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Sample records for perfluorochemicals pfcs perfluorobutanoate

  1. Quantitative Determination of Perfluorochemicals and Fluorotelomer Alcohols in Plants from Biosolid-Amended Fields using LC/MS/MS and GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical methods for determining perfluorochemicals (PFCs) and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in plants using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were developed, and applied to quantify a suite of analytes i...

  2. Sorption of Perfluorochemicals to Matrices Relevant to Sites Impacted by Aqueous Film-Forming Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulvado, J.; Higgins, C.

    2011-12-01

    Perfluorochemicals are a class of emerging contaminants consisting of fluorinated surfactants that are chemically and thermally stable and which contain a fluorocarbon tail that is both hydro- and oleophobic. Because of these unique properties, PFCs have a wide variety of uses including food paper packaging products, stain repellants, nonstick coatings, and aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF). At fire-training facilities, repeated application of AFFF is used to extinguish hydrocarbon fuel fires ignited for training purposes. The presence of perfluochemicals (PFCs) in groundwater as a result of repeated AFFF application at these facilities has been documented. Due to factors such as the recent push towards regulation of PFCs in drinking water, concerns have arisen about the fate of these compounds in the subsurface. Groundwater plumes containing PFC subclasses such as perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFAS), and fluorotelomer sulfonates (FtSs) in the μg/L to mg/L range have been detected. These plumes also may contain co-contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuel components and chlorinated solvents, some of which may exist as nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL). This study examined the sorption of PFCs to soil and aquifer material across the concentration range applicable to AFFF-impacted sites (μg/L - mg/L) and looked at the impact of co-contaminants, including NAPL, on PFC sorption. PFC sorption was variable and indicated that similar to previous work on PFC sorption to sediment, subsurface PFC transport will depend on factors such as the sorbent organic carbon content, PFC subclass, solution chemistry, and PFC chain length.

  3. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsion as an adjuvant to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teicher, B.A.; Rose, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a perfluorochemical emulsion which as an excellent carrying capacity for oxygen to enhance the ability of radiation therapy to delay the growth of Lewis lung tumor was examined. There was a highly significant effect produced by the addition of perfluorochemical emulsion and carbogen breathing in combination with irradiation. With single dose x-ray treatment the dose of perfluorochemical emulsion was varied from 0.05-0.6 ml addition to the blood volume of the animals. The dose response effect was very broad peaking at 0.3-0.4 ml which gave a dose modifying effect of 2.8 +- 0.6 with 1000 rad of x-rays. The addition of 0.3 ml of perfluorochemical free annex solution with carbogen breathing produced a small enhancement in tumor growth delay addition of the same volume of the complete emulsion increased the tumor growth delay time about 3-fold compared to the annex solution. When the perfluorochemical emulsion was added to a fractionated course of radiation therapy a dose modifying effect of 1.8 +- 0.3 was obtained. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsions may provide a nontoxic clinically useful means of increasing the effectiveness of radiation therapy and of certain chemotherapeutic agents

  4. Effectiveness of perfluorochemical emulsions and carbogen breathing with fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulder, J.E.; Fish, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen-carrying perfluorochemical emulsions have been shown to enhance the response of experimental tumors to large single doses of radiation. Clinically, however, perfluorochemical emulsions will be used with only some fractions of multiple fraction radiation courses. To test the efficacy of a perfluorochemical emulsion (Fluosol-DA 20%, supplied by Alpha Therapeutic Co) under these conditions, BA1112 rat sarcomas were treated with three fractions/week of 6.25 Gy/fraction. Once a week, animals were given Fluosol-DA at 15 ml/kg, and allowed to breathe 95% O/sub 2/:5% CO/sub 2/ (carbogen) for 30 min prior to and during irradiation. The tumor regression rate during treatment was significantly greater in the Fluosol arm than in the control arm. Preliminary data analysis shows a 50% tumor control dose of 86.0 Gy (95% cl:78.0 - 94.3 Gy) in the control arm compared to 69.1 Gy (95% cl:58.3 - 77.3 Gy) in the Fluosol arm. The dose modification factor for intermittent Fluosol and carbogen breathing is 1.26 (95% cl:1.08 - 1.50). In the same fractionated schedule 0.4 mg/kg misonidazole, given once per week, gave a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.15 (95% cl:1.03 - 1.33)

  5. PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS (PFCs) IN SERUM OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PFCs have been used in a wide range of consumer, including residential, products (e.g., stain-resistant coatings for carpets and upholstery). Carbon-fluoride bonds are highly stable, mak-ing PFCs extremely resistant to biodegradation. Thus, PFCs have become globally distributed and are ubiquitously present in serum of wildlife and people. Despite this, comparatively little is known as to how people are primarily exposed, and what (if any) health risk is associated with chronic, low-level exposure. It is hypothesized that house dust may represent a significant exposure route because PFCs can slough or volatilize from products used indoors, subsequently adsorbing to and accumulating within house dust. The purpose of this study was to determine if PFC serum levels in domestic cats tended to increase in proportion to time spent indoors and whether analyte patterns reflected that of food sources [e.g., fish products with high perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) but low perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS)] or with house dust (PFOS + PFHxS + perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) ─ with high PFHxS levels in the most contaminated dust). In 2008, serum was obtained from feral and pet cats presenting to shelters and clinics in the Raleigh, NC area, including the NCSU VTH. PFC serum levels were measured using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Data on housing status was available for 50 cats. From least to greatest indoor residential exposure, cats were grouped as

  6. Design and thermal-hydraulic calculation for EAST PFCs' baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xiaogang; Yao Damao

    2006-01-01

    According to the vacuum requirements for fusion in a tokamak device, the authors adopted a kind of gas flow baking technique in EAST. This paper presented the sketch design for EAST PFCs' baking, selected the specifications for the working gas. Calculated the hydraulic and thermal conditions in PFCs under baking, and simulated the results. (authors)

  7. Perfluorochemicals and human semen quality: the LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Germaine M Buck; Chen, Zhen; Schisterman, Enrique F; Kim, Sungduk; Sweeney, Anne M; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Lynch, Courtney D; Gore-Langton, Robert E; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    The relation between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality is evolving, although limited data exist for men recruited from general populations. We examined the relation between perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples planning pregnancy. Using population-based sampling strategies, we recruited 501 couples discontinuing contraception from two U.S. geographic regions from 2005 through 2009. Baseline interviews and anthropometric assessments were conducted, followed by blood collection for the quantification of seven serum PFCs (perfluorosulfonates, perfluorocarboxylates, and perfluorosulfonamides) using tandem mass spectrometry. Men collected a baseline semen sample and another approximately 1 month later. Semen samples were shipped with freezer packs, and analyses were performed on the day after collection. We used linear regression to estimate the difference in each semen parameter associated with a one unit increase in the natural log-transformed PFC concentration after adjusting for confounders and modeling repeated semen samples. Sensitivity analyses included optimal Box-Cox transformation of semen quality end points. Six PFCs [2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)] were associated with 17 semen quality end points before Box-Cox transformation. PFOSA was associated with smaller sperm head area and perimeter, a lower percentage of DNA stainability, and a higher percentage of bicephalic and immature sperm. PFDeA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFOS were associated with a lower percentage of sperm with coiled tails. Select PFCs were associated with certain semen end points, with the most significant associations observed for PFOSA but with results in varying directions.

  8. Effects of perfluorochemical distribution and elimination dynamics on cardiopulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T F; Milestone, B; Stern, R; Shaffer, T H; Wolfson, M R

    2001-03-01

    Based on a physicochemical property profile, we tested the hypothesis that different perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids may have distinct effects on intrapulmonary PFC distribution, lung function, and PFC elimination kinetics during partial liquid ventilation (PLV). Young rabbits were studied in five groups [healthy, PLV with perflubron (PFB) or with perfluorodecalin (DEC); saline lavage injury and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV); saline lavage injury PLV with PFB or with DEC]. Arterial blood chemistry, respiratory compliance (Cr), quantitative computed tomography of PFC distribution, and PFC loss rate were assessed for 4 h. Initial distribution of PFB was more homogenous than that of DEC; over time, PFB redistributed to dependent regions whereas DEC distribution was relatively constant. PFC loss rate decreased over time in all groups, was higher with DEC than PFB, and was lower with injury. In healthy animals, arterial PO(2) (Pa(O(2))) and Cr decreased with either PFC; the decrease was greater and sustained with DEC. Lavaged animals treated with either PFC demonstrated increased Pa(O(2)), which was sustained with PFB but deteriorated with DEC. Lavaged animals treated with PFB demonstrated increased Cr, higher Pa(O(2)), and lower arterial PCO(2) than with CMV or PLV with DEC. The results indicate that 1) initial distribution and subsequent intrapulmonary redistribution of PFC are related to PFC properties; 2) PFC distribution influences PFC elimination, gas exchange, and Cr; and 3) PFC elimination, gas exchange, and Cr are influenced by PFC properties and lung condition.

  9. New preparation of fish material for interlaboratory study on PFCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Lohman, M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Barneveld, van E.

    2007-01-01

    The Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit (IVM) has requested Wageningen IMARES to prepare a new fish material for use in the interlaboratory performance study on analysis of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) due to the low amount of contaminants in the previously prepared material.

  10. Preparation of fish material for interlaboratory study on PFCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Lohman, M.; Barneveld, van E.

    2007-01-01

    The Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit (IVM) has requested Wageningen IMARES for the preparation of fish material for use in interDlaboratory performance study on analysis of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). It was requested that the material should be prepared from fillet of

  11. Mass flows of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in central wastewater treatment plants of industrial zones in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Tanaka, Shuhei; Fujii, Shigeo; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Musirat, Chanatip; Wongwattana, Thana; Shivakoti, Binaya Raj

    2011-04-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are fully fluorinated organic compounds, which have been used in many industrial processes and have been detected in wastewater and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) around the world. This study focused on the occurrences of PFCs and PFCs mass flows in the industrial wastewater treatment plants, which reported to be the important sources of PFCs. Surveys were conducted in central wastewater treatment plant in two industrial zones in Thailand. Samples were collected from influent, aeration tank, secondary clarifier effluent, effluent and sludge. The major purpose of this field study was to identify PFCs occurrences and mass flow during industrial WWTP. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS were used for the analysis. Total 10 PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA), perfluordecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) were measured to identify their occurrences. PFCs were detected in both liquid and solid phase in most samples. The exceptionally high level of PFCs was detected in the treatment plant of IZ1 and IZ2 ranging between 662-847ngL(-1) and 674-1383ngL(-1), respectively, which greater than PFCs found in most domestic wastewater. Due to PFCs non-biodegradable property, both WWTPs were found ineffective in removing PFCs using activated sludge processes. Bio-accumulation in sludge could be the major removal mechanism of PFCs in the process. The increasing amount of PFCs after activated sludge processes were identified which could be due to the degradation of PFCs precursors. PFCs concentration found in the effluent were very high comparing to those in river water of the area. Industrial activity could be the one of major sources of PFCs

  12. PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS (PFCs) IN SERUM OF CATS – LINKAGE TO INDOOR EXPOSURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PFCs have been used in a wide range of consumer, including residential, products (e.g., stain-resistant coatings for carpets and upholstery). Carbon-fluoride bonds are highly stable, mak-ing PFCs extremely resistant to biodegradation. Thus, PFCs have become globally distribut...

  13. Use of a perfluorochemical emulsion to improve the radiation response of BA1112 rat sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.F.; Rockwell, S.; Porter, E.; Fischer, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The perfluorochemical emulsion, Fluosol-DA, is being tested in this laboratory as an adjunct to radiation therapy. The authors postulated that the exceptional O/sub 2/-carrying capacity of the perfluorochemicals and the small size of the micelles might permit oxygenation of the normally hypoxic areas of solid tumors. The authors tested the ability of this agent to improve the oxygenation and thus the radiation response of BA1112 rat sarcomas. Tumor-bearing rats were injected with Fluosol and gassed with carbogen (95% O/sub 2//5% CO/sub 2/) for 15 min prior to and during irradiation. Following treatment, the tumors were excised and the cells were suspended and assayed for survival by colony formation in vitro. Fluosol + carbogen significantly increased the radiation cytotoxicity. Although carbogen alone also increased the radiation response, this effect was significantly less than that with Fluosol + carbogen in combination. Unoxygenated Fluosol had no effect on tumor radiosensitivity. Complete radiation dose-response curves indicated that treatment with Fluosol + carbogen reduced the number of hypoxic tumor cells but did not alter the D/sub 0/ of the survival curve. Preliminary results of tumor control experiments suggest that pretreatment with Fluosol + carbogen also lowers the TCD/sub 50/

  14. Screening of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in various aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Sanjuan, Maria; Meyer, Johan; Damasio, Joana; Faria, Melissa; Barata, Carlos; Lacorte, Silvia [IDAEA-CSIC, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of five perfluorinated chemicals (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid) in aquatic organisms dwelling in either freshwater or marine ecosystems. Organisms selected were insect larvae, oysters, zebra mussels, sardines, and crabs, which are widespread in the environment and may represent potential bioindicators of exposure to PFCs. The study comprises the optimization of a solid-liquid extraction method and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Using spiked zebra mussels at 10 and 100 ng/g level, the method developed provided recoveries of 96% and 122%, and 82% to 116%, respectively, and a limit of detection between 0.07 and 0.22 ng/g ww. The method was highly sensitivity and robust to determine PFC compounds in a wide array of biological matrices, and no matrix interferents nor blank contamination was observed. Among organisms studied, none of the bivalves accumulated PFCs, and contrarily, insect larvae, followed by fish and crabs contained levels ranging from 0.23 to 144 ng/g ww of PFOS, from 0.14 to 4.3 ng/g ww of PFOA, and traces of PFNA and PFHxS. Assessment of the potential use of aquatic organisms for biomonitoring studies is further discussed. (orig.)

  15. Interstitial administration of perfluorochemical emulsions for reoxygenation of hypoxic tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, D.V.; Seegenschmiedt, H.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Emrich, J.; McGarvey, K.; Caridi, M.; Brady, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Microparticulate perfluorochemical (PFC) emulsions have the capacity to solubilize significant quantities of oxygen compared to water. Although systemic administration of such emulsions may enhance oxygen delivery to some tissues, hypoxic tumor cells have marginal vascular supplies. The authors report studies which directly attempt to oxygenate hypoxic tumor cells by interstitial administration of oxygenated PFC emulsions followed by radiation therapy. Fortner MMI malignant melanomas (21 day old) grown in Syrian Golden hamsters were injected directly with either oxygenated PFC emulsions or Ringers solution. The volume of test substance administered was equal to 50% of the tumor volume. The tumors were immediately irradiated with 25 Gy of 10 MeV photons (Clinac 18). The tumor dimensions were measured daily post irradiation and the tumor doubling time determined. The results suggest that interstitial administration of oxygenated PFC emulsions directly into tumors followed by radiation therapy may increase the likelihood of killing hypoxic tumor cells

  16. Design Feature and Result of PFCs Baking System for the KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Eun Nam; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Hong Tack; Kim, Hak Kun; Lee, Kun Su; Kim, Sang Tae; Yang, Hyung Lyeol; Kwon, Myeun

    2010-01-01

    The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is being majorly updated for 2010's operation which mainly aims to achieve the plasma shaping and diverted plasmas. The Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) such as inboard and outboard limiters, divertors, and passive stabilizers have been finally installed in the vacuum vessel (VV) by middle of June 2010. The baking and cooling (B and C) pipe system for all the PFCs were installed inside of the vacuum vessel to fulfill baking and active cooling of each PFC components. The PFCs are to be baked by circulating hot nitrogen gas through internal tubes of back-plates of the PFCs. While VV is baked-out, the PFCs temperature was raised from room temperature to 120 .deg. C, and the baking temperature was raised again to 200 .deg. C in spite of the VV being maintained at room temperature

  17. Design Feature and Result of PFCs Baking System for the KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Eun Nam; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Hong Tack; Kim, Hak Kun; Lee, Kun Su; Kim, Sang Tae; Yang, Hyung Lyeol; Kwon, Myeun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is being majorly updated for 2010's operation which mainly aims to achieve the plasma shaping and diverted plasmas. The Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) such as inboard and outboard limiters, divertors, and passive stabilizers have been finally installed in the vacuum vessel (VV) by middle of June 2010. The baking and cooling (B and C) pipe system for all the PFCs were installed inside of the vacuum vessel to fulfill baking and active cooling of each PFC components. The PFCs are to be baked by circulating hot nitrogen gas through internal tubes of back-plates of the PFCs. While VV is baked-out, the PFCs temperature was raised from room temperature to 120 .deg. C, and the baking temperature was raised again to 200 .deg. C in spite of the VV being maintained at room temperature

  18. Determination of an Effective Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) Oxidation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardena, D. P.; Crimi, M.; Holsen, T.; Bellona, C.

    2014-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a stable synthetic class of chemicals ubiquitously spread in environmental media (i.e. air, soil, biota, surface water and groundwater). The substances' strong polar carbon-fluorine bonds and their high thermal and chemical stability make them resistant to biological, chemical, and physical degradation. The purpose of this research is to identify the most effective oxidation method to treat perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and their by-products that is suitable for in situ application. The laboratory oxidation study focuses on the more commonly detected and studied long-chain (C-8) PFAS; perfluorooctanoic acids (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). Existing research evaluating oxidizing treatment effectiveness on perfluoroalkyl sulfoinoic acids (PFSAs) is limited. A review of the literature and results from preliminary studies indicate that activated persulfate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide propagation (CHP) reactions appear to be promising oxidants for PFOA. It has been demonstrated that the reactivity of superoxide in water increases in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and solids. Superoxide generated in CHP reactions degrades PFOA seemingly similar to superoxide-mediated destruction of the perhalogenated compounds.The goal of this study is to look at conditions that promote generation of superoxide and look at PFASs treatment effectiveness and byproduct generation. CHP reactions are conducted with varying amount of H2O2 and Fe(III) to determine the optimum conditions for PFC degradation. Results will be compared to those of another experiment using manganese dioxide as a CHP catalyst with varied H2O2 concentration to generate superoxide to degrade PFASs. Activated persulfate conditions to be compared include alkaline pH activation, heat activation, and dual oxidation (combined H2O2 and persulfate ). This presentation will focus on a comparison of oxidation effectiveness under the

  19. Perfluorochemical emulsions as adjuncts to radiation therapy: a review of preclinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    1989-01-01

    Oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer. As virtually complete radiosensitization is observed at 0 2 levels similar to those in venous blood, most healthy normal tissues exhibit an aerobic radiosensitivity. In contrast, solid tumors contain avascular areas and blood vessels which are subject to transient and persistent interruptions in blood flow; as a result, tumors contain viable cells existing under acute and chronic hypoxia. These hypoxic cells are resistant to radiation and to many drugs used in cancer therapy, and can limit the curability of tumors by conventional therapeutic regimens. Many laboratory and clinical studies are examining ways to circumvent the problem of hypoxic cells in cancer therapy. Studies reviewed here examine the effects of infusion of perfluorochemical emulsions (PFC-E) combined with the administration of 0 2 at ambient or hyperbaric pressures on the radiation responses of solid tumors and of the normal tissues which limit the intensity of therapy. Appropriate regimens of treatment with a PFC-E and oxygen-enriched atmospheres increase the radiation response of solid tumors, without causing severe host toxicities and without producing equivalent increases in radiation injury to normal tissues. These studies show that PFC-E's have significant potential as adjuncts to radiotherapy and provide a basis for the design and initiation of clinical trials testing these agents [fr

  20. Distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorochemicals in the ambient environment around a manufacturing facility in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Pan, Yuanyuan; Cai, Yaqi; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-11-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) can be released to the surrounding environment during manufacturing and usage of PFC containing products, which are considered as main direct sources of PFCs in the environment. This study evaluates the release of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFCs to the ambient environment around a manufacturing plant. Among the nine PFCs analyzed, only PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were found in dust, water, soil, and chicken eggs. Very high concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were found in dust from the production storage, raw material stock room, and sulfonation workshop in the manufacturing facility, with the highest value at 4962 μg/g (dry weight) for PFOS and 160 μg/g for PFOA. A decreasing trend of the three PFCs concentrations in soils, water, and chicken eggs with increasing distance from the plant was found, indicating the production site to be the primary source of PFCs in this region. Risk quotients (RQs) assessment for surface water >500 m away from the plant were less than unity. Risk assessment of PFOS using predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC, 3.23 ng/g on a logarithmic scale) indicated no immediate ecological risk of a reduction in offspring survival. PFOS concentrations in most egg samples did not exceed the benchmark concentration derived in setting a reference dose for noncancer health effects (0.025 μg/(kgxd)).

  1. Bioaccumulation and effects of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sanjuan, María; Faria, Melissa; Lacorte, Silvia; Barata, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used for many years in numerous industrial products and are known to accumulate in organisms. A recent survey showed that tissue levels of PFCs in aquatic organisms varied among compounds and species being undetected in freshwater zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Here we studied the bioaccumulation kinetics and effects of two major PFCs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid compound (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in multixenobiotic transporter activity (MXR) and filtration and oxygen consumption rates in zebra mussel exposed to a range of concentrations of a PCF mixture (1-1,000 μg/L) during 10 days. Results indicate a low potential of the studied PFCs to bioaccumulate in zebra mussel tissues. PFCs altered mussel MXR transporter activity being inhibited at day 1 but not at day 10. Bioaccumulation kinetics of PFCs were inversely related with MXR transporter activity above 9 ng/g wet weight and unrelated at tissue concentration lower than 2 ng/g wet weight suggesting that at high tissue concentrations, these type of compounds may be effluxed out by MXR transporters and as a result have a low potential to be bioaccumulated in zebra mussels. Oxygen consumption rates but not filtering rates were increased in all exposure levels and periods indicating that at environmental relevant concentrations of 1 μg/L, the studied PFCs enhanced oxidative metabolism of mussels. Overall, the results obtained in this study confirm previous findings in the field indicating that an important fraction of PFC accumulated in mussel tissues is eliminated actively by MXR transporters or other processes that are metabolically costly.

  2. Effects of perfluorochemical emulsion on the timing of administration and irradiation in tumor bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa-Itoh, Youko; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Miyata, Nobuki

    1988-01-01

    Perfluorochemical content was examined periodically, in blood, tumor and some organs using gas chromatography, after Fluosol-DA saline 20 % (FDAS) was injected into LLC bearing mice. The blood half-life of FDAS in LLC bearing mice was 3.76 hrs (5 ml/kg injection) or 6.15 hrs (20 ml/kg injection) respectively, and FDAS almost disapeared from the blood after about 2 days (5 ml/kg) and 3 days (20 ml/kg) of FDAS-injection. Most of FDAS was accumulated into spleen and the liver. FDAS accumulation into the tumor tissue was 1 ∼ 6 % of injected-FDAS dose and the peak of FDAS accumulation was 1 ∼ 3 days after injection. The timing of FDAS-injection and irradiation in tumor bearing mice determined according to the results above (half-life and accumulation of FDAS in tumor). FDAS (5, 10, 20 ml/kg) was injected to LLC-bearing mice on 3, 2, 1 and 0 day before irradiation and they were irradiated 15 Gray under oxygen-breathing, respectively. FDAS-injected groups before irradiation (3, 2, 1 day before, respectively) showed a tendency of tumor growth delay, but didn't show significant difference as compared with oxygen-breathing group without FDAS, because they had not enough effective FDAS content in the blood. Although the FDAS-injected groups just before irradiation significantly showed the delay of tumor growth. These results demonstrate that oxygen and FDAS existing in the blood injected just before irradiation effectively delay tumor growth in which the lowest effective dose is 5 ml/kg. In the case of clinical application of FDAS, FDAS may be most effective, when administrated just before irradiation in every fractionated irradiation. (author)

  3. Dose monitoring in Partial Liquid Ventilation by infrared measurement of expired perfluorochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, M; Nugent, L; Klein, D; Hoffman, J; Sekins, K M; Flaim, S F

    1999-01-01

    Patients undergoing Partial Liquid Ventilation (PLV) with the perfluorochemical liquid perflubron (PFB) continuously evaporate the drug from the lung during ventilatory expiration. In this study, two infrared (IR) devices, a modified industrial analyzer ("experimental prototype") and a custom-designed device suitable for use in a clinical environment ("clinical prototype"), were calibrated and validated on the bench to measure a range of PFB concentrations (CPFB) in a gas stream. PFB loss from the lung (area under the CPFB-vs-time-curve) could be correlated during PLV simulation with changes in tidal volume, breathing rate, and variable CPFB-vs-time profiles. The two IR devices produced nearly identical measurements for the same CPFB standards (maximum deviation = 1.5%). The experimental IR prototype was tested in 17 anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated swine (42-53 kg) to quantify the total amount and rate of evaporate loss of PFB over 12 hours of PLV, both with and without periodic supplemental PFB doses. The residual PFB volumes in the animal lungs at the end of the study, as determined by a gravimetric postmortem lung method, were found to agree on average for all animals to within 10% of the residual PFB volume as predicted by the IR approach. Furthermore, the IR signal of CPFB does not appear to correlate with the absolute amount of PFB in the lungs, but may reflect the relative proportion of PFB-wetted airway and alveolar surface. The authors conclude that IR quantitation of PFB evaporative loss is acceptably accurate for extended periods of PLV and may be a useful tool in the clinic for PFB dose monitoring and maintenance, thereby helping to optimize PLV treatment.

  4. In vitro characterization of the immunotoxic potential of several perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsini, Emanuela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Avogadro, Anna; Galbiati, Valentina; Viviani, Barbara; Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L.; Dell'Agli, Mario; Germolec, Dori R.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that PFOA and PFOS directly suppress cytokine secretion in immune cells, with different mechanisms of action. In particular, we have demonstrated a role for PPAR-α in PFOA-induced immunotoxicity, and that PFOS has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced I-κB degradation. These studies investigate the immunomodulatory effects of four other PFCs, namely PFBS, PFOSA, PFDA, and fluorotelomer using in vitro assays. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was evaluated in lipolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood leukocytes (hPBL) and in the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1, while the release of IL-10 and IFN-γ was evaluated in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated hPBL. All PFCs suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α production in hPBL and THP-1 cells, while IL-6 production was suppressed by PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer. PFBS, PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer inhibited PHA-induced IL-10 release, while IFN-γ secretion was affected by PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer. Leukocytes obtained from female donors appear to be more sensitive to the in vitro immunotoxic effects of PFCs when their responses are compared to the results obtained using leukocytes from male donors. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that inhibition of TNF-α release in THP-1 cells occurred at the transcriptional level. All PFCs, including PFOA and PFOS, decreased LPS-induced NF-κB activation. With the exception of PFOA, none of the PFCs tested was able to activate PPARα driven transcription in transiently transfected THP-1 cells, excluding a role for PPARα in the immunomodulation observed. PFBS and PFDA prevented LPS-induced I-κB degradation. Overall, these studies suggest that PFCs affect NF-κB activation, which directly suppresses cytokine secretion by immune cells. Our results indicate that PFOA is the least active of the PFCs examined followed by PFBS, PFDA, PFOS, PFOSA and fluorotelomer. -- Research Highlights: ► PFCs

  5. In vitro characterization of the immunotoxic potential of several perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsini, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuela.corsini@unimi.it [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sangiovanni, Enrico [Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano (Italy); Avogadro, Anna; Galbiati, Valentina; Viviani, Barbara; Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L. [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dell' Agli, Mario [Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano (Italy); Germolec, Dori R. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, RTP, NC (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We have previously shown that PFOA and PFOS directly suppress cytokine secretion in immune cells, with different mechanisms of action. In particular, we have demonstrated a role for PPAR-α in PFOA-induced immunotoxicity, and that PFOS has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced I-κB degradation. These studies investigate the immunomodulatory effects of four other PFCs, namely PFBS, PFOSA, PFDA, and fluorotelomer using in vitro assays. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was evaluated in lipolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood leukocytes (hPBL) and in the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1, while the release of IL-10 and IFN-γ was evaluated in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated hPBL. All PFCs suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α production in hPBL and THP-1 cells, while IL-6 production was suppressed by PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer. PFBS, PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer inhibited PHA-induced IL-10 release, while IFN-γ secretion was affected by PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer. Leukocytes obtained from female donors appear to be more sensitive to the in vitro immunotoxic effects of PFCs when their responses are compared to the results obtained using leukocytes from male donors. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that inhibition of TNF-α release in THP-1 cells occurred at the transcriptional level. All PFCs, including PFOA and PFOS, decreased LPS-induced NF-κB activation. With the exception of PFOA, none of the PFCs tested was able to activate PPARα driven transcription in transiently transfected THP-1 cells, excluding a role for PPARα in the immunomodulation observed. PFBS and PFDA prevented LPS-induced I-κB degradation. Overall, these studies suggest that PFCs affect NF-κB activation, which directly suppresses cytokine secretion by immune cells. Our results indicate that PFOA is the least active of the PFCs examined followed by PFBS, PFDA, PFOS, PFOSA and fluorotelomer. -- Research Highlights: ► PFCs

  6. Use of a perfluorochemical emulsion in combination with high pressure oxygen to alter the radiation response to a rat sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.F.; Porter, E.; Fischer, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of perfluorochemical emulsion to enhance the radiation response of solid tumors is being tested. It is postulated that the exceptional O/sub 2/-carrying capacity of the perfluorochemicals, combined with the small size of the micelles, and changes in blood viscosity resulting from dilution with the emulsion, may allow the micelles to reach areas inaccessible to red cells and to deliver O/sub 2/ to regions of the tumor which are not served by a functioning vasulature. Rats bearing BA1112 rhabdomyosarcomas were i.v. injected with Fluosol-DA 20% and held in 100% O/sub 2/ at 3 atmospheres pressure (HPO/sub 2/) for 15 min prior to and during irradiation. Cell survival was assayed in vitro immediately following treatment. HPO/sub 2/ alone increased radiation cell kill 2-3 fold relative to air at 1 atmosphere. Fluosol combined with HPO/sub 2/ produced a 10-fold increase in cell kill relative to HPO/sub 2/ alone. The authors have previously shown that Fluosol alone does not alter survival levels. The slopes of the radiation survival curves were not different, suggesting that HPO/sub 2/ alone or in combination with Fluosol did not alter the intrinsic radiosensitivity of the tumor cells, but rather decreased the fraction of cells where were hypoxic

  7. Occurrences and behavior of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Japan and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakoti, Binaya Raj; Tanaka, Shuhei; Fujii, Shigeo; Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Musirat, Chanatip; Seneviratne, S T M L D; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2010-06-01

    This study examines occurrences of 11 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in several wastewater treatment plants in Japan and Thailand. Surveys are conducted in eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Japan and central WWTPs of five industrial estates (IEs) in Thailand. Samples are collected from all major treatment processes in order to understand the behavior of PFCs in WWTPs. PFCs are detected in all WWTPs in Japan and Thailand. Concentrations of PFCs even exceed several thousands ng/L in some WWTPs. PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA are mainly detected in WWTPs in Japan, while PFBuS, PFOA, and PFHxA are mainly detected in WWTP of IEs in Thailand. Even though some of the investigated WWTPs utilize biological treatment processes coupled with chlorination, ozonation, or activated carbon adsorption, they are found ineffective to remove PFCs. During the treatment process, PFCs are found to accumulate at exceptionally high concentration levels in the activated sludge of an aeration tank and returned activated sludge. Overall, the estimated total daily mass of discharged PFCs is 124.95 g/d (PFASs: 49.81 g/d; PFCAs: 75.14 g/d) from eight WWTPs in Japan and 55.04 g/d (PFASs: 12 g/d; PFCAs: 43.04 g/d) from five WWTPs in Thailand. Although the presented data are from a single observation in each WWTP, the results indicate that certain industries using PFCs in manufacturing processes could be the principle point source, while domestic activities could be releasing PFCs at detectable levels causing environmental concern.

  8. The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, Danish consumption and emissions, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T.; Bode, I.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the Danish consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for 2007. Further, if methodology changes are made in connection to the work on 2007 data, the data for previous years are considered and updated accordingly. The emission calculation is made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines and following the method employed in previous year calculation. The methodology includes calculation of the actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6}. In this calculation of actual emissions, the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. Specific emission factors are presented. (ln)

  9. Increasing the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen in enhancing tumor oxygenation: Effect of perfluorochemical emulsion and moderate anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photiou, A.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts were made to increase the effectiveness of HBO in overcoming tumor hypoxia. Tumor blood flow and O/sub 2/ content were modified by inducing moderate anaemia and giving a perfluorochemical emulsion (PFC-E). Mice were anaesthetized with Ketamine and Diazepam. The PFC-E, FC-43 (0.35 ml/25 g mouse), given iv 1-2 h before irradiation, produced a favourable effect on regrowth delay in those mice treated with HBO. A 25 Gy dose produced a significantly longer regrowth delay (p<0.01) of 44 days in PFC-treated mice compared with a delay of 29 days for mice treated with HBO alone. O/sub 2/ toxicity was observed in some anesthetized mice, with or without PFC-E. Attempts were made to increase the O/sub 2/ sensitization afforded by FC-43/HBO/anaesthesia. Blood viscosity was reduced by inducing a moderate level of acute anaemia by the administration of a single of acute anaemia by the administration of a single ip injection of Phenylhydrazine HCl (40 mg/kg). This reduced the haematocrit from 42% to 32%. Tumour regrowth delay after 25 Gy was significantly reduced (p<0.02) from 44 to 37.3 days be anaemia. PFC's may prove the be useful adjuncts to radiotherapy. However, it must be established that they have no adverse effects and that normal tissue radiosensitivity is not enhanced

  10. Survey of polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the atmosphere over the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Vlahos, Penny; Harner, Tom; Peters, Andrew; Graustein, Margaret; Narayan, Julie

    2010-08-01

    High volume air sampling in Bermuda, Sable Island (Nova Scotia) and along a cruise track from the Gulf of Mexico to northeast coast of the USA, was carried out to assess air concentrations, particle-gas partitioning and transport of polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in this region. Samples were collected in the summer of 2007. Targeted compounds included the neutral PFCs: fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FOSEs). Among the FTOHs, 8:2 FTOH was dominant in all samples. Sum of the concentration of FTOHs (gas+particle phase) were higher in Bermuda (mean, 34 pg m -3) compared to Sable Island (mean, 16 pg m -3). In cruise samples, sum of FTOHs were highly variable (mean, 81 pg m -3) reflecting contributions from land-based sources in the northeast USA with concentrations reaching as high as 156 pg m -3. Among the FOSAs and FOSEs, MeFOSE was dominant in all samples. In Bermuda, levels of MeFOSE were exceptionally high (mean, 62 pg m -3), exceeding the FTOHs. Sable Island samples also exhibited the dominance of MeFOSE but at a lower concentration (mean, 15 pg m -3). MeFOSE air concentrations (pg m -3) in cruise samples ranged from 1.6 to 73 and were not linked to land-based sources. In fact high concentrations of MeFOSE observed in Bermuda were associated with air masses that originated over the Atlantic Ocean. The partitioning to particles for 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH, MeFOSE and EtFOSE ranged from as high as 15 to 42% for cruise samples to 0.9 to 14% in Bermuda. This study provides key information for validating and developing partitioning and transport models for the PFCs.

  11. ELM mitigation with pellet ELM triggering and implications for PFCs and plasma performance in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R. [ORNL; Lang, P. [EURATOM / UKAEA, Abingdon, UK; Allen, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Meitner, Steven J. [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Jernigan, Thomas C. [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    The triggering of rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) by high frequency pellet injection has been proposed as a method to prevent large naturally occurring ELMs that can erode the ITER plasma facing components (PFCs). Deuterium pellet injection has been used to successfully demonstrate the on-demand triggering of edge localized modes (ELMs) at much higher rates and with much smaller intensity than natural ELMs. The proposed hypothesis for the triggering mechanism of ELMs by pellets is the local pressure perturbation resulting from reheating of the pellet cloud that can exceed the local high-n ballooning mode threshold where the pellet is injected. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the pellet ELM triggering show destabilization of high-n ballooning modes by such a local pressure perturbation.A review of the recent pellet ELM triggering results from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), DIII-D, and JET reveals that a number of uncertainties about this ELM mitigation technique still remain. These include the heat flux impact pattern on the divertor and wall from pellet triggered and natural ELMs, the necessary pellet size and injection location to reliably trigger ELMs, and the level of fueling to be expected from ELM triggering pellets and synergy with larger fueling pellets. The implications of these issues for pellet ELM mitigation in ITER and its impact on the PFCs are presented along with the design features of the pellet injection system for ITER.

  12. Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson Jogsten, I; Nadal, M; van Bavel, B; Lindström, G; Domingo, J L

    2012-02-01

    A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experience gained from high heat flux actively cooled PFCs in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Schlosser, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Vallet, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) is one of the major ingredients required for operating the Tore Supra tokamak with very long pulses. A pioneering activity has been developed in this field from the very beginning of the device operation that is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW/m 2 of nominal convected heat flux. Technical information is drawn from the whole development up to the industrialisation and focuses on a number of critical issues, such as bonding technology analysis, manufacture processes, repair processes, destructive and non-destructive testing. The actual experience in Tore Supra allows to address the question of D retention on carbon walls. Redeposition on surfaces without plasma flux is suspected to cause the final 'burial' of about half of the injected gas during long discharges

  14. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Danish consumption and emissions, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. (PlanMiljoe (Denmark))

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this project was to map the 2006 consumption of newly produced industrial ozone-depleting substances and the consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6}. The evaluation was made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines and following the method employed in previous evaluations. (BA)

  15. Meso-pores carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) tissues-perfluorocarbons (PFCs) hybrid air-electrodes for Li-O2 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaish, Moran; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2018-03-01

    Adding immiscible perfluorocarbons (PFCs), possessing superior oxygen solubility and diffusivity, to a free-standing (metal-free and binder-free) CNTs air-electrode tissues with a meso-pore structure, fully maximized the advantages of PFCs as oxygenated-species' channels-providers. The discharge behavior of hybrid PFCs-CNT Li-O2 systems demonstrated a drastic increase in cell capacity at high current density (0.2 mA cm-2), where oxygen transport limitations are best illustrated. The results of this research revealed several key factors affecting PFCs-Li-O2 systems. The incorporation of PFCs with higher superoxide solubility and oxygen diffusivity, but more importantly higher PFCs/electrolyte miscibility, in a meso-pore air-electrode enabled better exploitation of PFCs potential. Consequently, the utilization of the air-electrode' surface area was enhanced via the formation of artificial three phase reaction zones with additional oxygen transportation routes, leading to uniform and intimate Li2O2 deposit at areas further away from the oxygen reservoir. Associated mechanisms are discussed along with insights into an improved Li-O2 battery system.

  16. Substitutes for potent green house gases. HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.H. [Dansk Teknologisk Institut (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    CFCs (halogenated chlorofluorocarbons), HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (fluorocarbons) and SF{sub 6} (sulphur hexafluoride) are all artificial substances which were not to be found in nature until recently. In 1995 the Danish consumption of HFC substances was approximately 740 tonnes, where the corresponding amount of SF{sub 6} was about 17 tonnes. If the entire amount of these substances was released to to the atmosphere, the resulting impact would correspond to an increased emission of greenhouse gases, corresponding to approximately 1.5 million tonnes of CO{sub 2}. HFC substances would account for 73%, SF{sub 6} with 25% and PFC for 1%. This corresponds to approximately 2.6% of the Danish CO{sub 2} emission (nearly 60 million tonnes per year). This corresponds to about half of the aimed 6% reduction of CO{sub 2} emission attained by introduction of mandatory green taxes on CO{sub 2}. According to experience from the CFC programme it is possible to recover some CFC and send it to controlled destruction. From 1993 to 1996 the refrigeration industry, for instance, has returned a total amount of 163 tonnes of CFC refrigerant through the KMO organization (Koelebranchens Miljoe Ordning). Most of this has been destroyed and a small amount has been purified and recycled afterwards. Similarly, it is likely to believe that some HFC refrigerant will be returned through the KMO organization. (au) 11 refs., also published in Danish

  17. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Danish consumption and emissions, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    An evaluation of Danish consumption and emissions of ozone-depleting substances and industrial greenhouse gases has been carried out in continuation of previous evaluations, partly to fulfil Denmark's international obligations to provide information within this area and partly to follow the trend in consumption of ozone-depleting substances as well as the consumption and emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. The evaluation includes a calculation of actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for 2006. In this calculation the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. (BA)

  18. In vitro evaluation of the immunotoxic potential of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsini, Emanuela; Avogadro, Anna; Galbiati, Valentina; Dell'Agli, Mario; Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L.; Germolec, Dori R.

