåre; Korneliussen, Tor

    2010-01-01

    Author's accepted version (post-print). The purpose of this study is to introduce importance performance analysis as a trade show performance evaluation and benchmarking tool. Importance performance analysis considers exhibitors’ performance expectation and perceived performance in unison to evaluate and benchmark trade show performance. The present study uses data obtained from exhibitors of an international trade show to demonstrate how importance performance analysis can be used to eval...

  6. Risk Importance Determination Process of CANDU Maintenance Rule Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Mi Ro; Jo, Ha Yan; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    2009-01-01

    In Korea, Maintenance Rule (MR) programs development for all PWR were completed. However, in case of PHWR (CANDU type, Wolsong Unit 1,2,3,4), the study of MR program was delayed, since the design concepts and operating experiences are different from those of PWR. This paper describes the process and results for the risk importance determination process of functions in scope. The risk importance was determined by PSA Basic Event Mapping and Delphi method. For Delphi evaluation, Delphi evaluation item for CANDU need to be developed because the design and normal operation functions are different from PWR

  7. Evaluating health service quality: using importance performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Azar; Jahani, Younes; Rafiei, Sima; Masoud, Ali; Vali, Leila

    2017-08-14

    Purpose Measuring healthcare service quality provides an objective guide for managers and policy makers to improve their services and patient satisfaction. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to measure service quality provided to surgical and medical inpatients at Kerman Medical Sciences University (KUMS) in 2015. Design/methodology/approach A descriptive-analytic study, using a cross-sectional method in the KUMS training hospitals, was implemented between October 2 and March 15, 2015. Using stratified random sampling, 268 patients were selected. Data were collected using an importance-performance analysis (IPA) questionnaire, which measures current performance and determines each item's importance from the patients' perspectives. These data indicate overall satisfaction and appropriate practical strategies for managers to plan accordingly. Findings Findings revealed a significant gap between service importance and performance. From the patients' viewpoint, tangibility was the highest priority (mean=3.54), while reliability was given the highest performance (mean=3.02). The least important and lowest performance level was social accountability (mean=1.91 and 1.98, respectively). Practical implications Healthcare managers should focus on patient viewpoints and apply patient comments to solve problems, improve service quality and patient satisfaction. Originality/value The authors applied an IPA questionnaire to measure service quality provided to surgical and medical ward patients. This method identifies and corrects service quality shortcomings and improving service recipient perceptions.

  8. The Importance of Environmental Resposibility in Firm Financial Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dãnilã Alexandra; Horga Maria-Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring environmental protection is one of the three pillars of sustainable development. Identifying the factors that lead to enterprise financial performance must take into consideration environmental factors. Research in the field showed an increasing importance of such factors in obtaining financial results. Present paper aims to demonstrate the link between environmental responsibility and firm financial performance, using statistical tools. Research was conducted in Romanian tourism sec...

  9. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-04-13

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests.

  10. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M.; Boyle, Michael J. W.; Gleave, Rosalind A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R.; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y.; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Davies, Richard G.; Edwards, David P.; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M.; Hardwick, Stephen R.; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L.; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H.; March, Joshua J.; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V.; Sharp, Adam C.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Stork, Nigel E.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Yusah, Kalsum M.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  11. Accounting for trip frequency in importance-performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua K. Gill; J.M. Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2010-01-01

    Understanding customer satisfaction is critical to the successful operation of both privately and publicly managed recreation venues. A popular tool for assessing recreation visitor satisfaction is Importance- Performance Analysis (IPA). IPA provides resource managers, government officials, and private businesses with easy-to-understand and -use information about...

  12. An importance-performance assessment of delegates' satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An importance-performance assessment of delegates' satisfaction with the catering component of courses offered by continuing education at the University of ... of its catering component, a company would be able to make appropriate and necessary managerial decisions in order to retain and expand its customer base.

  13. Uncertainty importance analysis using parametric moment ratio functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengfei; Lu, Zhenzhou; Song, Jingwen

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a new importance analysis framework, called parametric moment ratio function, for measuring the reduction of model output uncertainty when the distribution parameters of inputs are changed, and the emphasis is put on the mean and variance ratio functions with respect to the variances of model inputs. The proposed concepts efficiently guide the analyst to achieve a targeted reduction on the model output mean and variance by operating on the variances of model inputs. The unbiased and progressive unbiased Monte Carlo estimators are also derived for the parametric mean and variance ratio functions, respectively. Only a set of samples is needed for implementing the proposed importance analysis by the proposed estimators, thus the computational cost is free of input dimensionality. An analytical test example with highly nonlinear behavior is introduced for illustrating the engineering significance of the proposed importance analysis technique and verifying the efficiency and convergence of the derived Monte Carlo estimators. Finally, the moment ratio function is applied to a planar 10-bar structure for achieving a targeted 50% reduction of the model output variance. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Performance testing of supercapacitors: Important issues and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Gao, Yinghan; Burke, Andrew F.

    2017-09-01

    Supercapacitors are a promising technology for high power energy storage, which have been used in some industrial and vehicles applications. Hence, it is important that information concerning the performance of supercapacitors be detailed and reliable so system designers can make rational decisions regarding the selection of the energy storage components. This paper is concerned with important issues and uncertainties regarding the performance testing of supercapacitors. The effect of different test procedures on the measured characteristics of both commercial and prototype supercapacitors including hybrid supercapacitors have been studied. It was found that the test procedure has a relatively minor effect on the capacitance of carbon/carbon devices and a more significant effect on the capacitance of hybrid supercapacitors. The device characteristic with the greatest uncertainty is the resistance and subsequently the claimed power capability of the device. The energy density should be measured by performing constant power discharges between appropriate voltage limits. This is particularly important in the case of hybrid supercapacitors for which the energy density is rate dependent and the simple relationship E = ½CV2 does not yield accurate estimates of the energy stored. In general, most of the important issues for testing carbon/carbon devices become more serious for hybrid supercapacitors.

  15. Rudimentary functions:Important reminders of history and relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Y. Collings

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. When Vygotsky suggested the term rudimentary functions for psychological phenomena, he drew a parallel with organismic rudiments that existed and continue to exist in a number of biological species. These rudiments used to play an important role in the life of an organism and allow us to study that life in the process of its development. Vygotsky originally gave three explicit examples of psychological rudimentary functions: 1 attributing an important decision to the result of a solitaire card game, 2 tying a knot in a handkerchief in order to remember and do something later, and 3 counting on one’s fingers. Objective. The purpose of this article is to offer a contemporary overview and paths for development of L.S. Vygotsky’s notion of rudimentary function. Design. This paper, in the genre of a theoretical article, drew on existing research and theoretical literature to advance a theory. I analyzed Vygotsky’s original example of a solitaire game and similar actions (for example, flipping a coin, arguing that these actions represent key events mediating choice and exercising human will over affect. I then focused on three more psychological functions that fit Vygotsky’s definition of rudiments: 1 photographic memory and déjà vu as instances of historically primitive eidetic memory, 2 talking to oneself aloud as a rudiment of a key event forming the self-regulatory mechanism of inner speech in childhood, and 3 fantasizing, which could remind us of our young age, when imagination readily created what was lacking in external world. Results. This analysis allowed me to vividly illustrate the historical and relational focus of Vygotsky’s theories. Conclusions. Rudimentary functions, often perceived as mysterious, in their simplicity can be powerful reminders that historically primitive functions do not disappear, but enter complex relationships with other psychological functions, and that many relationships are possible within

  16. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stanković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Key performance indicators are financial and non financial indicators that organizations use inorder to estimate and fortify how successful they are, aiming previously established long lastinggoals. Appropriate selection of indicators that will be used for measuring is of a greatest importance.Process organization of business is necessary to be constitute in order to realize such effective andefficient system or performance measuring via KPI. Process organization also implies customerorientation and necessary flexibility in nowadays condition of global competition.Explanation of process organization, the way of KPI selection, and practical example of KPImeasuring in Toyota dealerships are presented in this paper.

  17. WHY IS IMPORTANT TO DO THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mădălina VOINEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the importance that should be given to the performance analysis, mainly the one of the profit and loss account, for being able to take the best financial decisions. Profit and loss account is considered the tool that measures business performance. Although appears a question mark on the confidence you need to attach to this result because it arises from the application of the accounting standards and regulations. And there are many possibilities for recognize revenues and expenses, cutoff, income or revenue, expenditure connection, which asks a little caution about the importance given. The aim of the paper is to see how helps the economic analysis in the process of decisions making.

  18. Applying importance-performance analysis to evaluate banking service quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Policani Freitas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive market, the identification of the most important aspects and the measurement of service quality as perceived by the customers are important actions taken by organizations which seek the competitive advantage. In particular, this scenario is typical of Brazilian banking sector. In this context, this article presents an exploratory case study in which the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA was used to identify the strong and the weak points related to services provided by a bank. In order to check the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha and correlation analyses were used. The results are presented and some actions have been defined in order to improve the quality of services.

  19. Academic performance profiles: The importance of family expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bravo Sanzana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explored some of the factors that explain school performance. To attain this, Chilean students’ profiles of eighth year of primary school were identified and characterized (13.65 year old mean/ds 0.74. This was done according to their academic performance in the History, Ge­ography and Social Sciences test, and the context variables. The database was provided by the Sistema de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación de Chile (simce. The study was conducted by means of a predictive correlational quantitative design, using a classification and regression tree (cart. Parents’ high educational expectations are the most important distinguishing factor in school performance. The results are discussed in relation to previous research about these topics.

  20. EXPORT AND IMPORT PERFORMANCE OF INDONESIA’S AGRICULTURE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ervani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the export and import performance in comparative advantage of Indonesia’s agriculture sector. It focuses on measuring the comparative advantage using the Trade Balance Index (TBI by Lafay method.The data is based on exports and imports of Indonesian agriculture sector. By applying Lafay Trade Balance Index (TBI methods, it can be concluded that Indonesian agriculture commodity shows the positive value of TBI for export-import volume and export-import value. It means that Indonesia becomes net-exporter and has specialization in exporting agriculture commodity.Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja ekspor dan impor dalam keunggulan komparatif sektor pertanian di Indonesia. Fokus penelitian ini adalah pengukuran keunggulan komparatif menggunakan Trade Balance Index (TBI dengan metode Lafay. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berdasarkan pada ekspor dan impor sektor pertanian Indonesia. Dengan menerapkan metode Lafay Perdagangan Indeks Balance (TBI, bisa disimpulkan bahwa komoditas pertanian Indonesia menunjukkan nilai positif untuk TBI volume ekspor-impor dan nilai ekspor-impor. Ini berarti bahwa Indonesia disebut sebagai net-eksportir dan memiliki spesialisasi dalam ekspor komoditas pertanian.

  1. Tourists‘ Satisfaction at Trijuginarayan, India: An Importance-Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra BAGRI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction is an excellent predictor of tourist behaviour as it influences the choice of destination, consumption of products and services, the decision to return and maintain lasting relationships. This paper analyzes the level of tourist satisfaction with destination attributes using the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA, based on the information obtained from 200 domestic tourists visiting Trijuginarayan, an emerging spiritual and adventure tourist destination located in Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state of India. The results obtained show that attributes related to tourism product of spiritual and cultural nature, atmosphere and climate, a variety of tourist activities, hospitality and safety are significant factors in determining tourist satisfaction, whereas basic facilities such as accommodation, transportation, tourism infrastructure and hygiene and sanitation at destination are of significant importance in satisfaction evaluation. Findings also reveal that tourists were satisfied with the core products, but were dissatisfied with basic tourist facilities offered at the destination. Based on the results, the paper concludes that tourism stakeholders must outline effective strategies for holistic development and improving performance of attributes in the given destination.

  2. Relationship between kinesiophobia and performance in a functional capacity evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, MF; Jorritsma, W; Dijkstra, SJ; Dijkstra, PU

    2003-01-01

    Fear of movement and (re) injury (kinesiophobia) has been postulated to play an important role in the performance in a Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). This study was performed to analyze the relationship between kinesiophobia and performance in an FCE. Kinesiophobia and FCE performance of 54

  3. The importance of team functioning to natural resource planning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marc J; Predmore, S Andrew

    2012-09-15

    In its recent history, the U.S. Forest Service is among many federal land management agencies struggling with questions concerning why its planning procedures are sometimes inefficient, perform poorly in the eyes of the public, and fail to deliver outputs that advance agency mission. By examining a representative sample of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) processes conducted by the agency between 2007 and 2009, we provide new insights into what drives outcomes in these planning processes. We examined team leaders' perceptions of the following outcomes: achievement of agency goals and NEPA mandates, process efficiency, public relations, and team outcomes. The most consistently important predictors of positive outcomes were team harmony and a clearly empowered team leader. Other factors, such as perceptions of the use of best science, a clear and unambiguous purpose and need, team turnover (personnel changes during the process), extra-agency engagement, and intra-agency relations, were also important, but played a less consistent role. The findings suggest the importance of empowering team leaders and team members through enhancing elements of discretion, responsibility, clear role definition, collaborative interdisciplinary deliberation, and perceived self-efficacy. The results also suggest the importance of genuine concern and respect for participating publics and effective inter-agency coordination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Importance of properly treating human performance in probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukielka, C.A.; Butler, F.G.; Chaiko, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    A critical issue to consider when developing Advanced Reactor Systems (ARS) is the operators' ability to reliably execute Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) during accidents. A combined probabilistic and deterministic method for evaluating operator performance is outlined in this paper. Three questions are addressed: (1) does the operator understand the status of the plant? (2) does the operator know what to do? and (3) what are the odds of successful EOP execution? Deterministic methods are used to evaluate questions 1 and 2, and question 3 is addressed by statistical analysis. Simulator exercises are used to develop probability of response as a function of time curves for time limited operator actions. This method has been used to identify and resolve deficiencies in the plant operating procedures and the operator interface. An application is provided to the Anticipated Transient without Scram accident sequences. The results of Human Reliability Analysis are compared with the results of similar BWR analyses. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Effect of Functional diversity on Software Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanatha Rao, Balajee

    2011-01-01

    For the past few decades, there has been numerous literature produced on functional diversity and performance. However, the relationship between functional diversity and performance in software industry is clearly not explained and results are found to be inconsistent. The main focus of this research is to explore the effects of functional diversity on software project performance by conducting a qualitative study. Four metrics were chosen from literature namely decision making, creativity an...

  6. Applying importance-performance analysis to patient safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yii-Ching; Wu, Hsin-Hung; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Weng, Shao-Jen; Hsieh, Liang-Po; Huang, Chih-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    The Sexton et al.'s (2006) safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) has been widely used to assess staff's attitudes towards patient safety in healthcare organizations. However, to date there have been few studies that discuss the perceptions of patient safety both from hospital staff and upper management. The purpose of this paper is to improve and to develop better strategies regarding patient safety in healthcare organizations. The Chinese version of SAQ based on the Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation is used to evaluate the perceptions of hospital staff. The current study then lies in applying importance-performance analysis technique to identify the major strengths and weaknesses of the safety culture. The results show that teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, stress recognition and working conditions are major strengths and should be maintained in order to provide a better patient safety culture. On the contrary, perceptions of management and hospital handoffs and transitions are important weaknesses and should be improved immediately. Research limitations/implications - The research is restricted in generalizability. The assessment of hospital staff in patient safety culture is physicians and registered nurses. It would be interesting to further evaluate other staff's (e.g. technicians, pharmacists and others) opinions regarding patient safety culture in the hospital. Few studies have clearly evaluated the perceptions of healthcare organization management regarding patient safety culture. Healthcare managers enable to take more effective actions to improve the level of patient safety by investigating key characteristics (either strengths or weaknesses) that healthcare organizations should focus on.

  7. Importance of Performing Experience in Strength Training Periodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosád Adrián

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proper mastering of a training means seems to be an important determinant of the quality of strength training. Aim of the paper is to examine the differences in strength in relation to squat-performing experience and to offer a way of improving performance by means of increasing the quality of squat technique. Methods 1. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their previous experience with performing squat: a group of inexperienced (n = 9; age: 21.1 years ± 2.37; height: 179.2 cm ± 8.18; weight: 70.0 kg ± 7.38 and experienced (n = 9; age: 24.0 years ± 1.07; height: 182.1 cm ± 4.14; weight: 81.2 kg ± 4.29. We carried out a test of maximal isometric strength in deep squat (ISOmax50° and a modified diagnostic set (Fitro Force Plate which consisted of repetitions of heel raised deep squats with a gradually increasing external loading (FmaxBW+(0-100%. Posture and the body segments of the participants were not corrected during these tests. Mann-Whitney U test (α=0.05 was used to evaluate the data obtained. Results 1. After comparing the differences in the maximal value of force curve in dynamic muscular mode (FmaxBW+(0-100% and the maximal isometric force in deep squat (ISOmax50° between the groups we found significantly bigger differences in the group of experienced when the resistance represented +75 % (Δ 279.0 N and +100 % of body weight (Δ 332.2 N. Methods 2. Eleven inexperienced subjects (age: 22.1 years ± 1.52; weight: 78.2 kg ± 2.84 completed a short term experiment (with 4 training sessions in weeklong microcycle. The purpose was to practise deep squat without any content of targeted strength development.

  8. The functional importance of disease-associated mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Teri E

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many years, scientists believed that point mutations in genes are the genetic switches for somatic and inherited diseases such as cystic fibrosis, phenylketonuria and cancer. Some of these mutations likely alter a protein's function in a manner that is deleterious, and they should occur in functionally important regions of the protein products of genes. Here we show that disease-associated mutations occur in regions of genes that are conserved, and can identify likely disease-causing mutations. Results To show this, we have determined conservation patterns for 6185 non-synonymous and heritable disease-associated mutations in 231 genes. We define a parameter, the conservation ratio, as the ratio of average negative entropy of analyzable positions with reported mutations to that of every analyzable position in the gene sequence. We found that 84.0% of the 231 genes have conservation ratios less than one. 139 genes had eleven or more analyzable mutations and 88.0% of those had conservation ratios less than one. Conclusions These results indicate that phylogenetic information is a powerful tool for the study of disease-associated mutations. Our alignments and analysis has been made available as part of the database at http://cancer.stanford.edu/mut-paper/. Within this dataset, each position is annotated with the analysis, so the most likely disease-causing mutations can be identified.

  9. firestar--advances in the prediction of functionally important residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gonzalo; Maietta, Paolo; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    firestar is a server for predicting catalytic and ligand-binding residues in protein sequences. Here, we present the important developments since the first release of firestar. Previous versions of the server required human interpretation of the results; the server is now fully automatized. firestar has been implemented as a web service and can now be run in high-throughput mode. Prediction coverage has been greatly improved with the extension of the FireDB database and the addition of alignments generated by HHsearch. Ligands in FireDB are now classified for biological relevance. Many of the changes have been motivated by the critical assessment of techniques for protein structure prediction (CASP) ligand-binding prediction experiment, which provided us with a framework to test the performance of firestar. URL: http://firedb.bioinfo.cnio.es/Php/FireStar.php.

  10. Perceived difficulty, importance, and satisfaction with physical function in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Michael J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that patients' satisfaction with their physical functioning (SPF is a critical component of HRQL. This study was designed to examine the extent to which perceptions of physical function and the value placed on physical function are related to satisfaction ratings. The sample consisted of older adults suffering from a progressively debilitating disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods During baseline assessments, COPD patients participating in a randomized controlled physical activity trial completed measures of SPF, perceived difficulty, and perceived importance. Results An ANCOVA controlling for age and gender indicated that perceived difficulty, perceived importance, and their interaction accounted for 43% of the variance in SPF. Additionally, participants were most satisfied with important tasks that they performed with little difficulty. Participants were least satisfied with important tasks that they perceived as highly difficult. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that not being able to perform valued tasks produces discontent that is reflected in lower rating of satisfaction with physical functioning. Clearly, the significance of loss in function to individual patients is related to the importance of the functional activities that may be compromised. These data have implications for the scope of patient assessment in clinical care and for the conceptual basis of future research in the area of physical functioning.

  11. The better model to predict and improve pediatric health care quality: performance or importance-performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rebecca M; Bryant, Carol A; McDermott, Robert J; Ortinau, David

    2013-01-01

    The perpetual search for ways to improve pediatric health care quality has resulted in a multitude of assessments and strategies; however, there is little research evidence as to their conditions for maximum effectiveness. A major reason for the lack of evaluation research and successful quality improvement initiatives is the methodological challenge of measuring quality from the parent perspective. Comparison of performance-only and importance-performance models was done to determine the better predictor of pediatric health care quality and more successful method for improving the quality of care provided to children. Fourteen pediatric health care centers serving approximately 250,000 patients in 70,000 households in three West Central Florida counties were studied. A cross-sectional design was used to determine the importance and performance of 50 pediatric health care attributes and four global assessments of pediatric health care quality. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five dimensions of care (physician care, access, customer service, timeliness of services, and health care facility). Hierarchical multiple regression compared the performance-only and the importance-performance models. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and a direct cognitive structural analysis identified 50 health care attributes included in a mailed survey to parents(n = 1,030). The tailored design method guided survey development and data collection. The importance-performance multiplicative additive model was a better predictor of pediatric health care quality. Attribute importance moderates performance and quality, making the importance-performance model superior for measuring and providing a deeper understanding of pediatric health care quality and a better method for improving the quality of care provided to children. Regardless of attribute performance, if the level of attribute importance is not taken into consideration, health care organizations may spend valuable

  12. Seismic margin reviews of nuclear power plants: Identification of important functions and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prassinos, P.G.; Moore, D.L.; Amico, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The results from the review of the seven utility-sponsored seismic PRAs plus the Zion SSMRP have been used to develop some insights regarding the importance of various systems and functions to seismic margins. By taking this information and combining it with the fragility insights we can develop some functional/systemic screening guideline for margin studies. This screening approach will greatly reduce the scope of the analysis. It is possible only to come to conclusions regarding the importance of plant systems and safety functions for PWRs, for which six plants were studied. For PWRs, it is possible to categorize plant safety functions as belonging to one of two groups, one of which is important to the assessment of seismic margins and one of which is not. The important functional group involves only two functions that must be considered for estimating seismic margin. These two functions are shutting down the nuclear reaction and providing cooling to the reactor core in the time period immediately following the seismic event (that is, the injection phase or pre-residual heat removal time period). It is possible to reasonably estimate the seismic margin of the plant by performing a study only involving the analysis of the plant systems and structure which are required in order to perform the two functions. Such analysis must include an assessment of a complete set of seismic initiating events. (orig./HP)

  13. Enhanced finite difference scheme for the neutron diffusion equation using the importance function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagheian, Mehran; Vosoughi, Naser; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced finite difference scheme for the neutron diffusion equation is proposed. • A seven-step algorithm is considered based on the importance function. • Mesh points are distributed through entire reactor core with respect to the importance function. • The results all proved that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient. - Abstract: Mesh point positions in Finite Difference Method (FDM) of discretization for the neutron diffusion equation can remarkably affect the averaged neutron fluxes as well as the effective multiplication factor. In this study, by aid of improving the mesh point positions, an enhanced finite difference scheme for the neutron diffusion equation is proposed based on the neutron importance function. In order to determine the neutron importance function, the adjoint (backward) neutron diffusion calculations are performed in the same procedure as for the forward calculations. Considering the neutron importance function, the mesh points can be improved through the entire reactor core. Accordingly, in regions with greater neutron importance, density of mesh elements is higher than that in regions with less importance. The forward calculations are then performed for both of the uniform and improved non-uniform mesh point distributions and the results (the neutron fluxes along with the corresponding eigenvalues) for the two cases are compared with each other. The results are benchmarked against the reference values (with fine meshes) for Kang and Rod Bundle BWR benchmark problems. These benchmark cases revealed that the improved non-uniform mesh point distribution is highly efficient.

  14. Summary of functional and performance test procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Gülzow, Erich; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    Different Test Modules (TM) are defined for the functional and performance characterization of a PEMFC stack. The master document TM2.00 defines requirements and methodology for parameter variation, stability and data acquisition.......Different Test Modules (TM) are defined for the functional and performance characterization of a PEMFC stack. The master document TM2.00 defines requirements and methodology for parameter variation, stability and data acquisition....

  15. Performance evaluation of communication systems via importance sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remondo Bueno, D.

    2000-01-01

    In the design and development of telecommunication systems, the preparation of experiments can be made more effective by predicting the system performance and its dependence on the different system parameters. This can be done by modeling the system and using performance evaluation methods. This

  16. Testing the Performance of Fresh Tomato Markets Following Import ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings reveal that price transmission and adjustments parameters, key indicators of market performance, declined following the actual liberalization of Ghana's agricultural markets. It appears that the underlying factors responsible for the performance of the tomato markets deteriorated over the period of the study.

  17. Function Follows Performance in Evolutionary Computational Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasold, Anke; Foged, Isak Worre

    2011-01-01

    As the title ‘Function Follows Performance in Evolutionary Computational Processing’ suggests, this paper explores the potentials of employing multiple design and evaluation criteria within one processing model in order to account for a number of performative parameters desired within varied...

  18. Muscle variables of importance for physiological performance in competitive football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Thomassen, Martin; Girard, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine how match performance parameters in trained footballers relate to skeletal muscle parameters, sprint ability and intermittent exercise performance. METHODS: 19 male elite football players completed an experimental game with physical performance determined by video analysis...... and exercise capacity assessed by intermittent Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2 tests, and a repeated sprint test (RST). Muscle tissue was obtained for analysis of metabolic enzyme maximal activity and key muscle protein expression. RESULTS: Total game distance, distance deficit from first to second half and high......-intensity running in the final 15 min of the game were all correlated to the players' Yo-Yo IR1 performance (r = 0.55-0.87) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD) maximal activity (r = 0.55-0.65). Furthermore, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) protein expression was weakly (r = 0...

  19. Importance of Functional Airway Surgery in Orthognathic Surgery Performed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Yüce

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Le Fort I osteotomy is usually combined with mandibular ramus procedures (sagittal split in order to correct dentofacial deformities that cause malocclusion. Patients who have dentofacial anomalies involving the maxilla carry a higher risk of difficulty in breathing due to septal deviation and inferior turbinate hypertrophy. If these conditions are ignored preoperatively, severe airway problems may come up after orthognathic surgery. A detailed examination regarding nasal airway should be conducted in such patients, and they should be informed about their condition which may require an additional intervention during or after their main surgery.

  20. Importance-performance analysis: an application to Michigan's natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria Sanders; Erin White; Lori Pennington-Gray

    2001-01-01

    In the state of Michigan, the nature-based tourist is becoming an increasingly important target market for providers of natural resources. To meet the demands of this growing market segment, evaluation strategies for nature-based sites are needed to maintain and improve customer satisfaction and loyalty. Evaluation strategies that incorporate consumer input can help to...

  1. The most important key-performance indicators at BC Timişoara management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the management of objectives at BC Timisoara, motivation and performance analysis. The aim of this paper is to analyze the most important key factors involved in a basketball team performance. The basketball team analyzed is BC Timisoara, a well established club in this city of Western Romania. The article combines information gathered from BC Timisoara’s manager and management theories relevant to the topic. Goal setting is affected by financial and human resource factors as well control and regulation functions. Finally motivation plays a key role in players performance.

  2. Important Details in Performing and Interpreting the Scratch Collapse Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Lorna C; Yee, Andrew; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-02-01

    The utility of the scratch collapse test has been demonstrated in examination of patients with carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes and long thoracic and peroneal nerve compressions. In the authors' clinic, this lesser known test plays a key role in peripheral nerve examination where localization of the nerve irritation or injury is not fully understood. Test utility and accuracy in patients with more challenging presentations likely correlate with tester understanding and experience. This article offers a clear outline of all stages of the test to improve interrater reliability. The nuances of test performance are described, including a description of situations where the scratch collapse test is deemed inappropriate. Four clinical scenarios where the scratch collapse test may be useful are included. Corresponding video content is provided to improve performance and interpretation of the scratch collapse test. Diagnostic, V.

  3. Seafloor ecosystem functioning: the importance of organic matter priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nugteren, P.; Moodley, L.; Brummer, G.J.; Heip, C.H.R.; Herman, P.M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) remineralization may be considered a key function of the benthic compartment of marine ecosystems and in this study we investigated if the input of labile organic carbon alters mineralization of indigenous sediment OM (OM priming). Using 13C-enriched diatoms as labile tracer

  4. Is recreational hunting important for landscape multi-functionality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Recreational hunting may be important to the shaping of the agricultural landscape. Land owners who hunt or lease out hunting rights have an incentive to promote landscapes that contain wildlife biotopes, which may serve wider societal values, such as landscape aesthetics, biodiversity, and prese......Recreational hunting may be important to the shaping of the agricultural landscape. Land owners who hunt or lease out hunting rights have an incentive to promote landscapes that contain wildlife biotopes, which may serve wider societal values, such as landscape aesthetics, biodiversity......, and preservation of valued and/or threatened animal and plant species. Recreational hunting may thus contribute to preserve and enhance landscape multifunctionality. Yet, little is known about the importance of hunting interests in motivating such landscape management. In this article, we seek to shed light...

  5. The importance of damper drive performance for clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wistrom, K.

    2002-01-01

    Amendments to the U.S. Federal Clean Air Act require petroleum refineries and other industries to examine every aspects of their process heating operations in order to reduce cumulative nitrogen oxide emissions from their plants. It has been found that changing the final damper control elements to more reliable and accurate damper drives greatly improves the combustion of air and flue gases and reduces tramp air from entering furnaces. This paper discusses the increasing importance of precise damper drives in nitrogen oxides reduction efforts, and the challenges involved in effecting good damper control. It also provides some technical details about final control drives, manufactured by TYPE K Damper Drives, a division of Controls International Inc., that thrive in environments of extreme temperatures, heavy vibration and fly ash, while providing continuous duty service with smooth, accurate and repeatable damper positioning. Case history of an Ontario oil refinery installing several damper drives designed by TYPE K, indicating high level of nitrogen oxides reduction is described to illustrate the importance and the advantages of damper control drives designed by this firm. In addition to meeting regulatory requirements, additional benefits include improved product quality and safety levels, combined with lower maintenance expenses. photos

  6. Evaluating Service Quality from Patients' Perceptions: Application of Importance-performance Analysis Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebifar, Rafat; Hasani, Hana; Barikani, Ameneh; Rafiei, Sima

    2016-08-01

    Providing high service quality is one of the main functions of health systems. Measuring service quality is the basic prerequisite for improving quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of service in teaching hospitals using importance-performance analysis matrix. A descriptive-analytic study was conducted through a cross-sectional method in six academic hospitals of Qazvin, Iran, in 2012. A total of 360 patients contributed to the study. The sampling technique was stratified random sampling. Required data were collected based on a standard questionnaire (SERVQUAL). Data analysis was done through SPSS version 18 statistical software and importance-performance analysis matrix. The results showed a significant gap between importance and performance in all five dimensions of service quality (p quality gap and "responsiveness" had the lowest gap (1.97). Also, according to findings, reliability and assurance were in Quadrant (I), empathy was in Quadrant (II), and tangibles and responsiveness were in Quadrant (IV) of the importance-performance matrix. The negative gap in all dimensions of quality shows that quality improvement is necessary in all dimensions. Using quality and diagnosis measurement instruments such as importance-performance analysis will help hospital managers with planning of service quality improvement and achieving long-term goals.

  7. Perturbation theory and importance functions in integral transport formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1976-01-01

    Perturbation theory expressions for the static reactivity derived from the flux, collision density, birth-rate density, and fission-neutron density formulations of integral transport theory, and from the integro-differential formulation, are intercompared. The physical meaning and relation of the adjoint functions corresponding to each of the five formulations are established. It is found that the first-order approximation of the perturbation expressions depends on the transport theory formulation and on the adjoint function used. The approximations of the integro-differential formulation corresponding to different first-order approximations of the integral transport theory formulations are identified. It is found that the accuracy of all first-order approximations of the integral transport formulations examined is superior to the accuracy of first-order integro-differential perturbation theory

  8. Functional Mitochondria Are Important for the Effect of Resveratrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widlund, Anne Lykkegaard; Baral, Kaushal; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol (Resv) is a polyphenol reported to modulate mitochondrial activity. The aim was to use HeLa and 143B cells to characterize the action of Resv on mitochondrial activity, cell size and proliferation using wild type (WT) and Rho 0 cells deficient in mitochondrial DNA. In both HeLa WT and......, but not in Rho 0 when treated with Resv. Overall, the findings presented indicate that functional mitochondria are a prerequisite for cell enlargement by Resv....

  9. The importance of surface finish to energy performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Geoff B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power generation in solar energy systems, thermal control in buildings and mitigation of the Urban Heat Island problem, are all sensitive to directional response to incoming radiation. The radiation absorption and emission profile also plays a crucial role in each system's response and depends strongly on surface finish. This important sensitivity needs wider recognition in materials data sheets, system modeling, plus in materials and environmental engineering. The impact of surface roughness on thermal response of natural and man-made external environments is examined. Important examples will be given of the role of surface finish within each class. Total emittance links to the way surface finish influences directional emittance E(θ. Smooth surface thermal emittance on PV module covers, many solar absorbers, some roof paints, polished concrete, and glass windows can be up to 15% different from insulator results based on fully diffuse models of the same material. Widespread evidence indicates smooth metals and low-E solar absorber surfaces cool faster, and smooth insulators slower than previously thought. Matt paint is cooler than low sheen paint under the same solar heating impacts and normal concrete cooler than polished. Emittance for water is the prime environmental example of oblique impacts as it reflects strongly at oblique incidence, which leads to a significant drop in E(θ. Ripples or waves however raise water's average emittance. A surprise in this work was the high sensitivity of total E and its angular components to roughness in the depth range of 0.1–0.8 μm, which are well under ambient thermal IR wavelengths of 3–30 μm but common in metal finishing. Parallel energy flows such as evaporation and convective cooling vary if emittance varies. Thermal image analysis can provide insights into angular radiative effects.

  10. Academic performance and talent school: Importance of motivation in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izamara da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The education aimed at more skilled students with traits of giftedness still poses challenges. Factors related to the cognitive development and counseling programs have been the object of growing interest among researchers in this field, such as Guimarães (2007. One of the challenges for them is the relation between motivation, intelligence and high abilities/giftedness. To provide adequate counseling to such special students means to offer them equal opportunities for the development of all their potentiality. The teaching excellence proposed in special programs for the gifted should also be considered as a democratic educational practice since they intend to meet individual needs. Fifty-two high school students from Rio de Janeiro, scholarship holders of the Social Institut, took part in this research, which investigates intrinsic and extrinsic motivational aspects that indicate the strategies used by them to favor the maintenance of the motivational features. The means used was the Scholastic Motivation Scale for Junior High School Students (Escala de Motivação Escolar para Alunos do Ensino Fundamental, developed by Manzini & Martinelli (2006, whose motivational guidance is arranged in 31 questions, 15 on intrinsic motivation and 16 on extrinsic ones. The results point out the intrinsic motivation as the main motivational feature present in these students and show how committed they are to the tasks they have pledged to perform throughout the Social Institut Maria Telles program. The average of the intrinsic motivation obtained from the use of the variable was superior (18.2 in relation to the extrinsic one (13.8, also verifying such result. More than achieving the objectives and attaining the goals in the program, these students have pleasure in studying as their main characteristic. Knowing the motivational aspects of these students helps the choice of strategies, which not only extends the different aspects of motivation but also allows

  11. Intangible Assets – Important Resources for Performant Enterprise Gestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Grosu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Along time, the goal of intangible assets became very important for the activity and prosperity of business. This matter is achieved as well as more and more the companies operate in a global economy which has as main base the digital revolution and information management. The increase of the immaterial investments percent requires evaluation and recognition criteria by knowledge, intelligence and human competence. But recently, the accounting standards were about to accord negligible attention or even totally ignored the appropriate modalities of report this category of assets. The accounting, obliged to bend to economic, financial and juridical logics, in a „Taylor” modality, presents an unreal image of the company economic life and particularly of investment activity. In a competitive environment, the reliability of future economic benefits, generated by investments, depends less on their material or immaterial nature and more on the characteristics of the market they operate on. These are just a few reflections which determined us to focus our attention to this thought-provoking domain of immaterial investments, appreciated as a potential for the company.

  12. INTANGIBLE ASSETS – IMPORTANT RESOURCE FOR ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA PAULA DUMITRU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Along time, the goal of intangible assets became very important for the activity and prosperity of business. This matter is achieved as well as more and more the companies operate in a global economy which has as main base the digital revolution and information management. The increase of the immaterial investments percent requires evaluation and recognition criteria by knowledge, intelligence and human competence. But recently, the accounting standards were about to accord negligible attention or even totally ignored the appropriate modalities of report this category of assets. The accounting, obliged to bend to economic, financial and juridical logics, in a „Taylor” modality, presents an unreal image of the company economic life and particularly of investment activity. In a competitive environment, the reliability of future economic benefits, generated by investments, depends less on their material or immaterial nature and more on the characteristics of the market they operate on. These are just a few reflections which determined us to focus our attention to this thoughtprovoking domain of immaterial investments, appreciated as a potential for the company.

  13. THE CONSTRUCTION OF IMPORTANCE-PERFORMANCE GRID IN TOURIST SERVICES RESEARCH WITHOUT THE DIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE ATTRIBUTES IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ban Olimpia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance-performance grid is a marketing instrument used to make decisions regarding the growth of the consumers’ satisfaction, by optimizing the attributes of products. This grid is a useful instrument, as it is shown in the paper, to the extent to which the importance and performance of the attributes are correctly recorded. Another idea underlined in the paper is that regarding the difficulty to directly determine the importance of attributes or in the same stage with the determination of the service performance, according to these attributes. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the importance-performance grid (suggested by Martilla and amended by Abalo,through an empirical study in the field of tourist services used and to test the conditions to carry out this grid taking into account the hypothetical case of indirectly determining the importance of the quality attributes. The literature in the field regarding the importance-performance analysis is analysed and the subsequent amendments to the previous grid suggested by Martilla and James in 1977. The present paper is a continuation of several studies on the same subject, in which the following research methods were used: direct survey by questionnaire, the Spearman correlation coefficient, and the entropy calculus. A comparative analysis of the importance-performance grid if directly recording the importance of attributes (through survey by questionnaire and of the indirect determination of the importance of the attributes (through the Spearman coefficient and entropy calculus is being suggested. The results indicate possible uses of methods, yet it raises a series of collateral problems regarding their application. The contribution of this paper is given by the suggestion of two methods to indirectly determine the importance of attributes, which take into account the data measurement scale used and the collinearity among attributes and which lead to pertinent results

  14. Optimizing health system response to patient's needs: an argument for the importance of functioning information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfe, Maren; Prodinger, Birgit; Bickenbach, Jerome E; Stucki, Gerold

    2017-06-06

    Current health systems are increasingly challenged to meet the needs of a growing number of patients living with chronic and often multiple health conditions. The primary outcome of care, it is argued, is not merely curing disease but also optimizing functioning over a person's life span. According to the World Health Organization, functioning can serve as foundation for a comprehensive picture of health and augment the biomedical perspective with a broader and more comprehensive picture of health as it plays out in people's lives. The crucial importance of information about patient's functioning for a well-performing health system, however, has yet to be sufficiently appreciated. This paper argues that functioning information is fundamental in all components of health systems and enhances the capacity of health systems to optimize patients' health and health-related needs. Beyond making sense of biomedical disease patterns, health systems can profit from using functioning information to improve interprofessional collaboration and achieve cross-cutting disease treatment outcomes. Implications for rehabilitation Functioning is a key health outcome for rehabilitation within health systems. Information on restoring, maintaining, and optimizing human functioning can strengthen health system response to patients' health and rehabilitative needs. Functioning information guides health systems to achieve cross-cutting health outcomes that respond to the needs of the growing number of individuals living with chronic and multiple health conditions. Accounting for individuals functioning helps to overcome fragmentation of care and to improve interprofessional collaboration across settings.

  15. Understanding the Importance of the Teres Minor for Shoulder Function: Functional Anatomy and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew D; Edwards, Thomas Bradley; Walch, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    Although the teres minor is often overlooked in a normal shoulder, it becomes a key component in maintaining shoulder function when other rotator cuff tendons fail. The teres minor maintains a balanced glenohumeral joint and changes from an insignificant to the most significant external rotator in the presence of major rotator cuff pathology. The presence or absence of the teres minor provides prognostic information on the outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty and tendon transfers. Clinical tests include the Patte test, the Neer dropping sign, the external rotation lag sign, and the Hertel drop sign. Advanced imaging of the teres minor can be used for classification using the Walch system. Understanding the function and pathology surrounding the teres minor is paramount in comprehensive management of the patient with shoulder pathology. Appropriate clinical examination and imaging of the teres minor are important for preoperative stratification and postoperative expectations.

  16. Pulmonary Function Affects Language Performance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewina O Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Good pulmonary function (PF is associated with preservation of cognitive performance, primarily of executive functions, in aging (Albert et al., 1995; Chyou et al., 1996; Emery, Finkel, & Pedersen, 2012; Yohannes & Gindo, 2013. The contribution of PF to older adults’ language abilities, however, has never been explored, to our knowledge. We addressed this gap by examining the effects of PF on older adults’ language functions, as measured by naming and sentence processing accuracy. We predicted similar effects as found for executive functions, given the positive associations between executive functions and sentence processing in aging (e.g., Goral et al., 2011. Methods Data were collected from 190 healthy adults aged 55 to 84 years (M = 71.1, SD = 8.1, with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders. Procedure PF was measured prior to language testing. Measures included forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC. Language functions were assessed through performance on computer-administered lexical retrieval and sentence processing tasks. Sentence processing was measured using two auditory comprehension tasks: one, of embedded sentences (ES, the other, of sentences with multiple negatives (MN. Lexical retrieval was measured using the Boston Naming Test (BNT and Action Naming Test (ANT. Performance was scored for percent accuracy. Additionally, lexical retrieval was evaluated with a phonemic fluency task (FAS, which also taps executive function abilities. Statistical Analyses Multiple regression was used to examine the association between pulmonary and language functions, adjusting for age, education, gender, history of respiratory illness, current level of physical activities, and current and past smoking. Results Better PF was associated with better sentence processing and lexical retrieval on naming tasks, but not with phonemic fluency, after adjusting for covariates. Higher FVC was

  17. Importance of circulating IGF-1 for normal cardiac morphology, function and post infarction remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharin Täng, M; Redfors, B; Lindbom, M; Svensson, J; Ramunddal, T; Ohlsson, C; Shao, Y; Omerovic, E

    2012-12-01

    IGF-1 plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis, and plasma levels of IGF-1 correlate inversely with systolic function in heart failure. It is not known to what extent circulating IGF-1 secreted by the liver and local autocrine/paracrine IGF-1 expressed in the myocardium contribute to these beneficial effects on cardiac function and morphology. In the present study, we used a mouse model of liver-specific inducible deletion of the IGF-1 gene (LI-IGF-1 -/- mouse) in an attempt to evaluate the importance of circulating IGF-I on cardiac morphology and function under normal and pathological conditions, with an emphasis on its regulatory role in myocardial phosphocreatine metabolism. Echocardiography was performed in LI-IGF-1 -/- and control mice at rest and during dobutamine stress, both at baseline and post myocardial infarction (MI). High-energy phosphate metabolites were compared between LI-IGF-1 -/- and control mice at 4 weeks post MI. We found that LI-IGF-1 -/- mice had significantly greater left ventricular dimensions at baseline and showed a greater relative increase in cardiac dimensions, as well as deterioration of cardiac function, post MI. Myocardial creatine content was 17.9% lower in LI-IGF-1 -/- mice, whereas there was no detectable difference in high-energy nucleotides. These findings indicate an important role of circulating IGF-1 in preserving cardiac structure and function both in physiological settings and post MI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered Functional Performance in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Isis da Silva; Gamund?, Antoni; Miranda, Jos? G. Vivas; Fran?a, Lucas G. Souza; De Santana, Charles Novaes; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition that exerts a considerable impact on patients' daily activities and quality of life. Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate kinematic parameters of gait, functional performance, and balance in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: The study included 26 female patients with fibromyalgia (49.2 ± 8.0 years) according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, as well as 16 pain-free women (43.5 ...

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.280 - What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...'s performance are important to measure? 102-117.280 Section 102-117.280 Public Contracts and... § 102-117.280 What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure? Important TSP performance...) Percentage of customer satisfaction reports on carrier performance. ...

  20. Perceived stress and cognitive function in older adults: which aspect of perceived stress is important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korten, Nicole C M; Comijs, Hannie C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2017-04-01

    Few studies examined the association between perceived stress and cognitive function in older adults. This study will examine which aspects of perceived stress especially impact cognitive function. Cross-sectional data of 1099 older adults between 64 and 100 years from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used. Perceived stress and its subscales perceived helplessness and perceived self-efficacy were measured with the Perceived Stress Scale. Cognitive function was assessed regarding memory, processing speed and executive function. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed between the stress measures and the domains of cognitive function. Perceived stress was associated with worse processing speed, direct and delayed recall, semantic fluency and digit span backwards (range β = -0.10; -0.11; p cognitive function, also after adjustment for depressive symptoms or sense of mastery (range β = 0.10; 0.18; p cognitive functions. Perceived self-efficacy might be an important factor in reducing stress and the prevention of cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A Study on Relationships between Functional Performance and Task Performance Measure through Experiments in NPP MCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, In Seok; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Further improvements in levels of organization, management, man-machine interfaces, education, training, etc. are required, if high operating reliability of operators in huge and complex plants such as chemical plants and electrical power generating plants is to be maintained. Improvement requires good understanding of operators' behavior, including defining what is good performance for operators, especially in emergency situations. Human performance measures, therefore, are important to enhance performance and to reduce the probability of incidents and accidents in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Operators' performance measures are used for multi-objectives such as control room design, human system interface evaluation, training, procedure and so on. There are two kinds of representative methods to measure operators' performance. These methods are now known as the functional performance measure and task performance measure. Functional performance measures are basically based on the plant process parameters. Functional performance measures indicate how well the operators controlled selected critical parameters. The parameters selected in this paper are derived from the four Critical Safety Functions (CSFs) identified in the emergency operating procedures such as achievement of subcriticality, maintenance of core cooling, maintenance of heat sink and maintenance of containment integrity. Task performance measures are based on the task analysis. Task analysis is to determine the tasks required and how operators are performed. In this paper, task analysis is done with ideal path for an accident completed by experts and Emergency Operation Procedure (EOP). However, most literatures related to operators' performance have been using one of these measures and there is no research to find out the relationships between two measures. In this paper, the relationships between functional performance measure and task performance measure are investigated using experiments. Shortly

  2. The Importance of Strength and Power on Key Performance Indicators in Elite Youth Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Christopher E; Turner, Anthony N; Bishop, Chris J

    2018-01-24

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the importance of strength and power in relation to key performance indicators (KPI's) within competitive soccer match play. This was achieved through using an experimental approach where fifteen subjects were recruited from a professional soccer club's scholarship squad during the 2013/14 season. Following anthropometric measures, power and strength were assessed across a range of tests which included the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 metre (m) sprint and arrowhead change of direction test. A predicted 1-repetition maximum (RM) was also obtained for strength by performing a 3RM test for both the back squat and bench press and a total score of athleticism (TSA) was provided by summing z-scores for all fitness tests together, providing one complete score for athleticism. Performance analysis data was collected during 16 matches for the following KPIs: passing, shooting, dribbling, tackling and heading. Alongside this, data concerning player ball involvements (touches) was recorded. Results showed that there was a significant correlation (p soccer performance, particularly when players are required to win duels of a physical nature. There were no other relationships found between the fitness data and the KPI's recorded during match play which may indicate that other aspects of player's development such as technical skill, cognitive function and sensory awareness are more important for soccer-specific performance.

  3. Altered Functional Performance in Patients with Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Isis da Silva; Gamundí, Antoni; Miranda, José G Vivas; França, Lucas G Souza; De Santana, Charles Novaes; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition that exerts a considerable impact on patients' daily activities and quality of life. Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate kinematic parameters of gait, functional performance, and balance in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: The study included 26 female patients with fibromyalgia (49.2 ± 8.0 years) according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, as well as 16 pain-free women (43.5 ± 8.5 years). Gait and balance parameters were extracted from video recordings of participants performing several motor tasks. Non-linear dynamic of body sway time series was also analyzed by computing the Hurst exponent. In addition, functional performance and clinical pain were obtained by using standardized motor tests (Berg's balance scale, 6-min walking test, timed up and go task, Romberg's balance test) and self-report questionnaires (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire). Results: Walking speed was significantly diminished ( p fibromyalgia and pain-free controls on body sway in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior axes (all ps gait and balance were significantly associated with high levels of pain, depression, stiffness, anxiety, and fatigue in fibromyalgia. Conclusion: Our data revealed that both gait and balance were severely impaired in FM, and that subjective complaints associated with FM could contribute to functional disability in these patients. These findings suggest that optimal rehabilitation and fall prevention in fibromyalgia require a comprehensive assessment of both psychological responses to pain and physical impairments during postural control and gait.

  4. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release

  5. Calculation of Monte Carlo importance functions for use in nuclear-well logging calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.; McKeon, D.C.; Booth, T.E.