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence from both epidemiology and laboratory studies that perfluorinated compounds may be immunotoxic, affecting both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. The overall goal of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the immunotoxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane acid (PFOA), using in vitro assays. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was evaluated in lipolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood leukocytes and in the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1, while the release of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ was evaluated in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes. PFOA and PFOS suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α production in primary human cultures and THP-1 cells, while IL-8 was suppressed only in THP-1 cells. IL-6 release was decreased only by PFOS. Both PFOA and PFOS decreased T-cell derived, PHA-induced IL-4 and IL-10 release, while IFN-γ release was affected only by PFOS. In all instances, PFOS was more potent than PFOA. Mechanistic investigations carried out in THP-1 cells demonstrated that the effect on cytokine release was pre-transcriptional, as assessed by a reduction in LPS-induced TNF-α mRNA expression. Using siRNA, a role for PPAR-α could be demonstrated for PFOA-induced immunotoxicity, while an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced I-κB degradation could explain the immunomodulatory effect of PFOS. The dissimilar role of PPAR-α in PFOA and PFOS-induced immunotoxicity was consistent with the differing effects observed on LPS-induced MMP-9 release: PFOA, as the PPAR-α agonist fenofibrate, modulated the release, while PFOS had no effect. Overall, these studies suggest that PFCs directly suppress cytokine secretion by immune cells, and that PFOA and PFOS have different mechanisms of action.

  19. Effect of stationary high heat flux and transient ELMs-like heat loads on the divertor PFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, B., E-mail: bruno.riccardi@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, ITER Department, Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Gavila, P. [Fusion for Energy, ITER Department, Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Giniatulin, R. [Efremov Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, 142190 Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rulev, R. [Efremov Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Klimov, N.; Kovalenko, D.; Barsuk, V. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, 142190 Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Koidan, V.; Korshunov, S. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    The experimental evaluation of the divertor plasma facing components (PFCs) lifetime under transient events, such as edge localized modes (ELMs) and high heat flux (HHF) thermal fatigue expected during ITER normal operations and slow transient events is here presented. The experiments have been performed in the frame of an EU/RF collaboration. For carbon fiber composite material the erosion is caused by PAN fiber damage whilst the erosion of tungsten is determined by the melt layer movement and crack formation. The conclusion of this study is that, in addition to the structural change produced in the armor materials by ELMs-like loads, some mock ups showed also a degradation of the thermal fatigue performances.

  20. Scientific feedback from high heat flux actively cooled PFCs development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Schlosser, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Vallet, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) are one of the major ingredients required for operating the Tore Supra tokamak with very long pulses. A pioneering activity has been developed in this field from the very beginning of the device operation that is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m -2 of nominal convected heat flux. A technical feedback is given from the whole development up to the industrialization and focuses on a number of critical issues, such as bonding technology analysis, manufacture processes, repair processes, destructive and non destructive testing. The actual experience in Tore Supra allows to address the question of D retention on carbon walls. Redeposition on surfaces without plasma flux is suspected to cause the final 'burial' of about the injected gas during long discharges. (authors)

  1. Scientific feedback from high heat flux actively cooled PFCs development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Schlosser, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Vallet, J.C

    2004-07-01

    The implementation of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) are one of the major ingredients required for operating the Tore Supra tokamak with very long pulses. A pioneering activity has been developed in this field from the very beginning of the device operation that is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m{sup -2} of nominal convected heat flux. A technical feedback is given from the whole development up to the industrialization and focuses on a number of critical issues, such as bonding technology analysis, manufacture processes, repair processes, destructive and non destructive testing. The actual experience in Tore Supra allows to address the question of D retention on carbon walls. Redeposition on surfaces without plasma flux is suspected to cause the final 'burial' of about the injected gas during long discharges. (authors)

  2. The synthetic Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite peptide PfCS102 as a malaria vaccine candidate: a randomized controlled phase I trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régine Audran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fully efficient vaccines against malaria pre-erythrocytic stage are still lacking. The objective of this dose/adjuvant-finding study was to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a vaccine candidate based on a peptide spanning the C-terminal region of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCS102 in malaria naive adults. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty-six healthy malaria-naive adults were randomly distributed into three dose blocks (10, 30 and 100 microg and vaccinated with PfCS102 in combination with either Montanide ISA 720 or GSK proprietary Adjuvant System AS02A at days 0, 60, and 180. Primary end-point (safety and reactogenicity was based on the frequency of adverse events (AE and of abnormal biological safety tests; secondary-end point (immunogenicity on P. falciparum specific cell-mediated immunity and antibody response before and after immunization. The two adjuvant formulations were well tolerated and their safety profile was good. Most AEs were local and, when systemic, involved mainly fatigue and headache. Half the volunteers in AS02A groups experienced severe AEs (mainly erythema. After the third injection, 34 of 35 volunteers developed anti-PfCS102 and anti-sporozoite antibodies, and 28 of 35 demonstrated T-cell proliferative responses and IFN-gamma production. Five of 22 HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 volunteers displayed PfCS102 specific IFN-gamma secreting CD8(+ T cell responses. Responses were only marginally boosted after the 3(rd vaccination and remained stable for 6 months. For both adjuvants, the dose of 10 microg was less immunogenic in comparison to 30 and 100 microg that induced similar responses. AS02A formulations with 30 microg or 100 microg PfCS102 induced about 10-folds higher antibody and IFN-gamma responses than Montanide formulations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PfCS102 peptide was safe and highly immunogenic, allowing the design of more advanced trials to test its potential

  3. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Danish consumption and emissions, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)

    2006-05-19

    The objective of this project was to map the 2004 consumption of newly produced industrial ozone-depleting substances and the consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6. The evaluation was made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines, and following the method employed in previous evaluations and it covers the net consumption of ozone-depleting substances. The term 'net consumption' is understood as the amount of imported goods in bulk or drums, less any re-export of substances as raw materials. Ozone-depleting substances contained in finished products that are imported and exported are not included in the evaluation. This delimitation is in full compliance with international guidelines. The evaluation does not account for the consumption of ozone-depleting substances used as raw material in the production of other substances, such as tetra chloromethane, and which are not subsequently emitted to the atmosphere. The information on consumption has been gathered from importers, suppliers and enterprise end-users (usually purchasing departments), and Statistics Denmark. This method of data gathering means that the information gathered is about the quantities of substances traded. Purchase and sales figures are used as an expression of consumption. This approach is considered to be suitable and adequate for the present purpose, since experience from previous projects shows that a levelling out occurs with time and that the substances sold/purchased are consumed within a relatively small time horizon. None of the substances covered here are produced in Denmark. Furthermore, ozone-depleting substances are treated at chemical waste processing plants in Denmark. Treatment and destruction data was gathered for the evaluation, but in line with all previous evaluations it has not been accounted for in the consumption figures. (BA)

  4. Ozone depleting substances and gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Consumption and emissions 2003; Ozonlagsnedbrydende stoffer og drivhusgasserne HFC'er PFC'er og SF6. Forbrug og emissioner 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T.

    2005-07-01

    The evaluation includes a calculation of actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} in Denmark. In this calculation of actual emissions, the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. The evaluation has partly been prepared to enable Denmark to fulfil its international obligations to provide information within this area, and partly to follow the trend in consumption and emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. (BA)

  5. Haw River PFCs Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PFAS concentrations in river and drinking water in and around the Haw River in North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sun, M., E....

  6. Ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} consumption and emissions; Ozonlagsnedbrydende stoffer og drivhusgasserne HFC'er, PFC'er og SF{sub 6}. Forbrug og emissioner 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [Planmiljoe, Veksoe Sjaelland (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the project is to map the 2002 Danish consumption of produced ozone depleting substances and the consumption and actual emission of the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. The inventory is performed, partly according to the guidelines recommended by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and partly according to the method that has been used for previous mappings. The mapping is done partly in order to meet Denmark's international commitments to report and partly in order to monitor how the consumption of ozone depleting substances and the emissions of greenhouse gases develop. The mapping of ozone depleting substances includes the net consumption, meaning the amount of the imported raw materials in bulk or in drums minus any re-export of the substances in the form of raw materials. Mapping of the actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} is done in continuation of previous greenhouse gas inventories. The inventory process is continuously improving due to development of international approved guidelines (IPCC) and the production of increasingly detailed data. (BA)

  7. Reaction of PFCs in water stabilized plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mastný, L.; Horníček, J.; Živný, Oldřich; Brožek, Vlastimil; Sember, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2017), s. 161 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /69./. 11.09.2017-15.09.2017, Horný Smokovec] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC17-10246J Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * tetrafluoromethane * corrosion resistance * boron nitride * titanium nitride Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics)

  8. Experimental studies on the effect of perfluorochemicals in tumor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Jun; Iwai, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuaki; Kondo, Hiroaki; Sakai, Noboru; Yamada, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    The effects of radiation therapy with Fluosol-DA on rat mammary tumors were studied. The tissue oxygen tension values of tumors in breathing mixed gas (5% carbon dioxide and 95% oxygen) with Fluosol-DA (25 ml/kg, i.v.) were significantly higher than those in room air without Fluosol-DA. The rats were divided into three groups: Group I received Fluosol-DA but no irradiation, Group II was treated with 1000 rads of irradiation using 60 Co without Fluosol-DA in room air and Group III received the same irradiation and Fluosol-DA in breathig mixed gas. In the latter group we observed a prolongation of the survival time and suppression of the tumor growth. (author)

  9. Inventory compilation of F-gases 2008. Data on HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for the national emissions reporting under the Framework Convention on Climate Change for the reporting year 2008; Emissionen fluorierter Treibhausgase in Deutschland 2008. Inventarermittlung der F-Gase 2008 Daten von HFKW, FKW und SF6 fuer die nationale Emissionsberichterstattung gemaess Klimarahmenkonvnention fuer das Berichtsjahr 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This report presents the 2008 data on the German emissions of the fluorinated greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} (F-gases) to be entered into the ZSE (Centralised System of Emissions at the German Environmental Agency). The overall emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 have doubled from 1995 to 2008, from 3,241 to 7,202 metric tons. In terms of global warming, the emissions in 2008 exceeded again the 1995 level, with 18.0 vs. 15.5 million tons CO{sub 2} equivalent. Against the previous your, the emissions in metric units have decreased the first time since 1995, however the global warming emissions, have increased by further 0.7 million t CO{sub 2} equivalent. PFC emissions remained in 2008 at the 2007 level although they show a constant down trend from 1995 onwards. Emissions of SF6, which had decreased before 2002, are increasing again from 2003/04. HFC emissions, which continue rising since 1995, stopped growing in 2008 due to a consumption drop in the foam sector. They represent almost two thirds of the total German F-gas emissions. However, only refrigeration and air conditioning are still substantial applications of HFCs, while in the formerly large application sectors of CFCs and HCFCs, such as hard foam, fire extinguishers, and aerosols, natural fluids are being used widely, today. In stationary refrigeration and mobile air conditioning, the upward trend in HFCs emissions was still ongoing in 2008. Section I of this report presents the F-gas emissions data for 2008, in addition to those in 1995, 2000, 2004, and 2007. In section II the data sources of survey are documented. Section III presents the F-gas emissions 1995 - 2008 in detailed tables, by individual sectors. (orig.)

  10. Detailed NMR investigation of cyclodextrin-perfluorinated surfactant interactions in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss-Errico, Mary Jo; O’Shea, Kevin E., E-mail: osheak@fiu.edu

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are strongly encapsulated by cyclodextrins (CDs). • Competition studies confirm strong CD:PFC host-guest interactions. • {sup 19}F NMR Spectroscopy demonstrates association constants up to 10{sup 5} M{sup −1}. • Position of CD along PFC chain is elucidated from NMR results. • CD:PFC complex is not disturbed under a variety of water quality conditions. - Abstract: Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are contaminants of serious concern because of their toxicological properties, widespread presence in drinking water sources, and incredible stability in the environment. To assess the potential application of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins for PFC remediation, we investigated their complexation with linear fluorinated carboxylic acids, sulfonates, and a sulfonamide with carbon backbones ranging from C4-C9. {sup 19}F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies demonstrated β-CD formed the strongest complexes with these PFCs. The polar head group had a modest influence, but for PFCs with backbones longer than six carbons, strong association constants are observed for 1:1 (K{sub 1:1} ∼ 10{sup 5} M{sup −1}) and 2:1 (K{sub 2:1} ∼ 10{sup 3} M{sup −1}) β-CD:PFC complexes. Excess β-CD can be used to complex 99.5% of the longer chain PFCs. Competition studies with adamantane-carboxylic acid and phenol confirmed the nature and persistence of the β-CD:PFC complex. Detailed analyses of the individual NMR chemical shifts and Job plots indicate the favored positions of the β-CD along the PFC chain. Solution pH, ionic strength, and the presence of humic acid have modest influence on the β-CD:PFC complexes. The strong encapsulation of PFCs by β-CD under a variety of water quality conditions demonstrates the tremendous potential of CD-based materials for the environmental remediation of PFCs.

  11. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in landfill leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jan; Ahrens, Lutz; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are widely used in industry and consumer products. These products could end up finally in landfills where their leachates are a potential source for PFCs into the aqueous environment. In this study, samples of untreated and treated leachate from 22 landfill sites in Germany were analysed for 43 PFCs. ΣPFC concentrations ranged from 31 to 12,819 ng/L in untreated leachate and 4-8060 ng/L in treated leachate. The dominating compounds in untreated leachate were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (mean contribution 27%) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (24%). The discharge of PFCs into the aqueous environment depended on the cleaning treatment systems. Membrane treatments (reverse osmosis and nanofiltrations) and activated carbon released lower concentrations of PFCs into the environment than cleaning systems using wet air oxidation or only biological treatment. The mass flows of ΣPFCs into the aqueous environment ranged between 0.08 and 956 mg/day. - The first comprehensive survey of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in landfill leachates.

  12. Perfluorinated contaminants in fur seal pups and penguin eggs from South Shetland, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, A; Corsolini, S; Kannan, K; Tao, L; Trivelpiece, W; Torres, D; Focardi, S

    2009-06-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as a new class of global environmental pollutants. In this study, the presence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in penguin eggs and Antarctic fur seals was reported for the first time. Tissue samples from Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs were collected during the 2003/04 breeding season. Ten PFC contaminants were determined in seal and penguin samples. The PFC concentrations in seal liver were in the decreasing order, PFOS>PFNA>PFHpA>PFUnDA while in Adélie penguin eggs were PFHpA>PFUnDA>PFDA>PFDoDA, and in Gentoo penguin eggs were PFUnDA>PFOS>PFDoDA>PFHpA. The PFC concentrations differed significantly between seals and penguins (ppenguins (ppenguin eggs of 0.3 ng/g and 0.38 ng/g wet wt, respectively. PFCs detected in penguin eggs and seal pups suggested oviparous and viviparous transfer of PFOS to eggs and off-springs.

  13. Trends of perfluorochemicals in Greenland ringed seals and polar bears: indications of shifts to decreasing trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigét, Frank; Bossi, Rossana; Sonne, Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Dietz, Rune

    2013-11-01

    Time-series of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in East Greenland polar bears and East and West Greenland ringed seals were updated in order to deduce whether a response to the major reduction in perfluoroalkyl production in the early 2000s had occurred. Previous studies had documented an exponential increase of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) in liver tissue from both species. In the present study, PFOS was still the far most dominant compound constituting 92% (West Greenland ringed seals), 88% (East Greenland ringed seals) and 85% (East Greenland polar bears). The PFOS concentrations increased up to 2006 with doubling times of approximately 6 years for the ringed seal populations and 14 years in case of polar bears. Since then a rapid decrease has occurred with clearing half-lives of approximately 1, 2 and 4 years, respectively. In polar bears perfluorohexane sulphonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulphonamide (PFOSA) also showed decreasing trends in recent years as do perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA). For the West Greenland ringed seal population perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), PFDA and PFUnA peaked in the mid 2000s, whereas PFNA, PFDA and PFUnA in the East Greenland population have been stable or increasing in recent years. The peak of PFASs in Greenland ringed seals and polar bears occurred at a later time than in Canadian seals and polar bears and considerably later than observed in seal species from more southern latitudes. We suggest that this could be explained by the distance to emission hot-spots and differences in long-range transport to the Arctic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in raw water from New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Lippincott, R Lee; Procopio, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were previously detected (≥ 4 ng/L) in 65% and 30%, respectively, of 23 New Jersey (NJ) public drinking water systems (PWS) sampled in 2006. We now report on a 2009 study of the occurrence of PFOA, PFOS, and eight other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in raw water samples from 30 intakes (18 groundwater and 12 surface water) from 29 additional NJ PWS. Between 1 and 8 PFCs were detected (≥ 5 ng/L) in 21 (70%) of 30 PWS samples at total PFC concentrations of 5-174 ng/L. Although PFOA was the most commonly detected PFC (57% of samples) and was found at the highest maximum concentration (100 ng/L), some of the higher levels of other PFCs were at sites with little or no PFOA. Perfluorononanoic acid was detected more frequently (30%) and at higher concentrations (up to 96 ng/L) than in raw or finished drinking water elsewhere, and it was found at several sites as the sole or predominant PFC, a pattern not reported in other drinking water studies. PFOS, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorohexanoic acid were each detected in more than 20% of samples, while perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were detected less frequently. Perfluorobutanoic acid was found only once (6 ng/L), and perfluorodecanoic acid was not detected. Total PFCs were highest in two reservoirs near an airfield; these were also the only sites with total perfluorosulfonic acids higher than total perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFC levels in raw and finished water from the same source were similar at those sites where both were tested. Five wells of two additional NJ PWS known to be contaminated with PFOA were also each sampled 4-9 times in 2010-13 for nine of the same PFCs. Total PFCs (almost completely PFCAs) at one of these PWS located near an industrial source of PFCs were higher than in any other PWS tested (up to 330 ng/L). These results show that multiple PFCs are

  15. Determination of perfluorinated sulfonate and perfluorinated acids in tissues of free-living European beaver (castor fiber L.) by d-SPE/ micro-UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surma, Magdalena; Giżejewski, Zygmunt; Zieliński, Henryk

    2015-10-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are the main representatives of an rising class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), perfluorochemicals (PFCs). In this study, determination of selected PFCs concentration in liver, brain, tail, adipose and peritoneum tissues of free-living European beaver (Castor fiber L.) was addressed. Tissue samples, collected from beavers living in Masurian Lakeland (NE Poland), were analyzed by dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (d-SPE) with micro-UHPLC-MS/MS system. In a group of ten selected pefrluorinated compounds only two perfluorinated acids (PFOA and PFNA) and one perfluorinated sulfonate (PFOS) were quantified. PFOA was detected in all analysed tissue samples in both female and male beavers in a range from 0.55 to 0.98ngg(-1) ww whereas PFOS was identified in all analyzed female beaver tissues and only in liver, subcutaneous adipose and peritoneum tissues of male beavers at the concentration level from 0.86 to 5.08ngg(-1) ww. PFNA was only identified in female beaver tissues (liver, subcutaneous adipose and peritoneum) in a range from 1.50 to 6.61ngg(-1) ww. This study demonstrated the bioaccumulation of PFCs in tissue samples collected from beavers living in area known as green lungs of Poland. The results provided in this study indicate for the increasing risk of PFCs occurrence in the environment and the level of PFCs in tissue of free-living European beavers may serve as bioindicator of environmental pollution by these compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Casas, Josefina [Department of Biomedicinal Chemistry, IQAC–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Lacorte, Sílvia, E-mail: slbqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Porte, Cinta, E-mail: cinta.porte@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  17. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Casas, Josefina; Lacorte, Sílvia; Porte, Cinta

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  18. Studies of lithiumization and boronization of ATJ graphite PFCs for NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Javier; Bedoya, Felipe; Krstic, Predrag; Allain, Jean Paul; Neff, Anton; Luitjohan, Kara

    2016-10-01

    We examine and compare the effects of boron and lithium conditioning on ATJ graphite surfaces bombarded by low-energy deuterium atoms on deuterium retention and chemical sputtering. We use atomistic simulations and compare them with experimental in-situ ex-tempore studies with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to understand the effects of deuterium exposure on the chemistry in lithiated, boronized and oxidized amorphous carbon surfaces. Our results are validated qualitatively by comparison with experiments and with classical-quantum molecular dynamic simulations. We explain the important role of oxygen in D retention for lithiated surfaces and the suppression of the oxygen role by boron in boronized surfaces. The calculated increase of the oxygen role in deuterium uptake after D accumulation in a B-C-O surface configuration is discussed. The sputtering yield per low-energy D impact is significantly smaller in boronized surfaces than in lithiated surfaces. This work was supported by the USDOE Grants DE-SC0013752 (PSK), DE-SC0010717 (JPA and FB) and DE-SC0010719 (AN) and by National council for Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACyT) through postdoctoral fellowship # 267898 (JD).

  19. ELM mitigation with pellet ELM triggering and implications for PFCs and plasma performance in ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baylor, L.R.; Lang, P.T.; Allen, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Commaux, N.; Evans, T.E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Huijsmans, G.T.A.; Jernigan, T.C.; Lasnier, C.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Loarte, A.; Maingi, R.; Maruyama, S.; Meitner, S.J.; Moyer, R.A.; Osborne, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21 — Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices Kanazawa, Japan May 26-30, 2014 The triggering of rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) by high frequency pellet injection has been proposed as a method to

  20. Review: Micro-organic contaminants in groundwater in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihong; Xie, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Wen, Chuanlei; Cao, Zhipeng; Wan, Yuyu

    2018-03-01

    Micro-organic contaminants (MOs) in groundwater, which may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems worldwide, are gaining increased attention in China. A great deal of research has been conducted to investigate their sources, occurrences and behavior in aquifers. This paper reviews the main sources, distribution, concentrations and behavior of a wide range of MOs in groundwater in China. These MOs include well-established persistent organic pollutants—polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), bisphenol A (BPA)—and some contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (antibiotics, caffeine, shampoos) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The results reveal that the main MOs in groundwater are PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PBDEs, PAEs, and antibiotics. Moreover, some PFCs such as perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have only recently been observed in groundwater as emerging organic contaminants. Additionally, most MOs are distributed in populated and industrialized areas such as the southeast coast of China. Finally, industrial emissions, wastewater treatment plant effluents and agricultural wastewater are found to be dominant sources of MOs in groundwater. Based on the existing pollution levels, regulation and amelioration of MOs are warranted.

  1. Tritium inventory in the ITER PFC`s: predictions, uncertainties, R and D status and priority needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, G. [ITER, Garching (Germany). JWS; Anderl, R.; Longhurst, G. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Brooks, J.N. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Causey, R.; Cowgill, D.; Wampler, W.; Wilson, K.; Youchison, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore California and Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Coad, J.P.; Peacock, A.; Pick, M. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Doerner, R.; Luckhardt, S. [University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Haasz, A.A. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, Ontario M3H 5T6 (Canada); Mueller, D.; Skinner, C.H. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Wong, C. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-9784 (United States); Wu, C. [NET Team, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    New data on hydrogen plasma isotopes retention in beryllium and tungsten are now becoming available from various laboratories for conditions similar to those expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) where previous data were either missing or largely scattered. Together with a significant advancement in understanding, they have warranted a revisitation of the previous estimates of tritium inventory in ITER, with beryllium as the plasma facing material for the first-wall components, and tungsten in the divertor with some carbon-fibre-composites clad areas, near the strike points. Based on these analyses, it is shown that the area of primary concern with, respect to tritium inventory, remains codeposition with carbon and possibly beryllium on the divertor surfaces. Here, modelling of ITER divertor conditions continues to show potentially large codeposition rates which are confirmed by tokamak findings. Contrary to the tritium residing deep in the bulk of materials, this surface tritium represents a safety hazard as it can be easily mobilised in the event of an accident. It could, however, be possibly removed and recovered. It is concluded that active and efficient methods to remove the codeposited layers are needed in ITER and periodic conditioning/cleaning would be required to control the tritium inventory and avoid exhausting the available fuel supply. Some methods which could possibly be used for in-situ cleaning are briefly discussed in conjunction with the research and development work required to extrapolate their applicability to ITER. (orig.) 53 refs.

  2. Measurements and 2-D Modeling of Recycling and Edge Transport in Discharges with Lithium-coated PFCs in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canik, John; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Bell, R.E.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Osborne, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    The application of lithium coatings on plasma facing components has been shown to profoundly affect plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, improving energy confinement and eliminating edge-localized modes. The edge particle balance during these ELM-free discharges has been studied through 2-D plasma-neutrals modeling, constrained by measurements of the upstream plasma density and temperature profiles and the divertor heat flux and D-alpha emission. The calculations indicate that the reduction in divertor D-alpha emission with lithium coatings applied is consistent with a drop in recycling coefficient from R similar to 0.98 to R similar to 0.9. The change in recycling is not sufficient to account for the change in edge density profiles: interpretive modeling indicates similar transport coefficients within the edge transport barrier (D/chi(e) similar to 0.2/1.0 m(2)/s), but a widening of the barrier with lithium.

  3. Measurements and 2-D modeling of recycling and edge transport in discharges with lithium-coated PFCs in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canik, J.M., E-mail: canikjm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, R.E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The application of lithium coatings on plasma facing components has been shown to profoundly affect plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, improving energy confinement and eliminating edge-localized modes. The edge particle balance during these ELM-free discharges has been studied through 2-D plasma-neutrals modeling, constrained by measurements of the upstream plasma density and temperature profiles and the divertor heat flux and D{sub {alpha}} emission. The calculations indicate that the reduction in divertor D{sub {alpha}} emission with lithium coatings applied is consistent with a drop in recycling coefficient from R {approx} 0.98 to R {approx} 0.9. The change in recycling is not sufficient to account for the change in edge density profiles: interpretive modeling indicates similar transport coefficients within the edge transport barrier (D/{chi}{sub e} {approx} 0.2/1.0 m{sup 2}/s), but a widening of the barrier with lithium.

  4. Development of real time system imaging software for the protection of plasma facing components(PFCs) in Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Adnan; Jakubowski, Marcin; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas; Rodatos, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany); Greuner, Henri [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    One of the main aims of Wendelstein 7-X, an advanced stellarator in Greifswald, is the investigation of quasi-steady state operation of magnetic fusion devices, for which power exhaust is a very important issue. The predominant fraction of the energy lost from the confined plasma region will be removed by 10 so-called island divertors, which can sustain up to 10 MW/Sq-m. In order to protect the divertor elements from overheating and to monitor power deposition onto the divertor elements, 10 state-of-the-art infrared endoscopes will be installed at W7-X and software is under development for real-time analysis of automatic detection of the hot spots and other abnormal events. The pre-defined algorithms designed for early detection of defects e.g. hotspots, surface layers and delaminations during the discharge are being implemented into the software acquiring the images from the infrared cameras and broadcast them to the main Discharge Control System(DCS). This allows for automatic control of the scenario of the discharge in order to assure safe operation of W7-X. The first online tests of the software will soon be performed at GLADIS in Garching.

  5. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and periluorooctanoate in red panda and giant panda from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiayin; Li, Ming; Jin, Yihe; Saito, Norimitsu; Xu, Muqi; Wei, Fuwen

    2006-09-15

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are important perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in various applications. Recently, it has been shown that these compounds are widespread in the environment, wildlife, and humans. The giant panda and the red panda belong to the order Carnivora, but are highly specialized as bamboo feeders. Both species are considered rare and endangered. In this study, we report for the first time on levels of PFOS and PFOA in serum of the giant panda and the red panda captured in zoos and animal parks from six provinces in China. PFOS was the predominant compound in all panda samples measured (ranging from 0.80 to 73.80 microg/L for red panda and from 0.76 to 19.00 microg/L for giant panda). The PFOA level ranged from 0.33 to 8.20 microg/L for red panda, and from 0.32 to 1.56 microg/L for giant panda. There was a positive significant correlation between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the serum obtained from pandas. No age- or sex- related differences were observed in concentrations of the fluorochemicals in panda sera. Greater concentrations of the fluorochemicals were found for those individuals collected from zoos near urbanized or industrialized areas than for other areas. These data combined with other reported data suggest that there are large differences in distribution of perfluorinated compounds in terrestrial animals.

  6. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  7. Effects of steaming on contaminants of emerging concern levels in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Vera; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Alves, Ricardo N

    2018-01-01

    in contaminant levels was observed after steaming, though varying according to contaminant and seafood species (e.g. iAs, perfluorobutanoate, dibenzo(ah)anthracene in Mytilus edulis, HHCB-Lactone in Solea sp., 2-Ethylhexyl salicylate in Lophius piscatorius). Furthermore, the increase in some CeCs, like Pb, Me...

  8. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Research and development of semiconductor CVD chamber cleaning systems for electronic device manufacturing using new alternative gas instead of SF6, PFCs, and other gases; 2000 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. SF6 tou ni daitaisuru gasu wo riyo shita denshi debaisu seizo cleaning system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The efforts aim to develop a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) mechanism cleaning gas with less environmental impact such as global warming and a CVD process using the same. The candidate gas synthesizing study for the development of such a gas continues from the preceding fiscal year. In addition, various candidate gases and tentatively synthesized gases are evaluated for their cleaning performance using a simplified experimental system. As the result, patent applications were filed for three novel alternative gases low in environmental impact and high in cleaning performance. In the research and development of CVD processes, a verification test process is developed for the evaluation of alternative gases at the real system level using a large CVD evaluation system. Studies are also made in which some existing gases are utilized to improve on CVD cleaning efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the process, one domestic patent application is made, and three essays are presented at an international conference on electrochemistry in the United States. (NEDO)

  9. Integrated modelling of the edge plasma and plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coster, D.P.; Bonnin, X.; Mutzke, A.; Schneider, R.; Warrier, M.

    2007-01-01

    Modelling of the interaction between the edge plasma and plasma facing components (PFCs) has tended to place more emphasis on either the plasma or the PFCs. Either the PFCs do not change with time and the plasma evolution is studied, or the plasma is assumed to remain static and the detailed interaction of the plasma and the PFCs are examined, with no back-reaction on the plasma taken into consideration. Recent changes to the edge simulation code, SOLPS, now allow for changes in both the plasma and the PFCs to be considered. This has been done by augmenting the code to track the time-development of the properties of plasma facing components (PFCs). Results of standard mixed-materials scenarios (base and redeposited C; Be) are presented

  10. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  11. Development of plasma facing components with functionally gradient layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, M.; Kudough, F. [Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Onozuka, M.; Tsunoda, H.; Toyoda, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    The use of functionally graded layers (FGLs) for plasma facing components (PFCs), owing to moderate or piecewise transition in material properties from low-Z surface materials to metal substrates, can provide reduction in thermal stresses, and also provide high thermal load resistance to PFCs. This article deals with the comparison of high heat flux testing and thermal stress analysis results on PFCs. Thermal stress analyses confirmed the thermal loading test results.

  12. Nano-Sized Cyclodextrin-Based Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Adsorbents for Perfluorinated Compounds—A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla H. Karoyo; Lee D. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have been directed towards the design of efficient and contaminant selective remediation technology for the removal of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) from soils, sediments, and aquatic environments. While there is a general consensus on adsorption-based processes as the most suitable methodology for the removal of PFCs from aquatic environments, challenges exist regarding the optimal materials design of sorbents for selective uptake of PFCs. This article reviews the sorptive u...

  13. Occurrence investigation of perfluorinated compounds in surface water from East Lake (Wuhan, China) upon rapid and selective magnetic solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yusun; Tao, Yun; Li, Huarong; Zhou, Tingting; Jing, Tao; Zhou, Yikai; Mei, Surong

    2016-12-01

    Using a novel magnetic nanocomposite as adsorbent, a convenient and effective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure was established for selective separation and concentration of nine perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in surface water sample. Then an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) system was employed for detection of PFCs. Good linearity of the developed analytical method was in the range of 0.5-100 ng L-1 with R2 > 0.9917, and the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.029 to 0.099 ng L-1. At three fortified concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50 ng L-1, the spiked recoveries of PFCs were in the range of 90.05-106.67% with RSDs < 12.62% (n = 3). The proposed analytical method was applied for determination of PFCs in surface water from East Lake (Wuhan, China). The total concentrations of nine PFCs ranged from 30.12 to 125.35 ng L-1, with perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluoroctanoic acid as the most prevalent PFCs, and the greatest concentrations of PFCs were observed in Niuchao lakelet. The concentrations of the PFCs (C ≥ 11) were mostly less than the limits of quantification (LOQs), attributed to the possibility that the more hydrophobic long-chain PFCs are potential to accumulate in sediment and aquatic biota.

  14. Electromagnetic and structural analyses of the vacuum vessel and plasma facing components for EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Xufeng; Song, Yuntao; Li, Jun; Lu, Mingxuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The electromagnetic and structural responses of VV and PFCs for EAST are analyzed. • A detailed finite element model of the VV including PFCs is established. • The two most dangerous scenarios, major disruptions and downward VDEs are considered. • The distribution patterns of eddy currents, EMFs and torques on PFCs are analyzed. -- Abstract: During plasma disruptions, time-varying eddy currents are induced in the vacuum vessel (VV) and Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) of EAST. Additionally, halo currents flow partly through these structures during the vertical displacement events (VDEs). Under the high magnetic field circumstances, the resulting electromagnetic forces (EMFs) and torques are large. In this paper, eddy currents and EMFs on EAST VV, PFCs and their supports are calculated by analytical and numerical methods. ANSYS software is employed to evaluate eddy currents on VV, PFCs and their structural responses. To learn the electromagnetic and structural response of the whole structure more accurately, a detailed finite element model is established. The two most dangerous scenarios, major disruptions and downward VDEs, are examined. It is found that distribution patterns of eddy currents for various PFCs differ greatly, therefore resulting in different EMFs and torques. It can be seen that for certain PFCs the transient reaction force are severe. Results obtained here may set up a preliminary foundation for the future dynamic response research of EAST VV and PFCs which will provide a theoretical basis for the future engineering design of tokamak devices

  15. Long-term effects of a binary mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) in zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiter, Susanne; Holbech, Henrik; Skutlarek, D

    2011-01-01

    The frequent use of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in industrial applications and domestic products has led on a global basis to a continuous detection of PFCs in a wide range of environmental matrices including aquatic systems. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the most commonly detected PFC...

  16. Association between perfluorinated compounds and time to pregnancy in a prospective cohort of Danish couples attempting to conceive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Sonja; Nielsen, Flemming; Andersson, Anne-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been widely used and have emerged as important food contaminants. A recent study on pregnant women suggested that PFC exposure was associated with a longer time to pregnancy (TTP). We examined the association between serum concentrations of PFCs in females...

  17. The Application of TD/GC/NICI-MS with an Al2O3-PLOT-S Column for the Determination of Perfluoroalkylcycloalkanes in the Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu; Schlager, Hans; Martin, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A modified method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric perfluoroalkylcycloalkanes (PFCs) using thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography and detection by negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry was developed. Using an optimized analytical system, a commercially available Al 2 O 3 porous layer open tubular (PLOT) capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm) deactivated with Na 2 SO 4 was used for separation of PFCs. Improvements in the separation of PFCs, the corresponding identification and the limit of detection of PFCs using this method and column are presented. The method was successfully applied to determine the atmospheric background concentrations of a range of PFCs from a number of samples collected at a rural site in Germany. The results of this study suggest that the method outlined using the Al 2 O 3 -PLOT-S capillary column has good sensitivity and selectivity, and that it can be deployed in a routine laboratory process for the analysis of PFCs in the future research work. In addition, the ability of this column to separate the isomers of one of the lower boiling PFCs (perfluorodimethylcyclobutane) and its ability to resolve perfluoroethylcyclohexane offer the opportunity for single-column analysis for multiple PFCs.

  18. A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Yamashita, N.; Taniyasu, S.; Lam, P.K.S.; Sinha, R; Borole, D.V.; Kannan, K.

    and biomagnifications factors of PFCs were estimated in the Ganges River basin food web. The highest concentration of PFOA, 23.1 ng L sup(-1), was found in untreated sewage samples. Overall, concentrations of PFCs of water and biological samples from India are lower...

  19. Landfills as sources of polyfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and musk fragrances to ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Ingo; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2011-02-01

    In order to investigate landfills as sources of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and synthetic musk fragrances to the atmosphere, air samples were simultaneously taken at two landfills (one active and one closed) and two reference sites using high volume air samplers. Contaminants were accumulated on glass fiber filters (particle phase) and PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges (gas phase), extracted by methyl-tert butyl ether/acetone (neutral PFCs), methanol (ionic PFCs) or hexane/acetone (PBDEs, musk fragrances), and detected by GC-MS (neutral PFCs, PBDEs, musk fragrances) or HPLC-MS/MS (ionic PFCs). Total concentrations ranged from 84 to 706 pg m -3 (volatile PFCs, gas phase), from fragrances, gas + particle phase) and from 1 to 11 pg m -3 (PBDEs, gas + particle phase). Observed sum concentrations of PFCs and synthetic musk fragrances and partly PBDE concentrations were elevated at landfill sites compared to corresponding reference sites. Concentrations determined at the active landfill were higher than those of the inactive landfill. Overall, landfills can be regarded as a source of synthetic musk fragrances, several PFCs and potentially of PBDEs to ambient air.

  20. Perfluorinated substances in human food and other sources of human exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hollander, W.; de Voogt, P.; De Coen, W.; Bervoets, L.; de Voogt, P.

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, which persist and may bioaccumulate through the food chain (Haukås et al. 2007; Martin et al. 2004b; Taniyasu et al. 2003). As a consequence, several PFCs have been detected in different biota worldwide. In recent years, an

  1. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the aquatic environment: a review of their occurrence and fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence and fate of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in the aquatic environment has been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. PFCs comprise a diverse group of chemicals that are widely used as processing additives during fluoropolymer production and as surfactants in consumer applications for over 50 years. PFCs are known to be persistent, bioaccumulative and have possible adverse effects on humans and wildlife. As a result, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been added to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) list of the Stockholm Convention in May 2009. However, their homologues, neutral precursor compounds and new PFCs classes continue to be produced. In general, several PFCs from different classes have been detected ubiquitously in the aqueous environment while the concentrations usually range between pg and ng per litre for individual compounds. Sources of PFCs into the aqueous environment are both point sources (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluents) and nonpoint sources (e.g., surface runoff). The detected congener composition in environmental samples depends on their physicochemical characteristics and may provide information to their sources and transport pathways. However, the dominant transport pathways of individual PFCs to remote regions have not been conclusively characterised to date. The objective of this article is to give an overview on existing knowledge of the occurrence, fate and processes of PFCs in the aquatic environment. Finally, this article identifies knowledge gaps, presents conclusions and recommendations for future work.

  2. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds and human semen quality in arctic and European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toft, G.; Jönsson, B.A.G.; Lindh, C.H.; Giwercman, A.; Spano, M.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Lenters, V.C.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.; Rylander, L.; Pedersen, H.S.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Zviezdai, V.; Bonde, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality. METHODS PFCs were measured in serum from 588 partners of pregnant women from Greenland,

  3. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds and human semen quality in Arctic and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, G; Jönsson, B A G; Lindh, C H

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality.......Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality....

  4. Screening av PFAS og Dekloran forbindelser i utvalgte arktiske toppredatorer

    OpenAIRE

    Schlabach, Martin; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Herzke, Dorte; Hanssen, Linda; Routti, Heli; Borgen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a screening study into the occurrence of selected perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and dechloranes in Arctic top predators. The emerging PFCs F53 F53B, and PFBS were not detected neither in bird eggs nor in mammals. However, different dechloranes were detected in all samples. Screening av PFAS og Dekloran forbindelser i utvalgte arktiske toppredatorer

  5. Polyfluorinated chemicals and transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knepper, Thomas P. [Univ. of Applied Sciences Fresenius, Idstein (Germany). Inst. for Analytical Research; Lange, Frank Thomas (eds.) [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Due to their unparalleled effectiveness and efficiency, polyfluorinated chemicals (PFC) have become essential in numerous technical applications. However, many PFCs brought to market show limited biodegradability, and their environmental persistence combined with toxic and bioaccumulative potential have become a matter of concern in some instances. This volume highlights the synthesis of PFCs, focusing on substances with improved application and environmental properties, which are a challenge for synthetic chemists. Further, modern mass spectrometric techniques for the detection and identification of biotransformation products of PFCs are described. The sorption and leaching behavior of PFC in soil is also addressed in order to predict their fate in the environment. Several contributions discuss the monitoring of PFCs in European surface, ground and drinking waters, treatment options for PFC removal from drinking water, occurrence in food, and the human biomonitoring of PFCs. (orig.)

  6. Review on the occurrence, fate and removal of perfluorinated compounds during wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, Olga S.; Stasinakis, Athanasios S., E-mail: astas@env.aegean.gr

    2015-08-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) consist of a fully fluorinated hydrophobic alkyl chain attached to a hydrophilic end group. Due to their wide use in several industrial and household applications, they have been detected in numerous Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) during the last ten years. The present review reports the occurrence of 22 PFCs (C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylates; C4–C8 and C10 sulfonates; 3 sulfonamides) in municipal or/and industrial wastewater, originating from 24 monitoring studies. PFCs levels in sewage sludge have also been reported using data from 12 studies. Most of the above monitoring data originate from the USA, North Europe and Asia and concern perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), while limited information is available from Mediterranean area, Canada and Australia. PFCs concentrations range up to some hundreds ng/L and some thousands ng/g dry weight in raw wastewater and sludge, respectively. They are not significantly removed during secondary biological treatment, while their concentrations in treated wastewater are often higher compared to raw sewage. Their biodegradation during wastewater treatment does not seem possible; whereas some recent studies have noted the potential transformation of precursor compounds to PFCs during biological wastewater treatment. PFCs sorption onto sludge has been studied in depth and seems to be an important mechanism governing their removal in STPs. Concerning tertiary treatment technologies, significant PFCs removal has been observed using activated carbon, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis or applying advanced oxidation and reduction processes. Most of these studies have been conducted using pure water, while in many cases the experiments have been performed under extreme laboratory conditions (high concentrations, high radiation source, temperature or pressure). Future efforts should be focused on better understanding of biotransformation processes occurred in aerobic and

  7. Review on the occurrence, fate and removal of perfluorinated compounds during wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Olga S.; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) consist of a fully fluorinated hydrophobic alkyl chain attached to a hydrophilic end group. Due to their wide use in several industrial and household applications, they have been detected in numerous Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) during the last ten years. The present review reports the occurrence of 22 PFCs (C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylates; C4–C8 and C10 sulfonates; 3 sulfonamides) in municipal or/and industrial wastewater, originating from 24 monitoring studies. PFCs levels in sewage sludge have also been reported using data from 12 studies. Most of the above monitoring data originate from the USA, North Europe and Asia and concern perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), while limited information is available from Mediterranean area, Canada and Australia. PFCs concentrations range up to some hundreds ng/L and some thousands ng/g dry weight in raw wastewater and sludge, respectively. They are not significantly removed during secondary biological treatment, while their concentrations in treated wastewater are often higher compared to raw sewage. Their biodegradation during wastewater treatment does not seem possible; whereas some recent studies have noted the potential transformation of precursor compounds to PFCs during biological wastewater treatment. PFCs sorption onto sludge has been studied in depth and seems to be an important mechanism governing their removal in STPs. Concerning tertiary treatment technologies, significant PFCs removal has been observed using activated carbon, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis or applying advanced oxidation and reduction processes. Most of these studies have been conducted using pure water, while in many cases the experiments have been performed under extreme laboratory conditions (high concentrations, high radiation source, temperature or pressure). Future efforts should be focused on better understanding of biotransformation processes occurred in aerobic and

  8. Perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates in open ocean waters of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Horii, Yuichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Kannan, K.; Sinclair, E. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, CA (United States); Petrick, G. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Marine Research; Gamo, Toshitaka [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Ocean Research Institute

    2004-09-15

    Environmentally stable perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have appeared as a new class of global pollutants within the last four years. These compounds in general, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in particular, can elicit toxic effects in wildlife and humans. PFCs have unique physicochemical properties due to the highly persistent C-F bond of the non-polar moiety and exhibit a wide variety of volatility/ water solubility depending on the nature of the substituted polar moiety. Environmental kinetics of PFCs is very complex because of the unique characteristics and their wide applications in various products. It is clear that PFCs pollution is a global problem involving several international organizations such as OECD. We have reported the initial survey of open ocean pollution by PFCs in 2003. Our studies have shown that part per quadrillion (ppq) level analysis of PFCs is necessary to obtain reliable information of open ocean pollution. We have developed reliable analytical and sampling method for ultra-trace level analysis of PFCs that is applicable to global survey of open ocean pollution. Analysis of PFCs in open ocean waters is challenging because of the need for ppq level analysis and no earlier studies have reported such a sensitive method. There were two approaches to enable trace level analysis of PFCs, namely, to decrease the blank and to solve co-elution problem. We have tested low blank solid phase extraction method and improvements in the analytical procedures and instrumentation, the blank/background levels of target perfluorinated acids were reduced significantly. Field blanks containing 800 mL of HPLC-grade water taken in a polypropylene bottle were transported to sampling locations. Two hundred microliter of sodium thiosulfate solution has been added to the field blanks. Although the concentrations of target fluorochemicals in field blanks were similar to those in procedural blanks in most cases, any sample sets that were found to have notable

  9. Skipjack tuna as a bioindicator of contamination by perfluorinated compounds in the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kimberly; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tao, Lin; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have emerged as global environmental contaminants. Studies have reported the widespread occurrence of PFCs in biota from marine coastal waters and in remote polar regions. However, few studies have reported the distribution of PFCs in biota from offshore waters and open oceans. In this study, concentrations of nine PFCs were determined in the livers of 60 skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters and the open ocean along the Pacific Rim, including the Sea of Japan, the East China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Western North Pacific Ocean, during 1997-1999. At least one of the nine PFCs was found in every tuna sample analyzed. Overall, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were the predominant compounds found in livers of tuna at concentrations of ocean locations, concentrations of PFUnDA were greater than the concentrations of PFOS. The profiles and concentrations of PFCs in tuna livers suggest that the sources in East Asia are dominated by long-chain perfluorocarboxylates, especially PFUnDA. High concentrations of PFUnDA in tuna may indicate a shift in sources of PFCs in East Asia. The spatial distribution of PFOS in skipjack tuna reflected the concentrations previously reported in seawater samples from the Pacific and Indian Oceans, suggesting that tuna are good bioindicators of pollution by PFOS. Despite its predominance in ocean waters, PFOA was rarely found in tuna livers, indicative of the low bioaccumulation potential of this compound. Our study establishes baseline concentrations of PFCs in skipjack tuna from the oceans of the Asia-Pacific region, enabling future temporal trend studies of PFCs in oceans.

  10. Pair-flowered cymes in the Lamiales: structure, distribution and origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In the Lamiales, indeterminate thyrses (made up of axillary cymes) represent a significant inflorescence type. However, it has been largely overlooked that there occur two types of cymes: (1) ordinary cymes, and (2) ‘pair-flowered cymes’ (PFCs), with a flower pair (terminal and front flower) topping each cyme unit. PFCs are unique to the Lamiales and their distribution, origin and phylogeny are not well understood. Methods The Lamiales are screened as to the occurrence of PFCs, ordinary cymes and single flowers (constituting racemic inflorescences). Key Results PFCs are shown to exhibit a considerable morphological and developmental diversity and are documented to occur in four neighbouring taxa of Lamiales: Calceolariaceae, Sanango, Gesneriaceae and Plantaginaceae. They are omnipresent in the Calceolariaceae and almost so in the Gesneriaceae. In the Plantaginaceae, PFCs are restricted to the small sister tribes Russelieae and Cheloneae (while the large remainder has single flowers in the leaf/bract axils; ordinary cymes do not occur). Regarding the origin of PFCs, the inflorescences of the genus Peltanthera (unplaced as to family; sister to Calceolariaceae, Sanango and Gesneriaceae in most molecular phylogenies) support the idea that PFCs have originated from paniculate systems, with the front-flowers representing remnant flowers. Conclusions From the exclusive occurrence of PFCs in the Lamiales and the proximity of the respective taxa in molecular phylogenies it may be expected that PFCs have originated once, representing a synapomorphy for this group of taxa and fading out within the Plantaginaceae. However, molecular evidence is ambiguous. Depending on the position of Peltanthera (depending in turn on the kind and number of genes and taxa analysed) a single, a double (the most probable scenario) or a triple origin appears conceivable. PMID:23884395

  11. Neurotoxic effects of perfluoroalkylated compounds: mechanisms of action and environmental relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariussen, Espen

    2012-09-01

    Perfluoroalkylated compounds (PFCs) are used in fire-fighting foams, treatment of clothes, carpets and leather products, and as lubricants, pesticides, in paints and medicine. Recent developments in chemical analysis have revealed that fluorinated compounds have become ubiquitously spread and are regarded as a potential threats to the environment. Due to the carbon-fluorine bond, which has a very high bond strength, these chemicals are extremely persistent towards degradation and some PFCs have a potential for bioaccumulation in organisms. Of particular concern has been the developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA, which has been manifested in rodent studies as high mortality of prenatally exposed newborn rats and mice within 24 h after delivery. The nervous system appears to be one of the most sensitive targets of environmental contaminants. The serious developmental effects of PFCs have lead to the upcoming of studies that have investigated neurotoxic effects of these substances. In this review the major findings of the neurotoxicity of the main PFCs and their suggested mechanisms of action are presented. The neurotoxic effects are discussed in light of other toxic effects of PFCs to indicate the significance of PFCs as neurotoxicants. The main findings are that PFCs may induce neurobehavioral effects, particularly in developmentally exposed animals. The effects are, however, subtle and inconclusive and are often induced at concentrations where other toxic effects also are expected. Mechanistic studies have shown that PFCs may affect the thyroid system, influence the calcium homeostasis, protein kinase C, synaptic plasticity and cellular differentiation. Compared to other environmental toxicants the human blood levels of PFCs are high and of particular concern is that susceptible groups may be exposed to a cocktail of substances that in combination reach harmful concentrations.

  12. Reductive Degradation of Perfluorinated Compounds in Water using Mg-aminoclay coated Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Olga S.; Hwang, Yuhoon; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) are extremely persistent micropollutants that are detected worldwide. We studied the removal of PFCs (perfluorooctanoic acid; PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid; PFNA, perfluorodecanoic acid; PFDA and perfluorooctane sulfonate; PFOS) from water by different types...... of the nZVI. A maximum removal was observed for all PFCs with high nZVI concentration, freshly synthesized nZVI, low pH and low temperature. A mass balance experiment with PFOS in a higher concentration of nZVI revealed that the removal was due to both sorption and degradation. Fluoride production...

  13. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  14. 2008-09 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2008-09 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, Selenium, PBDEs, PCBs, Pesticides and PFCs.

  15. Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Barbosa, Vera; Alves, Ricardo; Anacleto, Patrícia; Fogaça, Fabiola; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Kotterman, Michiel; Cunha, Sara C.; Fernandes, José O.; Rasmussen, Rie R.; Sloth, Jens J.; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Marques, António

    2018-01-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore, the

  16. Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as important food contaminants. They cause immune suppression in a rodent model at serum concentrations similar to those occurring in the US population, but adverse health effects of PFC exposure are poorly understood....

  17. Meet EPA Chemist Mark Strynar, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Mark Strynar is a physical scientist in EPA's Office of Research and Development. His research interests include developing methods to measure and analyze the movement of PFCs and other xenobiotic compounds in biological and environmental media

  18. The potential role of perfluorocarbon emulsions in decompression illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Bruce D

    2010-03-01

    Decompression illness (DCI) is an occasional occurrence in sport, professional, and military diving as well as a potential catastrophe in high-altitude flight, space exploration, mining, and caisson bridge construction. DCI theoretically could be a success-limiting problem in escape from a disabled submarine (DISSUB). Perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFCs) have previously been investigated as 'blood substitutes' with one approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of myocardial ischaemia. PFCs possess enhanced (as compared to plasma) respiratory gas solubility characteristics, including oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. This review examines approximately 30 years of research regarding the utilization of PFCs in gas embolism as well as experimental DCI. To date, no humans have been treated with PFCs for DCI.

  19. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; waste materials.

  20. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    2010-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2.......This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  1. Engineering design and thermal hydraulics of plasma facing components of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pragash, N. Ravi; Chaudhuri, P.; Santra, P.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Khirwadkar, S.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2001-01-01

    SST-1 is a medium size tokamak with super conducting magnetic field coils. All the subsystems of SST-1 are designed for quasi steady state (∼1000 s) operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) of SST-1 consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be compatible for steady state operation. As SST-1 is designed to run double null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. All the PFC are made of copper alloys (CuCrZr and CuZr) on which graphite tiles are mechanically attached. These copper alloy back plates are actively cooled with water flowing in the channels grooved on them with the main consideration in the design of PFCs as the steady state heat removal of about 1.0 MW/m 2 . In addition to be able to remove high heat fluxes, the PFCs are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 degree sign C. Extensive studies, involving different flow parameters and various cooling layouts, have been done to select the final cooling parameters and layout. Thermal response of the PFCs and vacuum vessel during baking, has been calculated using a FORTRAN code and a 2-D finite element analysis. The PFCs and their supports are also designed to withstand large electro-magnetic forces. Finite element analysis using ANSYS software package is used in this and other PFCs design. The engineering design including thermal hydraulics for cooling and baking of all the PFCs is completed. Poloidal limiters are being fabricated. The remaining PFCs, viz. divertors, stabilizers and baffles are likely to go for fabrication in the next few months. The detailed engineering design, the finite element calculations in the structural and thermal designs are presented in this paper

  2. Structure-dependent binding and activation of perfluorinated compounds on human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lianying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); College of Life Science, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Ren, Xiao-Min; Wan, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Guo, Liang-Hong, E-mail: LHGuo@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been shown to disrupt lipid metabolism and even induce cancer in rodents through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Lines of evidence showed that PPARα was activated by PFCs. However, the information on the binding interactions between PPARγ and PFCs and subsequent alteration of PPARγ activity is still limited and sometimes inconsistent. In the present study, in vitro binding of 16 PFCs to human PPARγ ligand binding domain (hPPARγ-LBD) and their activity on the receptor in cells were investigated. The results showed that the binding affinity was strongly dependent on their carbon number and functional group. For the eleven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), the binding affinity increased with their carbon number from 4 to 11, and then decreased slightly. The binding affinity of the three perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) was stronger than their PFCA counterparts. No binding was detected for the two fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs). Circular dichroim spectroscopy showed that PFC binding induced distinctive structural change of the receptor. In dual luciferase reporter assays using transiently transfected Hep G2 cells, PFCs acted as hPPARγ agonists, and their potency correlated with their binding affinity with hPPARγ-LBD. Molecular docking showed that PFCs with different chain length bind with the receptor in different geometry, which may contribute to their differences in binding affinity and transcriptional activity. - Highlights: • Binding affinity between PFCs and PPARγ was evaluated for the first time. • The binding strength was dependent on fluorinated carbon chain and functional group. • PFC binding induced distinctive structural change of the receptor. • PFCs could act as hPPARγ agonists in Hep G2 cells.

  3. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  4. Sorption mechanisms of perfluorinated compounds on carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Shubo; Zhang Qiaoying; Nie Yao; Wei Haoran; Wang Bin; Huang Jun; Yu Gang; Xing Baoshan

    2012-01-01

    Sorption of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is critical for understanding their subsequent transport and fate in aqueous environments, but the sorption mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, the sorption of six PFCs on CNTs increased with increasing C-F chain length when they had a same functional group, and the CNTs with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups had much lower adsorbed amount than the pristine CNTs, indicating that hydrophobic interaction dominated the sorption of PFCs on the CNTs. Electrostatic repulsion suppressed the sorption of PFCs on the CNTs, resulting in the lower sorption with increasing pH. Hydrogen bonding interaction was negligible. The hydrophobic C-F chains can be closely adsorbed on the CNTs surface in parallel to the axis or along the curvature, making it impossible to form micelles on the CNT surface, leading to the lower sorption than other adsorbents. Highlights: ► Sorption capacities of PFOA on different CNTs are less than that on activated carbon and resins. ► Hydrophobic interaction is principally involved in the sorption of PFCs on CNTs. ► Electrostatic repulsion suppresses the sorption of PFCs on CNTs. - Hydrophobic interaction dominated the sorption of perfluorinated compounds on carbon nanotubes, while electrostatic repulsion suppressed their sorption.

  5. Perfluorinated and chlorinated pollutants as predictors of demographic parameters in an endangered seabird

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Lorentsen, Svein-Hakon; Herzke, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    Despite global occurrence of several perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) the potential ecological effects of such substances on natural populations are not known. In endangered lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus) on the Norwegian Coast, the blood concentrations of PFCs were as high as legacy organochlorines (OCs), and here we examined whether PFCs show associations similar to those of OCs to factors potentially affecting population growth, by evaluating relationships between contaminant concentrations and demographic parameters (reproductive performance and the probability of adults returning between breeding seasons). PFCs were not adversely associated with demographic parameters, while the most persistent OCs; notably PCB and p,p'-DDE, were adversely associated with early chick survival, and adult return rate. This study thus suggests that when the concentrations of PFCs and OCs are of similar magnitude in a gull population, OCs are more likely to cause adverse ecological effects. - When the concentrations of PFCs and OCs are of similar magnitude in a population of gulls, OCs seem to have a stronger propensity for causing adverse ecological effects

  6. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of perfluorocarbons with fluorinated ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, S.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.; Pereiro, A.B.; Marrucho, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibria perfluorocarbons and fluorinated ionic liquids. • Non-Random Two Liquid model was successfully applied. • Thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the feasibility of partially replace perfluorocarbons (PFCs) with fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs) in PFCs-in-water emulsions, usually used for biomedical purposes, herein the (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of FILs containing fluorinated chains longer than four carbons with PFCs were carried out in a wide range of temperatures. With this goal in mind, two PFCs (perfluorooctane and perfluorodecalin) were selected and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the binary mixtures of these PFCs and FILs were studied at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range from T (293.15 to 343.15) K. For these studies, FILs containing ammonium, pyridinium and imidazolium cations and different anions with fluorocarbon alkyl chains between 4 and 8 were included. Additionally, Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) thermodynamic model was successfully applied to correlate the behaviour of the PFCs + FILs binary mixtures. Moreover, thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated from the experimental data

  7. A dynamic monitoring approach for the surface morphology evolution measurement of plasma facing components by means of speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbei; Cui, Xiaoqian; Feng, Chunlei; Li, Yuanbo; Zhao, Mengge; Luo, Guangnan; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-11-01

    Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) in a magnetically confined fusion plasma device will be exposed to high heat load and particle fluxes, and it would cause PFCs' surface morphology to change due to material erosion and redeposition from plasma wall interactions. The state of PFCs' surface condition will seriously affect the performance of long-pulse or steady state plasma discharge in a tokamak; it will even constitute an enormous threat to the operation and the safety of fusion plasma devices. The PFCs' surface morphology evolution measurement could provide important information about PFCs' real-time status or damage situation and it would help to a better understanding of the plasma wall interaction process and mechanism. Meanwhile through monitoring the distribution of dust deposition in a tokamak and providing an upper limit on the amount of loose dust, the PFCs' surface morphology measurement could indirectly contribute to keep fusion operational limits and fusion device safety. Aiming at in situ dynamic monitoring PFCs' surface morphology evolution, a laboratory experimental platform DUT-SIEP (Dalian University of Technology-speckle interferometry experimental platform) based on the speckle interferometry technique has been constructed at Dalian University of Technology (DUT) in China. With directional specific designing and focusing on the real detection condition of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), the DUT-SIEP could realize a variable measurement range, widely increased from 0.1 μm to 300 μm, with high spatial resolution (<1 mm) and ultra-high time resolution (<2 s for EAST measuring conditions). Three main components of the DUT-SIEP are all integrated and synchronized by a time schedule control and data acquisition terminal and coupled with a three-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithm, the surface morphology information of target samples can be obtained and reconstructed in real-time. A local surface morphology of the real divertor

  8. The effects of embedded piezoelectric fiber composite sensors on the structural integrity of glass-fiber–epoxy composite laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konka, Hari P; Wahab, M A; Lian, K

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composite sensors (PFCSs) made from micro-sized lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers have many advantages over the traditional bulk PZT sensors for embedded sensor applications. PFCSs as embedded sensors will be an ideal choice to continuously monitor the stress/strain levels and health conditions of composite structures. PFCSs are highly flexible, easily embeddable, have high compatibility with composite structures, and also provides manufacturing flexibility. This research is focused on examining the effects of embedding PFCS sensors (macro-fiber composite (MFC) and piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC)) on the structural integrity of glass-fiber–epoxy composite laminates. The strengths of composite materials with embedded PFCSs and conventional PZT sensors were compared, and the advantages of PFCS sensors over PZTs were demonstrated. Initially a numerical simulation study is performed to understand the local stress/strain field near the embedded sensor region inside a composite specimen. High stress concentration regions were observed near the embedded sensor corner edge. Using PFCS leads to a reduction of 56% in longitudinal stress concentration and 38% in transverse stress concentration, when compared to using the conventional PZTs as embedded sensors. In-plane tensile, in-plane tension–tension fatigue, and short beam strength tests are performed to evaluate the strengths/behavior of the composite specimens containing embedded PFCS. From the tensile test it is observed that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors in the composite structures leads to a reduction in ultimate strength by 3 and 6% respectively. From the fatigue test results it is concluded that both embedded PFCS and PZT sensors do not have a significant effect on the fatigue behavior of the composite specimens. From the short beam strength test it is found that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors leads to a reduction in shear strength by 7 and 15% respectively. Overall the pure PZT

  9. The effects of embedded piezoelectric fiber composite sensors on the structural integrity of glass-fiber-epoxy composite laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konka, Hari P.; Wahab, M. A.; Lian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composite sensors (PFCSs) made from micro-sized lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers have many advantages over the traditional bulk PZT sensors for embedded sensor applications. PFCSs as embedded sensors will be an ideal choice to continuously monitor the stress/strain levels and health conditions of composite structures. PFCSs are highly flexible, easily embeddable, have high compatibility with composite structures, and also provides manufacturing flexibility. This research is focused on examining the effects of embedding PFCS sensors (macro-fiber composite (MFC) and piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC)) on the structural integrity of glass-fiber-epoxy composite laminates. The strengths of composite materials with embedded PFCSs and conventional PZT sensors were compared, and the advantages of PFCS sensors over PZTs were demonstrated. Initially a numerical simulation study is performed to understand the local stress/strain field near the embedded sensor region inside a composite specimen. High stress concentration regions were observed near the embedded sensor corner edge. Using PFCS leads to a reduction of 56% in longitudinal stress concentration and 38% in transverse stress concentration, when compared to using the conventional PZTs as embedded sensors. In-plane tensile, in-plane tension-tension fatigue, and short beam strength tests are performed to evaluate the strengths/behavior of the composite specimens containing embedded PFCS. From the tensile test it is observed that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors in the composite structures leads to a reduction in ultimate strength by 3 and 6% respectively. From the fatigue test results it is concluded that both embedded PFCS and PZT sensors do not have a significant effect on the fatigue behavior of the composite specimens. From the short beam strength test it is found that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors leads to a reduction in shear strength by 7 and 15% respectively. Overall the pure PZT sensors

  10. Occurrence of different classes of perfluorinated compounds in Greek wastewater treatment plants and determination of their solid–water distribution coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Olga S.; Ventouri, Elpida I.; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Eighteen PFCs were determined in wastewater and sludge samples using LC–MS/MS. ► PFPeA, PFOA and PFOS were the dominating compounds in both WWTPs. ► No significant decrease or even increase of most PFCs was noticed in effluents. ► Distribution coefficients of PFCs were calculated for different types of sludge. ► Sorption potential was affected by the target compound and the type of sludge. - Abstract: The concentrations of eighteen perfluorinated compounds (PFCs: C5–C14 carboxylates, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and 3 sulfonamides) were determined in wastewater and sludge samples originating from two different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (dissolved phase) or sonication followed by solid phase extraction (solid phase). Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed by LC–MS/MS. According to the results, perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were dominant in wastewater and sludge samples from both plants. The average concentrations in the raw and treated wastewater ranged up to 75.7 ng L −1 (perfluorotridecanoic acid, PFTrDA) and 76.0 ng L −1 (PFPeA), respectively. Concentrations of most PFCs were higher in effluents than in influents, indicating their formation during wastewater treatment processes. In sewage sludge, the average concentrations ranged up to 6.7 ng g −1 dry weight (PFOS). No significant seasonal variations in PFCs concentrations were observed, while higher concentrations of PFOA, PFOS and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were determined in the WWTP receiving municipal and industrial wastewater. Significantly different distribution coefficient (K d ) values were determined for different PFCs and different type of sludge, ranging between 169 L kg −1 (PFHxS) to 12,922 L kg −1 (PFDA).

  11. (Pyridoxylated hemoglobin)-(polyoxyethylene) conjugate solution as blood substitute for normothermic whole body rinse-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishi, T; Funakoshi, Y; Honda, H; Yamagata, K; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, M

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate a new possibility for artificial blood with oxygen-carrying capability to be applied to other than mere supplementation, normothermic whole body rinse-out in which artificial blood deriving from perfluorochemical emulsion, Fluosol-DA 20% (Green Cross Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) or stabilized hemoglobin solution, (pyridoxylated hemoglobin)-(polyoxyethylene) conjugate solution (Ajinomoto Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) were used as rinsing fluid for a blood purification experiment. Replacement either with approximately 150 ml/kg of Fluosol-DA or stabilized hemoglobin solution showed effective removal of digoxin at a reduction rate of 96.3% or 92.2%, respectively. However, when Fluosol-DA was used, a certain amount of perfluorochemical should be retrieved by centrifugation to avoid a possible toxic effect on the reticulo-endothelial system. Even though 3 out of 6, and 3 out of 8 dogs, respectively, survived for a long period after the procedure, the experimental dogs were very susceptible to infection.

  12. Effects on artificial blood substitute (Fluosol-DA) by 60Co gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa-Itoh, Youko; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Miyata, Nobuki

    1982-01-01

    It had been demonstrated the high oxygen solubility of perfluorochemical emulsion (Fluosol-DA), and Fluosol-DA is going to apply as an oxygen carrier, namely artificial blood substitutes for clinical application. There have been many reports on physical, chemical and biological aspects of Fluosol-DA, but not have been reported on irradiation effects. In this paper, we investigated the effects on Fluosol-DA by 60 Co γ-ray irradiation. 1. pH of Fluosol-DA was increased apparently, this effect was not by irradiation, but by thermal effect. 2. Optical density of Fluosol-DA at 620 nm which meaned an effect on particles of Fluosol-DA was not changed by γ-irradiation. 3. F - ion concentration of Fluosol-DA which meaned an effect on structure of perfluorochemical was not changed merkedly. 4. The solubility of oxygen of Fluosol-DA was slightly increased by γ-irradiation at 25 0 C and 11 0 C, but this effect was disregarded. These results suggested that 60 Co γ-irradiation did not effect on pH, size or aggregation of particles, release of F - ion from Fluosol-DA and solubility of oxygen of Fluosol-DA. (author)

  13. Effects of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage and partial liquid ventilation on meconium-aspirated newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Mei-Jy; Soong, Wen-Jue; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Hua-Lun; Shen, Chung-Min; Wang, Chua-Ho; Yang, Shyh-Sheng; Hwang, Betau

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with either diluted surfactant (SBAL) or perfluorochemical liquid (PBAL), followed by either conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) or partial liquid ventilation (PLV), on lung injury and proinflammatory cytokine production induced by meconium aspiration in newborn piglets. A prospective, randomized, experimental study. An animal research laboratory at a medical center. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated newborn piglets (n = 27). The animals were instilled with 3-5 mL/kg 25% human meconium via an endotracheal tube to induce meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). After stabilization, animals were randomly assigned to either CMV group (no BAL) or one of the treatment groups (SBAL-CMV, SBAL-PLV, PBAL-CMV, and PBAL-PLV). Cardiopulmonary variables were monitored, and interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 content of the serum and lung tissue was measured. The animals without any treatment (CMV group) displayed the worst outcome; the animals in the PBAL-PLV group had the best gas exchange, lung compliance, and least pulmonary damage; and the SBAL-CMV, PBAL-CMV, and SBAL-PLV groups had intermediate effects. The serum interleukin-1beta concentration of the CMV group was significantly higher than all other groups over time (p CMV group and lowest in the PBAL-PLV group. Initial therapeutic BAL and therapeutic BAL followed by PLV with the same perfluorochemical liquid provided significant therapeutic effects in treating an animal model with severe MAS and therefore warrant consideration in cases that are intractable to other therapies.

  14. Liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported.

  15. Perfluorocarbons and Gilbert syndrome (phenotype) in the C8 Health Study Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongmin [Cancer Center, School of Public Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 265050-9190 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Hebei United University, Hebei 063000 (China); Ducatman, Alan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, West Virginia University (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, West Virginia University (United States); Clinical Translational Science Institute, West Virginia University (United States); Zhang, Jianjun [Department of Biostatistics, School Public Health, West Virginia University (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Background: Gilbert syndrome (GS) is an inherited defect of bilirubin conjugation, most commonly caused by a gene mutation for the enzyme UGT1A. GS is known to affect the metabolism and excretion of drugs and xenobiotics. Perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) are bio-persistent environmental contaminants that affect metabolic regulation. In this study, we examined the associations of GS phenotype and serum PFCs in the C8 Health Study Population. Materials and methods: Using 2005–2006 data from a large PFC-exposure population survey, we compared serum PFCs concentrations between GS and non GS clinical phenotypes, in a cross sectional design, adjusting for standard risk factors, including age, BMI, smoking status, socioeconomic status and gender. Results: Among 10 PFC compounds considered, only perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was seen at a significantly higher concentration in GS men and women. Conclusion: PFHxA exposure may be associated with GS. Our findings do not support increased exposure in GS for other PFCs. - Highlights: • Most serum PFCs are not associated with clinically evident Gilbert syndrome. • However, serum perfluorohexanoic acid is positively associated. • The investigation addresses the clinical presentation, not the genetic mutation.

  16. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Perelló, Gemma; Llebaria, Xavier; Bigas, Esther; Martí-Cid, Roser; Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  17. Overall behaviour of PFC integrated SST-1 vacuum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip C.; Paravasu, Yuvakiran; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; George, Siju; Shoaib, Mohammad; Prakash, Arun; Babu, Gattu R.; Thankey, Prashant; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    As a part of phase-I up-gradation of Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1), Graphite Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been integrated inside SST-1 vacuum vessel as a first wall (FW) during Nov 14 and May 2015. The SST-1 FW has a total surface area of the installed PFCs exposed to plasma is ∼ 40 m2 which is nearly 50% of the total surface area of stainless steel vacuum chamber (∼75 m2). The volume of the vessel within the PFCs is ∼ 16 m3. After the integration of PFCs, the entire vessel as well as the PFC cooling/baking circuits has been qualified with an integrated helium leak tightness of baked at 250 °C for nearly 20 hours employing hot nitrogen gas to remove the absorbed water vapours. Thereafter, Helium glow discharges cleaning were carried out towards the removal of surface impurities. The pump down characteristics of SST-1 vacuum chamber and the changes in the residual gaseous impurities after the installation of the PFCs will be discussed in this paper.

  18. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kayoko; Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: acalafat@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-10

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS ({approx}75 {mu}L of blood) were <0.5 ng mL{sup -1}. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL{sup -1} range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  19. Solubility of water in fluorocarbons: Experimental and COSMO-RS prediction results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Mara G.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.; Gomes, Ligia R.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Coutinho, Joao A.P.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims at providing experimental and theoretical information about the water-perfluorocarbon molecular interactions. For that purpose, experimental solubility results for water in cyclic and aromatic perfluorocarbons (PFCs), over the temperature range between (288.15 and 318.15) K, and at atmospheric pressure, were obtained and are presented. From the experimental solubility dependence on temperature, the partial molar solution and solvation thermodynamic functions such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy were determined and are discussed. The process of dissolution of water in PFCs is shown to be spontaneous for cyclic and aromatic compounds. It is demonstrated that the interactions between the non-aromatic PFCs and water are negligible while those between aromatic PFCs and water are favourable. The COSMO-RS predictive capability was explored for the description of the water solubility in PFCs and others substituted fluorocompounds. The COSMO-RS is shown to be a useful model to provide reasonable predictions of the solubility values, as well as to describe their temperature and structural modifications dependence. Moreover, the molar Gibbs free energy and molar enthalpy of solution of water are predicted remarkably well by COSMO-RS while the main deviations appear for the prediction of the molar entropy of solution.

  20. Waste water treatment plants as sources of polyfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and musk fragrances to ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, Ingo; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    To investigate waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) as sources of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and synthetic musk fragrances to the atmosphere, air samples were simultaneously taken at two WWTPs and two reference sites using high volume samplers. Contaminants were accumulated on glass fiber filters and PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges, extracted compound-dependent by MTBE/acetone, methanol, or hexane/acetone and detected by GC-MS or HPLC-MS/MS. Total (gas + particle phase) concentrations ranged from 97 to 1004 pg m -3 (neutral PFCs), -3 (ionic PFCs), 5781 to 482,163 pg m -3 (musk fragrances) and -3 (PBDEs) and were usually higher at WWTPs than at corresponding reference sites, revealing that WWTPs can be regarded as sources of musk fragrances, PFCs and probably PBDEs to the atmosphere. Different concentrations at the two WWTPs indicated an influence of WWTP size or waste water origin on emitted contaminant amounts. - Waste water treatment plants can be regarded as sources of musk fragrances, polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to the atmosphere

  1. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignal, N., E-mail: nicolas.vignal@cea.fr; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m{sup −2}, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material.

  2. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignal, N.; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m −2 , advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material

  3. Effect of lithium PFC coatings on NSTX density control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Bush, C.; Gates, D.; Gray, T.; Kaita, R.; Leblanc, B.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Mueller, D.; Paul, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Zakharov, L.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium coatings on the graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) in NSTX are being investigated as a tool for density profile control and reducing the recycling of hydrogen isotopes. Repeated lithium pellet injection into Center Stack Limited and Lower Single Null ohmic helium discharges were used to coat graphite surfaces that had been pre-conditioned with ohmic helium discharges of the same shape to reduce their contribution to hydrogen isotope recycling. The following deuterium NBI reference discharges exhibited a reduction in density by a factor of about 3 for limited and 2 for diverted plasmas, respectively, and peaked density profiles. Recently, a lithium evaporator has been used to apply thin coatings on conditioned and unconditioned PFCs. Effects on the plasma density and the impurities were obtained by pre-conditioning the PFCs with ohmic helium discharges, and performing the first deuterium NBI discharge as soon as possible after applying the lithium coating

  4. Endosonography guided management of pancreatic fluid collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Andreas S; Menachery, John; Tang, Shou-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    complications of pancreatitis can include acute peri-pancreatic fluid collection, acute necrotic collection, pseudocyst formation, and walled-off necrosis. Interventional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been increasing utilized in managing these local complications. After performing a PubMed search, the authors...... manually applied pre-defined inclusion criteria or a filter to identify publications relevant to EUS and pancreatic collections (PFCs). The authors then reviewed the utility, efficacy, and risks associated with using therapeutic EUS and involved EUS devices in treating PFCs. Due to the development...... to diagnose PFCs and perform image-guided interventions. After draining a PFC, the amount of tissue necrosis is the most important predictor of a successful outcome. Hence, it seems logical to classify these collections based on their percentage of necrotic component or debris present when viewed by imaging...

  5. Effect of whole-body irradiation of mice on the number of background plaque-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Lefkovits, I.; Soeederberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    Mice were exposed in whole-body fashion to several doses of radiation and killed at various times thereafter for a determination of the number of background plaque-forming cells (PFCs) as assayed on either sheep erythrocytes or bromelain-treated autologous mouse erythrocytes. Increased numbers of both types of PFC were found in the irradiated groups. These increases were dependent on radiation dose and time after exposure. They did not appear to be caused by a disruption of normal lymphocyte traffic or a switch in immunoglobulin isotype. An increased number of PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs but not on sheep RBCs were found in irradiated congenitally athymic nude mice. On the basis of this and related observations, background PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs and on sheep RBCs appear to fall under different forms of homeostatic control

  6. Pump and Flow Control Subassembly of Thermal Control Subsystem for Photovoltaic Power Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Brian; Santen, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    The pump and flow control subassembly (PFCS) is an orbital replacement unit (ORU) on the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module (PVM). The PFCS pumps liquid ammonia at a constant rate of approximately 1170 kg/hr while providing temperature control by flow regulation between the radiator and the bypass loop. Also, housed within the ORU is an accumulator to compensate for fluid volumetric changes as well as the electronics and firmware for monitoring and control of the photovoltaic thermal control system (PVTCS). Major electronic functions include signal conditioning, data interfacing and motor control. This paper will provide a description of each major component within the PFCS along with performance test data. In addition, this paper will discuss the flow control algorithm and describe how the nickel hydrogen batteries and associated power electronics will be thermally controlled through regulation of coolant flow to the radiator.

  7. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed

  8. International Space Station Active Thermal Control Sub-System On-Orbit Pump Performance and Reliability Using Liquid Ammonia as a Coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Richard D.; Jurick, Matthew; Roman, Ruben; Adamson, Gary; Bui, Chinh T.; Laliberte, Yvon J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) contains two Active Thermal Control Sub-systems (ATCS) that function by using a liquid ammonia cooling system collecting waste heat and rejecting it using radiators. These subsystems consist of a number of heat exchangers, cold plates, radiators, the Pump and Flow Control Subassembly (PFCS), and the Pump Module (PM), all of which are Orbital Replaceable Units (ORU's). The PFCS provides the motive force to circulate the ammonia coolant in the Photovoltaic Thermal Control Subsystem (PVTCS) and has been in operation since December, 2000. The Pump Module (PM) circulates liquid ammonia coolant within the External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS) cooling the ISS internal coolant (water) loops collecting waste heat and rejecting it through the ISS radiators. These PM loops have been in operation since December, 2006. This paper will discuss the original reliability analysis approach of the PFCS and Pump Module, comparing them against the current operational performance data for the ISS External Thermal Control Loops.

  9. Initiation and propagation of damage in actively cooled CFC armoured high heat flux components in fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, G.; Schlosser, J.; Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G.; Escourbiac, F.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) in magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines are armoured with carbon fibre composite (CFC) bonded to a copper alloy heat sink. The manufacturing process induces high level of residual stresses due to the thermal expansion mismatch between CFC and copper and PFCs have to withstand strong stress ranges during operation. To study the initiation and propagation of damage in the CFC part, the ONERA damage model is used to describe the behaviour of the N11 material. The finite element simulations show that the damage is located near the interface and develops during the manufacturing of the PFCs as a consequence of the high amplitude of shear stresses. Under high heat flux, stresses decrease and the damage does not evolve. Further studies will take into account the damageable behaviour of the composite/copper interface, which will lead to geometrical optimisations and better knowledge of the link between damage and conductivity.

  10. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuemei; Yeung, Leo Wai Yin; Xu Muqi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K.S.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai Jiayin

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp > common carp > leather catfish > white semiknife carp > tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r 2 = 0.85, p 15 N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake. - Distribution of PFCs reveals varied composition profiles in zooplankton and fish from a recipient water affected by WWTPs in Beijing

  11. Materials effects and design implications of disruptions and off-normal events in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Federici, G.; Konkashbaev, I.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Litunovsky, V.

    1997-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) and structural materials during abnormal plasma behavior such as hard disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) is considered a serious life-limiting concern for these components. The PFCs in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), such as the divertor, limiter, and parts of the first wall, will be subjected to high energy deposition during these plasma instabilities. High erosion losses on material surfaces, high temperature rise in structural materials (particularly at the bonding interface), and high heat flux levels and possible burnout of the coolant tubes are critical constraints that severely limit component lifetime and therefore degrade reactor performance, safety, and economics. Recently developed computer models and simulation experiments are being used to evaluate various damage to PFCs during the abnormal events. The design implications of plasma-facing and nearby components are discussed, and recommendations are made to mitigate the effects of these events

  12. Management of water leaks on Tore Supra actively cooled fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchressian, J.C.; Gargiulo, L.; Samaille, F.; Soler, B.

    2005-01-01

    Up to now, Tore Supra is the only fusion device fully equipped with actively cooled Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). In case of abnormal events during a plasma discharge, the PFCs could be submitted to a transient high power density (run away electrons) or to a continuous phenomena as local thermal flux induced by trapped suprathermal electrons or ions). It could lead to a degradation of the PFC integrity and in the worst case to a water leak occurrence. Such water leak has important consequence on the tokamak operation that concerns PFCs themselves, monitoring equipment located in the vacuum vessel or connected to the ports as RF antennas, diagnostics or pumping systems. Following successive water leak events (the most important water leak, that occurred in September 2002, is described in the paper), a large feedback experience has been gained on Tore supra since more than 15 years that could be useful to actively cooled next devices as W7X and ITER. (authors)

  13. Design and Test of Wendelstein 7-X Water-Cooled Divertor Scraper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Greuner, Henri [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany; Ehrke, Gunnar [Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics, Greifswald, Germany; Boeswirth, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany; Wang, Zhongwei [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany; Clark, Emily [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville; Lumsdaine, Arnold [ORNL; Tretter, Jorg [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany; Junghanns, Patrick [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany; Stadler, Reinhold [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany; McGinnis, William Dean [ORNL; Lore, Jeremy D. [ORNL; Team, W7-X [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Griefswald, Germany

    2018-04-01

    Heat load calculations have indicated the possible overloading of the ends of the water-cooled divertor facing the pumping gap beyond their technological limit. The intention of the scraper is the interception of some of the plasma fluxes both upstream and downstream before they reach the divertor surface. The scraper is divided into six modules of four plasma facing components (PFCs); each module has four PFCs hydraulically connected in series by two water boxes (inlet and outlet). A full-scale prototype of one module has been manufactured. Development activities have been carried out to connect the water boxes to the cooling pipes of the PFCs by tungsten inert gas internal orbital welding. This prototype was successfully tested in the GLADIS facility with 17 MW/m2 for 500 cycles. The results of these activities have confirmed the possible technological basis for a fabrication of the water-cooled scraper.