    1989-07-01

    Importance sampling is essential to the timely solution of Monte Carlo nuclear-logging computer simulations. Achieving minimum variance (maximum precision) of a response in minimum computation time is one criteria for the choice of an importance function. Various methods for calculating importance functions will be presented, new methods investigated, and comparisons with porosity and density tools will be shown. 5 refs., 1 tab

  6. Diabetes, child care, and performance of family functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kobos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Parents caring for a child with diabetes may experience a burden on both a practical and an emotional level. Aim of the research : Analysis of the correlations between the care burden level and the perceived influence of type 1 diabetes in children on the performance of family functions. Material and methods : The study included 112 caregivers of children with diabetes. The following inclusion criteria were taken into account: full family, direct caregiver of the child, the child’s age 3–16 years, disease duration of at least 6 months, and no chronic diseases in siblings. The study material was collected using an interview questionnaire and the Caregiver Burden Scale. Correlation analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The significance level was defined as p = 0.05. Results : A higher burden level of a caregiver in the individual subscales of the CB Scale was associated with a significant decrease in the intensity of performance of the cultural and social function as well as consumption function, the increased amount of time spent with a sick child, and an increase in parental disagreements. The overall burden level differentiated the performance of the religious function. An increase in the burden level on the overall effort subscale was accompanied by lower interest in sex and less frequent sexual intercourse. The higher level of caregiver burden occurs in families where permanent job income has fallen. The differences were shown in the performance of control-socialisation function due to the sense of burden on the environment subscale. Conclusions : The burden level of a caregiver is important in the perceived influence of the child’s illness on the functioning of the family. Stimulating a caregiver in dealing with the problems that are the consequence of the disease, as well as activating and preparing other family members to participate in the care of a sick child, and financial support may

  7. Importance-Performance Analysis of Personal Health Records in Taiwan: A Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chen, Kang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background Empowering personal health records (PHRs) provides basic human right, awareness, and intention for health promotion. As health care delivery changes toward patient-centered services, PHRs become an indispensable platform for consumers and providers. Recently, the government introduced “My health bank,” a Web-based electronic medical records (EMRs) repository for consumers. However, it is not yet a PHR. To date, we do not have a platform that can let patients manage their own PHR. Objective This study creates a vision of a value-added platform for personal health data analysis and manages their health record based on the contents of the "My health bank." This study aimed to examine consumer expectation regarding PHR, using the importance-performance analysis. The purpose of this study was to explore consumer perception regarding this type of a platform: it would try to identify the key success factors and important aspects by using the importance-performance analysis, and give some suggestions for future development based on it. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Taiwan. Web-based invitation to participate in this study was distributed through Facebook. Respondents were asked to watch an introductory movie regarding PHR before filling in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was focused on 2 aspects, including (1) system functions, and (2) system design and security and privacy. The questionnaire would employ 12 and 7 questions respectively. The questionnaire was designed following 5-points Likert scale ranging from 1 (“disagree strongly”) to 5 (“Agree strongly”). Afterwards, the questionnaire data was sorted using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 for descriptive statistics and the importance-performance analysis. Results This research received 350 valid questionnaires. Most respondents were female (219 of 350 participants, 62.6%), 21-30 years old (238 of 350 participants, 68.0%), with a university degree (228 of 350 participants, 65

  8. Importance-Performance Analysis of Personal Health Records in Taiwan: A Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Syuan; Chu, Chi-Ming; Wang, Fu-Chung; Hsu, Min-Huei; Chang, Chi-Wen; Chen, Kang-Hua; Lee, Yen-Liang; Kao, Senyeong; Chiu, Yu-Lung; Wen, Hsyien-Chia; Fuad, Anis; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Chiu, Hung-Wen

    2017-04-27

    Empowering personal health records (PHRs) provides basic human right, awareness, and intention for health promotion. As health care delivery changes toward patient-centered services, PHRs become an indispensable platform for consumers and providers. Recently, the government introduced "My health bank," a Web-based electronic medical records (EMRs) repository for consumers. However, it is not yet a PHR. To date, we do not have a platform that can let patients manage their own PHR. This study creates a vision of a value-added platform for personal health data analysis and manages their health record based on the contents of the "My health bank." This study aimed to examine consumer expectation regarding PHR, using the importance-performance analysis. The purpose of this study was to explore consumer perception regarding this type of a platform: it would try to identify the key success factors and important aspects by using the importance-performance analysis, and give some suggestions for future development based on it. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Taiwan. Web-based invitation to participate in this study was distributed through Facebook. Respondents were asked to watch an introductory movie regarding PHR before filling in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was focused on 2 aspects, including (1) system functions, and (2) system design and security and privacy. The questionnaire would employ 12 and 7 questions respectively. The questionnaire was designed following 5-points Likert scale ranging from 1 ("disagree strongly") to 5 ("Agree strongly"). Afterwards, the questionnaire data was sorted using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 for descriptive statistics and the importance-performance analysis. This research received 350 valid questionnaires. Most respondents were female (219 of 350 participants, 62.6%), 21-30 years old (238 of 350 participants, 68.0%), with a university degree (228 of 350 participants, 65.1%). They were still students (195 out of 350

  9. On the importance of the 2nd readout as a function of dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batel, V.I.; Alves, J.G.; Rangel, S.; Abrantes, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The individual monitoring service at ITN-DPRSN is based on a TLD dosimetry system. The system is comprised of two 6600 Harshaw readers and on the Harshaw 8814 TL card and holder containing two LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) detectors for the evaluation of H p (10) and H p (0.07). As part of our normal reading procedure, after the readout for dose evaluation a second reading is always carried out before the dosemeters are considered ready for another use and shipped to clients. Second readouts produce the residual signal and confirm the dosemeter is reset. However, it is a time-consuming task and particularly in the low dose cases, the question arises whether it could be avoided? In this paper the importance of a second readout was evaluated and is presented. Four experiments were performed using two groups of twenty-five randomly selected dosemeters. In each group the dosemeters were organized in sets of five and each set was irradiated to a different dose of 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 50 mSv and processed. This was repeated for ten times. In the first experiment the dosemeters were read for dose evaluation and a second readout was always performed. In the second experiment the second readout was suppressed. The third and fourth experiments were as the first and second, but the dosemeters were irradiated to an additional dose of 0.50 mSv in between. The results obtained from experiments one and two, evaluate the importance of the second readout on the reproducibility of the measurement as a function of dose. Experiments three and four also provide information on the capacity to detect an intermediate low dose of 0.5 mSv, as a function of dose, for the normal reading procedure and when the second readout is avoided. In this paper the importance of the second readout is studied performing reproducibility measurements as a function of dose and by testing the capacity to detect the 0.5 mSv intermediate dose also as a function of dose. (author)

  10. Human performance in nondestructive inspections and functional tests: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    Human performance plays a vital role in the inspections and tests conducted to assure the physical integrity of nuclear power plants. Even when technically-sophisticated equipment is employed, the outcome is highly dependent on human control actions, calibrations, observations, analyses, and interpretations. The principal consequences of inadequate performance are missed or falsely-reported defects. However, the cost-avoidance that stems from addressing potential risks promptly, and the increasing costs likely with aging plants, emphasize that timeliness and efficiency are important inspection-performance considerations also. Human performance issues were studied in a sample of inspections and tests regularly conducted in nuclear power plants. These tasks, selected by an industry advisory panel, were: eddy-current inspection of steam-generator tubes; ultrasonic inspection of pipe welds; inservice testing of pumps and valves; and functional testing of shock suppressors. Information was obtained for the study from industry and plant procedural documents; training materials; research reports and related documents; interviews with training specialists, inspectors, supervisory personnel, and equipment designers; and first-hand observations of task performance. Eleven recommendations are developed for improving human performance on nondestructive inspections and functional tests. Two recommendations were for the more-effective application of existing knowledge; nine recommendations were for research projects that should be undertaken to assure continuing improvements in human performance on these tasks. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. The Functionality of Facial Appearance and Its Importance to a Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany people have an interest in the correction of facial scars or deformities caused by trauma. The increasing ability to correct such flaws has been one of the reasons for the increase in the popularity of facial plastic surgery. In addition to its roles in communication, breathing, eating, olfaction and vision, the appearance of the face also plays an important role in human interactions, including during social activities. However, studies on the importance of the functional role of facial appearance. As a function of the face are scare. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the importance of the functions of the face in Korea.MethodsWe conducted an online panel survey of 300 participants (age range, 20-70 years. Each respondent was administered the demographic data form, Facial Function Assessment Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and standard gamble questionnaires.ResultsIn the evaluation on the importance of facial functions, a normal appearance was considered as important as communication, breathing, speech, and vision. Of the 300 participants, 85% stated that a normal appearance is important in social activities.ConclusionsThe results of this survey involving a cross-section of the Korean population indicated that a normal appearance was considered one of the principal facial functions. A normal appearance was considered more important than the functions of olfaction and expression. Moreover, a normal appearance was determined to be an important facial function for leading a normal life in Korea.

  12. Scholastic performance and functional connectivity of brain networks in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Chaddock-Heyman

    Full Text Available One of the keys to understanding scholastic success is to determine the neural processes involved in school performance. The present study is the first to use a whole-brain connectivity approach to explore whether functional connectivity of resting state brain networks is associated with scholastic performance in seventy-four 7- to 9-year-old children. We demonstrate that children with higher scholastic performance across reading, math and language have more integrated and interconnected resting state networks, specifically the default mode network, salience network, and frontoparietal network. To add specificity, core regions of the dorsal attention and visual networks did not relate to scholastic performance. The results extend the cognitive role of brain networks in children as well as suggest the importance of network connectivity in scholastic success.

  13. Neutron importance and the generalized Green function for the conventionally critical reactor with normalized neutron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromov, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The notion of neutron importance when applied to nuclear reactor statics problems described by time-independent homogeneous equations of neutron transport with provision for normalization of neutron distribution is considered. An equation has been obtained for the function of neutron importance in a conditionally critical reactor with respect to an arbitrary nons linear functional determined for the normalized neutron distribution. Relation between this function and the generalized Green function of the selfconjugated operator of the reactor equation is determined and the formula of small perturbations for the functionals of a conditionally critical reactor is deduced

  14. Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Guide Instructional Design of Experiential Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sheri; Hsu, Yu-Chang; Kinney, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Designing experiential learning activities requires an instructor to think about what they want the students to learn. Using importance-performance analysis can assist with the instructional design of the activities. This exploratory study used importance-performance analysis in an online introduction to criminology course. There is limited…

  15. Communication: importance sampling including path correlation in semiclassical initial value representation calculations for time correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Tao, Guohua

    2013-03-07

    Full semiclassical (SC) initial value representation (IVR) for time correlation functions involves a double phase space average over a set of two phase points, each of which evolves along a classical path. Conventionally, the two initial phase points are sampled independently for all degrees of freedom (DOF) in the Monte Carlo procedure. Here, we present an efficient importance sampling scheme by including the path correlation between the two initial phase points for the bath DOF, which greatly improves the performance of the SC-IVR calculations for large molecular systems. Satisfactory convergence in the study of quantum coherence in vibrational relaxation has been achieved for a benchmark system-bath model with up to 21 DOF.

  16. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of exercise training on performance and function in individuals with cerebral palsy: ... performance capabilities, and the effect of exercise training interventions, ... The physiology underlying the functional and physical impairments in CP ...

  17. Functional resilience of microbial ecosystems in soil: How important is a spatial analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Sara; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial life in soil is exposed to fluctuating environmental conditions influencing the performance of microbially mediated ecosystem services such as biodegradation of contaminants. However, as this environment is typically very heterogeneous, spatial aspects can be expected to play a major role for the ability to recover from a stress event. To determine key processes for functional resilience, simple scenarios with varying stress intensities were simulated within a microbial simulation model and the biodegradation rate in the recovery phase monitored. Parameters including microbial growth and dispersal rates were varied over a typical range to consider microorganisms with varying properties. Besides an aggregated temporal monitoring, the explicit observation of the spatio-temporal dynamics proved essential to understand the recovery process. For a mechanistic understanding of the model system, scenarios were also simulated with selected processes being switched-off. Results of the mechanistic and the spatial view show that the key factors for functional recovery with respect to biodegradation after a simple stress event depend on the location of the observed habitats. The limiting factors near unstressed areas are spatial processes - the mobility of the bacteria as well as substrate diffusion - the longer the distance to the unstressed region the more important becomes the process growth. Furthermore, recovery depends on the stress intensity - after a low stress event the spatial configuration has no influence on the key factors for functional resilience. To confirm these results, we repeated the stress scenarios but this time including an additional dispersal network representing a fungal network in soil. The system benefits from an increased spatial performance due to the higher mobility of the degrading microorganisms. However, this effect appears only in scenarios where the spatial distribution of the stressed area plays a role. With these simulations we

  18. Prognostic Importance of Pretransplant Functional Capacity After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lee W; Devlin, Sean M; Maloy, Molly A; Wood, William A; Tuohy, Sharlynn; Espiritu, Noel; Aquino, Jennifer; Kendig, Tiffany; Michalski, Meghan G; Gyurkocza, Boglarka; Schaffer, Wendy L; Ali, Benzar; Giralt, Sergio; Jakubowski, Ann A

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic importance of functional capacity in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for hematological malignancies. Using a retrospective design, 407 patients completed a 6-minute walk distance (6 MWD) test to assess functional capacity before HCT; 193 (47%) completed a 6 MWD test after hospital discharge. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS) according to the 6 MWD category (interval, 0.44-0.96) for a 6 MWD ≥ 400 m. A 6 MWD of ≥ 400 m provided incremental information on the prediction of NRM with adjustment for age (p = .032) but not KPS alone (p = .062) or adjustment for other prognostic markers (p = .099). A significant association was found between the 6 MWD and OS (p = .027). A 6 MWD of ≥ 400 m provided incremental information on the prediction of OS with adjustment for age (p = .032) but not for other prognostic markers (p > .05 for all). Patients presenting with a pre-HCT 6 MWD of information beyond that of traditional prognostic markers in HCT. The pretransplant 6-minute walk test is a significant univariate predictor of clinical outcomes in hematological patients beyond age but not beyond that of performance status. On this basis, 6-minute walk distance testing should not be considered part of the standard battery of assessments for risk stratification before hematopoietic cell transplantation. ©AlphaMed Press.

  19. The prognostic importance of lung function in patients admitted with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper Karmark; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Akkan, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF).......The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF)....

  20. THE PERFORMANT FUNCTION AND THE REFERENTIAL FUNCTION IN THEATRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca GHERVAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour illustrer la dynamique et l’alternance entre la fonction performative et la fonction référentielle dans le théâtre, il faut réaliser une analyse d’autres deux domaines, ayant des ressemblances de point de vue de la même alternance, le sport de performance et le spectacle de cirque. Tout en investiguant le besoin humain d’être témoin aux spectacles publics, on peut comprendre mieux sa façon de diviser l’attention entre ce que détient, dans un spectacle, une fonction performative et une fonction référentielle. Le poids de cette alternance dépend de la modalité de réaliser son double rôle de producteur de signe et du signe en soi.

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN ANALYZING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND BUSINESS EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Mihaela STROE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of economic environment brings into attention of the ones interest important trends and important evolutions that can bring into surface new strategies and new ways of obtaining profit. This is to say that staying in connection with all the changes and analyzing the trends in business performance, analyzing performance indicators helps managers to know not only their firm but the environment, the opponents, stakeholders and the opportunities that can be optimized and used as advantages in a turbulent economic area. In general, performance is associated with two key processes: performance management and its measurement. Performance management is a holistic process which embodies the subject of performance and reflects the connection between the economic entity and performance, including processes such as definition of strategy, implementation of strategy and training and performance measurement. Performance measurement appears as a low performance management that focuses mainly on the identification, tracking and communicating performance that results through the use of performance. Key performance indicators help quantify the formation of a result, providing visibility in relation to the performance of individuals, teams, departments and organizations, allowing decision makers to take action in order to achieve the objectives desired. These indicators can be appreciated based upon the trends in the company or benchmarking - comparisons with standard industry values or reference companies.

  2. Are estimates of meaningful decline in mobility performance consistent among clinically important subgroups? (Health ABC Study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perera, S.; Studenski, S.; Newman, A.; Simonsick, E.; Harris, T.; Schwartz, A.; Visser, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Meaningful change criteria help determine if function has improved or declined, but their magnitudes may vary across clinically relevant subgroups. We estimate meaningful decline in four common measures of physical performance in subgroups of older adults based on initial performance,

  3. Disease-associated mutations disrupt functionally important regions of intrinsic protein disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vacic

    Full Text Available The effects of disease mutations on protein structure and function have been extensively investigated, and many predictors of the functional impact of single amino acid substitutions are publicly available. The majority of these predictors are based on protein structure and evolutionary conservation, following the assumption that disease mutations predominantly affect folded and conserved protein regions. However, the prevalence of the intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs and regions (IDRs in the human proteome together with their lack of fixed structure and low sequence conservation raise a question about the impact of disease mutations in IDRs. Here, we investigate annotated missense disease mutations and show that 21.7% of them are located within such intrinsically disordered regions. We further demonstrate that 20% of disease mutations in IDRs cause local disorder-to-order transitions, which represents a 1.7-2.7 fold increase compared to annotated polymorphisms and neutral evolutionary substitutions, respectively. Secondary structure predictions show elevated rates of transition from helices and strands into loops and vice versa in the disease mutations dataset. Disease disorder-to-order mutations also influence predicted molecular recognition features (MoRFs more often than the control mutations. The repertoire of disorder-to-order transition mutations is limited, with five most frequent mutations (R→W, R→C, E→K, R→H, R→Q collectively accounting for 44% of all deleterious disorder-to-order transitions. As a proof of concept, we performed accelerated molecular dynamics simulations on a deleterious disorder-to-order transition mutation of tumor protein p63 and, in agreement with our predictions, observed an increased α-helical propensity of the region harboring the mutation. Our findings highlight the importance of mutations in IDRs and refine the traditional structure-centric view of disease mutations. The results of this study

  4. Managing the Shopping Center Ambience Attributes by Using Importance-Performance Analysis: The Case from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica Marković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined customers’ perceived importance and performance of shopping center ambience on the examples of the Mercator shopping center and Sad Novi Bazaar shopping center in Novi Sad, Serbia. The shopping center ambience was examined through exterior and interior attributes. It was found that a number of them are very important to customers and their shopping behavior. According to the present research, the most important exterior attributes are: address and location, parking availability, congestion and traffic, exterior display windows and entrances. The most important interior attributes are: cleanliness, temperature, merchandise, lighting, music, scents, absence of tobacco smoke, width of aisles and P.A. usage. The paper also provided information for two studied shopping centers with ambience attributes that performed well or not and everything was presented on the importance-performance grids, which can serve managers as guidelines for further development.

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN ANALYZING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND BUSINESS EVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea-Mihaela STROE

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of economic environment brings into attention of the ones interest important trends and important evolutions that can bring into surface new strategies and new ways of obtaining profit. This is to say that staying in connection with all the changes and analyzing the trends in business performance, analyzing performance indicators helps managers to know not only their firm but the environment, the opponents, stakeholders and the opportunities that can be optimized and used as adva...

  6. Service experience through the eyes of budget hotel guests : do factors of importance influence performance dimensions?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin, A.; Lengler, J.F.B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the influence of dimensions of importance (expectations) in hotel services on performance (actual experience) within the context of budget hotels in China. A theoretical model and nine hypotheses are tested to indicate whether the dimensions of importance such as room service, room comfort and reservation process, have any impact on performance dimensions such as in-room dining, front office service, room amenities and hotel access and safety. A final model is...

  7. The Role of Goal Importance in Predicting University Students' High Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Vanessa A.; White, Katherine M.; Hyde, Melissa K.; Occhipinti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We examined goal importance, focusing on high, but not exclusive priority goals, in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict students' academic performance. At the beginning of semester, students in a psychology subject (N = 197) completed TPB and goal importance items for achieving a high grade. Regression analyses revealed partial…

  8. Sleep timing is more important than sleep length or quality for medical school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genzel, L.K.E.; Ahrberg, K.; Roselli, C.; Niedermaier, S.; Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.; Roenneberg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of sleep for memory consolidation. Medical students are often deprived of sufficient sleep due to large amounts of clinical duties and university load, we therefore investigated how study and sleep habits influence university performance. We performed a

  9. Important parameters in the performance of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain (TSPA-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, J.E.; Sevougian, S.D.; Lee, J.H.; Andrews, R.W.; McNeish, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    A total system performance assessment (TSPA) was conducted to determine how a potential repository at Yucca Mountain would behave. Using the results of this TSPA, regression was done to determine which parameters had the most important effect on the repository performance. These results were consistent with the current conceptual understanding of the repository

  10. [Effect of physical activity on functional performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, T

    2001-02-01

    Epidemiological studies clearly show a connection between physical activity and the occurrence of disabilities in old age. Physical exercise is possible and useful at every age. Numerous intervention trials have shown that training of endurance, strength and coordination has positive effects on the cardiovascular system, the lung, the musculo-skeletal system, metabolism and the immune system in elderly people. Even very frail elderly people can increase their muscle strength and functional capabilities by strength training. Group sessions may improve social interactions and additionally increase the quality of life.

  11. Prioritizing operation strategies of companies using fuzzy AHP and importance-performance matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Amin Kaviani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important steps to build an appropriate business unit is to setup a suitable long-term strategy. A good strategy helps organization take better advantage of the existing resources and improve the performance of the firm. This paper presents a hybrid method consists of importance-performance analysis combined with fuzzy analytical hierarchy process to determine different operating strategies to increase the performance of a cement industry in Iran. The results indicate that being competitive is number one priority followed by fast delivery, quality product, dependability, cost of production and flexibility.

  12. How "fun/importance" fit affects performance: relating implicit theories to instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Amy T; Higgins, E Tory; Klem, Adena

    2003-09-01

    People experience a regulatory fit when they employ means of goal pursuit that fit their regulatory orientation, and this fit increases motivation that can enhance performance. The present studies extend previous research on regulatory fit to the classic motivational variables of fun and importance. They also examine for the first time the effect on performance of the fit between individuals' implicit theories about a task's fun or importance and their strategic engagement of the task as fun or important as induced by task instructions. In all three studies, task performance was better when the external task instructions "fit" rather than did not fit participants' implicit theory for the task. The implications of these findings for understanding the motivational effects of fun and importance are discussed.

  13. Social motivation in prospective memory: higher importance ratings and reported performance rates for social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Calculation of neutron importance function in fissionable assemblies using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feghhi, S.A.H.; Shahriari, M.; Afarideh, H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to develop an efficient solution method for the calculation of neutron importance function in fissionable assemblies for all criticality conditions, based on Monte Carlo calculations. The neutron importance function has an important role in perturbation theory and reactor dynamic calculations. Usually this function can be determined by calculating the adjoint flux while solving the adjoint weighted transport equation based on deterministic methods. However, in complex geometries these calculations are very complicated. In this article, considering the capabilities of MCNP code in solving problems with complex geometries and its closeness to physical concepts, a comprehensive method based on the physical concept of neutron importance has been introduced for calculating the neutron importance function in sub-critical, critical and super-critical conditions. For this propose a computer program has been developed. The results of the method have been benchmarked with ANISN code calculations in 1 and 2 group modes for simple geometries. The correctness of these results has been confirmed for all three criticality conditions. Finally, the efficiency of the method for complex geometries has been shown by the calculation of neutron importance in Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) research reactor

  15. Calculation of neutron importance function in fissionable assemblies using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feghhi, S. A. H.; Afarideh, H.; Shahriari, M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to develop an efficient solution method to calculate neutron importance function in fissionable assemblies for all criticality conditions, using Monte Carlo Method. The neutron importance function has a well important role in perturbation theory and reactor dynamic calculations. Usually this function can be determined by calculating adjoint flux through out solving the Adjoint weighted transport equation with deterministic methods. However, in complex geometries these calculations are very difficult. In this article, considering the capabilities of MCNP code in solving problems with complex geometries and its closeness to physical concepts, a comprehensive method based on physical concept of neutron importance has been introduced for calculating neutron importance function in sub-critical, critical and supercritical conditions. For this means a computer program has been developed. The results of the method has been benchmarked with ANISN code calculations in 1 and 2 group modes for simple geometries and their correctness has been approved for all three criticality conditions. Ultimately, the efficiency of the method for complex geometries has been shown by calculation of neutron importance in MNSR research reactor

  16. Analisis Kepuasan Pelanggan Berdasarkan Dimensi Servqual Menggunakan Metode Importance Performance Analysis (Studi Pada Indihome Witel Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Mardiana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PT. Telkom is the largest telecommunications company in Indonesia that plays an important role in the development of the national telecommunications. In 2012, PT Telkom launched IndiHome (Indonesia Digital Home, that is is a multi product bundling packages of Telkom consisting landlines, internet and interactive television services (USee Tv. As the largest telecommunications company in Indonesia, PT. Telkom should provides satisfaction through good quality services in accordance with expected by the customer.The purpose of this study is to know how satisfied customers IndiHome Witel Bandung by comparing the level of customer expectations and IndiHome Witel Bandung’s performance levels based method SERVQUAL. Data collection method is done by distributing questionnaires to 100 customers of IndiHome Witel Bandung that currently active subscription (existing. The results of data from questionnaires, processed by using Gap analysis to know the level of customer satisfaction, after that reprocessed by using Important Performance Analysis (IPA or also called Kartesius Diagram analysis to know which attributes or dimensions that need to be a priority IndiHome Witel Bandung for improved performance levels and any attributes or dimensions that need to be retained by the company. Based on the results of data processing, it is known customer’s appraisal on 21 of performance attributes and 21 of expectations attributes indicate that all the attributes or dimensions have a gap between customers' perception of indihome’s performance and customer expectations. As well as with the level of conformity obtained is still below 100%, ie 79.5%. It means that Indihome’s performance still has not filled customer expectations. Based on the Kartesius diagram on Important Performance Analysis (IPA, there are eight indicators and two dimensions, they are reliability dimensions and responsiveness dimensions that Indihome should be the focus to be immediately

  17. Time-dependent importance sampling in semiclassical initial value representation calculations for time correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guohua; Miller, William H

    2011-07-14

    An efficient time-dependent importance sampling method is developed for the Monte Carlo calculation of time correlation functions via the initial value representation (IVR) of semiclassical (SC) theory. A prefactor-free time-dependent sampling function weights the importance of a trajectory based on the magnitude of its contribution to the time correlation function, and global trial moves are used to facilitate the efficient sampling the phase space of initial conditions. The method can be generally applied to sampling rare events efficiently while avoiding being trapped in a local region of the phase space. Results presented in the paper for two system-bath models demonstrate the efficiency of this new importance sampling method for full SC-IVR calculations.

  18. The prognostic importance of lung function in patients admitted with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Kasper Karmark; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Akkan, Dilek; Kober, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hassager, Christian; Vestbo, Jorgen; Kjoller, Erik

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF). This was a prospective prognostic study performed as part of the EchoCardiography and Heart Outcome Study (ECHOS). This analysis included 532 patients admitted with a clinical diagnosis of HF. All patients underwent spirometry and echocardiography and the diagnosis of HF was made according to established criteria. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) was 65% of the predicted value [95% confidence interval (CI) 63-67%], mean forced vital capacity (FVC) was 71% of predicted (95% CI 69-72%), and FEV(1)/FVC was 0.72 (95% CI 0.71-0.73). FEV(1), FVC, and FEV(1)/FVC were all significant prognostic factors for all-cause mortality in univariate analyses. In a multivariate analysis, FEV(1) had independent prognostic value (hazard ratio 0.86 per 10% change, P information for all-cause mortality in patients admitted with HF. Spirometry therefore seems to be worth considering for all patients admitted with HF in order to identify patients at high risk.

  19. Comparative analysis of partial imaging performance parameters of home and imported X-ray machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yunxi; Wang Xianyun; Liu Huiqin; Guo Yongxin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare and analyze the performance indexes and the imaging quality of the home and imported X-ray machines through testing their partial imaging performance parameters. Methods: By separate sampling from 10 home and 10 imported X-ray machines, the parameters including tube current, time of exposure, machine total exposure, and repeatability were tested, and the imaging performance was evaluated according to the national standard. Results: All the performance indexes met the standard of GB4505-84. The first sampling tests showed the maximum changing coefficient of imaging performance repeatability of the home X-ray machines was Δmax1 = 0.025, while that of the imported X-ray machine was Δmax1 = 0.016. In the second sampling tests, the maximum changing coefficients of the two were Δmax2 = 0.048 and Δmax2 = 0.022, respectively. Conclusion: The 2 years' follow-up tests indicate that there is no significant difference between the above-mentioned parameters of the elaborately adjusted home X-ray machines and imported ones, but the home X-ray machines are no better than the imported X-ray machines in stability and consistency

  20. Functional importance of different patterns of correlation between adjacent cassette exons in human and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Xue, Chenghai; Bi, Jianning; Li, Tingting; Wang, Xiaowo; Zhang, Xuegong; Li, Yanda

    2008-04-26

    Alternative splicing expands transcriptome diversity and plays an important role in regulation of gene expression. Previous studies focus on the regulation of a single cassette exon, but recent experiments indicate that multiple cassette exons within a gene may interact with each other. This interaction can increase the potential to generate various transcripts and adds an extra layer of complexity to gene regulation. Several cases of exon interaction have been discovered. However, the extent to which the cassette exons coordinate with each other remains unknown. Based on EST data, we employed a metric of correlation coefficients to describe the interaction between two adjacent cassette exons and then categorized these exon pairs into three different groups by their interaction (correlation) patterns. Sequence analysis demonstrates that strongly-correlated groups are more conserved and contain a higher proportion of pairs with reading frame preservation in a combinatorial manner. Multiple genome comparison further indicates that different groups of correlated pairs have different evolutionary courses: (1) The vast majority of positively-correlated pairs are old, (2) most of the weakly-correlated pairs are relatively young, and (3) negatively-correlated pairs are a mixture of old and young events. We performed a large-scale analysis of interactions between adjacent cassette exons. Compared with weakly-correlated pairs, the strongly-correlated pairs, including both the positively and negatively correlated ones, show more evidence that they are under delicate splicing control and tend to be functionally important. Additionally, the positively-correlated pairs bear strong resemblance to constitutive exons, which suggests that they may evolve from ancient constitutive exons, while negatively and weakly correlated pairs are more likely to contain newly emerging exons.

  1. Functional network-based statistics in depression: Theory of mind subnetwork and importance of parietal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Hou, Yuh-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The functional network analysis of whole brain is an emerging field for research in depression. We initiated this study to investigate which subnetwork is significantly altered within the functional connectome in major depressive disorder (MDD). The study enrolled 52 first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD and 40 controls for functional network analysis. All participants received the resting-state functional imaging using a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. After preprocessing, we calculated the connectivity matrix of functional connectivity in whole brain for each subject. The network-based statistics of connectome was used to perform group comparisons between patients and controls. The correlations between functional connectivity and clinical parameters were also performed. MDD patients had significant alterations in the network involving "theory of mind" regions, such as the left precentral gyrus, left angular gyrus, bilateral rolandic operculums and left inferior frontal gyrus. The center node of significant network was the left angular gyrus. No significant correlations of functional connectivity within the subnetwork and clinical parameters were noted. Functional connectivity of "theory of mind" subnetwork may be the core issue for pathophysiology in MDD. In addition, the center role of parietal region should be emphasized in future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Genes Important for Schizosaccharomyces pombe Meiosis Identified Through a Functional Genomics Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Julie; Makrantoni, Vasso; Barton, Rachael E.; Spanos, Christos; Rappsilber, Juri; Marston, Adele L.

    2018-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialized cell division that generates gametes, such as eggs and sperm. Errors in meiosis result in miscarriages and are the leading cause of birth defects; however, the molecular origins of these defects remain unknown. Studies in model organisms are beginning to identify the genes and pathways important for meiosis, but the parts list is still poorly defined. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of genes important for meiosis in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our genome-wide functional screen surveyed all nonessential genes for roles in chromosome segregation and spore formation. Novel genes important at distinct stages of the meiotic chromosome segregation and differentiation program were identified. Preliminary characterization implicated three of these genes in centrosome/spindle pole body, centromere, and cohesion function. Our findings represent a near-complete parts list of genes important for meiosis in fission yeast, providing a valuable resource to advance our molecular understanding of meiosis. PMID:29259000

  3. Importance-performance analysis as a guide for hospitals in improving their provision of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynes, D K; Reed, G

    1995-11-01

    As a result of the 1990 National Health Services Act, hospitals now compete with one another to win service contracts. A high level of service quality represents an important ingredient of a successful competitive strategy, yet, in general, hospitals have little external information on which to base quality decisions. Specifically, in their efforts to win contracts from fundholding general practitioners, hospitals require information on that which these purchasers deem important with respect to quality, and on how these purchasers assess the quality of their current service performance. The problem is complicated by the fact that hospital service quality, in itself, is multi-dimensional. In other areas of economic activity, the information problem has been resolved by importance-performance analysis and this paper reports the findings of such an analysis conducted for hosptials in the Trent region. The importance and performance service quality ratings of fundholders were obtained from a questionnaire survey and used in a particular variant of importance-performance analysis, which possesses certain advantages over more conventional approaches. In addition to providing empirical data on the determinants of service quality, as perceived by the purchasers of hospital services, this paper demonstrates how such information can be successfully employed in a quality enhancement strategy.

  4. Microbial functional diversity plays an important role in the degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Samrat; Tribedi, Prosun

    2018-03-01

    Towards bioremediation of recalcitrant materials like synthetic polymer, soil has been recognized as a traditional site for disposal and subsequent degradation as some microorganisms in soil can degrade the polymer in a non-toxic, cost-effective, and environment friendly way. Microbial functional diversity is a constituent of biodiversity that includes wide range of metabolic activities that can influence numerous aspects of ecosystem functioning like ecosystem stability, nutrient availability, ecosystem dynamics, etc. Thus, in the current study, we assumed that microbial functional diversity could play an important role in polymer degradation in soil. To verify this hypothesis, we isolated soil from five different sites of landfill and examined several microbiological parameters wherein we observed a significant variation in heterotrophic microbial count as well as microbial activities among the soil microcosms tested. Multivariate analysis (principle component analysis) based on the carbon sources utilization pattern revealed that soil microcosms showed different metabolic patterns suggesting the variable distribution of microorganisms among the soil microcosms tested. Since microbial functional diversity depends on both microbial richness and evenness, Shannon diversity index was determined to measure microbial richness and Gini coefficient was determined to measure microbial evenness. The tested soil microcosms exhibited variation in both microbial richness and evenness suggesting the considerable difference in microbial functional diversity among the tested microcosms. We then measured polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) degradation in soil microcosms after desired period of incubation of PHB in soil wherein we found that soil microcosms having higher functional diversity showed enhanced PHB degradation and soil microcosms having lower functional diversity showed reduced PHB degradation. We also noticed that all the tested soil microcosms showed similar pattern in both

  5. Performance of density functional theory methods to describe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fukui function shows a small dependence with both the exchange and correlation functional and the basis set. Evolution of the Fukui function along the reaction path describes important changes in the basic sites of the corresponding molecules. These results are in agreement with the chemical behavior of those species.

  6. Single amino acid substitution in important hemoglobinopathies does not disturb molecular function and biological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: Hemoglobin is an important protein found in the red cells of many animals. In humans, the hemoglobin is mainly distributed in the red blood cell. Single amino acid substitution is the main pathogenesis of most hemoglobin disorders. Here, the author used a new gene ontology technology to predict the molecular function and biological process of four important hemoglobin disorders with single substitution. The four studied important abnormal hemoglobins (Hb with single substitution included Hb S, Hb E, Hb C, and Hb J-Baltimore. Using the GoFigure server, the molecular function and biological process in normal and abnormal hemoglobins was predicted. Compared with normal hemoglobin, all studied abnormal hemoglobins had the same function and biological process. This indicated that the overall function of oxygen transportation is not disturbed in the studied hemoglobin disorders. Clinical findings of oxygen depletion in abnormal hemoglobin should therefore be due to the other processes rather than genomics, proteomics, and expression levels.Keywords: hemoglobin, amino acid, substitution, function

  7. A recursive Monte Carlo method for estimating importance functions in deep penetration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.

    1980-04-01

    A pratical recursive Monte Carlo method for estimating the importance function distribution, aimed at importance sampling for the solution of deep penetration problems in three-dimensional systems, was developed. The efficiency of the recursive method was investigated for sample problems including one- and two-dimensional, monoenergetic and and multigroup problems, as well as for a practical deep-penetration problem with streaming. The results of the recursive Monte Carlo calculations agree fairly well with Ssub(n) results. It is concluded that the recursive Monte Carlo method promises to become a universal method for estimating the importance function distribution for the solution of deep-penetration problems, in all kinds of systems: for many systems the recursive method is likely to be more efficient than previously existing methods; for three-dimensional systems it is the first method that can estimate the importance function with the accuracy required for an efficient solution based on importance sampling of neutron deep-penetration problems in those systems

  8. Estimation of functional failure probability of passive systems based on adaptive importance sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baosheng; Wang Dongqing; Zhang Jianmin; Jiang Jing

    2012-01-01

    In order to estimate the functional failure probability of passive systems, an innovative adaptive importance sampling methodology is presented. In the proposed methodology, information of variables is extracted with some pre-sampling of points in the failure region. An important sampling density is then constructed from the sample distribution in the failure region. Taking the AP1000 passive residual heat removal system as an example, the uncertainties related to the model of a passive system and the numerical values of its input parameters are considered in this paper. And then the probability of functional failure is estimated with the combination of the response surface method and adaptive importance sampling method. The numerical results demonstrate the high computed efficiency and excellent computed accuracy of the methodology compared with traditional probability analysis methods. (authors)

  9. Job performance ratings : The relative importance of mental ability, conscientiousness, and career adaptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohme, Melanie; Zacher, Hannes

    According to career construction theory, continuous adaptation to the work environment is crucial to achieve work and career success. In this study, we examined the relative importance of career adaptability for job performance ratings using an experimental policy-capturing design. Employees (N =

  10. ANALISIS KEPUASAN PELANGGAN DENGAN IMPORTANCE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS DI SBU LABORATORY CIBITUNG PT SUCOFINDO (PERSERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Oscar Ong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kepuasan pelanggan adalah perbandingan antara kinerja yang diharapkan oleh pelanggan dibandingkan dengan kinerja aktual di lapangan. Ketika kinerja aktual lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan harapan pelanggan maka pelanggan merasakan puas dan sebaliknya. Pada kasus perusahaan jasa, kepuasan pelanggan adalah salah satu faktor penting dalam menciptakan iklim bisnis yang baik, pada contoh kasus ini, SBU Laboratory Cibitung PT Sucofindo (Persero belum maksimal dalam memuaskan hasrat pelanggan, untuk itu perlu dianalisis faktor apa saja yang berpengaruh. Dilihat dari kualitas pelayanan serta aplikasi bauran pemasaran yang meliputi variabel Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy, Tangible, Product Quality, dan Price di SBU Laboratory Cibitung PT Sucofindo (Persero yang dianalisis melalui Importance Performance Analysis (IPA maka dari tiga puluh lima atribut yang termasuk pada tujuh variabel tersebut maka ada dua hal penting yang perlu di improvisasi yaitu mengenai atribut biaya jasa yang ditawarkan PT Sucofindo harus sesuai dengan kualitas dan paket harga yang ditawarkan agar terjangkau/menarik, sedangkan dari analisis gap antara kinerja aktual dan harapan maka dapat diketahui bahwa kinerja SBU Laboratory Cibitung PT Sucofindo (Persero belum ada yang melampaui harapan pelanggan. Kata Kunci : kualitas pelayanan, aplikasi bauran pemasaran, importance performance analysis (IPA, kepuasan pelanggan Abstract Customer satisfaction is comparison between customer's expected performance and actual performance.  When actual performance is higher than customer expectation, customer will be satisfied and vice versa. Case at service companies, customer satisfaction is one of the important factor in creating good climate for business, in this case study, SBU Laboratory Cibitung PT Sucofindo (Persero has not maximized in serving customer needs. Therefore, it needs to be analyzed the factors affecting that matter. From the quality service and the application of

  11. Renewing functionalized graphene as electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yan [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Li, Xianglong; Wang, Bin; Song, Qi [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhi, Linjie [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Jungong Road 516, 200093, Shanghai (China)

    2012-12-11

    An acid-assisted ultrarapid thermal strategy is developed for constructing specifically functionalized graphene. The electrochemical performance of functionalized graphene can be boosted via elaborate coupling between the pseudocapacitance and the electronic double layer capacitance through rationally tailoring the structure of graphene sheets. This presents an opportunity for developing further high-performance graphene-based electrodes to bridge the performance gap between traditional capacitors and batteries. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Renewing functionalized graphene as electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yan; Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Li, Xianglong; Wang, Bin; Song, Qi; Kang, Feiyu; Zhi, Linjie

    2012-12-11

    An acid-assisted ultrarapid thermal strategy is developed for constructing specifically functionalized graphene. The electrochemical performance of functionalized graphene can be boosted via elaborate coupling between the pseudocapacitance and the electronic double layer capacitance through rationally tailoring the structure of graphene sheets. This presents an opportunity for developing further high-performance graphene-based electrodes to bridge the performance gap between traditional capacitors and batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Automatic variance reduction for Monte Carlo simulations via the local importance function transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.A.

    1996-02-01

    The author derives a transformed transport problem that can be solved theoretically by analog Monte Carlo with zero variance. However, the Monte Carlo simulation of this transformed problem cannot be implemented in practice, so he develops a method for approximating it. The approximation to the zero variance method consists of replacing the continuous adjoint transport solution in the transformed transport problem by a piecewise continuous approximation containing local biasing parameters obtained from a deterministic calculation. He uses the transport and collision processes of the transformed problem to bias distance-to-collision and selection of post-collision energy groups and trajectories in a traditional Monte Carlo simulation of ''real'' particles. He refers to the resulting variance reduction method as the Local Importance Function Transform (LIFI) method. He demonstrates the efficiency of the LIFT method for several 3-D, linearly anisotropic scattering, one-group, and multigroup problems. In these problems the LIFT method is shown to be more efficient than the AVATAR scheme, which is one of the best variance reduction techniques currently available in a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo code. For most of the problems considered, the LIFT method produces higher figures of merit than AVATAR, even when the LIFT method is used as a ''black box''. There are some problems that cause trouble for most variance reduction techniques, and the LIFT method is no exception. For example, the author demonstrates that problems with voids, or low density regions, can cause a reduction in the efficiency of the LIFT method. However, the LIFT method still performs better than survival biasing and AVATAR in these difficult cases

  14. Relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Häkkinen, Arja; Lönnroos, Eija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Sulkava, Raimo; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Vision is an important prerequisite for balance control and mobility. The role of objectively measured visual functions has been previously studied but less is known about associations of functional vision. That refers to selfperceived vision-based ability to perform daily activities. The aim was to investigate the relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in a community-based sample of older adults. Methods: This study ...

  15. Testing for strategy-structure fit and its importance for performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aleksić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding different organizational elements, their mutual influence and creating congruence among them has been recognized as an important determinant of organizational performance. These complex interrelationships, and necessity of creating a fit between them, raises the question of how to align different organizational elements to contribute to overall organizational performance. In that sense, this paper addresses the issue of fit and, more specifically, analyses the presence and influence of strategy-structure fit on organizational performance. By using Miles and Snow typology, our goal was to capture and determine the pattern of relationships between strategy, structure, and strategy implementation processes and their influence on organizational performance. This paper presents results of a cross-sectional field research on a sample of 113 organizations in order to gain a better understanding of strategy-structure fit and its relation to performance. Results reinforce the existing literature and confirm the importance of fit among strategy, structure and strategy implementation process for higher levels of organizational performance.

  16. Measures of small business success/performance: Importance, reliability and usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leković Božidar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to assess the reliability of selected measures of success/performance of small enterprises taking into account all the advantages and disadvantages of objective (traditional, financial and subjective (personal perception indicators. The realization of the basic objective will enable removal of doubt in different categories of success / performance of small businesses, which would be a secondary objective of the paper. The research methodology involves the use parametric procedures due to the characteristics of the selected variables and the number of observations in the sample. Univariate ANOVA and Pearson's coefficient correlation will be the main methods used. The basis of this study consists of data gathered from e-survey of 260 entrepreneurs/ owners/ managers of small enterprises in administrative sub-region of the Republic of Serbia. The analysis results show the correlation between subjective estimate of success of owners/ entrepreneurs/ managers and objective performance indicators, which can be characterized as complementary, meaning that subjective assessment as well as formally stated performance indicators are realistic. In addition, it is important to emphasize as an important result within the group of objective performance indicators, the differences between two groups, financial and non-financial, performance indicators.

  17. Performance analysis, quality function deployment and structured methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M. W.

    Quality function deployment, (QFD), an approach to synthesizing several elements of system modeling and design into a single unit, is presented. Behavioral, physical, and performance modeling are usually considered as separate aspects of system design without explicit linkages. Structured methodologies have developed linkages between behavioral and physical models before, but have not considered the integration of performance models. QFD integrates performance models with traditional structured models. In this method, performance requirements such as cost, weight, and detection range are partitioned into matrices. Partitioning is done by developing a performance model, preferably quantitative, for each requirement. The parameters of the model become the engineering objectives in a QFD analysis and the models are embedded in a spreadsheet version of the traditional QFD matrices. The performance model and its parameters are used to derive part of the functional model by recognizing that a given performance model implies some structure to the functionality of the system.

  18. Spectral Data Captures Important Variability Between and Among Species and Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. A.; Serbin, S. P.; Kingdon, C.; Singh, A.; Couture, J. J.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Narrowband spectral data in the visible, near and shortwave infrared (400-2500 nm) are being used increasingly in plant ecology to characterize the biochemical, physiological and water status of vegetation, as well as community composition. In particular, spectroscopic data have recently received considerable attention for their capacity to discriminate plants according to functional properties or 'optical types.' Such measurements can be acquired from airborne/satellite remote sensing imagery or field spectrometers and are commonly used to directly estimate or infer properties important to photosynthesis, carbon and water fluxes, nutrient dynamics, phenology, and disturbance. Spectral data therefore represent proxies for measurements that are otherwise time consuming or expensive to make, and - more importantly - provide the opportunity to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of taxonomic or functional groups. We have found that spectral variation within species and functional types can in fact exceed the variation between types. As such, we recommend that the traditional quantification of characteristics defining species and/or functional types must be modified to include the range of variability in those properties. We provide four examples of the importance of spectral data for describing within-species/functional type variation. First, within temperate forests, the spectral properties of foliage vary considerably with canopy position. This variability is strongly related to differences in specific leaf area between shade- and sun-lit leaves, and the resulting differences among leaves in strategies for light harvesting, photosynthesis, and leaf longevity. These results point to the need to better characterize leaf optical properties throughout a canopy, rather than basing the characterization of ecosystem functioning on only the sunlit portion of the canopy crown. Second, we show considerable differences in optical properties of foliage from

  19. Providing information and enabling transactions: which website function is more important for success?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Janny C.; Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Bijmolt, Tammo H.A.; Krawczyk, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we propose and test a chain of effects from website content, through informational and transactional success to overall website success and company performance. This framework enables us to determine the relative importance of the informational and transaction-related website

  20. Importance-performance analysis of dental satisfaction among three ethnic groups in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Fellani Danasra; Gundavarapu, Kalyan C; Cugati, Navaneetha

    2013-01-01

    To find the differences in patient satisfaction related to dental services among three ethnic groups - Chinese, Indian and Malay - at AIMST University Dental Centre and analyse them with an importance-performance grid, identifying the weak and strong points, in order to provide better service. This questionnaire-based study consisted of convenience samples of 174 patients of Chinese, Indian and Malay ethnicity. Importance-performance analysis for 20 attributes were compared using Likert's scale. The data obtained were statistically analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Chinese and Indians both emphasised low performance on the interpersonal relationship attribute in terms of the receptionist's courtesy, whereas the Malay participants were concerned with convenience attributes. All the ethnic groups favoured maintaining existing major attributes towards technical competency, interpersonal relationship and facility factors. This study demonstrated priority differences between the ethnic groups' perception of the quality of dental services, where ethnic Chinese showed the highest gap (measure of dissatisfaction) between importance and performance compared to ethnic Malays, followed by ethnic Indians. The patients from the three major ethnic groups of Malaysia were generally well satisfied. Perhaps more priority should be placed on improving the interpersonal relationship attribute, especially with the receptionists.

  1. Performing Free Radioactive Certificate as an Effort to Protect Import and Export Commodities in Globalization Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunto-Wiharto; Syarbaini

    2001-01-01

    Several activities such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear accidents have caused radioactive contamination in local, regional and global environment. In globalization and free trade era, every country will be faced to the condition with the movable commodities from and to another countries. Global contamination through import and export commodities is a problem will be found every country in the future. Therefore, performing free radioactive certification on import and export commodities must be carried out to protect a member of public and environment from radioactive contamination. (author)

  2. Modeling the Non-functional Requirements in the Context of Usability, Performance, Safety and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Mazhar

    2007-01-01

    Requirement engineering is the most significant part of the software development life cycle. Until now great emphasis has been put on the maturity of the functional requirements. But with the passage of time it reveals that the success of software development does not only pertain to the functional requirements rather non-functional requirements should also be taken into consideration. Among the non-functional requirements usability, performance, safety and security are considered important. ...

  3. Importance of Logistics Processes for Customer Service and Firm Performance: Evidence from Furniture Industry of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Qadir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: This study examines the relationship between logistics processes, customer service and firm performance in the furniture industry of Pakistan. Motivation: Furniture industry in Pakistan comprises small and medium enterprises wherein production is mainly labor intensive. Therefore, the current study also investigates the mediating role of manufacturing flexibility for the relationship of logistics processes and customer service. The paper applies the logistics models developed by Bowesox (1974, Green et al.(2008, and Tracey (1998 to furniture industry. Idea: The core idea of the paper is to measure the effects of logistics process on customer service and the performance of furniture manufacturing firms. The study takes the logistics process as an independent variable, the customer service as the first dependent variable and manufacturing performance as a moderating variable. Data: Primary data on logistics, customer service, manufacturing flexibility and firm performance were conveniently collected through a questionnaire from owners/managers of 61 furniture manufacturing firms. Tool: Descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses were run to draw the results. Findings: Logistics processes positively affect customer service and firm performance. Customer service also exerts a positive effect on firm performance while the moderating role of manufacturing flexibility was not supported for the relationship of logistics processes and customer service. Contribution: Through efficiency in logistics processes, furniture manufacturing firms can serve customers in a superior way to ultimately achieve improved firm performance. The framework being restricted to efficiency of logistics processes only constitutes an important limitation of the study.

  4. Gender Differences in Perceived Importance and Performance of Penang Island Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Shida Irwana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the gender differences in perceived importance and performance of Penang Island attributes. The data was drawn from questionnaire survey of 801 international tourists who visited the island between August and November 2012. Previous studies related to gender differences in Malaysian destinations are found scarce and neglected, thus this paper aims to bridge this knowledge gap. The needs to study gender differences are related to the suggestions that men and women engage in different leisure activities, possess different travel motivations and perceive differently when embarking for holiday. The study found a number of gender similarities and differences between the men and women tourists, in terms of their travel style and perceptions of importance and performance of destination attributes. These results indicate that gender may not be the only influence on behaviour and perceptions, and those men and women should not be regarded as homogenous groups.

  5. Visual Assessment on Coastal Cruise Tourism: A Preliminary Planning Using Importance Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisutomo, S.

    2017-07-01

    Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) has been widely applied in many cases. In this research, IPA was applied to measure perceive on coastal tourism objects and its possibility to be developed as coastal cruise tourism in Makassar. Three objects, i.e. Akkarena recreational site, Losari public space at waterfront, and Paotere traditional Phinisi ships port, were selected and assessed visually from water area by a group of purposive resource persons. The importance and performance of 10 attributes of each site were scored using Likert scale from 1 to 5. Data were processed by SPSS-21 than resulted Cartesian graph which the scores were divided in four quadrants: Quadrant I concentric here, Quadrant II keep up the good work, Quadrant III low priority, and Quadrant IV possible overkill. The attributes in each quadrant could be considered as the platform for preliminary planning of coastal cruise tour in Makassar

  6. Importance of the correlation contribution for local hybrid functionals: range separation and self-interaction corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuznikov, Alexei V; Kaupp, Martin

    2012-01-07

    Local hybrid functionals with their position-dependent exact-exchange admixture are a conceptually simple and promising extension of the concept of a hybrid functional. Local hybrids based on a simple mixing of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) with exact exchange have been shown to be successful for thermochemistry, reaction barriers, and a range of other properties. So far, the combination of this generation of local hybrids with an LSDA correlation functional has been found to give the most favorable results for atomization energies, for a range of local mixing functions (LMFs) governing the exact-exchange admixture. Here, we show that the choice of correlation functional to be used with local hybrid exchange crucially influences the parameterization also of the exchange part as well as the overall performance. A novel ansatz for the correlation part of local hybrids is suggested based on (i) range-separation of LSDA correlation into short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) parts, and (ii) partial or full elimination of the one-electron self-correlation from the SR part. It is shown that such modified correlation functionals allow overall larger exact exchange admixture in thermochemically competitive local hybrids than before. This results in improvements for reaction barriers and for other properties crucially influenced by self-interaction errors, as demonstrated by a number of examples. Based on the range-separation approach, a fresh view on the breakdown of the correlation energy into dynamical and non-dynamical parts is suggested.

  7. Outer membrane protein functions as integrator of protein import and DNA inheritance in mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Sandro; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Týč, Jiří; Vaughan, Sue; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are one of the earliest diverging eukaryotes that have fully functional mitochondria. pATOM36 is a trypanosomatid-specific essential mitochondrial outer membrane protein that has been implicated in protein import. Changes in the mitochondrial proteome induced by ablation of pATOM36 and in vitro assays show that pATOM36 is required for the assembly of the archaic translocase of the outer membrane (ATOM), the functional analog of the TOM complex in other organisms. Reciprocal pull-down experiments and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrate that a fraction of pATOM36 interacts and colocalizes with TAC65, a previously uncharacterized essential component of the tripartite attachment complex (TAC). The TAC links the single-unit mitochondrial genome to the basal body of the flagellum and mediates the segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes. RNAi experiments show that pATOM36, in line with its dual localization, is not only essential for ATOM complex assembly but also for segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes. However, the two functions are distinct, as a truncated version of pATOM36 lacking the 75 C-terminal amino acids can rescue kinetoplast DNA missegregation but not the lack of ATOM complex assembly. Thus, pATOM36 has a dual function and integrates mitochondrial protein import with mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:27436903

  8. Applying Importance-Performance Analysis as a Service Quality Measure in Food Service Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung; Chang, Hung-Fan

    2011-01-01

    As the global economy becomes a service oriented economy, food service accounts for over 20% of service revenue, with an annual growth rate of more than 3%. Compared to physical products, service features are invisible, and the production and sale occurs simultaneously. There is not easy to measure the performance of service. Therefore, the service quality of catering services is considered to be an important topic of service management. According Market Intelligence & Consulting Institute (M...

  9. Mengukur Tingkat Kepuasan Pelanggan terhadap Pelayanan Biro Perjalanan Tamarind Wisata (Performance Importance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trias Septyoari Putranto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research aims to measure the quality of service, and to measure customer satisfaction with the service Travel Bureau (BPW. It can thus be identified variable service according to the needs and expectations of customers as well as the variables that need improvement. Samples taken in this research were customers coming to the BPW office, with a sample size of 110 customers by random sampling of 50 customers. Method of analysis used was Importance-Performance Analysis. 

  10. The importance of organizational culture for the performance of service organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Vrčon-Tratar, Nataša; Snoj, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Organizational culture as an internal consciousness of organizations as well as crucial determinant of their employee behaviour serves undoubtedly as an important phenomenon of scientific research especially from the perspective of its contribution to the performance of organizations as potential factor of their comperatitive advantage. In the paper authors discuss some aspects of organizational culture and try to find out if the right orientation and the strenght of organizational culture co...

  11. The importance of hydrology in restoration of bottomland hardwood wetland functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.G.; Faulkner, S.P.; Gibson, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests have important biogeochemical functions and it is well known that certain structural components, including pulsed hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation, enhance these functions. It is unclear, however, how functions of restored BLH wetlands compare to mature, undisturbed wetlands. We measured a suite of structural and functional attributes in replicated natural BLH wetlands (NAT), restored BLH wetlands with hydrology re-established (RWH), and restored BLH wetlands without hydrology re-established (RWOH) in this study. Trees were replanted in all restored wetlands at least four years prior to the study and those wetlands with hydrology re-established had flashboard risers placed in drainage ditches to allow seasonal surface flooding. Vegetation, soils, and selected biogeochemical functions were characterized at each site. There was a marked difference in woody vegetation among the wetlands that was due primarily to site age. There was also a difference in herbaceous vegetation among the restored sites that may have been related to differences in age or hydrology. Water table fluctuations of the RWH wetlands were comparable to those of the NAT wetlands. Thus, placing flashboard risers in existing drainage ditches, along with proper management, can produce a hydroperiod that is similar to that of a relatively undisturbed BLH. Average length of saturation within the upper 15 cm of soils was 37, 104, and 97 days for RWOH, RWH, and NAT, respectively. Soil moisture, denitrification potential, and soluble organic carbon concentrations differed among wetland sites, but soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, heterotrophic microbial activity, and readily mineralizable carbon concentrations did not. Significant linear relationships were also found between soil moisture and heterotrophic microbial activity, readily mineralizable carbon, and soluble organic carbon. In addition, sedimentation rates were higher in NAT and RWH

  12. Evaluation of Service Quality in Brewery Using Importance-Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingaldi Manuela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of its specificity, service quality is difficult to assess, especially since there is no materiality in it, it cannot be seen. Usually the gap between the expectations of customer and their perceptions in relation to a particular service is observed. This article aim is to evaluate the quality of catering services offered by one of the breweries (restaurant in Silesia. The importance-performance analysis, which is often underestimated, was used in order to show its advantages. The survey was conducted among 137 customers of the selected brewery in Czestochowa. The average values of evaluations of all individual questions from both parts of survey were calculated. Then, average values for the pair of statements (performance; importance were placed in the importance-performance map. The analysis revealed that the service quality of the research brewery is placed in quadrant II, i.e. the area of reasonable property of needs. This means that the improvement of service quality is not necessary.