  14. Spatial distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds in coastal waters from the East to South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Minghong; Zhao Zhen; Yang Haizhen; Yin Zhigao; Hong Qingquan; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Ahrens, Lutz; Cai Minggang; He, Jianfeng; Xie Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were investigated in coastal waters collected onboard research vessel Snow Dragon from the East to South China Sea in 2010. All samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography/negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(−)ESI-MS/MS). Concentrations of 9 PFCs, including C 4 and C 8 (PFBS, PFOS) perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFSAs), C 5 –C 9 and C 13 (PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFTriDA) perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA) were quantified. The ΣPFC concentrations ranged from 133 pg/L to 3320 pg/L, with PFOA (37.5–1541 pg/L), PFBS (23.0–941 pg/L) and PFHpA (0–422 pg/L) as dominant compounds. Concentrations of PFCs were greater in coastal waters along Shanghai, Ningbo, Taizhou, Xiamen and along coastal cities of the Guangdong province compared to less populated areas along the east Chinese coast. Additionally, the comparison with other seawater PFC measurements showed lower levels in this study. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of various ionic PFCs were firstly quantified in coastal waters of China Sea for the first time. ► PFOA and PFBS, PFHxA, PFNA, PFOS, PFHpA were positively correlated which indicates that the same sources. ► The result of this study is useful for global transport models of PFCs. - Concentrations of 9 PFCs were quantified in coastal waters from the East to South China Sea for the first time.

  15. DESTABILIZATION OF A SOLAR PROMINENCE/FILAMENT FIELD SYSTEM BY A SERIES OF EIGHT HOMOLOGOUS ERUPTIVE FLARES LEADING TO A CME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Moore, Ronald L. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), UAH, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Sterling, Alphonse C. [Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office, ZP13, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Innes, Davina E., E-mail: navdeep.k.panesar@nasa.gov [Max Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-09-20

    Homologous flares are flares that occur repetitively in the same active region, with similar structure and morphology. A series of at least eight homologous flares occurred in active region NOAA 11237 over 2011 June 16–17. A nearby prominence/filament was rooted in the active region, and situated near the bottom of a coronal cavity. The active region was on the southeast solar limb as seen from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, and on the disk as viewed from the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory/EUVI-B. The dual perspective allows us to study in detail behavior of the prominence/filament material entrained in the magnetic field of the repeatedly erupting system. Each of the eruptions were mainly confined, but expelled hot material into the prominence/filament cavity system (PFCS). The field carrying and containing the ejected hot material interacted with the PFCS and caused it to inflate, resulting in a step-wise rise of the PFCS approximately in step with the homologous eruptions. The eighth eruption triggered the PFCS to move outward slowly, accompanied by a weak coronal dimming. As this slow PFCS eruption was underway, a final “ejective” flare occurred in the core of the active region, resulting in strong dimming in the EUVI-B images and expulsion of a coronal mass ejection (CME). A plausible scenario is that the repeated homologous flares could have gradually destabilized the PFCS, and its subsequent eruption removed field above the acitive region and in turn led to the ejective flare, strong dimming, and CME.

  16. Hydrogen retention in lithium on metallic walls from “in vacuo” analysis in LTX and implications for high-Z plasma-facing components in NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, R., E-mail: kaita@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Lucia, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Allain, J.P.; Bedoya, F. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, & Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Bell, R.; Boyle, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Capece, A. [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ (United States); Jaworski, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Koel, B.E. [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Roszell, J. [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Schmitt, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    The application of lithium to plasma-facing components (PFCs) has long been used as a technique for wall conditioning in magnetic confinement devices to improve plasma performance. Determining the characteristics of PFCs at the time of exposure to the plasma, however, is difficult because they can only be analyzed after venting the vacuum vessel and removing them at the end of an operational period. The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) addresses this problem by enabling PFC samples to be exposed to plasmas, and then withdrawn into an analysis chamber without breaking vacuum. The MAPP system was used to introduce samples that matched the metallic PFCs of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX). Lithium that was subsequently evaporated onto the walls also covered the MAPP samples, which were then subject to LTX discharges. In vacuo extraction and analysis of the samples indicated that lithium oxide formed on the PFCs, but improved plasma performance persisted in LTX. The reduced recycling this suggests is consistent with separate surface science experiments that demonstrated deuterium retention in the presence of lithium oxide films. Since oxygen decreases the thermal stability of the deuterium in the film, the release of deuterium was observed below the lithium deuteride dissociation temperature. This may explain what occurred when lithium was applied to the surface of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD). The LLD had segments with individual heaters, and the deuterium-alpha emission was clearly lower in the cooler regions. The plan for NSTX-U is to replace the graphite tiles with high-Z PFCs, and apply lithium to their surfaces with lithium evaporation. Experiments with lithium coatings on such PFCs suggest that deuterium could still be retained if lithium compounds form, but limiting their surface temperatures may be necessary.

  17. Fluorocarbon-bonded magnetic mesoporous microspheres for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Yu, Yingjia; Li, Yan; Zhang, Haiying; Ling, Jin; Sun, Xueni; Feng, Jianan; Duan, Gengli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New SPE method was developed for analysis of PFCs in human serum. • Fluorocarbon-bonded magnetic mesoporous microspheres were used as SPE absorbents. • PFCs in serum were directly extracted without any other pretreatment procedure. • The PFCs-adsorbed microspheres were simply and rapidly isolated by using a magnet. - Abstract: We report herein an extraction method for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds in human serum based on magnetic core–mesoporous shell microspheres with decyl-perfluorinated interior pore-walls (Fe 3 O 4 @mSiO 2 -F 17 ). Thanks to the unique properties of the Fe 3 O 4 @mSiO 2 -F 17 microspheres, macromolecules like proteins could be easily excluded from the mesoporous channels due to size exclusion effect, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in protein-rich biosamples such as serum could thus be directly extracted with the fluorocarbon modified on the channel wall without any other pretreatment procedure. The PFCs adsorbed Fe 3 O 4 @mSiO 2 -F 17 microspheres could then be simply and rapidly isolated by using a magnet, followed by being identified and quantified by LC–MS/MS (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry). Five perfluorinatedcarboxylic acids (C6, C8–C11) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were selected as model analytes. In order to achieve the best extraction efficiency, some important factors including the amount of Fe 3 O 4 @mSiO 2 -F 17 microspheres added, adsorption time, type of elution solvent, eluting solvent volume and elution time were investigated. The ranges of the LOD were 0.02–0.05 ng mL −1 for the six PFCs. The recovery of the optimized method varies from 83.13% to 92.42% for human serum samples

  18. Enhanced actuation performance of piezoelectric fiber composites induced by incorporated BaTiO3 nanoparticles in epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mingliang; Yuan, Xi; Luo, Hang; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Kechao; Zhang, Dou

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composites (PFCs) have attracted much interest owing to their flexibility and toughness compared with conventional monolithic piezoceramic wafers. The free strain values and actuation property of PFCs strongly depend on the active electric field applied in Pb(Zr 1−x Ti x )O 3 (PZT) fibers. Reducing the dielectric constant mismatch between PZT fiber and the assembling epoxy resin would greatly increase the active electric field in PZT fiber. Therefore, BaTiO 3 (BT) nanoparticles were introduced into the epoxy resin to enhance the dielectric constant. Homogeneous dispersion of BT nanoparticles and tight adhesion with the epoxy resin were achieved through a surface modification by dopamine. The maximum dielectric constant of dopamine modified BT/epoxy (BT@Dop/epoxy) nanocomposites was 10.38 with 12 wt% BT@Dop content at 1 kHz. The maximum free strain of PFCs reached 1820 ppm with 6 wt% BT@Dop content, while PFCs assembled by pure epoxy showed 790 ppm at the same processing condition. The tip displacement of cantilever beam actuated by PFCs reached the peak of 19 mm at the resonance frequency with 6 wt% BT@Dop, which was improved by 90% comparing to PFCs with pure epoxy. - Highlights: • The effect of dielectric mismatch on effective electric field in piezoceramic fibers was explained by a model. • The dispersibility and adhesion of BaTiO 3 nanoparticles in epoxy was improved by the dopamine modification. • The actuation performance increased firstly and then decreased with adding BaTiO 3 nanoparticles. • The maximum free strain and displacement of cantilever beam were up to 1820 ppm and 19 mm, respectively.

  19. Enhanced actuation performance of piezoelectric fiber composites induced by incorporated BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles in epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Mingliang; Yuan, Xi [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Luo, Hang, E-mail: xtluohang@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Kechao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Dou, E-mail: dzhang@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2017-05-18

    Piezoelectric fiber composites (PFCs) have attracted much interest owing to their flexibility and toughness compared with conventional monolithic piezoceramic wafers. The free strain values and actuation property of PFCs strongly depend on the active electric field applied in Pb(Zr{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x})O{sub 3} (PZT) fibers. Reducing the dielectric constant mismatch between PZT fiber and the assembling epoxy resin would greatly increase the active electric field in PZT fiber. Therefore, BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) nanoparticles were introduced into the epoxy resin to enhance the dielectric constant. Homogeneous dispersion of BT nanoparticles and tight adhesion with the epoxy resin were achieved through a surface modification by dopamine. The maximum dielectric constant of dopamine modified BT/epoxy (BT@Dop/epoxy) nanocomposites was 10.38 with 12 wt% BT@Dop content at 1 kHz. The maximum free strain of PFCs reached 1820 ppm with 6 wt% BT@Dop content, while PFCs assembled by pure epoxy showed 790 ppm at the same processing condition. The tip displacement of cantilever beam actuated by PFCs reached the peak of 19 mm at the resonance frequency with 6 wt% BT@Dop, which was improved by 90% comparing to PFCs with pure epoxy. - Highlights: • The effect of dielectric mismatch on effective electric field in piezoceramic fibers was explained by a model. • The dispersibility and adhesion of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles in epoxy was improved by the dopamine modification. • The actuation performance increased firstly and then decreased with adding BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. • The maximum free strain and displacement of cantilever beam were up to 1820 ppm and 19 mm, respectively.

  20. Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Hoffmann, Leif

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2010 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2010 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  1. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2011 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2.......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2011 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  2. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2017. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2015 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2017. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2015 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  3. A novel lumen-apposing metal stent for endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Daisy; Will, Uwe; Sanchez-Yague, Andres

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: A novel large-diameter, lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent with bilateral flanges was recently developed for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transmural drainage of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effi......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: A novel large-diameter, lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent with bilateral flanges was recently developed for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transmural drainage of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  4. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  5. Polyfluorinated and perfluorinated chemicals in precipitation and runoff from cities across eastern and central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijie; Zhou, Meng; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-three polychlorinated and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in water phase and particulate matters of 19 precipitation samples (18 snow samples and 1 rain sample) from different cities across eastern and central China collected in February 2010. The PFCs in samples of 9e precipitation events during more than half a year at 1 site in Tianjin and 6 successive samples during 1 precipitation event were measured to elucidate the change of PFC in precipitation. In addition, PFCs in 3 runoffs at different kinds of sites in Tianjin were compared with those in the corresponding precipitation. The results showed that the particulate matters separated from the precipitation contained undetectable PFCs. The total PFC concentration ranged between 4.7 and 152 ng L(-1) in water phase of the precipitation samples, with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) being detected at all of the sampling sites and the dominant PFC at most of the sampling sites. Some potential precursors of environmentally concerned PFCs and their degradation intermediates were measured simultaneously, among which 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (6:2 FTUCA), 8:2 FTUCA, and  × (3, 4, 5, 7):3 acid [F(CF(2))xCH(2)CH(2)COOH] were measured for the first time in Chinese precipitations; however, their concentrations were all lower than the limits of detection except that 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA could be detected in 3 and 8 precipitation samples, respectively. No clear seasonal variation in PFC concentrations in precipitation was observed during half a year; however, a relatively greater average concentration of total PFCs was observed during winter and summer compared with spring. The concentration of individual PFCs showed an obvious descending trend in the successive samples of the precipitation event. PFOA and perfluorononanoic acid in runoffs collected from different sites showed the following similar pattern-gas station > highway > university campus-whereas the other

  6. Reductive Degradation of Perfluorinated Compounds in Water using Mg-aminoclay coated Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Arvaniti, Olga S.; Hwang, Yuhoon; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.; Thomaidis , Nikolaos S.; Aloupi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) are extremely persistent micropollutants that are detected worldwide. We studied the removal of PFCs (perfluorooctanoic acid; PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid; PFNA, perfluorodecanoic acid; PFDA and perfluorooctane sulfonate; PFOS) from water by different types of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). Batch experiments showed that an iron dose of 1 g•L-1 in the form of Mg-aminoclay (MgAC) coated nZVI, at an initial pH of 3.0 effectively removed 38 % to 96 % of individ...

  7. Electrocautery vs non-electrocautery dilation catheters in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided pancreatic fluid collection drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Katsuya; Yamamiya, Akira; Ishii, Yu; Nomoto, Tomohiro; Honma, Tadashi; Yoshida, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and utility of an electrocautery dilation catheter for endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided pancreatic fluid collection drainage. METHODS: A single-center, exploratory, retrospective study was conducted between August 2010 and August 2014. This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of our institution. Informed, written consent was obtained from each patient prior to the procedure. The subjects included 28 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-guided transmural drainage (EUS-TD) for symptomatic pancreatic and peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) by fine needle aspiration using a 19-gauge needle. These patients were retrospectively divided into two groups based on the use of an electrocautery dilation catheter as a fistula dilation device; 15 patients were treated with an electrocautery dilation catheter (electrocautery group), and 13 patients were treated with a non-electrocautery dilation catheter (non-electrocautery group). We evaluated the technical and clinical successes and the adverse events associated with EUS-TD for the treatment of PFCs between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, sex, type, location and diameter of PFCs between the groups. Thirteen patients (87%) in the electrocautery group and 10 patients (77%) in the non-electrocautery group presented with infected PFCs. The technical success rates of EUS-TD for the treatment of PFCs were 100% (15/15) and 100% (13/13) for the electrocautery and the non-electrocautery groups, respectively. The clinical success rates of EUS-TD for the treatment of PFCs were 67% (10/15) and 69% (9/13) for the electrocautery and the non-electrocautery groups, respectively (P = 0.794). The procedure time of EUS-TD for the treatment of PFCs in the electrocautery group was significantly shorter than that of the non-electrocautery group (mean ± SD: 30 ± 12 min vs 52 ± 20 min, P electrocautery and the non-electrocautery groups, respectively (P

  8. Simulated plasma facing component measurements for an in situ surface diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Z. S.; Whyte, D. G.

    2010-10-01

    The ideal in situ plasma facing component (PFC) diagnostic for magnetic fusion devices would perform surface element and isotope composition measurements on a shot-to-shot (˜10 min) time scale with ˜1 μm depth and ˜1 cm spatial resolution over large areas of PFCs. To this end, the experimental adaptation of the customary laboratory surface diagnostic—nuclear scattering of MeV ions—to the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is being guided by ACRONYM, a Geant4 synthetic diagnostic. The diagnostic technique and ACRONYM are described, and synthetic measurements of film thickness for boron-coated PFCs are presented.

  9. Tumor radiation responses and tumor oxygenation in aging mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    1989-01-01

    EMT6 mouse mammary tumors transplanted into aging mice are less sensitive to radiation than tumors growing in young adult animals. The experiments reported here compare the radiation dose-response curves defining the survivals of tumor cells in aging mice and in young adult mice. Cell survival curves were assessed in normal air-breathing mice and in mice asphyxiated with N 2 to produce uniform hypoxia throughout the tumors. Analyses of survival curves revealed that 41% of viable malignant cells were severely hypoxic in tumors in aging mice, while only 19% of the tumor cells in young adult animals were radiobiologically hypoxic. This did not appear to reflect anaemia in the old animals. Treatment of aging animals with a perfluorochemical emulsion plus carbogen (95% O 2 /5% CO 2 ) increased radiation response of the tumors, apparently by improving tumor oxygenation and decreasing the number of severely hypoxic, radiation resistant cells in the tumors. (author)

  10. Use of fluorocarbons in the cooling of LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pimenta dos Santos, M

    2003-01-01

    Perfluorochemicals sold by 3M under the trade name 3M Fluorinert Electronic Liquids have been used for many years as heat transfer media in a variety of industries. The suitability of these liquids for the cooling of LHC experiment originates from their high dielectric strength as well as from their chemical stability under ionizing radiation. The Fluorinerts are clear, colorless, non-flammable with low toxicity and low corrosiveness. Additionally, they offer low global waming potential – GWP – and zero ozone-depletion potential – ODP. Some examples of fluorinert application in the cooling of LHC experiments will be presented : (a) the ATLAS Inner detector C3F8 evaporative cooling system (b) the ATLAS TRF C6F14 monophase cooling system and (c) the ALICE SPD “active heat pipe” C4F10 evaporative cooling system. A brief comparison of evaporative and monophase cooling systems will be outlined.

  11. Distribution and sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the River Rhine watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Axel; Ahrens, Lutz; Surm, Renate; Westerveld, Joke; van der Wielen, Frans; Ebinghaus, Ralf; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    The concentration profile of 40 polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface water along the River Rhine watershed from the Lake Constance to the North Sea was investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of point as well as diffuse sources, to estimate fluxes of PFAS into the North Sea and to identify replacement compounds of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the method performance was conducted. The PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) with concentrations up to 181 ng/L and 335 ng/L, respectively, which originated from industrial point sources. Fluxes of SigmaPFAS were estimated to be approximately 6 tonnes/year which is much higher than previous estimations. Both, the River Rhine and the River Scheldt, seem to act as important sources of PFAS into the North Sea. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prototyping phase of the high heat flux scraper element of Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J., E-mail: jean.boscary@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Greuner, H. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Ehrke, G. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany); Böswirth, B.; Wang, Z. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Clark, E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Lumsdaine, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Tretter, J. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); McGinnis, D.; Lore, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Ekici, K. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Aim of scraper element: reduction of heat loads on high heat flux divertor ends. • Design: actively water-cooled for 20 MW/m{sup 2} local heat loads. • Technology: CFC NB31 monoblocks bonded by HIP to CuCrZr cooling tube. • Successful high heat flux testing up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}. - Abstract: The water-cooled high heat flux scraper element aims to reduce excessive heat loads on the target element ends of the actively cooled divertor of Wendelstein 7-X. Its purpose is to intercept some of the plasma fluxes both upstream and downstream before they reach the divertor surface. The scraper element has 24 identical plasma facing components (PFCs) divided into 6 modules. One module has 4 PFCs hydraulically connected in series by 2 water boxes. A PFC, 247 mm long and 28 mm wide, has 13 monoblocks made of CFC NB31 bonded by hot isostatic pressing onto a CuCrZr cooling tube equipped with a copper twisted tape. 4 full-scale prototypes of PFCs have been successfully tested in the GLADIS facility up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}. The difference observed between measured and calculated surface temperatures is probably due to the inhomogeneity of CFC properties. The design of the water box prototypes has been detailed to allow the junction between the cooling pipe of the PFCs and the water boxes by internal orbital welding. The prototypes are presently under fabrication.

  13. Distribution of perfluorinated compounds in blood compartments during prenatal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Flemming; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a class of persistent environmental toxicants widely used in industrial and consumer products due to their unique chemical and physical properties. Knowledge on the health effects in humans is sparse and have most often been studied only for PFOS and PFOA...

  14. Exposure to brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates and phenols in European birth cohorts: ENRIECO evaluation, first human biomonitoring results, and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, M.; Chevrier, C.; Hond, E.D.; Fernandez, M.F.; Pierik, F.; Philippat, C.; Slama, R.; Toft, G.; Vandentorren, S.; Wilhelm, M.; Vrijheid, M.

    2013-01-01

    There are emerging concerns about potential effects on child health and development of early-life exposure to substances such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), phthalates and phenols (including bisphenol A (BPA)); pregnancy and birth cohort studies are ideally

  15. Taxation of multiple greenhouse gases and the effects on income distribution : A case study of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Moll, Henri C.; Drissen, Eric; Wilting, Harry C.

    2008-01-01

    Current economic instruments aimed at climate change mitigation focus on CO2 emissions only, but the Kyoto Protocol refers to other greenhouse gases (GHG) as well as CO2. These are CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Taxation of multiple greenhouse gases improves the cost-effectiveness of climate change

  16. Development of an analytical strategy based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for measuring perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk: application to the generation of preliminary data regarding perinatal exposure in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Hanane; Veyrand, Bruno; Barbarossa, Andrea; Pagliuca, Giampiero; Legrand, Arnaud; Bosher, Cécile; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Durand, Sophie; Monteau, Fabrice; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made chemicals for which endocrine disrupting properties and related possible side effects on human health have been reported, particularly in the case of an exposure during the early stages of development, (notably the perinatal period). Existing analytical methods dedicated to PFCs monitoring in food and/or human fluids are currently based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and were recently demonstrated to present some limitations in terms of sensitivity and/or specificity. An alternative strategy dedicated to the analysis of fourteen PFCs in human breast milk was proposed, based on an effective sample preparation followed by a liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry measurement (LC-HRMS). This methodology confirmed the high interest for HRMS after negative ionization for such halogenated substances, and finally permitted to reach detection limits around the pg mL(-1) range with an outstanding signal specificity compared to LC-MS/MS. The proposed method was applied to a first set of 30 breast milk samples from French women. The main PFCs detected in all these samples were PFOS and PFOA with respective median values of 74 (range from 24 to 171) and 57 (range from 18 to 102) pg mL(-1), respectively. These exposure data appeared in the same range as other reported values for European countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Contaminants Of Emerging Concern Within The Ohio River And Its Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminants of emerging concern such as PPCPs, alkylphenols, EDCs, and PFCs in waterways have been increasing public concern. The extent and persistence of their occurrence in surface waters remains unclear. Though ther are many sources of these contaminants, research has focu...

  18. Contaminants Of Emerging Concern Within The Mainstem Of The Ohio River And its Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminants of emerging concern such as PPCPs, alkylphenols, EDCs, and PFCs in waterways have been of increasing public concern. The extent and persistence of their occurrence in surface waters remains unclear. Though there are many sources of these contaminants, research has ...

  19. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, Pratibha; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 X 10 -5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium (He) glow discharge cleaning (GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nanometers from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.48. In this paper, the results of effect of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail. (author)

  20. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 Tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, P; Khan, Z; Raval, D C; Dhanani, K R; George, S; Paravastu, Y; Prakash, A; Thankey, P; Ramesh, G; Khan, M S; Saikia, P; Pradhan, S

    2017-01-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside the SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 × 10 -5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of this water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium glow discharge cleaning (He-GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nano-meters from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.24. In this paper the results of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail. (paper)

  1. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 Tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, P.; Khan, Z.; Raval, D. C.; Dhanani, K. R.; George, S.; Paravastu, Y.; Prakash, A.; Thankey, P.; Ramesh, G.; Khan, M. S.; Saikia, P.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-04-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside the SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 × 10-5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of this water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium glow discharge cleaning (He-GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nano-meters from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.24. In this paper the results of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail.

  2. Discharge of perfluorinated compounds from rivers and their influence on the coastal seas of Hyogo prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemine, Shusuke; Matsumura, Chisato; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Suzuki, Motoharu; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takeshi; Kondo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates (C4–C12) and perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8) in river and seawater samples to determine contamination levels in the aquatic environment of Hyogo prefecture, Japan. High levels of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA; 2300–16,000 ng/L) were detected in the Samondogawa River at Tatsumi Bridge downstream of a PFC production facility; this location also had the highest mass flow rate of PFCs (3900–29,000 kg/y). Widespread contamination of coastal waters was confirmed with PFHxA as the dominant compound. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also prevalent in coastal waters. The concentration of PFHxA in coastal seawater and the distance from the mouth of the Samondogawa River were inversely related. This discharge of high concentrations of PFHxA from the Samondogawa River may have affected concentrations of PFCs in Osaka Bay. -- Highlights: • High perfluorohexanoic acid concentration was detected in the Samondogawa River. • The mass flow rate of PFCs in this river section was 3900–29,000 kg/y. • Perfluorohexanoic acid was the dominant compound at all seawater sampling sites. • Perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay. -- Discharge of perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay

  3. Added value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of pancreatic fluid collection infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borens, Bruno [Polyclinique Santa Maria, Nice (France); Arvanitakis, Marianna; Eisendrath, Pierre; Toussaint, Emmanuel; Deviere, Jacques [Erasme Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Brussels (Belgium); Absil, Julie; Matos, Celso; Bali, Maria Antonietta [Erasme Hospital, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); El Bouchaibi, Said [Epicura, Ath (Belgium)

    2017-03-15

    To investigate the added value of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of infection in pancreatic fluid collections (PFC). Forty-patients with PFC requiring endoscopic-transmural drainage underwent conventional-MR and DW-MR imaging (b = 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) before endoscopy. MR images were divided into two sets (set1, conventional-MR; set2, conventional-MR, DW-MR and ADC maps) and randomized. Two independent readers performed qualitative and quantitative (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC) image analysis. Bacteriological analysis of PFC content was the gold standard. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV) and accuracy were calculated for the two sets for both readers. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were drawn to assess quantitative DW-MR imaging diagnostic performance. For both readers, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV and accuracy for infected PFCs were higher for set2 (P >.05). ADC were lower in infected versus non-infected PFCs (P ≤.031). Minimum ADC cut-off: 1,090 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for reader 1 and 1,012 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for reader 2 (sensitivity and specificity 67 % and 96 % for both readers). Qualitative information provided by DW-MR may help to assess PFCs infection. Infected PFCs show significantly lower ADCs compared to non-infected ones. (orig.)

  4. Denmark's national inventory report 2010. Emission inventories 1990-2008 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M [and others

    2010-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  5. Denmark's national inventory report 2011. Emission inventories 1990-2009 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M; Hoffmann, L [and others

    2011-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2011. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2009 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  6. Denmark's National Inventory Report - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1990-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's in-ventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO2, CH4, N2O......, CO, NMVOC, SO2 , HFCs, PFCs and SF6....

  7. 14 CFR 158.45 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... travel ticket, issuing air carriers and their agents shall collect a PFC from a passenger only for the.... (3) Issuing carriers and their agents shall collect PFCs based on the itinerary at the time of... travel on a nonrefundable or expired ticket is not a change in itinerary. If the ticket purchaser is not...

  8. Denmark's national inventory report 2006 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2004. Emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 , CO, NMVOC, SO 2 . (au)

  9. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, ......, NMVOC, SO2, HFCs, PFCs and SF6....

  10. Tritium recycling and inventory in eroded debris of plasma-facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1999-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) and structural materials due to loss of plasma confinement in magnetic fusion reactors remains one of the most serious concerns for safe, successful, and reliable tokamak operation. High erosion losses due to surface vaporization, spallation, and melt-layer splashing are expected during such an event. The eroded debris and dust of the PFCs, including trapped tritium, will be contained on the walls or within the reactor chamber therefore, they can significantly influence plasma behavior and tritium inventory during subsequent operations. Tritium containment and behavior in PFCS and in the dust and debris is an important factor in evaluating and choosing the ideal plasma-facing materials (PFMs). Tritium buildup and release in the debris of candidate materials is influenced by the effect of material porosity on diffusion and retention processes. These processes have strong nonlinear behavior due to temperature, volubility, and existing trap sites. A realistic model must therefore account for the nonlinear and multidimensional effects of tritium diffusion in the porous-redeposited and neutron-irradiated materials. A tritium-transport computer model, TRAPS (Tritium Accumulation in Porous Structure), was developed and used to evaluate and predict the kinetics of tritium transport in porous media. This model is coupled with the TRICS (Tritium In Compound Systems) code that was developed to study the effect of surface erosion during normal and abnormal operations on tritium behavior in PFCS

  11. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also produced by human activities. Some, such as industrial gases, are exclusively human made. What are the types ... Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Industrial gases: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 Nitrogen ...

  12. Denmark's National Inventory Reports. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.; Rasmussen, E.

    2000-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2000. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 1998 for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, NO x , CO, NMVOC, SO 2 , HFCs, PFCs and SF. (au)

  13. High flux irradiations of Li coatings on polycrystalline W and ATJ graphite with D, He, and He-seeded D plasmas at Magnum PSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neff, A. L.; Allain, J. P.; F. Bedoya,; Morgan, T. W.; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium wall conditioning on PFCs (Plasma Facing Components) on a variety of substrate platforms (e.g. graphite, Mo, etc.) has resulted in improved plasma performance on multiple magnetic fusion devices. On graphite, this improvement occurs through the control of retention and recycling of hydrogen

  14. Projection of greenhouse gases 2016-2035

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2035 using a ‘with measures’ scenario. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which forec...

  15. Projection of greenhouse gases 2014-2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2035 using a scenario combined with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates ...

  16. Projection of greenhouse gases 2011-2035

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2035 using a scenario combined with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates ...

  17. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2007 to 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2025 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity...

  18. Denmark's national inventory report 2011. Emission inventories 1990-2009 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L. (and others)

    2011-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2011. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2009 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  19. Denmark's national inventory report 2010. Emission inventories 1990-2008 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2010-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  20. Denmark's national inventory report 2012. Emission inventories 1990-2010 - submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L. (and others)

    2012-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2010 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  1. Review of the high heat flux testing as an integrated part of W7-X divertor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; Friedrich, T.; Lavergne, C.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Schlosser, J.; Wiltner, A.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the development of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X divertor is the manufacturing of approximately 900 plasma facing components (PFCs) that meet all requirements for reliable long pulse and long-term plasma operation. The actively cooled PFCs are made of CFC NB31 as plasma facing material bonded by Active Metal Casting (AMC) copper interlayer onto CuCrZr cooling structure. The pre-series activities integrated extensive high heat flux (HHF) testing to assess the industrial manufacturing. Tests were performed in the GLADIS facility under load conditions similar to those expected during operation of W7-X. The investigations focused on the improvement of fatigue resistance of the CFC/Cu bonding. The results of the last HHF test campaign demonstrated a significant enhancement of the CFC bonding quality due to the introduction of the AMC/Cu bi-layer technology. The results of the micro-chemical analyses (using EDX, AES, XPS and SIMS) of the CFC/Cu interface performed after 5000 cycles at 10 MW/m 2 confirmed its chemical stability. Far beyond the current available data about the expected lifetime of CFC-armoured PFCs, 10,000 cycles at 10 MW/m 2 were applied without any damages at the interface. The present design and manufacturing process of the tested PFCs fulfil all requirements for W7-X operation.

  2. Analytical Design of Passive LCL Filter for Three-phase Two-level Power Factor Correction Rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive analytical LCL filter design method for three-phase two-level power factor correction rectifiers (PFCs). The high frequency converter current ripple generates the high frequency current harmonics that need to be attenuated with respect to the grid standards...

  3. Denmark's national inventory report 2009. Emission inventories 1990-2007 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2009-04-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub X}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds in Edible Oil by Gel-Permeation Chromatography Combined with Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Jin, Fen; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yanxin; Wang, Jian; Shao, Hua; Jin, Maojun; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Jing

    2015-09-30

    A simple analytical method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 18 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in edible oil. The target compounds were extracted by acetonitrile, purified by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) using graphitized carbon black (GCB) and octadecyl (C18), and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) in negative ion mode. Recovery studies were performed at three fortification levels. The average recoveries of all target PFCs ranged from 60 to 129%, with an acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) (1-20%, n = 3). The method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.004 to 0.4 μg/kg, which was significantly improved compared with the existing liquid-liquid extraction and cleanup method. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of all target PFCs in edible oil samples collected from markets in Beijing, China, and the results revealed that C6-C10 perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCAs) and C7 perfluorosulfonic acid PFSAs were the major PFCs detected in oil samples.

  5. The relationships between sixteen perfluorinated compound concentrations in blood serum and food, and other parameters, in the general population of South Korea with proportionate stratified sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Mug; Hwang, Yong-Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-02-01

    Serum samples were collected from volunteers of various ages and both genders using a proportionate stratified sampling method, to assess the exposure of the general population in Busan, South Korea to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). 16 PFCs were investigated in serum samples from 306 adults (124 males and 182 females) and one day composite diet samples (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) from 20 of the serum donors, to investigate the relationship between food and serum PFC concentrations. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid were the dominant PFCs in the serum samples, with mean concentrations of 8.4 and 13 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorotridecanoic acid was the dominant PFC in the composite food samples, ranging from studies. We confirmed from the relationships between questionnaire results and the PFC concentrations in the serum samples, that food is one of the important contribution factors of human exposure to PFCs. However, there were no correlations between the PFC concentrations in the one day composite diet samples and the serum samples, because a one day composite diet sample is not necessarily representative of a person's long-term diet and because of the small number of samples taken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Added value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of pancreatic fluid collection infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borens, Bruno; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Eisendrath, Pierre; Toussaint, Emmanuel; Deviere, Jacques; Absil, Julie; Matos, Celso; Bali, Maria Antonietta; El Bouchaibi, Said

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the added value of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of infection in pancreatic fluid collections (PFC). Forty-patients with PFC requiring endoscopic-transmural drainage underwent conventional-MR and DW-MR imaging (b = 1000 s/mm"2) before endoscopy. MR images were divided into two sets (set1, conventional-MR; set2, conventional-MR, DW-MR and ADC maps) and randomized. Two independent readers performed qualitative and quantitative (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC) image analysis. Bacteriological analysis of PFC content was the gold standard. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV) and accuracy were calculated for the two sets for both readers. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were drawn to assess quantitative DW-MR imaging diagnostic performance. For both readers, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV and accuracy for infected PFCs were higher for set2 (P >.05). ADC were lower in infected versus non-infected PFCs (P ≤.031). Minimum ADC cut-off: 1,090 x 10"-"3 mm"2/s for reader 1 and 1,012 x 10"-"3 mm"2/s for reader 2 (sensitivity and specificity 67 % and 96 % for both readers). Qualitative information provided by DW-MR may help to assess PFCs infection. Infected PFCs show significantly lower ADCs compared to non-infected ones. (orig.)

  7. Denmark's national inventory report 2012. Emission inventories 1990-2010 - submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M; Hoffmann, L [and others

    2012-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2010 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  8. Degradation Testing of Fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last decade, concern about sources of per and polyfluorochemicals (PFCs) have led to an increasing need for information on the microbial and/or abiotic degradation of polymer materials that contain PFC structural fragments that may be released. EPA, OECD, ASTM and other...

  9. Denmark's national inventory report. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2001. Emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due bye 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, CO, NMVOC, SO 2 , HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 . (au)

  10. Distribution of perfluorinated compounds in aquatic systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Korytar, P.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) among eel (Anguilla anguilla), sediment, and water was investigated for 21 locations in The Netherlands. Furthermore, for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a 30 year time series was measured for three locations using historical eel samples. These

  11. Perfluoroalkyl compounds in relation to life-history and reproductive parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houde, M.; Balmer, B.C.; Brandsma, S.H.; Wells, R.S.; Rowles, T.K.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in plasma, milk, and urine of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay (FL, USA) during three winter and two summer capture-and-release programs (2002¿ 2005). Plasma and urine samples were extracted using an ion-pairing

  12. Perfluoroalkyl compounds in relation to life-history and reproductive parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, Florida, U.S.A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houde, Magali; Balmer, Brian C; Brandsma, Sicco; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teri K; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C G

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in plasma, milk, and urine of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay (FL, USA) during three winter and two summer capture-and-release programs (2002-2005). Plasma and urine samples were extracted using an ion-pairing

  13. Design of ultrasonically-activatable nanoparticles using low boiling point perfluorocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Luois, Samantha H; Mullin, Lee B; Matsunaga, Terry O; Dayton, Paul A

    2012-04-01

    Recently, an interest has developed in designing biomaterials for medical ultrasonics that can provide the acoustic activity of microbubbles, but with improved stability in vivo and a smaller size distribution for extravascular interrogation. One proposed alternative is the phase-change contrast agent. Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) consist of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) that are initially in liquid form, but can then be vaporized with acoustic energy. Crucial parameters for PCCAs include their sensitivity to acoustic energy, their size distribution, and their stability, and this manuscript provides insight into the custom design of PCCAs for balancing these parameters. Specifically, the relationship between size, thermal stability and sensitivity to ultrasound as a function of PFC boiling point and ambient temperature is illustrated. Emulsion stability and sensitivity can be 'tuned' by mixing PFCs in the gaseous state prior to condensation. Novel observations illustrate that stable droplets can be generated from PFCs with extremely low boiling points, such as octafluoropropane (b.p. -36.7 °C), which can be vaporized with acoustic parameters lower than previously observed. Results demonstrate the potential for low boiling point PFCs as a useful new class of compounds for activatable agents, which can be tailored to the desired application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Projection of Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2009 to 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity r...

  15. Denmark's national inventory report 2013. Emission inventories 1990-2011 - submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, M.S.; Winther, M. [and others

    2013-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2011 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  16. EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections using a novel lumen-apposing metal stent on an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system : a large retrospective study (with video)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinninella, Emanuele; Kunda, Rastislav; Dollhopf, Markus; Sanchez-Yague, Andres; Will, Uwe; Tarantino, Ilaria; Gornals Soler, Joan; Ullrich, Sebastian; Meining, Alexander; Esteban, Josè Miguel; Enz, Thomas; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Vleggaar, FP; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent incorporated in an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system for EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) recently has become available. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and clinical effectiveness of

  17. Perfluorinated Compounds: Emerging POPs with Potential Immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been recognized as an important class of environmental contaminants commonly detected in blood samples of both wildlife and humans. These compounds have been in use for more than 60 years as surface treatment chemicals, polymerization aids, an...

  18. Hybrid Control Method for a Single Phase PFC using a Low Cost Microcontroller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Nielsen, Nils; Wolf, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid control method for single phase boost PFCs. The high bandwidth current loop is analog while the voltage loop is implemented in an 8-bit microcontroller. The design focuses on minimizing the number of calculations done in the microcontroller. A 1kW prototype has been...

  19. Liquid-metal plasma-facing component research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworski, M A; Khodak, A; Kaita, R

    2013-01-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. Liquid metals face critical issues in three key areas: free-surface stability, material migration and demonstration of integrated scenarios. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The liquid lithium divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m −2 , no macroscopic ejection events were observed. The stability can be understood from a Rayleigh–Taylor instability analysis. Capillary restraint and thermal-hydraulic considerations lead to a proposed liquid-metal PFCs scheme of actively-supplied, capillary-restrained systems. Even with state-of-the-art cooling techniques, design studies indicate that the surface temperature with divertor-relevant heat fluxes will still reach temperatures above 700 °C. At this point, one would expect significant vapor production from a liquid leading to a continuously vapor-shielded regime. Such high-temperature liquid lithium PFCs may be possible on the basis of momentum-balance arguments. (paper)

  20. Liquid-metal plasma-facing component research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Khodak, A.; Kaita, R.

    2013-12-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. Liquid metals face critical issues in three key areas: free-surface stability, material migration and demonstration of integrated scenarios. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The liquid lithium divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m-2, no macroscopic ejection events were observed. The stability can be understood from a Rayleigh-Taylor instability analysis. Capillary restraint and thermal-hydraulic considerations lead to a proposed liquid-metal PFCs scheme of actively-supplied, capillary-restrained systems. Even with state-of-the-art cooling techniques, design studies indicate that the surface temperature with divertor-relevant heat fluxes will still reach temperatures above 700 °C. At this point, one would expect significant vapor production from a liquid leading to a continuously vapor-shielded regime. Such high-temperature liquid lithium PFCs may be possible on the basis of momentum-balance arguments.

  1. Time trends of perfluorinated compounds from the sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan (1950s-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Tamada, Masafumi; Kanai, Yutaka; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were detected in sediment core samples collected in Tokyo Bay to reveal their time trends. The core sample deposited during 1950s-2004 was divided into two- to three-year intervals and the concentrations of 24 types of PFCs were determined. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) decreased gradually from the early 1990s and its precursor decreased rapidly in the late 1990s, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased rapidly. The observed trends were regarded as a reflection of the shift from perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF)-based products to telomer-based products after the phaseout of PFOSF-based products in 2001. The branched isomers of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were detected in the sample with its ratio of linear-isomer/branched-isomer concentrations decreasing. In this study, we revealed that the sediment core can serve as a tool for reconstructing the past pollution trend of PFCs and can provide interesting evidence concerning their environmental dynamics and time trend. - This study reports the time trends of the concentrations of 24 species of PFCs, including FTCA, FTUCA and FOSAA, in a sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

  2. Material Surface Characteristics and Plasma Performance in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Matthew James

    The performance of a tokamak plasma and the characteristics of the surrounding plasma facing component (PFC) material surfaces strongly influence each other. Despite this relationship, tokamak plasma physics has historically been studied more thoroughly than PFC surface physics. The disparity is particularly evident in lithium PFC research: decades of experiments have examined the effect of lithium PFCs on plasma performance, but the understanding of the lithium surface itself is much less complete. This latter information is critical to identifying the mechanisms by which lithium PFCs affect plasma performance. This research focused on such plasma-surface interactions in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX), a spherical torus designed to accommodate solid or liquid lithium as the primary PFC. Surface analysis was accomplished via the novel Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) diagnostic system. In a series of experiments on LTX, the MAPP x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) capabilities were used for in vacuo interrogation of PFC samples. This represented the first application of XPS and TDS for in situ surface analysis of tokamak PFCs. Surface analysis indicated that the thin (dLi ˜ 100nm) evaporative lithium PFC coatings in LTX were converted to Li2O due to oxidizing agents in both the residual vacuum and the PFC substrate. Conversion was rapid and nearly independent of PFC temperature, forming a majority Li2O surface within minutes and an entirely Li2O surface within hours. However, Li2O PFCs were still capable of retaining hydrogen and sequestering impurities until the Li2 O was further oxidized to LiOH, a process that took weeks. For hydrogen retention, Li2O PFCs retained H+ from LTX plasma discharges, but no LiH formation was observed. Instead, results implied that H+ was only weakly-bound, such that it almost completely outgassed as H 2 within minutes. For impurity sequestration, LTX plasma performance

  3. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  4. Serum metabolome biomarkers associate low-level environmental perfluorinated compound exposure with oxidative /nitrosative stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Liangpo; Zhang, Weibing; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiaoyan; Huang, Qingyu; Tian, Meiping; Shen, Heqing

    2017-10-01

    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have linked perfluorinated compound (PFC) exposure with metabolic interruption, but the inter-species difference and high treatment doses usually make the results difficult to be extrapolated to humans directly. The best strategy for identifying the metabolic interruption may be to establish the direct correlations between monitored PFCs data and metabolic data on human samples. In this study, serum metabolome data and PFC concentrations were acquired for a Chinese adult male cohort. The most abundant PFCs are PFOA and PFOS with concentration medians 7.56 and 12.78 nM, respectively; in together they count around 81.6% of the total PFCs. PFC concentration-related serum metabolic profile changes and the related metabolic biomarkers were explored by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Respectively taking PFOS, PFOA and total PFC as the classifiers, serum metabolome can be differentiated between the lowest dose group (1st quartile PFCs) and the highest PFC dose group (4th quartile PFCs). Ten potential PFC biomarkers were identified, mainly involving in pollutant detoxification, antioxidation and nitric oxide (NO) signal pathways. These suggested that low-level environmental PFC exposure has significantly adverse impacts on glutathione (GSH) cycle, Krebs cycle, nitric oxide (NO) generation and purine oxidation in humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report investigating the association of environmental PFC exposure with human serum metabolome alteration. Given the important biological functions of the identified biomarkers, we suggest that PFC could increase the metabolism syndromes risk including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Specific profiles of perfluorinated compounds in surface and drinking waters and accumulation in mussels, fish, and dolphins from southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinete, Natalia; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Tao; Yun, Se Hun; Moreira, Isabel; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-10-01

    Despite the concern over widespread distribution of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) even in sparsely populated regions of the world, few studies have reported their occurrence in South America. In this study, PFCs were measured in Rio de Janeiro State in southeast Brazil: in drinking water from various districts in the State, in river water and tucuxi dolphins from the Paraiba do Sul River, several species of fish from the State, and mussels from Guanabara Bay. Liver, kidney, and muscle from fishes were analyzed to enable an understanding of the tissue distribution of PFCs. PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS were detected in all drinking water samples in concentration ranges of 0.58-6.70, 0.35-2.82, and 0.15-1.00 ng L(-1), respectively. The profiles of PFCs in drinking water from Brazil (with PFOS concentrations comparable to or higher than those of PFOA) were different from the profiles that have been reported for other countries. In fish, concentrations of PFOS were, in general, higher in liver than in muscle. Concentrations of PFOA in livers of fish were similar to or lower than fish muscle tissue concentrations. PFOS and PFOA were found in brown mussels from Guanabara Bay. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of PFOA calculated for mussels were higher than the BCFs calculated for fishes. Elevated concentrations of PFUnDA (mean: 109+/-17.4 ng g(-1) wet weight) were found in mussels from certain locations within Guanabara Bay. Although PFCs were detected in all types of samples analyzed, the concentrations were generally lower than the concentrations reported for Japan and the USA.

  6. Upgrades toward high-heat flux, liquid lithium plasma-facing components in the NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworski, M.A., E-mail: mjaworsk@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Brooks, A.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lopes-Cardozo, N. [TU/Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Menard, J.; Ono, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Rindt, P. [TU/Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Tresemer, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An upgrade path for the NSTX-U tokamak is proposed that maintains scientific productivity while enabling exploration of novel, liquid metal PFC. • Pre-filled liquid metal divertor targets are proposed as an intermediate step that mitigates technical and scientific risks associated with liquid metal PFC. • Analysis of leading edge features show a strong link between engineering design considerations and expected performance as a PFC. • A method for optimizing porous liquid metal targets restrained by capillary forces is provided indicating pore-sizes well within current technical capabilities. - Abstract: Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) provide numerous potential advantages over solid-material components. One critique of the approach is the relatively less developed technologies associated with deploying these components in a fusion plasma-experiment. Exploration of the temperature limits of liquid lithium PFCs in a tokamak divertor and the corresponding consequences on core operation are a high priority informing the possibilities for future liquid lithium PFCs. An all-metal NSTX-U is envisioned to make direct comparison between all high-Z wall operation and liquid lithium PFCs in a single device. By executing the all-metal upgrades incrementally, scientific productivity will be maintained while enabling physics and engineering-science studies to further develop the solid- and liquid-metal components. Six major elements of a flowing liquid-metal divertor system are described and a three-step program for implementing this system is laid out. The upgrade steps involve the first high-Z divertor target upgrade in NSTX-U, pre-filled liquid metal targets and finally, an integrated, flowing liquid metal divertor target. Two example issues are described where the engineering and physics experiments are shown to be closely related in examining the prospects for future liquid metal PFCs.

  7. Fluoroscopy-assisted vs fluoroless endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural drainage of pancreatic fluid collections: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglieri, Claudia F; Gornals, Joan B; Busquets, Juli; Peláez, Nuria; Secanella, Lluis; De-La-Hera, Meritxell; Sanzol, Resurrección; Fabregat, Joan; Castellote, José

    2018-01-01

    The need for fluoroscopy guidance in patients undergoing endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural drainage (EUS-TMD) of peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare general outcomes of EUS-TMD of PFCs under fluoroscopy (F) vs fluoroless (FL). This is a comparative study with a retrospective analysis of a prospective and consecutive inclusion database at a tertiary centre, from 2009 to 2015. All patients were symptomatic pseudocyst (PSC) and walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON). Two groups were assigned depending on availability of fluoroscopy. The groups were heterogeneous in terms of their demographic characteristics, PFCs and procedure. The main outcome measures included technical and clinical success, incidences, adverse events (AEs), and follow-up. Fifty EUS-TMD of PFCs from 86 EUS-guided drainages were included during the study period. Group F included 26 procedures, PSC 69.2%, WON 30.8%, metal stents 61.5% (46.1% lumen-apposing stent) and plastic stents 38.5%. Group FL included 24 procedures, PSC 37.5%, WON 62.5%, and metal stents 95.8% (lumen-apposing stents). Technical success was 100% in both groups, and clinical success was similar (F 88.5%, FL 87.5%). Technical incidences and intra-procedure AEs were only described in group F (7.6% and 11.5%, respectively) and none in group FL. Procedure time was less in group FL (8min, p=0.0341). Fluoroless in the EUS-TMD of PFCs does not involve more technical incidences or intra-procedure AEs. Technical and clinical success was similar in the two groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of effluent organic matter on the adsorption of perfluorinated compounds onto activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jing; Lv, Lu; Lan, Pei; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The presence of EfOM significantly reduced the adsorption capacities and rates of PFCs. ► Low-molecular-weight EfOM compounds ( 30 kDa) affect the adsorption through pore blockage or restriction effect. ► Changes in surface properties of PAC caused by preloaded EfOM could affect PFCs adsorption. - Abstract: Effect of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was quantitatively investigated at environmentally relevant concentration levels. The adsorption of both perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) onto PAC followed pseudo-second order kinetics and fitted the Freundlich model well under the given conditions. Intraparticle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step in the PFC adsorption process onto PAC in the absence and presence of EfOM. The presence of EfOM, either in PFC–EfOM simultaneous adsorption onto fresh PAC or in PFC adsorption onto EfOM-preloaded PAC, significantly reduced the adsorption capacities and sorption rates of PFCs. The pH of zero point of charge was found to be 7.5 for fresh PAC and 4.2 for EfOM-preloaded PAC, suggesting that the adsorbed EfOM imparted a negative charge on PAC surface. The effect of molecular weight distribution of EfOM on the adsorption of PFCs was investigated with two EfOM fractions obtained by ultrafiltration. The low-molecular-weight compounds ( 30 kDa) had much less effect on PFC adsorption capacity.

  9. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs (1984-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxian, Sun; Hui, Peng; Jianying, Hu

    2015-02-03

    Because investigation on the temporal trends of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) is necessary to predict their future impacts on the environment and human health and evaluate the effectiveness of regulations on their production and usage, it is of concern to investigate annual temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples. This study examined the temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs over a period of 25 years (1984-2008), and 62 PCBs (19.2-1030 ng/g dw for total PCBs), 16 PBDEs (4.7-572 ng/g dw for total PBDEs), and 14 PFCs (26-46 ng/g dw for total PFCs) were detected. Although a decreasing temporal trend was observed for total PCBs with annual reduction rate of 3.4% (ρ = 0.005), a clear break point was observed around 1991, indicating their continuing emission in the 1980s in China. All major PBDEs showed increasing temporal trends, with annual change rates at 3.5-10.2% over the 25 years, but a sharp decreasing trend was observed after 2006, indicating a rapid response to the banning of PBDE usage in China in 2004. The greatest annual rate of increase was observed for BDE-28 (10.2%) followed by BDE-100 (7.7%), which would be due to metabolism input from higher brominated PBDEs. Significantly increasing temporal trends were observed for all PFCs, and the annual rates of increase were 7.9% and 5.9% for total perfluorinated carboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), respectively. A peak concentration for PFOS was observed in 1989, which may be related to the import history of PFCs in China. The present study is the first report of systematic temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples from China and shows that regulatory policy is needed to reduce their potential health and ecological risk in China considering the increasing temporal trends of PBDEs and PFCs.

  10. Environmental contamination by perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates following the use of fire-fighting foam in Tomakomai, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Horii, Yuichi; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Kannan, K. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Petrick, G. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Marine Research

    2004-09-15

    On September 26, 2003, a magnitude (M) 8.3 offshore earthquake struck Hokkaido, Japan. The earthquake and ensuing tsunami injured hundreds of people and resulted in significant damage to port and coastal communities. Immediately following the earthquake, a major fire occurred at an oil storage facility of a refinery (Idematsu Kosan Company Ltd) located in the west part of Tomakomai, a Pacific coast city in southern Hokkaido. Idemitsu Kosan Company is the second largest oil refinery in Japan, with a capacity of 140,000 barrels per day (bpd) in Tomakomai. Forty five of the 105 oil storage tanks were damaged following the earthquake and resulted in release of petroleum naphtha, which ignited accidentally. The first fire was reported immediately after the earthquake on 26 September 2003 and was extinguished after 7 hours. The second fire occurred on 28 September and lasted for 44 h. More than three hundred fireman and about one hundred fire engines were brought from several prefectures by air carriers to extinguish the fire. More than 130,000 L of fire fighting foams (FFF) was delivered to extinguish these fires and at least 40,000 L was used. Detailed information regarding the type of FFF used was not available, but aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) have been used in the control of fuel-related fires. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated acids are a component of AFFF. The issue of environmental pollution by perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates has received much attention in the last four years. PFCs possess unique physicochemical properties and exhibit a wide range of volatility/ water solubility depending on the functional group. Environmental dynamics of PFCs is complex due to their unique characteristics and to their release from multitude of sources with various compositions. Previous studies have reported on environmental contamination by PFCs due to accidental release of AFFF. Large amount of

  11. Advanced qualification methodology for actively cooled plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Grosman, A.; Boscary, J.; Merola, M.; Cismondi, F.; Courtois, X.; Farjon, J. L.; Missirlian, M.; Schlosser, J.; Tivey, R.

    2007-12-01

    The use of high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) in steady state fusion devices requires high reliability. These components have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10-20 MW m-2 involving a number of severe engineering constraints. Feedback from the experience of various industrial manufacturings showed that the bonding of the refractory armour material onto the metallic heat sink causes generic difficulties strongly depending on material qualities and specific design. As the heat exhaust capability and lifetime of PFCs during plasma operation are directly linked to the manufacturing quality, a set of qualification activities such as active infrared thermography, lock-in and acoustic measurements were performed during the component development phases following a qualification route. This paper describes the major improvements stemming from better measurement accuracy and refined data processing and analyses recent developments aimed at investigating the capability to qualify the component in situ during its lifetime.

  12. Advanced qualification methodology for actively cooled plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Grosman, A.; Boscary, J.; Merola, M.; Cismondi, F.; Courtois, X.; Farjon, J.L.; Missirlian, M.; Schlosser, J.; Tivey, R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) in steady state fusion devices requires high reliability. These components have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10-20 MW m -2 involving a number of severe engineering constraints. Feedback from the experience of various industrial manufacturings showed that the bonding of the refractory armour material onto the metallic heat sink causes generic difficulties strongly depending on material qualities and specific design. As the heat exhaust capability and lifetime of PFCs during plasma operation are directly linked to the manufacturing quality, a set of qualification activities such as active infrared thermography, lock-in and acoustic measurements were performed during the component development phases following a qualification route. This paper describes the major improvements stemming from better measurement accuracy and refined data processing and analyses recent developments aimed at investigating the capability to qualify the component in situ during its lifetime

  13. Towards the development of workable acceptance criteria for the divertor CFC monoblock armour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E. [ITER International Team, ITER Joint Work Site, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: dagatae@itereu.de; Tivey, R. [ITER International Team, ITER Joint Work Site, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    The plasma-facing components (PFCs) of the ITER divertor will be subjected to high heat flux (HHF). Carbon-fibre composite (CFC) is selected as the armour for the region of highest heat flux where the scrape-off layer of the plasma intercepts the vertical targets (VT). Failure of the armour to heat sink joints will compromise the performance of the divertor and could ultimately result in its failure and the shut down of the ITER machine. There are tens of thousands of CFCs to CuCrZr joints. The aim of the PFC design is to ensure that the divertor can continue to function even with the failure of a few joints. In preparation for writing the procurement specification for the ITER vertical target PFCs, a programme of work is underway with the objective of defining workable acceptance criteria for the PFC armour joints.

  14. Rate equations modeling for hydrogen inventory studies during a real tokamak material thermal cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnin, X., E-mail: xavier.bonnin@iter.org [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Hodille, E. [IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Ning, N. [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Sang, C. [School of Physics and Optoelectronics Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Grisolia, Ch. [IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    Prediction and control of tritium inventory in plasma-facing components (PFCs) is a critical nuclear safety issue for ITER and future fusion devices. This goal can be achieved through rate equations models as presented here. We calibrate our models with thermal desorption spectrometry results to obtain a validated set of material parameters relevant to hydrogen inventory processes in bulk tungsten. The best fits are obtained with two intrinsic trap types, deep and shallow, and an extrinsic trap created by plasma irradiation and plastic deformation of the tungsten matrix associated with blister formation. We then consider a realistic cycle of plasma discharges consisting of 400 s of plasma exposure followed by a resting period of 1000 s, repeating for several hours. This cycle is then closed by a long “overnight” period, thus providing an estimate of the amount of tritium retained in the PFCs after a full day of standard operation.

  15. Transient heat loads in current fusion experiments, extrapolation to ITER and consequences for its operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loarte, A; Saibene, G; Sartori, R; Riccardo, V; Andrew, P; Paley, J; Fundamenski, W; Eich, T; Herrmann, A; Pautasso, G; Kirk, A; Counsell, G; Federici, G; Strohmayer, G; Whyte, D; Leonard, A; Pitts, R A; Landman, I; Bazylev, B; Pestchanyi, S

    2007-01-01

    New experimental results on transient loads during ELMs and disruptions in present divertor tokamaks are described and used to carry out a extrapolation to ITER reference conditions and to draw consequences for its operation. In particular, the achievement of low energy/convective type I edge localized modes (ELMs) in ITER-like plasma conditions seems the only way to obtain transient loads which may be compatible with an acceptable erosion lifetime of plasma facing components (PFCs) in ITER. Power loads during disruptions, on the contrary, seem to lead in most cases to an acceptable divertor lifetime because of the relatively small plasma thermal energy remaining at the thermal quench and the large broadening of the power flux footprint during this phase. These conclusions are reinforced by calculations of the expected erosion lifetime, under these load conditions, which take into account a realistic temporal dependence of the power fluxes on PFCs during ELMs and disruptions

  16. Suitability of non-energy GHGs for emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.; Proestos, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of different sources of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading. Different forms of emissions trading are defined and criteria for determining whether a source is suitable for emissions trading are proposed. The suitability for emissions trading is assessed for: methane (CH4) from oil and gas production; CH4 from coal mines; CH4 from landfills; CH4 from wastewater treatment; CH4 from enteric fermentation; CH4 from livestock manure, nitrous oxide (N2O) from adipic acid production; N2O from fertilizer use; N2O from nitric acid production, carbon dioxide (CO2) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) from aluminum smelting; sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) from magnesium smelting and die casting; HFCs from HCFC production, other uses of SF6, PFCs and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs); CO2 from ammonia production; lime and cement production, and iron ore reduction

  17. Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P.; Andersen, E. W.; Budtz-Jorgensen, E.

    2012-01-01

    whether PFC exposure is associated with antibody response to childhood vaccinations. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective study of a birth cohort from the National Hospital in the Faroe Islands. A total of 656 consecutive singleton births were recruited during 1999-2001, and 587 participated...... in follow-up through 2008. Main Outcome Measures Serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids at ages 5 and 7 years. Results Similar to results of prior studies in the United States, the PFCs with the highest serum concentrations were perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS......) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Among PFCs in maternal pregnancy serum, PFOS showed the strongest negative correlations with antibody concentrations at age 5 years, for which a 2-fold greater concentration of exposure was associated with a difference of -39% (95% CI, -55% to -17%) in the diphtheria antibody...

  18. The TPX vacuum vessel and in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzenroeder, P.; Bialek, J.; Ellis, R.; Kessel, C.; Liew, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is a superconducting tokamak with double-null diverters. TPX is designed for 1,000-second discharges with the capability of being upgraded to steady state operation. High neutron yields resulting from the long duration discharges require that special consideration be given to materials and maintainability. A unique feature of the TPX is the use of a low activation, titanium alloy vacuum vessel. Double-wall vessel construction is used since it offers an efficient solution for shielding, bakeout and cooling. Contained within the vacuum vessel are the passive coil system, Plasma Facing Components (PFCs), magnetic diagnostics, and the internal control coils. All PFCs utilize carbon-carbon composites for exposed surfaces

  19. Pre-qualification of brazed plasma facing components of divertor target elements for ITER like tokamak application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Pandya, Santosh P.; Khirwadkar, S.S.; Patel, Alpesh; Patil, Y.; Buch, J.J.U.; Khan, M.S.; Tripathi, Sudhir; Pandya, Shwetang; Govindrajan, J.; Jaman, P.M.; Rathore, Devendra; Rangaraj, L.; Divakar, C.

    2011-01-01

    Qualification of tungsten (W) and graphite (C) based brazed plasma facing components (PFCs) is an important R and D area in fusion research. Pre-qualification tests for brazed joints between W-CuCrZr and C-CuCrZr using NDT (IR thermography and ultrasonic test) and thermal fatigue test are attempted. Mockups having good quality brazed joints of W and C based PFCs were identified using NDT. Subsequently, thermal fatigue test was performed on the identified mockups. All brazed tiles of W based PFC mockups could withstand thermal fatigue test, however, few tiles of C based PFC mockup were found detached. Thermal analyses of mockups are performed using finite element analysis (ANSYS) software to simulate the thermal hydraulic condition with 10 MW/m 2 uniform heat flux. Details about experimental and computational work are presented here.

  20. The influence of the analog-to-digital conversion error on the JT-60 plasma position/shape feedback control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Michiharu; Kurihara, Kenichi

    1995-12-01

    In the plasma feedback control system (PFCS) and the direct digital controller (DDC) for the poloidal field coil power supply in the JT-60 tokamak, it is necessary to observe signals of all the poloidal field coil currents. Each of the signals, originally measured by a single sensor, is distributed to the PFCS and DDC through different cable routes and different analog-to-digital converters from each other. This produces the conversion error to the amount of several bits. Consequently, proper voltage from feedback calculation cannot be applied to the coil, and hence the control performance is possibly supposed to deteriorate to a certain extent. This paper describes how this error makes an influence on the plasma horizontal position control and how to improve the deteriorated control performance. (author)

  1. Water leak localization and recovery in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Samaille, F.; Chantant, M.; Hatchressian, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    For almost 20 years at Tore Supra, plasma facing components (PFCs) are actively cooled by a pressurized water primary loop. Tore Supra can be considered as ITER relevant on this particular aspect. During plasma operation, it happened, that unexpected localized power deposits damaged a PFC leading to more or less large water leaks in the vacuum vessel. The improvement of the procedure to localize the leaky circuits, the investigation of technical solutions for minimizing the amount of water from steam condensation in the vacuum vessel and the optimisation of the quality of the draining and the drying of Tore Supra cooling loop circuits are the result of the experience gained during several years by the analysis of the water leak from plasma facing components (PFCs) and their consequences. Different new specific systems designed and installed during this year to fulfil these objectives are described in this paper

  2. Microscopic Motion of Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Components In A Diverted Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworski, M.A.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Morley, N.B.; Abrams, T.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kugel, H.; Majeski, R.; Ruzic, D.N.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid metal plasma facing components (PFCs) have been identified as an alternative material for fusion plasma experiments. The use of a liquid conductor where significant magnetic fields are present is considered risky, with the possibility of macroscopic fluid motion and possible ejection into the plasma core. Analysis is carried out on thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) forces caused by temperature gradients in the liquid-container system itself in addition to scrape-off-layer currents interacting with the PFC from a diverted plasma. Capillary effects at the liquid-container interface will be examined which govern droplet ejection criteria. Stability of the interface is determined using linear stability methods. In addition to application to liquidmetal PFCs, thin film liquidmetal effects have application to current and future devices where off-normal events may liquefy portions of the first wall and other plasma facing components.

  3. Pre-qualification of brazed plasma facing components of divertor target elements for ITER like tokamak application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K.P., E-mail: kpsingh@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Pandya, Santosh P.; Khirwadkar, S.S.; Patel, Alpesh; Patil, Y.; Buch, J.J.U.; Khan, M.S.; Tripathi, Sudhir; Pandya, Shwetang; Govindrajan, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Jaman, P.M.; Rathore, Devendra; Rangaraj, L.; Divakar, C. [Materials Science Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, CSIR, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2011-10-15

    Qualification of tungsten (W) and graphite (C) based brazed plasma facing components (PFCs) is an important R and D area in fusion research. Pre-qualification tests for brazed joints between W-CuCrZr and C-CuCrZr using NDT (IR thermography and ultrasonic test) and thermal fatigue test are attempted. Mockups having good quality brazed joints of W and C based PFCs were identified using NDT. Subsequently, thermal fatigue test was performed on the identified mockups. All brazed tiles of W based PFC mockups could withstand thermal fatigue test, however, few tiles of C based PFC mockup were found detached. Thermal analyses of mockups are performed using finite element analysis (ANSYS) software to simulate the thermal hydraulic condition with 10 MW/m{sup 2} uniform heat flux. Details about experimental and computational work are presented here.

  4. Development of visible spectroscopy diagnostics for W sources assessment in WEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, O., E-mail: olivier.meyer@cea.fr; Giacalone, J. C.; Pascal, J. Y.; Raulin, D.; Aumeunier, M. H.; Gil, C.; Hatchressian, J.-C.; Larroque, S.; Lotte, Ph.; Moreau, Ph.; Pégourié, B.; Vartanian, S. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jones, O. M.; Baude, R.; Escarguel, A. [PIIM, Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Xu, H. [ASIPP, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Harris, J. H.; Klepper, C. C. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The present work concerns the development of a W sources assessment system in the framework of the tungsten-W environment in steady state tokamak project that aims at equipping the existing Tore Supra device with a tungsten divertor in order to test actively cooled tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) in view of preparing ITER operation. The goal is to assess W sources and D recycling with spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution adapted to the PFCs observed. The originality of the system is that all optical elements are installed in the vacuum vessel and compatible with steady state operation. Our system is optimized to measure radiance as low as 10{sup 16} Ph/(m{sup 2} s sr). A total of 240 optical fibers will be deployed to the detection systems such as the “Filterscope,” developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA) and consisting of photomultiplier tubes and filters, or imaging spectrometers dedicated to Multiview analysis.

  5. Mechanical characterization of W-armoured plasma-facing components after thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serret, D; Richou, M; Missirlian, M; Loarer, T

    2011-01-01

    The future fusion device ITER is aimed at demonstrating the scientific and technical feasibility of fusion power. Tens of thousands of W-armoured plasma-facing components (PFCs) will be installed in the vertical targets of the ITER divertor and subjected to a high heat flux. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of mechanical and microstructural characterization of tungsten PFCs after thermal fatigue tests. On each component, Vickers hardness measurements are made. In parallel, the mean grain diameter in the corresponding zone of tungsten material is determined. The empirical Hall-Petch relation was adapted to experimental data. However, due to the plateau effect on recrystallization hardness, this relation does not seem to be relevant once recrystallization is complete: a new approach is proposed for predicting the margin to the tungsten melting onset.

  6. Towards the development of workable acceptance criteria for the divertor CFC monoblock armour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agata, E.; Tivey, R.

    2005-01-01

    The plasma-facing components (PFCs) of the ITER divertor will be subjected to high heat flux (HHF). Carbon-fibre composite (CFC) is selected as the armour for the region of highest heat flux where the scrape-off layer of the plasma intercepts the vertical targets (VT). Failure of the armour to heat sink joints will compromise the performance of the divertor and could ultimately result in its failure and the shut down of the ITER machine. There are tens of thousands of CFCs to CuCrZr joints. The aim of the PFC design is to ensure that the divertor can continue to function even with the failure of a few joints. In preparation for writing the procurement specification for the ITER vertical target PFCs, a programme of work is underway with the objective of defining workable acceptance criteria for the PFC armour joints

  7. Removal of Perfluorinated Compounds From Water using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Olga S.; Hwang, Yuhoon; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) are persistent micropollutants that have been detected in various environmental and biological matrices, worldwide. During the last decade, these compounds have also been detected in municipal wastewater and tap water. Due to the stability of C-F bond......, the application of biological and conventional physicochemical treatment methods does not seem to remove sufficient these compounds from water and wastewater. In the current study, the removal efficiency of four PFCs using three different types of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) was investigated. Influencing...... factors such as, initial pH solution, reaction temperature and nZVI dosage were also studied. According to the results, target compounds were removed in the presence of chemically synthesized nZVI modified with Mg-aminoclay (MgAC) than under commercial iron powder and chemically synthesized uncoated n...

  8. Denmark's national inventory report 2006 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2004. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth (and others)

    2006-08-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  9. An update: improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon-mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, George R; Mansfield, Jessica C; Christmas, Jacqueline T; Witterick, Eleanor; Fricker, Mark D; Grant, Murray R; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Everson, Richard M; Moger, Julian; Love, John

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximize the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labeling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC), perfluorodecalin (PFD) enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal impact on physiology. Here, we assess the use of the PFCs, PFD, and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (PP11) for in vivo plant leaf imaging using four advanced modes of microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. For every mode of imaging tested, we observed an improved signal when leaves were mounted in PFD or in PP11, compared to mounting the samples in water. Using an image analysis technique based on autocorrelation to quantitatively assess LSCM image deterioration with depth, we show that PP11 outperformed PFD as a mounting medium by enabling the acquisition of clearer images deeper into the tissue. In addition, we show that SRS microscopy can be used to image PFCs directly in the mesophyll and thereby easily delimit the "negative space" within a leaf, which may have important implications for studies of leaf development. Direct comparison of on and off resonance SRS micrographs show that PFCs do not to form intracellular aggregates in live plants. We conclude that the application of PFCs as mounting media substantially increases advanced microscopy image quality of living mesophyll and leaf vascular bundle cells.

  10. Blood serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in men from Greenlandic Inuit and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Christian H; Rylander, Lars; Toft, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are used in large quantities. They are persistent and found in measurable levels in human serum around the world. They have been associated with developmental, hepatic, and carcinogenic ef...... in Ukraine was rather low. In the Greenlandic Inuit population, intake of seafood, tea, age and area of living were significant determinants of PFOS concentrations and explained about 22% of the variation. For the other populations no strong determinants were found....

  11. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  12. Investigation of the associations between low-dose serum perfluorinated chemicals and liver enzymes in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Lin, Lian-Yu; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Wang, Wei-Jie; Su, Yi-Ning; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2010-06-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been largely used for years in a variety of products worldwide. However, the toxic effect of PFCs on exposure to the liver in the general population has not yet been determined. In this study, 2,216 adults (18 years of age or older) were recruited in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999-2000 and 2003-2004 to determine the relationship between serum level of PFCs and the levels of liver enzymes. The data were adjusted for all other confounding variants. After performing mathematical analysis, we determined when serum log-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases in one unit, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration (U/l) increases by 1.86 units (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-2.48; P=0.005), and the serum log-gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) concentration (U/l) is 0.08 unit higher (95% CI, 0.05-0.11; P=0.019). The association between PFOA and liver enzymes was more evident in obese subjects, as well as subjects with insulin resistance and/or metabolic syndromes. When dividing the serum PFOA into quartiles in the fully adjusted models in subjects with a body mass index>or=30 kg/m2, the ALT level trend across the serum PFOA quartiles was significant (P=0.003). On the basis of these data, we conclude that a higher serum concentration of PFOA may cause liver enzymes to increase abnormally in the general population, particularly in obese individuals. Further studies are warranted to clarify the casual relationship between PFCs and these liver enzymes.

  13. Denmark's national inventory report. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2001. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-04-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due bye 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. (au)

  14. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2. The report documents the methodology as well as presents activity data and emissi...... factors for energy, industrial processes, sovent and other product use, agriculture, LULUCF (Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry) and waste....

  15. Projection of Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2010 to 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Nielsen, Malene

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using a scenario combined with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates ...... on emission data from a considerable number of industrial plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency....

  16. Development and application of W/Cu flat-type plasma facing components at ASIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q; Sun, Z X; Xu, Y; Li, B; Wei, R; Wang, W J; Xie, C Y; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Yang, Z S; Luo, G-N; Zhao, S X; Qin, S G; Shi, Y L; Liu, G H; Missirlian, M; Guilhem, D

    2017-01-01

    W/Cu flat-type plasma facing components (PFCs) were widely used in divertor of fusion device because of its advantages, such as low cost, light in weight and good machinability. However, it is very difficult to manufacture them due to the large mismatch between the thermo-mechanical properties of W and Cu. Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) has successfully developed W/Cu flat-type PFCs for EAST W/Cu divertor project by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technology. This paper presents the development and application of W/Cu flat-type PFCs at ASIPP. The optimized manufacturing process is to cast pure copper onto the rear side of W tiles at temperature of 1200 °C firstly, and then to HIP the W/Cu tiles onto CuCrZr heat sink at temperature of 600 °C, pressure of 150 MPa and duration of 3 h. W/Cu flat-type testing mock-up for EAST survived 1000 cycles at heat load of 5 MW m −2 in high heat flux tests. And then ASIPP prepared two mock-ups for CEA’s tungsten environment in steady-state tokamak (WEST) project. One mock-up withstood successfully 302 cycles of 20 MW m −2 , which are far beyond the design requirement. Since 2014, W/Cu flat-type PFCs were wildly used in EAST upper divertor as baffle and dome components which showed excellent performance in 2015 and 2016 campaigns. Given the success in EAST upper divertor, W/Cu flat-type concept is as well applied in the design of actively cooled Langmuir probes which will be mounted onto EAST divertor targets soon. (paper)

  17. Erythrocyte fatty acids and risk of proliferative and nonproliferative fibrocystic disease in women in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jackilen; King, Irena B; Lampe, Johanna W; Gao, Dao Li; Ray, Roberta M; Lin, Ming-Gang; Stalsberg, Helge; Thomas, David B

    2009-01-01

    Although benign breast changes are more common than breast cancer, little evidence regarding risk factors for benign breast conditions is available. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have antiinflammatory and antiproliferative actions and may be important in reducing the risk of benign conditions. There is a lack of research on the association of n-3 fatty acids with risk of benign fibrocystic breast changes. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the role of n-3 and other fatty acids in the development of benign proliferative fibrocystic conditions (PFCs) and nonproliferative fibrocystic conditions (NPFCs) in the breast and to evaluate the progression of fibrocystic changes in breast cancer. We conducted a case-control study to determine erythrocyte fatty acid concentrations in 155 women with NPFCs, 185 women with PFCs, 241 women with breast cancer (127 with nonproliferative and 114 with proliferative changes in the noncancerous extratumoral mammary epithelium), and 1,030 control subjects. We estimated the relative risk of NPFCs, PFCs, and breast cancer with proliferative and nonproliferative changes in extratumoral tissue compared with the risk of these changes alone. Women in the highest quartile of eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations were 67% less likely to have an NPFC alone or with breast cancer and 49% less likely to have breast cancer than were women with PFCs. gamma-Linolenic acid (18:3n-6) was positively associated with all fibrocystic and cancerous conditions. Palmitic:palmitoleic acid (n-7 saturation index) was inversely associated with risk in all comparisons. Our results support a protective effects of n-3 fatty acid intake and the n-7 saturation index against benign fibrocystic breast changes and the progression of proliferative changes to breast cancer.

  18. Erythrocyte fatty acids and risk of proliferative and nonproliferative fibrocystic disease in women in Shanghai, China123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jackilen; King, Irena B; Lampe, Johanna W; Gao, Dao Li; Ray, Roberta M; Lin, Ming-Gang; Stalsberg, Helge; Thomas, David B

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although benign breast changes are more common than breast cancer, little evidence regarding risk factors for benign breast conditions is available. Omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids have antiinflammatory and antiproliferative actions and may be important in reducing the risk of benign conditions. There is a lack of research on the association of n–3 fatty acids with risk of benign fibrocystic breast changes. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the role of n–3 and other fatty acids in the development of benign proliferative fibrocystic conditions (PFCs) and nonproliferative fibrocystic conditions (NPFCs) in the breast and to evaluate the progression of fibrocystic changes in breast cancer. Design: We conducted a case-control study to determine erythrocyte fatty acid concentrations in 155 women with NPFCs, 185 women with PFCs, 241 women with breast cancer (127 with nonproliferative and 114 with proliferative changes in the noncancerous extratumoral mammary epithelium), and 1030 control subjects. We estimated the relative risk of NPFCs, PFCs, and breast cancer with proliferative and nonproliferative changes in extratumoral tissue compared with the risk of these changes alone. Results: Women in the highest quartile of eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations were 67% less likely to have an NPFC alone or with breast cancer and 49% less likely to have breast cancer than were women with PFCs. γ-Linolenic acid (18:3n–6) was positively associated with all fibrocystic and cancerous conditions. Palmitic:palmitoleic acid (n–7 saturation index) was inversely associated with risk in all comparisons. Conclusion: Our results support a protective effects of n–3 fatty acid intake and the n–7 saturation index against benign fibrocystic breast changes and the progression of proliferative changes to breast cancer. PMID:19056601

  19. Denmark's national inventory report 2007 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2005. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth (and others)

    2007-10-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2007. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2005 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  20. Development and application of W/Cu flat-type plasma facing components at ASIPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zhao, S. X.; Sun, Z. X.; Xu, Y.; Li, B.; Wei, R.; Wang, W. J.; Qin, S. G.; Shi, Y. L.; Xie, C. Y.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, X. L.; Missirlian, M.; Guilhem, D.; Liu, G. H.; Yang, Z. S.; Luo, G.-N.

    2017-12-01

    W/Cu flat-type plasma facing components (PFCs) were widely used in divertor of fusion device because of its advantages, such as low cost, light in weight and good machinability. However, it is very difficult to manufacture them due to the large mismatch between the thermo-mechanical properties of W and Cu. Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) has successfully developed W/Cu flat-type PFCs for EAST W/Cu divertor project by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technology. This paper presents the development and application of W/Cu flat-type PFCs at ASIPP. The optimized manufacturing process is to cast pure copper onto the rear side of W tiles at temperature of 1200 °C firstly, and then to HIP the W/Cu tiles onto CuCrZr heat sink at temperature of 600 °C, pressure of 150 MPa and duration of 3 h. W/Cu flat-type testing mock-up for EAST survived 1000 cycles at heat load of 5 MW m-2 in high heat flux tests. And then ASIPP prepared two mock-ups for CEA’s tungsten environment in steady-state tokamak (WEST) project. One mock-up withstood successfully 302 cycles of 20 MW m-2, which are far beyond the design requirement. Since 2014, W/Cu flat-type PFCs were wildly used in EAST upper divertor as baffle and dome components which showed excellent performance in 2015 and 2016 campaigns. Given the success in EAST upper divertor, W/Cu flat-type concept is as well applied in the design of actively cooled Langmuir probes which will be mounted onto EAST divertor targets soon.

  1. Nano-Sized Cyclodextrin-Based Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Adsorbents for Perfluorinated Compounds—A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla H. Karoyo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent efforts have been directed towards the design of efficient and contaminant selective remediation technology for the removal of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs from soils, sediments, and aquatic environments. While there is a general consensus on adsorption-based processes as the most suitable methodology for the removal of PFCs from aquatic environments, challenges exist regarding the optimal materials design of sorbents for selective uptake of PFCs. This article reviews the sorptive uptake of PFCs using cyclodextrin (CD-based polymer adsorbents with nano- to micron-sized structural attributes. The relationship between synthesis of adsorbent materials and their structure relate to the overall sorption properties. Hence, the adsorptive uptake properties of CD-based molecularly imprinted polymers (CD-MIPs are reviewed and compared with conventional MIPs. Further comparison is made with non-imprinted polymers (NIPs that are based on cross-linking of pre-polymer units such as chitosan with epichlorohydrin in the absence of a molecular template. In general, MIPs offer the advantage of selectivity, chemical tunability, high stability and mechanical strength, ease of regeneration, and overall lower cost compared to NIPs. In particular, CD-MIPs offer the added advantage of possessing multiple binding sites with unique physicochemical properties such as tunable surface properties and morphology that may vary considerably. This mini-review provides a rationale for the design of unique polymer adsorbent materials that employ an intrinsic porogen via incorporation of a macrocyclic compound in the polymer framework to afford adsorbent materials with tunable physicochemical properties and unique nanostructure properties.

  2. Removal of Perfluorinated Compounds From Water using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Arvaniti, Olga S.; Hwang, Yuhoon; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Nikolaos, Thomaidis S.; Athanasios, Stasinakis S.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) are persistent micropollutants that have been detected in various environmental and biological matrices, worldwide. During the last decade, these compounds have also been detected in municipal wastewater and tap water. Due to the stability of C-F bond, the application of biological and conventional physicochemical treatment methods does not seem to remove sufficient these compounds from water and wastewater. In the current study, the removal efficiency of four ...

  3. Nano-Sized Cyclodextrin-Based Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Adsorbents for Perfluorinated Compounds—A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoyo, Abdalla H.; Wilson, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have been directed towards the design of efficient and contaminant selective remediation technology for the removal of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) from soils, sediments, and aquatic environments. While there is a general consensus on adsorption-based processes as the most suitable methodology for the removal of PFCs from aquatic environments, challenges exist regarding the optimal materials design of sorbents for selective uptake of PFCs. This article reviews the sorptive uptake of PFCs using cyclodextrin (CD)-based polymer adsorbents with nano- to micron-sized structural attributes. The relationship between synthesis of adsorbent materials and their structure relate to the overall sorption properties. Hence, the adsorptive uptake properties of CD-based molecularly imprinted polymers (CD-MIPs) are reviewed and compared with conventional MIPs. Further comparison is made with non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) that are based on cross-linking of pre-polymer units such as chitosan with epichlorohydrin in the absence of a molecular template. In general, MIPs offer the advantage of selectivity, chemical tunability, high stability and mechanical strength, ease of regeneration, and overall lower cost compared to NIPs. In particular, CD-MIPs offer the added advantage of possessing multiple binding sites with unique physicochemical properties such as tunable surface properties and morphology that may vary considerably. This mini-review provides a rationale for the design of unique polymer adsorbent materials that employ an intrinsic porogen via incorporation of a macrocyclic compound in the polymer framework to afford adsorbent materials with tunable physicochemical properties and unique nanostructure properties. PMID:28347047

  4. Interaction of alkylphenolic and perfluorinated compounds with sewage sludges and soils

    OpenAIRE

    Milinovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    [eng] In this doctoral thesis the interaction of emergent organic pollutants, such as alkylphenolic and perfluorinated compounds (APCs and PFCs, respectively) with sewage sludge and soil samples was studied. These two families of organic compounds were selected because of their ubiquitous presence and persistence in environmental matrices and to know mechanisms responsible for their interaction. With respect to the behaviour of APCs in sewage sludges, concretely octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol ...