  13. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems. Their importance to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, F.; Grundfelt, B.; Hoeglund, L.O.; Skagius, K.; Karlsson, Fred; Smellie, J.

    1992-04-01

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and of the far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes, have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included. The results of the study show that studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems have provided significant information regarding many issues of importance to repository performance. In several cases the evidence from natural analogues has demonstrated that processes assumed to take place in repositories actually occur in natural systems or under conditions similar to those predicted to prevail in a future repository. One example of such a process is coprecipitation of fission products and ferric oxyhydroxides as an analogue to corrosion products from a steel canister. In addition, the study of concentration gradients of uranium and other trace substances in the rock surrounding groundwater conduits confirm that matrix diffusion occurs in nature and that the diffusivities in the rock matrix measured in the laboratory are consistent with the observations in nature

  14. Approaching human performance the functionality-driven Awiwi robot hand

    CERN Document Server

    Grebenstein, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Humanoid robotics have made remarkable progress since the dawn of robotics. So why don't we have humanoid robot assistants in day-to-day life yet? This book analyzes the keys to building a successful humanoid robot for field robotics, where collisions become an unavoidable part of the game. The author argues that the design goal should be real anthropomorphism, as opposed to mere human-like appearance. He deduces three major characteristics to aim for when designing a humanoid robot, particularly robot hands: _ Robustness against impacts _ Fast dynamics _ Human-like grasping and manipulation performance   Instead of blindly copying human anatomy, this book opts for a holistic design me-tho-do-lo-gy. It analyzes human hands and existing robot hands to elucidate the important functionalities that are the building blocks toward these necessary characteristics.They are the keys to designing an anthropomorphic robot hand, as illustrated in the high performance anthropomorphic Awiwi Hand presented in this book.  ...

  15. ANALYSIS IMPORT POLICY OF SOYBEAN ON ECONOMICS PERFORMANCE OF INDONESIAN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Abda Azizah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalization is closely related to the opening of market access for Indonesian products to the world and vice versa. Since the soybean trade out of BULOG control began in 1998, soybean imports increased very rapidly (Sudaryanto and Swastika, 2007. This research aims to determine the general picture of soybean economy, factors analyses that influence the economic performance of Indonesian soybean and findings the alternative of policies that can reduce soybean imports in Indonesia. Methods of data analysis are descriptive analysis, 2SLS simultaneous equations, and simulation of policy alternatives. Results of the analysis of the factors that affect the economic performance of Indonesian soybean, consists of 1 The area of soybean harvest is influenced significantly by the price of domestic soybean and domestic prices of corn, 2 Productivity soybean influenced significantly by the domestic prices of soybean and fertilizer prices, 3 soybean demand influenced significantly by population, domestic prices of soybean, 4 domestic prices of soybean significantly affected by world prices of soybean, exchange rates, and soybean supply, 5 Imports of soybean influenced significantly by the domestic demand of soybean and soybean production. Therefore, policy scenarios should be made to reduce soybean imports, including by carrying out the expansion of soybean harvest policy, the policy of increasing the productivity of soybean, the policy of subsidizing the price of fertilizer.

  16. Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Feedback, D. L.; Feiverson, A. H.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J.; Spiering, B. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objectives of the FTT are to: Develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for Constellation. Determine the ability to perform these tasks after flight. Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements. Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, control and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers will perform both functional and physiological tests before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data will be collected on R+0 (Shuttle only), R

  17. Importance and performance of managerial skills in the Australian aged care sector - a middle managers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Ellen; Radford, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the importance and performance of middle managers' skills to provide a starting point for a sector-wide leadership and management framework. There is an increasing consensus that the quality of management, leadership and performance of any organisation is directly linked to the capabilities of its middle managers and the preparation and on-going training they receive. A total of 199 middle managers from three aged care organisations in Australia participated in a questionnaire conducted during 2010-2011. This study found that middle managers perceived the need to develop their communication skills, self-awareness, change management, conflict resolution and leadership skills. Middle managers perceive a discrepancy between performance and importance of various managerial skills. This study demonstrated that provision of training needs to go beyond clinical skills development and further investigation into managers' needs is necessary, particularly considering the diversity of this critical group in organisations. Future training opportunities provided to middle managers need to address the 'softer' skills (e.g. communication) rather than 'technical' skills (e.g. clinical skills). The provision of training in these skills may improve their performance, which may also lead to increased job satisfaction, continuity in leadership and management and ultimately improvements in the quality of care provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Coping with stress and cognitive interference in student teachers performance as important factors influencing their achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the relations between student teachers' strategies for coping with stressful situations, cognitive interference factors and successfulness of presentation of student teachers' seminar work. There were 135 student teachers participating in the study. At the beginning of the semester they filled in the Way of Coping Questionnaire (Folkman & Lazarus, 1988. After their presentation of seminar theme they reported about the cognitive interference factors during the presentation (distractive factors and intrusive thoughts. Different aspects of their performance were also evaluated by the teacher according to the well-known criteria. The analysis of the results showed significant correlations between certain ways of coping, cognitive interference factors and success of performance. Further statistical analysis showed significant differences in experiencing distractive factors and intrusive thoughts during presentation between students with low, medium and high performance success. The importance of successful strategies for coping with verbal presentation and the implications for student teacher education are discussed.

  19. Analysis of functional importance of binding sites in the Drosophila gap gene network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Konstantin; Gursky, Vitaly V; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V; Dymova, Arina; Samsonova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The statistical thermodynamics based approach provides a promising framework for construction of the genotype-phenotype map in many biological systems. Among important aspects of a good model connecting the DNA sequence information with that of a molecular phenotype (gene expression) is the selection of regulatory interactions and relevant transcription factor bindings sites. As the model may predict different levels of the functional importance of specific binding sites in different genomic and regulatory contexts, it is essential to formulate and study such models under different modeling assumptions. We elaborate a two-layer model for the Drosophila gap gene network and include in the model a combined set of transcription factor binding sites and concentration dependent regulatory interaction between gap genes hunchback and Kruppel. We show that the new variants of the model are more consistent in terms of gene expression predictions for various genetic constructs in comparison to previous work. We quantify the functional importance of binding sites by calculating their impact on gene expression in the model and calculate how these impacts correlate across all sites under different modeling assumptions. The assumption about the dual interaction between hb and Kr leads to the most consistent modeling results, but, on the other hand, may obscure existence of indirect interactions between binding sites in regulatory regions of distinct genes. The analysis confirms the previously formulated regulation concept of many weak binding sites working in concert. The model predicts a more or less uniform distribution of functionally important binding sites over the sets of experimentally characterized regulatory modules and other open chromatin domains.

  20. Functionalized graphene hydrogel-based high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxi; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-10-25

    Functionalized graphene hydrogels are prepared by a one-step low-temperature reduction process and exhibit ultrahigh specific capacitances and excellent cycling stability in the aqueous electrolyte. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on functionalized graphene hydrogels are demonstrated with superior capacitive performances and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Is performance better when brain functions are typically lateralized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Reint; Zickert, Nele; Beking, Tess; Groothuis, Antonius

    2014-01-01

    Lateralization refers to the dominant involvement of one homologous region of the brain over the other in functional task performance. Direction and strength of lateralization depend on the functional task. It is well known that language is lateralized to the left hemisphere, even in most

  2. Running Technique is an Important Component of Running Economy and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOLLAND, JONATHAN P.; ALLEN, SAM J.; BLACK, MATTHEW I.; HANDSAKER, JOSEPH C.; FORRESTER, STEPHANIE E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite an intuitive relationship between technique and both running economy (RE) and performance, and the diverse techniques used by runners to achieve forward locomotion, the objective importance of overall technique and the key components therein remain to be elucidated. Purpose This study aimed to determine the relationship between individual and combined kinematic measures of technique with both RE and performance. Methods Ninety-seven endurance runners (47 females) of diverse competitive standards performed a discontinuous protocol of incremental treadmill running (4-min stages, 1-km·h−1 increments). Measurements included three-dimensional full-body kinematics, respiratory gases to determine energy cost, and velocity of lactate turn point. Five categories of kinematic measures (vertical oscillation, braking, posture, stride parameters, and lower limb angles) and locomotory energy cost (LEc) were averaged across 10–12 km·h−1 (the highest common velocity < velocity of lactate turn point). Performance was measured as season's best (SB) time converted to a sex-specific z-score. Results Numerous kinematic variables were correlated with RE and performance (LEc, 19 variables; SB time, 11 variables). Regression analysis found three variables (pelvis vertical oscillation during ground contact normalized to height, minimum knee joint angle during ground contact, and minimum horizontal pelvis velocity) explained 39% of LEc variability. In addition, four variables (minimum horizontal pelvis velocity, shank touchdown angle, duty factor, and trunk forward lean) combined to explain 31% of the variability in performance (SB time). Conclusions This study provides novel and robust evidence that technique explains a substantial proportion of the variance in RE and performance. We recommend that runners and coaches are attentive to specific aspects of stride parameters and lower limb angles in part to optimize pelvis movement, and ultimately enhance performance

  3. Climate Classification is an Important Factor in ­Assessing Hospital Performance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. R.; Parhi, P.; Gentine, P.; Tatonetti, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    Context/Purpose: Climate is a known modulator of disease, but its impact on hospital performance metrics remains unstudied. Methods: We assess the relationship between Köppen-Geiger climate classification and hospital performance metrics, specifically 30-day mortality, as reported in Hospital Compare, and collected for the period July 2013 through June 2014 (7/1/2013 - 06/30/2014). A hospital-level multivariate linear regression analysis was performed while controlling for known socioeconomic factors to explore the relationship between all-cause mortality and climate. Hospital performance scores were obtained from 4,524 hospitals belonging to 15 distinct Köppen-Geiger climates and 2,373 unique counties. Results: Model results revealed that hospital performance metrics for mortality showed significant climate dependence (psocioeconomic factors. Interpretation: Currently, hospitals are reimbursed by Governmental agencies using 30-day mortality rates along with 30-day readmission rates. These metrics allow Government agencies to rank hospitals according to their `performance' along these metrics. Various socioeconomic factors are taken into consideration when determining individual hospitals performance. However, no climate-based adjustment is made within the existing framework. Our results indicate that climate-based variability in 30-day mortality rates does exist even after socioeconomic confounder adjustment. Use of standardized high-level climate classification systems (such as Koppen-Geiger) would be useful to incorporate in future metrics. Conclusion: Climate is a significant factor in evaluating hospital 30-day mortality rates. These results demonstrate that climate classification is an important factor when comparing hospital performance across the United States.

  4. The importance of functional form in optimal control solutions of problems in population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Optimal control theory is finding increased application in both theoretical and applied ecology, and it is a central element of adaptive resource management. One of the steps in an adaptive management process is to develop alternative models of system dynamics, models that are all reasonable in light of available data, but that differ substantially in their implications for optimal control of the resource. We explored how the form of the recruitment and survival functions in a general population model for ducks affected the patterns in the optimal harvest strategy, using a combination of analytical, numerical, and simulation techniques. We compared three relationships between recruitment and population density (linear, exponential, and hyperbolic) and three relationships between survival during the nonharvest season and population density (constant, logistic, and one related to the compensatory harvest mortality hypothesis). We found that the form of the component functions had a dramatic influence on the optimal harvest strategy and the ultimate equilibrium state of the system. For instance, while it is commonly assumed that a compensatory hypothesis leads to higher optimal harvest rates than an additive hypothesis, we found this to depend on the form of the recruitment function, in part because of differences in the optimal steady-state population density. This work has strong direct consequences for those developing alternative models to describe harvested systems, but it is relevant to a larger class of problems applying optimal control at the population level. Often, different functional forms will not be statistically distinguishable in the range of the data. Nevertheless, differences between the functions outside the range of the data can have an important impact on the optimal harvest strategy. Thus, development of alternative models by identifying a single functional form, then choosing different parameter combinations from extremes on the likelihood

  5. Moral Complexity: The Fatal Attraction of Truthiness and the Importance of Mature Moral Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Darcia

    2010-03-01

    Recently, intuitionist theories have been effective in capturing the academic discourse about morality. Intuitionist theories, like rationalist theories, offer important but only partial understanding of moral functioning. Both can be fallacious and succumb to truthiness: the attachment to one's opinions because they "feel right," potentially leading to harmful action or inaction. Both intuition and reasoning are involved in deliberation and expertise. Both are malleable from environmental and educational influence, making questions of normativity-which intuitions and reasoning skills to foster-of utmost importance. Good intuition and reasoning inform mature moral functioning, which needs to include capacities that promote sustainable human well-being. Individual capacities for habituated empathic concern and moral metacognition-moral locus of control, moral self-regulation, and moral self-reflection-comprise mature moral functioning, which also requires collective capacities for moral dialogue and moral institutions. These capacities underlie moral innovation and are necessary for solving the complex challenges humanity faces. © The Author(s) 2010.

  6. The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, J; Janssens, M; Gooris, G S; Bouwstra, J A

    2014-03-01

    The skin protects the body from unwanted influences from the environment as well as excessive water loss. The barrier function of the skin is located in the stratum corneum (SC). The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. This lipid matrix is crucial for the lipid skin barrier function. This paper provides an overview of the reported SC lipid composition and organization mainly focusing on healthy and diseased human skin. In addition, an overview is provided on the data describing the relation between lipid modulations and the impaired skin barrier function. Finally, the use of in vitro lipid models for a better understanding of the relation between the lipid composition, lipid organization and skin lipid barrier is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modularization, inter-functional integration and operational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    for firms to indeed use product modularity beneficially, in particular inter-functional integration between manufacturing and purchasing, design and sales, respectively. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the direct performance effects of modularization, as well as the mediating effects of the three...... forms of integration in the modularization-performance relationship....

  8. Improved metamodel-based importance sampling for the performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadini, F.; Gioletta, A.; Zio, E.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a probabilistic performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository, the estimation of the probability of exceeding the dose threshold set by a regulatory body is a fundamental task. This may become difficult when the probabilities involved are very small, since the classically used sampling-based Monte Carlo methods may become computationally impractical. This issue is further complicated by the fact that the computer codes typically adopted in this context requires large computational efforts, both in terms of time and memory. This work proposes an original use of a Monte Carlo-based algorithm for (small) failure probability estimation in the context of the performance assessment of a near surface radioactive waste repository. The algorithm, developed within the context of structural reliability, makes use of an estimated optimal importance density and a surrogate, kriging-based metamodel approximating the system response. On the basis of an accurate analytic analysis of the algorithm, a modification is proposed which allows further reducing the computational efforts by a more effective training of the metamodel. - Highlights: • We tackle uncertainty propagation in a radwaste repository performance assessment. • We improve a kriging-based importance sampling for estimating failure probabilities. • We justify the modification by an analytic, comparative analysis of the algorithms. • The probability of exceeding dose thresholds in radwaste repositories is estimated. • The algorithm is further improved reducing the number of its free parameters

  9. The importance of the ligation of the inferior thyroid artery in parathyroid function after subtotal thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Filho Vergilius José Furtado de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We prospectively studied the effects of the ligation of the inferior thyroid artery (ITA on postoperative hypoparathyroidism in 48 patients who underwent functional subtotal thyroidectomy. Patients were randomized into two groups: A, with bilateral ligation of the ITA and B, without ligation of the ITA. Parathyroid function was checked preoperatively and after surgery by clinical examination and measurement of total calcium, intact PTH, urinary calcium, and AMPc. RESULTS: A significant incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia occurred: 17% in group A and 13% in B on the 4th postoperative day. Six months later, the incidence was 5% in Group A and 0% in Group B. These differences were not statistically significant between the two groups, and neither were any of the other clinical and laboratory observations. CONCLUSION: The ligation of the ITA was not an important causal factor for the occurrence of postoperative hypocalcemia after subtotal thyroidectomy.

  10. Insights into the importance of oxygen functional groups in carbon reactions with oxygen containing gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Zhu, Max Lu

    2005-01-01

    The role of pore structure of carbon in carbon-related adsorptions and reactions has been extensively investigated. However the studies on the role of surface chemistry of carbon are limited. In this paper, we present the importance of oxygen functional groups in carbon reactions with oxygen-containing gases. It is found that there is a good correlation between the electronic structures and reactivities of carbon edge sites. Zigzag sites are more active in oxygen adsorption because of the unpaired electrons and armchair sites are less active in oxygen adsorption due to the triple character. However, the desorption of semi-quinone oxygen from zigzag sites needs a bond energy ca. 30% higher than that of o-quinone oxygen from armchair edge sites. CO 2 and H 2 O adsorb on carbon surface much less favorably than O 2 . H 2 O is first physically adsorbed on the virgin graphite surface followed by chemisorption through oxygen atom approaching the carbon edge site and the movements of two hydrogen atoms to produce H 2 . The adsorption mechanism of H 2 O is different from that for CO 2 , but the final result is quite similar, i.e. producing only semi-quinone oxygen. Based upon the above studies, a new generalized mechanism, as shown in Fig. 1, is developed and can account for all the important kinetic phenomena of carbon-gas reactions. The key point is that in CO 2 /H 2 O-carbon reaction only semi-quinone formed; while, in O 2 -carbon reaction, semi-quinone, o-quinone (at lower pressure), and off-plane epoxy oxygen (at relatively higher pressure) can be formed. This is the main reason for the different reaction kinetics of O 2 -carbon reaction and CO 2 /H 2 O-carbon reactions as observed experimentally. The oxygen functional groups of carbon can be characterized by XPS, PZC (point of zero charge), IEP (isoelectric point) and TPD (temperature-programmed desorption), which were used in our previous studies. We treated the carbon surface with different acids, finding that HNO 3

  11. Performance evaluation of an importance sampling technique in a Jackson network

    Science.gov (United States)

    brahim Mahdipour, E.; Masoud Rahmani, Amir; Setayeshi, Saeed

    2014-03-01

    Importance sampling is a technique that is commonly used to speed up Monte Carlo simulation of rare events. However, little is known regarding the design of efficient importance sampling algorithms in the context of queueing networks. The standard approach, which simulates the system using an a priori fixed change of measure suggested by large deviation analysis, has been shown to fail in even the simplest network settings. Estimating probabilities associated with rare events has been a topic of great importance in queueing theory, and in applied probability at large. In this article, we analyse the performance of an importance sampling estimator for a rare event probability in a Jackson network. This article carries out strict deadlines to a two-node Jackson network with feedback whose arrival and service rates are modulated by an exogenous finite state Markov process. We have estimated the probability of network blocking for various sets of parameters, and also the probability of missing the deadline of customers for different loads and deadlines. We have finally shown that the probability of total population overflow may be affected by various deadline values, service rates and arrival rates.

  12. Importance/performance analysis: a tool for service quality control by clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, D L; Weiss, R

    1991-01-01

    A study of customer satisfaction with clinical laboratory service is used as the basis for identifying potential improvements in service and more effectively targeting marketing activities to enhance customer satisfaction. Data on customer satisfaction are used to determine the aspects of service most critical to customers, how well the organization is doing in delivery of service, and how consistent service delivery is. Importance-performance analysis is used to highlight areas for future resource reallocation and strategic emphasis. Suggestions include the establishment of performance guidelines for customer contact personnel, the enhancement of timely delivery of reports via electronic transmission (computer and fax), and the development of standardized graphics for request and report forms to facilitate identification of appropriate request forms and guide clients to key items of information on reports.

  13. The importance of human performance and procedures in limiting severe accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the defense in depth concept and redundancy in safety systems utilized, complex industrial plants, such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) can be operated safely. This capability has been demonstrated by many years of safe operation by numerous NPPs in the US and abroad. However, the occurrence of severe accidents has also demonstrated that constant vigilance in a number of areas is necessary to ensure continued safe operation. The areas noted as particularly important are Design, Organization and Management, Maintenance, and Operations (Human Performance). 18 refs

  14. Analysis of Student Satisfaction in The Process of Teaching and Learning Using Importance Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, P.; Sembiring, S.; Tarigan, G.; Sembiring, OD

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to determine the level of student satisfaction in the learning process at the University of Sumatra Utara, Indonesia. The sample size of the study consisted 1204 students. Students’ response measured through questionnaires an adapted on a 5-point likert scale and interviews directly to the respondent. SERVQUAL method used to measure the quality of service with five dimensions of service characteristics, namely, physical evidence, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and concern. The result of Importance Performance Analysis reveals that six services attributes must be corrected by policy maker of University Sumatera Utara. The quality of service is still considered low by students.

  15. Muscle Functions and Functional Performance among Older Persons with and without Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Ishak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare muscle functions and functional performances between older persons with and without low back pain (LBP and to determine the association between muscle functions and functional performances. This is a cross-sectional study, involving 95 older persons (age = 70.27±7.26 years. Anthropometric characteristics, muscle functions, and functional performances were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple linear regression. The functional performances showed no significant differences (females LBP versus non-LBP, males LBP versus non-LBP (p<0.05. For muscle functions, significant differences were found (females LBP versus non-LBP for abdominal muscle strength (p=0.006 and back muscle strength (p=0.07. In the LBP group, significant correlations were found between back and abdominal muscle strength and hand grip strength (r=0.377 and r=0.396, resp., multifidus control and lower limb function (r=0.363 in females, and back muscle strength and lower limb function (r=0.393 in males (all p<0.05. Regression analysis showed that abdominal and back muscle strengths were significant predictors of hand grip strength (p=0.041 and p=0.049, resp., and multifidus control was a significant predictor of lower limb function in females (p=0.047. This study demonstrates that older women with LBP exhibit poorer muscle functions compared to older women without LBP.

  16. On the importance of forest assets for micro-firm performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Haugen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Business start-ups are on the increase, a development which is accompanied by hopes that these new firms will generate a potential for, e.g., local and regional development and a strengthening of local labour markets as well as the national economy. However, the long-term performance and viability of new firms are often rather poor. This research aims to analyse the importance of access to assets in the form of forest holdings for the performance of Swedish micro-firms. The analyses are based on official register data and fixed-effects panel regression modelling. A hypothesis is that a firm whose owner also possesses forest holdings is more viable thanks to the different resources (in the form of capital from logging or mortgaging, or non-pecuniary other values the forest holdings may provide, and which possibly contribute to the firm’s economic stability and resilience to economic fluctuations. From a general point of view, we find support for the hypothesis that forest assets positively and significantly influence firm performance in terms of earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT, but not in terms of value added. Access to forest assets is never detrimental to firm performance, although it does not have a significant positive effect in all sub-categories of entrepreneurs based on different combinations of age, gender and firm type. Particularly, the economic performance of private firms run by older men benefits from resources stemming from their forest holdings. No significant effects were found for female entrepreneurs or for limited companies. As regards regional variations, firms located outside the metropolitan regions – as compared to those at the top of the urban hierarchy – are likely to perform better, thus indicating that local development may benefit from resource transfers from the forest sector to micro-firms engaged in non-primary activities.

  17. Central dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in thermoregulation and performance during endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been widely investigated for its potential role in determining exercise performance. It was originally thought that DA's ergogenic effect was by mediating psychological responses. Recently, some studies have also suggested that DA may regulate physiological responses, such as thermoregulation. Hyperthermia has been demonstrated as an important limiting factor during endurance exercise. DA is prominent in the thermoregulatory centre, and changes in DA concentration have been shown to affect core temperature regulation during exercise. Some studies have proposed that DA or DA/noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors can improve exercise performance, despite hyperthermia during exercise in the heat. DA/NA reuptake inhibitors also increase catecholamine release in the thermoregulatory centre. Intracerebroventricularly injected DA has been shown to improve exercise performance through inhibiting hyperthermia-induced fatigue, even at normal ambient temperatures. Further, caffeine has been reported to increase DA release in the thermoregulatory centre and improves endurance exercise performance despite increased core body temperature. Taken together, DA has been shown to have ergogenic effects and increase heat storage and hyperthermia tolerance. The mechanisms underlying these effects seem to involve limiting/overriding the inhibitory signals from the central nervous system that result in cessation of exercise due to hyperthermia.

  18. An uncertainty importance measure using a distance metric for the change in a cumulative distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Moon-Hyun; Han, Seok-Jung; Tak, Nam-IL

    2000-01-01

    A simple measure of uncertainty importance using the entire change of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) has been developed for use in probability safety assessments (PSAs). The entire change of CDFs is quantified in terms of the metric distance between two CDFs. The metric distance measure developed in this study reflects the relative impact of distributional changes of inputs on the change of an output distribution, while most of the existing uncertainty importance measures reflect the magnitude of relative contribution of input uncertainties to the output uncertainty. The present measure has been evaluated analytically for various analytical distributions to examine its characteristics. To illustrate the applicability and strength of the present measure, two examples are provided. The first example is an application of the present measure to a typical problem of a system fault tree analysis and the second one is for a hypothetical non-linear model. Comparisons of the present result with those obtained by existing uncertainty importance measures show that the metric distance measure is a useful tool to express the measure of uncertainty importance in terms of the relative impact of distributional changes of inputs on the change of an output distribution

  19. The Importance of Social Cognition in Improving Functional Outcomes in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Afzal; Charles, Asha

    2018-01-01

    Social cognition has become recognized as an important driver of functional outcomes and overall recovery in patients with schizophrenia, mediating the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Since antipsychotic therapy targeting remission of clinical symptoms has been shown to have a limited impact on social cognition, there has been an increasing drive to develop therapeutic strategies to specifically improve social cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to review current evidence relating to social cognition in schizophrenia and its clinical implications, including interventions designed to target the core domains of social cognition (emotion processing, theory of mind, attributional bias, and social perception) as a means of improving functional outcomes and thereby increasing the likelihood of recovery. Relevant articles were identified by conducting a literature search in PubMed using the search terms “schizophrenia” AND “cognition” AND “social functioning,” limited to Title/Abstract, over a time period of the past 10 years. Current evidence demonstrates that schizophrenia is associated with impairments in all four core domains of social cognition, during the pre-first-episode, first-episode, early, and chronic phases of the disease, and that such impairments are important determinants of functional outcome. Interventions targeting the four core domains of social cognition comprise psychosocial approaches (social cognition training programs) and pharmacological therapies. Social cognition training programs targeting multiple and specific core domains of social cognition have shown promise in improving social cognition skills, which, in some cases, has translated into improvements in functional outcomes. Use of some psychosocial interventions has additionally resulted in improvements in clinical symptoms and/or quality of life. Pharmacological therapies, including oxytocin and certain antipsychotics, have yielded more mixed

  20. The Importance of Social Cognition in Improving Functional Outcomes in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Javed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition has become recognized as an important driver of functional outcomes and overall recovery in patients with schizophrenia, mediating the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Since antipsychotic therapy targeting remission of clinical symptoms has been shown to have a limited impact on social cognition, there has been an increasing drive to develop therapeutic strategies to specifically improve social cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to review current evidence relating to social cognition in schizophrenia and its clinical implications, including interventions designed to target the core domains of social cognition (emotion processing, theory of mind, attributional bias, and social perception as a means of improving functional outcomes and thereby increasing the likelihood of recovery. Relevant articles were identified by conducting a literature search in PubMed using the search terms “schizophrenia” AND “cognition” AND “social functioning,” limited to Title/Abstract, over a time period of the past 10 years. Current evidence demonstrates that schizophrenia is associated with impairments in all four core domains of social cognition, during the pre-first-episode, first-episode, early, and chronic phases of the disease, and that such impairments are important determinants of functional outcome. Interventions targeting the four core domains of social cognition comprise psychosocial approaches (social cognition training programs and pharmacological therapies. Social cognition training programs targeting multiple and specific core domains of social cognition have shown promise in improving social cognition skills, which, in some cases, has translated into improvements in functional outcomes. Use of some psychosocial interventions has additionally resulted in improvements in clinical symptoms and/or quality of life. Pharmacological therapies, including oxytocin and certain antipsychotics, have

  1. Importance of orthodontic movement in interdisciplinary treatment for restoring esthetics and functional occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes interdisciplinary treatment conducted in adult patients, 49-year-old, with periodontal problems, losses and dental inclination, occlusal trauma, localized bone loss, and necessity of rehabilitation with dental implants. Alignment and leveling of the teeth, the molars uprighting with cantilever, and space closure were performed the treatment was facilitated by periodic periodontal control. The resultant occlusion was stable throughout a 5-year retention period. In conclusion, interdisciplinary treatment combined with periodontics, orthodontics, implantodontist, and restorative dentistry was useful for improving the patient′s oral health, function, and esthetics.

  2. Thrombospondins 1 and 2 are important for afferent synapse formation and function in the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendus, Diana; Sundaresan, Srividya; Grillet, Nicolas; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Leu, Rose; Müller, Ulrich; Jones, Sherri M; Mustapha, Mirna

    2014-04-01

    Thrombospondins (TSPs) constitute a family of secreted extracellular matrix proteins that have been shown to be involved in the formation of synapses in the central nervous system. In this study, we show that TSP1 and TSP2 are expressed in the cochlea, and offer the first description of their putative roles in afferent synapse development and function in the inner ear. We examined mice with deletions of TSP1, TSP2 and both (TSP1/TSP2) for inner ear development and function. Immunostaining for synaptic markers indicated a significant decrease in the number of formed afferent synapses in the cochleae of TSP2 and TSP1/TSP2 knockout (KO) mice at postnatal day (P)29. In functional studies, TSP2 and TSP1/TSP2 KO mice showed elevated auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds as compared with wild-type littermates, starting at P15, with the most severe phenotype being seen for TSP1/TSP2 KO mice. TSP1/TSP2 KO mice also showed reduced wave I amplitudes of ABRs and vestibular evoked potentials, suggesting synaptic dysfunction in both the auditory and vestibular systems. Whereas ABR thresholds in TSP1 KO mice were relatively unaffected at early ages, TSP1/TSP2 KO mice showed the most severe phenotype among all of the genotypes tested, suggesting functional redundancy between the two genes. On the basis of the above results, we propose that TSPs play an important role in afferent synapse development and function of the inner ear. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A research on the importance function used in the calculation of the fracture probability through the optimum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegong, Zhou; Changhong, Liu

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the research into original distribution function as the importance function after shifting an appropriate distance, this paper takes the variation of similar ratio of the original function to the importance function as the objective function, the optimum shifting distance obtained by use of an optimization method. The optimum importance function resulting from the optimization method can ensure that the number of Monte Carlo simulations is decreased and at the same time the good estimates of the yearly failure probabilities are obtained

  4. Applying Importance-Performance Analysis as a Service Quality Measure in Food Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As the global economy becomes a service oriented economy, food service accounts for over 20% of service revenue, with an annual growth rate of more than 3%. Compared to physical products, service features are invisible, and the production and sale occurs simultaneously. There is not easy to measure the performance of service. Therefore, the service quality of catering services is considered to be an important topic of service management. According Market Intelligence & Consulting Institute (MIC to apply blog text analyzing to point out top 10 restaurants of blog in Taiwan, what it’s popular restaurant in food service industries. This paper attempts to identify both the importance and performance of restaurant service quality in the Taiwan food service industry using the SERVQUAL and IPA model. We can conclude with certainty that three methods (SERVQUAL, IF and IPA are able to explain significant amount of service quality. At the same time, the service quality factors of IPA model had more comprehensive consideration in comparison to those of SERVQUAL and IF.

  5. Cognitive and functional impairment in patients suffering from stroke: the importance of cognitive assessment for Occupational Therapy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa de Oliveira Ferro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Stroke (CVA can generate motor, sensory and cognitive development deficits, affecting the individual’s performance in daily activities. Changes in any cognitive area can affect the individual’s occupational engagement. Objective: To evaluate the cognitive and functional capacity in patients suffering from stroke, showing the importance of cognitive assessment for occupational therapy intervention. Method: A comparative study with cross-sectional sampling of 44 subjects aged 30-80 years, both sexes. The subjects were divided in three groups: Adult: 11 individuals affected by stroke, 30-59 years old; Elderly: 10 individuals affected by stroke, 60-80 years old; Control: 23 normal subjects, 30-80 years old. Tests applied: MMSE, Clock Test, Test of tracks A and B, and functional capacity (BOMFAQ. Results: Cognitive changes were identified in the Adult and Elderly groups. The Adult group showed poorer performance on the Clock test (visuospatial and executive functions compared with the Control group. The Adult and Elderly groups presented worse performance in the Track A test (attention compared with the Control group. In the Track B test (visual attention, graphomotor skills, and mental flexibility, applied with absolute numbers, no significant differences were observed between the Adult and Elderly groups and the Control group, but cognitive impairment was perceived when the test was applied with categories. The Adult group showed higher prevalence of moderate/severe impairment in the carrying out of daily activities. Conclusion: As a rule, individuals suffering from stroke, in addition to having impaired functional capacity, present cognitive impairments that can negatively impact the performance of daily tasks, whether they are occupational, leisure or self-care activities. Accordingly, we observed the need to evaluate cognitive rehabilitation for better targeting and quality of life improvement.

  6. Importance Performance Analysis Pelayanan Jaminan Sosial Kesehatan di Puskesmas Swakelola Pembina

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    Asmaripa Ainy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kunjungan pasien Jaminan Sosial Kesehatan (Jamsoskes di puskesmas pembina selama tahun 2009 adalah 24.014 orang. Kunjungan per catur wulan memperlihatkan trend yang menurun. Jumlah pengunjung puskesmas pembina pada periode bulan Januari – April 2009 adalah 9.295 orang, pada Mei – Agustus 2009 adalah 8.162 orang, dan September – Desember 2009 adalah 6.557 orang. Hal ini dapat disebabkan oleh minat masyarakat yang rendah untuk menggunakan Jamsoskes. Oleh sebab itu, perlu dilakukan kajian kualitas pelayanan Jamsoskes menurut perspektif pasien. Penelitian dengan desain cross sectional ini menggunakan data primer yang dilakukan dengan metode wawancara terstruktur atau survei. Sampel terdiri dari 100 pasien Jamsoskes yang mendapat pelayanan di puskesmas pembina dengan metode analisis kesesuaian kinerja (importance-performance analysis/IPA. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa rata-rata tingkat kesesuaian antara kinerja dan harapan pasien pada pelayanan Jamsoskes di puskesmas pembina adalah 83,44%. Terdapat dua atribut pada dimensi kualitas pelayanan yang masih perlu ditingkatkan meliputi pemberian perhatian oleh dokter terhadap keluhan-keluhan pasien tentang penyakit serta kenyamanan dan kerapian ruang pengobatan di poli umum. Peran dokter sebagai fasilitator kesembuhan pasien perlu ditingkatkan melalui sikap empati atas berbagai keluhan penyakit pasien serta mempertimbangkan penataan ulang ruangan pelayanan untuk kenyamanan pasien. Kata kunci: Analisis kesesuaian kinerja, jamsoskes, kualitas, puskesmas Abstract The sum of social health assurance (Jamsoskes patients in puskesmas pembina during 2009 was 24.014 people. There was a decrease in per quarter visits. The sum of patients visit in January to April 2009 was 9.295 people, May to August 2009 was 8.162 people, and September to December 2009 was 6.557 people. This can be caused by the low interest of community to utilize Jamsoskes service. Thus, it should be reviewed 105 about the

  7. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  8. Perifoveal function in patients with North Carolina macular dystrophy: the importance of accounting for fixation locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiple, William; Szlyk, Janet P; Paliga, Jennifer; Rabb, Maurice F

    2006-04-01

    To quantify the extent of visual function losses in patients with North Carolina Macular Dystrophy (NCMD) and to demonstrate the importance of accounting for eccentric fixation when making comparisons with normal data. Five patients with NCMD who were from a single family were examined. Multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs) and psychophysical assessments of acuity and luminance visual field sensitivities were measured throughout the central retina. Comparisons of responses from equivalent retinal areas were accomplished by shifting normal templates to be centered at the locus of fixation for each patient. Losses of psychophysically measured visual function in patients with NCMD extend to areas adjacent to the locations of visible lesions. The multifocal ERG amplitude was reduced only within the area of visible lesion. Multifocal ERG implicit times were delayed throughout the entire central retinal area assessed. ERG timing is a sensitive assay of retinal function, and our results indicate that NCMD has a widespread effect at the level of the mid and outer retina. The findings also demonstrated that it is necessary to account for fixation locus and to ensure that equivalent retinal areas are compared when testing patients with macular disease who have eccentric fixation.

  9. Limits of Science and the Importance of Epistemological Functions of Religion

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    Qodratullah Qorbani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human is encountered by many metaphysical, scientific, religious and other fundamentalquestions which Science, and its potentials, can answer some of them, specially in the material realm.In fact, empirical science is limited to the material world, and it can’t answer human’s fundamentalquestions of his/her living. Then human can’t provide all his/her epistemological requirements byempirical science. In addition, contemporary human’s scientism caused many problems for him/her.Human tried to make empirical science as a worldview which caused some important andfundamental crisis. So he/she needs metaphysical, religious and other sources to know aboutsupernatural facts. Fulfilling this, he/she has to use religious teachings, because religions, in particulardivine ones, have many basic functions. They can make man aware about immaterial realms andexistents including God, origin and resurrection of man, the world system etc. They can give areasonable explanation of the origin and resurrection of human’s life and the meaning of human’sevolution in the mundane universe, and the philosophy of living by explaining the nature of Goodnessand Evil. Religions give some ethical and religious laws to manage and control his/her individual andsocial treatments. In fact, through religious teachings,man can take a suitable framework to managehis/her living, for example, by them man can determine functional results of his/her scientific andtechnological activities. In addition, religions can draw the spiritual future of human’s mundaneliving, and give a good motivation to get mundane and spiritual happiness. In the other word, man,only by the help of religious teachings, can take his/her fundamental requirements. Then, byconsidering the contemporary human epistemological crisis and important limits of human’sknowledge and science, there is the only way to refer to divine religions teachings. In this paper, it istried to explain religion functions in

  10. Engaging Employees: The Importance of High-Performance Work Systems for Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegaray, Jason M; Thomas, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    To develop and test survey items that measure high-performance work systems (HPWSs), report psychometric characteristics of the survey, and examine associations between HPWSs and teamwork culture, safety culture, and overall patient safety grade. We reviewed literature to determine dimensions of HPWSs and then asked executives to tell us which dimensions they viewed as most important for safety and quality. We then created a HPWSs survey to measure the most important HPWSs dimensions. We administered an anonymous, electronic survey to employees with direct patient care working at a large hospital system in the Southern United States and looked for linkages between HPWSs, culture, and outcomes. Similarities existed for the HPWS practices viewed as most important by previous researchers and health-care executives. The HPWSs survey was found to be reliable, distinct from safety culture and teamwork culture based on a confirmatory factor analysis, and was the strongest predictor of the extent to which employees felt comfortable speaking up about patient safety problems as well as patient safety grade. We used information from a literature review and executive input to create a reliable and valid HPWSs survey. Future research needs to examine whether HPWSs is associated with additional safety and quality outcomes.

  11. The Importance of the Study of Cognitive Performance Enhancement for U.S. National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malish, Richard G

    2017-08-01

    The American military is embarking on the 'Third Offset'-a strategy designed to produce seismic shifts in the future of warfare. Central to the approach is the conjoining of humans, technology, and machines to deliver a decisive advantage on the battlefield. Because technology will spread rapidly and globally, tactical overmatch will occur when American operators possess a competitive edge in cognition. Investigation of cognitive enhancing therapeutics is not widely articulated as an adjunct to the Third Offset, yet failure to study promising agents could represent a strategic vulnerability. Because of its legacy of research into therapeutic agents to enhance human-machine interplay, the aerospace medical community represents a front-running candidate to perform this work. Notably, there are strong signals emanating from gambling, academic, and video-gaming enterprises that already-developed stimulants and other agents provide cognitive benefits. These agents should be studied not only for reasons of national security, but also because cognitive enhancement may be a necessary step in the evolution of humankind. To illustrate these points, this article will assert that: 1) the need to preserve and enhance physical and cognitive health will become more and more important over the next century; 2) aeromedical specialists are in a position to take the lead in the endeavor to enhance cognition; 3) signals of enhancement of the type useful to both military and medical efforts exist aplenty in today's society; and 4) the aeromedical community should approach human enhancement research deliberately but carefully.Malish RG. The importance of the study of cognitive performance enhancement for U.S. national security. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):773-778.

  12. The ALMT Gene Family Performs Multiple Functions in Plants

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    Jie Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium activated malate transporter (ALMT gene family is named after the first member of the family identified in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The product of this gene controls resistance to aluminium (Al toxicity. ALMT genes encode transmembrane proteins that function as anion channels and perform multiple functions involving the transport of organic anions (e.g., carboxylates and inorganic anions in cells. They share a PF11744 domain and are classified in the Fusaric acid resistance protein-like superfamily, CL0307. The proteins typically have five to seven transmembrane regions in the N-terminal half and a long hydrophillic C-terminal tail but predictions of secondary structure vary. Although widely spread in plants, relatively little information is available on the roles performed by other members of this family. In this review, we summarized functions of ALMT gene families, including Al resistance, stomatal function, mineral nutrition, microbe interactions, fruit acidity, light response and seed development.

  13. Nuclear import and export signals are essential for proper cellular trafficking and function of ZIC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, James E J; Purnell, Jennifer D; Ware, Stephanie M

    2007-01-15

    Missense, frameshift and nonsense mutations in the zinc finger transcription factor ZIC3 cause heterotaxy as well as isolated congenital heart disease. Previously, we developed transactivation and subcellular localization assays to test the function of ZIC3 point mutations. Aberrant cytoplasmic localization suggested that the pathogenesis of ZIC3 mutations results, at least in part, from failure of appropriate cellular trafficking. To further investigate this hypothesis, the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling properties of ZIC3 have been examined. Subcellular localization assays designed to span the entire open-reading frame of wild-type and mutant ZIC3 proteins identified the presence of nucleocytoplasmic transport signals. ZIC3 domain mapping indicates that a relatively large region containing the zinc finger binding sites and a known GLI interacting domain is required for transport to the nucleus. Site-directed mutagenesis of critical residues within two putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) leads to loss of nuclear localization. No further decrease was observed when both NLS sites were mutated, suggesting that mutation of either NLS site is sufficient for loss of importin-mediated nuclear localization. Additionally, we identify a cryptic CRM-1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES) within ZIC3, and identify a mutation within this region in a patient with heterotaxy. These results provide the first evidence that control of cellular trafficking of ZIC3 is critical for function and suggest a possible mechanism for transcriptional control during left-right patterning. Identification of mutations in mapped NLS or NES domains in heterotaxy patients demonstrates the functional importance of these domains in cardiac morphogenesis and allows for integration of structural analysis with developmental function.

  14. Hydrogen Exchange Differences between Chemoreceptor Signaling Complexes Localize to Functionally Important Subdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The goal of understanding mechanisms of transmembrane signaling, one of many key life processes mediated by membrane proteins, has motivated numerous studies of bacterial chemotaxis receptors. Ligand binding to the receptor causes a piston motion of an α helix in the periplasmic and transmembrane domains, but it is unclear how the signal is then propagated through the cytoplasmic domain to control the activity of the associated kinase CheA. Recent proposals suggest that signaling in the cytoplasmic domain involves opposing changes in dynamics in different subdomains. However, it has been difficult to measure dynamics within the functional system, consisting of extended arrays of receptor complexes with two other proteins, CheA and CheW. We have combined hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry with vesicle template assembly of functional complexes of the receptor cytoplasmic domain to reveal that there are significant signaling-associated changes in exchange, and these changes localize to key regions of the receptor involved in the excitation and adaptation responses. The methylation subdomain exhibits complex changes that include slower hydrogen exchange in complexes in a kinase-activating state, which may be partially consistent with proposals that this subdomain is stabilized in this state. The signaling subdomain exhibits significant protection from hydrogen exchange in complexes in a kinase-activating state, suggesting a tighter and/or larger interaction interface with CheA and CheW in this state. These first measurements of the stability of protein subdomains within functional signaling complexes demonstrate the promise of this approach for measuring functionally important protein dynamics within the various physiologically relevant states of multiprotein complexes. PMID:25420045

  15. Hippocampal volumes are important predictors for memory function in elderly women

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    Adolfsdottir Steinunn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal aging involves a decline in cognitive function that has been shown to correlate with volumetric change in the hippocampus, and with genetic variability in the APOE-gene. In the present study we utilize 3D MR imaging, genetic analysis and assessment of verbal memory function to investigate relationships between these factors in a sample of 170 healthy volunteers (age range 46–77 years. Methods Brain morphometric analysis was performed with the automated segmentation work-flow implemented in FreeSurfer. Genetic analysis of the APOE genotype was determined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR on DNA from whole-blood. All individuals were subjected to extensive neuropsychological testing, including the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT. To obtain robust and easily interpretable relationships between explanatory variables and verbal memory function we applied the recent method of conditional inference trees in addition to scatterplot matrices and simple pairwise linear least-squares regression analysis. Results APOE genotype had no significant impact on the CVLT results (scores on long delay free recall, CVLT-LD or the ICV-normalized hippocampal volumes. Hippocampal volumes were found to decrease with age and a right-larger-than-left hippocampal asymmetry was also found. These findings are in accordance with previous studies. CVLT-LD score was shown to correlate with hippocampal volume. Multivariate conditional inference analysis showed that gender and left hippocampal volume largely dominated predictive values for CVLT-LD scores in our sample. Left hippocampal volume dominated predictive values for females but not for males. APOE genotype did not alter the model significantly, and age was only partly influencing the results. Conclusion Gender and left hippocampal volumes are main predictors for verbal memory function in normal aging. APOE genotype did not affect the results in any part of our analysis.

  16. Warm-Up Exercises May Not Be So Important for Enhancing Submaximal Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kazuki; Yamaguchi, Taichi; Shibata, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    Takizawa, K, Yamaguchi, T, and Shibata, K. Warm-up exercises may not be so important for enhancing submaximal running performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1383-1390, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate warm-up intensity for enhancing performance in submaximal running at 90% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max (it assumes 3,000-5,000 m in track events). Seven trained male university athletes took part in this study (age: 21.3 ± 2.1 years, height: 169.3 ± 4.7 cm, body mass: 58.4 ± 5.6 kg, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 73.33 ± 5.46 ml·kg·min). Each subject ran on a treadmill at 90% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max until exhaustion after 1 of 4 warm-up treatments. The 4 warm-up treatments were no warm-up, 15 minutes running at 60% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, at 70% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and at 80% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The running performance was evaluated by time to exhaustion (TTE). V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and vastus lateralis muscle temperature were also measured. There were no significant differences in TTE among the warm-up exercises (p > 0.05). V[Combining Dot Above]O2 in no warm-up showed slower reaction than the other warm-up exercises. Regarding, the vastus lateralis muscle temperature immediately after warm-up, no warm-up was significantly (p warm-up exercises. Our results suggested that submaximal running performance was not affected by the presence or absence of a warm-up or by warm-up intensity, although physiological changes occurred.

  17. The importance of phrenic nerve preservation and its effect on long-term postoperative lung function after pneumonectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Gregor J; Poulson, Jannie Lysgaard; Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune; Elle, Bo; Schmid, Ralph A; Licht, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The importance of phrenic nerve preservation during pneumonectomy remains controversial. We previously demonstrated that preservation of the phrenic nerve in the immediate postoperative period preserved lung function by 3-5% but little is known about its long-term effects. We, therefore, decided to investigate the effect of temporary ipsilateral cervical phrenic nerve block on dynamic lung volumes in mid- to long-term pneumonectomy patients. We investigated 14 patients after a median of 9 years post pneumonectomy (range: 1-15 years). Lung function testing (spirometry) and fluoroscopic and/or sonographic assessment of diaphragmatic motion on the pneumonectomy side were performed before and after ultrasonographic-guided ipsilateral cervical phrenic nerve block by infiltration with lidocaine. Ipsilateral phrenic nerve block was successfully achieved in 12 patients (86%). In the remaining 2 patients, diaphragmatic motion was already paradoxical before the nerve block. We found no significant difference on dynamic lung function values (FEV1 'before' 1.39 ± 0.44 vs FEV1 'after' 1.38 ± 0.40; P = 0.81). Induction of a temporary diaphragmatic palsy did not significantly influence dynamic lung volumes in mid- to long-term pneumonectomy patients, suggesting that preservation of the phrenic nerve is of greater importance in the immediate postoperative period after pneumonectomy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. THE USE OF IMPORTANCE-PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS TO MEASURE THE SATISFACTION OF TRAVEL AGENCY FRANCHISEES

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    José M. Ramírez-Hurtado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to the limited literature on the satisfaction of travel agency franchisees. Specifically, it aims to identify strengths and weaknesses of the system from the perspective of the franchisee. This study would enable franchisors to identify areas in which franchisees are less satisfied. If franchisees are satisfied with numerous aspects that influence the franchisor-franchisee relationship, the latter may have a high degree of loyalty towards their franchisors and this would benefit the entire network. This article uses a variant of the classic importance-performance model from Martilla and James (1977 and others (Ábalo, Varela, & Rial, 2006; Picón, Varela, & Braña, 2011. The results show that the attributes travel agency franchisees feel more dissatisfied with are: chain advertising, ongoing support from franchisors, the initial franchisor support, delivery from the franchisors, and training provided by franchisors.

  19. IMPORTANCE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS (IPA DIMENSI KUALITAS PELAYAN JASA RUMAH SAKIT SELASIH TERHADAP KEPUASAN PASIEN

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    rizky natassia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to measure hospitalized patients' satisfaction toward dimension of Selasih Hospital service quality. It covers realibility, reponsiveness, assurance, emphaty, and tangibility. The researcher used close questions in collecting the primary data. She collected the data by using non probability sampling through convenience sampling. There were 170 patients taken as samples, they were divided into three classes; I, II and III. The used method of analysis is; the importance performance analysis, it is acknowledged that laboratorium check-up, doctor visit, immediate treatment; accurate and immediate check-up result, ineffective sophisticated equipment are not satisfactory to the customers. To ease these problems, the hospital management is expected to enhance medical staff competence and knowledge. The doctors, nurses and staffs commitment should also be enhanced so that they will always serve the patients well without distiguishing their classes. At last but not least, this hospital is suggested to cooperate with other hospitals which have adequate equipments.

  20. A new formulation for the importance function in the kinetics of subcritical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cristiano da; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this paper we propose a new formulation for the importance function in the kinetics of subcritical systems. ► We analyze the relevance of an external neutron source for the subcritical interval 0.95 eff eff is the multiplication factor according to the physical properties of the nuclear reactor. For the purposes of validation of the proposed method we will use, as a reference method, the expansion in modes of the time-dependent neutron flux for the solution of the onedimensional diffusion equation. It will be presented results that demonstrate the precision of the proposed method when compared to the conventional point kinetic equations. The results show that the new point kinetic equations are rather precise in the subcriticality range considered.

  1. The Important Role of Carbohydrates in the Flavor, Function, and Formulation of Oral Nutritional Supplements

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    Smaro Kokkinidou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients who are malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition often benefit from the consumption of oral nutritional supplements (ONS. ONS supply a range of micro- and macro-nutrients, and they can be used to supplement a diet or provide total nutrition. Since ONS are specially formulated products, all ONS ingredients—including carbohydrates—are added ingredients. This may seem to be at odds with the growing public health discourse on the need to reduce “added sugars” in the diet. However, carbohydrate is an essential nutrient for human health and is a critical ingredient in ONS. Helping to educate patients on the value of “added sugars” in ONS may be useful to improve compliance with nutritional recommendations when ONS are indicated. This perspective paper reviews the important roles of “added sugars” in ONS, in terms of flavor, function, and product formulation.

  2. Evaluating Functional Diversity: Missing Trait Data and the Importance of Species Abundance Structure and Data Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndová, Michala; Kasari, Liis; Norberg, Anna; Weiss, Matthias; Bishop, Tom R.; Luke, Sarah H.; Sam, Katerina; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Lepš, Jan; Götzenberger, Lars; de Bello, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Functional diversity (FD) is an important component of biodiversity that quantifies the difference in functional traits between organisms. However, FD studies are often limited by the availability of trait data and FD indices are sensitive to data gaps. The distribution of species abundance and trait data, and its transformation, may further affect the accuracy of indices when data is incomplete. Using an existing approach, we simulated the effects of missing trait data by gradually removing data from a plant, an ant and a bird community dataset (12, 59, and 8 plots containing 62, 297 and 238 species respectively). We ranked plots by FD values calculated from full datasets and then from our increasingly incomplete datasets and compared the ranking between the original and virtually reduced datasets to assess the accuracy of FD indices when used on datasets with increasingly missing data. Finally, we tested the accuracy of FD indices with and without data transformation, and the effect of missing trait data per plot or per the whole pool of species. FD indices became less accurate as the amount of missing data increased, with the loss of accuracy depending on the index. But, where transformation improved the normality of the trait data, FD values from incomplete datasets were more accurate than before transformation. The distribution of data and its transformation are therefore as important as data completeness and can even mitigate the effect of missing data. Since the effect of missing trait values pool-wise or plot-wise depends on the data distribution, the method should be decided case by case. Data distribution and data transformation should be given more careful consideration when designing, analysing and interpreting FD studies, especially where trait data are missing. To this end, we provide the R package “traitor” to facilitate assessments of missing trait data. PMID:26881747

  3. Evaluation of Some Pesticide Residues in Fruits import by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

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    Lamees Munef Abdul-Latef

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables.  This studycollected 24 samples and reported a method based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. For determination of pesticide residues used in Some fruits which were collected from different markets of Baghdad city to make 24 samples from (peel , core, mixture for each type of fruits markets as:  Oranges( Egypt , Africa, Pomegranate ( Egypt, Mango ( Kenya , Pears (China,  Plum fruits ( Africa , Kiwi (Turkey .That detective of ( 5 different  pesticides (diazinon,  malathion, chlorpyrifos ,parathion  and cypermethrin. The results were detected of multi-residues of  pesticides on the fruit in ( peel , core , mixture may be in the limit of Maximum residue limits(MRL or higher of it   . The pesticides detected that exceeding the limits are: cypermethrin  in Kiwi (peel, core and mixtureat(0.204,0.038, 0.537, in pomegranate detected in (peel and mixture at (0.509,0.189 mg/kg , Diazinondetccted in Egyptian orange in (peel ,core and mixture at (0.031,0.207, 0.099 mg/kg . Malathion and Parathion was not detected at any type of fruits and  that results was compared with codex of FAO/WHO(2013. That data is important to monitor residues in food and to fill gaps in current knowledge would be helpful in assessing human exposure risks from ingestion of contaminated Fruits Imported to our country .