  5. Management of pancreatic collections with a novel endoscopically placed fully covered self-expandable metal stent: a national experience (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Sujievvan; Efthymiou, Marios; Kaffes, Arthur; Chen, John Wei; Kwan, Vu; Murray, Michael; Williams, David; Nguyen, Nam Quoc; Tam, William; Welch, Christine; Chong, Andre; Gupta, Saurabh; Devereaux, Ben; Tagkalidis, Peter; Parker, Frank; Vaughan, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    Recent medical literature on novel lumen-apposing stents for the treatment of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) is limited by small numbers, solo operators, and single-center experience. To evaluate a recently developed lumen-apposing, fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) in the management of PFCs. Retrospective case series. Thirteen tertiary and private health care centers across Australia. Forty-seven patients (median age 51 years) who underwent endoscopic management of PFCs. Insertion of FCSEMS after PFC puncture under EUS guidance. A subgroup of 9 patients underwent direct endoscopic necrosectomy. Technical and clinical success rate, adverse event rate. The technical success rate was 53 of 54 patients (98.1%), and the initial clinical success rate was 36 of 47 (76.6%), which was sustained for more than 6 months in 34 of 36 (94.4%). Early adverse events included 4 cases (7.4%) of stent migration during direct endoscopic necrosectomy, 4 cases (7.4%) of sepsis, 1 case (1.9%) of bleeding, and 1 case (1.9%) of stent migration into the fistula tract. Late adverse events were 6 (11.1%) spontaneous stent migrations, 3 (5.6%) recurrent stent occlusions, 3 (5.6%) tissue ingrowth/overgrowth, and 2 (3.7%) bleeding into PFC. The majority of stents inserted (48 of 54, 88.9%) and removed (31 of 35, 88.6%) in our study were described by the operator as superior to pigtail stents with regard to ease of use. Retrospective study. Although FCSEMSs are technically easier to insert and remove compared with traditional pigtail stents, there are significant limitations to the widespread use of FCSEMSs in the management of PFCs. These include cost, adverse events, and lower-than-expected resolution rates. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections using a novel lumen-apposing metal stent on an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system: a large retrospective study (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinninella, Emanuele; Kunda, Rastislav; Dollhopf, Markus; Sanchez-Yague, Andres; Will, Uwe; Tarantino, Ilaria; Gornals Soler, Joan; Ullrich, Sebastian; Meining, Alexander; Esteban, Josè Miguel; Enz, Thomas; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Vleggaar, Frank; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    A lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent incorporated in an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system for EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) recently has become available. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and clinical effectiveness of this newly developed device in this clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients with PFCs who underwent EUS-guided drainage using the study device in 13 European centers. Ninety-three patients with PFCs (80% with complex collections) underwent drainage using the study device. Penetration of the PFC was accomplished directly with the study device in 74.2% of patients, and successful stent placement was accomplished in all but 1 patient, mostly without fluoroscopic assistance. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) was carried out in 31 of 52 cases (59.6%) of walled-off necrosis and in 2 of 4 cases (50%) of acute peripancreatic fluid collection. Complete resolution of the PFC was obtained in 86 cases (92.5%), with no recurrence during follow-up. Treatment failure occurred in 6 patients because of persistent infection requiring surgery (n = 3), perforation and massive bleeding caused by the nasocystic drainage catheter (NCDC) (n = 2), and the need for a larger opening to extract large necrotic tissue pieces (n = 1). Major adverse events occurred in 5 patients (perforation and massive bleeding caused by the NCDC in 2 patients, 1 pneumoperitoneum and 1 stent dislodgement during DEN, and 1 postdrainage infection) and were mostly not related to the drainage procedure. EUS-guided drainage with the electrocautery-enhanced delivery system is a safe, easy to perform, and a highly effective minimally invasive treatment modality for PFCs. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Denmark's National Inventory Reports. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M. [Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Rasmussen, E. [Energistyrelsen (Denmark)

    2000-05-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2000. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 1998 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}, HFCs, PFCs and SF. (au)

  8. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 μg/L). - The semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries are the primary source of PFC contamination in downstream aqueous environments

  9. Identification of perfluoroalkyl acid sources in Swiss surface waters with the help of the artificial sweetener acesulfame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Claudia E., E-mail: claudia.mueller@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gerecke, Andreas C. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Alder, Alfredo C. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlanstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbuehler, Konrad [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-05-15

    Anthropogenic perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), especially the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitously found in surface waters around the globe. Emissions from households, industries and also atmospheric transport/deposition are discussed as the possible sources. In this study, these sources are evaluated using Switzerland as the study area. Forty-four surface water locations in different rivers and an Alpine lake were investigated for 14 PFAAs, four precursors and acesulfame, an artificial sweetener used as a population marker. Concentrations of individual PFAAs were generally low, between 0.02 and 10 ng/L. Correlation analysis showed that some PFAAs concentrations correlated well with population and less with catchment area, indicating that emissions from population, i.e., from consumer products, is the most important source to surface waters in Switzerland. The correlation with the population marker acesulfame confirmed this observation but highlighted also a few elevated PFAA levels, some of which could be attributed to industrial emissions. - Highlights: > Consumer products are the most important source of PFAAs in Swiss surface waters. > Acesulfame proofs to be a good population marker in surface waters. > PFAA pattern analyses reveal specific industrial emissions. - The analysis of correlations between surface water concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and source parameters revealed that consumer products are the most important source for PFCs in Switzerland, whereas industry and atmospheric deposition make a minor contribution.

  10. High-Z plasma facing components in fusion devices: boundary conditions and operational experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, R.

    2006-04-01

    In present day fusion devices optimization of the performance and experimental freedom motivates the use of low-Z plasma facing materials (PFMs). However, in a future fusion reactor, for economic reasons, a sufficient lifetime of the first wall components is essential. Additionally, tritium retention has to be small to meet safety requirements. Tungsten appears to be the most realistic material choice for reactor plasma facing components (PFCs) because it exhibits the lowest erosion. But besides this there are a lot of criteria which have to be fulfilled simultaneously in a reactor. Results from present day devices and from laboratory experiments confirm the advantages of high-Z PFMs but also point to operational restrictions, when using them as PFCs. These are associated with the central impurity concentration, which is determined by the sputtering yield, the penetration of the impurities and their transport within the confined plasma. The restrictions could exclude successful operation of a reactor, but concomitantly there exist remedies to ameliorate their impact. Obviously some price has to be paid in terms of reduced performance but lacking of materials or concepts which could substitute high-Z PFCs, emphasis has to be put on the development and optimization of reactor-relevant scenarios which incorporate the experiences and measures.

  11. High-Z plasma facing components in fusion devices: boundary conditions and operational experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, R.

    2006-01-01

    In present day fusion devices optimization of the performance and experimental freedom motivates the use of low-Z plasma facing materials (PFMs). However, in a future fusion reactor, for economic reasons, a sufficient lifetime of the first wall components is essential. Additionally, tritium retention has to be small to meet safety requirements. Tungsten appears to be the most realistic material choice for reactor plasma facing components (PFCs) because it exhibits the lowest erosion. But besides this there are a lot of criteria which have to be fulfilled simultaneously in a reactor. Results from present day devices and from laboratory experiments confirm the advantages of high-Z PFMs but also point to operational restrictions, when using them as PFCs. These are associated with the central impurity concentration, which is determined by the sputtering yield, the penetration of the impurities and their transport within the confined plasma. The restrictions could exclude successful operation of a reactor, but concomitantly there exist remedies to ameliorate their impact. Obviously some price has to be paid in terms of reduced performance but lacking of materials or concepts which could substitute high-Z PFCs, emphasis has to be put on the development and optimization of reactor-relevant scenarios which incorporate the experiences and measures

  12. Identification of perfluoroalkyl acid sources in Swiss surface waters with the help of the artificial sweetener acesulfame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Claudia E.; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Alder, Alfredo C.; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), especially the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitously found in surface waters around the globe. Emissions from households, industries and also atmospheric transport/deposition are discussed as the possible sources. In this study, these sources are evaluated using Switzerland as the study area. Forty-four surface water locations in different rivers and an Alpine lake were investigated for 14 PFAAs, four precursors and acesulfame, an artificial sweetener used as a population marker. Concentrations of individual PFAAs were generally low, between 0.02 and 10 ng/L. Correlation analysis showed that some PFAAs concentrations correlated well with population and less with catchment area, indicating that emissions from population, i.e., from consumer products, is the most important source to surface waters in Switzerland. The correlation with the population marker acesulfame confirmed this observation but highlighted also a few elevated PFAA levels, some of which could be attributed to industrial emissions. - Highlights: → Consumer products are the most important source of PFAAs in Swiss surface waters. → Acesulfame proofs to be a good population marker in surface waters. → PFAA pattern analyses reveal specific industrial emissions. - The analysis of correlations between surface water concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and source parameters revealed that consumer products are the most important source for PFCs in Switzerland, whereas industry and atmospheric deposition make a minor contribution.

  13. High quality actively cooled plasma-facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs) for future fusion devices, with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL). This actively cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long-pulse operation, has been operated under essentially thermally steady state conditions. Testing to identify braze flaws, analysis of the impact of joining flaws on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the OPL, and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed. This experience suggests that, for PFCs in future fusion devices, flaw-tolerant designs are possible; analyses of the impacts of flaws on performance can provide criteria for quality assurance; and validating appropriate methods of inspection for such flaws early in the design development of PFCs is prudent. The need for in-service monitoring is also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in surface water - Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunantha, Ganesan; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2016-08-15

    As an emerging class of environmentally persistent organic pollutants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), particularly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); have been universally found in the environment. Wastewater and untreated effluents are likely the major causes for the accumulation of PFCs in surface water. There are very few reports on the contamination of PFCs in the developing countries, particularly in India. This study reports the quantitative analysis of PFOA and PFOS in Noyyal, Cauvery, and also lakes in and around Chennai, using Ultra-Fast liquid chromatograph. The concentration of PFOA and PFOS ranged from 4 to 93ng/L and 3 to 29ng/L, respectively. The concentration of PFOS was below detectable limit in Cauvery River. A reliable concentration of PFOA was recorded at all sites of River Cauvery (5ng/L). The present study could be useful for the assessment of future monitoring programs of PFOA and PFOS in the surface water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Extraction Methods for the Analysis of Perfluorinated Compounds in Leather with High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Youchao; Tang, Chuanjiang; Nie, Jingmei; Xu, Chengtao

    2018-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), used to provide water, oil, grease, heat and stain repellency to a range of textile and other products, have been found to be persistent in the environment and are associated with adverse effects on humans and wildlife. This study presents the development and validation of an analytical method to determine the simultaneous presence of eleven PFCs in leather using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The perfluorinated compounds were primarily extracted from the samples by a liquid extraction procedure by ultrasonic, in which the parameters were optimized. Then the solid-phase extraction (SPE) is the most important advantages of the developed methodology. The sample volume and elution conditions were optimized by means of an experimental design. The proposed method was applied to determine the PFCs in leather, where the detection limits of the eleven compounds were 0.09-0.96 ng/L, and the recoveries of all compounds spiked at 5 ng/L concentration level were in the range of 65-96%, with a better RSD lower than 19% (n = 7).

  16. Fate of a broad spectrum of perfluorinated compounds in soils and biota from Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Tavano, Máximo Sebastián; Alonso, Bruno; Koremblit, Gabriel; Barceló, Damià

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the presence of 18 perfluorinated compounds was investigated in biota and environmental samples from the Antarctica and Tierra de Fuego, which were collected during a sampling campaign carried out along February and March 2010. 61 samples were analysed including fish, superficial soils, guano, algae, dung and tissues of Papua penguin by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of PFCs were ranging from 0.10 to 240 ng/g for most of the samples except for penguin dung, which presented levels between 95 and 603 ng/g for perfluorooctane sulfonate, and guano samples from Ushuaia, with concentration levels of 1190–2480 ng/g of perfluorohexanoic acid. PFCs acids presented, in general, the highest levels of concentration and perfluorooctanesulfonate was the most frequently found compound. The present study provides a significant amount of results, which globally supports the previous studies, related to the transport, deposition, biodegradation and bioaccumulation patterns of PFCs. - Highlights: ► 61 samples from the Antarctica and Tierra de Fuego analysed for the presence of 18 perfluorinated compounds. ► Acid compounds presented the highest levels of concentration and perfluorooctane sulfonate was the most frequently found. ► Concentrations in algae much higher than those in soils. ► Data supporting existing models for the transport, deposition, biodegradation and bioaccumulation patterns are presented. - 18 perfluorinated compounds assessed in biota and environmental samples from Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctica. Concentrations related to Compounds properties.

  17. Total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, L.W.Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Miyake, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Wang, Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Taniyasu, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail: nob.yamashita@aist.go.jp; Lam, P.K.S. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2009-01-15

    The concentrations of 10 PFCs (perfluorinated compounds: PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFHpA) were measured in liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) (n = 10) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n = 10) stranded in Hong Kong between 2003 and 2007. PFOS was the dominant PFC in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. A newly developed combustion ion chromatography for fluorine was applied to measure total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in these liver samples to understand PFC contamination using the concept of mass balance analysis. Comparisons between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers showed that a large proportion ({approx}70%) of the organic fluorine in both species is of unknown origin. These investigations are critical for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of these compounds to humans and other receptors. - Comparison between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin and finless porpoise in South China showed that a large proportion ({approx}70%) of the organofluorine is of unknown origin.

  18. Total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Miyake, Y.; Wang, Y.; Taniyasu, S.; Yamashita, N.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 10 PFCs (perfluorinated compounds: PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFHpA) were measured in liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) (n = 10) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n = 10) stranded in Hong Kong between 2003 and 2007. PFOS was the dominant PFC in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. A newly developed combustion ion chromatography for fluorine was applied to measure total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in these liver samples to understand PFC contamination using the concept of mass balance analysis. Comparisons between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers showed that a large proportion (∼70%) of the organic fluorine in both species is of unknown origin. These investigations are critical for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of these compounds to humans and other receptors. - Comparison between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin and finless porpoise in South China showed that a large proportion (∼70%) of the organofluorine is of unknown origin

  19. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevet, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)], E-mail: gaelle.chevet@cea.fr; Schlosser, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SAFRAN-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2009-03-31

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load.

  20. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevet, G.; Schlosser, J.; Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G.

    2009-03-01

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load.

  1. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, G.; Schlosser, J.; Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load

  2. Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals, two groups of persistent contaminants in Belgian human blood and milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosens, Laurence [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); D' Hollander, Wendy; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Reynders, Hans; Van Campenhout, Karen [Environment and Health Unit, Department of Environment, Nature and Energy, Flemish Government - Koning Albert II-laan 20, Bus 8, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Cornelis, Christa; Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Koppen, Gudrun [Unit Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.b [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    We assessed the exposure of the Flemish population to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by analysis of pooled cord blood, adolescent and adult serum, and human milk. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood (range 1.6-6.5 ng/g lipid weight, lw) and milk (range 2.0-6.4 ng/g lw) agreed with European data. Hexabromocyclododecane ranged between <2.1-5.7 ng/g lw in milk. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated in blood and ranged between 1 and 171 ng/mL and <0.9-9.5 ng/mL, respectively. Total PFC levels in milk ranged between <0.5-29 ng/mL. A significant increase in PBDE concentrations was detected from newborns (median 2.1) to the adolescents and adults (medians 3.8 and 4.6 ng/g lw, respectively). An identical trend was observed for PFOS, but not for PFOA. We estimated that newborn exposure to BFRs and PFCs occurs predominantly post-natally, whereas placental transfer has a minor impact on the body burden. - The exposure to BFRs and PFCs of general Flemish population has been assessed throughout several age groups.

  3. Japanese universities' activities for PFC development and PMI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.

    1998-01-01

    Development of reliable plasma facing components (PFC) with active cooling structures is required for divertor plates of fusion devices in order to remove a large heat flow to the divertor. It is also known that plasma material interactions (PMIs), i.e. fuel hydrogen recycling and erosion of plasma facing material (PFM) determine the energy confinement characteristics. The lifetime of PFCs is limited by the erosion of PFMs. In Japanese universities, studies concerning PFCs and PMIs have been carried out so far for LHD and ITER. For the LHD divertor, both graphite/copper brazed components and mechanical joint components have been developed, and the heat load performance has been examined. For the particle control in LHD, a localized divertor called LID has been designed, the preliminary experiment was conducted in a small helical device, the CHS. In order to reduce the oxygen impurity level, boronization experiments have been conducted systematically, and properties such as oxygen gettering and hydrogen retention were clarified. In the TRIAM-1M tokamak, the damage of PFMs has been investigated using a surface probe. Data on hydrogen retention, which determines the degree of hydrogen recycling, have been accumulated for graphite, Li, B, B 4 C, SiC and W. Conditioning methods are also suggested. In this paper, the problems associated with PFCs and PMIs are pointed out and data recently obtained in Japanese universities and NIFS are briefly introduced. (orig.)

  4. Thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical design of plasma facing components for SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Santra, P.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Parashar, S.K.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are one of the major sub-systems of ssT-1 tokamak. PFC of ssT-1 consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and limiters are designed to be compatible for steady state operation. The main consideration in the design of the PFC cooling is the steady state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m 2 . The PFC has been designed to withstand the peak heat fluxes and also without significant erosion such that frequent replacement of the armor is not necessary. Design considerations included 2-D steady state and transient tile temperature distribution and resulting thermal loads in PFC during baking, and cooling, coolant parameters necessary to maintain optimum thermal-hydraulic design, and tile fitting mechanism. Finite Element (FE) models using ANSYS have been developed to carry out the heat transfer and stress analyses of the PFC to understand its thermal and mechanical behaviors. The results of the calculation led to a good understanding of the coolant flow behavior and the temperature distribution in the tube wall and the different parts of the PFC. Thermal analysis of the PFC is carried out with the purpose of evaluating the thermal mechanical behavior of PFCs. The detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical designs of PFCs of ssT-1 are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  5. Analyses for passive safety of fusion reactor during ex-vessel loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Okazaki, Takashi; Maki, Koichi; Uda, Tatuhiko; Seki, Yasushi; Aoki, Isao; Kunugi, Tomoaki.

    1995-01-01

    Passive safety of nuclear fusion reactors during ex-vessel Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) in the divertor cooling system has been investigated using a hybrid code, which can treat the interaction of the plasma and plasma facing components (PFCs). The code has been modified to include the impurity emission from PFCs with a diffusion model at the edge plasma. We assumed an ex-vessel LOCA of the divertor cooling system during the ignited operation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in which a carbon-copper brazed divertor plate was employed in the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). When a double-ended break occurs at the cold leg of the divertor cooling system, the impurity density in the main plasma becomes about twice within 2s after the LOCA due to radiation enhanced sublimation of graphite PFCs. The copper cooling tube of the divertor begins to melt at about 3s after the LOCA, even though the plasma is passively shut down at about 4s due to the impurity accumulation. It is necessary to apply other PFC materials, which can shorten the time period for passive shutdown, or an active shutdown system to keep the reactor structures intact for such rapid transient accident. (author)

  6. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-04-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 microg/L).

  7. Energy deposition and thermal effects of runaway electrons in ITER-FEAT plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaluno, G.; Maruccia, G.; Merola, M.; Rollet, S.

    2003-01-01

    The profile of energy deposited by runaway electrons (RAEs) of 10 or 50 MeV in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-Fusion Energy Advanced Tokamak (ITER-FEAT) plasma facing components (PFCs) and the subsequent temperature pattern have been calculated by using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA and the finite element heat conduction code ANSYS. The RAE energy deposition density was assumed to be 50 MJ/m 2 and both 10 and 100 ms deposition times were considered. Five different configurations of PFCs were investigated: primary first wall armoured with Be, with and without protecting CFC poloidal limiters, both port limiter first wall options (Be flat tile and CFC monoblock), divertor baffle first wall, armoured with W. The analysis has outlined that for all the configurations but one (port limiter with Be flat tile) the heat sink and the cooling tube beneath the armour are well protected for both RAE energies and for both energy deposition times. On the other hand large melting (W, Be) or sublimation (C) of the surface layer occurs, eventually affecting the PFCs lifetime

  8. First-flush loads of perfluorinated compounds in stormwater runoff from Hayabuchi River basin, Japan served by separated sewerage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-08-01

    Worldwide environmental pollution by perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) has been reported. PFCs have also been reported to have nonpoint sources (NPSs). A fixed-point hourly monitoring in the river was conducted during a storm event using an automatic sampler to estimate the impact of the first-flush of PFCs from NPS in this study. Perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) with different chain lengths were monitored. The concentrations of short- to medium-chain-length PFCAs such as PFHpA, PFOA and PFNA, and PFASs such as PFBS, PFPeS, PFHxS, PFHpS and PFOS showed no marked increase with the storm-runoff event. However, in contrast to this, concentrations of long-chain-length PFCAs such as PFDA and PFUnA increased markedly. The concentrations of PFDA and PFUnA increased 3.4 (1.5-5.0 ng L(-1))- and 2.0 (3.3-6.7 ng L(-1))-fold, respectively. This study demonstrates that large loads of long-chain-length PFCAs are discharged to the Hayabuchi River during the first-flush after the rain event.

  9. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xuemei [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Yeung, Leo Wai Yin [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Xu Muqi [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Taniyasu, Sachi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); Yamashita, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail: nob.yamashita@aist.go.jp; Dai Jiayin [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn

    2008-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp > common carp > leather catfish > white semiknife carp > tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r{sup 2} = 0.85, p < 0.05) was observed between ln PFOS concentrations (ln ng/ml) and trophic level (based on {delta}{sup 15}N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake. - Distribution of PFCs reveals varied composition profiles in zooplankton and fish from a recipient water affected by WWTPs in Beijing.

  10. CADASTER QSPR Models for Predictions of Melting and Boiling Points of Perfluorinated Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Teetz, Wolfram; Liu, Tao; Öberg, Tomas; Jeliazkova, Nina; Kochev, Nikolay; Pukalov, Ognyan; Tetko, Igor V; Kovarich, Simona; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-03-14

    Quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) studies on per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) on melting point (MP) and boiling point (BP) are presented. The training and prediction chemicals used for developing and validating the models were selected from Syracuse PhysProp database and literatures. The available experimental data sets were split in two different ways: a) random selection on response value, and b) structural similarity verified by self-organizing-map (SOM), in order to propose reliable predictive models, developed only on the training sets and externally verified on the prediction sets. Individual linear and non-linear approaches based models developed by different CADASTER partners on 0D-2D Dragon descriptors, E-state descriptors and fragment based descriptors as well as consensus model and their predictions are presented. In addition, the predictive performance of the developed models was verified on a blind external validation set (EV-set) prepared using PERFORCE database on 15 MP and 25 BP data respectively. This database contains only long chain perfluoro-alkylated chemicals, particularly monitored by regulatory agencies like US-EPA and EU-REACH. QSPR models with internal and external validation on two different external prediction/validation sets and study of applicability-domain highlighting the robustness and high accuracy of the models are discussed. Finally, MPs for additional 303 PFCs and BPs for 271 PFCs were predicted for which experimental measurements are unknown. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Energy deposition and thermal effects of runaway electrons in ITER-FEAT plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddaluno, G.; Maruccia, G.; Merola, M.; Rollet, S.

    2003-03-01

    The profile of energy deposited by runaway electrons (RAEs) of 10 or 50 MeV in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-Fusion Energy Advanced Tokamak (ITER-FEAT) plasma facing components (PFCs) and the subsequent temperature pattern have been calculated by using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA and the finite element heat conduction code ANSYS. The RAE energy deposition density was assumed to be 50 MJ/m 2 and both 10 and 100 ms deposition times were considered. Five different configurations of PFCs were investigated: primary first wall armoured with Be, with and without protecting CFC poloidal limiters, both port limiter first wall options (Be flat tile and CFC monoblock), divertor baffle first wall, armoured with W. The analysis has outlined that for all the configurations but one (port limiter with Be flat tile) the heat sink and the cooling tube beneath the armour are well protected for both RAE energies and for both energy deposition times. On the other hand large melting (W, Be) or sublimation (C) of the surface layer occurs, eventually affecting the PFCs lifetime.

  12. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ∼ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity

  13. Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: levels in breast milk and commercial baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Teijón, Marisa Lopez; Alvarez, Juan G; Barceló, Damià

    2010-08-01

    In this study, an analytical method to determine six perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) based on alkaline digestion and solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) was validated for the analysis of human breast milk, milk infant formulas and cereals baby food. The average recoveries of the different matrices were in general higher than 70% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 21% and method limits of detection (MLOD) ranging from 1.2 to 362 ng/L for the different compounds and matrices. The method was applied to investigate the occurrence of PFCs in 20 samples of human breast milk, and 5 samples of infant formulas and cereal baby food (3 brands of commercial milk infant formulas and 2 brands of cereals baby food). Breast milk samples were collected in 2008 from donors living in Barcelona city (Spain) on the 40 days postpartum. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid (i,p-PFNA) were predominant being present in the 95% of breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified in 8 of the 20 breast milk samples at concentrations in the range of 21-907 ng/L. Commercial formulas and food were purchased also in 2009 from a retail store. The six PFCs were detected in all brands of milk infant formulas and cereals baby food analyzed, being perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFOS, PFOA and i,p-PFNA the compounds detected in higher concentrations (up to 1289 ng/kg). PFCs presence can be associated to possible migration from packaging and containers during production processes. Finally, based on estimated body weight and newborn intake, PFOS and PFOA daily intakes and risk indexes (RI) were estimated for the firsts 6 month of life. We found that ingestion rates of PFOS and PFOA, with exception of one breast milk sample did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the EFSA. However, more research is needed in order to assess possible

  14. An operational non destructive examination for ITER divertor plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Farjon, J.L.; Vignal, N.; Cismondi, F. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Merola, M. [ITER International Team, Cadarache, 13 - St Paul Lez Durance (France); Riccardi, B. [CEFDA CSU-Garching, Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: To meet the power exhaust - heat flux of 20 MW/m{sup 2} - requirements of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) during plasma operation requires control of their thermal and mechanical integrity. As heat exhaust capability and lifetime of PFCs during in-situ operation are linked to the manufacturing quality, it is an absolute requirement to develop reliable nondestructive examination methods, in particular of the CFC-CuCrZr joint, throughout the manufacturing process. Within the framework of Tokamak Tore Supra upgrade, a pioneering activity has been developed to evaluate the capability of the PFC to be efficiently cooled. In 1998 a test bed - so called SATIR - based on the heat transient method was developed by the CEA and is used today as an inspection tool in order to guarantee the PFCs performances. The technical procurement plan of ITER Divertor targets stated that all Cu cast layers on CFC armour should be subjected to 100% thermographic examination. Each ITER Party should demonstrate its technical capability to carry out the PFC with the required cooling efficiently. The ITER Divertor PFCs pose new challenges especially for the mono-block CFC thickness, and the number of full scale units to be tested which is higher than on any existing or under construction fusion machine. The SATIR method as functional inspection has been identified as the basis test to decide upon the final acceptance of the Divertor PFCs. In order to increase the detection sensitivity of SATIR test bed, several possibilities have been assessed i) the increase of the convective heat transfer coefficient, which improved in a significant way the sensitivity of SATIR diagnostic on ITER components. ii) the installation of a digital infrared camera and the improvement of the thermal signal processing, has led to a considerable increase of performances iii) an innovative process based on spatial image autocorrelation will allow to localize the interlayer defect

  15. High-Throughput and Rapid Screening of Low-Mass Hazardous Compounds in Complex Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qian; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Guo, Liangqia; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-07-07

    Rapid screening and identification of hazardous chemicals in complex samples is of extreme importance for public safety and environmental health studies. In this work, we report a new method for high-throughput, sensitive, and rapid screening of low-mass hazardous compounds in complex media without complicated sample preparation procedures. This method is achieved based on size-selective enrichment on ordered mesoporous carbon followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis with graphene as a matrix. The ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-8 can exclude interferences from large molecules in complex samples (e.g., human serum, urine, and environmental water samples) and efficiently enrich a wide variety of low-mass hazardous compounds. The method can work at very low concentrations down to part per trillion (ppt) levels, and it is much faster and more facile than conventional methods. It was successfully applied to rapidly screen and identify unknown toxic substances such as perfluorochemicals in human serum samples from athletes and workers. Therefore, this method not only can sensitively detect target compounds but also can identify unknown hazardous compounds in complex media.

  16. Effect of Fluosol-DA 20% and oxygen on response of C57BL/6 mice to whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldow, S.M.; Lustig, R.A.; Brass-Marlow, E.L.; Nunno, M.P.; Holst, R.J.; Wallner, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    Normal tissue effects in mice due to combinations of a perfluorochemical emulsion, Fluosol-DA 20%, 100% oxygen, and whole-body irradiation were investigated. Eight-to-10-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were injected via the tail vein with 10 ml/kg of Fluosol-DA with and without subsequent exposure to oxygen for 60 minutes. Animals then received graded doses of whole-body radiation (4 MV photons) at a dose rate of 2.85 +/- .015 Gy/minute. Using linear regression analysis, the lethal doses of radiation to 50% and 10% of the animals within 30 days in the absence of Fluosol-DA and oxygen were 8.35 Gy (95% c.l.:7.77-8.93 Gy) and 6.73 Gy (95% cl.:6.21-7.25 Gy), respectively, and were unaffected by Fluosol-DA and/or oxygen pre-treatment. However, Fluosol-DA given alone or in combination with oxygen produced increased balding and decreased graying incidence in mice within 60 days, and resulted in depressed weight gain 15 to 60 days post-treatment. Normal tissue effects due to administration of Fluosol-DA and oxygen in combination with whole-body irradiation have been demonstrated but appear minimal compared to other anti-tumor modalities currently under investigation

  17. The application of in vivo 19F-NMR to biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Toshihiro

    1989-01-01

    The potential application of in vivo F-19 NMR spectroscopy in the clinical setting was evaluated with Wistar rats and Mongolian gerbils. Halothane was inhalated and perfluorochemical (FC-43) was administered to rats. Fluorine-19 NMR spectra from halothane were obtained in both the brain and liver 5 min after inhalation, and the signal intensity increased with time. Although the intensity decreased immediately after cessation of inhalation, it was detectable even at 24 hr. The signal intensity from the liver was twice that from the brain. As for FC-43, the signal intensity was 8 times larger in the liver than the brain. At 24 hr after administration of FC-43, FC-43 spectra from the liver were increased, while those from the brain were decreased. An experiment with gerbils with experimentally induced cerebral ischemia revealed a definitive correlation between brain energy metabolism disorder as measured by p-31 NMR spectra and a decreased signal intensity for FC-43 as measured by F-19 NMR spectra. FC-43 signal intesntity obtained from the ischemic brain was reduced to 60-64% of the level of the normal brain. A linear correlation between 1/T1 and PO2 was reconfirmed by in vitro studies of T1 measurements of FC-43 mixed in human blood. In vivo F-19 NMR spectroscopy has potential for non-invasive evaluation not only of pharmacokinetics of administered fluoric compounds, but also of cerebral circulation or cerebral blood volume and tissue PO2. (Namekawa, K)

  18. Effects of perfluorinated amphiphiles on backward swimming in Paramecium caudatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Eriko; Harada, Kouji; Inoue, Kayoko; Koizumi, Akio

    2006-01-01

    PFOS and PFOA are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. We investigated the effects of fluorochemicals on calcium currents in Paramecium caudatum using its behavioral changes. Negatively charged amphiphiles prolonged backward swimming (BWS) of Paramecium. PFOS significantly prolonged BWS, while PFOA was less potent (EC 5 : 29.8 ± 4.1 and 424.1 ± 124.0 μM, respectively). The BWS prolongation was blocked by cadmium, indicating that the cellular calcium conductance had been modified. The positively charged amphiphile FOSAPrTMA shortened BWS (EC 5 : 19.1 ± 17.3). Nonionic amphiphiles did not affect BWS. The longer-chain perfluorinated carboxylates PFNA and PFDA were more potent than PFOA (EC 5 : 98.7 ± 20.1 and 60.4 ± 10.1 μM, respectively). However, 1,8-perfluorooctanedioic acid and 1,10-perfluorodecanedioic acid did not prolong BWS. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and BWS prolongation for negatively charged amphiphiles showed a clear correlation (r 2 = 0.8008, p < 0.001). In summary, several perfluorochemicals and PFOS and PFOA had similar effects in Paramecium, while chain length, CMC, and electric charge were major determinants of BWS duration

  19. A prototype of volume-controlled tidal liquid ventilator using independent piston pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Raymond; Micheau, Philippe; Cyr, Stéphane; Lesur, Olivier; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Liquid ventilation using perfluorochemicals (PFC) offers clear theoretical advantages over gas ventilation, such as decreased lung damage, recruitment of collapsed lung regions, and lavage of inflammatory debris. We present a total liquid ventilator designed to ventilate patients with completely filled lungs with a tidal volume of PFC liquid. The two independent piston pumps are volume controlled and pressure limited. Measurable pumping errors are corrected by a programmed supervisor module, which modifies the inserted or withdrawn volume. Pump independence also allows easy functional residual capacity modifications during ventilation. The bubble gas exchanger is divided into two sections such that the PFC exiting the lungs is not in contact with the PFC entering the lungs. The heating system is incorporated into the metallic base of the gas exchanger, and a heat-sink-type condenser is placed on top of the exchanger to retrieve PFC vapors. The prototype was tested on 5 healthy term newborn lambs (<5 days old). The results demonstrate the efficiency and safety of the prototype in maintaining adequate gas exchange, normal acido-basis equilibrium, and cardiovascular stability during a short, 2-hour total liquid ventilator. Airway pressure, lung volume, and ventilation scheme were maintained in the targeted range.

  20. Study on the kinetics of high-energy phosphates in myocardium by phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuoka, Hideo; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Inoue, Michitoshi; Abe, Hiroshi [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Watari, Hiroshi

    1982-12-01

    Effect of artificial blood, FC 43 (Perfluorochemicals) on the kinetics of high-energy phosphate in the myocardium was evaluated by /sup 31/P-NMR which permits a continuous and non-invasive assessment of in vivo phosphorus compounds. Cardiac perfusion was carried out on a excised rat heart with a Krebs-Henseleit modified solution and FC 43 alternately. Under the normal condition, ischemic condition, and at second perfusion amounts of intramyocardial creatine phosphoric acid, ATP, and inorganic phosphorus were determined by /sup 31/P-NMR. Coronary flow was simultaneously estimated. The ischemic state due to interruption of perfusion resulted in a decrease in creatine phosphoric acid, which was associated with an increase in inorganic phosphorus and intracellular acidosis. No change of ATP amount was observed under ischemic state. With resumption of perfusion, the levels of creatine phosphoric acid and inorganic phosphorus rapidly returned to the normal. In the group of FC 43, coronary flow was 2.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight, about 1/2 of that of the Krebs-Henseleit group (5.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight). In controls, there was no difference between the two groups concerning creatine phosphoric acid level and recovery of creatine phospohric acid level after ischemia. These results showed that FC 43 supplies sufficient oxygen, and has no effect on the kinetics of energy in the myocardium.

  1. Synthesis of Intrinsically Disordered Fluorinated Peptides for Modular Design of High-Signal 19 F MRI Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirberger, Steven E; Maltseva, Sofia D; Manulik, Joseph C; Einstein, Samuel A; Weegman, Bradley P; Garwood, Michael; Pomerantz, William C K

    2017-06-01

    19 F MRI is valuable for in vivo imaging due to the only trace amounts of fluorine in biological systems. Because of the low sensitivity of MRI however, designing new fluorochemicals remains a significant challenge for achieving sufficient 19 F signal. Here, we describe a new class of high-signal, water-soluble fluorochemicals as 19 F MRI imaging agents. A polyamide backbone is used for tuning the proteolytic stability to avoid retention within the body, which is a limitation of current state-of-the-art perfluorochemicals. We show that unstructured peptides containing alternating N-ϵ-trifluoroacetyllysine and lysine provide a degenerate 19 F NMR signal. 19 F MRI phantom images provide sufficient contrast at micromolar concentrations, showing promise for eventual clinical applications. Finally, the degenerate high signal characteristics were retained when conjugated to a large protein, indicating potential for in vivo targeting applications, including molecular imaging and cell tracking. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effect of oxygenated perfluorocarbon on isolated islets during transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Sachio; Tsujimura, Toshiaki; Li, Shiri; Hori, Yuichi; Toyama, Hirochika; Shinzeki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ippei; Kuroda, Yoshikazu; Ku, Yonson

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the efficacy of the two-layer method (TLM) using oxygenated perfluorochemicals (PFC) for pancreas preservation. The current study investigated the effect of oxygenated PFC on isolated islets during transportation. Purified rat islets were stored in an airtight conical tube for 24h in RPMI culture medium at 22 degrees C or University of Wisconsin solution (UW) at 4 degrees C, either with or without oxygenated PFC. After storage, the islets were assessed for in vitro viability by static incubation (SI), FDA/PI staining, and energy status (ATP, energy charge, and ADP/ATP ratio) and for in vivo viability by a transplantation study. UW at 4 degrees C and RPMI medium at 22 degrees C maintained islet quality almost equally in both in vitro and in vivo assessments. The ATP levels and energy status in the groups with PFC were significantly lower than those without PFC. The groups with PFC showed a significantly higher ADP/ATP ratio than those without PFC. In the transplantation study, blood glucose levels and AUC in the UW+PFC group were significantly higher than those in UW group. UW at 4 degrees C and RPMI medium at 22 degrees C maintained islet quality equally under the conditions for islet transportation. The addition of oxygenated PFC, while advantageous for pancreas preservation, is not useful for islet transportation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intracellular pH and inorganic phosphate content of heart in vivo: A 31P-NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, L.A.; Swain, J.A.; Portman, M.A.; Balaban, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the contribution of red blood cells to the 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the canine heart in vivo and the feasibility of measuring myocardial intracellular phosphate and pH. This was accomplished by replacing whole blood with a perfluorochemical perfusion emulsion blood substitute, Oxypherol, and noting the difference in the 31 P-NMR spectrum of the heart. NMR data were collected with a NMR transmitter-receiver coil on the surface of the distal portion of the left ventricle. These studies demonstrated that a small contribution from 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and phosphodiesters in the blood could be detected. The magnitude and shift of these blood-borne signals permitted the relative quantification of intracellular inorganic phosphate (P i ) content as well as intracellular pH. Under resting conditions, the intracellular ATP/P i was 7.0 ± 0.08. This corresponds to a free intracellular P 1 content of ∼ 0.8 μmol./g wet wt. The intracellular pH was 7.10 ± 0.01. Acute respiratory alkalosis and acidosis, with the arterial pH ranging from ∼7.0 to 7.7, resulted in only small changes in the intracellular pH. These latter results demonstrate an effective myocardial intracellular proton-buffering mechanism in vivo

  4. A study on the kinetics of high-energy phosphates in myocardium by phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusuoka, Hideo; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Inoue, Michitoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Watari, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of artificial blood, FC 43 (Perfluorochemicals) on the kinetics of high-energy phosphate in the myocardium was evaluated by 31 P-NMR which permits a continuous and non-invasive assessment of in vivo phosphorus compounds. Cardiac perfusion was carried out on a excised rat heart with a Krebs-Henseleit modified solution and FC 43 alternately. Under the normal condition, ischemic condition, and at second perfusion amounts of intramyocardial creatine phosphoric acid, ATP, and inorganic phosphorus were determined by 31 P-NMR. Coronary flow was simultaneously estimated. The ischemic state due to interruption of perfusion resulted in a decrease in creatine phosphoric acid, which was associated with an increase in inorganic phosphorus and intracellular acidosis. No change of ATP amount was observed under ischemic state. With resumption of perfusion, the levels of creatine phosphoric acid and inorganic phosphorus rapidly returned to the normal. In the group of FC 43, coronary flow was 2.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight, about 1/2 of that of the Krebs-Henseleit group (5.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight). In controls, there was no difference between the two groups concerning creatine phosphoric acid level and recovery of creatine phospohric acid level after ischemia. These results showed that FC 43 supplies sufficient oxygen, and has no effect on the kinetics of energy in the myocardium. (Ueda, J.)

  5. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids­ amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA;232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root­ soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with incre

  6. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination.

  7. Transport of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from an arctic glacier to downstream locations: implications for sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Karen Y; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Murphy, Margaret B; Horii, Yuichi; Petrick, Gert; Kallerborn, Roland; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Murano, Kentaro; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been globally detected in various environmental matrices, yet their fate and transport to the Arctic is still unclear, especially for the European Arctic. In this study, concentrations of 17 PFAS were quantified in two ice cores (n=26), surface snow (n=9) and surface water samples (n=14) collected along a spatial gradient in Svalbard, Norway. Concentrations of selected ions (Na(+), SO4(2-), etc.) were also determined for tracing the origins and sources of PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were the dominant compounds found in ice core samples. Taking PFOA, PFNA and perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) as examples, higher concentrations were detected in the middle layers of the ice cores representing the period of 1997-2000. Lower concentrations of C8-C12 perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) were detected in comparison with concentrations measured previously in an ice core from the Canadian Arctic, indicating that contamination levels in the European Arctic are lower. Average PFAS concentrations were found to be lower in surface snow and melted glacier water samples, while increased concentrations were observed in river water downstream near the coastal area. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) was detected in the downstream locations, but not in the glacier, suggesting existence of local sources of this compound. Long-range atmospheric transport of PFAS was the major deposition pathway for the glaciers, while local sources (e.g., skiing activities) were identified in the downstream locations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in garden produce at homes with a history of PFAS-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Deanna P; Kelly, James E; Huset, Carin A; Barry, Kitrina M; Hoffbeck, Richard W; Yingling, Virginia L; Messing, Rita B

    2018-04-01

    The decades-long disposal of manufacturing waste containing perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in landfills resulted in contamination of groundwater serving as the drinking water supply for the eastern Twin Cities metropolitan region. While measures were taken to reduce the levels of PFAS in the drinking water, questions remained about possible non-drinking water pathways of exposure in these communities. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) investigated whether PFAS in water used for yard and garden irrigation results in elevated concentrations of PFAS in soil and home-grown produce. In 2010, samples of outdoor tap water, garden soil, and garden produce were collected at homes impacted by the contamination and analyzed for several PFAS. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was the primary PFAS present in water, followed by perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA). Although PFBA, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were present in 100% of soil samples at higher concentrations compared to other PFAS, only PFBA was readily translocated to plants. Significant determinants of PFBA concentration in produce were the amount of PFBA applied to the garden via watering and the type of produce tested. Results from this real-world study are consistent with experimental findings that short-chain PFAS have the highest potential to translocate to and bioaccumulate in edible plants. These findings are globally relevant, as short-chain PFAS serve as commercial substitutes for longer-chain compounds and are increasingly detected in water due to their relatively high solubility and mobility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution and sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the River Rhine watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Axel; Ahrens, Lutz; Surm, Renate; Westerveld, Joke; Wielen, Frans van der; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Voogt, Pim de

    2010-01-01

    The concentration profile of 40 polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface water along the River Rhine watershed from the Lake Constance to the North Sea was investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of point as well as diffuse sources, to estimate fluxes of PFAS into the North Sea and to identify replacement compounds of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the method performance was conducted. The PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) with concentrations up to 181 ng/L and 335 ng/L, respectively, which originated from industrial point sources. Fluxes of ΣPFAS were estimated to be ∼6 tonnes/year which is much higher than previous estimations. Both, the River Rhine and the River Scheldt, seem to act as important sources of PFAS into the North Sea. - The short-chained polyfluoroalkyl substances PFBA and PFBS replace PFOA and PFOA as dominating PFAS in surface waters in the River Rhine watershed.

  10. The ITER divertor cassette. Steady state characterisation and draining and drying transient hydraulic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietro Alessandro Di Maio; Valerio Tomarchio; Giuseppe Vella; Irene Zammuto; Giovanni Dell'Orco

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The divertor is one of the most challenging components of the next step ITER nuclear fusion reactor. It is aimed at controlling the characteristics of boundary plasma, reducing the impurities in the plasma and sustaining the heat and particle fluxes arising from it, during normal and transient operations as well as during disruption events. The ITER divertor consists of 54 cassettes, each one mainly composed of three Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs), namely the inner vertical target, the outer vertical target and the dome-liner, actively cooled by subcooled pressurized water. Each PFC consists in a number of plasma facing units, cooled in parallel and assembled onto a supporting structure. The water maximum total flow rate, for the whole divertor, should be 1000 kg/s, with 100-150 deg. C inlet/outlet temperatures, 4.2 MPa inlet pressure and a maximum pressure drop of 1.4 MPa. The PFCs are cooled in series, with a maximum water velocity in the channel of 11 m/s, whilst the water coolant is routed via the cassette body. Due to the extremely high heat loads expected onto the PFCs (up to 20 MW/m 2 over 20 s), the hydraulic design of the divertor is particularly demanding. It shall ensure that the foreseen flow rate actually reaches each plasma-facing unit to ensure an adequate cooling and to prevent any risk of Critical Heat Flux (CHF). Sufficient margin ( > 40 %) to avoid the reaching of a CHR limit on the PFCs could be obtained by using hypervapotron design inside the flat channels and swirl flow turbulence tape promoters inside the vertical target cooling tubes. Furthermore the overall pressure drop and flow rate shall be within the specified design limit to avoid an unduly high pumping power. Another important issue is the definition of a proper procedure to drain the coolant and dry the divertor components prior to the maintenance operations as well as to refill them with water after maintenance, ensuring a complete elimination of

  11. Non-destructive testing of high heat flux components of fusion devices by infrared thermography: modeling and signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cismondi, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    In Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) the joint of the CFC armour material onto the metallic CuCrZr heat sink needs to be significant defects free. Detection of material flaws is a major issue of the PFCs acceptance protocol. A Non-Destructive Technique (NDT) based upon active infrared thermography allows testing PFCs on SATIR tests bed in Cadarache. Up to now defect detection was based on the comparison of the surface temperature evolution of the inspected component with that of a supposed 'defect-free' one (used as a reference element). This work deals with improvement of thermal signal processing coming from SATIR. In particular the contributions of the thermal modelling and statistical signal processing converge in this work. As for thermal modelling, the identification of a sensitive parameter to defect presence allows improving the quantitative estimation of defect Otherwise Finite Element (FE) modeling of SATIR allows calculating the so called deterministic numerical tile. Statistical approach via the Monte Carlo technique extends the numerical tile concept to the numerical population concept. As for signal processing, traditional statistical treatments allow a better localization of the bond defect processing thermo-signal by itself, without utilising a reference signal. Moreover the problem of detection and classification of random signals can be solved by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. Two filters maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio are optimized: the stochastic matched filter aims at detects detection and the constrained stochastic matched filter aims at defects classification. Performances are quantified and methods are compared via the ROC curves. (author)

  12. The high-heat-flux test facilities in the joint stock company “D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodin, A., E-mail: volodin@sintez.niiefa.spb.su [JSC “NIIEFA”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kuznetcov, V.; Davydov, V.; Kokoulin, A.; Komarov, A.; Mazul, I.; Mudyugin, B.; Ovchinnikov, I.; Stepanov, N.; Rulev, R.; Eremkin, A.; Rogov, A.; Prianikov, V. [JSC “NIIEFA”, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Fedosov, A. [ITER Organization, Building 81/124, TKM, Internal Components Division, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The IDTF was created for the high heat flux tests of the PFUs of the ITER divertor. • At the present on the TSEFEY-M a brazing of fingers a FW semi-prototype is performing. • The IDTF and TSEFEY-M facilities are ready for the HHF testing of the ITER components. - Abstract: The current ITER design involves beryllium and tungsten as plasma facing materials for in-vessel components. Due to a high number of operating cycles and to the expected surface heat loads, thermal fatigue is one of the most damaging mechanisms for the plasma facing components (PFCs) of the ITER machine. Therefore, it is essential to perform an assessment of the behavior of PFCs under cycling heat loads to demonstrate the fitness for purpose of the selected technologies. This article summarizes the features of high heat flux facilities designed and constructed in the Efremov Institute for the performance of high heat flux (HHF) tests under ITER procurements as well as related R&D works. The TSEFEY-M facility was commissioned in 1994. The main purpose of this facility is thermal fatigue testing of mock-ups with various plasma-facing materials (carbon fiber reinforced composite (CFC), tungsten, beryllium, etc.) and with various cooling agents (water or gas). The ITER divertor test facility (IDTF) was created in the framework of ITER project, specifically for the HHF tests of the vertical targets (inner and outer) and domes of the ITER divertor. After commissioning in 2008, the IDTF facility was qualified in 2012–2013 for HHF tests of ITER PFCs.

  13. Low dose irradiation does not stimulate in vivo primary antibody response in specific-pathogen-free mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamisaku, H.; Sado, T.; Muto, M.; Pongpiachan, P.; Magnemi, U.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies from other laboratories indicated that exposure of mice to low dose radiation resulted in the enhancement of primary anti-SRBC PFC response in mice. We have repeated these experiments using four strains of mice that are known to differ in radiosensitivity of immune response potential in vivo. In one study mice were exposed to 2.5-25 cGy of X-rays. Nine hours later they were injected with SRBC and the number of PFCs per spleen was assessed individually at 4.5 days. The results indicated no evidence for the enhancement of PFC response at all exposure levels examined. In another study, groups of C57BL/6J mice were immunized with SRBC and exposed to 0, 150, or 300 cGy of X-rays 2 days later. Numbers of direct as well as indirect PFCs per spleen were then assessed individually at frequent intervals thereafter. The results indicated that exposure of mice to 150 cGy resulted in a significant increase in the number of indirect PFCs assessed at day 11 after SRBC injection, or 9 days after radiation exposure. Dose-response analysis of radiation-induced enhancement of indirect PFC response by this protocol indicated that only after exposure to 150 and 300 cGy for C57BL/6 and C3H/He strain, respectively, a significant enhancement of indirect PFC response was demonstrated. Flow cytometric analysis of spleen cells from these animals indicated that CD4+/CD+ cell ratios increased rapidly during the first three days after radiation exposure, followed by a rapid decline, suggesting that relative proportion of helper/inducer as compared to cytotoxic/suppressor T cell subset changed rapidly in favor of the former shortly after radiation exposure and possibly contributed to the observed enhancement of indirect PFC response. (author)

  14. Oxygen Sensing with Perfluorocarbon-Loaded Ultraporous Mesostructured Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amani L; Gee, Clifford T; Weegman, Bradley P; Einstein, Samuel A; Juelfs, Adam R; Ring, Hattie L; Hurley, Katie R; Egger, Sam M; Swindlehurst, Garrett; Garwood, Michael; Pomerantz, William C K; Haynes, Christy L

    2017-06-27

    Oxygen homeostasis is important in the regulation of biological function. Disease progression can be monitored by measuring oxygen levels, thus producing information for the design of therapeutic treatments. Noninvasive measurements of tissue oxygenation require the development of tools with minimal adverse effects and facile detection of features of interest. Fluorine magnetic resonance imaging ( 19 F MRI) exploits the intrinsic properties of perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquids for anatomical imaging, cell tracking, and oxygen sensing. However, the highly hydrophobic and lipophobic properties of perfluorocarbons require the formation of emulsions for biological studies, though stabilizing these emulsions has been challenging. To enhance the stability and biological loading of perfluorocarbons, one option is to incorporate perfluorocarbon liquids into the internal space of biocompatible mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Here, we developed perfluorocarbon-loaded ultraporous mesostructured silica nanoparticles (PERFUMNs) as 19 F MRI detectable oxygen-sensing probes. Ultraporous mesostructured silica nanoparticles (UMNs) have large internal cavities (average = 1.8 cm 3 g -1 ), facilitating an average 17% loading efficiency of PFCs, meeting the threshold fluorine concentrations needed for imaging studies. Perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether PERFUMNs have the highest equivalent nuclei per PFC molecule and a spin-lattice (T 1 ) relaxation-based oxygen sensitivity of 0.0032 mmHg -1 s -1 at 16.4 T. The option of loading PFCs after synthesizing UMNs, rather than traditional in situ core-shell syntheses, allows for use of a broad range of PFC liquids from a single material. The biocompatible and tunable chemistry of UMNs combined with the intrinsic properties of PFCs makes PERFUMNs a MRI sensor with potential for anatomical imaging, cell tracking, and metabolic spectroscopy with improved stability.

  15. Numerical simulation of runaway electron effect on Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    1998-07-01

    The runaway electron effects on Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are studied by the numerical analyses. The present study is the first investigation of time-dependent thermal response of PFCs caused by runaway electron impact. For this purpose, we developed a new integrated numerical code, which consists of the Monte Carlo code for the coupled electrons and photons transport analysis and the finite element code for the thermo-mechanical analysis. In this code, we apply the practical incident parameters and distribution of runaway electrons recently proposed by S. Putvinski, which can express the time-dependent behavior of runaway electrons impact. The incident parameters of electrons in this study are the energy density ranging from 10 to 75 MJ/m 2 , the average electrons' energy of 12.5 MeV, the incident angle of 0.01deg and the characteristic time constant for decay of runaway electrons event of 0.15sec. The numerical results showed that the divertor with CFC (Carbon-Fiber-Composite) armor did not suffer serious damage. On the other hand, maximum temperatures at the surface of the divertor with tungsten armor and the first wall with beryllium armor exceed the melting point in case of the incident energy density of 20 and 50 MJ/m 2 . Within the range of the incident condition of runaway electrons, the cooling pipe of each PFCs can be prevented from the melting or burn-out caused by runaway electrons impact, which is one of the possible consequences of runaway electrons event so far. (author)

  16. Municipal landfill leachates: A significant source for new and emerging pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, Trine, E-mail: Trine.Eggen@bioforsk.no [Bioforsk, Vest Saerheim, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Postveien 213, N-4353 Klepp st. (Norway); Moeder, Monika [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Arukwe, Augustine [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-10-01

    Landfills have historically remained the most common methods of organized waste disposal and still remain so in many regions of the world. Thus, they may contain wastes resulting from several decades of disposal and decomposition with subsequent release of organic compounds that may have environmental, wildlife and human health consequences. Products containing different types of additives with unique beneficial improvement properties are in daily use. However, when these products are decomposed, additives are release into the environment, some of which have been shown to have negative environmental impacts, resulting in the ban or at least restricted application of some chemicals. New and emerging compounds are continuously discovered in the environment. Herein, we report qualitative and quantitative data on the occurrence of new and emerging compounds with increasing environmental and public health concern in water- and particle phase of landfill leachates. Under normal environmental conditions, several of these chemicals are persistent high-volume products. Identified chemicals in the leachates at nanogram (ng) or microgram ({mu}g) per liter levels include - chlorinated alkylphosphates such as tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), N-butyl benzensulfonamide (NBBS), the insect repellent diethyl toluamide (DEET) and personal care products such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and polycyclic musk compounds. Among new and emerging contaminants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in the water phase at concentrations up to 6231 ng/L. Compared with the other chemicals, PFCs were primarily distributed in water phase. An effective removal method for PFCs and other polar and persistent compounds from landfill leachates has been a major challenge, since commonly used treatment technologies are based on aeration and sedimentation. Thus, the present study has shown that municipal landfill leachates may represent a significant source of

  17. Neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioural effects of polybrominated and perfluorinated chemicals: a systematic review of the epidemiological literature using a quality assessment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, N; Wilks, M F

    2014-10-15

    Concerns over effects of halogenated persistent environmental contaminants on the developing brain have been expressed for many years, and human biomonitoring has confirmed that low-level, prenatal and/or postnatal exposure of children to these chemicals is ubiquitous. Over the last decade there have been increasing reports in the epidemiological literature of the potential association of exposure to polybromo diphenylethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) with neurodevelopmental and/or neurobehavioural effects in infants and children, such as adverse birth outcomes, cognitive deficits, developmental delay and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). However, direct evidence from epidemiology studies has been limited and contradictory. Given the general lack of comparability across studies in terms of design, conduct, methodology and reporting, we developed a checklist-type quality assessment scheme based on the STROBE guidelines and the proposed HONEES criteria, and conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological peer-reviewed literature published since 2006 on neurodevelopmental and/or neurobehavioural effects following prenatal and postnatal exposure to PBDEs and PFCs. We rated 7 of the 18 studies that met our inclusion criteria as being of high quality, 7 of moderate quality and 4 of low quality. Frequently observed shortcomings were the lack of consideration of confounding factors; uncertainties regarding exposure characterization; inadequate sample size; the lack of a clear dose-response; and the representativeness/generalizability of the results. Collectively, the epidemiological evidence does currently not support a strong causal association between PBDEs and PFCs and adverse neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioural outcomes in infants and children. However, despite their limitations, the studies raise questions that require further investigation through hypothesis-driven studies using more harmonized study designs and methodologies

  18. Municipal landfill leachates: A significant source for new and emerging pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, Trine; Moeder, Monika; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    Landfills have historically remained the most common methods of organized waste disposal and still remain so in many regions of the world. Thus, they may contain wastes resulting from several decades of disposal and decomposition with subsequent release of organic compounds that may have environmental, wildlife and human health consequences. Products containing different types of additives with unique beneficial improvement properties are in daily use. However, when these products are decomposed, additives are release into the environment, some of which have been shown to have negative environmental impacts, resulting in the ban or at least restricted application of some chemicals. New and emerging compounds are continuously discovered in the environment. Herein, we report qualitative and quantitative data on the occurrence of new and emerging compounds with increasing environmental and public health concern in water- and particle phase of landfill leachates. Under normal environmental conditions, several of these chemicals are persistent high-volume products. Identified chemicals in the leachates at nanogram (ng) or microgram (μg) per liter levels include - chlorinated alkylphosphates such as tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), N-butyl benzensulfonamide (NBBS), the insect repellent diethyl toluamide (DEET) and personal care products such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and polycyclic musk compounds. Among new and emerging contaminants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in the water phase at concentrations up to 6231 ng/L. Compared with the other chemicals, PFCs were primarily distributed in water phase. An effective removal method for PFCs and other polar and persistent compounds from landfill leachates has been a major challenge, since commonly used treatment technologies are based on aeration and sedimentation. Thus, the present study has shown that municipal landfill leachates may represent a significant source of

  19. Do perfluoroalkyl substances affect metabolic function and plasma lipids?--Analysis of the 2007-2009, Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mandy; Arbuckle, Tye E; Wade, Mike; Haines, Douglas A

    2013-02-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made chemicals that are heat stable, non-flammable and able to repel both water and oils. Biomonitoring research shows global distribution in human, animal and aquatic environments of these chemicals. PFCs have been shown to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors which play a large role in metabolism and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Previous epidemiological research has also suggested a potential role of PFCs on lipid and glucose metabolism. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between the levels of perfluorinated compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in plasma and metabolic function and plasma lipid levels. Using cross-sectional data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (Cycle 1 2007-2009) we examined the association in adults between plasma levels of PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS (n=2700) on cholesterol outcomes, metabolic syndrome and glucose homeostasis using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. We found some evidence of a significant association between perfluoroalkyl substances, notably PFHxS, with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol as well as an elevated odds of high cholesterol. We found some associations with PFOA and PFOS in our unweighted models but these results did not remain significant after weighting for sampling strategy. We found no association with metabolic syndrome, or glucose homeostasis parameters. This study showed lower levels of PFOA and PFOS and slightly higher levels of PFHxS than other published population studies. Our results did not give significant evidence to support the association with cholesterol outcomes with PFOS and PFOA. However, we did observe several significant associations with the PFHxS and cholesterol outcomes (LDL, TC, NON

  20. PFOS, PFNA, and PFOA sub-lethal exposure to embryonic zebrafish have different toxicity profiles in terms of morphometrics, behavior and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Carrie E; Annunziato, Kate A; Bugel, Sean M; Cooper, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a class of anthropogenic, persistent and toxic chemicals. PFCs are detected worldwide and consist of fluorinated carbon chains of varying length, terminal groups, and industrial uses. Previous zebrafish studies in the literature as well as our own studies have shown that exposure to these chemicals at a low range of concentrations (0.02-2.0μM; 20-2000ppb) resulted in chemical specific developmental defects and reduced post hatch survival. It was hypothesized that sub-lethal embryonic exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) would result in different responses with regard to morphometric, behavior, and gene expression in both yolk sac fry and larval zebrafish. Zebrafish were exposed to PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA (0.02, 0.2, 2.0μM) for the first five days post fertilization (dpf) and analyzed for morphometrics (5 dpf, 14 dpf), targeted gene expression (5 dpf, 14 dpf), and locomotive behavior (14 dpf). All three PFCs commonly resulted in a decrease in total body length, increased tfc3a (muscle development) expression and decreased ap1s (protein transport) expression at 5dpf, and hyperactive locomotor activity 14 dpf. All other endpoints measured at both life-stage time points varied between each of the PFCs. PFOS, PFNA, and PFOA exposure resulted in significantly altered responses in terms of morphometric, locomotion, and gene expression endpoints, which could be manifested in field exposed teleosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect; Substances relatives a l'accroissement de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  2. Controlling beam halo-chaos via backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Kong Feng

    2008-01-01

    A backstepping control method is proposed for controlling beam halo-chaos in the periodic focusing channels (PFCs) of high-current ion accelerator. The analysis and numerical results show that the method, via adjusting an exterior magnetic field, is effective to control beam halo chaos with five types of initial distribution ion beams, all statistical quantities of the beam halo-chaos are largely reduced, and the uniformity of ion beam is improved. This control method has an important value of application, for the exterior magnetic field can be easily adjusted in the periodical magnetic focusing channels in experiment

  3. RDT&E for Emerging Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Perchlorate ● NDMA ● 1,4-Dioxane ● PFCs 8 Perchlorate Issue ● Broad Use & Occurrence  DoD - Rocket propellant - Insensitive munitions  Pyrotechnics and...and 18O -20 -15 -10 -5.0 0.0 5.0 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 Laboratory Military Natural Herbicides Gunpowder Road Flares Taiwan 3 7 C l 18 O 27 NDMA ...Toxicology  NDMA is a potent mutagen, teratogen, & carcinogen.  EPA 10-6 Lifetime Cancer Risk = 0.7 ng/L.  California DHS; 10 ng/L Action

  4. National inventory report. Greenhouse gas emissions 1990-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    Emissions of the following greenhouse gases are covered in this report: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluoro carbons (PFCs), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). In addition, the inventory includes calculations of emissions of the precursors NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO, as well as for SO{sub 2}. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions originating from the fossil part of CH{sub 4} and NMVOC are calculated according to the reporting guidelines to the UNFCCC, and accounted for in the inventory. (AG)

  5. Characterization and validation of noninvasive oxygen tension measurements in human glioma xenografts by 19F-MR relaxometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, Boudewijn P.J. van der; Heerschap, Arend; Simonetti, Arjan W.; Rijken, Paul F.J.W.; Peters, Hans P.W.; Stbeen, Georg; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize and to validate noninvasive 19 F-magnetic resonance relaxometry for the measurement of oxygen tensions in human glioma xenografts in nude mice. The following three questions were addressed: 1. When perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) are administrated intravenously, which tumor regions are assessed by 19 F-MR relaxometry? 2. Are oxygen tension as detected by 19 F-MR relaxometry (pO 2/relaxo ) comparable to Eppendorf O 2 -electrode measurements (pO 2/electrode )? 3. Can 19 F-MR relaxometry be used to detect oxygen tension changes in tumor tissue during carbogen breathing? Methods and Materials: Slice-selective 19 F-MR relaxometry was carried out with perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether as oxygen sensor. The PFC was injected i.v. 3 days before the 19 F-MR experiments. Two datasets were acquired before and two after the start of carbogen breathing. The distribution of PFCs and necrotic areas were analyzed in 19 F-Spin Echo (SE) density MR images and T 2 -weighted 1 H-SE MR images, respectively. One day after the MR investigations, oxygen tensions were measured by oxygen electrodes in the same slice along two perpendicular tracks. These measurements were followed by (immuno)histochemical analysis of the 2D distribution of perfused microvessels, hypoxic cells, necrotic areas, and macrophages. Results: The PFCs mainly became sequestered in perfused regions at the tumor periphery; thus, 19 F-MR relaxometry probed mean oxygen tensions in these regions throughout the selected MR slice. In perfused regions of the tumor, mean pO 2/relaxo values were comparable to mean pO 2/electrode values, and varied from 0.03 to 9 mmHg. Median pO 2/electrode values of both tracks were lower than mean pO 2/relaxo values, because low pO 2/electrode values that originate from hypoxic and necrotic areas were also included in calculations of median pO 2/electrode values. After 8-min carbogen breathing, the average pO 2/relaxo increase was 3.3 ± 0.8 (SEM

  6. High Efficiency Three-phase Power Factor Correction Rectifier using Wide Band-Gap Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza

    Improving the conversion efficiency of power factor correction (PFC) rectifiers has become compelling due to their wide applications such as adjustable speed drives, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs). The attention to PFCs has increased even more....... Therefore, current controllers are also important to be investigated in this project. In this PhD research work, a comprehensive design of a two-level three-phase PFC rectifier using silicon-carbide (SiC) switches to achieve high efficiency is presented. The work is divided into two main parts: 1) Optimum...

  7. National inventory report. Greenhouse gas emissions 1990-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H.; Gjerald, Eilev; Hoem, Britta; Ramberg, Simen Helgesen; Haugland, Hege; Valved, Hilde; Nelson, George Nicholas; Asphjell, Torgrim; Christophersen, Oeyvind; Gaustad, Alice; Rubaek, Birgitte; Hvalryg, Marte Monsen

    2012-07-01

    Emissions of the following greenhouse gases are covered in this report: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluoro carbons (PFCs), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). In addition, the inventory includes calculations of emissions of the precursors NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO, as well as for SO{sub 2}. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions originating from the fossil part of CH{sub 4} and NMVOC are calculated according to the reporting guidelines to the UNFCCC, and accounted for in the inventory.(eb)

  8. Development of a Laser Ablation System Kit (LASK) for Tokamak in vessel tritium and dust inventory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, C.; Roche, H.; Pocheau, C.; Grisolia, C.; Gargiulo, L.; Semerok, A.; Vatry, A.; Delaporte, P.; Mercadier, L.

    2009-01-01

    During Tokamak operation, Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are subjected to severe interaction with plasma. As a consequence and independently of the PFCs composition, materials eroded and then re-deposited in the form of layers on the surfaces, can flake and produce dusts. These fragile structures are able to trap part of the hydrogenated species (tritium for example) in vessel inventory. For safety reasons, it is mandatory to measure and to control vessel dust and tritium inventory. Up to now, laser techniques are a part of the most promising methods able to solve these ITER open issues. Of special interest are laser systems loaded on a miniature tool that can be attached to a Multi Purpose Deployer (MPD) and used for laser treatments (detritiation and other), for PFCs chemical analysis as well as for micro particles recovery of dust produced during laser ablation. Such a system (Laser Ablation System Kit: LASK) is currently under development at IRFM and the following presentation will describe the current achievements of this project and the perspectives. In this paper, we will present an innovative compact system, which, loaded on a Multi Purpose Deployer, could allow operation in a harsh environment (pressure range from atmospheric to Ultra High Vacuum and temperature up to 120 deg. C). According to the process conditions, different treatments can be performed: at low laser fluence, PFCs thermal treatment will be expected, while at high laser fluence material will be ablated allowing Dust (and T) recovery as well as chemical analysis of material. This 'in-line' chemical analysis based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) enables the ablation process to be controlled and preserves the substrate integrity. The paper will be focussed on the methodology followed during the LASK development and the method used to determine a laser process window able to remove co-deposited film without damaging the bulk material and taking into account external parameter

  9. Air emission in France. Metropolitan area substances implied in the increasing greenhouse effect; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole substances impliquees dans le phenomene d'accroissement de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Substances and index currently in survey are: Greenhouse effect: CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs (total and speciation for 8 compounds), PFCs (total and speciation for 5 compounds), SF{sub 6}, global warming potential index based on one hundred years time (GWP). Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Emissions are presented by the mean of charts for each substance and the main source categories with a five years step until 1990 then yearly beyond. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. Results are provisional for 2001. (author)

  10. Immunotoxicity of perfluorinated alkylates: calculation of benchmark doses based on serum concentrations in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immune suppression may be a critical effect associated with exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), as indicated by recent data on vaccine antibody responses in children. Therefore, this information may be crucial when deciding on exposure limits. METHODS: Results obtained from...... follow-up of a Faroese birth cohort were used. Serum-PFC concentrations were measured at age 5 years, and serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids were obtained at ages 7 years. Benchmark dose results were calculated in terms of serum concentrations for 431 children...

  11. TPX in-vessel remote maintenance tooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.; Silke, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) has used the lessons learned from successful remote maintenance and remote handling facilities to develop both a concept and philosophy for incorporation of remote design from the earliest phases of the project. Initiation of mockup testing during the conceptual design phase leads to significant improvements in the basic maintenance equipment configuration. In addition, remote handling features and capabilities have been incorporated into the design of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) as part of the total PFC design effort

  12. Nicotinamide and other benzamide analogs as agents for overcoming hypoxic cell radiation resistance in tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsman, M.

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen deficient hypoxic cells, which are resistant to sparsely ionising radiation, have now been identified in most animal and some human solid tumours and will influence the response of those tumours to radiation treatment. This hypoxia can be either chronic, arising from an oxygen diffusion limitation, or acute, resulting from transient stoppages in microregional blood flow. Extensive experimental studies, especially in the last decade, have shown that nicotinamide and structurally related analogs can effectively sensitize murine tumours to both single and fractionated radiation treatments and that they do so in preference to the effects seen in mouse normal tissues. The earliest studies suggested that this enhancement of radiation damage was the result of an inhibition of the repair mechanisms. However, recent studies in mouse tumours have shown that these drugs prevent transient cessations in blood flow, thus inhibiting the development of acute hypoxia. This novel discovery led to the suggestion that the potential role of these agents as radiosensitizers would be when combined with treatments that overcame chronic hypoxia. The combined nicotinamide with hyperthermia proved that the enhancement of radiation damage by both agents together was greater than that seen with each agent alone. Similar results were later seen for nicotinamide combined with a perfluorochemical emulsion, carbogen breathing, and pentoxifylline, and in all these studies the effects in tumours were always greater than those seen in appropriate normal tissues. Of all the analogs, it is nicotinamide itself which has been the most extensively studied as a radiosensitizer in vivo and the one that shows the greatest effect in animal tumours. It is also an agent that has been well established clinically, with daily doses of up to 6 g, associated with a low incidence of side effects. This human dose is equivalent to 100-200 mg/kg in mice and such doses will maximally sensitize murine tumours to

  13. Interactions of solid and liquid lithium with steady state hydrogen and helium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Ohgaki, H.; Ohtsuka, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of innovative Plasma-Facing Component (PFC) concepts, employing moving solid or liquid surfaces, have recently been proposed in order to resolve technical issues, associated with the applications of currently used PFCs in future steady state fusion devices. As the first step to evaluate the concept using flowing-liquids for PFCs, steady state hydrogen and helium plasma interactions with solid and standing liquid lithium have been investigated in the present work, using the H α and He-I spectroscopy at the ion bombarding energies up to 150eV and at the lithium temperatures between room temperature and 480 deg C. Data indicate that hydrogen recycling over liquid lithium is clearly reduced, relative to that over solid lithium, whereas helium recycling does not show the same trend. From the kinetic analysis of these recycling time constant data, the activation energies for the overall recycling processes have been evaluated to be 0.02±0.01eV, both for hydrogen and helium plasmas. Also, it has been found that the activation energy is nearly independent of ion bombarding energy. (author)

  14. The software and hardware architectural design of the vessel thermal map real-time system in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, D.; Neto, A.; Valcarcel, D.F.; Jachmich, S.; Arnoux, G.; Card, P.; Devaux, S.; Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Kinna, D.; Lomas, P; McCullen, P.; Stephen, A.; Zastrow, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    The installation of ITER-relevant materials for the Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) in the Joint European Torus (JET) is expected to have a strong impact on the operation and protection of the experiment. In particular, the use of all-beryllium tiles, which deteriorate at a substantially lower temperature than the formerly installed Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles, imposes strict thermal restrictions on the PFCs during operation. Prompt and precise responses are therefore required whenever anomalous temperatures are detected. The new Vessel Thermal Map (VTM) real-time application collects the temperature measurements provided by dedicated pyrometers and Infra-Red (IR) cameras, groups them according to spatial location and probable offending heat source and raises alarms that will trigger appropriate protective responses. In the context of JETs global scheme for the protection of the new wall, the system is required to run on a 10 millisecond cycle communicating with other systems through the Real-Time Data Network (RTDN). In order to meet these requirements a Commercial Off- The-Shelf (COTS) solution has been adopted based on standard *86 multi-core technology, Linux and the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) software framework. This paper presents an overview of the system with particular technical focus on the configuration of its real-time capability and the benefits of the modular development approach and advanced tools provided by the MARTe framework. (authors)

  15. Examining the temperature behavior of stainless steel surfaces exposed to hydrogen plasmas in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Felipe; Allain, Jean Paul; Kaita, Robert; Lucia, Matthew; St-Onge, Denis; Ellis, Robert; Majeski, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The Materials Analysis Particle Probe (MAPP) is an in-situ diagnostic designed to characterize plasma-facing components (PFCs) in tokamak devices. MAPP is installed in LTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. MAPP's capabilities include remotely operated XPS acquisition and temperature control of four samples. The recent addition of a focused ion beam allows XPS depth profiling analysis. Recent published results show an apparent correlation between hydrogen retention and temperature of Li coated stainless steel (SS) PFCs exposed to plasmas like those of LTX. According to XPS data, the retention of hydrogen by the coated surfaces decreases at above 180 °C. In the present study MAPP will be used to study the oxidation of Li coatings as a function of time and temperature of the walls when Li coatings are applied. Experiments in the ion-surface interaction experiment (IIAX) varying the hydrogen fluence on the SS samples will be also performed. Conclusions resulting from this study will be key to explain the PFC temperature-dependent variation of plasma performance observed in LTX. This work was supported by U.S. DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-SC0010717.

  16. Vessel thermal map real-time system for the JET tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The installation of international thermonuclear experimental reactor-relevant materials for the plasma facing components (PFCs in the Joint European Torus (JET is expected to have a strong impact on the operation and protection of the experiment. In particular, the use of all-beryllium tiles, which deteriorate at a substantially lower temperature than the formerly installed carbon fiber composite tiles, imposes strict thermal restrictions on the PFCs during operation. Prompt and precise responses are therefore required whenever anomalous temperatures are detected. The new vessel thermal map real-time application collects the temperature measurements provided by dedicated pyrometers and infrared cameras, groups them according to spatial location and probable offending heat source, and raises alarms that will trigger appropriate protective responses. In the context of the JET global scheme for the protection of the new wall, the system is required to run on a 10 ms cycle communicating with other systems through the real-time data network. In order to meet these requirements a commercial off-the-shelf solution has been adopted based on standard x86 multicore technology. Linux and the multithreaded application real-time executor (MARTe software framework were respectively the operating system of choice and the real-time framework used to build the application. This paper presents an overview of the system with particular technical focus on the configuration of its real-time capability and the benefits of the modular development approach and advanced tools provided by the MARTe framework.

  17. Calorimetric measurement of heat load in full non-inductive LHCD plasmas on TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, K.; Shinoda, N.; Sugata, T.; Sasaki, K.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.N.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.

    2007-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements using the temperature increment of cooling-water were carried out to estimate the heat load distribution on the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the limiter discharges on TRIAM-1M. Line averaged electron density, n e , and LH power, P LH , dependences of the heat load on PFCs were measured. The heat load on the limiters was proportional to n e 1.5 in the range of n e =0.2-1.0x10 19 m -3 and P LH 1 in the range of P LH =0.005-0.09MW. For P LH >0.1MW, the plasma transition to an enhanced current drive (ECD) mode appeared and the n e dependences on the heat load on the limiter moderated. This indicates that the heat flux to scrape-off layer (SOL) region was reduced due to the improvement of the plasma confinement. The up-down asymmetry of the heat load on the vacuum vessel was enhanced in the ECD mode, which may be caused by the increasing of the direct loss of energetic electrons

  18. Abatement of global warming gas emissions from semiconductor manufacturing processes by non-thermal plasma-catalyst systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J-S.; Urashima, K. [McMaster Univ., McIARS and Dept. Eng. Phys., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Emission of various hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and greenhouse gases including perfluoro-compounds (PFCs) from semiconductor industries may cause significant impact on human health and the global environment, has attracted much public attention. In this paper, an application of nonthermal plasma-adsorbent system for a removal of PFCs emission from semiconductor process flue gases is experimentally investigated. The non-thermal plasma reactor used is the ferro-electric packed-bed type barrier discharge plasma and adsorbent reactor used is Zeolite bed reactor. The results show that for a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with C{sub 2}F{sub 6} (2000ppm)/ CF{sub 4}(1000ppm)/ N{sub 2}O(1000ppm)/ N{sub 2}/ Air mixture, 54% of C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and 32% of CF{sub 4} were decomposed by the plasma reactor and 100% of C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and 98% of CF{sub 4} were removed by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. For a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with NF{sub 3} (2000ppm)/ SiF{sub 4}(1000ppm)/ N{sub 2}O(200ppm)/ N{sub 2}/ Air mixture, 92% of NF{sub 3} and 32% of SiF{sub 4} were decomposed by the plasma reactor and total (100%) removal of the pollutant gases was achieved by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. (author)

  19. Influence of boronization on operation with high-Z plasma facing components in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipschultz, B.; Lin, Y.; Marmar, E.S.; Whyte, D.G.; Wukitch, S.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Irby, J.; LaBombard, B.; Reinke, M.L.; Terry, J.L.; Wright, G.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of operation of Alcator C-Mod with all high-Z molybdenum plasma facing component (PFC) surfaces. Without boron-coated PFCs energy confinement was poor (H ITER,89 ∼ 1) due to high core molybdenum (n Mo /n e ≤ 0.1%) and radiation. After applying boron coatings, n Mo /n e was reduced by a factor of 10-20 with H ITER,89 approaching 2. Results of between-discharge boronization, localized at various major radii, point towards important molybdenum source regions being small, outside the divertor, and due to RF-sheath-rectification. Boronization also has a significant effect on the plasma startup phase lowering Z eff , radiation, and lowering the runaway electron damage. The requirement of low-Z coatings over at least a fraction of the Mo PFCs in C-Mod for best performance together with the larger than expected D retention in Mo, give impetus for further high-Z PFC investigations to better predict the performance of un-coated tungsten surfaces in ITER and beyond

  20. Overview of material migration and mixing, fuel retention and cleaning of ITER-like castellated structures in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litnovsky, A.; Philipps, V.; Wienhold, P.; Kreter, A.; Kirschner, A.; Matveev, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Sergienko, G.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Schweer, B.; Schulz, C.; Schmitz, O.; Coenen, J.W.; Samm, U.; Krieger, K.; Hirai, T.; Emmoth, B.; Rubel, M.; Bazylev, B.; Breuer, U.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER will be castellated by splitting them into small-size blocks to maintain the thermo-mechanical stability. However, there are concerns in particular on retention of codeposited radioactive fuel in the gaps. An R and D program is underway in TEXTOR addressing this acute issue of castellation. Material migration and fuel inventory are investigated using long- and short-term discharge-resolved experiments with castellated structures in TEXTOR. Significant impurity transport to the gaps was detected and results were in part quantitatively reproduced with 3D-GAPS code. Deposits containing up to 70 at.% of tungsten on the gap areas closest to the plasma were detected in recent experiments. Deposition in the gaps accompanied by metal mixing demand for development of effective cleaning techniques. In experiments with ITER-like castellation, the gaps were cleaned from carbonaceous deposits using oxygen plasmas at 350 deg. C. This contribution contains an overview of experimental and modeling results along with recommendations for PFCs in ITER.

  1. An analytical inductor design procedure for three-phase PWM converters in power factor correction applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Niroumand, Farideh Javidi; Haase, Frerk

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for designing the inductor of three-phase power factor correction converters (PFCs). The complex behavior of the inductor current complicates the inductor design procedure as well as the core loss and copper loss calculations. Therefore, this paper analyze...... to calculate the core loss in the PFC application. To investigate the impact of the dc link voltage level, two inductors for different dc voltage levels are designed and the results are compared.......This paper presents an analytical method for designing the inductor of three-phase power factor correction converters (PFCs). The complex behavior of the inductor current complicates the inductor design procedure as well as the core loss and copper loss calculations. Therefore, this paper analyzes...... circuit is used to provide the inductor current harmonic spectrum. Therefore, using the harmonic spectrum, the low and high frequency copper losses are calculated. The high frequency minor B-H loops in one switching cycle are also analyzed. Then, the loss map provided by the measurement setup is used...

  2. Divertor scenario development for NSTX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; McLean, A. G.; Meier, E. T.; Rognlien, T. D.; Ryutov, D. D.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Leblanc, B. P.; Menard, J. E.; Podesta, M.; Scotti, F.

    2012-10-01

    In the NSTX-U tokamak, initial plans for divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs) include lithium and boron coated graphite, with a staged transition to molybdenum. Steady-state peak divertor heat fluxes are projected to reach 20-30 MW/m^2 in 2 MA, 12 MW NBI-heated discharges of up to 5 s duration, thus challenging PFC thermal limits. Based on the recent NSTX divertor experiments and modeling with edge transport code UEDGE, a favorable basis for divertor power handling in NSTX-U is developed. The snowflake divertor geometry and feedback-controlled divertor impurity seeding applied to the lower and upper divertors are presently envisioned. In the NSTX snowflake experiments with lithium-coated graphite PFCs, the peak divertor heat fluxes from Type I ELMs and between ELMs were significantly reduced due to geometry effects, increased volumetric losses and null-point convective redistribution between strike points. H-mode core confinement was maintained at H98(y,2)<=1 albeit the radiative detachment. Additional CD4 seeding demonstrated potential for a further increase of divertor radiation.