  4. Phylogenomic detection and functional prediction of genes potentially important for plant meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoyan; Kong, Hongzhi; Ma, Hong; Yang, Ji

    2018-02-15

    Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. A better understanding of the cytological procedures of meiosis has been achieved by comprehensive cytogenetic studies in plants, while the genetic mechanisms regulating meiotic progression remain incompletely understood. The increasing accumulation of complete genome sequences and large-scale gene expression datasets has provided a powerful resource for phylogenomic inference and unsupervised identification of genes involved in plant meiosis. By integrating sequence homology and expression data, 164, 131, 124 and 162 genes potentially important for meiosis were identified in the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Selaginella moellendorffii and Pogonatum aloides, respectively. The predicted genes were assigned to 45 meiotic GO terms, and their functions were related to different processes occurring during meiosis in various organisms. Most of the predicted meiotic genes underwent lineage-specific duplication events during plant evolution, with about 30% of the predicted genes retaining only a single copy in higher plant genomes. The results of this study provided clues to design experiments for better functional characterization of meiotic genes in plants, promoting the phylogenomic approach to the evolutionary dynamics of the plant meiotic machineries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. IMPORTANCE OF EARNED VALUE METHOD (EVA IN THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF PROJECTS

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    MARGARITA JANESKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The economics of the projects is an important process in the project management. Effective control of projects is based on appropriate methods for monitoring, and the entire project, the timetable, cost, quality and risk. Unlike accounting aspects in project management are looking for information that allow insight into the status and trends of financial progress of the project. Such information provide a method of earned value. It is a key component for assessing the actual performance of the project. The method of earned value is a better indicator of the progress of the project in comparison to the classical method of comparing planned and actual costs. This method shows the profit in relation to actual costs at a specific time point. This method is the basis for calculating the index of the project performance. In this sense, MS Project provides many opportunities for quality control and monitoring of the realization of the projects. In this study will be described the architecture of this method, outlined the benefits of the application of this method, and the basic criteria that should satisfy project management to be able to apply it.

  6. The Importance of Sports Performance Factors and Training Contents From the Perspective of Futsal Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, João; Shahidian, Shakib; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the importance assigned by futsal coaches with different education levels to the sports performance factors (technical, tactical, physical and psychological) and to the training contents. The sample was divided into three groups (novice: n=35, intermediate: n=42; and elite coaches: n=15) depending on the degree of specific education, coaching experience and the level of the teams trained. To achieve this goal, the coaches answered a questionnaire previously validated by specialists in sport sciences. The results showed significant differences between the novice and elite group in small-sided games, inferiority games, opposition and execution timing of the training and drill items. The analyses also showed significant differences between the novice and intermediate group in inferiority games and opposition of the training and drill items. Although, no differences were identified between groups for the remaining performance factors and training and drill items considered, the identified trends provide a baseline related to the knowledge that contributes to the development of expertise of futsal coaches. PMID:24235991

  7. The importance of executive leadership in creating a post-merged organisational culture conducive to effective performance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Focus was placed on the important role of executive management in creating a post-merged organisational culture conducive to effective performance management.Research purpose: To develop a theoretical model from the insights gleaned from the literature study, interviews with senior human resource (HR practitioners at participating institutions and the empirical study. Based on the empirical findings, this model was refined and resulted in the eight-step integrated post-merged organisational culture creation model.Motivation for the study: The negligible attention given to the design of mechanisms supportive of post-merged organisational culture creation emphasised the need for this study. The high percentage of merger failures attributable to ineffective post-merged organisational culture integration further contributed.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative study was conducted at three merged South African higher education institutions, namely Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Cape Peninsula University of Technology and Durban University of Technology. Respondents occupied the following functional categories: executive management, senior and line management, HR practitioners and non-HR or non-management.Main findings: Respondents perceived the role of executive management to be the most important step of the theoretical model which formed the basis for the empirical survey questionnaire. This step, which obtained the highest summated mean score in all three institutions and across all functional categories, was depicted as Step 5 of the model.Practical/managerial implications: The refined eight-step integrated post-merged organisational culture creation model will significantly enhance the creation of a post-merged organisational culture conducive to effective performance management.Contribution/value-add: This study addressed the void regarding a model to guide the creation of a post-merged organisational

  8. Hot and Cool Executive Functions in Adolescence: Development and Contributions to Important Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kean

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant theoretical advancement in the area of child neuropsychology, limited attention has been paid to the developmental features of adolescence. The present study intends to address this issue in relation to executive function (EF). EF refers to the psychological processes that underlie goal-directed behavior; recent studies separate cool EF (psychological process involves pure logic and critical analysis) and hot EF (psychological process driven by emotion). Although neurological findings suggest that adolescence is a sensitive period for EF development, data on comparing the developmental progression in hot or cool EFs is highly missing. Moreover, while evidence has confirmed the relationships between EF and day-to-day functioning, whether and how hot and cool EFs contribute to core developmental outcomes in adolescence is still remained unknown. The current study aims to enhance our understanding of the development and impacts of hot and cool EFs in adolescence. A total of 136 typically developing adolescents from age 12 to 17 completed four cool EF tasks including Backward digit span, Contingency naming test, Stockings of Cambridge, and Stroop Color and Word test, and one hot task on Cambridge gambling task. Data on academic performance and psychological adjustment was also collected. Results showed that cool and hot EF exhibited different patterns of age-related growth in adolescence. Specifically, cool EF ascended with age while hot EF showed a bell-shaped development. Moreover, there were correlations among cool EF measures but no association between cool and hot EFs. Further, cool EF was a better predictor of academic performance, while hot EF uniquely related to emotional problems. The results provide evidence for the association among cool EF tests and the differentiation of hot and cool EFs. The bell-shaped development of hot EF might suggest a period of heightened risk-taking propensity in middle adolescence. Given the plastic nature of

  9. Hot and Cool Executive Functions in Adolescence: Development and Contributions to Important Developmental Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean Poon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant theoretical advancement in the area of child neuropsychology, limited attention has been paid to the developmental features of adolescence. The present study intends to address this issue in relation to executive function (EF. EF refers to the psychological processes that underlie goal-directed behavior; recent studies separate cool EF (psychological process involves pure logic and critical analysis and hot EF (psychological process driven by emotion. Although neurological findings suggest that adolescence is a sensitive period for EF development, data on comparing the developmental progression in hot or cool EFs is highly missing. Moreover, while evidence has confirmed the relationships between EF and day-to-day functioning, whether and how hot and cool EFs contribute to core developmental outcomes in adolescence is still remained unknown. The current study aims to enhance our understanding of the development and impacts of hot and cool EFs in adolescence. A total of 136 typically developing adolescents from age 12 to 17 completed four cool EF tasks including Backward digit span, Contingency naming test, Stockings of Cambridge, and Stroop Color and Word test, and one hot task on Cambridge gambling task. Data on academic performance and psychological adjustment was also collected. Results showed that cool and hot EF exhibited different patterns of age-related growth in adolescence. Specifically, cool EF ascended with age while hot EF showed a bell-shaped development. Moreover, there were correlations among cool EF measures but no association between cool and hot EFs. Further, cool EF was a better predictor of academic performance, while hot EF uniquely related to emotional problems. The results provide evidence for the association among cool EF tests and the differentiation of hot and cool EFs. The bell-shaped development of hot EF might suggest a period of heightened risk-taking propensity in middle adolescence. Given the

  10. Bike Desks in the Classroom: Energy Expenditure, Physical Health, Cognitive Performance, Brain Functioning, and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeyns, Tine; de Geus, Bas; Bailey, Stephen; Decroix, Lieselot; Van Cutsem, Jeroen; De Pauw, Kevin; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity is positively associated with physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of bike desks in the classroom on adolescents' energy expenditure, physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. Forty-four adolescents were randomly assigned to control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). During 5 months, the IG used a bike desk for 4 class hours/week. Energy expenditure was measured during 6 consecutive days. Anthropometric parameters, aerobic fitness, academic performance, cognitive performance and brain functioning were assessed before (T0) and after (T1) the intervention. Energy expenditure of the IG was significantly higher during the class hours in which they used the bike desks relative to normal class hours. The CG had a significantly higher BMI at T1 relative to T0 while this was not significantly different for the IG. Aerobic fitness was significantly better in the IG at T1 relative to T0. No significant effects on academic performance cognitive performance and brain functioning were observed. As the implementation of bike desks in the classroom did not interfere with adolescents' academic performance, this can be seen as an effective means of reducing in-class sedentary time and improving adolescents' physical health.

  11. Comparative evaluation of maintenance performance using subsurvival functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, J.L.; Cooke, R.; Nyman, R.

    1997-01-01

    Subsurvival functions are applied to operational data for the control rod drive systems of Nordic nuclear reactors to evaluate maintenance performance. Competing failure modes are preventive and corrective maintenance. Maintenance indicators are defined and evaluated for 8 plants. (C) 1997 Elsevier...

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: THE IMPORTANCE OF THESE MICROORGANISMS FOR FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Souza Motta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eacters of coccus or rods Gram-positive, catalase negative, non-sporulating, which produce lactic acid as the major end product during the fermentation of carbohydrates. When applied on food, provides beneficial effects to consumers through its functional and technological properties. With this the present review article, explore the potential application of lactic acid bacteria in food. The following genera are considered the principal lactic acid bacteria: Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella. These cultures have been used as starter or adjunct cultures for the fermentation of foods and beverages due to their contributions to the sensorial characteristics of these products and by microbiological stability. Their probiotic properties have also been investigated. More recent studies by indigenous cultures have received increased attention in light of the search for isolated cultures of a given raw material and a certain region. These microorganisms are being investigated for its functional and technological potential that may be applied in product development with its own characteristics and designation of origin. Those properties will be discussed in the present review in order to highlight the performance of these bacteria and the high degree of control over the fermentation process and standardization of the final product. The use of autochthonous cultures will be considered due the increase of studies of new cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated of milk and meat of distinct products.

  13. Remote Sensing of plant functional types: Relative importance of biochemical and structural plant traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenborn, Teja; Schmidtlein, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring ecosystems is a key priority in order to understand vegetation patterns, underlying resource cycles and changes their off. Driven by biotic and abiotic factors, plant species within an ecosystem are likely to share similar structural, physiological or phenological traits and can therefore be grouped into plant functional types (PFT). It can be assumed that plants which share similar traits also share similar optical characteristics. Therefore optical remote sensing was identified as a valuable tool for differentiating PFT. Although several authors list structural and biochemical plant traits which are important for differentiating PFT using hyperspectral remote sensing, there is no quantitative or qualitative information on the relative importance of these traits. Thus, little is known about the explicit role of plant traits for an optical discrimination of PFT. One of the main reasons for this is that various optical traits affect the same wavelength regions and it is therefore difficult to isolate the discriminative power of a single trait. A way to determine the effect of single plant traits on the optical reflectance of plant canopies is given by radiative transfer models. The most established radiative transfer model is PROSAIL, which incorporates biochemical and structural plant traits, such as pigment contents or leaf area index. In the present study 25 grassland species of different PFT were cultivated and traits relevant for PROSAIL were measured for the entire vegetation season of 2016. The information content of each trait for differentiating PFTs was determined by applying a Multi-response Permutation Procedure on the actual traits, as well as on simulated canopy spectra derived from PROSAIL. According to our results some traits, especially biochemical traits, show a weaker separability of PFT on a spectral level than compared to the actual trait measurements. Overall structural traits (leaf angle and leaf area index) are more important for

  14. Functional importance of GLP-1 receptor species and expression levels in cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Hastrup, Sven; Underwood, Christina Rye; Wulff, Birgitte Schjellerup; Fleckner, Jan

    2012-04-10

    Of the mammalian species, only the GLP-1 receptors of rat and human origin have been described and characterized. Here, we report the cloning of the homologous GLP-1 receptors from mouse, rabbit, pig, cynomolgus monkey and chimp. The GLP-1 receptor is highly conserved across species, thus underlining the physiological importance of the peptide hormone and its receptor across a wide range of mammals. We expressed the receptors by stable transfection of BHK cells, both in cell lines with high expression levels of the cloned receptors, as well as in cell lines with lower expression levels, more comparable to endogenous expression of these receptors. High expression levels of cloned GLP-1 receptors markedly increased the potency of GLP-1 and other high affinity ligands, whereas the K(d) values were not affected. For a low affinity ligand like the ago-allosteric modulator Compound 2, expression levels of the human GLP-1 receptor were important for maximal efficacy as well as potency. The two natural metabolites of GLP-1, GLP-1(9-37) and GLP-1(9-36)amide were agonists when tested on a cell line with high expression of the recombinant human GLP-1 receptor, whereas they behaved as (low potent) antagonists on a cell line that expressed the receptor endogenously, as well as cells expressing a moderate level of the recombinant human GLP-1 receptor. The amide form was a more potent agonist than the free acid from. In conclusion, receptor expression level is an important parametre for selecting cell lines with cloned GLP-1 receptors for functional characterization of physiological and pharmaceutical ligands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional Movement Screening and Paddle-Sport Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hatchett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the relationship between an endurance paddle-sport athlete’s total functional movement screening (FMS score and individual race performance. Fifty elite level endurance canoeists and kayakers completed the seven-stage FMS protocol prior to the 2016 United States Canoe and Kayak Association National Championship race. Time taken to finish the race was then associated to overall FMS score and respective sub-scores. Total FMS score and various sub-scores were significantly related to race performance. Female and male athletes differed in which sub-scores were shown to be significantly correlated to finishing time. Outcomes from this study indicate that limitations in functional movement are related to endurance paddle-sport race performance.

  16. Explaining the contract terms of energy performance contracting in China: The importance of effective financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Qiu, Yueming; Wang, Yi David

    2014-01-01

    Energy service company (“ESCO”) uses Energy Performance Contracting (“EPC”) to provide energy-saving services to its clients. Under an EPC, both ESCO and the client invest in the energy efficiency measures, according to a negotiated share of investment. Within the length of the contract, the ESCO and its client divide up the saved energy bill according to a negotiated share. Once the contract expires, the client claims all of the saved energy bills if the energy efficiency measures still last. Different EPC projects have different contract terms, including total investment, share of investment and length of contract. These contract terms directly determine the resulted energy savings. Thus it is essential and important to look at how these contract terms are formed and what are the major influencing factors. This paper first builds a theoretical bargain model between ESCO and its client to find out the structural relationship among these contract terms. Then, using the information of about 140 EPC contracts in China in 2010 and 2011, the paper empirically estimates the impacts of various factors on the contract terms and the resulted energy savings. We find that cost of capitals for ESCOs and the clients, especially for ESCOs, is a major factor influencing contract terms and the resulted energy savings. Thus providing effective financing is critical for the development of EPC in China. - Highlights: • We build a theoretical bargain model between an ESCO and its client. • We empirically quantify the impacts of various factors on EPC contract terms. • Cost of capital is a key factor determining EPC contract terms. • Providing effective financing, especially for ESCOs is important

  17. Sleep timing is more important than sleep length or quality for medical school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, L; Ahrberg, K; Roselli, C; Niedermaier, S; Steiger, A; Dresler, M; Roenneberg, T

    2013-07-01

    Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of sleep for memory consolidation. Medical students are often deprived of sufficient sleep due to large amounts of clinical duties and university load, we therefore investigated how study and sleep habits influence university performance. We performed a questionnaire-based study with 31 medical students of the University of Munich (second and third clinical semesters; surgery and internal medicine). The students kept a diary (in 30-min bins) on their daily schedules (times when they studied by themselves, attended classes, slept, worked on their thesis, or worked to earn money). The project design involved three 2-wk periods (A: during the semester; B: directly before the exam period--pre-exam; C: during the subsequent semester break). Besides the diaries, students completed once questionnaires about their sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), their chronotype (Munich Chronotype Questionnaire [MCTQ]), and their academic history (previous grades, including the previously achieved preclinical board exam [PBE]). Analysis revealed significant correlations between the actual sleep behavior during the semester (MS(diary); mid-sleep point averaged from the sleep diaries) during the pre-exam period and the achieved grade (p = 0.002) as well as between the grades of the currently taken exam and the PBE (p = 0.002). A regression analysis with MS(diary) pre-exam and PBE as predictors in a model explained 42.7% of the variance of the exam grade (effect size 0.745). Interestingly, MS(diary)--especially during the pre-exam period-was the strongest predictor for the currently achieved grade, along with the preclinical board exam as a covariate, whereas the chronotype did not significantly influence the exam grade.

  18. The importance of masticatory functional analysis in the diagnostic finding and treatment planning for prosthodontic rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Laksono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The masticatory system as a biologic system is subjected to harmful influences of varying severity. Almost half of routine patients requesting prosthodontic treatment indicated at least one sign or symptom of temporomandibular disorders. Analysis of the masticatory system often neglected by dentist. Untreated temporomandibular disorders may significantly implicated in the perpetuation of the disorder and may interfere with routine prosthodontic clinical procedures. It would be resulted unsuccessful long term goal of prosthodontic rehabilitation because of the uncompleted diagnoses and treatment plan. Purpose: The purpose of this case report was to give the information of the importance of masticatory functional analysis in the diagnostic finding for treatment planning in the prosthodontic rehabilitation. Case: A 45 year - old male patient, partial dentate with reduced chewing efficiency, mild pain in right preauricular region in function, left click in opening mouth, severe attrition on all anterior lower teeth with vertical dimension of occlusion decreased due to loss of posterior support. He wanted to make a new denture. Case management: Record and analyze of active and passive mandibular movement, opening pathway, muscle and temporomandibular joints palpation, load testing, and vertical dimension of occlusion with manual functional analysis (MFA, occlusal condition and radiographic examination. Treatment plan was formulated into 3 phases: stabilization of the masticatory system, definitive treatment and periodical control. The result of this treatment excellent for 1 year evaluation after permanent cementation. Conclusion: Masticatory functional analysis is very important and must be done in the diagnosis finding for treatment planning in every case of prosthodontic rehabilitation.Latar belakang: Sistem pengunyahan sebagai sistem biologis sewaktu-waktu dapat terjadi gangguan dengan berbagai derajat keparahan. Hampir setengah dari

  19. Arthropod Diversity and Functional Importance in Old-Growth Forests of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Schowalter

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Old-growth forests have become rare in North America but provide habitat for unique assemblages of species that often are rare in younger forests. Insects and related arthropods reach their highest diversity in old-growth forests because of their stable moderate temperature and relative humidity and the rich variety of resources represented by high plant species richness and structural complexity. Old-growth arthropod assemblages typically are distinct from those in younger, managed forests. Major subcommunities include the arboreal community that is composed of a rich assemblage of herbivores, fungivores, and their associated predators and parasitoids that function to regulate primary production and nutrient fluxes, the stem zone community that includes bark- and wood-boring species and their associated predators and parasitoids that initiate the decomposition of coarse woody debris, and the forest floor community composed of a variety of detritivores, fungivores, burrowers, and their associated predators and parasitoids that are instrumental in litter decomposition. Insect outbreaks are relatively rare in old-growth forests, where the diversity of resources and predators limit population growth. In turn, insects contribute to plant diversity and limit primary production of host plant species, thereby promoting development of old-growth forest characteristics. Arthropods also provide important functions in decomposition and nutrient cycling that may be lost in younger, managed forests with limited provision of coarse woody debris and accumulated litter. Protection of remnant old-growth forests within the forest matrix may be particularly valuable for maintaining the diversity of plant and arthropod predators that can minimize outbreaks, thereby contributing to resilience to changing environmental conditions.

  20. Identification of a disulfide bridge important for transport function of SNAT4 neutral amino acid transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer

    Full Text Available SNAT4 is a member of system N/A amino acid transport family that primarily expresses in liver and muscles and mediates the transport of L-alanine. However, little is known about the structure and function of the SNAT family of transporters. In this study, we showed a dose-dependent inhibition in transporter activity of SNAT4 with the treatment of reducing agents, dithiothreitol (DTT and Tris(2-carboxyethylphosphine (TCEP, indicating the possible involvement of disulfide bridge(s. Mutation of residue Cys-232, and the two highly conserved residues Cys-249 and Cys-321, compromised the transport function of SNAT4. However, this reduction was not caused by the decrease of SNAT4 on the cell surface since the cysteine-null mutant generated by replacing all five cysteines with alanine was equally capable of being expressed on the cell surface as wild-type SNAT4. Interestingly, by retaining two cysteine residues, 249 and 321, a significant level of L-alanine uptake was restored, indicating the possible formation of disulfide bond between these two conserved residues. Biotinylation crosslinking of free thiol groups with MTSEA-biotin provided direct evidence for the existence of a disulfide bridge between Cys-249 and Cys-321. Moreover, in the presence of DTT or TCEP, transport activity of the mutant retaining Cys-249 and Cys-321 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner and this reduction is gradually recovered with increased concentration of H2O2. Disruption of the disulfide bridge also decreased the transport of L-arginine, but to a lesser degree than that of L-alanine. Together, these results suggest that cysteine residues 249 and 321 form a disulfide bridge, which plays an important role in substrate transport but has no effect on trafficking of SNAT4 to the cell surface.

  1. Improved Functional Performance in Geriatric Patients During Hospital Stay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anders; Loeb, Mads Rohde; Andersen, Kristine Bramsen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the time course of changes in strength and functional performance in elderly hospitalized medical patients. DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study in elderly medical patients of age 65 years or older at a geriatric department.Measurement......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the time course of changes in strength and functional performance in elderly hospitalized medical patients. DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study in elderly medical patients of age 65 years or older at a geriatric department.......Measurements were obtained on days 2 to 4, day 5 to 8, and days 9 to 13. Functional performance was measured with De Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) test and a 30-second chair stand test (30-s CST). Muscular strength was measured with handgrip strength. Activity level was determined with accelerometry (Activ...... in 30-s CST (P performance of the lower extremities in geriatric patients improves moderately over the time of a hospital stay...

  2. Robust design principles for reducing variation in functional performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Ebro; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability and percei......This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability...... and perceived quality of a product and efforts should be made to minimise it. The design principles are identified by a systematic decomposition of the Taguchi Transfer Function in combination with the use of existing literature and the authors’ experience. The paper presents 15 principles and describes...... their advantages and disadvantages along with example cases. Subsequently, the principles are classified based on their applicability in the various development and production stages. The VRP are to be added to existing robust design methodologies, helping the designer to think beyond robust design tool and method...

  3. Functional Task Test: 1. Sensorimotor changes Associated with Postflight Alterations in Astronaut Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N. H.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Platts, S. H.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. This presentation will focus on the sensorimotor contributions to postflight functional performance.

  4. Improving student satisfaction of Andalas University Dormitory through Service Quality and Importance Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Nilda Tri; Anggraini, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    Residential satisfaction of university dormitories serve as one of the significant aspects in the framework of sustainability in higher education. This research investigated the quality of dormitory services in Andalas University Dormitory based on student’s satisfaction. According to management residential, the enrollment of residential student has increased gradually in Andalas University. In 2016, capacity of residential student is 1686, but only 1081 students can stay at dormitory because some rooms in bad condition. There are a lot of problems and complaints regarding dormitory’s service quality i.e water problems, leaky rooms and bathrooms, cleanliness and inadequate facilities in residential college. In addition, there are 20% of last year student’s residential check out before the time of contract runs out. The aim of this research are understanding the level of GAP exists between expectation and perception students’ residential in the content of service quality and evaluating the improvement priority services using Importance Performance Analysis. This study is measuring service quality by using Responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy, Reliability and Tangible dimension. A negative GAP indicates that the actual services are than what was expected and the GAP is highlighted area for improvement. Based on IPA, management should improve this following dimension services : responsiveness, tangible and assurance dimension.

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ERYTHROCYTES OSMOTIC FRAGILITY TEST PERFORMED IN CHILDREN WITH INDIRECT HYPERBILIRUB1NEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stojanović

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The osmotic fragility test of erythrocytes is useful in the diagnosis of different types of hereditary hemolytic anemias followed with hyperbilirubinemia. Hemolytic anemias, characterized by accelerated destruction of red blood cells, are usually the consequence of many metabolic abnormalities like cellular membrane defect, erythrocyte enzymes defect or hemoglobin abnormalities – hemoglobinopathies. The object of our study was to assess the relationship between osmotic fragility test of erythrocytes and severity of indirect hyperbilirubinemia in some inherited erythrocytes’ disorders. We did the osmotic fragility test of erythrocytes by using Dacie, s method with normal values of erythrocytes hemolysis between 0,48 to 0,34% NaCl (minimal to maximal hemolysis. In hereditary spherocytosis, fragility of erythrocytes was increased (min. at 0,50 % NaCl to max. 0,44 % NaCl . In the child with β- thalassemia and cycle cell anemia erythrocytes fragility was decreased (min . at 0,42 to max. 0,32 % NaCl, that is 0,40% min. of hemolysis and 0,34% max. hemolysis in the second case. In newborn infants with high levels of indirect bilirubin in serum as a cause of physiological jaundice, the osmotic fragility test was within a normal range. Our findings point out the diagnostic value of osmotic fragility test in assessing patients with the indirect hyperbilirubinemia. This simple and important diagnostic test can be performed in small laboratories.

  6. [Importance of quality control of baciloscopy in laboratories that perform diagnosis of tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardiñas, Misleidis; García, Grechen; Rosarys Martínez, María; Díaz, Raúl; Mederos, Lilian M

    2016-06-01

    Baciloscopy is the primary tool for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis, being this technique the most used internationally in the search for infectious cases. Quality control is the process of the rechecking smears by a highly qualified observer. To evaluate and highlight the importance of quality control of smear microscopy in the Provincial Laboratories diagnosticians of Tuberculosis in Cuba. This study was conducted at the National Reference Laboratory and Research in Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Mycobacteria in the Institute of Tropical Medicine "Pedro Kouri", Havana, Cuba, Were evaluated 2676 smears received from January 2013 to December 2014, from Provincial Centers of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology of Cuba, including the special municipality Isla de la Juventud. 2,664 (99.5%) were concordant smears, the correlation obtained for the positive smears were 96.5% and 99.8% for negative. Were identified12 reading errors: 7 (3.5%) false positive and 5 (0.2%) false negatives. Slides were classified with adequate quality of smears in 2039 (76.2%), showed difficulties in realizing the extension in 1464 (54.7%) and staining were adequate in 2343 (87.6%). The kappa index was 0.9674. Although there was good agreement between observations it is recommended to improve the quality of extended, maintain staff training program that performs this activity, like regular supervision by specialists, to further improve the quality of diagnosis.

  7. The Importance of Management Control in Monitoring the Pharmaceutical Industry Performance for Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Marian SGARDEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Management control and thus managerial accounting will adapt to the requirements of market economy in terms of knowledge. Another thought other action. The sustainability of a business depends on how we use resources but also can correct measurement of performance of a project or activity. The distinction between ‘traditional’ and ‘innovative’ management accounting practices can be illustrated by reference to cost control techniques. Traditionally, management accountants’ principal technique was variance analysis, which is a systematic approach to the comparison of the actual (real costs and budgeted costs of the raw materials and labor used during a production period. In this paper we wanted to show that the new management control procedures are part of knowledge management. Today is important for pharmaceutical companies to produce new products of advanced research results. This means that, for large companies, research expenditure budget is generous. More projects need to be monitored, evaluated and presented to the Board of Directors. What indicators will be kept for financial analysis? How prospective financial situation will look in five years? What will be the level of risk accepted by investors?

  8. Perbandingan Kualitas Layanan Ritel Swalayan Menggunakan Competitive Zone of Tolerance Based dan Importance-Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Bakhtiar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased retail economic has had an impact on the Indonesian economy. Carrefour as an international company has a local company's competitor, Hypermart. In order for both companies to know the position of competing, then benchmarking done between them using CZIPA (Competitive Zone of Tolerance based Importance-Performance Analysis method. The use of CZIPA methods is done to determine the priority of each self-service in making improvements. The dimension used is the retail dimension called RSQS (Retail Service Quality Scale. The goal to be achieved is to know the superior service quality indicators owned by Carrefour and Hypermart and to make priority services to be improved on both self-service using RSQS dimensions. Data collected through questionnaire with purposive sampling method to 133 people. Research finds the main problem facing Carrefour is self-service layout that does not facilitate consumers to find the desired product. At Hypermart, the main problem is that the products in the catalog are not always available.

  9. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  10. Relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Häkkinen, Arja; Lönnroos, Eija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Sulkava, Raimo; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2013-10-01

    Vision is an important prerequisite for balance control and mobility. The role of objectively measured visual functions has been previously studied but less is known about associations of functional vision, that refers to self-perceived vision-based ability to perform daily activities. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in a community-based sample of older adults. This study is part of a Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly project (GeMS). Participants (576) aged 76-100 years (mean age 81 years, 70 % women) were interviewed using a seven-item functional vision questionnaire (VF-7). Balance and mobility were measured by the Berg balance scale (BBS), timed up and go (TUG), chair stand test, and maximal walking speed. In addition, self-reported fear of falling, depressive symptoms (15-item Geriatric Depression Scale), cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination) and physical activity (Grimby) were assessed. In the analysis, participants were classified into poor, moderate, or good functional vision groups. The poor functional vision group (n = 95) had more comorbidities, depressed mood, cognition decline, fear of falling, and reduced physical activity compared to participants with moderate (n = 222) or good functional vision (n = 259). Participants with poor functional vision performed worse on all balance and mobility tests. After adjusting for gender, age, chronic conditions, and cognition, the linearity remained statistically significant between functional vision and BBS (p = 0.013), TUG (p = 0.010), and maximal walking speed (p = 0.008), but not between functional vision and chair stand (p = 0.069). Poor functional vision is related to weaker balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults. This highlights the importance of widespread assessment of health, including functional vision, to prevent balance impairment and maintain

  11. Inulin and Oligofructosis: a review about functional properties, prebiotic effects and importance for food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia de Oliveira Hauly

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays consumers are more conscious about the relation between food and health. Therefore food industry has been looking for food that has a lot of benefits besides good flavor and appearance. Inulin and oligofructose are fructose polimers, vastly found in plants as storage carbohydrates. They present important functional for the food industry. Both inulin and oligofructose have been used as fiber bulk in food products. Differently from other fibers, they do not add flavor, allowing the food to be improved without changing its viscosity. Inulin and oligofructose have similar nutritional properties. Inulin is more indicated for obtaining products with a low fat content such as ice cream, cake and soup, while oligofructose is indicated for yogurt with a low caloric value and in order to mask the residual flavor from high intensity sweeteners used in food preparation. Research has shown that inulin and oligofructose have prebiotic effects because they are not digestible and they can develop bifidogenic effects, improving the intestinal microflora. The simultaneous use of inulin and oligofructose with probiotic agents in food is recommended for symbiotic effects.

  12. Deacetylation of topoisomerase I is an important physiological function of E. coli CobB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingxuan; Zhou, Yan Ning; Jin, Ding Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Escherichia coli topoisomerase I (TopA), a regulator of global and local DNA supercoiling, is modified by Nε-Lysine acetylation. The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase CobB can reverse both enzymatic and non-enzymatic lysine acetylation modification in E. coli. Here, we show that the absence of CobB in a ΔcobB mutant reduces intracellular TopA catalytic activity and increases negative DNA supercoiling. TopA expression level is elevated as topA transcription responds to the increased negative supercoiling. The slow growth phenotype of the ΔcobB mutant can be partially compensated by further increase of intracellular TopA level via overexpression of recombinant TopA. The relaxation activity of purified TopA is decreased by in vitro non-enzymatic acetyl phosphate mediated lysine acetylation, and the presence of purified CobB protects TopA from inactivation by such non-enzymatic acetylation. The specific activity of TopA expressed from His-tagged fusion construct in the chromosome is inversely proportional to the degree of in vivo lysine acetylation during growth transition and growth arrest. These findings demonstrate that E. coli TopA catalytic activity can be modulated by lysine acetylation–deacetylation, and prevention of TopA inactivation from excess lysine acetylation and consequent increase in negative DNA supercoiling is an important physiological function of the CobB protein deacetylase. PMID:28398568

  13. Functional importance of the DNA binding activity of Candida albicans Czf1p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Petrovska

    Full Text Available The human opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a reversible morphological transition between the yeast and hyphal states in response to a variety of signals. One such environmental trigger is growth within a semisolid matrix such as agar medium. This growth condition is of interest because it may mimic the growth of C. albicans in contact with host tissue during infection. During growth within a semisolid matrix, hyphal growth is positively regulated by the transcriptional regulator Czf1p and negatively by a second key transcriptional regulator, Efg1p. Genetic studies indicate that Czf1p, a member of the zinc-cluster family of transcriptional regulators, exerts its function by opposing the inhibitory influence of Efg1p on matrix-induced filamentous growth. We examined the importance of the two known activities of Czf1p, DNA-binding and interaction with Efg1p. We found that the two activities were separable by mutation allowing us to demonstrate that the DNA-binding activity of Czf1p was essential for its role as a positive regulator of morphogenesis. Surprisingly, however, interactions with Efg1p appeared to be largely dispensable. Our studies provide the first evidence of a key role for the DNA-binding activity of Czf1p in the morphological yeast-to-hyphal transition triggered by matrix-embedded growth.

  14. A hierarchy of functionally important relaxations within myoglobin based on solvent effects, mutations and kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantsker, David; Samuni, Uri; Friedman, Joel M; Agmon, Noam

    2005-06-01

    Geminate CO rebinding in myoglobin is studied for two viscous solvents, trehalose and sol-gel (bathed in 100% glycerol) at several temperatures. Mutations in key distal hemepocket residues are used to eliminate or enhance specific relaxation modes. The time-resolved data are analyzed with a modified Agmon-Hopfield model which is capable of providing excellent fits in cases where a single relaxation mode is dominant. Using this approach, we determine the relaxation rate constants of specific functionally important modes, obtaining also their Arrhenius activation energies. We find a hierarchy of distal pocket modes controlling the rebinding kinetics. The "heme access mode" (HAM) is responsible for the major slow-down in rebinding. It is a solvent-coupled cooperative mode which restricts ligand return from the xenon cavities. Bulky side-chains, like those His64 and Trp29 (in the L29W mutant), operate like overdamped pendulums which move over and block the binding site. They may be either unslaved (His64) or moderately slaved (Trp29) to the solvent. Small side-chain relaxations, most notably of leucines, are revealed in some mutants (V68L, V68A). They are conjectured to facilitate inter-cavity ligand motion. When all relaxations are arrested (H64L in trehalose), we observe pure inhomogeneous kinetics with no temperature dependence, suggesting that proximal relaxation is not a factor on the investigated timescale.

  15. SIRT1 Functions as an Important Regulator of Estrogen-Mediated Cardiomyocyte Protection in Angiotensin II-Induced Heart Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 is a member of the sirtuin family, which could activate cell survival machinery and has been shown to be protective in regulation of heart function. Here, we determined the mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates Angiotensin II- (AngII- induced cardiac hypertrophy and injury in vivo and in vitro. Methods. We analyzed SIRT1 expression in the hearts of control and AngII-induced mouse hypertrophy. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and pretreated with 17β-estradiol to measure SIRT1 expression. Protein synthesis, cardiomyocyte surface area analysis, qRT-PCR, TUNEL staining, and Western blot were performed on AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy samples and cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs to investigate the function of SIRT1. Results. SIRT1 expression was slightly upregulated in AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro, accompanied by elevated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. SIRT1 overexpression relieves AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. 17β-Estradiol was able to protect cardiomyocytes from AngII-induced injury with a profound upregulation of SIRT1 and activation of AMPK. Moreover, estrogen receptor inhibitor ICI 182,780 and SIRT1 inhibitor niacinamide could block SIRT1’s protective effect. Conclusions. These results indicate that SIRT1 functions as an important regulator of estrogen-mediated cardiomyocyte protection during AngII-induced heart hypertrophy and injury.

  16. Phototransformation-Induced Aggregation of Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The Importance of Amorphous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with proper functionalization are desirable for applications that require dispersion in aqueous and biological environments, and functionalized SWCNTs also serve as building blocks for conjugation with specific molecules in these applicatio...

  17. Kinesiophobia, Pain, Muscle Functions, and Functional Performances among Older Persons with Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Ishak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims (1 to determine the association between kinesiophobia and pain, muscle functions, and functional performances and (2 to determine whether kinesiophobia predicts pain, muscle functions, and functional performance among older persons with low back pain (LBP. Methods. This is a correlational study, involving 63 institutionalized older persons (age = 70.98±7.90 years diagnosed with LBP. Anthropometric characteristics (BMI and functional performances (lower limb function, balance and mobility, and hand grip strength were measured. Muscle strength (abdominal and back muscle strength was assessed using the Baseline® Mechanical Push/Pull Dynamometer, while muscle control (transverse abdominus and multifidus was measured by using the Pressure Biofeedback Unit. The pain intensity and the level of kinesiophobia were measured using Numerical Rating Scale and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, respectively. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and multivariate linear regressions. Results. No significant correlations were found between kinesiophobia and pain and muscle functions (all p>0.05. Kinesiophobia was significantly correlated with mobility and balance (p=0.038, r=0.263. Regressions analysis showed that kinesiophobia was a significant predictor of mobility and balance (p=0.038. Conclusion. We can conclude that kinesiophobia predicted mobility and balance in older persons with LBP. Kinesiophobia should be continuously assessed in clinical settings to recognize the obstacles that may affect patient’s compliance towards a rehabilitation program in older persons with LBP.

  18. Exploration of Important Issues for the Safety of SFR 1 using Performance Assessment Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; Robinson, P.C.

    2002-06-01

    SKB has produced a revised safety case for the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes at Forsmark: project SAFE. This assessment includes a Performance Assessment (PA) for the long term post-closure safety of the facility. SKI has a responsibility to scrutinise SKB's safety case that is shared with SSI. Quintessa has undertaken a review of SKB's case for the long term safety of SFR 1 to assist SKI's evaluation of SAFE, and this is given in SKI-R--02-61, henceforth referred to as the Quintessa Review. The current report describes the independent PA calculations that provided an input to that review. Since 1999 SKI has been developing a PA capability for SFR 1 using the AMBER software. Two key features of the approach taken have been: To represent the whole system in a single model; and To allow the time-dependency of all key features, events and processes to be represented. These capabilities allow a better understanding of the key features of the system to be obtained for different future evolutions (scenarios). This report presents a summary of the work undertaken to provide SKI with a PA capability for SFR 1 and the calculations undertaken with it. Calculations have been undertaken for radionuclides transported in groundwater and gas, but not for direct intrusion by humans into the wastes. It should be emphasised that the purpose of the Performance Assessment calculations described in this report is not to provide an alternative assessment of potential radiological impacts to that produced by SKB. The aim is to use the models that have been developed to investigate the important features of the system and to help SKI scrutinise the case put to them by SKB. The PA calculations that have been undertaken are by no means comprehensive, and various issues could be investigated further if required. The key issues that have been identified can be summarised as follows: 1. The SFR 1 system has a number of different timescales that can

  19. NMDA receptor function during senescence: implication on cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok eKumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors, a family of L-glutamate receptors, play an important role in learning and memory, and are critical for spatial memory. These receptors are tetrameric ion channels composed of a family of related subunits. One of the hallmarks of the aging human population is a decline in cognitive function; studies in the past couple of years have demonstrated deterioration in NMDA receptor subunit expression and function with advancing age. However, a direct relationship between impaired memory function and a decline in NMDA receptors is still ambiguous. Recent studies indicate a link between an age-associated NMDA receptor hypofunction and memory impairment and provide evidence that age-associated enhanced oxidative stress might be contributing to the alterations associated with senescence. However, clear evidence is still deficient in demonstrating the underlying mechanisms and a relationship between age-associated impaired cognitive faculties and NMDA receptor hypofunction. The current review intends to present an overview of the research findings regarding changes in expression of various NMDA receptor subunits and deficits in NMDA receptor function during senescence and its implication in age-associated impaired hippocampal-dependent memory function.

  20. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  1. Geomicrobiology of Hydrothermal Vents in Yellowstone Lake: Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis suggest Importance of Geochemistry (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskeep, W. P.; Macur, R.; Jay, Z.; Clingenpeel, S.; Tenney, A.; Lavalvo, D.; Shanks, W. C.; McDermott, T.; Kan, J.; Gorby, Y.; Morgan, L. A.; Yooseph, S.; Varley, J.; Nealson, K.

    2010-12-01

    Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) is a large, high-altitude, fresh-water lake that straddles the most recent Yellowstone caldera, and is situated on top of significant hydrothermal activity. An interdisciplinary study is underway to evaluate the geochemical and geomicrobiological characteristics of several hydrothermal vent environments sampled using a remotely operated vehicle, and to determine the degree to which these vents may influence the biology of this young freshwater ecosystem. Approximately six different vent systems (locations) were sampled during 2007 and 2008, and included water obtained directly from the hydrothermal vents as well as biomass and sediment associated with these high-temperature environments. Thorough geochemical analysis of these hydrothermal environments reveals variation in pH, sulfide, hydrogen and other potential electron donors that may drive primary productivity. The concentrations of dissolved hydrogen and sulfide were extremely high in numerous vents sampled, especially the deeper (30-50 m) vents located in the Inflated Plain, West Thumb, and Mary Bay. Significant dilution of hydrothermal fluids occurs due to mixing with surrounding lake water. Despite this, the temperatures observed in many of these hydrothermal vents range from 50-90 C, and elevated concentrations of constituents typically associated with geothermal activity in Yellowstone are observed in waters sampled directly from vent discharge. Microorganisms associated with elemental sulfur mats and filamentous ‘streamer’ communities of Inflated Plain and West Thumb (pH range 5-6) were dominated by members of the deeply-rooted bacterial Order Aquificales, but also contain thermophilic members of the domain Archaea. Assembly of metagenome sequence from the Inflated Plain vent biomass and to a lesser extent, West Thumb vent biomass reveal the importance of Sulfurihydrogenibium-like organisms, also important in numerous terrestrial geothermal

  2. Optic neuropathies--importance of spatial distribution of mitochondria as well as function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Wai Man, C Y; Chinnery, P F; Griffiths, P G

    2005-01-01

    Optic neuropathies such as Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, dominant optic atrophy and toxic amblyopia are an important cause of irreversible visual failure. Although they are associated with a defect of mitochondrial energy production, their pathogenesis is poorly understood. A common feature to all these disorders is relatively selective degeneration of the papillomacular bundle of retinal ganglion cells resulting central or caecocentral visual field defects. The striking similarity in the pattern of clinical involvement seen with these disparate disorders suggests a common pathway in their aetiology. The existing hypothesis that the optic nerve head has higher energy demands than other tissues making it uniquely dependent on oxidative phosporylation is not satisfactory. First, other ocular tissues such as photoreceptors, which are more dependent on oxidative phosporylation are not affected. Second, other mitochondrial disorders, which have a greater impact on mitochondrial energy function, do not affect the optic nerve. The optic nerve head has certain unique ultra structural features. Ganglion cell axons exit the eye through a perforated collagen plate, the lamina cribrosa. There is a sharp discontinuity in the density of mitochondria at the optic nerve head, with a very high concentration in the prelaminar nerve fibre layer and low concentration behind the lamina. This has previously been attributed to a mechanical hold up of axoplasmic flow, which has itself been proposed as a factor in the pathogenesis of a number of optic neuropathies. More recent evidence shows that mitochondrial distribution reflects the different energy requirements of the unmyelinated prelaminar axons in comparison to the myelinated retrolaminar axons. The heterogeous distribution of mitochondria is actively maintained to support conduction through the optic nerve head. We propose that factors that disrupt the heterogeneous distribution of mitochondria can result in ganglion cell

  3. Normative Functional Performance Values in High School Athletes: The Functional Pre-Participation Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Starkel, Cambrie; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James; Chaudhari, Ajit; Comstock, R Dawn; Cortes, Nelson; Grooms, Dustin R; Hertel, Jay; Hewett, Timothy E; Miller, Meghan Maume; Pan, Xueliang; Schussler, Eric; Van Lunen, Bonnie L

    2018-01-01

      The fourth edition of the Preparticipation Physical Evaluation recommends functional testing for the musculoskeletal portion of the examination; however, normative data across sex and grade level are limited. Establishing normative data can provide clinicians reference points with which to compare their patients, potentially aiding in the development of future injury-risk assessments and injury-mitigation programs.   To establish normative functional performance and limb-symmetry data for high school-aged male and female athletes in the United States.   Cross-sectional study.   Athletic training facilities and gymnasiums across the United States.   A total of 3951 male and female athletes who participated on high school-sponsored basketball, football, lacrosse, or soccer teams enrolled in this nationwide study.   Functional performance testing consisted of 3 evaluations. Ankle-joint range of motion, balance, and lower extremity muscular power and landing control were assessed via the weight-bearing ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and anterior single-legged hop-for-distance (SLHOP) tests, respectively. We used 2-way analyses of variance and χ 2 analyses to examine the effects of sex and grade level on ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and SLHOP test performance and symmetry.   The SLHOP performance differed between sexes (males = 187.8% ± 33.1% of limb length, females = 157.5% ± 27.8% of limb length; t = 30.3, P performance. We observed differences for SLHOP and ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge performance among grade levels, but these differences were not clinically meaningful.   We demonstrated differences in normative data for lower extremity functional performance during preparticipation physical evaluations across sex and grade levels. The results of this study will allow clinicians to compare sex- and grade-specific functional performances and implement approaches for preventing musculoskeletal

  4. Study on functional relationships between ergonomics indexes of manual performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-Min; Ding, Li; Chen, Shou-Ping; Yang, Chun-Xin; Yuan, Xiu-Gan

    This paper investigates functional relationships between some of the key ergonomics indexes in manual performance, and attempts to condense the ergonomics appraisal indexes system and thus evaluate hand performance wearing EVA (extravehicular activity) glove, design and improve EVA glove's performance. Four types of ergonomics indexes were studied, i.e., dexterity, tactile sensibility (TS), strength and fatigue. Two test items of insert sticks into a holes-board (ISIHB) and nuts-bolts assembly task (NBAT) were used to measure dexterity, while shape discrimination (SD) was employed for TS, and grip force (GF) for strength and fatigue. The variables measured in this investigation included accomplishing time (AT) of ISIHB and NBAT, correct rate (CR) of SD, maximal grip force (MGF), instant grip force (IGF) and endurance time of grip force (ETGF). Experiments were conducted on 31 undergraduates (eight female and 23 male) with two experiment conditions of bare-hand group and gloved hand group. Results demonstrated that dexterity and TS performance of gloved hand group declined significantly compared with those of bare-hand group (pfatigue between two conditions (p>0.05). Four effective functional relationships were developed between four pairs of ergonomics indexes in bare-hand group. In gloved hand group, in addition to above-mentioned four pairs of relationships, another formula was found, which was y^=0.02061+0.01233x ( p<0.01, dexterity and TS).

  5. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT TESTS AND PERFORMANCE TESTS IN YOUNG ELITE MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Serna, Jorge; Rhea, Matthew R; Marín, Pedro J

    2015-10-01

    Sprinting and jumping are two common and important components of high-level sport performance. The weight-bearing dorsiflexion test (WB-DF) and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) are tools developed to identify athletes at risk for lower extremity injury and may be related to running and jumping performance among athletes. The purposes of the present study were: 1) to identify any relationships between functional movement tests (WB-DF and SEBT) and performance tests (jumping, sprinting and changing direction); 2) to examine any relationships between asymmetries in functional movements and performance tests. Descriptive cohort study. Fifteen elite male basketball players (age: 15.4 ± 0.9 years) were assessed during a three-week period to determine the reliability of functional screening tools and performance tests and to examine the relationships between these tests. Relative (intraclass correlation coefficient) and absolute (coefficient of variation) reliability were used to assess the reproducibility of the tests. Significant correlations were detected between certain functional movement tests and performance tests. Both left and right excursion composite scores related to slower performance times in sprint testing, demonstrating that greater dynamic reach relates to decreased quickness and acceleration among these elite basketball athletes. The various relationships between dynamic functional movement testing, speed, and jump performance provide guidance for the strength and conditioning professional when conducting and evaluating data in an effort to improve performance and reduce risk of injury. The results of the present study suggest that these functional and performance tests do not measure the same components of human movement, and could be paired as outcome measures for the clinical and sport assessment of lower extremity function. 2b.

  6. Importance of mental performance in parental choice of food for children aged 4-10 years: a study in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Heather; Egan, Bernadette; Williams, Peter; Brands, Brigitte; Györei, Eszter; López-Robles, Juan-Carlos; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamas; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique

    2017-04-01

    Typically, attention focuses on how nutrition affects physical health. The present study investigated the importance that parents attach to the impact of diet on mental performance when choosing food for their child. Questionnaire. Four European countries. Parents of children aged 4-10 years (n 1574): England (n 397), Germany (n 389), Hungary (n 398) and Spain (n 390). Most parents (80-85 %) considered the effect of food on four elements of mental performance (child's ability to learn, attention, behaviour, mood) to be moderately, very, extremely (v. slightly, not at all) important in food choices; over 90 % considered healthiness of food and making food appealing to their child important; 79·8 % cost; 76·8 % convenience. Belief that food affects mental performance was 57·4 % (ability to learn), 60·5 % (attention); less than 40 % of parents agreed they were aware which foods had an effect. Parents with lower general interest in healthy eating were less likely to consider the effect of food on mental performance elements as important. Respondents from Germany were more likely to rate mental performance as important (except behaviour); those in Hungary less likely. The most important influence on parents' decisions about feeding their child was their own experience, except Spain, where family/friends/health professionals were more important. Nutrition affects brain development and cognitive functioning. Low prioritisation of the effect of food on mental performance indicates potential for educating parents.

  7. Estimation of Import and Export demand Functions Using Bilateral Trade Data ___ the case of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanzaib Haider; Muhammad Afzal; Farah Riaz

    2011-01-01

    We estimated the import and export elasticities of Pakistan trade with traditional trade partners and some Asian countries to see the dynamics of Pakistan trade from 1973 to 2008. OLS results suggest that income is the principal determinant of exports and imports. Pakistan exports are cointegrated with Japan and USA while the imports are cointegrated with UAE and USA. Pakistan imports and exports are cointegrated with Bangladesh and Sri Lanka but not with India and China. Income and exchange ...

  8. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  9. Explicit versus implicit motivations: Clarifying how experiences affect turkey hunter satisfaction using revised importance-performance, importance grid, and penalty-reward-contrast analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Cornicelli, Louis; Fulton, David C.; Merchant, Steven S.

    2018-01-01

    Although research has advanced methods for clarifying factors that relate to customer satisfaction, they have not been embraced by leisure researchers. Using results from a survey of wild turkey hunters, we applied traditional and revised importance-performance (IPA/RIPA), importance-grid analysis (IGA), and penalty-reward-contrast analysis (PRCA) to examine how activity-specific factors influenced satisfaction. Results suggested differences between the explicit and implicit importance of factors related to turkey hunting. Opportunities to kill turkeys were explicitly rated as less important than seeing, hearing, or calling in turkeys, but opportunities for harvest had relatively higher levels of implicit importance. PRCA identified “calling turkeys in” and “hearing gobbling” as minimum requirements that cause dissatisfaction if not fulfilled, but do not provide satisfaction, whereas “seeing turkeys” and an “opportunity to kill a turkey” related to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. RIPA, IGA, and PRCA could provide valuable insights about factors that may improve satisfaction for leisure participants.

  10. Identifying faecal impaction is important for ensuring the timely diagnosis of childhood functional constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Walsted, Anne-Mette; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Most research on functional constipation has been carried out at a tertiary level. We focused this study on a secondary-level hospital outpatients' department, assessing the distribution of diagnostic criteria for childhood functional constipation and evaluating the consequences of current...... diagnostic practice based on current guidelines. METHODS: We enrolled 235 children, aged two to 16 years of age, with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria and assessed them using medical histories and physical examinations, including rectal examinations and ultrasound measurements...... the timely diagnosis of childhood functional constipation at the secondary care level. Ultrasound examination proved a reliable alternative to rectal examination or abdominal radiography when identifying faecal impaction....

  11. Executive Functioning: Relationship with High School Student Role Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna P. Mann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Student role performance for academic success in secondary education is under represented in the occupational therapy literature, despite the persistently high dropout rate in the United States (Stillwell & Sable, 2013. Executive dysfunction is one of many possible contributors to difficulties in the classroom (Dirette & Kolak, 2004 and is a better indicator of school performance than IQ (Diamond, 2012. This research examined executive functioning of both alternative and traditional high school students to determine if there is a relationship between executive function and academic success as measured by cumulative grade point average. METHOD. 132 high school students from three different school settings were given the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self Report (BRIEF-SR. The Global Executive Composite (GEC and individual subscale scores were compared to GPA. RESULTS. No significant difference in GEC scores was found among settings. Subscale scores for “inhibition” and “task completion” were significantly different in the alternative school setting. A weak negative correlation was seen between the GEC and GPA. However, academically unsuccessful students scored statistically lower on the GEC. CONCLUSION. Global executive dysfunction was not predicted by setting but was seen in academically unsuccessful students.

  12. Point kinetics equations for subcritical systems based on the importance function associated to an external neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Gonçalves, Wemerson de; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We define the new function importance. • We calculate the kinetic parameters Λ, β, Γ and Q to: 0.95, 0.96, 0.97, 0.98 and 0.99. • We compared the results with those obtained by the main important functions. • We found that the calculated kinetic parameters are physically consistent. - Abstract: This paper aims to determine the parameters for a new set of equations of point kinetic subcritical systems, based on the concept of importance of Heuristic Generalized Perturbation Theory (HGPT). The importance function defined here is related to both the subcriticality and the external neutron source worth (which keeps the system at steady state). The kinetic parameters defined in this work are compared with the corresponding parameters when adopting the importance functions proposed by Gandini and Salvatores (2002), Dulla et al. (2006) and Nishihara et al. (2003). Furthermore, the point kinetics equations developed here are solved for two different transients, considering the parameters obtained with different importance functions. The results collected show that there is a similar behavior of the solution of the point kinetics equations, when used with the parameters obtained by the importance functions proposed by Gandini and Salvatores (2002) and Dulla et al. (2006), specially near the criticality. However, this is not verified as the system gets farther from criticality

  13. Predicting failing performance on a standardized patient clinical performance examination: the importance of communication and professionalism skills deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Boscardin, Christy; Chou, Calvin L; Loeser, Helen; Hauer, Karen E

    2009-10-01

    The purpose is to determine which assessment measures identify medical students at risk of failing a clinical performance examination (CPX). Retrospective case-control, multiyear design, contingency table analysis, n = 149. We identified two predictors of CPX failure in patient-physician interaction skills: low clerkship ratings (odds ratio 1.79, P = .008) and student progress review for communication or professionalism concerns (odds ratio 2.64, P = .002). No assessments predicted CPX failure in clinical skills. Performance concerns in communication and professionalism identify students at risk of failing the patient-physician interaction portion of a CPX. This correlation suggests that both faculty and standardized patients can detect noncognitive traits predictive of failing performance. Early identification of these students may allow for development of a structured supplemental curriculum with increased opportunities for practice and feedback. The lack of predictors in the clinical skills portion suggests limited faculty observation or feedback.

  14. The importance of executive leadership in creating a post-merged organisational culture conducive to effective performance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Research purpose: To develop a theoretical model from the insights gleaned from the literature study, interviews with senior human resource (HR practitioners at participating institutions and the empirical study. Based on the empirical findings, this model was refined and resulted in the eight-step integrated post-merged organisational culture creation model. Motivation for the study: The negligible attention given to the design of mechanisms supportive of post-merged organisational culture creation emphasised the need for this study. The high percentage of merger failures attributable to ineffective post-merged organisational culture integration further contributed. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative study was conducted at three merged South African higher education institutions, namely Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Cape Peninsula University of Technology and Durban University of Technology. Respondents occupied the following functional categories: executive management, senior and line management, HR practitioners and non-HR or non-management. Main findings: Respondents perceived the role of executive management to be the most important step of the theoretical model which formed the basis for the empirical survey questionnaire. This step, which obtained the highest summated mean score in all three institutions and across all functional categories, was depicted as Step 5 of the model. Practical/managerial implications: The refined eight-step integrated post-merged organisational culture creation model will significantly enhance the creation of a post-merged organisational culture conducive to effective performance management. Contribution/value-add: This study addressed the void regarding a model to guide the creation of a post-merged organisational culture conducive to effective performance management in higher education institutions as well as merged corporate organisations.

  15. Influence function method for fast estimation of BWR core performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnema, F.; Martin, C.L.; Parkos, G.R.; Williams, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The model, which is based on the influence function method, provides rapid estimate of important quantities such as margins to fuel operating limits, the effective multiplication factor, nodal power and void and bundle flow distributions as well as the traversing in-core probe (TIP) and local power range monitor (LPRM) readings. The fast model has been incorporated into GE's three-dimensional core monitoring system (3D Monicore). In addition to its predicative capability, the model adapts to LPRM readings in the monitoring mode. Comparisons have shown that the agreement between the results of the fast method and those of the standard 3D Monicore is within a few percent. (orig.)

  16. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3 removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3 concentration (> 50% was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3 pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3 removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3 concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l−1 d−1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3 removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l−1 d−1. Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation–soil–groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3 removal. We estimated that

  17. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent mental disorders. Current disorder most important but psychiatric history matters as well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oerlemans, Anoek; Raven, Dennis; Laceulle, O.M.; Hartman, Catharina; Veenstra, Rene; Verhulst, F; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Oldehinkel, Tineke

    2017-01-01

    Background. Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting

  18. The importance of biodiversity and dominance for multiple ecosystem functions in a human-modified tropical landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Bongers, F.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; Poorter, L.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies suggest that biodiversity may be particularly important for ecosystem multifunctionality, because different species with different traits can contribute to different functions. Support, however, comes mostly from experimental studies conducted at small spatial scales in low-diversity

  19. Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Kelly B.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

  20. Effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Rha, Dong Wook; Shin, Jung Soon; Kim, Soohyeon; Jung, Soojin

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We recruited 34 children (M:F=15:19, age: 3-12 years) with spastic CP who underwent hippotherapy for 45 minutes twice a week for 8 weeks. Twenty-one children with spastic CP were recruited for control group. The distribution of gross motor function classification system level and mean age were not significantly different between the two groups. Outcome measures, including the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-66, GMFM-88 and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory: Functional Skills Scale (PEDI-FSS), were assessed before therapy and after the 8-weeks intervention as outcome measures. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups in mean baseline total scores of GMFM-66, GMFM-88 or PEDI-FSS. After the 8-weeks intervention, mean GMFM-66 and GMFM-88 scores were significantly improved in both groups. However, the hippotherapy group had significantly greater improvement in dimension E and GMFM-66 total score than the control group. The total PEDI-FSS score and the sub-scores of its 3 domains were significantly improved in the hippotherapy group, but not in the control group. The results of our study demonstrate the beneficial effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with CP compared to control group. The significant improvement in PEDI-FSS scores suggests that hippotherapy may be useful to maximize the functional performance of children with CP.

  1. An advanced probabilistic structural analysis method for implicit performance functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, H. R.; Cruse, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    In probabilistic structural analysis, the performance or response functions usually are implicitly defined and must be solved by numerical analysis methods such as finite element methods. In such cases, the most commonly used probabilistic analysis tool is the mean-based, second-moment method which provides only the first two statistical moments. This paper presents a generalized advanced mean value (AMV) method which is capable of establishing the distributions to provide additional information for reliability design. The method requires slightly more computations than the second-moment method but is highly efficient relative to the other alternative methods. In particular, the examples show that the AMV method can be used to solve problems involving non-monotonic functions that result in truncated distributions.

  2. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  3. The role of neuropsychological performance in the relationship between chronic pain and functional physical impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulles, Wiesje L J A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2011-12-01

      In this study, the relationship between pain intensity, neuropsychological, and physical function in adult chronic pain patients was examined.   Thirty participants with chronic pain completed neuropsychological tests tapping mental processing speed, memory, and executive function. Pain intensity was measured with three visual analog scales and the Pain Rating Index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. A grip strength test, the 6-minute walk test, the Unipedal Stance Test and the Lifting Low Test were administered in order to obtain a performance-based measure of physical capacity. Self-reported physical ability was assessed with the Disability Rating Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Functioning, and Role Physical scales. Psychosocial function was examined using the Mental Health and Role Emotional subscales of the Short Form-36.   The study was set in two outpatient physical therapy clinics in The Netherlands.   The analysis showed that a lower mental processing speed was related to a higher level of pain, as well as to a lower performance-based and self-reported physical functioning. In addition, both performance-based and self-reported physical function revealed an inverse correlation with pain intensity. Psychosocial function turned out to be an important mediator of the relationship between pain and self-reported, but not performance-based, physical function. Mental processing speed, on the other hand, was found to mediate the relationship between pain and performance-based physical functioning.   The results suggest that in chronic pain patients, mental processing speed mediates the relationship between pain and physical function. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  5. Differences in attentional functioning between preterm and full-term children underline the importance of new neuropsychological detection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, V; Fuiko, R; Leiss, U; Brandstetter, S; Hayde, M; Bartha-Doering, E; Klebermaß-Schrehof, K; Weiler, L J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate specific attentional components in preterm born children who had not yet started school. Between January and December 2011, we assessed 52 preterm and 52 full-term children aged between five years five months and six years two months, of comparable age and gender, at the Medical University of Vienna. Different attentional components were evaluated through selected subtests of the Test of Attentional Performance and the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Each child's behaviour was also evaluated using parental ratings and descriptive item-based evaluation during neuropsychological assessment. Children born preterm showed poor attentional performance in sustained attention, focused attention and distractibility, as well as reductions in processing speed in divided attention and flexibility tasks. Children born preterm also showed decreased volitional attention compared with automatic attention. No problems were detected in alertness or inhibition. In addition, a higher rate of aborted tests, decreased motivation and poorer parental ratings were detected among the preterm population compared with full-term born children. Our results highlighted differences in attentional functioning between preterm and full-term children, indicating the importance of new neuropsychological techniques for the detection of specific attentional disorders. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. An Analysis of the Importance of Selected Functions of Counseling Centers in Public Colleges in the State of Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas S.; And Others

    Counseling center directors at colleges in the state of Maryland were asked to rate the importance of several selected functions of their counseling centers. The functions rated were: (1) psychological problem counseling; (2) reading and study skills assistance; (3) testing; (4) academic advisement; (5) college orientation; (6) evening student…

  7. Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Laura Ann [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to functionalize a material. The desired moiety can be added to the monomer either before or after polymerization. The polymers used range from low glass transition temperature elastomers to high glass transition temperature, high performance materials. One industrial example of the first approach is the synthesis of Teflon(reg. sign). Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE or Teflon(reg. sign)) is synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene, a functionalized monomer. The resulting material has significant property differences from the parent, poly(ethylene). Due to the fluorine in the polymer, PTFE has excellent solvent and heat resistance, a low surface energy and a low coefficient of friction. This allows the material to be used in high temperature applications where the surface needs to be nonabrasive and nonstick. This material has a wide spread use in the cooking industry because it allows for ease of cooking and cleaning as a nonstick coating on cookware. One of the best examples of the second approach, functionalization after polymerization, is the vulcanization process used to make tires. Natural rubber (from the Hevea brasiliensis) has a very low glass transition temperature, is very tacky and would not be useful to make tires without synthetic alteration. Goodyear's invention was the vulcanization of polyisoprene by crosslinking the material with sulfur to create a rubber that was tough enough to withstand the elements of weather and road conditions. Due to the development of polymerization techniques to make cis

  8. Allometric scaling of body mass in running economy data: An important consideration in modeling marathon performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lundstrom, Christopher John; Biltz, George R.; Snyder, Eric M.; Ingraham, Stacy Jean

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare metabolic variables during submaximal running as predictors of marathon performance. Running economy (RE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) data were gathered during a 30 min incremental treadmill run completed within 2 weeks prior to running a 42.2-km marathon. Paces during the treadmill run progressed every 5 min from 75-100% of 10-km race velocity. Variables at each stage were analyzed as predictors of relative marathon performance (RMP) in compe...

  9. Importance of the fund management company in the performance of socially responsible mutual funds

    OpenAIRE

    Belghitar, Yacine; Clark, Ephraim; Deshmukh, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    We compare the performance of a sample of U.K.-based socially responsible investment (SRI) funds with similar conventional funds using a matched-pair analysis based on size, age, investment universe, and fund management company (FMC). We find that both the SRI and conventional funds outperform the market index about 50% of the time, even after fees. Subsample tests show that the SRI funds in our sample perform better in the pre- and postfinancial crisis periods but underperform during the fin...

  10. Student Performance in Principles of Macroeconomics: the Importance of Gender and Personality Type

    OpenAIRE

    Leiv Opstad; Lars Fallan

    2010-01-01

    Several studies indicate that females perform more poorly in economic courses than their male counterparts. Other studies reveal that students' personality types affect their performance in economic courses, as well. The present study explores this issue by testing a number of interactions between gender and the Kersey-Bates temperament types in an ordered probit model explaining students' grades in Principles of Macroeconomics. The results confirm that the interaction of gender and temperame...

  11. Non-pharmacological modification of endothelial function: An important lesson for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szulińska

    2018-03-01

    The impact of endothelial function in the complex pathology of cardiovascular diseases reflects a number of scientific proofs showing favorable effects of non-pharmacological interventions in endothelial dysfunction treatment.

  12. When daily planning improves employee performance: The importance of planning type, engagement, and interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Michael R; Weinhardt, Justin M; Brodsky, Andrew; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; DeVoe, Sanford E

    2018-03-01

    Does planning for a particular workday help employees perform better than on other days they fail to plan? We investigate this question by identifying 2 distinct types of daily work planning to explain why and when planning improves employees' daily performance. The first type is time management planning (TMP)-creating task lists, prioritizing tasks, and determining how and when to perform them. We propose that TMP enhances employees' performance by increasing their work engagement, but that these positive effects are weakened when employees face many interruptions in their day. The second type is contingent planning (CP) in which employees anticipate possible interruptions in their work and plan for them. We propose that CP helps employees stay engaged and perform well despite frequent interruptions. We investigate these hypotheses using a 2-week experience-sampling study. Our findings indicate that TMP's positive effects are conditioned upon the amount of interruptions, but CP has positive effects that are not influenced by the level of interruptions. Through this study, we help inform workers of the different planning methods they can use to increase their daily motivation and performance in dynamic work environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Reorganization of Functional Brain Maps After Exercise Training: Importance of Cerebellar-Thalamic-Cortical Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Holschneider, DP; Yang, J; Guo, Y; Maarek, J-M I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) causes functional and morphologic changes in normal and injured brain. While studies have examined effects of short-term (same day) training on functional brain activation, less work has evaluated effects of long-term training, in particular treadmill running. An improved understanding is relevant as changes in neural reorganization typically require days to weeks, and treadmill training is a component of many neurorehabilitation programs.

  14. Translation and adaptation of functional auditory performance indicators (FAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ferreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Work with deaf children has gained new attention since the expectation and goal of therapy has expanded to language development and subsequent language learning. Many clinical tests were developed for evaluation of speech sound perception in young children in response to the need for accurate assessment of hearing skills that developed from the use of individual hearing aids or cochlear implants. These tests also allow the evaluation of the rehabilitation program. However, few of these tests are available in Portuguese. Evaluation with the Functional Auditory Performance Indicators (FAPI generates a child's functional auditory skills profile, which lists auditory skills in an integrated and hierarchical order. It has seven hierarchical categories, including sound awareness, meaningful sound, auditory feedback, sound source localizing, auditory discrimination, short-term auditory memory, and linguistic auditory processing. FAPI evaluation allows the therapist to map the child's hearing profile performance, determine the target for increasing the hearing abilities, and develop an effective therapeutic plan. Objective: Since the FAPI is an American test, the inventory was adapted for application in the Brazilian population. Material and Methods: The translation was done following the steps of translation and back translation, and reproducibility was evaluated. Four translated versions (two originals and two back-translated were compared, and revisions were done to ensure language adaptation and grammatical and idiomatic equivalence. Results: The inventory was duly translated and adapted. Conclusion: Further studies about the application of the translated FAPI are necessary to make the test practicable in Brazilian clinical use.

  15. Distraction versus Intensity: The Importance of Exercise Classes for Cognitive Performance in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollseiffen, Petra; Vogt, Tobias; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the influence of a class of aerobic exercise and an art class on brain cortical activity and possible effects on cognitive performance. Electroencephalography was used to record the electrocortical activity of 16 schoolchildren (8-10 years old) before and after an aerobic exercise class and an art class. Performance in a standardized test of educational attainment (VERA-3) was assessed following both classes. A significant decrease in cortical activity was detected in all 4 lobes after exercise but not after art classes (p < 0.05). No changes in cognitive performance were observed after exercise and art classes. In this study, cortical activity was reduced after an exercise class but no effect on cognitive performance was observed. Hence, the neurophysiological effect of exercise should be further evaluated regarding different kinds of cognitive performance: creativity, knowledge acquisition as well as the outlasting effects of exercise on academic achievement. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Performance anxiety experiences of professional ballet dancers: the importance of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Imogen J; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M

    2010-01-01

    Performance anxiety research abounds in sport psychology, yet has been relatively sparse in dance. The present study explores ballet dancers' experiences of performance anxiety in relation to: 1. symptom type, intensity, and directional interpretation; 2. experience level (including company rank); and 3. self-confidence and psychological skills. Fifteen elite ballet dancers representing all ranks in one company were interviewed, and qualitative content analysis was conducted. Results revealed that cognitive anxiety was more dominant than somatic anxiety, and was unanimously interpreted as debilitative to performance. Somatic anxiety was more likely to be interpreted as facilitative, with the majority of dancers recognizing that a certain amount of anxiety could be beneficial to performance. Principal dancers suffered from higher intensities of performance anxiety than corps de ballet members. Feeling out of control emerged as a major theme in both the experience of anxiety and its interpretation. As a result, prevention or handling of anxiety symptoms may be accomplished by helping dancers to feel in control. Dancers may benefit from education about anxiety symptoms and their interpretation, in addition to psychological skills training incorporating cognitive restructuring strategies and problem-focussed coping to help increase their feelings of being in control.

  17. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Medijainen, Kadri; Pääsuke, Mati; Lukmann, Aet; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. Methods. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-mete...

  18. Optical functional performance of the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard M H; Ong, Gek L; Lam, Fook Chang; White, Joy; Crook, David; Liu, Christopher S C; Hull, Chris C

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate optical and visual functional performance of the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP). Optical design and analysis was performed with customized optical design software. Nine patients with implanted OOKP devices and 9 age-matched control patients were assessed. Contrast sensitivity was assessed and glare effect was measured with a brightness acuity test. All OOKP patients underwent kinetic Goldmann perimetry and wavefront aberrometry and completed the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). Optical analysis showed that the optical cylinder is near diffraction-limited. A reduction in median visual acuity (VA) with increasing glare settings was observed from 0.04 logMAR (without glare) to 0.20 logMAR (with glare at "high" setting) and significantly reduced statistically when compared with the control group at all levels of glare (P < 0.05). Contrast sensitivity was significantly reduced when compared with age-matched controls at medium and high spatial frequencies (P < 0.05). Median Goldmann perimetry was 65 degrees (interquartile range, 64-74 degrees; V-4e isopters) and 69 degrees excluding 2 glaucomatous subjects. Several vision-related NEI VFQ-25 subscales correlated significantly with VA at various brightness acuity test levels and contrast sensitivity at medium spatial frequencies, including dependency, general vision, near activities and distance activities. The OOKP optical cylinder provides patients with a good level of VA that is significantly reduced by glare. We have shown in vivo that updates to the optical cylinder design have improved the patient's field of view. Reduction of glare and refinement of cylinder alignment methods may further improve visual function and patient satisfaction.

  19. The Importance of REST for Development and Function of Beta Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2017-01-01

    that are crucial for both neuronal and pancreatic endocrine function, through the recruitment of multiple transcriptional and epigenetic co-regulators. REST targets include genes encoding transcription factors, proteins involved in exocytosis, synaptic transmission or ion channeling, and non-coding RNAs. REST......Beta cells are defined by the genes they express, many of which are specific to this cell type, and ensure a specific set of functions. Beta cells are also defined by a set of genes they should not express (in order to function properly), and these genes have been called forbidden genes. Among...... these, the transcriptional repressor RE-1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST) is expressed in most cells of the body, excluding most populations of neurons, as well as pancreatic beta and alpha cells. In the cell types where it is expressed, REST represses the expression of hundreds of genes...

  20. The Importance of Clinical and Diagnostic Markers of Aggression of Non-Functional Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Urmanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients with non-functional pituitary adenomas were observed. Most patients had large-cell chromophobe pituitary adenomas (81.6%. Small-cell chromophobe adenomas occurred in 10 % cases. Only 1 patient (3.3 % had giant carcinoma with regrowth and metastasis into the brain. Markers of aggression of non-functional pituitary adenomas are the young age of a patient, expressed first symptoms of disease manifestation, large size of tumor, asymmetry and deformation of pituitary, invasion of tumor to the neighboring tissues/arteries/cavernous sinus, presence of small cell and dark-cell chromophobe adenoma, panhypopituitarism.

  1. Functions important to nuclear power plant safety, and training and qualification of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The requirements for the safe operation of the organisation attending to direct operational, the maintenance and the technical support functions of a nuclear power plant are defined in the guide. The basic education, work experience and medical fitness for the job required during recruitment, the requirements relating to the initial training of a person for his job and certain job-specific approvals granted separately are presented. General requirements for the training function and for the refresher and continuing training arranged by the licence-holder are also set out. (1 ref.)

  2. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... toxics requirements of this subpart apply separately for each of the following types of gasoline produced...) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this subpart apply to gasoline produced at a refinery... not apply to gasoline produced by a refinery approved under § 80.1334, pursuant to § 80.1334(c). (2...

  3. On the importance of observational data properties when assessing regional climate model performance of extreme precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, Ole Bøssing

    2013-01-01

    datasets, the RCMs are ranked according to their performance using two different metrics. These are based on the error in representing the indices and the spatial correlation. In comparison to the mean, extreme precipitation indices are highly dependent on the spatial resolution of the observations...

  4. The Importance of Intrinsic Motivation for High and Low Ability Readers' Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Medford, Emma; Hughes, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how cognitive and motivational factors predicted reading skill and whether intrinsic reading motivation would explain significantly more variance in low ability readers' reading performance. One hundred and eleven children (aged 9-11) completed assessments of reading comprehension skill, verbal IQ, decoding skill and intrinsic…

  5. Stereotype Threat among Students with Disabilities: The Importance of The Evaluative Context on Their Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desombre, Caroline; Anegmar, Souad; Delelis, Gérald

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that cognitive performance of students with physical disabilities may be influenced by the evaluators' identity. Students with or without a physical disability completed a logic test and were informed that they would be evaluated by students from their own group (ingroup condition) or from an other group…

  6. Special Education Professional Standards: How Important Are They in the Context of Teacher Performance Evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Sara B.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher performance evaluation represents a high stakes issue as evidenced by its pivotal emphasis in national and local education reform initiatives and federal policy levers. National, state, and local education leaders continue to experience unprecedented pressure to adopt standardized benchmarks to reflect and link student achievement data to…

  7. Buffering against Performance Classroom Goal Structures: The Importance of Autonomy Support and Classroom Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Keith D.; Middleton, Michael J.; Summers, Jessica J.; Sheldon, Kennon M.

    2010-01-01

    The culture of schooling in the United States has become increasingly focused on outwardly proving student competence. Some achievement goal theorists suggest that a major casualty of performance-oriented classroom environments may be student motivation for developing and improving competence. The present study extends across theoretical…

  8. Labour productivity and innovation performance: the importance of internal labour flexibility practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Vergeer, R.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.

    2017-01-01

    This article develops and examines the idea that internal labour flexibility practices are beneficial for labour productivity and innovation performance of companies. This is tested in two studies using unique company level datasets. In Study 1, results obtained from 377 independent companies

  9. The structure, function, and importance of ceramides in skin and their use as therapeutic agents in skin-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckfessel, Matthew H; Brandt, Staci

    2014-07-01

    Ceramides (CERs) are epidermal lipids that are important for skin barrier function. Much research has been devoted to identifying the numerous CERs found in human skin and their function. Alterations in CER content are associated with a number of skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis. Newer formulations of skin-care products have incorporated CERs into their formulations with the goal of exogenously applying CERs to help skin barrier function. CERs are a complex class of molecules and because of their growing ubiquity in skin-care products, a clear understanding of their role in skin and use in skin-care products is essential for clinicians treating patients with skin diseases. This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and importance of skin CERs in diseased skin and how CERs are being used in skin-care products to improve or restore skin barrier function. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality assurance procedure for functional performance of industrial gamma radiography exposure devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Yadav, R.K.; Rajoo Kumar; Bhatt, B.C.; Sivaraman, G.; Nandkumar, A.N.

    2003-05-01

    An Industrial Gamma Radiography Exposure Device (IGRED) consists of various moving parts and accessories and wear and tear take place often. This may increase the possibility of radiation incidents and result in avoidable radiation exposure. Quality assurance tests of the equipment for functional performance plays a major role in ensuring that the exposure device and its accessories perform their intended functions and satisfy radiation safety requirements to avert potential exposures to operators. Therefore, in India it is practiced as mandatory requirement that each IGRED is tested for its functional performance and only after ascertaining that features of operational safety are satisfactory, loading of the source into the radiography exposure device can be permitted. This procedure which is being. practiced since the late 1970s, has contributed significantly towards the safe use of IGREDs and minimising the occurrence of radiation accidents. The purpose of this document is to highlight the importance of periodic functional performance check of each IGRED as per the checklist for the testing procedures. It is also proposed to entrust this activity to accredited laboratories, which have the necessary infrastructure to carry out this activity. The prerequisites for accreditation of such laboratories to carry out this activity and the testing procedures to be adopted for checking the functional performance of various models of IGREDs used in this country are given in this report. (author)

  11. Prognostic importance of renal function in patients with early heart failure and mild left ventricular dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Tom; Hillege, Hans; Voors, Adriaan; Dunselman, P.H.J.; Van Veldhuisen, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the prognostic value of renal function in an initially “untreated” population with mild heart failure and compared the prognosis of this population with a matched controlled population. During a follow-up of 13 years (mean 11.7), 90 patients (56%) died. Mortality was higher compared

  12. How Language Learners Can Improve Their Emotional Functioning: Important Psychological and Psychospiritual Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion is "the primary human motive" (MacIntyre, 2002, p. 61). The human brain is an emotional brain, creating relationships among thought, emotion, and motivation in a complex dynamic system (Dörnyei, 2009). Emotion "functions as an amplifier, providing the intensity, urgency, and energy to propel our behavior" in…

  13. Self-Monitoring Interventions for At-Risk Middle School Students: The Importance of Considering Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Donald E., III; Simonsen, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Self-monitoring is a popular, efficient, and effective intervention that is associated with improved academic and social behavior for students across age and ability levels. To date, this is the first study to directly compare the outcomes of self-monitoring functionally relevant and non-relevant replacement behaviors. Specifically, we used an…

  14. Recovery of important physiological functions in 3D culture of immortal hepatocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Fey, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    to grow human liver cells in ‘3 dimensional’ cultures so that they behave very similar to the liver in our bodies. By growing the immortal hepatocytes in specially designed bioreactors they form small pieces of ‘pseudotissue’ which exhibit several of the functions seen in the adult liver. We have grown...

  15. Keeping the LINC: the importance of nucleocytoskeletal coupling in intracellular force transmission and cellular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Maria L; Lammerding, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Providing a stable physical connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton is essential for a wide range of cellular functions and it could also participate in mechanosensing by transmitting intra- and extra-cellular mechanical stimuli via the cytoskeleton to the nucleus. Nesprins and SUN proteins, located at the nuclear envelope, form the LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex that connects the nucleus to the cytoskeleton; underlying nuclear lamins contribute to anchoring LINC complex components at the nuclear envelope. Disruption of the LINC complex or loss of lamins can result in disturbed perinuclear actin and intermediate filament networks and causes severe functional defects, including impaired nuclear positioning, cell polarization and cell motility. Recent studies have identified the LINC complex as the major force-transmitting element at the nuclear envelope and suggest that many of the aforementioned defects can be attributed to disturbed force transmission between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton. Thus mutations in nesprins, SUN proteins or lamins, which have been linked to muscular dystrophies and cardiomyopathies, may weaken or completely eliminate LINC complex function at the nuclear envelope and result in impaired intracellular force transmission, thereby disrupting critical cellular functions.

  16. The Importance of Take-Out Food Packaging Attributes: Conjoint Analysis and Quality Function Deployment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari Widaningrum, Dyah

    2014-03-01

    This research aims to investigate the importance of take-out food packaging attributes, using conjoint analysis and QFD approach among consumers of take-out food products in Jakarta, Indonesia. The conjoint results indicate that perception about packaging material (such as paper, plastic, and polystyrene foam) plays the most important role overall in consumer perception. The clustering results that there is strong segmentation in which take-out food packaging material consumer consider most important. Some consumers are mostly oriented toward the colour of packaging, while another segment of customers concerns on packaging shape and packaging information. Segmentation variables based on packaging response can provide very useful information to maximize image of products through the package's impact. The results of House of Quality development described that Conjoint Analysis - QFD is a useful combination of the two methodologies in product development, market segmentation, and the trade off between customers' requirements in the early stages of HOQ process

  17. A reappraisal of some Cigar Lake issues of importance to performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J. [Conterra AB (Sweden); Karlsson, Fred [Swedish Nucelear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-07-01

    The AECL/SKB Cigar Lake Analogue Study was published in 1994. Data from this study, relevant for repository performance assessments, have been reappraised in the light of greater exposure to analogue studies and the development of more realistic models used in performance assessment. Several of the areas proved to have been adequately addressed in the original study, but one of the areas that particularly benefited from the renewed analysis concerned radiolysis. In this case a model for radiolysis was developed and tested, significantly narrowing the gap between calculated and predicted oxidant production. Considerable progress was also made in understanding and modelling the initial formation of the deposit under hydrothermal conditions, and using this conceptual model to evaluate the changes that have subsequently occurred under `ambient` repository conditions over geological timescales. Moreover, the physical properties of clay as a potential buffer to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration were addressed with some success. 99 refs.

  18. A reappraisal of some Cigar Lake issues of importance to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.; Karlsson, Fred

    1996-07-01

    The AECL/SKB Cigar Lake Analogue Study was published in 1994. Data from this study, relevant for repository performance assessments, have been reappraised in the light of greater exposure to analogue studies and the development of more realistic models used in performance assessment. Several of the areas proved to have been adequately addressed in the original study, but one of the areas that particularly benefited from the renewed analysis concerned radiolysis. In this case a model for radiolysis was developed and tested, significantly narrowing the gap between calculated and predicted oxidant production. Considerable progress was also made in understanding and modelling the initial formation of the deposit under hydrothermal conditions, and using this conceptual model to evaluate the changes that have subsequently occurred under 'ambient' repository conditions over geological timescales. Moreover, the physical properties of clay as a potential buffer to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration were addressed with some success. 99 refs

  19. Markets for Technology and the Importance of Firm-Specific Search for Innovation Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    Firms rely increasingly on external knowledge, e.g. from universities, to improve their innovation performance. Existing research models the acquisition of knowledge either as a firm-specific search or a purchase on markets for technology. The former implies that a firm chooses and develops...... relationships with knowledge sources while the latter suggests a transaction governed by markets. We argue that both mechanisms increase a firm’s innovation performance but that they are interrelated. While on the firm level firm-specific search and acquisitions on markets for technology complement each other......, the costs of firm-specific search are only justified in underdeveloped markets. Otherwise, market transactions provide higher efficiency and flexibility. This negative cross-level interaction effect is stronger the more knowledge in an industry is covered by markets for technology. We test and support...

  20. Factors affecting the performance of family planning workers: importance of geographical information systems in empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; De Francisco, A; Khan, M M; Chakraborty, J; Myaux, J

    1999-01-01

    Substantial variation in contraceptive prevalence rates (CPRs) and fertility rates (FRs) between community health workers (CHWs) has been documented since the inception of the Matlab family planning program in rural Bangladesh. The coefficients of variation of these indicators for Matlab CHWs were 7% and 26%, respectively, in 1995. To identify the reasons for these performance variations, geographical information system (GIS) approaches were applied to longitudinal and cross-sectional data on 80 CHWs for the period 1980-95. Each observation in the data-set included catchment area-specific characteristics, measures of CHW efficiency in service delivery, and CHW-specific characteristics for one specific year. A one-unit increase in the average age of target women in the catchment area increases the CPR by 9.2%. The CPR increases by 0.2% for each 1% increase in women's literacy and decreases by 0.1% for each 1% increase in the number of Muslim households in the catchment area. An increase of 1 sq. km in the size of the catchment area reduces the CPR by 3%. CHW performance increases with age up to 45 years and then decreases. Similarly, a 1-year increase in the average age of target women reduces the FR by 2%. A 10% increase in the size of the catchment area reduces program performance by increasing the FR by 1.4%. A single geographic barrier to movement increases the FR by 1%. This analysis indicates that CHW performance can be improved significantly by defining catchment areas through use of GIS techniques. Without knowledge of the spatial distribution of population and the physical barriers to movement, allocating a fixed number of clients per CHW may not be the most efficient approach.

  1. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects. PMID:25904890

  2. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  3. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Psychological Refractory Period (PRP paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and 2 are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e. decreasing SOAs do not increase RTs and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/ or error rates in Task 1. This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  4. Sleep as a component of the performance triad: the importance of sleep in a military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentino, Cynthia V; Purvis, Dianna L; Murphy, Kaitlin J; Deuster, Patricia A

    2013-01-01

    Sleep habits among military populations are problematic. Poor sleep hygiene occurs in parallel with the global increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome and contributes to a decrease in performance. The extent of sleep issues needs to be quantified to provide feedback for optimizing warfighter performance and readiness. This study assessed various health behaviors and habits of US Army Soldiers and their relationship with poor sleep quality by introducing a set of new questions into the Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness (CSF2) Global Assessment Tool (GAT). Subjects included 14,148 US Army Active, Reserve, and National Guard members (83.4% male) who completed the GAT, a self-report questionnaire that measures 4 fitness dimensions: social, family, emotional, and spiritual. Approximately 60 new questions, including ones on sleep quality, within the fifth CSF2 dimension (physical) were also answered. A sleep score was calculated from 2 questions validated in the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale (0 to 6). Poor sleepers (5-6) were significantly (Psleep quality in a group of military personnel and indicated significant associations between quality of sleep and physical performance, nutritional habits, measures of obesity, lifestyle behaviors and measures of psychosocial status. Targeted educational interventions and resources are needed to improve sleep patterns based on behaviors that can be most easily modified.

  5. Service Quality Assessment of an Airport Restaurants Using Important Performance Analyze

    OpenAIRE

    Aslı Albayrak

    2014-01-01

    In today’s, because of some reasons such as increase in disposable income, urbanization and decreasing time due to the education and work increase number of people eating in restaurants and depend ofthis,number of restaurant has increased with every passing day. That’s why ıt’s vitally important for a restaurant to meet the demands and expectations of customers and offer quality service for the survival. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify gap between cus...

  6. Importance of N-Glycosylation on CD147 for Its Biological Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Huang, Wan; Ma, Li-Tian; Jiang, Jian-Li; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation of glycoproteins is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. Post-translational modifications of proteins are closely associated with the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. CD147, a tumor-associated antigen that is highly expressed on the cell surface of various tumors, is a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A significant biochemical property of CD147 is its high level of glycosylation. Studies on the structure and function of CD147 glycosylation provide valuable clues to the development of targeted therapies for cancer. Here, we review current understanding of the glycosylation characteristics of CD147 and the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of CD147 N-glycans. Finally, we discuss proteins regulating CD147 glycosylation and the biological functions of CD147 glycosylation. PMID:24739808

  7. Importance of N-Glycosylation on CD147 for Its Biological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of glycoproteins is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. Post-translational modifications of proteins are closely associated with the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. CD147, a tumor-associated antigen that is highly expressed on the cell surface of various tumors, is a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A significant biochemical property of CD147 is its high level of glycosylation. Studies on the structure and function of CD147 glycosylation provide valuable clues to the development of targeted therapies for cancer. Here, we review current understanding of the glycosylation characteristics of CD147 and the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of CD147 N-glycans. Finally, we discuss proteins regulating CD147 glycosylation and the biological functions of CD147 glycosylation.

  8. The importance of benthic-pelagic coupling for marine ecosystem functioning in a changing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Kadin, Martina; Nascimento, Francisco J. A.

    2017-01-01

    and function is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures, however there are large gaps in our understanding of the responses of inorganic nutrient and organic matter fluxes between benthic habitats and the water column. We illustrate the varied nature of physical and biological benthic-pelagic coupling...... processes and their potential sensitivity to three anthropogenic pressures - climate change, nutrient loading, and fishing - using the Baltic Sea as a case study, and summarize current knowledge on the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic material between habitats. Traditionally measured benthic......Benthic-pelagic coupling is manifested as the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients between benthic and pelagic habitats. It plays a prominent role in aquatic ecosystems and it is crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs. Coastal and estuarine ecosystem structure...

  9. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus; Lolk, Annette; Gottrup, Hanne; Høgh, Peter; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Beyer, Nina

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes a gradual decline in cognition, limitations of dual-tasking and physical function leading to total dependence. Hence, information about the interaction between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition may lead to new treatment strategies with the purpose of preserving function and quality of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in community-dwelling patients with mild AD. Baseline results from 185 participants (50-90 years old) in the single blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50 or naming the months backwards; and cognition, i.e., Mini Mental State Examination, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and Lexical verbal fluency test. Results in the 30-s chair stand test correlated significantly with all tests of cognition (r = .208-.242) while the other physical function tests only randomly correlated with tests of cognition. Results in the dual-task counting backwards correlated significantly with results in all tests of cognition (r = .259-.388), which accounted for 7%-15% of the variation indicating that a faster time to complete dual-task performance was associated with better cognitive performance. The evidence of the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition is important when creating new rehabilitation interventions to patients with mild AD.

  10. Safeguarding the functions and performance of instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.; Schoerner, O.

    1996-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the existing nuclear power plant control technology, the necessity of providing in the medium-term advanced and future-oriented, digital control system, both for normal operation and for safety-relevant tasks of the reactor and safety control systems. Siemens KWU has been promoting the development, review and marketing of the digital instrumentation and control systems called TELEPERM XS and TELEPERM XP in addition to the measures taken for safeguarding the functions of existing, wired systems. The paper briefly explains the performance and advantages of digital systems and the progress in approval and pioneering of the TELEPERM XS safety control system. Many examples discussed show the diversity of applications of the systems both in new reactor plants and as retrofitting measures, for KWU power plants and those of other manufacturers. (orig.) [de

  11. Application Of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) To Measure Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazila Said; Mohd Amirul Shafiq Shafiee; Nurul Hasanah Mohd Abd Basir

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to measure service quality performance and identify critical service quality characteristics as perceived by the customers. An integrated results survey that conducted by seven service centers that certified with Quality Management System (QMS) in Nuclear Malaysia are analysed. This is followed by constructing House of Quality (HoQ) and identifying other parameters for the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix. HoQ is a simple and attractive service innovation tool which can be used to directly show comprehensive information which contained the voice of customer (VOC), technical response, technical correlation and matrix relationship. This study revealed that the information's from HoQ with further discussion on planning part which can be used to assist management in knowing the overall detail information of service center achievement and recognizes the solution for unsatisfied customer through priority improvement activity to enhance the customer satisfaction in future. (author)

  12. Distribution dynamics and functional importance of NHERF1 in regulation of Mrp-2 trafficking in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvar, Serhan; Suda, Jo; Zhu, Lixin; Rockey, Don C

    2014-10-15

    Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that interacts with receptors and ion transporters in its PDZ domains and with the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family of proteins in its COOH terminus. The role of NHERF1 in hepatocyte function remains largely unknown. We examine the distribution and physiological significance of NHERF1 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp-2) in hepatocytes. A WT radixin binding site mutant (F355R) and NHERF1 PDZ1 and PDZ2 domain adenoviral mutant constructs were tagged with yellow fluorescent protein and expressed in polarized hepatocytes to study localization and function of NHERF1. Cellular distribution of NHERF1 and radixin was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. A 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) assay was used to characterize Mrp-2 function. Similar to Mrp-2, WT NHERF1 and the NHERF1 PDZ2 deletion mutant were localized to the canalicular membrane. In contrast, the radixin binding site mutant (F355R) and the NHERF1 PDZ1 deletion mutant, which interacts poorly with Mrp-2, were rarely associated with the canalicular membrane. Knockdown of NHERF1 led to dramatically impaired CMFDA secretory response. Use of CMFDA showed that the NHERF1 PDZ1 and F355R mutants were devoid of a secretory response, while WT NHERF1-infected cells exhibited increased secretion of glutathione-methylfluorescein. The data indicate that NHERF1 interacts with Mrp-2 via the PDZ1 domain of NHERF1 and, furthermore, that NHERF1 is essential for maintaining the localization and function of Mrp-2. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic and affect the accuracy of conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. We quantified change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compared estimates of occupied habitat derived from dynamic presence-background (i.e., presence-only data) climatic models with estimates derived from dynamic occupancy models that included a direct measure of food availability. We then compared estimates that incorporate fine-resolution spatial data on the availability of key ecological resources (i.e., functional habitats) with more common approaches that focus on broader climatic suitability or vegetation cover (due to the absence of fine-resolution data). The occupancy models produced significantly (P increase or decrease in the area of one functional habitat (foraging or nesting) did not necessarily correspond to an increase or decrease in the other. Thus, an increase in the extent of occupied area may not equate to improved habitat quality or function. We argue these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists but often go unnoticed because of limited data over relevant spatial and temporal scales and lack of spatial data on the availability of key resources. Understanding changes in the relative availability of functional habitats is crucial to informing conservation planning and accurately assessing extinction risk for mobile resource specialists. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Importance of bicarbonate transport in pH control during amelogenesis - need for functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, G; DenBesten, P; Rácz, R; Zsembery, Á

    2017-08-18

    Dental enamel, the hardest mammalian tissue, is produced by ameloblasts. Ameloblasts show many similarities to other transporting epithelia although their secretory product, the enamel matrix, is quite different. Ameloblasts direct the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals, which liberate large quantities of protons that then need to be buffered to allow mineralization to proceed. Buffering requires a tight pH regulation and secretion of bicarbonate by ameloblasts. Many investigations have used immunohistochemical and knockout studies to determine the effects of these genes on enamel formation, but up till recently very little functional data were available for mineral ion transport. To address this, we developed a novel 2D in vitro model using HAT-7 ameloblast cells. HAT-7 cells can be polarized and develop functional tight junctions. Furthermore, they are able to accumulate bicarbonate ions from the basolateral to the apical fluid spaces. We propose that in the future, the HAT-7 2D system along with similar cellular models will be useful to functionally model ion transport processes during amelogenesis. Additionally, we also suggest that similar approaches will allow a better understanding of the regulation of the cycling process in maturation-stage ameloblasts, and the pH sensory mechanisms, which are required to develop sound, healthy enamel. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality control of physician-performed mammography. Importance of original attempts to improve quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Takashi; Terada, Hiroshi; Kotsuma, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    In order to perform effective breast cancer screening with mammography, family doctors should be encouraged to participate. At institutions without specific radiology technicians, physicians themselves are required to perform mammography and operate the equipment, otherwise it is difficult to consistently obtain good-quality mammograms. Our institutions have been given a grade ''A'' evaluation by the Central Committee for Quality Control of Mammographic Screening (CCQCMS), due largely to our own efforts and promotion. Here we report our experience in solving a number of problems that occurred during the establishment of our system. We used the SEPIO standard mammography apparatus with a MD-100/CM-H screen/filter system, and developed films using a TCX-202 automatic film processor. Problems due to asymmetry of the bilateral breasts and lack of retroglandular fat tissue space and inframammary folds seen on our initial mammograms were overcome by placing marks at the postion of the AEC sensor, and at both ends and the center of the film on a bucky table. We simplified the markers by removing several complicated ones. We tried to rectify areas of the image that were obscured due to the difference in size between the inside of the cassette and the screen. Physicians and a radiology technician attended a mammography study course once weekly, and attempted to improve the quality of mammograms and our reading ability by obtaining advice from members of the CCQCMS. Manufacturers responded with considerable delay to our attempt to overcome the troublesome appearance of numerous microcalfication-like artifact shadows caused by screens. In conclusion, in order to perform effective breast cancer screening with mammography, we must obtain mammograms of good quality, for which it is necessary to always try to seek new ways of improving. At the same time, manufacturers need to respond quickly to queries and problems related to quality control. (author)

  16. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: age and performance status are more important than treatment modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corry, June; Smith, Jennifer G.; Wirth, Andrew; Quong, George; Liew, Kuen Hoe

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess prognostic factors and treatment modalities of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in terms of response rates, patterns of failure and overall survival. Methods and Materials: Sixty-two patients presenting with PCNSL between 1982 and 1994 at Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute with no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection were included in the study. Their median age was 60 years; World Health Organisation (WHO) performance status was ≥2 in 85%. All patients were planned to receive whole brain irradiation; 7 also received spinal irradiation. The median planned dose to the target volume was 50.4 Gy. Twenty patients were planned to receive chemotherapy as well. Patients were followed up to June 20, 1995, giving a median follow-up for 14 surviving patients of 5.4 years, range 0.3 to 10.2 years. Results: The clinical response rate to treatment was 77% [95% confidence interval (CI) 65 to 87%]. The estimated median overall survival was 20.6 months (CI 12.4 to 33.4 months). On univariate analysis male gender, age <60 years, WHO performance status ≤1, treatment to the target volume ≥45 Gy, and treatment with additional chemotherapy, were associated with a significantly better overall survival (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis only age and performance status remained significant prognostic variables. Relapse involved the central nervous system or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in all patients with known sites of relapse except three who had ocular relapse only. There was a low incidence of relapse in the initial brain site (23% of known cases) and a high incidence (50%) of CSF/spinal cord relapse. Of 48 deaths, 15 were related to initial or subsequent treatment. Conclusions: Patient outcome is strongly influenced by age and performance status. Studies suggesting better survival for patients treated with chemoradiation may reflect patient selection rather than treatment variables. Optimal management remains to be

  17. Heat Transfer Performance of Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet Aqueous Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Agromayor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The low thermal conductivity of fluids used in many industrial applications is one of the primary limitations in the development of more efficient heat transfer systems. A promising solution to this problem is the suspension of nanoparticles with high thermal conductivities in a base fluid. These suspensions, known as nanofluids, have great potential for enhancing heat transfer. The heat transfer enhancement of sulfonic acid-functionalized graphene nanoplatelet water-based nanofluids is addressed in this work. A new experimental setup was designed for this purpose. Convection coefficients, pressure drops, and thermophysical properties of various nanofluids at different concentrations were measured for several operational conditions and the results are compared with those of pure water. Enhancements in thermal conductivity and in convection heat transfer coefficient reach 12% (1 wt % and 32% (0.5 wt %, respectively. New correlations capable of predicting the Nusselt number and the friction factor of this kind of nanofluid as a function of other dimensionless quantities are developed. In addition, thermal performance factors are obtained from the experimental convection coefficient and pressure drop data in order to assess the convenience of replacing the base fluid with designed nanofluids.

  18. Importance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    Conventionally, the design of a nuclear reactor has been performed from a viewpoint of a safety function and the importance on earthquake-proof on the basis of not giving off the mainly included radioactivity outside. In this Niigataken-Chuetsuoki earthquake, there is almost no damage to the system, components and structure on safe also in the earthquake beyond assumption, and the validity of the design was checked. But, the situation peculiar to a big earthquake was also generated. The emergency plan room which should serve as a connection center with the exterior was not able to open a door and use at the beginning. Fire-extinguishing system piping fractured and self-defense fire fighting was not made. And so on. Discussion from the following three viewpoints was performed. 1st: The importance from a viewpoint which should maintain a function also with the disaster in case of an earthquake like an emergency plan room etc. 2nd: In the earthquake, since the safe system and un-safe system was influenced, the importance from a viewpoint which may have influence safely inquired when the un-safe system broke down. 3rd: Although it was not directly related safely, discussion from a viewpoint which influences fear of insecurity, such as taking out smoke, for example, was performed (author)

  19. Is functional integration of resting state brain networks an unspecific biomarker for working memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavash, Mohsen; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Is there one optimal topology of functional brain networks at rest from which our cognitive performance would profit? Previous studies suggest that functional integration of resting state brain networks is an important biomarker for cognitive performance. However, it is still unknown whether higher network integration is an unspecific predictor for good cognitive performance or, alternatively, whether specific network organization during rest predicts only specific cognitive abilities. Here, we investigated the relationship between network integration at rest and cognitive performance using two tasks that measured different aspects of working memory; one task assessed visual-spatial and the other numerical working memory. Network clustering, modularity and efficiency were computed to capture network integration on different levels of network organization, and to statistically compare their correlations with the performance in each working memory test. The results revealed that each working memory aspect profits from a different resting state topology, and the tests showed significantly different correlations with each of the measures of network integration. While higher global network integration and modularity predicted significantly better performance in visual-spatial working memory, both measures showed no significant correlation with numerical working memory performance. In contrast, numerical working memory was superior in subjects with highly clustered brain networks, predominantly in the intraparietal sulcus, a core brain region of the working memory network. Our findings suggest that a specific balance between local and global functional integration of resting state brain networks facilitates special aspects of cognitive performance. In the context of working memory, while visual-spatial performance is facilitated by globally integrated functional resting state brain networks, numerical working memory profits from increased capacities for local processing

  20. Performance on a simple response time task: Is sleep or work more important for miners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally A; Paech, Gemma M; Dorrian, Jillian; Roach, Gregory D; Jay, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of work- and sleep-related factors on an objective measure of response time in a field setting. Thirty-five mining operators working 12-h shift patterns completed daily sleep and work diaries, wore activity monitors continuously and completed palm-based psychomotor vigilance tests (palmPVT) at the start and end of each shift. Linear mixed models were used to test the main effects on response time of roster, timing of test, sleep history and prior wake. The time at which the test occurred was a significant predictor of response time (F₃(,)₄₀₃(.)₄ = 6.72, p times than the start of night shifts, and the start or end of day shifts. Further, the amount of sleep obtained in the 24h prior to the test was also a significant predictor of response time (F₃(,)₄₀₇(.)₀ = 3.05, p time indicative of performance impairments. Of more interest however is that immediate sleep history was also predictive of changes in response time with lower amounts of prior sleep related to slower response times. The current data provides further evidence that sleep is a primary mediator of performance, independent of roster pattern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. ASYMMETRIC PRICE TRANSMISSION MODELING: THE IMPORTANCE OF MODEL COMPLEXITY AND THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SELECTION CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry de-Graft Acquah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Criteria provides an attractive basis for selecting the best model from a set of competing asymmetric price transmission models or theories. However, little is understood about the sensitivity of the model selection methods to model complexity. This study therefore fits competing asymmetric price transmission models that differ in complexity to simulated data and evaluates the ability of the model selection methods to recover the true model. The results of Monte Carlo experimentation suggest that in general BIC, CAIC and DIC were superior to AIC when the true data generating process was the standard error correction model, whereas AIC was more successful when the true model was the complex error correction model. It is also shown that the model selection methods performed better in large samples for a complex asymmetric data generating process than with a standard asymmetric data generating process. Except for complex models, AIC's performance did not make substantial gains in recovery rates as sample size increased. The research findings demonstrate the influence of model complexity in asymmetric price transmission model comparison and selection.

  2. The import and function of diatom and plant frataxins in the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Long, Shaojun; Vávrová, Zuzana; Lukeš, Julius

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 1 (2008), s. 100-104 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500960705; GA MŠk LC07032; GA MŠk 2B06129; GA ČR GA204/06/1558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : frataxin * mitochondrion * Trypanosoma * diatom * evolutionary conservativeness * import Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.951, year: 2008

  3. Improving the performance of indicator groups for the identification of important areas for species conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper; Rahbek, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Indicator groups may be important tools with which to guide the selection of networks of areas for conservation. Nevertheless, the literature provides little guidance as to what makes some groups of species more suitable than others to guide area selection. Using distributional data on all sub...... diversity by systematically varying the number of distinct genera and families within the indicator groups. We selected area networks based on the indicator groups and tested their ability to represent a set of species, which, in terms of species composition, is independent of the indicator group....... Increasing the proportion of threatened, endemic, and range-restricted species in the indicator groups improved effectiveness of the selected area networks; in particular it improved the effectiveness in representing other threatened and range-restricted species. In contrast increasing the proportion...

  4. MODELING THE DETERMINANTS OF EXPORTS AND IMPORTS: ASSESSMENT OF THE MACEDONIAN COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce PETRESKI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available So far Macedonia has undergone an unsuccessful attempt to transition,distinguished by low growth rates, high unemployment, extensive poverty,balance of payments unfavorable position, technological lag etc. The externalsector, as a core element to growth perspectives of a small open economy iscritically dependant upon the export competitiveness. Consequently, thispaper will address some critical points of the Macedonian economy,particularly the vulnerability of the external sector alongside with the priceand trade liberalization. The set of analyses is to be carried out to explore theforeign trade structure, current account developments, as well as the majoraspects of qualitative competitiveness. In addition, we have examined theimpact of macroeconomic variables on exports and imports within theselected timeframe. We have therefore applied a comprehensive approach ofdynamic modeling based upon a vector - autoregression model determinedto control for endogeneity and set to estimate the long - run equilibriumrelations, as well as the short-run dynamics of the key variables.

  5. Importance sampling and histogrammic representations of reactivity functions and product distributions in Monte Carlo quasiclassical trajectory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faist, M.B.; Muckerman, J.T.; Schubert, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The application of importance sampling as a variance reduction technique in Monte Carlo quasiclassical trajectory calculations is discussed. Two measures are proposed which quantify the quality of the importance sampling used, and indicate whether further improvements may be obtained by some other choice of importance sampling function. A general procedure for constructing standardized histogrammic representations of differential functions which integrate to the appropriate integral value obtained from a trajectory calculation is presented. Two criteria for ''optimum'' binning of these histogrammic representations of differential functions are suggested. These are (1) that each bin makes an equal contribution to the integral value, and (2) each bin has the same relative error. Numerical examples illustrating these sampling and binning concepts are provided

  6. LEGAL PRINCIPLES IN FUNCTION AND PERFORMANCE OF BOT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifon Cristabella Eventia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT represents a long term partnership of the government and private sector. In BOT project, either the government or a private sector identifies a need for a development project. The philosophy in BOT contract begins from the increasing infrastructural needs in all areas and with a limited budget, government are required to commit the duties and functions state governance so that the concept of BOT give a solution through a partnership with the private sector. The government then gives a concession to the private sector to build the project and operate it for a fixed period years, after the period ended, the building shall be transferred to the government. Through BOT, the country is able to gain asset without government spending while maintaining a measure of regulatory control over the project. BOT permits the government to use private sector fund to finance public infrastructure development. The main issues elaborated in this article are the legal principle in the formation of BOT contract and the legal principle in the performance of BOT contract. There are two results; firstly, in the formation of a BOT contract, the principles of partnership and the principle of transparency should be emphasized. Secondly, in performance of the BOT contract, the principle of risk management and the principle of proportionality should be clearly stated in the rules and legal norms.

  7. The importance of benthic-pelagic coupling for marine ecosystem functioning in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Kadin, Martina; Nascimento, Francisco J A; Tamelander, Tobias; Törnroos, Anna; Bonaglia, Stefano; Bonsdorff, Erik; Brüchert, Volker; Gårdmark, Anna; Järnström, Marie; Kotta, Jonne; Lindegren, Martin; Nordström, Marie C; Norkko, Alf; Olsson, Jens; Weigel, Benjamin; Žydelis, Ramunas; Blenckner, Thorsten; Niiranen, Susa; Winder, Monika

    2017-06-01

    Benthic-pelagic coupling is manifested as the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients between benthic and pelagic habitats. It plays a prominent role in aquatic ecosystems, and it is crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs. Coastal and estuarine ecosystem structure and function are strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures; however, there are large gaps in our understanding of the responses of inorganic nutrient and organic matter fluxes between benthic habitats and the water column. We illustrate the varied nature of physical and biological benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their potential sensitivity to three anthropogenic pressures - climate change, nutrient loading, and fishing - using the Baltic Sea as a case study and summarize current knowledge on the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic material between habitats. Traditionally measured benthic-pelagic coupling processes (e.g., nutrient exchange and sedimentation of organic material) are to some extent quantifiable, but the magnitude and variability of biological processes are rarely assessed, preventing quantitative comparisons. Changing oxygen conditions will continue to have widespread effects on the processes that govern inorganic and organic matter exchange among habitats while climate change and nutrient load reductions may have large effects on organic matter sedimentation. Many biological processes (predation, bioturbation) are expected to be sensitive to anthropogenic drivers, but the outcomes for ecosystem function are largely unknown. We emphasize how improved empirical and experimental understanding of benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their variability are necessary to inform models that can quantify the feedbacks among processes and ecosystem responses to a changing world. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluating functional diversity: Missing trait data and the importance of species abundance structure and data transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Májeková, M.; Paal, T.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Bryndová, Michala; Kasari, L.; Norberg, A.; Weiss, Matthias; Bishop, T. R.; Luke, S. H.; Sam, Kateřina; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y.; Lepš, Jan; Götzenberger, Lars; de Bello, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2016), č. článku e0149270. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-32024P; GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 156/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : data incompleteness * functional diversity * species abundance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149270

  9. Importance of temperature and anodic medium composition on microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Booki; Romàn, Ó.B.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated at different temperatures and anodic media. A lag phase of 30 h occurred at 30°C which was half that at room temperature (22°C). The maximum power density at 30°C was 70 mW/m2 and at 22°C was 43 mW/m2. At 15°C, no successful operation...... was observed even after several loadings for a long period of operation. Maximum power density of 320 mW/m2 was obtained with wastewater medium containing phosphate buffer (conductivity: 11.8 mS/cm), which was approx. 4 times higher than the value without phosphate additions (2.89 mS/cm)....

  10. Geochemical sensitivity analysis: Identification of important geochemical parameters for performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.; Guzowski, R.; Rechard, R.; Erickson, K.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA Standard for geologic disposal of high level waste requires demonstration that the cumulative discharge of individual radioisotopes over a 10,000 year period at points 5 kilometers from the engineered barrier system will not exceed the limits prescribed in 40 CFR Part 191. The roles of the waste package, engineered facility, hydrogeology and geochemical processes in limiting radionuclide releases all must be considered in calculations designed to assess compliance of candidate repositories with the EPA Standard. In this talk, they will discuss the geochemical requirements of calculations used in these compliance assessments. In addition, they will describe the complementary roles of (1) simple models designed to bound the radionuclide discharge over the widest reasonable range of geochemical conditions and scenarios and (2) detailed geochemical models which can provide insights into the actual behavior of the radionuclides in the ground water. Finally, they will discuss development of sensitivity/uncertainty techniques designed to identify important site-specific geochemical parameters and processes using data from a basalt formation

  11. Service Quality Assessment of an Airport Restaurants Using Important Performance Analyze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Albayrak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s, because of some reasons such as increase in disposable income, urbanization and decreasing time due to the education and work increase number of people eating in restaurants and depend ofthis,number of restaurant has increased with every passing day. That’s why ıt’s vitally important for a restaurant to meet the demands and expectations of customers and offer quality service for the survival. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify gap between customers’ demands and expectation and correspondingly service quality in Turkish airline restaurants.Eight fast food restaurants in Istanbul Atatürk Airline were selected for this study. Questionnaires were used to collect data and 321 airline restaurant costumer responded to the questionnaire distributed between the months of February and May in 2014. For data analysis, frequency tables and t test were used. According to the results, when customers identify some service quality dimensions are sufficient, they identify other service quality dimensions inadequate.

  12. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms. Their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents a broad and thorough description of how microorganisms may influence safety of repositories for radioactive waste. First, an overview of the Swedish concepts for disposal is given, including a discussion of the geological, chemical and hydrological conditions in repositories. Then the limiting and stimulating factors for life of microorganisms are reviewed, such as relations to oxygen, temperature, pH, radiation, pressure, water and nutrients availability. Bacteria in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, iron, manganese and hydrogen are also discussed. A literature review of subterranean bacteria is given in chapter 4. Chapter 5 treats investigations of microorganisms in repository-like environments, and microbial corrosion and redox processes relevant for materials in the repository and for the mobility of radionuclides. Possibilities to predict the activity and presence of microorganisms through mathematical models are discussed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 summarizes the conclusion drawn in the report, how microorganisms may influence performance safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, and also identifies research needs. 293 refs, 43 figs, 36 tabs

  13. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms. Their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). General and Marine Microbiology; Karlsson, Fred [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents a broad and thorough description of how microorganisms may influence safety of repositories for radioactive waste. First, an overview of the Swedish concepts for disposal is given, including a discussion of the geological, chemical and hydrological conditions in repositories. Then the limiting and stimulating factors for life of microorganisms are reviewed, such as relations to oxygen, temperature, pH, radiation, pressure, water and nutrients availability. Bacteria in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, iron, manganese and hydrogen are also discussed. A literature review of subterranean bacteria is given in chapter 4. Chapter 5 treats investigations of microorganisms in repository-like environments, and microbial corrosion and redox processes relevant for materials in the repository and for the mobility of radionuclides. Possibilities to predict the activity and presence of microorganisms through mathematical models are discussed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 summarizes the conclusion drawn in the report, how microorganisms may influence performance safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, and also identifies research needs. 293 refs, 43 figs, 36 tabs.

  14. 6-year-old girl with anorectal malformation: what is more important – anatomy or function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Morozov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available 6-year-old girl with first revealed anorectal malformation with perineal fistula was investigate. She did not have any complaints or history of constipation/soiling. Resting and squeeze anal pressure by anorectal manometry was normal. Recto-anal inhibitory reflex registered. There was no signs of dyssynergic defecation. The diameter of the colon by contrast enema was normal, megarectum did not detect, barium all came out after defecation. Muscles electro-identification confirmed external anal sphincter located posterior to the anus. After examination, council for Pediatric Surgery decided not to perform the surgery. Monitoring of the patient continued.

  15. Cancer treatment in childhood and testicular function: the importance of the somatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Hutka, Marsida

    2018-01-01

    Testicular function and future fertility may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. Whilst survival of the germ (stem) cells is critical for ensuring the potential for fertility in these patients, the somatic cell populations also play a crucial role in providing a suitable environment to support germ cell maintenance and subsequent development. Regulation of the spermatogonial germ-stem cell niche involves many signalling pathways with hormonal influence from the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this review, we describe the somatic cell populations that comprise the testicular germ-stem cell niche in humans and how they may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. We also discuss the experimental models that may be utilized to manipulate the somatic environment and report the results of studies that investigate the potential role of somatic cells in the protection of the germ cells in the testis from cancer treatment. PMID:29351905

  16. Importance of glycosylation on function of a potassium channel in neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Hall

    Full Text Available The Kv3.1 glycoprotein, a voltage-gated potassium channel, is expressed throughout the central nervous system. The role of N-glycans attached to the Kv3.1 glycoprotein on conducting and non-conducting functions of the Kv3.1 channel are quite limiting. Glycosylated (wild type, partially glycosylated (N220Q and N229Q, and unglycosylated (N220Q/N229Q Kv3.1 proteins were expressed and characterized in a cultured neuronal-derived cell model, B35 neuroblastoma cells. Western blots, whole cell current recordings, and wound healing assays were employed to provide evidence that the conducting and non-conducting properties of the Kv3.1 channel were modified by N-glycans of the Kv3.1 glycoprotein. Electrophoretic migration of the various Kv3.1 proteins treated with PNGase F and neuraminidase verified that the glycosylation sites were occupied and that the N-glycans could be sialylated, respectively. The unglycosylated channel favored a different whole cell current pattern than the glycoform. Further the outward ionic currents of the unglycosylated channel had slower activation and deactivation rates than those of the glycosylated Kv3.1 channel. These kinetic parameters of the partially glycosylated Kv3.1 channels were also slowed. B35 cells expressing glycosylated Kv3.1 protein migrated faster than those expressing partially glycosylated and much faster than those expressing the unglycosylated Kv3.1 protein. These results have demonstrated that N-glycans of the Kv3.1 glycoprotein enhance outward ionic current kinetics, and neuronal migration. It is speculated that physiological changes which lead to a reduction in N-glycan attachment to proteins will alter the functions of the Kv3.1 channel.

  17. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  18. Endocrine evaluation of puberty and post-partum ovarian function in indigenous and imported Brahman cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, H.S.; Ismaya, K.H.; Sulong, A.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor the reproductive performance of Kedah Kelantan (KK) and Brahman cattle maintained under similar environmental and management conditions on commercial farms in Malaysia. This allowed the physiological differences affecting reproductive efficiency to be identified in both pubertal and adult stock. The results revealed that the Brahman breed exhibited a better growth rate but poorer post-partum fertility than the KK. It appears that Brahman cattle require feed supplementation around the time of calving in order to reduce the duration of post-partum anoestrus. Both breeds exhibited late onset of puberty (on average at 25-36 months of age), although some animals initiated sexual activity at a much earlier age; this suggests that better selection as well as nutritional supplementation and possibly endocrine manipulation are necessary management inputs. Although the Brahman shows excellent potential in terms of performance per animal, the greater carrying capacity of the KK and its greater adaptiveness to local conditions indicate that this indigenous animal still has a major role to play in livestock production in Malaysia. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  19. On the function and importance of research design in existential-phenomenological qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Casper

    inquiry. This is very different from the research traditions within the social sciences, which traditionally emphasizes the importance of research design and a controlled inquiry, even with respect to qualitative research. Social research is traditionally divided into three phases: planning, execution...... in a convincing way. This principle of controlled inquiry manifests itself in different ways within qualitative and quantitative traditions of social science research. But still, is this principle also applicable and relevant with respect to qualitative human science research? I think so. I hence make...... the argument that there would be a fruitful contribution to much phenomenological research from a greater emphasis on research design and controlled inquiry. But is it possible to combine these social science research principles with a phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to qualitative research...

  20. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  2. The POU proteins Brn-2 and Oct-6 share important functions in Schwann cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegle, Martine; Ghazvini, Mehrnaz; Mandemakers, Wim; Piirsoo, Marko; Driegen, Siska; Levavasseur, Francoise; Raghoenath, Smiriti; Grosveld, Frank; Meijer, Dies

    2003-06-01

    The genetic hierarchy that controls myelination of peripheral nerves by Schwann cells includes the POU domain Oct-6/Scip/Tst-1and the zinc-finger Krox-20/Egr2 transcription factors. These pivotal transcription factors act to control the onset of myelination during development and tissue regeneration in adults following damage. In this report we demonstrate the involvement of a third transcription factor, the POU domain factor Brn-2. We show that Schwann cells express Brn-2 in a developmental profile similar to that of Oct-6 and that Brn-2 gene activation does not depend on Oct-6. Overexpression of Brn-2 in Oct-6-deficient Schwann cells, under control of the Oct-6 Schwann cell enhancer (SCE), results in partial rescue of the developmental delay phenotype, whereas compound disruption of both Brn-2 and Oct-6 results in a much more severe phenotype. Together these data strongly indicate that Brn-2 function largely overlaps with that of Oct-6 in driving the transition from promyelinating to myelinating Schwann cells.

  3. Dual Sensory Loss and Depressive Symptoms: The Importance of Hearing, Daily Functioning and Activity Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Matthew Kiely

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between dual sensory loss (DSL and mental health has been well established. However, most studies have relied on self-report data and lacked measures that would enable researchers to examine causal pathways between DSL and depression. This study seeks to extend this research by examining the effects of DSL on mental health, and identify factors that explain the longitudinal associations between sensory loss and depressive symptoms. Methods: Piecewise linear-mixed models were used to analyse 16-years of longitudinal data collected on up to five occasions from 1611 adults (51% men aged between 65 and 103 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D. Vision loss (VL was defined by corrected visual acuity greater than 0.3 logMAR in the better eye, blindness or glaucoma. Hearing loss (HL was defined by pure tone average (PTA greater than 25 dB in the better hearing ear. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, medical conditions, lifestyle behaviours, Activities of Daily Living (ADLs, cognitive function, and social engagement. Results: Unadjusted models indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with HL (B=1.16, SE=0.33 and DSL (B=2.15, SE=0.39 but not VL. Greater rates of change in depressive symptoms were also evident after the onset of HL (B=0.16, SE=0.06, p

  4. Potential Functional Embedding Theory at the Correlated Wave Function Level. 2. Error Sources and Performance Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-03-14

    Quantum mechanical embedding theories partition a complex system into multiple spatial regions that can use different electronic structure methods within each, to optimize trade-offs between accuracy and cost. The present work incorporates accurate but expensive correlated wave function (CW) methods for a subsystem containing the phenomenon or feature of greatest interest, while self-consistently capturing quantum effects of the surroundings using fast but less accurate density functional theory (DFT) approximations. We recently proposed two embedding methods [for a review, see: Acc. Chem. Res. 2014 , 47 , 2768 ]: density functional embedding theory (DFET) and potential functional embedding theory (PFET). DFET provides a fast but non-self-consistent density-based embedding scheme, whereas PFET offers a more rigorous theoretical framework to perform fully self-consistent, variational CW/DFT calculations [as defined in part 1, CW/DFT means subsystem 1(2) is treated with CW(DFT) methods]. When originally presented, PFET was only tested at the DFT/DFT level of theory as a proof of principle within a planewave (PW) basis. Part 1 of this two-part series demonstrated that PFET can be made to work well with mixed Gaussian type orbital (GTO)/PW bases, as long as optimized GTO bases and consistent electron-ion potentials are employed throughout. Here in part 2 we conduct the first PFET calculations at the CW/DFT level and compare them to DFET and full CW benchmarks. We test the performance of PFET at the CW/DFT level for a variety of types of interactions (hydrogen bonding, metallic, and ionic). By introducing an intermediate CW/DFT embedding scheme denoted DFET/PFET, we show how PFET remedies different types of errors in DFET, serving as a more robust type of embedding theory.

  5. Specific membrane lipid composition is important for plasmodesmata function in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Magali S; Brocard, Lysiane; Fouillen, Laetitia; Nicolas, William; Wewer, Vera; Dörmann, Peter; Nacir, Houda; Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin; Claverol, Stéphane; Germain, Véronique; Boutté, Yohann; Mongrand, Sébastien; Bayer, Emmanuelle M

    2015-04-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are nano-sized membrane-lined channels controlling intercellular communication in plants. Although progress has been made in identifying PD proteins, the role played by major membrane constituents, such as the lipids, in defining specialized membrane domains in PD remains unknown. Through a rigorous isolation of "native" PD membrane fractions and comparative mass spectrometry-based analysis, we demonstrate that lipids are laterally segregated along the plasma membrane (PM) at the PD cell-to-cell junction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Remarkably, our results show that PD membranes display enrichment in sterols and sphingolipids with very long chain saturated fatty acids when compared with the bulk of the PM. Intriguingly, this lipid profile is reminiscent of detergent-insoluble membrane microdomains, although our approach is valuably detergent-free. Modulation of the overall sterol composition of young dividing cells reversibly impaired the PD localization of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins Plasmodesmata Callose Binding 1 and the β-1,3-glucanase PdBG2 and altered callose-mediated PD permeability. Altogether, this study not only provides a comprehensive analysis of the lipid constituents of PD but also identifies a role for sterols in modulating cell-to-cell connectivity, possibly by establishing and maintaining the positional specificity of callose-modifying glycosylphosphatidylinositol proteins at PD. Our work emphasizes the importance of lipids in defining PD membranes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of halloysite nanotubes on the structure and function of important multiple blood components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Keke; Feng, Ru; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhou, Changren

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers have investigated the application of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in biomedicine, because of their special nanoscale hollow tubular structure. Although the cytocompatibility of HNTs has been studied, their blood compatibility has not been systematically investigated. In this work, the effect of HNTs on the structure and function of different blood components has been studied, including the morphology and hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs). Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, optical density test and flow cytometry analysis, we found that HNTs can affect the morphology and membrane integrity of RBCs in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in a content-dependent way. In particular, based on UV–vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra, HNTs can alter the secondary structure and conformation of human fibrinogen and γ-globulins. In addition, the detection of biomarker molecules C3a and C5a in plasma suggests that HNTs can trigger complement activation. In the blood clotting assay, HNTs were found to significantly prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), shorten the prothrombin time (PT) of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and change the thromboelastography (TEG) parameters of whole blood coagulation. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis were used to test intracellular uptake by macrophages, and the cellular uptake of HNTs in the RAW 264.7 was found to be content-dependent, but not time-dependent. These findings provide insight for the potential use of HNTs as biofriendly nanocontainers for biomaterials in vivo. - Highlights: • Comprehensive study of blood compatibility halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) is processed. • We examine and analyze the effect of HNTs on conformation changes of three plasma proteins. • We prove HNTs can affect blood components at high content but little at low content. • We prove HNTs could be used as biomaterials

  7. Effect of halloysite nanotubes on the structure and function of important multiple blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keke; Feng, Ru; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhou, Changren

    2017-06-01

    Many researchers have investigated the application of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in biomedicine, because of their special nanoscale hollow tubular structure. Although the cytocompatibility of HNTs has been studied, their blood compatibility has not been systematically investigated. In this work, the effect of HNTs on the structure and function of different blood components has been studied, including the morphology and hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs). Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, optical density test and flow cytometry analysis, we found that HNTs can affect the morphology and membrane integrity of RBCs in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in a content-dependent way. In particular, based on UV-vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra, HNTs can alter the secondary structure and conformation of human fibrinogen and γ-globulins. In addition, the detection of biomarker molecules C3a and C5a in plasma suggests that HNTs can trigger complement activation. In the blood clotting assay, HNTs were found to significantly prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), shorten the prothrombin time (PT) of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and change the thromboelastography (TEG) parameters of whole blood coagulation. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis were used to test intracellular uptake by macrophages, and the cellular uptake of HNTs in the RAW 264.7 was found to be content-dependent, but not time-dependent. These findings provide insight for the potential use of HNTs as biofriendly nanocontainers for biomaterials in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of halloysite nanotubes on the structure and function of important multiple blood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Keke; Feng, Ru; Jiao, Yanpeng, E-mail: tjiaoyp@jnu.edu.cn; Zhou, Changren

    2017-06-01

    Many researchers have investigated the application of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in biomedicine, because of their special nanoscale hollow tubular structure. Although the cytocompatibility of HNTs has been studied, their blood compatibility has not been systematically investigated. In this work, the effect of HNTs on the structure and function of different blood components has been studied, including the morphology and hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs). Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, optical density test and flow cytometry analysis, we found that HNTs can affect the morphology and membrane integrity of RBCs in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in a content-dependent way. In particular, based on UV–vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra, HNTs can alter the secondary structure and conformation of human fibrinogen and γ-globulins. In addition, the detection of biomarker molecules C3a and C5a in plasma suggests that HNTs can trigger complement activation. In the blood clotting assay, HNTs were found to significantly prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), shorten the prothrombin time (PT) of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and change the thromboelastography (TEG) parameters of whole blood coagulation. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis were used to test intracellular uptake by macrophages, and the cellular uptake of HNTs in the RAW 264.7 was found to be content-dependent, but not time-dependent. These findings provide insight for the potential use of HNTs as biofriendly nanocontainers for biomaterials in vivo. - Highlights: • Comprehensive study of blood compatibility halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) is processed. • We examine and analyze the effect of HNTs on conformation changes of three plasma proteins. • We prove HNTs can affect blood components at high content but little at low content. • We prove HNTs could be used as biomaterials

  9. The importance of left ventricular function for long-term outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tio René A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study we sought to determine the long-term prognostic value of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, assessed by planar radionuclide ventriculography (PRV, after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI. Methods In total 925 patients underwent PRV for LVEF assessment after PPCI for myocardial infarction before discharge from the hospital. PRV was performed with a standard dose of 500 Mbq of 99mTc-pertechnetate. Average follow-up time was 2.5 years. Results Mean (± SD age was 60 ± 12 years. Mean (± SD LVEF was 45.7 ± 12.2 %. 1 year survival was 97.3 % and 3 year survival was 94.2 %. Killip class, multi vessel-disease, previous cardiovascular events, peak creatin kinase and its MB fraction, age and LVEF proved to be univariate predictors of mortality. When entered in a forward conditional Cox regression model age and LVEF were independent predictors of 1 and 3 year mortality. Conclusion LVEF assessed by PRV is a powerful independent predictor of long term mortality after PPCI for STEMI.

  10. Combination PPARγ and RXR Agonist Treatment in Melanoma Cells: Functional Importance of S100A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P. Klopper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hormone receptors, including RXR and PPARγ, represent novel therapeutic targets in melanoma. We have previously shown that the DRO subline of the amelanotic melanoma A375 responds to rexinoid and thiazolidinedione (TZD treatment in vitro and in vivo. We performed microarray analysis of A375(DRO after TZD and combination rexinoid/TZD treatment in which the calcium binding protein S100A2 had increased expression after rexinoid or TZD treatment and a synergistic increase to combination treatment. Increased S100A2 expression is dependent on an intact PPARγ receptor, but it is not sufficient to mediate the antiproliferative effects of rexinoid/TZD treatment. Over expression of S100A2 enhanced the effect of rexinoid and TZD treatment while inhibition of S100A2 expression attenuated the response to rexinoid/TZD treatment, suggesting that S100A2 is necessary for optimal response to RXR and PPARγ activation by respective ligands. In summary, we have identified potential downstream mediators of rexinoid and TZD treatment in a poorly differentiated melanoma and found that alterations in S100A2 expression affect RXR and PPARγ signaling in A375(DRO cells. These studies provide insight into potential mechanisms of tumor response or resistance to these novel therapies.

  11. Cerebral palsy: Influence of TheraTogs ® on gait, posture and in functional performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ehlert

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: For children with cerebral palsy, orthoses take an important role in improving posture, gait, functional performance and preventing secondary musculoskeletal disorders. Objective: To evaluate the influence of TheraTogs® on the posture, distribution of plantar pressure during gait and functional performance of a child with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Methods: A quantitative evaluation was carried out on a case study in which an 11-year-old child diagnosed with diplegic cerebral palsy underwent postural assessment through the Postural Assessment Software (PAS, plantar pressure distribution assessment during barefoot gait through the Emed-X system, before and after the intervention period of 8 weeks and functional assessment (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory - PEDI, with and without TheraTogs®. Results: In posture, TheraTogs® had greater influence on hip extension and this change was greater during its use. In the plantar pressure distribution assessment, an increase in posteriorization of plantar pressure occurred in the initial contact, the performance of the push-off phase and initial swing phase improved. In functionality, the child showed improvements in mobility, however, their self-care ability with TheraTogs® was reduced. Conclusion: Although improvements in posture, gait and functionality were verified with the use of TheraTogs®, the excessive heat, difficulties in toileting and self-care were disadvantages in wearing TheraTogs®.

  12. Role of Marketing Intelligence by Strategic Function in Organizational Performance: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ayub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is multifaceted; firstly, it aims to explore the extent to which marketing intelligence is utilized within corporate sector in Pakistan. Secondly, this paper measures the role of marketing intelligence by strategic function on organizational performance. Research on marketing intelligence has consequently increased and grabbed the attention of researchers and marketers to leverage marketing intelligence resulting in increased organizational performance for the last decade. The study uses exploratory approach, sample of the study consisted of 145 professionals from 30 companies related to different sectors operating in Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Structural Equation Model (SEM Technique was used to test the hypotheses. The study found a strong positive relationship between marketing intelligence by strategic function and organizational performance. The study also found that majority of corporate sector of Pakistan have incorporated and utilized marketing intelligence system. This piece of writing has thrown light on the significance of marketing intelligence and its usefulness as a marketing strategy which not only contributes in the existing body of knowledge but also has many managerial implications. The study endorsed the importance of marketing intelligence by strategic function to heading on this fast-paced competition. As for marketing managers in order to formulate policies; marketing intelligence by strategic function provides a leapfrogging approach to outer perform in the market place.

  13. Body Unloading Associated with Space Flight and Bed-rest Impacts Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Ballard, K. L.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. Bed-rest results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. These data point to the importance of providing axial body loading as a central component of an inflight training system that will integrate cardiovascular, resistance and sensorimotor adaptability training modalities into a single interdisciplinary countermeasure system.

  14. Mechanistic Insight into the Host Transcription Inhibition Function of Rift Valley Fever Virus NSs and Its Importance in Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Kaori; Ramirez, Sydney I; Makino, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the genus Phlebovirus within the family Bunyaviridae, causes periodic outbreaks in livestocks and humans in countries of the African continent and Middle East. RVFV NSs protein, a nonstructural protein, is a major virulence factor that exhibits several important biological properties. These include suppression of general transcription, inhibition of IFN-β promoter induction and degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R. Although each of these biological functions of NSs are considered important for countering the antiviral response in the host, the individual contributions of these functions towards RVFV virulence remains unclear. To examine this, we generated two RVFV MP-12 strain-derived mutant viruses. Each carried mutations in NSs that specifically targeted its general transcription inhibition function without affecting its ability to degrade PKR and inhibit IFN-β promoter induction, through its interaction with Sin3-associated protein 30, a part of the repressor complex at the IFN-β promoter. Using these mutant viruses, we have dissected the transcription inhibition function of NSs and examined its importance in RVFV virulence. Both NSs mutant viruses exhibited a differentially impaired ability to inhibit host transcription when compared with MP-12. It has been reported that NSs suppresses general transcription by interfering with the formation of the transcription factor IIH complex, through the degradation of the p62 subunit and sequestration of the p44 subunit. Our study results lead us to suggest that the ability of NSs to induce p62 degradation is the major contributor to its general transcription inhibition property, whereas its interaction with p44 may not play a significant role in this function. Importantly, RVFV MP-12-NSs mutant viruses with an impaired general transcription inhibition function showed a reduced cytotoxicity in cell culture and attenuated virulence in young mice

  15. The importance of GRAS to the functional food and nutraceutical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdock, George A.; Carabin, Ioana G.; Griffiths, James C.

    2006-01-01

    At a time when 150 million Americans spend over $20.5 billion on functional foods, nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is doing little to ensure that all the safe and efficacious products that could come to the market are allowed to do so. FDA has only responded slowly and reluctantly to Congressional action and to mandates from the Courts to implement the law. Additionally, FDA had set the bar too high for Health Claims and was forced by the Courts to implement a more reasonable standard, but the response, Qualified Health Claims, has failed to gain the confidence of the public because of the confusing wording of the claims demanded by FDA. Congressional efforts to assure consumer access to dietary supplements have been met with similar resistance from FDA. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was the product of a compromise with a lower threshold for demonstration of safety (reasonable expectation of no harm) that would be met by consumer self-policing and assumption of some risk. FDA has thwarted this effort by raising the bar for New Dietary Ingredient Notifications (NDIN) to what appears to be the higher threshold for the safety of food ingredients (reasonable certainty of no harm)-FDA apparently sees these two safety thresholds as a distinction without a difference. As a result, increasing numbers of dietary supplement manufacturers, unwilling to gamble the future of their products to a system that provides little hope for the FDA's response of 'no objection', have committed the additional resources necessary to obtain Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status for their supplements. The pressure on FDA and Congress for change is again building with increased dissatisfaction among consumers as the result of confusing labels. A second force for change will be a need to uncouple the FDA mandated substance-disease relationship and return to the substance-claim relationship to allow for progress in

  16. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medijainen, Kadri; Pääsuke, Mati; Lukmann, Aet; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and by performing timed-up-and-go-test (TUG). Neurological assessment included Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY), Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (S-E), and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). In women with PD, Kendall's tau-b correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between functional performance tests and neurological assessment measures, with the exception in MMSE. No corresponding associations were found for men, although they demonstrated better functional performance, as expected. Men in similar clinical stage of the PD perform better on functional tests than women. Disease severity reflects upon functional performance differently in men and women with PD. Results indicate that when interpreting the assessment results of both functional performance and neurological assessment tests, the gender of the patient should be taken into consideration.

  17. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Medijainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson’s disease (PD is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. Methods. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-meter walk test (10MWT and by performing timed-up-and-go-test (TUG. Neurological assessment included Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY, Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS, Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (S-E, and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results. In women with PD, Kendall’s tau-b correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between functional performance tests and neurological assessment measures, with the exception in MMSE. No corresponding associations were found for men, although they demonstrated better functional performance, as expected. Conclusion. Men in similar clinical stage of the PD perform better on functional tests than women. Disease severity reflects upon functional performance differently in men and women with PD. Results indicate that when interpreting the assessment results of both functional performance and neurological assessment tests, the gender of the patient should be taken into consideration.

  18. Selecting Tasks for Evaluating Human Performance as a Function of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason R.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    A challenge in understanding human performance as a function of gravity is determining which tasks to research. Initial studies began with treadmill walking, which was easy to quantify and control. However, with the development of pressurized rovers, it is less important to optimize human performance for ambulation as pressurized rovers will likely perform gross translation for them. Future crews are likely to spend much of their extravehicular activity (EVA) performing geology, construction,a nd maintenance type tasks. With these types of tasks, people have different performance strategies, and it is often difficult to quantify the task and measure steady-state metabolic rates or perform biomechanical analysis. For many of these types of tasks, subjective feedback may be the only data that can be collected. However, subjective data may not fully support a rigorous scientific comparison of human performance across different gravity levels and suit factors. NASA would benefit from having a wide variety of quantifiable tasks that allow human performance comparison across different conditions. In order to determine which tasks will effectively support scientific studies, many different tasks and data analysis techniques will need to be employed. Many of these tasks and techniques will not be effective, but some will produce quantifiable results that are sensitive enough to show performance differences. One of the primary concerns related to EVA performance is metabolic rate. The higher the metabolic rate, the faster the astronaut will exhaust consumables. The focus of this poster will be on how different tasks affect metabolic rate across different gravity levels.

  19. Personality Type and Student Performance in Upper-Level Economics Courses: The Importance of Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Mary O.; Stranahan, Harriet A.

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates that personality type is an important explanatory variable in student performance in upper level economics courses. Finds that certain personality types, combined with race and gender effects, produce students who outperform other students. Introverts and those with the Keirsey-Bates temperament combination of sensing/judging…

  20. The Importance of psychological constructs for training volume and performance improvement. A structural equation model for youth speed skaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; De Roos, Ilse; Torenbeek, Marjolein; Fokkema, Tryntsje; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the importance of self-regulated learning, motivation, and goal orientation for training volume and performance improvement, 63 talented Dutch speed skaters (n=35 male; n=28 female) aged 11 to 22 completed the Self-Regulation of Learning-Self-Report Scale (SRL-SRS; Toering et al.,

  1. Tumor microenvironment and metabolic synergy in breast cancers: critical importance of mitochondrial fuels and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2014-04-01

    metabolic dysregulation in myocytes and adipocytes, shares similarities with stromal-carcinoma metabolic synergy, as well. In summary, metabolic synergy occurs when breast carcinoma cells induce a nutrient-rich microenvironment to promote tumor growth. The process of tumor metabolic synergy is a multistep process, due to the generation of ROS, and the induction of catabolism with autophagy, mitophagy and glycolysis. Studying epithelial-stromal interactions and metabolic synergy is important to better understand the ecology of cancer and the metabolic role of different cell types in tumor progression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effects of blueberries on inflammation, motor performance and cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motor and cognitive function decrease with age, to include deficits in balance, coordination, gait, processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. These functional declines may be caused by long term increases in and susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation. Research ...

  3. Importance and performance evaluation tools for small and medium companies: critical analysis of national versus international literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro César Bortoluzzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to map the importance and performance evaluation tools for small and medium companies. This descriptive and qualitative study analyzed 33 national articles and 21 international ones. Regarding the importance of performance evaluation for small and medium companies, the literature highlights: (i it increases the success of the network; (ii it is useful for management; (iii it strengthens competitiveness; (iv it consolidates cooperation; and, (v it increases trust among partners. Comparing the national versus international literature on the importance of performance evaluation for small and medium companies, it can be noticed similar and complementary aspects, that is, there is not disagreement between the authors. The authors use tools consolidated in the literature, such as Balanced Scorecard; Benchmarking; Performance Prism and tools proposed specifically to evaluate small and medium networks. The main dimensions evaluated are: (i exchange of information; (ii value management in networks; (Iii level of network maturity; (iv benefits of collaboration; (v social capital; (vi collective efficiency; (vii network life cycle; (viii efficiency and inefficiency of the networks; and, (ix existence and intensity of the relationship between partners. The critical analysis regarding the performance evaluation concept adopted in the present study shows that the tools proposed or implemented to evaluate small and medium business networks have gaps in the process to identify criteria, measure ordinal and cardinally, integrate and generate actions of improvement.

  4. THE FEATURES OF AIRCRAFT FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Alexandrovich Krotov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The key steps of aircraft essential parameters and events monitoring during its operation are considered in the arti- cle. Conditions for specific risk monitoring are also presented.The notion of fail-safe feature of aircraft functional systems is analysed, and the necessity of continuous process of safety flight level estimate is shown. The method of quantitative assessment of key events and risks probabilities with the use of modern software is proposed. This method contains 5 basic stages: The monitoring parameters setting - this stage is initial and begins with the consideration of organization safety cul- ture, the main purposes and problems determination, the basic parameters and characteristics forming which are to be monitored. The event monitoring in operation - on this stage continuous process of key events searching and monitoring which are a thing of importance within the framework of the established problems takes place. This process is closely relat- ed to parameters monitoring set on the first stage. The event and risk estimate - this stage begins directly after the event has been discovered. The estimate pro- cess is as long as it is required to identify the event gravity. It also contains the preliminary risk estimate for using in priori- tization of initial expanded estimate and in the working out of plan for activities realization. The working out of plan for activities - on this stage correction data is determined that will make changes to aero- technics working out, operation, maintenance and to staff training directly in linkage to the problem event identified earlier. The activity carrying-out - the realization of actions according to the activity plan. This stage concludes priori- tization, planning and problem carrying-out. The dependence set between the probability of failure situations and the degree of their danger is shown. The key factors which are subject to be estimated while aircraft operating and which aim with

  5. Distribution-based estimates of minimum clinically important difference in cognition, arm function and lower body function after slow release-fampridine treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H B; Mamoei, Sepehr; Ravnborg, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide distribution-based estimates of the minimal clinical important difference (MCID) after slow release fampridine treatment on cognition and functional capacity in people with MS (PwMS). METHOD: MCID values were determined after SR-Fampridine treatment in 105 PwMS. Testing...

  6. Cognitive performance is of clinical importance, but is unrelated to pain severity in women with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickmans, Kelly; Meeus, Mira; Kos, Daphne; Clarys, Peter; Meersdom, Geert; Lambrecht, Luc; Pattyn, Nathalie; Nijs, Jo

    2013-10-01

    In various chronic pain populations, decreased cognitive performance is known to be related to pain severity. Yet, this relationship has not been investigated in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This study investigated the relationship between cognitive performance and (1) pain severity, (2) level of fatigue, and (3) self-reported symptoms and health status in women with CFS. Examining the latter relationships is important for clinical practice, since people with CFS are often suspected to exaggerate their symptoms. A sample of 29 female CFS patients and 17 healthy controls aged 18 to 45 years filled out three questionnaires (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), and CFS Symptom List) and performed three performance-based cognitive tests (psychomotor vigilance task, Stroop task, and operation span task), respectively. In both groups, pain severity was not associated with cognitive performance. In CFS patients, the level of fatigue measured with the CFS Symptom List, but not with the CIS, was significantly correlated with sustained attention. Self-reported mental health was negatively correlated with all investigated cognitive domains in the CFS group. These results provide evidence for the clinical importance of objectively measured cognitive problems in female CFS patients. Furthermore, a state-like measure (CFS Symptom List) appears to be superior over a trait-like measure (CIS) in representing cognitive fatigue in people with CFS. Finally, the lack of a significant relationship between cognitive performance and self-reported pain severity suggests that pain in CFS might be unique.

  7. Superplasticizer function and sorption in high performance cement based grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Gray, M.N.; Roe, L.H.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes laboratory studies undertaken to determine interactions between the main components of high-performance cement-based grout. These interactions were studied with the grouts in both their unset and hardened states with the specific intention of determining the following: the mechanistic function of superplasticizer; the phase of residence of the superplasticizer in hardened materials; and the permanence of the superplasticizer in hardened grouts. In unset pastes attempts were made to extract superplasticizer by mechanical processes. In hardened grout the superplasticizer was leached from the grouts. A microautoradiographic method was developed to investigate the phases of residence of superplasticizer in hardened grouts and confirm the inferences from the leaching studies. In hardened grout the superplasticizer was located on the hydrated phases formed during the early stages of cement hydration. These include tricalcium aluminate hydrates and tricalcium silicate phases. There is some tendency for the superplasticizer to sorb on ettringite. The presence of superplasticizer did not coincide with the locations of unreacted silica fume and high silica content phases such as C 2 S-H. The observations explain the findings of the studies of unset pastes which also showed that the sorption of superplasticizer is likely to be enhanced with increased mixing water content and, hence, distribution in and exposure to the hydration reaction surfaces in the grout. Superplasticizer can be leached in very small quantities from the hardened grouts. Rapid release takes place from the unsorbed superplasticizer contained in the accessible pore space. Subsequent release likely occurs with dissolution of the cement phases and the exposure of isolated pores to groundwater. (au) (37 refs.)

  8. Time-dependent importance sampling in semiclassical initial value representation calculations for time correlation functions. II. A simplified implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guohua; Miller, William H

    2012-09-28

    An efficient time-dependent (TD) Monte Carlo (MC) importance sampling method has recently been developed [G. Tao and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 024104 (2011)] for the evaluation of time correlation functions using the semiclassical (SC) initial value representation (IVR) methodology. In this TD-SC-IVR method, the MC sampling uses information from both time-evolved phase points as well as their initial values, and only the "important" trajectories are sampled frequently. Even though the TD-SC-IVR was shown in some benchmark examples to be much more efficient than the traditional time-independent sampling method (which uses only initial conditions), the calculation of the SC prefactor-which is computationally expensive, especially for large systems-is still required for accepted trajectories. In the present work, we present an approximate implementation of the TD-SC-IVR method that is completely prefactor-free; it gives the time correlation function as a classical-like magnitude function multiplied by a phase function. Application of this approach to flux-flux correlation functions (which yield reaction rate constants) for the benchmark H + H(2) system shows very good agreement with exact quantum results. Limitations of the approximate approach are also discussed.

  9. Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus: functional food with antioxidant -antimicrobial activityand an important source of Vitamin D and medicinal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Parola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mushrooms produce a large amount of medicinal compounds, and are also an optimal source of fibres, proteins, vitamins (like groups B and D, and other micronutrients including potassium, magnesium, etc. Consequently, mushrooms are commonly considered to be functional foods. Many works report the high biological potentials of medicinal mushrooms involving their antibacterial, hypoglycaemic, anticholesterolemic, radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory effects. Context and purpose of this study: First off, this work aimed to find strains of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus from a bank of edible mushrooms bought from international strain banks (Table I that could possess health benefit related properties, such as a radical scavenging activity (antioxidant effect, antibacterial effects against common pathogenic bacteria, and being able to produce interesting nutrients and secondary metabolites. As the fungal bank comprises of 20 strains of L. edodes and 20 strains of P. ostreatus, a first screening was made by the selection of 13 strains for each mushroom able to grow in multiple wood types or that were particularly productive and had proved good growth reproducibility over the last 5 years. This work also studied the correlation between culture conditions and mushroom quality in terms of the previously reported properties. Comparison among the selected strains was operated by the assessment of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities after different sample treatments. Furthermore, an initial optimization of the analytic techniques was produced for the direct estimation of important secondary metabolites and nutrients by means of HPLC-MS/MS technique. Further research will encompass an evaluation of transformation processes (drying, freezing, rehydration, cooking, etc. impact on radical scavenging, antibacterial activity, and possible degradation/loss of nutraceutically important substances such as vitamin D2, ergothioneine

  10. Functional Comparison of Bacteria from the Human Gut and Closely Related Non-Gut Bacteria Reveals the Importance of Conjugation and a Paucity of Motility and Chemotaxis Functions in the Gut Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrijevic, Dragana; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Jamet, Alexandre; Maguin, Emmanuelle; van de Guchte, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    The human GI tract is a complex and still poorly understood environment, inhabited by one of the densest microbial communities on earth. The gut microbiota is shaped by millennia of evolution to co-exist with the host in commensal or symbiotic relationships. Members of the gut microbiota perform specific molecular functions important in the human gut environment. This can be illustrated by the presence of a highly expanded repertoire of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, in phase with the large diversity of polysaccharides originating from the diet or from the host itself that can be encountered in this environment. In order to identify other bacterial functions that are important in the human gut environment, we investigated the distribution of functional groups of proteins in a group of human gut bacteria and their close non-gut relatives. Complementary to earlier global comparisons between different ecosystems, this approach should allow a closer focus on a group of functions directly related to the gut environment while avoiding functions related to taxonomically divergent microbiota composition, which may or may not be relevant for gut homeostasis. We identified several functions that are overrepresented in the human gut bacteria which had not been recognized in a global approach. The observed under-representation of certain other functions may be equally important for gut homeostasis. Together, these analyses provide us with new information about this environment so critical to our health and well-being.

  11. Functional Comparison of Bacteria from the Human Gut and Closely Related Non-Gut Bacteria Reveals the Importance of Conjugation and a Paucity of Motility and Chemotaxis Functions in the Gut Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Dobrijevic

    Full Text Available The human GI tract is a complex and still poorly understood environment, inhabited by one of the densest microbial communities on earth. The gut microbiota is shaped by millennia of evolution to co-exist with the host in commensal or symbiotic relationships. Members of the gut microbiota perform specific molecular functions important in the human gut environment. This can be illustrated by the presence of a highly expanded repertoire of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, in phase with the large diversity of polysaccharides originating from the diet or from the host itself that can be encountered in this environment. In order to identify other bacterial functions that are important in the human gut environment, we investigated the distribution of functional groups of proteins in a group of human gut bacteria and their close non-gut relatives. Complementary to earlier global comparisons between different ecosystems, this approach should allow a closer focus on a group of functions directly related to the gut environment while avoiding functions related to taxonomically divergent microbiota composition, which may or may not be relevant for gut homeostasis. We identified several functions that are overrepresented in the human gut bacteria which had not been recognized in a global approach. The observed under-representation of certain other functions may be equally important for gut homeostasis. Together, these analyses provide us with new information about this environment so critical to our health and well-being.

  12. Depressive and anxiety disorders on-the-job: the importance of job characteristics for good work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisier, Inger; de Graaf, Ron; de Bruijn, Jeanne; Smit, Johannes; van Dyck, Richard; Beekman, Aartjan; Penninx, Brenda

    2012-12-30

    This study examines the importance of job characteristics on absence and on-the-job performance in a large group of employees with diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders. In a sample of 1522 employees (1129 persons with and 393 persons without psychopathology) participating in Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA, n=2981) we examined associations between job characteristics and work functioning (absenteeism and work performance) in multinominal logistic regression models. Job characteristics were working hours, psychosocial working conditions and occupational status. As expected, depressed and anxious patients were at significantly elevated risk for absenteeism and poor work performance. In analyses adjusted for psychopathology, absenteeism and poor performance were significantly lower among persons reporting high job support, high job control, less working hours, self-employed and high skilled jobs. Associations were comparable between persons with and without psychopathology. High job support, high job control and reduced working hours were partially related to work functioning in both workers with- and without-psychopathology. Since depressed and anxious employees are at a substantially increased risk for absenteeism and poor work performance, strategies that improve job support and feelings of control at work may be especially helpful to prevent poor work functioning in this at-risk group of employees. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors that impact functional performance of elderly with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Pereira Guerra

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Low back pain is a common condition among older adults and an important cause of disability. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between functional performance of older adults with low back pain and the following variables: sociodemographic and clinical factors, self-perceived health and back pain beliefs. Methods: A cross-sectional study that used data from the Back Complaints in the Elders international consortium. Information about sociodemographic factors (sex, age, marital status, formal education, clinical factors (intensity and frequency of pain, comorbidities, self-perceived health, back pain beliefs and functional performance (measured by the disability component of the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument - LLFDI were collected through self-report. 191 older adults above 60 years with a new episode of back complaints who did not have any cognitive disorder, visual or hearing impairment, or motor disabilities participated in the study. A bivariate analysis was conducted between each independent variable and each outcome. Associations with p < 0.20 were selected for the multiple linear regression analysis, which was carried out for each LLFDI domain. Results: The multiple regression coefficients of determination were significant despite the modest magnitude. The variables related to functional performance were back beliefs, self-perceived health, formal education, pain frequency and marital status. Conclusion: These results may contribute to the expansion of health professionals’ work in the therapeutic approach of low back pain, broadening its focus beyond clinical aspects in order to value beliefs of older adults and their self-perceived health.

  14. Impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision performance of children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Suma; Sethi, Sumita; Srivastav, Sonia; Chaudhary, Amrita; Arora, Priyanka

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision of children with visual impairment. The LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire, designed specifically to measure functional performance of visually impaired children of developing countries, was used to assess the level of difficulty in performing various tasks pre and post visual rehabilitation in children with documented visual impairment. Chi-square test was used to assess the impact of rehabilitation intervention on functional vision performance; a P visual acuity prior to the introduction of low vision devices (LVDs) was 0.90 ± 0.05 for distance and for near it was 0.61 ± 0.05. After the intervention, the acuities improved significantly for distance (0.2 ± 0.27; P visual rehabilitation was especially found in those activities related to their studying lifestyle like copying from the blackboard (P visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.

  15. The model of flood control using servqual method and importance performance analysis in Surakarta City – Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titi Purwantini, V.; Sutanto, Yusuf

    2018-05-01

    This research is to create a model of flood control in the city of Surakarta using Servqual method and Importance Performance Analysis. Service quality is generally defined as the overall assessment of a service by the customersor the extent to which a service meets customer’s needs or expectations. The purpose of this study is to find the first model of flood control that is appropriate to the condition of the community. Surakarta This means looking for a model that can provide satisfactory service for the people of Surakarta who are in the location of the flood. The second is to find the right model to improve service performance of Surakarta City Government in serving the people in flood location. The method used to determine the satisfaction of the public on the quality of service is to see the difference in the quality of service expected by the community with the reality. This method is Servqual Method While to assess the performance of city government officials is by comparing the actual performance with the quality of services provided, this method is This means looking for a model that can provide satisfactory service for the people of Surakarta who are in the location of the flood.The second is to find the right model to improve service performance of Surakarta City Government in serving the people in flood location. The method used to determine the satisfaction of the public on the quality of service is to see the difference in the quality of service expected by the community with the reality. This method is Servqual Method While to assess the performance of city government officials is by comparing the actual performance with the quality of services provided, this method is Importance Performance Analysis. Samples were people living in flooded areas in the city of Surakarta. Result this research is Satisfaction = Responsiveness+ Realibility + Assurance + Empathy+ Tangible (Servqual Model) and Importance Performance Analysis is From Cartesian diagram

  16. Functional Exercise and Physical Fitness Post Stroke: The Importance of Exercise Maintenance for Motor Control and Physical Fitness after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Langhammer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that all stroke patients, indifferent of disability, have the same possibility to improve with training. The aim of the study was to follow and register functional improvements in two groups with different functional capacities at baseline for a period of 36 months. Stroke patients were recruited and divided into groups related to their functional status at baseline. During the acute rehabilitation, both groups received functional task-oriented training, followed by regular self- or therapeutic driven training the first year after stroke and varied exercise patterns the following 24 months. The participants were tested on admission, and at three, six, twelve, and thirty-six months after the onset of stroke. Both groups improved functional activity up to six months which then stabilized up to twelve months to decline somewhat at thirty-six months after stroke. Change scores indicate a greater potential for rehabilitation in the MAS ≤35 in relation to group MAS >35 although the functional capacity was higher in the latter. This indicates the importance of maintaining exercise and training for all persons after stroke.

  17. Effect of dystocia on subsequent reproductive performance and functional longevity in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dystocia on the reproductive performance and functional longevity in Iranian Holsteins. Data consisted of 1 467 064 lactation records of 581 421 Holstein cows from 3083 herds which were collected by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran from April 1987 to February 2014. Reproduction traits in this study included interval from first to second calving, days open and days from first calving to first service. The generalized linear model was used for the statistical analysis of reproductive traits. Survival analysis was performed using the Weibull proportional hazards models to analyse the impact of dystocia on functional longevity. The incidence of dystocia had an adverse effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Therefore, reproductive traits deteriorated along with increase in dystocia score (p dystocia (p 33 months had the greatest risk (p dystocia had important negative effects on the reproductive performance and functional longevity in dairy cows, and it should be avoided as much as possible to provide a good perspective in the scope of economic and animal welfare issues in dairy herds. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder: the 2-year PERFORM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Haro, Josep Maria; Jönsson, Bengt; Tanguy Melac, Audrey; Di Nicola, Sylvie; Chollet, Julien; Milea, Dominique; Rive, Benoît; Saragoussi, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    The Prospective Epidemiological Research on Functioning Outcomes Related to Major depressive disorder (PERFORM) study describes the course of depressive symptoms, perceived cognitive symptoms, and functional impairment over 2 years in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and investigates the patient-related factors associated with functional impairment. This was a 2-year observational study in 1,159 outpatients with MDD aged 18-65 years who were either initiating antidepressant monotherapy or undergoing their first switch of antidepressant. Functional impairment was assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Patients assessed depression severity using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire and severity of perceived cognitive symptoms using the five-item Perceived Deficit Questionnaire. To investigate which patient-related factors were associated with functional impairment, univariate analyses of variance were performed to identify relevant factors that were then included in multivariate analyses of covariance at baseline, month 2, months 6 and 12 combined, and months 18 and 24 combined. The greatest improvement in depressive symptoms, perceived cognitive symptoms, and functional impairment was seen immediately (within 2 months) following initiation or switch of antidepressant therapy, followed by more gradual improvement and long-term stabilization. Improvement in perceived cognitive symptoms was less marked than improvement in depressive symptoms during the acute treatment phase. Functional impairment in patients with MDD was not only associated with severity of depressive symptoms but also independently associated with severity of perceived cognitive symptoms when adjusted for depression severity throughout the 2 years of follow-up. These findings highlight the burden of functional impairment in MDD and the importance of recognizing and managing cognitive symptoms in daily practice.

  19. Function and importance of p63 in normal oral mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurfjell, Niklas; Coates, Philip J; Boldrup, Linda

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the 6th most common malignancy worldwide with a 5-year survival that has not improved over the last 20-25 years. Factors of prognostic significance for this tumour type include the presence of regional lymph node metastasis...... and amplification of chromosome 3q21-29, where the p63 gene is located. This gene encodes 6 proteins and is crucial for formation of the oral mucosa, teeth, salivary glands and skin. Each of the 6 different p63 proteins has different characteristics and functions, where some resemble the tumour suppressor protein p......53, whilst others have functions that oppose p53. METHODS: To understand the function and importance of p63 in oral mucosa and tumour development we have studied protein as well as mRNA expression in normal oral mucosa and tumours. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Expression of p63 proteins differs between...

  20. Androgen action via testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells is important for Leydig cell function, vasomotion and testicular fluid dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Welsh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of blood flow through the testicular microvasculature by vasomotion is thought to be important for normal testis function as it regulates interstitial fluid (IF dynamics which is an important intra-testicular transport medium. Androgens control vasomotion, but how they exert these effects remains unclear. One possibility is by signalling via androgen receptors (AR expressed in testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells. To investigate this and determine the overall importance of this mechanism in testis function, we generated a blood vessel smooth muscle cell-specific AR knockout mouse (SMARKO. Gross reproductive development was normal in SMARKO mice but testis weight was reduced in adulthood compared to control littermates; this reduction was not due to any changes in germ cell volume or to deficits in testosterone, LH or FSH concentrations and did not cause infertility. However, seminiferous tubule lumen volume was reduced in adult SMARKO males while interstitial volume was increased, perhaps indicating altered fluid dynamics; this was associated with compensated Leydig cell failure. Vasomotion was impaired in adult SMARKO males, though overall testis blood flow was normal and there was an increase in the overall blood vessel volume per testis in adult SMARKOs. In conclusion, these results indicate that ablating arteriole smooth muscle AR does not grossly alter spermatogenesis or affect male fertility but does subtly impair Leydig cell function and testicular fluid exchange, possibly by locally regulating microvascular blood flow within the testis.

  1. Work Functioning Among Firefighters: A Comparison Between Self-Reported Limitations and Functional Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermid, Joy C; Tang, Kenneth; Sinden, Kathryn E; D'Amico, Robert

    2018-05-25

    Purpose Performance-based and disease indicators have been widely studied in firefighters; self-reported work role limitations have not. The aim of this study was to describe the distributions and correlations of a generic self-reported Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ-26) and firefighting-specific task performance-based tests. Methods Active firefighters from the City of Hamilton Fire Services (n = 293) were recruited. Participants completed the WLQ-26 to quantify on-the-job difficulties over five work domains: work scheduling (4 items), output demands (7 items), physical demands (8 items), mental demands (4 items), and social demands (3 items). A subset of participants (n = 149) were also assessed on hose drag and stair climb with a high-rise pack performance-based tests. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used to compare item/subscale performance; and to describe the inter-relationships between tests. Results The mean WLQ-26 item scores (/5) ranged from 4.1 to 4.4 (median = 5 for all items); most firefighters (54.5-80.5%) selected "difficult none of the time" response option on all items. A substantial ceiling effect was observed across all five WLQ-26 subscales as 44.0-55.6% were in the highest category. Subscale means ranged from 61.8 (social demands) to 78.7 (output demands and physical demands). Internal consistency exceeded 0.90 on all subscales. For the hose drag task, the mean time-to-completion was 48.0 s (SD = 14.5; range 20.4-95.0). For the stair climb task, the mean time-to-completion was 76.7 s (SD = 37.2; range 21.0-218.0). There were no significant correlations between self-report work limitations and performance of firefighting tasks. Conclusions The WLQ-26 measured five domains, but had ceiling effects in firefighters. Performance-based testing showed wider score range, lacked ceiling effects and did not correlate to the WLQ-26. A firefighter-specific, self-report role functioning scale may be needed to identify

  2. Increased Range of Motion Is Important for Functional Outcome and Satisfaction After Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chul-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Song, Young-Suk; Kim, Jun-Ho; Park, Yong-Geun

    2016-06-01

    Although range of motion (ROM) is considered as an important factor for good outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the association of the degree of ROM with functional outcome and patient satisfaction is debated. We, therefore, investigated whether increased ROM would affect functional outcome and patient satisfaction after TKA in Asian patients. We reviewed 630 patients who underwent primary TKA with minimum 2-year follow-up. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by Knee Society (KS) score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, and high-flexion knee score. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a validated questionnaire. The association of ROM and change in ROM (cROM) with clinical outcomes and satisfaction were analyzed using partial correlation analysis and multiple median regression analysis. All functional scores showed significant correlation with postoperative ROM (r = 0.129, P = .001 in Knee Society score; r = -0.101, P = .012 in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index; r = 0.183, P satisfaction (r = 0.192, P = .005). Postoperative ROM and cROM were revealed as predisposing factors affecting function outcome using multivariable regression analysis. cROM was found as a predisposing factor affecting satisfaction. Based on the results of this study, ROM positively associated with functional outcome and cROM positively associated with patient satisfaction after TKA. These findings suggest that increased ROM after TKA is an important factor for functional outcome and satisfaction in Asian patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Guiding People to Interpret Their Experienced Difficulty as Importance Highlights Their Academic Possibilities and Improves Their Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Daphna; Elmore, Kristen; Novin, Sheida; Fisher, Oliver; Smith, George C.

    2018-01-01

    Does experiencing difficulty bolster or undermine future self-images, strategies to get there and actual performance? We build on four insights from prior research to predict that accessible interpretation-of-experienced-difficulty mindset shapes identity and performance. First, people have two different interpretation-of-experienced-difficulty mindsets available in memory; their difficulty-as-impossibility mindset focuses attention on difficulty as implying low odds and their difficulty-as-importance mindset focuses attention on difficulty as implying high value. Second, people are sensitive to contextual cues as to which mindset to apply to understand their experienced difficulty. Third, people apply the mindset that comes to mind unless they have reason to question why it is “on-the-mind.” Fourth, social class can be thought of as a chronic context influencing how much people endorse each interpretation-of-experienced-difficulty mindset. We used subtle primes to guide participants’ attention toward either a difficulty-as-importance or a difficulty-as-impossibility mindset (N = 591). Participants guided toward a difficulty-as-importance mindset performed better on difficult academic tasks (Studies 1, 2) than participants guided toward a difficulty-as-impossibility mindset; whether they had more school-focused possible identities and linked strategies depended on sample (Studies 3, 4). For college students, the effect of guided interpretation-of-experienced-difficulty mindset was not moderated by how much participants agreed with that mindset (Studies 1, 3, 4). College students mostly disagreed with a difficulty-as-impossibility mindset, but making that mindset accessible undermined their performance and sometimes their possible identities anyway. In contrast, middle school students (a younger and lower social class sample) were more likely to agree with a difficulty-as-impossibility mindset. In this sample (Study 2), we found an effect of mindset

  4. Upaya Peningkatan Kualitas Pelayanan Jalan Tol Semarang-bawen Dengan Integrasi Metode Importance Performance Gap Analysis, Lean, Dan Six Sigma

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Diana Puspita; Winanda, Ariani Putri; Bakhtiar, Arfan; Rinawati, Dyah Ika; Widharto, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    PT Trans Marga Jateng (TMJ) is a company engaged in service sector, which is managing Semarang-Bawen toll road. The result of preliminary surveyconducted by PT TMJ showed that service quality of PT TMJ is still unsatisfactory, so it is necessary to do research on improving service quality. Service quality can be measured from two perspectives, i.e., internal perspective and external perspective. The external perspective can be measured with Importance Performance Gap Analysis (IPGA) method, w...

  5. Thermoelectric performance of functionalized Sc2C MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S.

    2016-07-05

    Functionalization of the MXene Sc2C, which has the rare property to realize semiconducting states for various functionalizations including O, F, and OH, is studied with respect to the electronic and thermal behavior. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is obtained for OH functionalization and an additional 30% decrease can be achieved by confining the phonon mean free path to 100 nm. Despite a relatively low Seebeck coefficient, Sc2C(OH)2 is a candidate for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications due to compensation by a high electrical conductivity and very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  6. Thermoelectric performance of functionalized Sc2C MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Functionalization of the MXene Sc2C, which has the rare property to realize semiconducting states for various functionalizations including O, F, and OH, is studied with respect to the electronic and thermal behavior. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is obtained for OH functionalization and an additional 30% decrease can be achieved by confining the phonon mean free path to 100 nm. Despite a relatively low Seebeck coefficient, Sc2C(OH)2 is a candidate for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications due to compensation by a high electrical conductivity and very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  7. IMPORTANCE-PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION (UPI LIBRARY SERVICES TO OPTIMIZE ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyu Wahyudin

    2015-06-01

    Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kualitas pelayanan yang diberikan perpustakaan UPI kepada mahasiswa, mengetahui dan menganalisis sejauh mana tingkat kepuasan mahasiswa terhadap pelayanan perpustakaan UPI, dan mengetahui kesesuaian antara kinerja pelayanan dengan harapan atau kepentingan mahasiswa pengguna jasa layanan perpustakaan UPI dengan menggunakan analisis kepentingan dan kinerja (importance-performance analysis. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain gabungan antara kualitatif dengan kuantitatif untuk mengetahui indeks kepuasan mahasiswa dari layanan perpustakaan UPI. Teknik analisis datanya dilakukan dengan menggunakan nilai Indeks Kepuasan Masyarakat (IKM yang dihitung dengan menggunakan nilai rata-rata tertimbang masing-masing unsur pelayanan. Importance-Performance Analysis dugunakan untuk melihat tingkat kesesuaian antara harapan dan kualitas pelayanan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kinerja pelayanan perpustakaan UPI termasuk dalam kategori baik. Unsur pelayanan yang dirasakan paling baik adalah berkaitan dengan keamanan pelayanan sedangkan pelayanan yang dinilai rendah adalah kedisiplinan petugas pelayanan. Selaian itu, ditemukan juga unsur pelayanan yang dinilai oleh responden sangat penting tetapi kinerjanya masih kurang memuaskan, unsur pelayanan yang dinilai oleh responden kinerjanya telah sesuai dengan kepentingan dan harapan pelanggan, sehingga dapat memuaskan pelanggan, unsur pelayanan yang menurut responden dianggap kurang penting pengaruhnya bagi pengguna jasa dan kinerjanya juga kurang bagus, dan unsur-unsur pelayanan yang menurut responden pelaksanaannya sangat baik tetapi kurang penting pengaruhnya bagi pelanggan. Kata kunci: Kualitas pelayanan, Indeks Kepuasan Mahasiswa, Importance-Performance Analysis, Perpustakaan, Mutu penelitian

  8. Integrating the analytic hierarchy process and importance-performance analysis into ISO 14001 framework for assessing campus sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Susatyo N. W.; Ulkhaq, M. Mujiya; Trianto, Reza; Setiowati, Priska R.; Rasyida, Dyah R.; Setyorini, Nadia A.; Jauhari, Wakhid A.

    2017-11-01

    There has been an international emerging issue in the role of higher education in promoting sustainability due to numerous declarations and commitments related to the need of sustainability in higher education. As a result, there is an increasing number of higher educations that have embarked on projects and initiatives to incorporate sustainability into their systems. Higher educations could implement ISO 14001 framework that is recognized as a guide for an organization which aim to implement an environmental management system to pursue the sustainability. This research tried to attempt an extension of the previous work in assessing campus sustainability using ISO 14001 framework by integrating the analytic hierarchy process and importance-performance analysis (IPA). The inclusion of IPA is because many organizations are constrained by limitations on the resources they have so that it has to be decided how those limited resources are best deployed to attain the goals to be achieved. The self-assessment scores of ISO 14001 would the performance and the AHP result is the importance part of the IPA. A case study is conducted at the Diponegoro University, which is located in Semarang, Indonesia. The result indicates that only two main elements of ISO 14001 are located in the second quadrant of IPA, i.e. high performance and high importance. The result also could be a basis for the university to identify, prioritize, and improve the programs related to sustainability and ensure that valuable resources are allocated in the most effective areas.

  9. Motivation to comply with task rules and multitasking performance: The role of need for cognitive closure and goal importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumowska, Ewa; Kossowska, Małgorzata; Roets, Arne

    2018-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the role task rules play in multitasking performance. We postulated that rules should be especially important for individuals highly motivated to have structure and clear answers, i.e., those high on need for cognitive closure (NFC). High NFC should thus be related to greater compliance with task rules. Specifically, given high goal importance, NFC should be more strongly related to a multitasking strategy when multitasking is imposed by the rules, and to a mono-tasking strategy when monotasking is imposed by the rules. This should translate into better multitasking or mono-tasking performance, depending on condition. Overall, the results were supportive as NFC was related to a more mono-tasking strategy in the mono-tasking condition (Studies 1 and 2 only) and more dual-tasking strategy in the dual-tasking condition (Studies 1-3). This translated into respective differences in performance. The effects were significant only when goal importance was high (Study 1) and held when cognitive ability was controlled for (Study 2).

  10. Performance of exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory calculations for liquid metal: A benchmark test for sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong-Hwan; Oda, Takuji

    2018-04-01

    The performance of exchange-correlation functionals in density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for liquid metal has not been sufficiently examined. In the present study, benchmark tests of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), Armiento-Mattsson 2005 (AM05), PBE re-parameterized for solids, and local density approximation (LDA) functionals are conducted for liquid sodium. The pair correlation function, equilibrium atomic volume, bulk modulus, and relative enthalpy are evaluated at 600 K and 1000 K. Compared with the available experimental data, the errors range from -11.2% to 0.0% for the atomic volume, from -5.2% to 22.0% for the bulk modulus, and from -3.5% to 2.5% for the relative enthalpy depending on the DFT functional. The generalized gradient approximation functionals are superior to the LDA functional, and the PBE and AM05 functionals exhibit the best performance. In addition, we assess whether the error tendency in liquid simulations is comparable to that in solid simulations, which would suggest that the atomic volume and relative enthalpy performances are comparable between solid and liquid states but that the bulk modulus performance is not. These benchmark test results indicate that the results of liquid simulations are significantly dependent on the exchange-correlation functional and that the DFT functional performance in solid simulations can be used to roughly estimate the performance in liquid simulations.

  11. 36 CFR 1194.31 - Functional performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Functional... technology used by people who are deaf or hard of hearing shall be provided. (d) Where audio information is...

  12. Executive functioning in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: domain asynchrony and age-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Donna; Moss, Jo; Nelson, Lisa; Groves, Laura; Oliver, Chris

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in adolescents and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) to identify a syndrome and age-related profile of cognitive impairment. Participants were 24 individuals with CdLS aged 13-42 years (M = 22; SD = 8.98), and a comparable contrast group of 21 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) aged 15-33 years (M = 24; SD = 5.82). Measures were selected to test verbal and visual fluency, inhibition, perseverance/flexibility, and working memory and comprised both questionnaire and performance tests. Individuals with CdLS showed significantly greater impairment on tasks requiring flexibility and inhibition (rule switch) and on forwards span capacity. These impairments were also reported in the parent/carer-rated questionnaire measures. Backwards Digit Span was significantly negatively correlated with chronological age in CdLS, indicating increased deficits with age. This was not identified in individuals with DS. The relative deficits in executive functioning task performance are important in understanding the behavioural phenotype of CdLS. Prospective longitudinal follow-up is required to examine further the changes in executive functioning with age and if these map onto observed changes in behaviour in CdLS. Links with recent research indicating heightened responses to oxidative stress in CdLS may also be important.

  13. Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Ledogar

    2016-07-01

    dislocation and constrained the maximum recruitment levels of the masticatory muscles on the balancing (non-biting side of the head. Our results do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that anterior tooth (incisors, canines, premolars biting could have been selectively important in humans, although the reduced size of the premolars in humans has been shown to increase the risk of tooth crown fracture. We interpret our results to suggest that human craniofacial evolution was probably not driven by selection for high magnitude unilateral biting, and that increased masticatory muscle efficiency in humans is likely to be a secondary byproduct of selection for some function unrelated to forceful biting behaviors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift to softer foods and/or the innovation of pre-oral food processing techniques relaxed selective pressures maintaining craniofacial features that favor forceful biting and chewing behaviors, leading to the characteristically small and gracile faces of modern humans.

  14. Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Gharpure, Poorva H.; Baab, Karen L.; Smith, Amanda L.; Weber, Gerhard W.; Grosse, Ian R.; Ross, Callum F.; Richmond, Brian G.; Wright, Barth W.; Byron, Craig; Wroe, Stephen; Strait, David S.

    2016-01-01

    constrained the maximum recruitment levels of the masticatory muscles on the balancing (non-biting) side of the head. Our results do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that anterior tooth (incisors, canines, premolars) biting could have been selectively important in humans, although the reduced size of the premolars in humans has been shown to increase the risk of tooth crown fracture. We interpret our results to suggest that human craniofacial evolution was probably not driven by selection for high magnitude unilateral biting, and that increased masticatory muscle efficiency in humans is likely to be a secondary byproduct of selection for some function unrelated to forceful biting behaviors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift to softer foods and/or the innovation of pre-oral food processing techniques relaxed selective pressures maintaining craniofacial features that favor forceful biting and chewing behaviors, leading to the characteristically small and gracile faces of modern humans. PMID:27547550

  15. Evaluation of Exercise Performance, Cardiac Function, and Quality of Life in Children After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Kristof; Coomans, Ilse; De Bruyne, Elke; De Groote, Katya; Panzer, Joseph; De Wolf, Daniel; Boone, Jan; De Bruyne, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    In children, after having liver transplantation (LT), it is important to assess the quality of life (QOL). Physical fitness is an important determinant of QOL, and because cardiac function can influence exercise performance, it is the purpose of the present study to assess these factors. Children in stable follow-up for more than 6 months post-LT were invited to participate in a case control study. Patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and echocardiography to assess systolic and diastolic function, and left ventricular wall dimensions. Health-related QOL was evaluated using child- and adolescent-reported PedsQL questionnaire. Twenty-eight of 31 included patients performed a maximal exercise test (15 boys, 11.6 ± 2.9 years, weight, 40.9 ± 13.1 kg; length, 148.6 ± 17.3 cm; body mass index, 17.6 ± 2.3). Liver transplantation patients had lower maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max/kg) (37.5 ± 9.3 mL/kg per minute vs 44.1 ± 8.8 mL/kg per minute), shorter exercise duration (9.3 ± 2.8 minutes vs 13.3 ± 3 minutes) and lower load (71 ± 14 vs 85 ± 20%). They reached the ventilatory anaerobic threshold earlier (81.4 ± 9.5 vs 88.3 ± 11.9%). Echocardiography demonstrated increased interventricular septal wall thickness (interventricular septum in diastole Z value, +0.45 ± 0.49, P exercise testing. Health-related QOL showed lower overall, emotional, psychosocial, and school functioning scores. Children on antihypertensive medication had impaired physical functioning compared with other LT patients. Lower physical fitness level, more deconditioning and lower health-related QOL in children after LT emphasize the importance of exercise stimulation and fitness programs. Patients on antihypertensive medication seem to be the most vulnerable group suffering from decreased physical fitness.

  16. Relationship Between the Functional Status Scale and the Pediatric Overall Performance Category and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scales FREE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Murray M.; Holubkov, Richard; Funai, Tomohiko; Clark, Amy; Moler, Frank; Shanley, Thomas; Meert, Kathy; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Carcillo, Joseph; Berger, John T.; Doctor, Allan; Berg, Robert A.; Dalton, Heidi; Wessel, David L.; Harrison, Rick E.; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Functional status assessment methods are important as outcome measures for pediatric critical care studies. Objective To investigate the relationships between the 2 functional status assessment methods appropriate for large-sample studies, the Functional Status Scale (FSS) and the Pediatric Overall Performance Category and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (POPC/PCPC) scales. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study with random patient selection at 7 sites and 8 children’s hospitals with general/medical and cardiac/cardiovascular pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Participants included all PICU patients younger than 18 years. Main Outcomes and Measures Functional Status Scale and POPC/PCPC scores determined at PICU admission (baseline) and PICU discharge. We investigated the association between the baseline and PICU discharge POPC/PCPC scores and the baseline and PICU discharge FSS scores, the dispersion of FSS scores within each of the POPC/PCPC ratings, and the relationship between the FSS neurologic components (FSS-CNS) and the PCPC. Results We included 5017 patients. We found a significant (P < .001) difference between FSS scores in each POPC or PCPC interval, with an FSS score increase with each worsening POPC/PCPC rating. The FSS scores for the good and mild disability POPC/PCPC ratings were similar and increased by 2 to 3 points for the POPC/PCPC change from mild to moderate disability, 5 to 6 points for moderate to severe disability, and 8 to 9 points for severe disability to vegetative state or coma. The dispersion of FSS scores within each POPC and PCPC rating was substantial and increased with worsening POPC and PCPC scores. We also found a significant (P < .001) difference between the FSS-CNS scores between each of the PCPC ratings with increases in the FSS-CNS score for each higher PCPC rating. Conclusions and Relevance The FSS and POPC/PCPC system

  17. Inter-functional coordination and entrepreneurial firms’ financial performance: a developing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Sofijanova, Elenica; Davcev, Ljupco; Temjanovski, Riste

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to verify the significance of the internal part of market orientation, i.e. inter-functional coordination (IFC) for the financial performance of the entrepreneurial firms in a developing economy. The objectives are: 1. To measure the level of each of the variables of the scale (IFC 1: Current and future needs of consumers are discussed in all of the concerned departments; IFC 2: When a department discovers something important about the consumers or the compet...

  18. Human-Robot Teams Informed by Human Performance Moderator Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    performance factors that affect the ability of a human to drive at night, which includes the eyesight of the driver, the fatigue level of the driver...where human factors are factors that affect the performance of an individual. 7 for human interaction. For instance, they explain the various human... affecting trust in human-robot interaction. Human Factors 53(5), 517-527 (2001) 35. Hart, S. G. and Staveland, L. E. Development of NASA-TLX (Task

  19. Renal function trajectory is more important than chronic kidney disease stage for managing patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosansky, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) emphasizes a current level of function as calculated from the modification of diet in renal disease glomerulofiltration rate equations (eGFR) and proteinuria for staging of CKD. Change in a patient's eGFR over time (renal function trajectory) is an additional and potentially more important consideration in deciding which patients will progress to the point where they will require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Many patients with CKD 3-5 have stable renal function for years. Proteinuria/albuminuria is a primary determinant of renal trajectory which may be slowed by medications that decrease proteinuria and/or aggressively lower blood pressure. A renal trajectory of >3 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year may relate to a need for closer renal follow-up and increased morbidity and mortality. Additional CKD population-based studies need to examine the relationship of renal trajectory to: baseline renal function; acute kidney injury episodes; age, race, sex and primary etiologies of renal disease; blood pressure control and therapies; dietary protein intake; blood glucose control in diabetics and the competitive risk of death versus the requirement for renal replacement therapy. In the elderly CKD 4 population with significant comorbidities and slow decline in renal function, the likelihood of death prior to the need for RRT should be considered before placing AV access for dialysis. Prediction models of renal progression must account for the competitive risk of death as well as stable or improved renal function to be clinically useful. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Comparative study on the dynamics and performances of Apis mellifera jemenitica and imported hybrid honeybee colonies in southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad A; Adgaba, Nuru; Tadesse, Yilma; Getachew, Awraris; Al-Maktary, Anwer A

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee) and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each) for one year (April 2013 through March 2014), and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations ( P  bee colonies were able to hoard three times more ( P  pollen and built more ( P  bees in both the low and highland areas. The annual survival rate of local bee colonies was almost double ( P  bees had greater ( P  bee and brood populations than imported, throughout the year. The relatively good performance of local colonies could be due to their long year's adaptation to cope with resource scarcity and unpredictable environmental conditions of the regions. The possible reasons for the dwindling of the imported hybrid colonies could be due to continuing to exhibit adaptive characteristics of their original that might not fit well with the new environment.

  1. Performance practice and functions of local wine and beer parlor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the phenomenon of music is ubiquitous and indispensable among the Yoruba and Africans in general, beer and wine parlors/shops engages in one form of musical ... The songs also plays some psychological roles and plays functional roles in celebrating drinking and relaxation session after a stressful day work.

  2. Identification and role of functionally important motifs in the 970 loop of Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Ashesh A; Lamichhane, Tek N; Chow, Christine S; SantaLucia, John; Cunningham, Philip R

    2008-02-22

    The 970 loop (helix 31) of Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA contains two modified nucleotides, m(2)G966 and m(5)C967. Positions A964, A969, and C970 are conserved among the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The nucleotides present at positions 965, 966, 967, 968, and 971, however, are only conserved and unique within each domain. All organisms contain a modified nucleoside at position 966, but the type of the modification is domain specific. Biochemical and structure studies have placed this loop near the P site and have shown it to be involved in the decoding process and in binding the antibiotic tetracycline. To identify the functional components of this ribosomal RNA hairpin, the eight nucleotides of the 970 loop of helix 31 were subjected to saturation mutagenesis and 107 unique functional mutants were isolated and analyzed. Nonrandom nucleotide distributions were observed at each mutated position among the functional isolates. Nucleotide identity at positions 966 and 969 significantly affects ribosome function. Ribosomes with single mutations of m(2)G966 or m(5)C967 produce more protein in vivo than do wild-type ribosomes. Overexpression of initiation factor 3 specifically restored wild-type levels of protein synthesis to the 966 and 967 mutants, suggesting that modification of these residues is important for initiation factor 3 binding and for the proper initiation of protein synthesis.

  3. What is the most important factor affecting the cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients: a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS usually complain of daytime hypersomnia and decrease in cognitive function, which affects the quality of their work and life. The reason why the cognitive function of OSAS patients decreased remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impairment and the main influencing factors of cognitive function in OSAS. Methods There were totally 50 OSAS patients (OSAS group and 25 volunteers (control group included in our study. All of them were monitored by polysomnography (PSG and tested by Continuous Performance Test (CPT, n-back test and Stroop Color?Word Test (CWT to evaluate their sleep condition and cognitive function. Results No significant difference was found between the two groups in total sleep time and sleep efficiency (P > 0.05, for all. Compared with control group, OSAS group had significant increased time of non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅰ and stage Ⅱ, significant decreased time of stage Ⅲ (P 0.05, for all, while had significant connection with AI and NREM Ⅲ (P < 0.05, for all. The rate of OSAS patients who underwent nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP treatment was very low, only 8% (4/50. Conclusion The abnormality of OSAS patients' sleep structure is characterized with sleep fragmentation and decrease of NREM Ⅲ, which may be the main factors of cognitive impairment. Exploration of treatment methods targeted on regulating the effected hormones and receptors is meaningful.

  4. Relating Memory To Functional Performance In Normal Aging to Dementia Using Hierarchical Bayesian Cognitive Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankle, William R.; Pooley, James P.; Steyvers, Mark; Hara, Junko; Mangrola, Tushar; Reisberg, Barry; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Determining how cognition affects functional abilities is important in Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (ADRD). 280 patients (normal or ADRD) received a total of 1,514 assessments using the Functional Assessment Staging Test (FAST) procedure and the MCI Screen (MCIS). A hierarchical Bayesian cognitive processing (HBCP) model was created by embedding a signal detection theory (SDT) model of the MCIS delayed recognition memory task into a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The SDT model used latent parameters of discriminability (memory process) and response bias (executive function) to predict, simultaneously, recognition memory performance for each patient and each FAST severity group. The observed recognition memory data did not distinguish the six FAST severity stages, but the latent parameters completely separated them. The latent parameters were also used successfully to transform the ordinal FAST measure into a continuous measure reflecting the underlying continuum of functional severity. HBCP models applied to recognition memory data from clinical practice settings accurately translated a latent measure of cognition to a continuous measure of functional severity for both individuals and FAST groups. Such a translation links two levels of brain information processing, and may enable more accurate correlations with other levels, such as those characterized by biomarkers. PMID:22407225

  5. Validation of risk-based performance indicators: Safety system function trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.; Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Usher, J.L.; Oden, N.

    1989-10-01

    This report describes and applies a process for validating a model for a risk-based performance indicator. The purpose of the risk-based indicator evaluated, Safety System Function Trend (SSFT), is to monitor the unavailability of selected safety systems. Interim validation of this indicator is based on three aspects: a theoretical basis, an empirical basis relying on statistical correlations, and case studies employing 25 plant years of historical data collected from five plants for a number of safety systems. Results using the SSFT model are encouraging. Application of the model through case studies dealing with the performance of important safety systems shows that statistically significant trends in, and levels of, system performance can be discerned which thereby can provide leading indications of degrading and/or improving performances. Methods for developing system performance tolerance bounds are discussed and applied to aid in the interpretation of the trends in this risk-based indicator. Some additional characteristics of the SSFT indicator, learned through the data-collection efforts and subsequent data analyses performed, are also discussed. The usefulness and practicality of other data sources for validation purposes are explored. Further validation of this indicator is noted. Also, additional research is underway in developing a more detailed estimator of system unavailability. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Importance of Performance Measurement and MCH Epidemiology Leadership to Quality Improvement Initiatives at the National, State and Local Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Kristin M; Gavin, Loretta; Moran, John W; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Goodman, David A; Sappenfield, William M

    2016-11-01

    Purpose In recognition of the importance of performance measurement and MCH epidemiology leadership to quality improvement (QI) efforts, a plenary session dedicated to this topic was presented at the 2014 CityMatCH Leadership and MCH Epidemiology Conference. This paper summarizes the session and provides two applications of performance measurement to QI in MCH. Description Performance measures addressing processes of care are ubiquitous in the current health system landscape and the MCH community is increasingly applying QI processes, such as Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of systems impacting MCH populations. QI is maximally effective when well-defined performance measures are used to monitor change. Assessment MCH epidemiologists provide leadership to QI initiatives by identifying population-based outcomes that would benefit from QI, defining and implementing performance measures, assessing and improving data quality and timeliness, reporting variability in measures throughout PDSA cycles, evaluating QI initiative impact, and translating findings to stakeholders. MCH epidemiologists can also ensure that QI initiatives are aligned with MCH priorities at the local, state and federal levels. Two examples of this work, one highlighting use of a contraceptive service performance measure and another describing QI for peripartum hemorrhage prevention, demonstrate MCH epidemiologists' contributions throughout. Challenges remain in applying QI to complex community and systems-level interventions, including those aimed at improving access to quality care. Conclusion MCH epidemiologists provide leadership to QI initiatives by ensuring they are data-informed and supportive of a common MCH agenda, thereby optimizing the potential to improve MCH outcomes.

  7. Examination of relationship between 30 second wingate test performance and spirometric respiratory functions in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Arslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work has been planed to investigate whether the correlation between one of the important component of the sports performance spirometric respiratory function (SRF and 30 s Wingate Test (WT parameters of young adults who have different physical fitness level. Materials and Methods: This work included a total of 166 subjects those are 98 young boys (20.30±1.93 and 68 young girls (19.65±2.18. The subjects were divided into two groups namely regular exercises group (EG who make a regular exercises during 4.0±1.50 years and sedentary groups (SG. Both group’s subjects have similar age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI kg/m2. All the subjects were performed spirometric respiratory function test and WT power performance test. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS computer program and the groups were compared to each other by using Independent Samples t test calculation and the correlation relation levels were calculated by using linear regression analysis. Results: In the view of physical peculiarities, it has not been found any difference between research groups that EG and SG (P>0.05. In the meaning of the measured spirometric respiratory functions and WT power performance, with the advantage of making regular sports, according to SG groups, the boys and girls EG groups showed differences (P<0.05. The correlational relationship between the spirometric and WT power parameters; it has been observed significant correlation between peak power (PP, mean power (MP, peak power/weight (PP/Wkg, mean power/weight (MP/Wkg form WT parameters and VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (% FEF25-75, PEF and MVV form respiration function (P<0.05 and P<0.001. On the other hand, it has not been found any significant correlation between WT anaerobic fatigue index (AFI % and respiratory functions (P<0.05. Conclusion: In this work, the tested spirometric respiratory functions have got an active role in the WT power parameters. It has been confirmed that

  8. The FPGA realization of the general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions: Performance and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author considers hardware implementation of the GRACE-H family general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions. VHDL is used as a language and Altera FPGA as a platform for hardware implementation. Performance and effectiveness of the FPGA implementations of GRACE-H hash functions were compared with Keccak (SHA-3, SHA-256, BLAKE, Groestl, JH, Skein hash functions. According to the performed tests, performance of the hardware implementation of GRACE-H family hash functions significantly (up to 12 times exceeded performance of the hardware implementation of previously known hash functions, and effectiveness of that hardware implementation was also better (up to 4 times.

  9. Dietary Flavanols: A Review of Select Effects on Vascular Function, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dashti, Yousef A; Holt, Roberta R; Stebbins, Charles L; Keen, Carl L; Hackman, Robert M

    2018-05-02

    An individual's diet affects numerous physiological functions and can play an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that dietary flavanols can be an important modulator of vascular risk. Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure, especially in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Flavanols may act in part through signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors. During exercise, flavanols have been reported to modulate metabolism and respiration (e.g., maximal oxygen uptake, O 2 cost of exercise, and energy expenditure), and reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting in increased skeletal muscle efficiency and endurance capacity. Flavanol-induced reductions in blood pressure during exercise may decrease the work of the heart. Collectively, these effects suggest that flavanols can act as an ergogenic aid to help delay the onset of fatigue. More research is needed to better clarify the effects of flavanols on vascular function, blood pressure regulation, and exercise performance and establish safe and effective levels of intake. Flavanol-rich foods and food products can be useful components of a healthy diet and lifestyle program for those seeking to better control their blood pressure or to enhance their physical activity. Key teaching points • Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that dietary flavanols can reduce the risk of vascular disease. • Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure and improve exercise performance in humans. • Mechanisms by which flavanols may reduce blood pressure function include alterations in signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxation and constriction factors.

  10. The importance of psychosexual counselling in the re-establishment of organic and erotic functions after penile prosthesis implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, F; Falcone, M; Abbona, A; Oderda, M; Soria, F; Peraldo, F; Marson, F; Barale, M; Fiorito, C; Gurioli, A; Frea, B; Gontero, P

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies about penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) have been published so far, only a small amount of them take into account patients and partners outcome in terms of satisfaction and erotic function. The aim of this study is to explore the value of psycosexual counselling in and the sexual and erotic function of penile prosthesis recipients. Thirty patients and their partners were randomised into two groups. In arm A (case group) patients and their partners underwent a multistep psychosexual counselling before and after surgery. In arm B (control group) surgery was performed without the specific psychosexual counselling scheme. Specific questionnaires (International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Sexual Daydreaming Scale (SDS)) were administered before surgery and 12 months afterwards. Twenty-four months postoperatively patients were asked to complete the Global Assessment Questions (GAQ) and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS), while their partners were asked to answer to the EDITS partner's section. Between January 2009 and October 2011, we enrolled 30 patients undergoing PPI in our institution (15 in each arm). Twenty-four months postoperative follow-up is available for all of them. No significant differences between the two groups in terms of baseline questionnaires scores were observed. Mean IIEF score was significantly higher in case group (arm A 68.3, arm B 53.4, P-valueerotic function according to SDS was significantly higher in the study group for both patients and their partners. Improvement in satisfaction rates were confirmed at 24 months, with statistically significant scores for EDITS in arm A patients and partners as compared with arm B. PPI with a pre- and postoperative psychosexual counselling scheme resulted in better postoperative sexual activity and erotic function for both patients and partners than PPI alone.

  11. Functionalizing aluminum substrata by quaternary ammonium for antifouling performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyan; Suo, Xinkun; Bai, Xiuqin; Yuan, Chengqing; Li, Hua

    2018-05-01

    Due to the great loss induced by biofouling, developing new strategies for combating biofouling has attracted extensive attention. Quaternary ammonium salts are potent cationic antimicrobials used in consumer products and their use for surface immobilization could create a contact-active antimicrobial layer. Here we report the facile preparation of a contact-active antifouling coating by tethering polyethyleneimine (PEI) onto flat/nanostructured aluminum surface by hydrogen bonding between PEI and AlOOH. Quaternized PEI (QPEI) is obtained through quaternization reactions. Biofouling testing suggests excellent antifouling performances of the samples by declining the adhesion of 95% Phaeodactylum tricornutum and 98% of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The antifouling properties of PEI/QPEI are attributed predominately to their hydrophilic and antimicrobial nature. The technical route of PEI/QPEI surface grafting shows great potential for modifying marine infrastructures for enhanced antifouling performances.

  12. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kweonha, E-mail: khpark@kmou.ac.kr [Division of Mechanical and Energy systems Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Khor, Chong Lee, E-mail: itachi_829@hotmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  13. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kweonha; Khor, Chong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  14. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent mental disorders. Current disorder most important but psychiatric history matters as well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, J; Oerlemans, A M; Raven, D; Laceulle, O M; Hartman, C A; Veenstra, R; Verhulst, F C; Vollebergh, W; Rosmalen, J G M; Reijneveld, S A; Oldehinkel, A J

    2017-05-01

    Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting individual differences in functional outcomes. We used data from the Dutch TRAILS study in which 1778 youths were followed from pre-adolescence into young adulthood (retention 80%). Of those, 1584 youths were successfully interviewed, at age 19, using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) to assess current and past CIDI-DSM-IV mental disorders. Four outcome domains were assessed at the same time: economic (e.g. academic achievement, social benefits, financial difficulties), social (early motherhood, interpersonal conflicts, antisocial behavior), psychological (e.g. suicidality, subjective well-being, loneliness), and health behavior (e.g. smoking, problematic alcohol, cannabis use). Out of the 19 outcomes, 14 were predicted by both current and past disorders, three only by past disorders (receiving social benefits, psychiatric hospitalization, adolescent motherhood), and two only by current disorder (absenteeism, obesity). Which type of disorders was most important depended on the outcome. Adjusted for current disorder, past internalizing disorders predicted in particular psychological outcomes while externalizing disorders predicted in particular health behavior outcomes. Economic and social outcomes were predicted by a history of co-morbidity of internalizing and externalizing disorder. The risk of problematic cannabis use and alcohol consumption dropped with a history of internalizing disorder. To understand current functioning, it is necessary to examine both current and past psychiatric status.

  15. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  16. Optimizing top precision performance measure of content-based image retrieval by learning similarity function

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-04-24

    In this paper we study the problem of content-based image retrieval. In this problem, the most popular performance measure is the top precision measure, and the most important component of a retrieval system is the similarity function used to compare a query image against a database image. However, up to now, there is no existing similarity learning method proposed to optimize the top precision measure. To fill this gap, in this paper, we propose a novel similarity learning method to maximize the top precision measure. We model this problem as a minimization problem with an objective function as the combination of the losses of the relevant images ranked behind the top-ranked irrelevant image, and the squared Frobenius norm of the similarity function parameter. This minimization problem is solved as a quadratic programming problem. The experiments over two benchmark data sets show the advantages of the proposed method over other similarity learning methods when the top precision is used as the performance measure.

  17. Optimizing top precision performance measure of content-based image retrieval by learning similarity function

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze; Shi, Lihui; Wang, Haoxiang; Meng, Jiandong; Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Qingquan; Gu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of content-based image retrieval. In this problem, the most popular performance measure is the top precision measure, and the most important component of a retrieval system is the similarity function used to compare a query image against a database image. However, up to now, there is no existing similarity learning method proposed to optimize the top precision measure. To fill this gap, in this paper, we propose a novel similarity learning method to maximize the top precision measure. We model this problem as a minimization problem with an objective function as the combination of the losses of the relevant images ranked behind the top-ranked irrelevant image, and the squared Frobenius norm of the similarity function parameter. This minimization problem is solved as a quadratic programming problem. The experiments over two benchmark data sets show the advantages of the proposed method over other similarity learning methods when the top precision is used as the performance measure.

  18. Importance measures-based prioritization for improving the performance of multi-state systems: application to the railway industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, Enrico; Marella, Marco; Podofillini, Luca

    2007-01-01

    The railway industry is undertaking significant efforts in the application of reliability-based and risk-informed approaches for rationalizing operation costs and safety requirements. In this respect, importance measures can bring valuable information for identifying the actions to take for most effective system improvement. In this paper, the railway network is modelled within a multi-state perspective in which each rail section is treated as a component, which can stay in different discrete states representing the speed values at which the section can be travelled, depending on the tracks degradation and on the traffic conditions. The Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the complex stochastic dynamics of such multi-state system. A prioritization of the rail sections based on importance measures is then used to most effectively improve the performance of the rail network, in terms of a decrease in the overall trains delay. High-importance sections, i.e. with highest impact on the overall delay, are considered for a relaxation of their speed restrictions and the proposed changes are then verified, from the risk-informed perspective, to have negligible impact on the risk associated to the rail infrastructure

  19. Comparative study on the dynamics and performances of Apis mellifera jemenitica and imported hybrid honeybee colonies in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Al-Ghamdi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each for one year (April 2013 through March 2014, and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations (P < 0.05 than introduced honeybee colonies and produced more (P < 0.05 honey. The local bee colonies were able to hoard three times more (P < 0.05 pollen and built more (P < 0.05 queen cells than introduced bees in both the low and highland areas. The annual survival rate of local bee colonies was almost double (P < 0.05 than that of introduced honeybee colonies. Moreover, local bees had greater (P < 0.05 adult bee and brood populations than imported, throughout the year. The relatively good performance of local colonies could be due to their long year’s adaptation to cope with resource scarcity and unpredictable environmental conditions of the regions. The possible reasons for the dwindling of the imported hybrid colonies could be due to continuing to exhibit adaptive characteristics of their original that might not fit well with the new environment.

  20. Multi-functional roles for the polypeptide transport associated domains of Toc75 in chloroplast protein import

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paila, Yamuna D; Richardson, Lynn GL; Inoue, Hitoshi; Parks, Elizabeth S; McMahon, James; Inoue, Kentaro; Schnell, Danny J

    2016-01-01

    Toc75 plays a central role in chloroplast biogenesis in plants as the membrane channel of the protein import translocon at the outer envelope of chloroplasts (TOC). Toc75 is a member of the Omp85 family of bacterial and organellar membrane insertases, characterized by N-terminal POTRA (polypeptide-transport associated) domains and C-terminal membrane-integrated β-barrels. We demonstrate that the Toc75 POTRA domains are essential for protein import and contribute to interactions with TOC receptors, thereby coupling preprotein recognition at the chloroplast surface with membrane translocation. The POTRA domains also interact with preproteins and mediate the recruitment of molecular chaperones in the intermembrane space to facilitate membrane transport. Our studies are consistent with the multi-functional roles of POTRA domains observed in other Omp85 family members and demonstrate that the domains of Toc75 have evolved unique properties specific to the acquisition of protein import during endosymbiotic evolution of the TOC system in plastids. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12631.001 PMID:26999824

  1. Functionality and performance of the ALFA_CTPIN module

    CERN Document Server

    Iwanski, Wieslaw; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Oechsle, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The ALFA_CTPIN module has been designed in response to increased internal processing time of the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) of the ATLAS experiment which resulted in reducing time left to the ALFA detector to deliver its own triggers to the CTP within specified latency. Accelerated extraction of ALFA triggers from encoded signals and the possibility to perform local triggers processing by this module allowed ALFA to contribute to global triggering of the ATLAS detector. A huge number of implemented scalers and flexibility in defining triggers processing criteria make also from this module a very attractive tool for in-depth analysis of properties of the LHC beam.

  2. Work performance evaluation and QoL of adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Noomi; Dejak, Ifat; Gal, Eynat

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD) are reliant on others for support in functioning in everyday life and employment. This study followed a work placement program for people with HFASD over a nine months period. It aimed to measure the trajectory of their work performance and Quality of life on jobs in the open market. Twenty-six participants with HFASD ages 18-40 underwent extensive evaluation and based on it were placed in various jobs on the open market. Participants were followed for nine months at their work place at four different time points. QoL was self-assessed in addition to work performance (WPE) which was assessed both by first-hand and team member's accounts. Team members are health professional who accompany and support the participants in the transition to their jobs. All 26 participants were able to maintain their jobs during the nine months of follow-up. WPE was perceived as high to start with, and its scores slightly improved by both people with HFASD and team members. Self-report suggests a significant change in the quality of life of the participants, specifically in their evaluations of self-competency. This study enhances the importance of providing people with HFASD with work placing programs and following up during actual work performance.

  3. Functional MRI mapping of visual function and selective attention for performance assessment and presurgical planning using conjunctive visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jason G; Zalusky, Eric J; Kirbas, Cemil

    2014-03-01

    Accurate mapping of visual function and selective attention using fMRI is important in the study of human performance as well as in presurgical treatment planning of lesions in or near visual centers of the brain. Conjunctive visual search (CVS) is a useful tool for mapping visual function during fMRI because of its greater activation extent compared with high-capacity parallel search processes. The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a CVS that was capable of generating consistent activation in the basic and higher level visual areas of the brain by using a high number of distractors as well as an optimized contrast condition. Images from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed and brain regions of greatest activation and deactivation were determined using a nonbiased decomposition of the results at the hemisphere, lobe, and gyrus levels. The results were quantified in terms of activation and deactivation extent and mean z-statistic. The proposed CVS was found to generate robust activation of the occipital lobe, as well as regions in the middle frontal gyrus associated with coordinating eye movements and in regions of the insula associated with task-level control and focal attention. As expected, the task demonstrated deactivation patterns commonly implicated in the default-mode network. Further deactivation was noted in the posterior region of the cerebellum, most likely associated with the formation of optimal search strategy. We believe the task will be useful in studies of visual and selective attention in the neuroscience community as well as in mapping visual function in clinical fMRI.

  4. The comparison of dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of holstein cows imported from Sweden and their Polish age mates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the present work was to compare dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of Holstein-Friesian (HF cows imported from Sweden as an in-calf heifers, and their age mates in Poland. The animals were kept freely on the deep litter on the farm owned by Agro-company “Witkowo” and feeding was based on TMR (total mixed ration system during whole year. All ration’s ingredients (bulky feed, concentrate, miscellaneous additives were mixed and fed as all-mash. The feed ration depended from the physiological condition of a cow and it was composed of corn and grass ensilage, mash concentrate, crushed corn meal, brewer’s grains and beet pulp.Cows imported from Sweden as in-calf heifers obtained higher milk, fat and protein yield in both lactations comparing to home cows. Significant statistical differences were observed for kg of milk, kg of protein, for FCM (P<0.01 and for kg of fat (P<0.05 in 2nd lactation. Fat and protein content in milk was in average higher for home cows (P<0.01. Big differences (P<0.01 were observed in SBT (proportion of protein to fat content and RTB (difference between concentration of fat and protein at imported cows in 2nd lactation. As far as reproduction parameters (gestation interval, calving interval, insemination index are concerned was cows from Sweden better too. Heifers from Sweden calved earlier. The usage of high genetic potential of imported cows is possible only with providing them optimum living conditions suitable to their needs.

  5. Performance verification of network function virtualization in software defined optical transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Hu, Liyazhou; Wang, Wei; Li, Yajie; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    With the continuous opening of resource acquisition and application, there are a large variety of network hardware appliances deployed as the communication infrastructure. To lunch a new network application always implies to replace the obsolete devices and needs the related space and power to accommodate it, which will increase the energy and capital investment. Network function virtualization1 (NFV) aims to address these problems by consolidating many network equipment onto industry standard elements such as servers, switches and storage. Many types of IT resources have been deployed to run Virtual Network Functions (vNFs), such as virtual switches and routers. Then how to deploy NFV in optical transport networks is a of great importance problem. This paper focuses on this problem, and gives an implementation architecture of NFV-enabled optical transport networks based on Software Defined Optical Networking (SDON) with the procedure of vNFs call and return. Especially, an implementation solution of NFV-enabled optical transport node is designed, and a parallel processing method for NFV-enabled OTN nodes is proposed. To verify the performance of NFV-enabled SDON, the protocol interaction procedures of control function virtualization and node function virtualization are demonstrated on SDON testbed. Finally, the benefits and challenges of the parallel processing method for NFV-enabled OTN nodes are simulated and analyzed.

  6. Neuropsychological test performance and prediction of functional capacities among Spanish-speaking and English-speaking patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, D A; Rubert, M P; Argüelles, T; Duara, R

    1995-03-01

    Neuropsychological measures have been widely used by clinicians to assist them in making judgments regarding a cognitively impaired patient's ability to independently perform important activities of daily living. However, important questions have been raised concerning the degree to which neuropsychological instruments can predict a broad array of specific functional capacities required in the home environment. In the present study, we examined 127 English-speaking and 56 Spanish-speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and determined the extent to which various neuropsychological measures and demographic variables were predictive of performance on functional measures administered within the clinical setting. Among English-speaking AD patients, Block Design and Digit-Span of the WAIS-R, as well as tests of language were among the strongest predictors of functional performance. For Spanish-speakers, Block Design, The Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) and Digit Span had the optimal predictive power. When stepwise regression was conducted on the entire sample of 183 subjects, ethnicity emerged as a statistically significant predictor variable on one of the seven functional tests (writing a check). Despite the predictive power of several of the neuropsychological measures for both groups, most of the variability in objective functional performance could not be explained in our regression models. As a result, it would appear prudent to include functional measures as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation for dementia.

  7. Symptom burden and its relationship to functional performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Melhem, Omar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore symptom burden and its relationship to functional performance in patients with COPD. A descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational survey design was used and a sample of 214 patients with COPD. The sample was recruited from patients attending one of the major teaching hospitals in Dublin. Symptom burden was measured using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), and the functional performance was measured using the Functional Performance Inventory-Sho...

  8. Functionalized nanostructures for enhanced photocatalytic performance under solar light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liejin Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic hydrogen production from water has been considered to be one of the most promising solar-to-hydrogen conversion technologies. In the last decade, various functionalized nanostructures were designed to address the primary requirements for an efficient photocatalytic generation of hydrogen by using solar energy: visible-light activity, chemical stability, appropriate band-edge characteristics, and potential for low-cost fabrication. Our aim is to present a short review of our recent attempts that center on the above requirements. We begin with a brief introduction of photocatalysts coupling two or more semiconductors, followed by a further discussion of the heterostructures with improved matching of both band structures and crystal lattices. We then elaborate on the heterostructure design of the targeted materials from macroscopic regulation of compositions and phases, to the more precise control at the nanoscale, i.e., materials with the same compositions but different phases with certain band alignment. We conclude this review with perspectives on nanostructure design that might direct future research of this technology.

  9. Improving the Performance of Semiconductor Sensor Devices Using Surface Functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel W.

    As production and understanding of III-nitride growth has progressed, this class of material has been used for its semiconducting properties in the fields of computer processing, microelectronics, and LEDs. As understanding of materials properties has advanced, devices were fabricated to be sensitive to environmental surroundings such as pH, gas, or ionic concentration. Simultaneously the world of pharmaceuticals and environmental science has come to the age where the use of wearable devices and active environmental sensing can not only help us learn more about our surroundings, but help save lives. At the crossroads of these two fields work has been done in marrying the high stability and electrical properties of the III-nitrides with the needs of a growing sensor field for various environments and stimuli. Device architecture can only get one so far, and thus the need for well understood surface functionalization techniques has arisen in the field of III-nitride environmental sensing. Many existing schemes for functionalization involve chemistries that may be unfriendly to a biological environment, unstable in solution, or expensive to produce. One possible solution to these issues is the work presented here, which highlights a surface modification scheme utilizing phosphonic acid based chemistry and biomolecular attachment. This dissertation presents a set of studies and experiments quantifying and analyzing the response behaviors of AlGaN/GaN field effect transistor (FET) devices via their interfacial electronic properties. Additional investigation was done on the modification of these surfaces, effects of stressful environmental conditions, and the utility of the phosphonic acid surface treatments. Signals of AlGaN/GaN FETs were measured as IDrain values and in the earliest study an average signal increase of 96.43% was observed when surfaces were incubated in a solution of a known recognition peptide sequence (SVSVGMKPSPRP). This work showed that even without

  10. Natural products, an important resource for discovery of multitarget drugs and functional food for regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Sijian; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qian; Ma, Yanmin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is one of the critical pathologic events in the development of metabolic syndromes (MSs). Therefore, regulation of imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is important in drug development for MS treatment. In this review, we discuss the major targets that regulate hepatic glucose homeostasis in human physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, involving hepatic glucose uptake, glycolysis and glycogen synthesis, and summarize their changes in MSs. Recent literature suggests the necessity of multitarget drugs in the management of MS disorder for regulation of imbalanced glucose homeostasis in both experimental models and MS patients. Here, we highlight the potential bioactive compounds from natural products with medicinal or health care values, and focus on polypharmacologic and multitarget natural products with effects on various signaling pathways in hepatic glucose metabolism. This review shows the advantage and feasibility of discovering multicompound-multitarget drugs from natural products, and providing a new perspective of ways on drug and functional food development for MSs.

  11. Ego depletion in sports: highlighting the importance of self-control strength for high-level sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris

    2017-08-01

    Athletes are constantly confronted with self-control demands, but previous research has delivered sound empirical evidence that athletes are not always capable of dealing with these demands. According to the strength model of self-control, individuals have a limited amount of self-control strength, which can become temporarily depleted following self-control demands (e.g., attention regulation). When self-control strength is depleted, that is, in a state of ego depletion, athletes are less persistent during strenuous physical exercise, are less likely to follow their exercise regimens, and tend to perform worse under pressure. The aim of this review article is to highlight the importance of ego depletion in the field of sports and exercise and to discuss the recent research and controversies surrounding it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MS Non-Pharmacological Countermeasure to Decrease Landing Sickness and Improve Functional Performance While Disorientad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Upon return from spaceflight, a majority of crewmembers experience motion sickness (MS) symptoms. The interactions between crewmembers' adaptation to a gravitational transition, the performance decrements resulting from MS and/or use of promethazine (PMZ), and the constraints imposed by mission task demands could significantly challenge and limit an astronaut's ability to perform functional tasks during gravitational transitions. No operational countermeasure currently exists to mitigate the risks associated with these sensorimotor disturbances. Stochastic resonance (SR) can be thought of simply as "noise benefit" or an increase in information transfer by a system when in the presence of a non-zero level of noise. We have shown that low levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) improve balance and locomotor performance due to SR (Goel et al. 2015, Mulavara et al. 2011, 2015). Additionally, a study in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemi-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease demonstrated improvements in locomotor activity after low-level SVS delivery possibly due to an increase in nigral gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in a dopamine independent way (Samoudi et al. 2012). SVS specifically increased GABA release on the lesioned, but not the intact side. These results suggest that SVS can cause targeted alterations of GABA release to affect performance of functional tasks. Activation of the GABA pathway is important in modulating MS and promoting adaptability (Cohen 2008). Magnusson et al. (2000) supported this finding by showing that the administration of a GABAB agonist caused a reversal of the symptoms that is normally seen after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Thus, GABA could play a significant role in reducing MS and promoting adaptability. We have taken advantage of the SR mechanism as a modulator of neurotransmitters to develop a unique SVS countermeasure system to mitigate MS symptoms and improve functional performance after landing. Healthy

  13. High-performance functional ecopolymers based on flora and fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Liquid crystalline (LC) polymers of rigid monomers based on flora and fauna were prepared by in-bulk polymerization. Para-coumaric (p-coumaric) acid [4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4HCA)] and its derivatives were selected as phytomonomers and bile acids were selected as biomonomers. The 4HCA homopolymer showed a thermotropic LC phase only in a state of low molecular weight. The copolymers of 4HCA with bile acids such as lithocholic acid (LCA) and cholic acid (CA) showed excellent cell compatibilities but low molecular weights. However, P(4HCA-co-CA)s allowed LC spinning to create molecularly oriented biofibers, presumably due to the chain entanglement that occurs during in-bulk chain propagation into hyperbranching architecture. P[4HCA-co-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA)]s showed high molecular weight, high mechanical strength, high Young's modulus, and high softening temperature, which may be achieved through the entanglement by in-bulk formation of hyperbranching, rigid structures. P(4HCA-co-DHCA)s showed a smooth hydrolysis, in-soil degradation, and photo-tunable hydrolysis. Thus, P(4HCA-co-DHCA)s might be applied as an environmentally degradable plastic with extremely high performance.

  14. ANALISIS PENINGKATAN KUALITAS PELAYANAN MAHASISWA MAGISTER MANAJEMEN TEKNOLOGI ITS SURABAYA DENGAN METODE SERVQUAL DAN IMPORTANCE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS (IPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissa Rosdiana Noer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available MMT-ITS Study Program is a program that has orientations in developing and implementing Technology Management science. This program has some fields and they are Industrial Management, Project Management, and Information Technology Management. Service quality can be known by using Service Quality Methods, they are: (i tangible, (ii reliability, (iii responsiveness, (iv assurance, and (v emphaty. The assesment of service levels use questionnaire and this research propose to use Gap 5.  Based on the integration result of Servqual Method and Importance Performance Analysis (IPA, MMT-ITS students’ satisfaction will be reached by improving some variables, they are: motorcycle parking space, availability of cleaning service, the ease of delivering facilities and infrastructures complaints, the efficiency of security guard (a main priority of quadrant I. Maintaining the achievement of quadrant II includes: quick in delivering academic information, satisfying literatures of books/references/journals, good lecture materials comprehension, online journal can be accessed easily and fast, any replacement class, fast response to students’ complaints, the ease of academic students’ complaints, the good conditions of tables and chairs, clean classroom,  employees willing to give lectures information, clarity in giving information related to college payment and another activities, guarantee of students’ data confidentiality, bright light in the room, safe feeling in students, polite and kind employees, room temperature which is cool. While, another very important variables are fast wifi/internet facility and clean toilet (quadrant IV that has high satisfaction level.

  15. Internal service quality by integrated approach Performance Control Matrix (PCM & Importance-Satisfaction Model (Studied in Yazd Regional Power Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Peirow

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, the internal service quality as one of the most important factors affecting the recruitment and retention of staff is considered. The present study sought to examine the internal service quality of Yazd Regional Electric, finally, select appropriate strategies to improve the quality of local services in the organization. The application of this study is base on survey method.Data were collected from questionnaires to evaluate the 26 components of internal service quality of Yazd Regional Electric, has been used. Research community is the staff of the organisation.Also, the sample size, the initial questionnaire was distributed according to Cochran's formula is calculated.In order to analyze research data, the model is important - satisfaction and performance control matrix to identify those components that are used need to be improved.Also, in order to prioritize measures to improve employee satisfaction index is used. Data analysis using above tools show, 8 criteria are in improvment area. So, these criteria are prioritized with ESI.

  16. Growth and contribution of stocked channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818): the importance of measuring post-stocking performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was sought to quantify post-stocking growth, survival, and contribution of advanced size (178 mm total length [TL]) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings, something rarely done. Channel catfish populations were evaluated before (May 2010) and after (May to August 2011 and 2012) stocking. Relative abundance, stocking contribution, and growth were different (P stocked in Lake Lone Chimney, stocking contribution was lower (3–35%), and average length and weight of stocked fish by age-2 reached 230 mm TL and 85 g, whereas the stocking contribution (84–98%) and growth in length (340 mm TL) and weight (280 g) were higher by age-2 in Lake Greenleaf. Given these unambiguous differences of post-stocking performance, benchmark metrics that represent population-level information such as relative abundance and average length and weight of the sample masked these significant differences, highlighting the importance of marking hatchery-fish and then following them through time to determine the effectiveness of stocking. These results suggest that stock enhancement programmes would benefit from studies that quantify post-stocking performance of hatchery fish.

  17. Entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance : the mediating role of functional performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei, J.; Ortt, J.R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Earlier studies have generally shown a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and the overall performance of the firm. The purpose of this paper is to understand in more detail how EO influences firm performance. It adds to the literature by distinguishing

  18. Identification of multi-loci hubs from 4C-seq demonstrates the functional importance of simultaneous interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tingting; Raviram, Ramya; Snetkova, Valentina; Rocha, Pedro P; Proudhon, Charlotte; Badri, Sana; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A; Kluger, Yuval

    2016-10-14

    Use of low resolution single cell DNA FISH and population based high resolution chromosome conformation capture techniques have highlighted the importance of pairwise chromatin interactions in gene regulation. However, it is unlikely that associations involving regulatory elements act in isolation of other interacting partners that also influence their impact. Indeed, the influence of multi-loci interactions remains something of an enigma as beyond low-resolution DNA FISH we do not have the appropriate tools to analyze these. Here we present a method that uses standard 4C-seq data to identify multi-loci interactions from the same cell. We demonstrate the feasibility of our method using 4C-seq data sets that identify known pairwise and novel tri-loci interactions involving the Tcrb and Igk antigen receptor enhancers. We further show that the three Igk enhancers, MiEκ, 3'Eκ and Edκ, interact simultaneously in this super-enhancer cluster, which add to our previous findings showing that loss of one element decreases interactions between all three elements as well as reducing their transcriptional output. These findings underscore the functional importance of simultaneous interactions and provide new insight into the relationship between enhancer elements. Our method opens the door for studying multi-loci interactions and their impact on gene regulation in other biological settings. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Import, maturation, and function of SOD1 and its copper chaperone CCS in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    Cu, Zn, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a ubiquitous enzyme localized in multiple cellular compartments, including mitochondria, where it concentrates in the intermembrane space (IMS). Similar to other small IMS proteins, the import and retention of SOD1 in the IMS is linked to its folding and maturation, involving the formation of critical intra- and intermolecular disulfide bonds. Therefore, the cysteine residues of SOD1 play a fundamental role in its IMS localization. IMS import of SOD1 involves its copper chaperone, CCS, whose mitochondrial distribution is regulated by the Mia40/Erv1 disulfide relay system in a redox-dependent manner: CCS promotes SOD1 maturation and retention in the IMS. The function of SOD1 in the IMS is still unknown, but it is plausible that it serves to remove superoxide released from the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mutations in SOD1 cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), whose pathologic features include mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction. Mutant SOD1 localization in the IMS is not dictated by oxygen concentration and the Mia40/Erv1 system, but is primarily dependent on aberrant protein folding and aggregation. Mutant SOD1 localization and aggregation in the IMS might cause the mitochondrial abnormalities observed in familial ALS and could play a significant role in disease pathogenesis.

  20. Importance of thiol-functionalized molecules for the structure and properties of compression-molded glassy wheat gluten bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansens, Koen J A; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Goderis, Bart; Smet, Mario; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-11-06

    High-temperature compression molding of wheat gluten at low water levels yields a rigid plastic-like material. We performed a systematic study to determine the effect of additives with multiple thiol (SH) groups on gluten network formation during processing and investigate the impact of the resulting gluten network on the mechanical properties of the glassy end product. To this end, a fraction of the hydroxyl groups of different polyols was converted into SH functionalities by esterifying with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The monofunctional additive MPA was evaluated as well. During low-temperature mixing SH-containing additives decreased the gluten molecular weight, whereas protein cross-linking occurred during high-temperature compression molding. The extent of both processes depended on the molecular architecture of the additives and their concentration. After molding, the material strength and failure strain increased without affecting the modulus, provided the additive concentration was low. The strength decreased again at too high concentrations for polyols with low SH functionalization. Attributing these effects solely to the interplay of plasticization and the SH-facilitated introduction of cross-links is inadequate, since an improvement in both strength and failure strain was also observed in the presence of high levels of MPA. It is hypothesized that, regardless of the molecular structure of the additive, the presence of SH-containing groups induces conformational changes which contribute to the mechanical properties of glassy gluten materials.

  1. Importance of Collateralization in Patients With Large Artery Intracranial Occlusive Disease: Long-Term Longitudinal Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa McKetton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with large artery intracranial occlusive disease (LAICOD are at risk for both acute ischemia and chronic hypoperfusion. Collateral circulation plays an important role in prognosis, and imaging plays an essential role in diagnosis, treatment planning, and prognosis of patients with LAICOD. In addition to standard structural imaging, assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function is important to determine the adequacy of collateral supply. Among the currently available methods of assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function, measurement of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD MRI and precisely controlled CO2 has shown to be a safe, reliable, reproducible, and clinically useful method for long-term assessment of patients. Here, we report a case of long-term follow-up in a 28-year-old Caucasian female presented to the neurology clinic with a history of TIAs and LAICOD of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA. Initial structural MRI showed a right MCA stenosis and a small right coronal radiate lacunar infarct. Her CVR study showed a large area of impaired CVR with a paradoxical decrease in BOLD signal with hypercapnia involving the right MCA territory indicating intracerebral steal. The patient was managed medically with anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and was followed-up for over 9 years with both structural and functional imaging. Cortical thickness (CT measures were longitudinally assessed from a region of interest that was applied to subsequent time points in the cortical region exhibiting steal physiology and in the same region of the contralateral healthy hemisphere. In the long-term follow-up, the patient exhibited improvement in her CVR as demonstrated by the development of collaterals with negligible changes to CT. Management of patients with LAICOD remains challenging since no revascularization strategies have shown efficacy except in patients with moyamoya disease. Management is well

  2. Importance of Collateralization in Patients With Large Artery Intracranial Occlusive Disease: Long-Term Longitudinal Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetton, Larissa; Venkatraghavan, Lakshmikumar; Poublanc, Julien; Sobczyk, Olivia; Crawley, Adrian P; Rosen, Casey; Silver, Frank L; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph A; Mikulis, David J

    2018-01-01

    Patients with large artery intracranial occlusive disease (LAICOD) are at risk for both acute ischemia and chronic hypoperfusion. Collateral circulation plays an important role in prognosis, and imaging plays an essential role in diagnosis, treatment planning, and prognosis of patients with LAICOD. In addition to standard structural imaging, assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function is important to determine the adequacy of collateral supply. Among the currently available methods of assessment of cerebral hemodynamic function, measurement of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI and precisely controlled CO 2 has shown to be a safe, reliable, reproducible, and clinically useful method for long-term assessment of patients. Here, we report a case of long-term follow-up in a 28-year-old Caucasian female presented to the neurology clinic with a history of TIAs and LAICOD of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Initial structural MRI showed a right MCA stenosis and a small right coronal radiate lacunar infarct. Her CVR study showed a large area of impaired CVR with a paradoxical decrease in BOLD signal with hypercapnia involving the right MCA territory indicating intracerebral steal. The patient was managed medically with anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and was followed-up for over 9 years with both structural and functional imaging. Cortical thickness (CT) measures were longitudinally assessed from a region of interest that was applied to subsequent time points in the cortical region exhibiting steal physiology and in the same region of the contralateral healthy hemisphere. In the long-term follow-up, the patient exhibited improvement in her CVR as demonstrated by the development of collaterals with negligible changes to CT. Management of patients with LAICOD remains challenging since no revascularization strategies have shown efficacy except in patients with moyamoya disease. Management is well defined for acute

  3. Root cause analysis underscores the importance of understanding, addressing, and communicating cold chain equipment failures to improve equipment performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Pat; Atuhaire, Brian; Yavari, Shahrzad; Sampath, Vidya; Mvundura, Mercy; Ramanathan, Nithya; Robertson, Joanie

    2017-04-19

    Vaccine cold chain equipment (CCE) in developing countries is often exposed to harsh environmental conditions, such as extreme temperatures and humidity, and is subject to many additional challenges, including intermittent power supply, insufficient maintenance capacity, and a scarcity of replacement parts. Together, these challenges lead to high failure rates for refrigerators, potentially damaging vaccines and adversely affecting immunization coverage. Providing a sustainable solution for improving CCE performance requires an understanding of the root causes of failure. Project teams conducted small-scale studies to determine the root causes of CCE failure in selected locations in Uganda and Mozambique. The evaluations covered 59 failed refrigerators and freezers in Uganda and 27 refrigerators in Mozambique. In Uganda, the vast majority of failures were due to a cooling unit fault in one widely used refrigerator model. In Mozambique, 11 of the 27 problems were attributable to solar refrigerators with batteries that were unable to hold a charge, and another eight problems were associated with a need to adjust thermostat settings. The studies showed that tracking and evaluation of equipment performance and failure can yield important, actionable information for a range of stakeholders, including local CCE technicians, the ministry of health, equipment manufacturers, and international partners such as the United Nations Children's Fund, World Health Organization, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Collaborative efforts to systematically collect and communicate data on CCE performance and causes of failure will help to improve the efficiency and reach of immunization programs in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. High-risk subgroup of inferior myocardial infarction. Importance of anterior wall motion and right ventricular function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Yasuda, Tsunehiro; Gold, H K; Leinbach, R C; Boucher, C A; McKusick, K A; Strauss, H W

    1986-12-01

    To identify high-risk subgroups of inferior myocardial infarction, 75 patients presenting with their first inferior infarction were investigated by sequential gated blood pool scans. The patients were divided into four groups based on the right ventricular function (RVF) and anterior wall motion (AWM) of the left ventricle by scan at the time of admission. A second blood pool scan was performed at ten days to evaluate RV and LV function. Thirty-eight patients had cardiac catheterization before discharge and all patients were followed up for one year to determine their clinical outcome. Depressed RVF and reduced AWM were observed in 26 (35%) (Group A); depressed RVF and normal AWM were found in 20 (27%) (Group B); reduced AWM and normal RVE in 10 (13%) (Group C); and normal RVF and AWM in 19 (25%) (Group D). The mean values of biventricular function (LVEF, RVEF) in groups A, B, C, and D were (44.9 +- 8.4%, 32.5 +- 9.9%), (59.9 +- 8.6%, 34.5 +- 8.0%), (44.9 +- 15.7%, 48.2 +- 3.3%), and (60.4 +- 9.1%, 51.6 +- 10.6%), respectively, at admission. In serial measurements, LVEF did not change significantly in any group, however, RVEF improved nearly 10 points in groups A and B at 10 days. Group A also had the highest incidence (82 %) of left anterior descending coronary artery involvement, and the highest mean creatine phosphokinase levels (762 +- 318 U/1): Furthermore, group A had a high incidence of major complications during their hospital course and high mortality during the one-year follow-up. These data clearly identified group A as a high-risk subgroup of patients with inferior infarction.

  5. The importance of the practical training, the retraining and the accreditation of the personnel with regulatory functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menossi, Carlos A.

    2004-01-01

    Medicine, industry, hydrology, research, development and academic scenarios are, nowadays the focus for a wide application of radioisotope techniques of permanently increasing use. This situation should move the governments towards the improvement of their infrastructures and the updating of the nuclear regulatory authorities knowledge. The regulation and control of radioactive sources and its associated practices, to guarantee its safe use and minimize the derived risks from those practices, constitute the main tasks of nuclear regulatory institutions. On the other hand, it is known that personnel with regulatory functions has further interaction with people responsible of facilities and practices (users). In fact, most of these people only have contact with the regulatory authority through the inspector visits, the documents, notes or requirements received. For such a reason, nuclear regulatory authority management success or failure depends fundamentally on the successes or errors occurring in the course of these interactions. Due to it, it should be kept in mind that a successful management of a Nuclear Regulatory Authority implies: a) The users accomplish the effective standards and satisfy the authority requirements, and b) An attitude of respect is induced in the users by the appropriate regulatory function. That is to say because the 'inspectors' possess the necessary technical knowledge. In that sense, with the experience of many years, improvements have been introduced in the radiological protection Post Graduate Course program. This course sponsored by the IAEA has been given in Argentina for 24 years. Such improvements have been made to allow participants that will perform regulatory functions to have enough sessions of practical training, demonstrations, laboratory exercises, case studies and technical visits. This formation course will be supplemented by an accreditation and training on the job. The scope and dimension of the improvements are

  6. Interleukin-10 induction is an important virulence function of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis type III effector YopM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Joseph B; Mena, Patricio; Zhang, Yue; Bliska, James B

    2012-07-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species modulate host immune responses through the activity of a plasmid-encoded type III secretion system and its associated effector proteins. One effector, YopM, is a leucine-rich-repeat-containing protein that is important for virulence in murine models of Yersinia infection. Although the mechanism by which YopM promotes virulence is unknown, we previously demonstrated that YopM was required for the induction of high levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in sera of C57BL/6J mice infected with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. To determine if IL-10 production is important for the virulence function of YopM, C57BL/6J or congenic IL-10⁻/⁻ mice were infected intravenously with wild-type or yopM mutant Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Analysis of cytokine levels in serum and bacterial colonization in the spleen and liver showed that YopM is required for IL-10 induction in C57BL/6J mice infected with either the IP32953 or the 32777 strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis, demonstrating that the phenotype is conserved in the species. In single-strain infections, the ability of the 32777ΔyopM mutant to colonize the liver was significantly increased by the delivery of exogenous IL-10 to C57BL/6J mice. In mixed infections, the competitive advantage of a yopM⁺ 32777 strain over an isogenic yopM mutant to colonize spleen and liver, as observed for C57BL/6J mice, was significantly reduced in IL-10⁻/⁻ animals. Thus, by experimentally controlling IL-10 levels in a mouse infection model, we obtained evidence that the induction of this cytokine is an important mechanism by which YopM contributes to Y. pseudotuberculosis virulence.

  7. Non-Pharmacological Countermeasure to Decrease Landing Sickness and Improve Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Upon return from long-duration spaceflight, 100% of crewmembers experience motion sickness (MS) symptoms. The interactions between crewmembers' adaptation to a gravitational transition, the performance decrements resulting from MS and/or use of promethazine (PMZ), and the constraints imposed by mission task demands could significantly challenge and limit an astronaut's ability to perform functional tasks during gravitational transitions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is "noise benefit": adding noise to a system might increase the information (examples to the left and above). Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS), or low levels of noise applied to the vestibular system, improves balance and locomotor performance (Goel et al. 2015, Mulavara et al. 2011, 2015). In hemi-lesioned rat models, Samoudi et al. 2012 found that SVS increased GABA release on the lesioned, but not the intact side. Activation of the GABA pathway is important in modulating MS and promoting adaptability (Cohen 2008) and was seen to reverse MS symptoms in rats after unilateral labyrinthectomy (Magnusson et al. 2000). Thus, SVS could be used to promote GABA pathways to reduce MS and promote adaptability, eliminate the need for PMZ or other performance-inhibiting drugs.

  8. The Functional Task Test (FTT): An Interdisciplinary Testing Protocol to Investigate the Factors Underlying Changes in Astronaut Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Lawrence, E. L.; Arzeno, N. M.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts. S. H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to space flight causes adaptations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing protocol (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Functional tests include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers perform this integrated test protocol before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data are collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Preliminary results from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers indicate decrement in performance of the functional tasks after both short and long-duration space flight. On-going data collection continues to improve the statistical power required to map changes in functional task performance to alterations in physiological systems. The information obtained from this study will be used to design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

  9. Association between functional performance and executive cognitive functions in an elderly population including patients with low ankle–brachial index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Naomi Vidal; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; da Costa, Danielle Irigoyen; dos Santos, Fernando; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI), is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI. Aim To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI. Method The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19), and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07). We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF). Results Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working memory, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and phonemic verbal fluency. After adjustment, the ABI group performance remained worse for working memory and semantic verbal fluency. In a simple correlation analysis including all of the subjects, the 6MWT was associated with global cognition, attention span, working memory, information processing speed, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and global ECF. After adjustment, all the associations remained statistically significant. Conclusion This study found an independent association between

  10. Evaluating the HR function as being a factor of supply chain performance: Case of industrial companies in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmortada Asmaa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In an economic environment increasingly complex and competitive, firms are now aware, more than ever, of the importance of controlling the human resources function as a primary factor to the success and performance of their supply chains. Through studying the Moroccan industrial companies, the concern of this article is to highlight the role of human resource function in the supply chain performance, in the light of the company culture and under the effect of a HRM practices influenced by the competitive environment, and the resulting mutations.

  11. Psychological factors addressed in cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric functional abdominal pain: Which are most important to target?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; de Haan, Else; Derkx, H. H. F.; Benninga, Marc A.; Boer, Frits

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric functional abdominal pain leaves room for improvement. We studied which factors addressed in cognitive behaviour therapy relate most strongly to the physical and psychological functioning of children with functional abdominal pain and

  12. Skin and scales of teleost fish: Simple structure but high performance and multiple functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerey, Franck J.; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-08-01

    Natural and man-made structural materials perform similar functions such as structural support or protection. Therefore they rely on the same types of properties: strength, robustness, lightweight. Nature can therefore provide a significant source of inspiration for new and alternative engineering designs. We report here some results regarding a very common, yet largely unknown, type of biological material: fish skin. Within a thin, flexible and lightweight layer, fish skins display a variety of strain stiffening and stabilizing mechanisms which promote multiple functions such as protection, robustness and swimming efficiency. We particularly discuss four important features pertaining to scaled skins: (a) a strongly elastic tensile behavior that is independent from the presence of rigid scales, (b) a compressive response that prevents buckling and wrinkling instabilities, which are usually predominant for thin membranes, (c) a bending response that displays nonlinear stiffening mechanisms arising from geometric constraints between neighboring scales and (d) a robust structure that preserves the above characteristics upon the loss or damage of structural elements. These important properties make fish skin an attractive model for the development of very thin and flexible armors and protective layers, especially when combined with the high penetration resistance of individual scales. Scaled structures inspired by fish skin could find applications in ultra-light and flexible armor systems, flexible electronics or the design of smart and adaptive morphing structures for aerospace vehicles.

  13. ANALISIS KUALITAS PELAYANAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN INTEGRASI IMPORTANCE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS (IPA DAN MODEL KANO (Studi Kasus di PT. Perusahaan Air Minum Lyonnaise Jaya Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Budi Puspitasari

    2012-02-01

    service with the integration ofImportance Performance Analysis (IPA and the Kano Model. This approach aims to help Palyja in evaluating their customers' satisfaction, not only to identify whether consumer expectations are met or not, but also identify the service attributes, functional and dysfunctional. So, from the integration of service attributes can know what needs to be given priority for improvement. Furthermore, from this model, can be identified recommendations for improvements that can be done Palyja. From the results of such integration can be seen that the attributes that should be given priority to improved water facilities Palyja is the application that can be drunk directly by consumers. Of course, with due regard to the quality of clean and safe water to drink. Keywords: Quality of Service, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA, Kano Model, Palyja

  14. Defining the Physiological Factors that Contribute to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N.; Buxton, R.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I.; Lawrence, E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objective of the FTT is to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to performance of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks. This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor

  15. HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION – AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICU IOANA ELENA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the people of a company are a strong resource for business and that the human resource function is valuable in assisting the workforce in order to accomplish the objective of the company. The productivity of a company is strongly related to its people and its strategies. Therefore, a powerful human resources management system has started to develop in Romania as well. The people that are hired in companies bring along a wide range of qualifications, abilities and knowledge, which might as well be useless to the company needs. Some of them identify with the company and are motivated in helping reaching goals, while others see the company as a vehicle meant to satisfy their own targets. This paper touches upon the importance of human resources motivation when it comes to accomplishing individual performances and, implicitly attaining organizational performances. Many human resources scientific researchers have discussed the subject of human resources motivation, have sought to understand what prompts people and how they have been motivated. The question ‘Why do we need motivated employees?’ is so often asked by chairmen. Motivated employees help the business survive and they are more productive. When aiming at efficiency, managers must understand what motivates the employees, according to their tasks. Of all the functions of a manager, motivating human resources is probably the most complex.

  16. 29 CFR 825.123 - Unable to perform the functions of the position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... position within the meaning of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 12101 et... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unable to perform the functions of the position. 825.123... Act § 825.123 Unable to perform the functions of the position. (a) Definition. An employee is “unable...

  17. Why performance appraisal does not lead to performance improvement : Excellent performance as a function of uniqueness instead of uniformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerkom, M.; de Bruijn, M.J.

    Dissatisfaction with performance appraisal is at an all-time high (Adler et al., 2016). In this commentary we argue that one of the reasons why performance appraisal is unable to get the most out of employees is the way in which employees are evaluated against a uniform set of criteria, leading to a

  18. Representation of the Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance Using Motion Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience changes in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. To understand how changes in physiological function influence functional performance, a testing procedure has been developed that evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. Astronauts complete seven functional and physiological tests. The objective of this project is to use motion tracking and digitizing software to visually display the postflight decrement in the functional performance of the astronauts. The motion analysis software will be used to digitize astronaut data videos into stick figure videos to represent the astronauts as they perform the Functional Tasks Tests. This project will benefit NASA by allowing NASA scientists to present data of their neurological studies without revealing the identities of the astronauts.

  19. Correlation of structural stability with functional remodeling of high-density lipoproteins: the importance of being disordered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Madhumita; Gao, Xuan; Jayaraman, Shobini; Gursky, Olga

    2008-11-04

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are protein-lipid assemblies that remove excess cell cholesterol and prevent atherosclerosis. HDLs are stabilized by kinetic barriers that decelerate protein dissociation and lipoprotein fusion. We propose that similar barriers modulate metabolic remodeling of plasma HDLs; hence, changes in particle composition that destabilize HDLs and accelerate their denaturation may accelerate their metabolic remodeling. To test this notion, we correlate existing reports on HDL-mediated cell cholesterol efflux and esterification, which are obligatory early steps in cholesterol removal, with our kinetic studies of HDL stability. The results support our hypothesis and show that factors accelerating cholesterol efflux and esterification in model discoidal lipoproteins (including reduced protein size, reduced fatty acyl chain length, and/or increased level of cis unsaturation) destabilize lipoproteins and accelerate their fusion and apolipoprotein dissociation. Oxidation studies of plasma spherical HDLs show a similar trend: mild oxidation by Cu(2+) or OCl(-) accelerates cell cholesterol efflux, protein dissociation, and HDL fusion, while extensive oxidation inhibits these reactions. Consequently, moderate destabilization may be beneficial for HDL functions by facilitating insertion of cholesterol and lipophilic enzymes, promoting dissociation of lipid-poor apolipoproteins, which are primary acceptors of cell cholesterol, and thereby accelerating HDL metabolism. Therefore, HDL stability must be delicately balanced to maintain the structural integrity of the lipoprotein assembly and ensure structural specificity necessary for interactions of HDL with its metabolic partners, while facilitating rapid HDL remodeling and turnover at key junctures of cholesterol transport. The inverse correlation between HDL stability and remodeling illustrates the functional importance of structural disorder in macromolecular assemblies stabilized by kinetic barriers.

  20. Importance of post-translational modifications for functionality of a chloroplast-localized carbonic anhydrase (CAH1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Burén

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis CAH1 alpha-type carbonic anhydrase is one of the few plant proteins known to be targeted to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway. CAH1 is post-translationally modified at several residues by the attachment of N-glycans, resulting in a mature protein harbouring complex-type glycans. The reason of why trafficking through this non-canonical pathway is beneficial for certain chloroplast resident proteins is not yet known. Therefore, to elucidate the significance of glycosylation in trafficking and the effect of glycosylation on the stability and function of the protein, epitope-labelled wild type and mutated versions of CAH1 were expressed in plant cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transient expression of mutant CAH1 with disrupted glycosylation sites showed that the protein harbours four, or in certain cases five, N-glycans. While the wild type protein trafficked through the secretory pathway to the chloroplast, the non-glycosylated protein formed aggregates and associated with the ER chaperone BiP, indicating that glycosylation of CAH1 facilitates folding and ER-export. Using cysteine mutants we also assessed the role of disulphide bridge formation in the folding and stability of CAH1. We found that a disulphide bridge between cysteines at positions 27 and 191 in the mature protein was required for correct folding of the protein. Using a mass spectrometric approach we were able to measure the enzymatic activity of CAH1 protein. Under circumstances where protein N-glycosylation is blocked in vivo, the activity of CAH1 is completely inhibited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time the importance of post-translational modifications such as N-glycosylation and intramolecular disulphide bridge formation in folding and trafficking of a protein from the secretory pathway to the chloroplast in higher plants. Requirements for these post-translational modifications for a fully functional native

  1. Which Feedback Is More Effective for Pursuing Multiple Goals of Differing Importance? The Interaction Effects of Goal Importance and Performance Feedback Type on Self-Regulation and Task Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how performance feedback type (progress vs. distance) affects Korean college students' self-regulation and task achievement according to relative goal importance in the pursuit of multiple goals. For this study, 146 students participated in a computerised task. The results showed the interaction effects of goal importance and…

  2. Factors of importance for the functional outcome in orthognathic surgery patients: a prospective study of 118 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper Øland; Jensen, John; Melsen, Birte

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of orthognathic surgery on patients' stomatognathic function and, further, to evaluate how post-treatment function relates to satisfaction.......The aim of this study was to assess the influence of orthognathic surgery on patients' stomatognathic function and, further, to evaluate how post-treatment function relates to satisfaction....

  3. A total cost perspective on use of polymeric materials in solar collectors – Importance of environmental performance on suitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Bo; Persson, Helena; Meir, Michaela; Rekstad, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A polymeric solar collector system was compared with two traditional ones. • It was found the best in terms of climatic performance per solar heat collected. • The differences in climatic cost between the systems compared however are small. • The low climatic cost makes solar heating better compared to natural gas heating. • Use of Ecoindicator 99 for environmental cost makes solar heating even better. - Abstract: To assess the suitability of solar collector systems in which polymeric materials are used versus those in which more traditional materials are used, a case study was undertaken. In this case study a solar heating system with polymeric solar collectors was compared with two equivalent but more traditional solar heating systems: one with flat plate solar collectors and one with evacuated tube solar collectors. To make the comparison, a total cost accounting approach was adopted. The life cycle assessment (LCA) results clearly indicated that the polymeric solar collector system is the best as regards climatic and environmental performance when they are expressed in terms of the IPPC 100 a indicator and the Ecoindicator 99, H/A indicator, respectively. In terms of climatic and environmental costs per amount of solar heat collected, the differences between the three kinds of collector systems were small when compared with existing energy prices. With the present tax rates, it seems unlikely that the differences in environmental and climatic costs will have any significant influence on which system is the most favoured, from a total cost point of view. In the choice between a renewable heat source and a heat source based on the use of a fossil fuel, the conclusion was that for climatic performance to be an important economic factor, the tax or trade rate of carbon dioxide emissions must be increased significantly, given the initial EU carbon dioxide emission trade rate. The rate would need to be at least of the same order of magnitude

  4. Physical Performance Is Associated with Executive Functioning in Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke C. Schneider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.

  5. UPAYA PENINGKATAN KUALITAS PELAYANAN JALAN TOL SEMARANG-BAWEN DENGAN INTEGRASI METODE IMPORTANCE PERFORMANCE GAP ANALYSIS, LEAN, DAN SIX SIGMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Puspita Sari

    2017-07-01

    Abstract PT Trans Marga Jateng (TMJ is a company engaged in service sector, which is managing Semarang-Bawen toll road. The result of preliminary surveyconducted by PT TMJ showed that service quality of PT TMJ is still unsatisfactory, so it is necessary to do research on improving service quality. Service quality can be measured from two perspectives, i.e., internal perspective and external perspective. The external perspective can be measured with Importance Performance Gap Analysis (IPGA method, while the internal perspective can be measured with Lean and Six Sigma method. Thus, this study will use the integration method of IPGA, lean, and six sigma in effort to improve service quality of PT TMJ. Based on the research result, service quality attributes considered the most influential is road lighting, road surface smoothness, driving safety, and accident handling. Suggested improvements for each attribute are road lighting installation at vulnerable points of accidents,asphalt layer installation on bumpy roads, paying particular attention to the implementation of safety driving indicator, and improving value stream of accident handling. Based on future state value stream mapping, total lead time is 150 minutes and value added activity percentage is 72,6%.

  6. Performance of Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Imported Malaria in Clinical Practice: Results of a National Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, Sandrine; Boutron, Isabelle; Marmorat, Anne; Dalichampt, Marie; Choquet, Christophe; Poilane, Isabelle; Godineau, Nadine; Le Guern, Anne-Sophie; Thellier, Marc; Broutier, Hélène; Fenneteau, Odile; Millet, Pascal; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Hubert, Véronique; Houzé, Pascal; Tubach, Florence; Le Bras, Jacques; Matheron, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    We compared the performance of four rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for imported malaria, and particularly Plasmodium falciparum infection, using thick and thin blood smears as the gold standard. All the tests are designed to detect at least one protein specific to P. falciparum ( Plasmodium histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) or Plasmodium LDH (PfLDH)) and one pan-Plasmodium protein (aldolase or Plasmodium LDH (pLDH)). 1,311 consecutive patients presenting to 9 French hospitals with suspected malaria were included in this prospective study between April 2006 and September 2008. Blood smears revealed malaria parasites in 374 cases (29%). For the diagnosis of P. falciparum infection, the three tests detecting PfHRP2 showed high and similar sensitivity (96%), positive predictive value (PPV) (90%) and negative predictive value (NPV) (98%). The PfLDH test showed lower sensitivity (83%) and NPV (80%), despite good PPV (98%). For the diagnosis of non-falciparum species, the PPV and NPV of tests targeting pLDH or aldolase were 94–99% and 52–64%, respectively. PfHRP2-based RDTs are thus an acceptable alternative to routine microscopy for diagnosing P. falciparum malaria. However, as malaria may be misdiagnosed with RDTs, all negative results must be confirmed by the reference diagnostic method when clinical, biological or other factors are highly suggestive of malaria. PMID:24098699

  7. Longitudinal evaluation of the importance of homework assignment completion for the academic performance of middle school students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Molitor, Stephen J; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Smith, Zoe; Schultz, Brandon K; Evans, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    The primary goal of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the homework assignment completion patterns of middle school age adolescents with ADHD, their associations with academic performance, and malleable predictors of homework assignment completion. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 104 middle school students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD and followed for 18 months. Multiple teachers for each student provided information about the percentage of homework assignments turned in at five separate time points and school grades were collected quarterly. Results showed that agreement between teachers with respect to students assignment completion was high, with an intraclass correlation of .879 at baseline. Students with ADHD were turning in an average of 12% fewer assignments each academic quarter in comparison to teacher-reported classroom averages. Regression analyses revealed a robust association between the percentage of assignments turned in at baseline and school grades 18 months later, even after controlling for baseline grades, achievement (reading and math), intelligence, family income, and race. Cross-lag analyses demonstrated that the association between assignment completion and grades was reciprocal, with assignment completion negatively impacting grades and low grades in turn being associated with decreased future homework completion. Parent ratings of homework materials management abilities at baseline significantly predicted the percentage of assignments turned in as reported by teachers 18 months later. These findings demonstrate that homework assignment completion problems are persistent across time and an important intervention target for adolescents with ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of customer satisfaction in hospital by using Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA and Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helia Vembri Noor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major health referral centre, the hospital demanded to provide comprehensive services provided by a multi-disciplinary team according to the needs of patient. In the expansion of a growing number of hospitals in Yogyakarta especially Sleman area where retreat acquire customers even more stringent, it is necessary to increase the quality of services. There are five determinants of service quality namely: reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangible. Collecting data is done by observation and distributing questionnaires to 70 respondents, and Importance-Performance Analysis and Customer Satisfaction Index are used to determine satisfaction level of outpatients. As a results, six out of twenty attributes need improvement, namely: a The condition of the hospital is clean, comfortable and tidy; b Guidance and information boards poly is easy to see and read; c The ease and accuracy of obtaining information for patients (referrals, lab results, etc.; d The hospital staff has a quick response to the needs of patients; e Attention physicians in managing patients and willingness to provide a particular time for consultation; and f The prescribed medication is suitable and safe. It is known that the value of CSI by 76% means the service is not satisfied the patient.

  9. How important are national companies for oil and gas sector performance? Lessons from the Bolivia and Brazil case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz Antolín, María José; Ramírez Cendrero, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Control of natural resources, especially oil and gas, has been a major issue in the consideration of underdevelopment. In the present commodity boom, some Latin American economies are reforming their resource exploitation regimes, especially those issues linked with foreign capital share. The purpose of this report is to analyze these changes in the Bolivian and Brazilian oil and gas sectors in order to answer such questions as: Which property system combining public and private capital is the most suitable? Which regulating framework can guarantee a sustainable increase in output and investment? Our analyses lead to the conclusion that the regulatory framework can establish a particular ownership structure that is considered favorable for improving the performance of oil and gas sector, but the internal dynamics and the historical trajectories of enterprises will also be determining factors that interact with the given regulatory framework, generating mixed results. - highlights: • We analyze the influence of the regulatory framework in the growth of production. • We analyze the influence of the regulatory framework in investment dynamics. • We compare the regulatory frameworks for Brazil and Bolivia. • We compare the importance of public and private companies in hydrocarbons in Brazil and Bolivia

  10. Identification of genes important for cutaneous function revealed by a large scale reverse genetic screen in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tia DiTommaso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The skin is a highly regenerative organ which plays critical roles in protecting the body and sensing its environment. Consequently, morbidity and mortality associated with skin defects represent a significant health issue. To identify genes important in skin development and homeostasis, we have applied a high throughput, multi-parameter phenotype screen to the conditional targeted mutant mice generated by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Mouse Genetics Project (Sanger-MGP. A total of 562 different mouse lines were subjected to a variety of tests assessing cutaneous expression, macroscopic clinical disease, histological change, hair follicle cycling, and aberrant marker expression. Cutaneous lesions were associated with mutations in 23 different genes. Many of these were not previously associated with skin disease in the organ (Mysm1, Vangl1, Trpc4ap, Nom1, Sparc, Farp2, and Prkab1, while others were ascribed new cutaneous functions on the basis of the screening approach (Krt76, Lrig1, Myo5a, Nsun2, and Nf1. The integration of these skin specific screening protocols into the Sanger-MGP primary phenotyping pipelines marks the largest reported reverse genetic screen undertaken in any organ and defines approaches to maximise the productivity of future projects of this nature, while flagging genes for further characterisation.

  11. The importance of vitamins D and K for the bone health and immune function in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Hideki; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2012-11-01

    This review summarizes the recent literature about the roles of vitamins D and K in bone metabolism and immunity-mediated inflammatory processes in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The levels of vitamins D and K are lower than normal in patients with IBD, especially in Crohn's disease. Although vitamins D and K are important for the maintenance of bone mineral density in non-IBD patients, an association between vitamins D or K and bone metabolism is not apparent in IBD patients. Recent studies showed that vitamins D and K are suggested to have immune-suppressive effects, both in animal models of colitis and human trials. In particular, vitamin D suppresses dendritic and T-cell functions by inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Insufficiency of vitamin D is associated with the activated phenotype of IBD. Vitamins D and K potentially contribute to the maintenance of bone health in IBD, but this effect may be diminished by other factors such as steroid use, reduced exposure to sunlight, and inflammatory cytokines. Vitamin D and possibly vitamin K are suggested to be involved in the suppression of immune-mediated inflammation and modulation of disease activity.

  12. Quantifying the importance of orbital over spin correlations in delta-Pu within density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderlind, P

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure of plutonium is studied within the density-functional theory (DFT) model. Key features of the electronic structure are correctly modeled and bonding, total energy, and electron density of states are all consistent with measure data, although the prediction of magnetism is not consistent with many observations. Here we analyze the contributions to the electronic structure arising from spin polarization, orbital polarization, and spin-orbit interaction. These effects give rise to spin and orbital moments that are of nearly equal magnitude, but anti-parallel, suggesting a magnetic-moment cancellation with a zero total moment. Quantifying the spin versus orbital effects on the bonding, total energy, and electron spectra it becomes clear that the spin polarization is much less important than the orbital correlations. Consequently, a restricted DFT approach with a non-spin polarized electronic structure can produce reasonable equation-of-state and electron spectra for (delta)-Pu when the orbital effects are accounted for. Hence, we present two non-magnetic models. One in which the spin moment is canceled by the orbital moment and another in which the spin moment (and therefore the orbital moment) is restricted to zero

  13. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair

  14. Visual search performance among persons with schizophrenia as a function of target eccentricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Ava; Christensen, Bruce K; Reingold, Eyal M

    2010-03-01

    The current study investigated one possible mechanism of impaired visual attention among patients with schizophrenia: a reduced visual span. Visual span is the region of the visual field from which one can extract information during a single eye fixation. This study hypothesized that schizophrenia-related visual search impairment is mediated, in part, by a smaller visual span. To test this hypothesis, 23 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls completed a visual search task where the target was pseudorandomly presented at different distances from the center of the display. Response times were analyzed as a function of search condition (feature vs. conjunctive), display size, and target eccentricity. Consistent with previous reports, patient search times were more adversely affected as the number of search items increased in the conjunctive search condition. It was important however, that patients' conjunctive search times were also impacted to a greater degree by target eccentricity. Moreover, a significant impairment in patients' visual search performance was only evident when targets were more eccentric and their performance was more similar to healthy controls when the target was located closer to the center of the search display. These results support the hypothesis that a narrower visual span may underlie impaired visual search performance among patients with schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Classifying human operator functional state based on electrophysiological and performance measures and fuzzy clustering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Peng, Xiao-Di; Liu, Hua; Raisch, Jörg; Wang, Ru-Bin

    2013-12-01

    The human operator's ability to perform their tasks can fluctuate over time. Because the cognitive demands of the task can also vary it is possible that the capabilities of the operator are not sufficient to satisfy the job demands. This can lead to serious errors when the operator is overwhelmed by the task demands. Psychophysiological measures, such as heart rate and brain activity, can be used to monitor operator cognitive workload. In this paper, the most influential psychophysiological measures are extracted to characterize Operator Functional State (OFS) in automated tasks under a complex form of human-automation interaction. The fuzzy c-mean (FCM) algorithm is used and tested for its OFS classification performance. The results obtained have shown the feasibility and effectiveness of the FCM algorithm as well as the utility of the selected input features for OFS classification. Besides being able to cope with nonlinearity and fuzzy uncertainty in the psychophysiological data it can provide information about the relative importance of the input features as well as the confidence estimate of the classification results. The OFS pattern classification method developed can be incorporated into an adaptive aiding system in order to enhance the overall performance of a large class of safety-critical human-machine cooperative systems.

  16. Muscle power is an important measure to detect deficits in muscle function in hip osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Christensen, Helle Elisabeth; Kjaer, Michael; Beyer, Nina

    2017-07-01

    To investigate between-leg differences in hip and thigh muscle strength and leg extensor power in patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis. Further, to compare between-leg differences in knee extensor strength and leg extensor power between patients and healthy peers. Seventy-two patients (60-87 years) with radiographic and symptomatic hip osteoarthritis not awaiting hip replacement and 35 healthy peers (63-82 years) were included. Hip and thigh muscle strength and leg extensor power were measured in patients and knee extensor strength and leg extensor power in healthy. The symptomatic extremity in patients was significantly (p hip muscles (8-17%), knee extensors (11%) and leg extensor power (19%). Healthy older adults had asymmetry in knee extensor strength (6%, p hip osteoarthritis. Implications for Rehabilitation Even in patients with mild symptoms not awaiting hip replacement a generalized muscle weakening of the symptomatic lower extremity seems to be present. Between-leg differences in leg extensor power (force × velocity) appears to be relatively large (19%) in patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis in contrast to healthy peers who show no asymmetry. Compared to muscle strength the relationship between functional performance and leg extensor power seems to be stronger, and more strongly related to power of the symptomatic lower extremity. Our results indicate that exercise interventions focusing on improving leg extensor power of the symptomatic lower extremity and reducing asymmetry may be beneficial for patients with mild symptoms not awaiting hip replacement.

  17. Sleep Disturbance, Daytime Symptoms, and Functional Performance in Patients With Stable Heart Failure: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangchoon; Redeker, Nancy S

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common among patients with heart failure (HF) who also experience symptom burden and poor functional performance. We evaluated the extent to which sleep-related, daytime symptoms (fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, and depressive symptoms) mediate the relationship between sleep disturbance and functional performance among patients with stable HF. We recruited patients with stable HF for this secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional, observational study. Participants completed unattended ambulatory polysomnography from which the Respiratory Disturbance Index was calculated, along with a Six-Minute Walk Test, questionnaires to elicit sleep disturbance (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Symptoms from the Sleep Habits Questionnaire), daytime symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Global Fatigue Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), and self-reported functional performance (Medical Outcomes Study SF36 V2 Physical Function Scale). We used structural equation modeling with latent variables for the key analysis. Follow-up, exploratory regression analysis with bootstrapped samples was used to examine the extent to which individual daytime symptoms mediated effects of sleep disturbance on functional performance after controlling for clinical and demographic covariates. The sample included 173 New York Heart Association Class I-IV HF patients (n = 60/34.7% women; M = 60.7, SD = 16.07 years of age). Daytime symptoms mediated the relationship between sleep disturbance and functional performance. Fatigue and depression mediated the relationship between insomnia symptoms and self-reported functional performance, whereas fatigue and sleepiness mediated the relationship between sleep quality and functional performance. Sleepiness mediated the relationship between the respiratory index and self-reported functional performance only in people who did not report insomnia. Daytime symptoms explain the relationships between sleep

  18. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (pperformance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely contributors to impaired functional tasks that are ambulatory in nature (See abstract Functional Task Test: 1). Interestingly, no significant changes in central activation capacity were detected. Therefore, impairments in muscle function in response to short-duration space flight are likely myocellular rather than neuromotor in nature.

  19. Chewing gum and cognitive performance: a case of a functional food with function but no food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, Andrew

    2004-10-01

    Recent reports suggest that enhancement of memory performance while chewing gum is a fairly robust phenomenon. The processes underlying the effect are not known, but may involve glucose delivery, context-dependent effects and arousal mechanisms amongst others. This brief commentary outlines the main findings from these studies and raises some issues regarding interpretation, methodology and future research directions.

  20. Performance of wave function and density functional methods for water hydrogen bond spin-spin coupling constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de la Vega, J M; Omar, S; San Fabián, J

    2017-04-01

    Spin-spin coupling constants in water monomer and dimer have been calculated using several wave function and density functional-based methods. CCSD, MCSCF, and SOPPA wave functions methods yield similar results, specially when an additive approach is used with the MCSCF. Several functionals have been used to analyze their performance with the Jacob's ladder and a set of functionals with different HF exchange were tested. Functionals with large HF exchange appropriately predict 1 J O H , 2 J H H and 2h J O O couplings, while 1h J O H is better calculated with functionals that include a reduced fraction of HF exchange. Accurate functionals for 1 J O H and 2 J H H have been tested in a tetramer water model. The hydrogen bond effects on these intramolecular couplings are additive when they are calculated by SOPPA(CCSD) wave function and DFT methods. Graphical Abstract Evaluation of the additive effect of the hydrogen bond on spin-spin coupling constants of water using WF and DFT methods.

  1. High performance flexible pH sensor based on carboxyl-functionalized and DEP aligned SWNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lu; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Zhao, Qiang; Nie, Bangbang; Xu, Chuan; Ding, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on two-terminal microsensors eliminating the need for a reference electrode, is simple in structure and can be fabricated on a variety of substrates such as PET, PI and PVC. • SWNTs as an ideal one dimensional material are carboxyl-functionalized to make the pH sensor show high sensitivity and outstanding flexibility for practical applications. • DEP technique is used to manipulate and position SWNTs into appropriate locations and desired formations to improve the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of pH value, resulting in better overall device performance. • Mechanical bendability of the pH sensor, which arises from the combination of flexible PET substrates and SWNTs, offer a significant improvement for applications that are difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional sensors on rigid substrates. - Abstract: The detection and control of the pH is very important in many biomedical and chemical reaction processes. A miniaturized flexible pH sensor that is light weight, robust, and conformable is very important in many applications, such as multifunctional lab-on-a-chip systems or wearable biomedical devices. In this work, we demonstrate a flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) aligned carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Decorated carboxyl groups can react with hydrogen (H"+) and hydroxide (OH"−) ions, enabling the sensor to be capable of sensing the pH. DEP is used to deposit well-organized and highly aligned SWNTs in desired locations, which improves the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of the pH, resulting in better overall device performance. When pH buffer solutions are dropped onto such SWNTs, the H"+ and OH"− ions caninteract with the carboxyl groups and affect the generation of holes and electrons in the SWNTs, leading to resistance variations in the SWNTs. The results shows that the

  2. High performance flexible pH sensor based on carboxyl-functionalized and DEP aligned SWNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lu; Shao, Jinyou, E-mail: jyshao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Li, Xiangming; Zhao, Qiang; Nie, Bangbang; Xu, Chuan; Ding, Haitao

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on two-terminal microsensors eliminating the need for a reference electrode, is simple in structure and can be fabricated on a variety of substrates such as PET, PI and PVC. • SWNTs as an ideal one dimensional material are carboxyl-functionalized to make the pH sensor show high sensitivity and outstanding flexibility for practical applications. • DEP technique is used to manipulate and position SWNTs into appropriate locations and desired formations to improve the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of pH value, resulting in better overall device performance. • Mechanical bendability of the pH sensor, which arises from the combination of flexible PET substrates and SWNTs, offer a significant improvement for applications that are difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional sensors on rigid substrates. - Abstract: The detection and control of the pH is very important in many biomedical and chemical reaction processes. A miniaturized flexible pH sensor that is light weight, robust, and conformable is very important in many applications, such as multifunctional lab-on-a-chip systems or wearable biomedical devices. In this work, we demonstrate a flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) aligned carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Decorated carboxyl groups can react with hydrogen (H{sup +}) and hydroxide (OH{sup −}) ions, enabling the sensor to be capable of sensing the pH. DEP is used to deposit well-organized and highly aligned SWNTs in desired locations, which improves the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of the pH, resulting in better overall device performance. When pH buffer solutions are dropped onto such SWNTs, the H{sup +} and OH{sup −} ions caninteract with the carboxyl groups and affect the generation of holes and electrons in the SWNTs, leading to resistance variations in the SWNTs. The results

  3. Children with minimal sensorineural hearing loss: prevalence, educational performance, and functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, F H; Dodd-Murphy, J; Parker, R A

    1998-10-01

    on several subtests of the COOP including behavior, energy, stress, social support, and self-esteem. The prevalence of hearing loss in the schools almost doubles when children with MSHL are included. This large, education-based study shows clinically important associations between MSHL and school behavior and performance. Children with MSHL experienced more difficulty than normally hearing children on a series of educational and functional test measures. Although additional research is necessary, results suggest the need for audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and educators to evaluate carefully our identification and management approaches with this population. Better efforts to manage these children could result in meaningful improvement in their educational progress and psychosocial well-being.

  4. Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tarabany, A.A.; Teama, F.E.I.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

  5. Merging assistance function with task distribution model to enhance user performance in collaborative virtual environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Alam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) falls under Virtual Reality (VR) where two or more users manipulate objects collaboratively. In this paper we have made some experiments to make assembly from constituents parts scattered in Virtual Environment (VE) based on task distribution model using assistance functions for checking and enhancing user performance. The CVEs subjects setting on distinct connected machines via local area network. In this perspective, we consider the effects of assistance function with oral communication on collaboration, co-presence and users performance. Twenty subjects performed collaboratively an assembly task on static and dynamic based task distribution. We examine the degree of influence of assistance function with oral communications on user's performance based on task distribution model. The results show that assistance functions with oral communication based on task distribution model not only increase user performance but also enhance the sense of copresence and awareness. (author)

  6. THE IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT POLICY IMPLEMENTATION ON THE LIMITATION OF IMPORT CATTLE TO COMPANY’S STRATEGY IN THE FRAMEWORK OF MAINTAINING COMPANY PERFORMANCE</