  3. Phase-Change Nanoparticles Using Highly Volatile Perfluorocarbons: Toward a Platform for Extravascular Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry O. Matsunaga, Paul S. Sheeran, Samantha Luois, Jason E. Streeter, Lee B. Mullin, Bhaskar Banerjee, Paul A. Dayton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent efforts using perfluorocarbon (PFC nanoparticles in conjunction with acoustic droplet vaporization has introduced the possibility of expanding the diagnostic and therapeutic capability of ultrasound contrast agents to beyond the vascular space. Our laboratories have developed phase-change nanoparticles (PCNs from the highly volatile PFCs decafluorobutane (DFB, bp =-2 °C and octafluoropropane (OFP, bp =-37 °C for acoustic droplet vaporization. Studies with commonly used clinical ultrasound scanners have demonstrated the ability to vaporize PCN emulsions with frequencies and mechanical indices that may significantly decrease tissue bioeffects. In addition, these contrast agents can be formulated to be stable at physiological temperatures and the perfluorocarbons can be mixed to modulate the balance between sensitivity to ultrasound and general stability. We herein discuss our recent efforts to develop finely-tuned diagnostic/molecular imaging agents for tissue interrogation. We discuss studies currently under investigation as well as potential diagnostic and therapeutic paradigms that may emerge as a result of formulating PCNs with low boiling point PFCs.

  4. CFC/Cu bond damage in actively cooled plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J; Martin, E; Henninger, C; Boscary, J; Camus, G; Escourbiac, F; Leguillon, D; Missirlian, M; Mitteau, R

    2007-01-01

    Carbon fibre composite (CFC) armours have been successfully used for actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) of the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak. They were also selected for the divertor of the stellarator W7-X under construction and for the vertical target of the ITER divertor. In TS and W7-X a flat tile design for heat fluxes of 10 MW m -2 has been chosen. To predict the lifetime of such PFCs, it is necessary to analyse the damage mechanisms and to model the damage propagation when the component is exposed to thermal cycling loads. Work has been performed to identify a constitutive law for the CFC and parameters to model crack propagation from the edge singularity. The aim is to predict damage rates and to propose geometric or material improvements to increase the strength and the lifetime of the interfacial bond. For ITER a tube-in-tile concept (monoblock), designed to sustain heat fluxes up to 20 MW m -2 , has been developed. The optimization of the CFC/Cu bond, proposed for flat tiles, could be adopted for the monoblock concept

  5. Conceptual design of EAST flexible in-vessel inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, X.B.; Song, Y.T.; Li, C.C.; Lei, M.Z.; Li, G.

    2010-01-01

    Remote handling technology, especially the flexible in-vessel inspection system (FIVIS) without breaking the working condition of the vacuum vessel, has been identified as one major challenge on the maintenance for the future tokamak fusion reactor. The FIVIS introduced here is specially developed for EAST superconducting tokamak that has actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs). It aims flexible close-up inspection of EAST PFCs to help the understanding of operation issues that could occur in the vacuum vessel. This paper resumes the preliminary work of the FIVIS project, including the requirement analysis and the development of the conceptual design. The FIVIS consists out of a long reach multi-articulated manipulator and a process tool. The manipulator has a modular design for its subsystems and can reach all areas of the first wall in the distance of 15 mm and in the range of ±90 o along toroidal direction. It will be folded and hidden in the designated horizontal port during plasma discharge period.

  6. A new vision of plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygren, Richard E., E-mail: renygre@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Youchison, Dennis L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Snead, Lance L.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • New approach recommended to develop refractory fusion plasma facing components. • Need to develop engineered materials architecture with nano-features. • Need to develop PFCs with gas jet cooling with very fine scale for jet arrays. • Emphasis on role of additive manufacturing as needed method for fabrication. - Abstract: This paper advances a vision for plasma facing components (PFCs) that includes the following points. The solution for plasma facing materials likely consists of engineered structures in which the layer of plasma facing material (PFM) is integrated with an engineered structure that cools the PFM and may also transition with graded composition. The key to achieving this PFC architecture will likely lie in advanced manufacturing methods, e.g., additive manufacturing, that can produce layers with controlled porosity and features such as micro-fibers and/or nano-particles that can collect He and transmutation products, limit tritium retention, and do all this in a way that maintains adequate robustness for a satisfactory lifetime. This vision has significant implications for how we structure a development program.

  7. Characterization of the thermolysis products of Nafion membrane: A potential source of perfluorinated compounds in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-05-01

    The thermal decomposition of Nafion N117 membrane, a typical perfluorosulfonic acid membrane that is widely used in various chemical technologies, was investigated in this study. Structural identification of thermolysis products in water and methanol was performed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). The fluoride release was studied using an ion-chromatography system, and the membrane thermal stability was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis. Notably, several types of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorocarboxylic acids were detected and identified. Based on these data, a thermolysis mechanism was proposed involving cleavage of both the polymer backbone and its side chains by attack of radical species. This is the first systematic report on the thermolysis products of Nafion by simulating its high-temperature operation and disposal process via incineration. The results of this study indicate that Nafion is a potential environmental source of PFCs, which have attracted growing interest and concern in recent years. Additionally, this study provides an analytical justification of the LC/ESI-MS/MS method for characterizing the degradation products of polymer electrolyte membranes. These identifications can substantially facilitate an understanding of their decomposition mechanisms and offer insight into the proper utilization and effective management on these membranes.

  8. Changes in concentrations of perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast-milk during twelve months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Cathrine; Haug, Line S; Stigum, Hein; Frøshaug, May; Broadwell, Sharon L; Becher, Georg

    2010-12-15

    At present, scientific knowledge on depuration rates of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited and the previous assumptions of considerable reduction of body burdens through breast-feeding have recently been challenged. We therefore studied elimination rates of important POPs in nine Norwegian primiparous mothers and one mother breast-feeding her second child by collecting breast-milk samples (n = 70) monthly from about two weeks to up to twelve months after birth. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in the breast-milk samples. Linear mixed effect models were established for selected compounds, and significant decreases in the range of 1.2-4.7% in breast-milk concentrations per month were observed for a wide range of PCBs and PBDEs. For the first time, depuration rates for perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are presented, being 3.8 and 7.8% per month, respectively (p changes during the lactation period. After a year of nursing the breast-milk concentrations of PFCs, PBDEs, and PCBs were reduced by 15-94%.

  9. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Pt. II. Analysis of ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Raffray, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., p.85-100, 1997. The transient thermal model RACLETTE (acronym of Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation) described in part I of this paper is applied here to analyse the heat transfer and erosion effects of various slow (100 ms-10 s) high power energy transients on the actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These have a strong bearing on the PFC design and need careful analysis. The relevant parameters affecting the heat transfer during the plasma excursions are established. The temperature variation with time and space is evaluated together with the extent of vaporisation and melting (the latter only for metals) for the different candidate armour materials considered for the design (i.e., Be for the primary first wall, Be and CFCs for the limiter, Be, W, and CFCs for the divertor plates) and including for certain cases low-density vapour shielding effects. The critical heat flux, the change of the coolant parameters and the possible severe degradation of the coolant heat removal capability that could result under certain conditions during these transients, for example for the limiter, are also evaluated. Based on the results, the design implications on the heat removal performance and erosion damage of the various ITER PFCs are critically discussed and some recommendations are made for the selection of the most adequate protection materials and optimum armour thickness. (orig.)

  11. Design, Manufacture, and Experimental Serviceability Validation of ITER Blanket Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshukov, A. Yu.; Strebkov, Yu. S.; Sviridenko, M. N.; Safronov, V. M.; Putrik, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, the Russian Federation and the ITER International Organization signed two Procurement Arrangements (PAs) for ITER blanket components: 1.6.P1ARF.01 "Blanket First Wall" of February 14, 2014, and 1.6.P3.RF.01 "Blanket Module Connections" of December 19, 2014. The first PA stipulates development, manufacture, testing, and delivery to the ITER site of 179 Enhanced Heat Flux (EHF) First Wall (FW) Panels intended for withstanding the heat flux from the plasma up to 4.7MW/m2. Two Russian institutions, NIIEFA (Efremov Institute) and NIKIET, are responsible for the implementation of this PA. NIIEFA manufactures plasma-facing components (PFCs) of the EHF FW panels and performs the final assembly and testing of the panels, and NIKIET manufactures FW beam structures, load-bearing structures of PFCs, and all elements of the panel attachment system. As for the second PA, NIKIET is the sole official supplier of flexible blanket supports, electrical insulation key pads (EIKPs), and blanket module/vacuum vessel electrical connectors. Joint activities of NIKIET and NIIEFA for implementing PA 1.6.P1ARF.01 are briefly described, and information on implementation of PA 1.6.P3.RF.01 is given. Results of the engineering design and research efforts in the scope of the above PAs in 2015-2016 are reported, and results of developing the technology for manufacturing ITER blanket components are presented.

  12. ITER divertor, design issues and research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tivey, R.; Ando, T.; Antipenkov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chiocchio, S.; Federici, G.; Ibbott, C.; Jakeman, R.; Janeschitz, G.; Raffray, R.; Mazul, I.; Pacher, H.; Ulrickson, M.; Vieider, G.

    1999-01-01

    Over the period of the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA) the results from physics experiments, modelling, engineering analyses and R and D, have been brought together to provide a design for an ITER divertor. The design satisfies all necessary requirements for steady state and transient heat flux, nuclear shielding, pumping, tritium inventory, impurity control, armour lifetime, electromagnetic loads, diagnostics, and remote maintenance. The design consists of 60 cassettes each comprising a cassette body onto which the plasma facing components (PFCs) are mounted. Each cassette is supported by toroidal rails which are attached to the vacuum vessel. For the PFCs the final armour choice is carbon-fibre-composite (CfC) for the strike point regions and tungsten in all remaining areas. R and D has demonstrated that CfC monoblocks can routinely withstand heat loads up to 20 MW m -2 10 MW m -2 . Analysis and experiment show that a CfC armour thickness of ∝20 mm will provide sufficient lifetime for at least 1000 full power pulses. The thickness of the cassette body is sufficient to shield the vacuum vessel, so that, if necessary, rewelding is possible, and also provides sufficient stiffness against electromagnetically generated loads. The cassette design provides efficient and proven remote maintenance which should allow exchange of a complete divertor within ∝6 months. (orig.)

  13. Beryllium application in ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Jakeman, R.; Ioki, K.; Janeschitz, G.; Parker, R.; Tivey, R.; Pacher, H.D.; Wu, C.H.; Bartels, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium is a candidate armour material for the in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), namely the primary first wall, the limiter, the baffle and the divertor. However, a number of issues arising from the performance requirements of the ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) must be addressed to better assess the attractiveness of Be as armour for these different components. These issues include heat loading limits arising from temperature and stress constraints under steady state conditions, armour lifetime including the effects of sputtering erosion as well as vaporisation and loss of melt during disruption events, tritium retention and permeation, and chemical hazards, in particular with respect to potential Be/steam reaction. Other issues such as fabrication and the possibility of in-situ repair are not performance-dependent but have an important impact on the overall assessment of Be as PFC armour. This paper describes the present view on Be application for ITER PFCs. The key issues are discussed including an assessment of the current level of understanding based on analysis and experimental data; and on-going activities as part of the ITER EDA R and D program are highlighted. (orig.)

  14. Manufacturing and testing of reference samples for the definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visca, Eliseo; Cacciotti, E.; Libera, S.; Mancini, A.; Pizzuto, A.; Roccella, S.; Riccardi, B.; Escourbiac, F.; Sanguinetti, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The most critical part of a high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink joint. An experimental study was launched by EFDA in order to define the acceptance criteria to be used for the procurements of the ITER Divertor PFCs. ENEA is involved in the European International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) R and D activities and together with Ansaldo Ricerche S.p.A. has manufactured several PFCs mock-ups using the Hot Radial Pressing and Pre-Brazed Casting technologies. According to the technical specifications issued by EFDA, ENEA and Ansaldo have collaborated to manufacture half of the samples with calibrated artificial defects required for this experimental study. After manufacturing, the samples were examined by ultrasonic and SATIR non-destructive examination (NDE) methods in order to confirm the size and position of the artificial defects. In particular, it was concluded that defects are detectable with these NDE techniques and they finally gave indication about the threshold of propagation during high heat flux experiments relevant with heat fluxes expected in ITER Divertor. This paper reports the manufacturing procedure used to obtain the required calibrated artificial defects in the CFC and W armoured samples as well as the NDE results and the thermal high heat flux results.

  15. ITER divertor, design issues and research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tivey, R.; Ando, T.; Antipenkov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chiocchio, S.; Federici, G.; Ibbott, C.; Jakeman, R.; Janeschitz, G.; Raffray, R. [ITER Joint Central Team, Garching (Germany). Joint Central Work Site; Akiba, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka-machi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Mazul, I. [Efremov Institute, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pacher, H. [NET Team, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Ulrickson, M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vieider, G. [NET Team, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Over the period of the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA) the results from physics experiments, modelling, engineering analyses and R and D, have been brought together to provide a design for an ITER divertor. The design satisfies all necessary requirements for steady state and transient heat flux, nuclear shielding, pumping, tritium inventory, impurity control, armour lifetime, electromagnetic loads, diagnostics, and remote maintenance. The design consists of 60 cassettes each comprising a cassette body onto which the plasma facing components (PFCs) are mounted. Each cassette is supported by toroidal rails which are attached to the vacuum vessel. For the PFCs the final armour choice is carbon-fibre-composite (CfC) for the strike point regions and tungsten in all remaining areas. R and D has demonstrated that CfC monoblocks can routinely withstand heat loads up to 20 MW m{sup -2}10 MW m{sup -2}. Analysis and experiment show that a CfC armour thickness of {proportional_to}20 mm will provide sufficient lifetime for at least 1000 full power pulses. The thickness of the cassette body is sufficient to shield the vacuum vessel, so that, if necessary, rewelding is possible, and also provides sufficient stiffness against electromagnetically generated loads. The cassette design provides efficient and proven remote maintenance which should allow exchange of a complete divertor within {proportional_to}6 months. (orig.)

  16. Comprehensive safety analysis code system for nuclear fusion reactors III: Ex-vessel LOCA analyses considering passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Okazaki, T.; Maki, K.; Uda, T.; Seki, Y.; Aoki, I.; Kunugi, T.

    1996-01-01

    Ex-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in a fusion reactor have been analyzed to investigate the possibility of passive plasma shutdown. For this purpose, a hybrid code of the plasma dynamics and thermal characteristics of the reactor structures, which has been modified to include the impurity emission from plasma-facing components (PFCs), has been developed. Ex-vessel LOCAs of the cooling system during the ignition operation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in which graphite PFCs were employed in conceptual design activity, were assumed. When double-ended break occurs at the cold leg of the divertor cooling system, the copper cooling tube begins to melt within 3 s after the LOCA, even though the plasma is passively shut down at nearly 4 s. An active plasma shutdown system will be needed for such rapid transient accidents. On the other hand, when a small (1%) break LOCA occurs there, the plasma is passively shut down at nearly 36 s, which happens before the copper cooling tube begins to melt. When the double-ended break LOCA occurs at the cold leg of the first-wall cooling system, there is enough time (nearly 100 s) to shut down the plasma with a controllable method before the reactor structures are damaged. 21 refs., 8 figs

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of structural transformation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at water/rutile interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangzhi; Zhang, Meiyi; Zhou, Qin; Pan, Gang

    2015-09-01

    Concentration and salinity conditions are the dominant environmental factors affecting the behavior of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) on the surfaces of a variety of solid matrices (suspended particles, sediments, and natural minerals). However, the mechanism has not yet been examined at molecular scales. Here, the structural transformation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at water/rutile interfaces induced by changes of the concentration level of PFOS and salt condition was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. At low and intermediate concentrations all PFOS molecules directly interacted with the rutile (110) surface mainly by the sulfonate headgroups through electrostatic attraction, yielding a typical monolayer structure. As the concentration of PFOS increased, the molecules aggregated in a complex multi-layered structure, where an irregular assembling configuration was adsorbed on the monolayer structure by the van der Waals interactions between the perfluoroalkyl chains. When adding CaCl2 to the system, the multi-layered structure changed to a monolayer again, indicating that the addition of CaCl2 enhanced the critical concentration value to yield PFOS multilayer assemblies. The divalent Ca(2+) substituted for monovalent K(+) as the bridging counterion in PFOS adsorption. MD simulation may trigger wide applications in study of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) from atomic/molecular scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exposure to modern, widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effect on the reproductive potential of women: an overview of current epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacka, Anetta; Zamkowska, Dorota; Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna

    2017-07-31

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on EDCs exposure and reproductive potential among women for the last 16 years were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature databases. The results of the presented studies show that exposure to EDCs impacts the reproductive potential in women, measured by ovarian reserve and by assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals decrease: (i) oestradiol levels (BPA); (ii) anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations (PCBs); (iii) antral follicle count (BPA, parabens, phthalates); (iv) oocyte quality (BPA, triclosan, phthalates, PCBs); (v) fertilization rate (PFCs, PCBs); (vi) implantation (BPA, phthalates, PCBs); (vii) embryo quality (triclosan, PCBs, BPA); (viii) rate of clinical pregnancy and live births (parabens, phthalates). The studies were mostly well-designed and used prospective cohorts with the exposure assessment based on the biomarker of exposure. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiological data is urgently needed to confirm the presented findings.

  19. Design of plasma facing components for the SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, S.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Choudhury, P.; Khirwadkar, S.; Pragash, R.; Santra, P.; Saxena, Y.C.; Sinha, P.

    2000-01-01

    Steady state Superconducting Tokamak, SST-1, is a medium sized tokamak with major and minor radii of 1.10 m and 0.20 m respectively. Elongated plasma operation with double null poloidal divertor is planned with a maximum input power of 1 MW. The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) like Divertors and Baffles, Poloidal limiters and Passive stabilizers form the first material boundary around the plasma and hence receive high heat and particle fluxes. The PFC design should ensure efficient heat and particle removal during steady state tokamak operation. A closed divertor geometry is adopted to ensure high neutral pressure in the divertor region (and hence high recycling) and less impurity influx into the core plasma. A set of poloidal limiters are provided to assist break down, current ramp-up and current ramp down phases and for the protection of the in-vessel components. Two pairs of Passive stabilizers, one on the inboard and the other on the outboard side of the plasma, are provided to slow down the vertical instability growth rates of the shaped plasma column. All PFCs are actively cooled to keep the plasma facing surface temperature within the design limits. The PFCs have been shaped/profiled so that maximum steady state heat flux on the surface is less than 1 MW/m 2 . (author)

  20. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolof, M.L.; McCold, L.N.; Saylor, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium maintain a large inventory of chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC-114) as a coolant. To address the continued use of CFC-114, an ozone-depleting substance, the US Department of Energy (DOE) considered introducing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) by the end of 1995. These PFCs would not contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion but would be larger contributors to global warming than would CFC-114. The paper reports the results of an assessment of the global impacts of four alternatives for modifying GDP coolant system operations over a three-year period beginning in 1996. The overall contribution of GDP coolant releases to impacts on ozone depletion and global warming were quantified by parameters referred to as ozone-depletion impact and global-warming impact. The analysis showed that these parameters could be used as surrogates for predicting global impacts to all resources and could provide a framework for assessing environmental impacts of a permanent coolant replacement, eliminating the need for subsequent resource-specific analyses

  1. Engineering studies for the installation of an axi-symmetric metallic divertor in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doceul, L.; Portafaix, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Saille, A.; Bertrand, B.; Lipa, M.; Missirlian, M.; Jiolat, G.; Samaille, F.; Soler, B.

    2011-01-01

    Tore Supra (TS) has been designed to operate using technologies that allow long plasma operation (a few minutes), by means of superconducting magnets and actively-cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs). Actively cooled tungsten PFC will be used in the baffle area of the first ITER divertor. In order to validate such a technology fully (industrial manufacturing, operation with long plasma duration), the implementation of a tungsten axi-symmetric divertor in the tokamak Tore Supra has been studied . With this second major upgrade, Tore Supra should be able to address the problematic of long plasma discharges with a metallic divertor. The proposed divertor is made up of two stainless steel casings containing a copper coil winding located at the top and bottom area of the vacuum vessel. These casings are firmly maintained by connection beams and protected by PFC. This paper describes the mechanical design of this major component and its integration in TS, the associated electromagnetic and thermomechanical analysis, the manufacturing issues and finally the integration of ITER representative PFCs.

  2. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Part II: Analysis of ITER plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Gianfranco; Raffray, A. René

    1997-04-01

    The transient thermal model RACLETTE (acronym of Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation) described in part I of this paper is applied here to analyse the heat transfer and erosion effects of various slow (100 ms-10 s) high power energy transients on the actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These have a strong bearing on the PFC design and need careful analysis. The relevant parameters affecting the heat transfer during the plasma excursions are established. The temperature variation with time and space is evaluated together with the extent of vaporisation and melting (the latter only for metals) for the different candidate armour materials considered for the design (i.e., Be for the primary first wall, Be and CFCs for the limiter, Be, W, and CFCs for the divertor plates) and including for certain cases low-density vapour shielding effects. The critical heat flux, the change of the coolant parameters and the possible severe degradation of the coolant heat removal capability that could result under certain conditions during these transients, for example for the limiter, are also evaluated. Based on the results, the design implications on the heat removal performance and erosion damage of the variuos ITER PFCs are critically discussed and some recommendations are made for the selection of the most adequate protection materials and optimum armour thickness.

  3. Recrystallization and grain growth induced by ELMs-like transient heat loads in deformed tungsten samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslova, A.; El-Atwani, O.; Sagapuram, D.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-11-01

    Tungsten has been chosen as the main candidate for plasma facing components (PFCs) due to its superior properties under extreme operating conditions in future nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER. One of the serious issues for PFCs is the high heat load during transient events such as ELMs and disruption in the reactor. Recrystallization and grain size growth in PFC materials caused by transients are undesirable changes in the material, since the isotropic microstructure developed after recrystallization exhibits a higher ductile-to-brittle transition temperature which increases with the grain size, a lower thermal shock fatigue resistance, a lower mechanical strength, and an increased surface roughening. The current work was focused on careful determination of the threshold parameters for surface recrystallization, grain growth rate, and thermal shock fatigue resistance under ELM-like transient heat events. Transient heat loads were simulated using long pulse laser beams for two different grades of ultrafine-grained tungsten. It was observed that cold rolled tungsten demonstrated better power handling capabilities and higher thermal stress fatigue resistance compared to severely deformed tungsten. Higher recrystallization threshold, slower grain growth, and lower degree of surface roughening were observed in the cold rolled tungsten.

  4. Mechanical design and thermo-hydraulic simulation of the infrared thermography diagnostic of the WEST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micolon, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.micolon@cea.fr; Courtois, Xavier; Aumeunier, Marie-Hélène; Chenevois, Jean-Pierre; Larroque, Sébastien

    2015-10-15

    The WEST (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady state Tokamak) project is a partial rebuild of the Tore Supra tokamak to make it an X-point metallic environment machine aimed at testing ITER technologies in relevant plasma environment. For the safe operation of the WEST tokamak, infra-red (IR) thermography is a crucial diagnostic as it is a sound and reliable way to detect hotspots or abnormal heating patterns on the plasma facing components (PFCs). Thus WEST will be fitted with middle/short-IR (1.5–2 μm or 3–5 μm) cameras in the upper port plugs to get a full view of the critical PFCs (in particular the new lower divertor) and radio-frequency (RF) heating antennas and one camera at the equatorial level to monitor the new upper divertor and the first wall. This paper describes the design of the up-to-date optical system along with the hydraulic analysis and the thermal and mechanical finite element analysis conducted to ensure adequate heat extraction capabilities. Boundary conditions and simulation results will be presented and discussed as well as technological solutions retained.

  5. Development of time dependent safety analysis code for plasma anomaly events in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Okazaki, Takashi; Bartels, H.W.; Uckan, N.A.; Seki, Yasushi.

    1997-01-01

    A safety analysis code SAFALY has been developed to analyze plasma anomaly events in fusion reactors, e.g., a loss of plasma control. The code is a hybrid code comprising a zero-dimensional plasma dynamics and a one-dimensional thermal analysis of in-vessel components. The code evaluates the time evolution of plasma parameters and temperature distributions of in-vessel components. As the plasma-safety interface model, we proposed a robust plasma physics model taking into account updated data for safety assessment. For example, physics safety guidelines for beta limit, density limit and H-L mode confinement transition threshold power, etc. are provided in the model. The model of the in-vessel components are divided into twenty temperature regions in the poloidal direction taking account of radiative heat transfer between each surface of each region. This code can also describe the coolant behavior under hydraulic accidents with the results by hydraulics code and treat vaporization (sublimation) from plasma facing components (PFCs). Furthermore, the code includes the model of impurity transport form PFCs by using a transport probability and a time delay. Quantitative analysis based on the model is possible for a scenario of plasma passive shutdown. We examined the possibility of the code as a safety analysis code for plasma anomaly events in fusion reactors and had a prospect that it would contribute to the safety analysis of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). (author)

  6. Interactions of Deuterium Plasma with Lithiated and Boronized Surfaces in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, Predrag

    2015-09-01

    The main research goal of the presented research has been to understand the changes in surface composition and chemistry at the nanoscopic temporal and spatial scales for long pulse Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) and link these to the overall machine performance of the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). A study is presented of the lithium surface science, with atomic spatial and temporal resolutions. The dynamic surface responds and evolves in a mixed material environments (D, Li, C, B, O, Mo, W) with impingement of plasma particles in the energy range below 100 eV. The results, obtained by quantum-classical molecular dynamics, include microstructure changes, erosion, surface chemistry, deuterium implantation and permeation. Main objectives of the research are i) a comparison of Li and B deposition on carbon, ii) the role of oxygen and other impurities e.g. boron, carbon in the lithium performance, and iii) how this performance will change when lithium is applied to a high-Z refractory metal substrate (Mo, W). In addition to predicting and understanding the phenomenology of the processes, we will show plasma induced erosion of PFCs, including chemical and physical sputtering yields at various temperatures (300-700 K) as well as deuterium uptake/recycling. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Science, Award Number DE-SC0013752.

  7. Progress in the engineering design and assessment of the European DEMO first wall and divertor plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Thomas R., E-mail: tom.barrett@ukaea.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Ellwood, G.; Pérez, G.; Kovari, M.; Fursdon, M.; Domptail, F.; Kirk, S.; McIntosh, S.C.; Roberts, S.; Zheng, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, L.V. [KIT, INR, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); You, J.-H. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion, PPPT, Boltzmann Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Reiser, J.; Rieth, M. [KIT, IAM, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Visca, E.; Mazzone, G. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Arbeiter, F. [KIT, INR, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Domalapally, P.K. [Research Center Rez, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec – Řež (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The engineering of the plasma facing components for DEMO is an extreme challenge. • PFC overall requirements, methods for assessment and designs status are described. • Viable divertor concepts for 10 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux appear to be within reach. • The first wall PFC concept will need to vary poloidally around the wall. • First wall coolant, structural material and PFC topology are open design choices. - Abstract: The European DEMO power reactor is currently under conceptual design within the EUROfusion Consortium. One of the most critical activities is the engineering of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) covering the plasma chamber wall, which must operate reliably in an extreme environment of neutron irradiation and surface heat and particle flux, while also allowing sufficient neutron transmission to the tritium breeding blankets. A systems approach using advanced numerical analysis is vital to realising viable solutions for these first wall and divertor PFCs. Here, we present the system requirements and describe bespoke thermo-mechanical and thermo-hydraulic assessment procedures which have been used as tools for design. The current first wall and divertor designs are overviewed along with supporting analyses. The PFC solutions employed will necessarily vary around the wall, depending on local conditions, and must be designed in an integrated manner by analysis and physical testing.

  8. A protection system for the JET ITER-like wall based on imaging diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoux, G.; Balboa, I.; Balshaw, N.; Beldishevski, M.; Cramp, S.; Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Horton, A.; Kinna, D.; McCullen, P.; Obrejan, K.; Patel, K.; Lomas, P. J.; Rimini, F.; Stamp, M.; Stephen, A.; Thomas, P. D.; Williams, J.; Wilson, J.; Zastrow, K.-D. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-15

    The new JET ITER-like wall (made of beryllium and tungsten) is more fragile than the former carbon fiber composite wall and requires active protection to prevent excessive heat loads on the plasma facing components (PFC). Analog CCD cameras operating in the near infrared wavelength are used to measure surface temperature of the PFCs. Region of interest (ROI) analysis is performed in real time and the maximum temperature measured in each ROI is sent to the vessel thermal map. The protection of the ITER-like wall system started in October 2011 and has already successfully led to a safe landing of the plasma when hot spots were observed on the Be main chamber PFCs. Divertor protection is more of a challenge due to dust deposits that often generate false hot spots. In this contribution we describe the camera, data capture and real time processing systems. We discuss the calibration strategy for the temperature measurements with cross validation with thermal IR cameras and bi-color pyrometers. Most importantly, we demonstrate that a protection system based on CCD cameras can work and show examples of hot spot detections that stop the plasma pulse. The limits of such a design and the associated constraints on the operations are also presented.

  9. Abatement of global warming gas emissions from semiconductor manufacturing processes by non-thermal plasma-catalyst systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J-S.; Urashima, K.

    2009-01-01

    Emission of various hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and greenhouse gases including perfluoro-compounds (PFCs) from semiconductor industries may cause significant impact on human health and the global environment, has attracted much public attention. In this paper, an application of nonthermal plasma-adsorbent system for a removal of PFCs emission from semiconductor process flue gases is experimentally investigated. The non-thermal plasma reactor used is the ferro-electric packed-bed type barrier discharge plasma and adsorbent reactor used is Zeolite bed reactor. The results show that for a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with C 2 F 6 (2000ppm)/ CF 4 (1000ppm)/ N 2 O(1000ppm)/ N 2 / Air mixture, 54% of C 2 F 6 and 32% of CF 4 were decomposed by the plasma reactor and 100% of C 2 F 6 and 98% of CF 4 were removed by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. For a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with NF 3 (2000ppm)/ SiF 4 (1000ppm)/ N 2 O(200ppm)/ N 2 / Air mixture, 92% of NF 3 and 32% of SiF 4 were decomposed by the plasma reactor and total (100%) removal of the pollutant gases was achieved by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. (author)

  10. High heat flux tests of mock-ups for ITER divertor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giniatulin, R.; Gervash, A.; Komarov, V.L.; Makhankov, A.; Mazul, I.; Litunovsky, N.; Yablokov, N.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most difficult tasks in fusion reactor development is the designing, fabrication and high heat flux testing of actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs). At present, for the ITER divertor project it is necessary to design and test components by using mock-ups which reflect the real design and fabrication technology. The cause of failure of the PFCs is likely to be through thermo-cycling of the surface with heat loads in the range 1-15 MW m -2 . Beryllium, tungsten and graphite are considered as the most suitable armour materials for the ITER divertor application. This work presents the results of the tests carried out with divertor mock-ups clad with beryllium and tungsten armour materials. The tests were carried out in an electron beam facility. The results of high heat flux screening tests and thermo-cycling tests in the heat load range 1-9 MW m -2 are presented along with the results of metallographic analysis carried out after the tests. (orig.)

  11. Effect of PFC recycling conditions on JET pedestal density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesen, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Dittmar, T.; Matveev, D.; Harting, D.; De la Luna, E.; Schmid, K.

    2016-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that the pedestal dynamics in type-I ELMy H-mode discharges is significantly affected by a change in the recycling conditions at the tungsten plasma-facing components (W-PFCs) after an ELM event. The integrated code JINTRAC has been employed to assess the impact of recycling conditions during type-I ELMs in JET ITER-like wall H-mode discharges. By employing a heuristic approach, a model to mimic the physical processes leading to formation and release (i.e. outgassing) of finite near-surface fuel reservoirs in W-PFCs has been implemented into the EDGE2D-EIRENE plasma-wall interaction code being part of JINTRAC. As main result it is shown, that a delay in the density pedestal build-up after an ELM event can be provoked by reduced recycling induced by depleted W-PFC particle near-surface reservoirs. However the pedestal temperature evolution is barely affected by the change in recycling parameters suggesting that the presented model is incomplete. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  12. Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NO x , 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO 2 . Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO 2 accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N 2 O (16 %), CH 4 (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF 6 (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

  13. Manufacturing and testing of reference samples for the definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visca, Eliseo, E-mail: visca@frascati.enea.i [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Cacciotti, E.; Libera, S.; Mancini, A.; Pizzuto, A.; Roccella, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Riccardi, B., E-mail: Bruno.Riccardi@f4e.europa.e [Fusion For Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Escourbiac, F., E-mail: frederic.escourbiac@iter.or [ITER Organization, Cadarache (France); Sanguinetti, G.P., E-mail: gianpaolo.sanguinetti@aen.ansaldo.i [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genova (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The most critical part of a high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink joint. An experimental study was launched by EFDA in order to define the acceptance criteria to be used for the procurements of the ITER Divertor PFCs. ENEA is involved in the European International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) R and D activities and together with Ansaldo Ricerche S.p.A. has manufactured several PFCs mock-ups using the Hot Radial Pressing and Pre-Brazed Casting technologies. According to the technical specifications issued by EFDA, ENEA and Ansaldo have collaborated to manufacture half of the samples with calibrated artificial defects required for this experimental study. After manufacturing, the samples were examined by ultrasonic and SATIR non-destructive examination (NDE) methods in order to confirm the size and position of the artificial defects. In particular, it was concluded that defects are detectable with these NDE techniques and they finally gave indication about the threshold of propagation during high heat flux experiments relevant with heat fluxes expected in ITER Divertor. This paper reports the manufacturing procedure used to obtain the required calibrated artificial defects in the CFC and W armoured samples as well as the NDE results and the thermal high heat flux results.

  14. Control of beam halo-chaos using fuzzy logic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Yuan Haiying; Tan Guangxing; Luo Wenguang

    2012-01-01

    Considering the ion beam with initial K-V distribution in the periodic focusing magnetic filed channels (PFCs) as a typical sample, a fuzzy control method for control- ling beam halo-chaos was studied. A fuzzy proportional controller, using output of fuzzy inference as a control factor, was presented for adjusting exterior focusing magnetic field. The stability of controlled system was proved by fuzzy phase plane analysis. The simulation results demonstrate that the chaotic radius of envelope can be controlled to the matched radius via controlling magnetic field. This method was also applied to the multi-particle model. Under the control condition, the beam halos and its regeneration can be eliminated effectively, and that both the compactness and the uniformity of ion beam are improved evidently. Since the exterior magnetic field can be rather easily adjusted by proportional control and the fuzzy logic controller is independent to the mathematical model, this method has adaptive ability and is easily realized in experiment. The research offers a valuable reference for the design of the PFCs in the high- current linear ion accelerators. (authors)

  15. Honeywell optical investigations on FLASH program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Ken; Peterson, Eric; Yount, Larry

    1995-05-01

    The increasing performance and reduction of life cycle cost requirements placed on commercial and military transport aircraft are resulting in more complex, highly integrated aircraft control and management systems. The use of fiber optic data transmission media can make significant contributions in achieving these performance and cost goals. The Honeywell portion of Task 2A on the Fly-by-Light Advanced System Hardware (FLASH) program is evaluating a Primary Flight Control System (PFCS) using pilot and copilot inputs from Active Hand Controllers (AHC) which are optically linked to the primary flight Control Computers (PFCC). Customer involvement is an important element of the Task 2A activity. Establishing customer requirements and perspectives on productization of systems developed under FLASH are key to future product success. The Honeywell elements of the PFCS demonstrator provide a command path that is optically interfaced from crew inputs to commands of distributed, smart actuation subsystems commands. Optical communication architectures are implemented using several protocols including the new AS-1773A 20 Mbps data bus standard. The interconnecting fiber optic cable plant is provided by our Task 1A teammate McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (West). Fiber optic cable plant fabrication uses processed, tools and materials reflecting necessary advances in manufacturing required to make fly-by-light avionics systems marketable.

  16. Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Timothy D; Higgins, Christopher P; Quiñones, Oscar; Vanderford, Brett J; Kolstad, Chad; Zeigler-Holady, Janie C; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2014-03-15

    The near ubiquitous presence of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in humans has raised concerns about potential human health effects from these chemicals, some of which are both extremely persistent and bioaccumulative. Because some of these chemicals are highly water soluble, one major pathway for human exposure is the consumption of contaminated drinking water. This study measured concentrations of PFASs in 18 raw drinking water sources and 2 treated wastewater effluents and evaluated 15 full-scale treatment systems for the attenuation of PFASs in water treatment utilities throughout the U.S. A liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method was used to enable measurement of a suite of 23 PFASs, including perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Despite the differences in reporting levels, the PFASs that were detected in >70% of the source water samples (n = 39) included PFSAs, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (74%), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (79%), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (84%), and PFCAs, perfluoropentanoic acid (74%), perfluorohexanoic acid (79%), perfluoroheptanoic acid (74%), and perfluorooctanoic acid (74%). More importantly, water treatment techniques such as ferric or alum coagulation, granular/micro-/ultra- filtration, aeration, oxidation (i.e., permanganate, ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide), and disinfection (i.e., ozonation, chlorine dioxide, chlorination, and chloramination) were mostly ineffective in removing PFASs. However, anion exchange and granular activated carbon treatment preferably removed longer-chain PFASs and the PFSAs compared to the PFCAs, and reverse osmosis demonstrated significant removal for all the PFASs, including the smallest PFAS, perfluorobutanoic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative in vitro toxicity assessment of perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Cecon T; Damayanti, Nur P; Guffey, Samuel C; Serafin, Jennifer S; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2017-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic fluorinated compounds that are highly bioaccumulative and persistent organic pollutants. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an eight-carbon chain perfluorinated carboxylic acid, was used heavily for the production of fluoropolymers, but concerns have led to its replacement by shorter carbon chain homologues such as perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). However, limited toxicity data exist for these substitutes. We evaluated the toxicity of PFOA, PFHxA and PFBA on a zebrafish liver cell line and investigated the effects of exposure on cell metabolism. Gross toxicity after 96 h of exposure was highest for PFOA and PFO - , while PFHxA and PFBA exhibited lower toxicity. Although the structural similarity of these compounds to fatty acids suggests the possibility of interference with the transport and metabolism of lipids, we could not detect any differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (ppar-α, -β and -γ), fabp3 and crot genes after 96 h exposure to up to 10 ppm of the test compounds. However, we observed localized lipid droplet accumulation only in PFBA-exposed cells. To study the effects of these compounds on cell metabolism, we conducted fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using naturally fluorescent biomarkers, NADH and FAD. The fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and FAD and the bound/free ratio of each of these coenzymes decreased in a dose- and carbon length-dependent manner, suggesting disruption of cell metabolism. In sum, our study revealed that PFASs with shorter carbon chains are less toxic than PFOA, and that exposure to sublethal dosage of PFOA, PFHxA or PFBA affects cell metabolism. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Perfluorinated alkylated acids in groundwater and drinking water: identification, origin and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Raat, Klaasjan J; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; De Voogt, Pim

    2013-08-01

    Human exposure to perfluorinated alkylated acids (PFAA) occurs primarily via the dietary intake and drinking water can contribute significantly to the overall PFAA intake. Drinking water is produced from surface water and groundwater. Waste water treatment plants have been identified as the main source for PFAA in surface waters and corresponding drinking water. However, even though groundwater is an important source for drinking water production, PFAA sources remain largely uncertain. In this paper, we identified different direct and indirect sources of PFAA to groundwater within the catchment area of a public supply well field (PSWF) in The Netherlands. Direct sources were landfill leachate and water draining from a nearby military base/urban area. Indirect sources were infiltrated rainwater. Maximum concentrations encountered in groundwater within the landfill leachate plume were 1.8 μg/L of non branched perfluorooctanoic acid (L-PFOA) and 1.2 μg/L of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). Sum concentrations amounted to 4.4 μg/L total PFAA. The maximum concentration of ΣPFAA in the groundwater originating from the military camp was around 17 ng/L. Maximum concentrations measured in the groundwater halfway the landfill and the PWSF (15 years travel distance) were 29 and 160 ng/L for L-PFOA and PFBA, respectively. Concentrations in the groundwater pumping wells (travel distance >25 years) were much lower: 0.96 and 3.5 ng/L for L-PFOA and PFBA, respectively. The chemical signature of these pumping wells corresponded to the signature encountered in other wells sampled which were fed by water that had not been in contact with potential contaminant sources, suggesting a widespread diffuse contamination from atmospheric deposition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of carbon adsorbents for the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from potable reuse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2017-10-01

    Bench- and pilot-scale sorption tests were used to probe the performance of several biochars at removing perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) from field waters, compared to granular activated carbon (GAC). Screening tests using organic matter-free water resulted in hardwood (HWC) (K d  = 41 L g -1 ) and pinewood (PWC) (K d  = 49 L g -1 ) biochars having the highest perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) removal performance that was comparable to bituminous coal GAC (K d  = 41 L g -1 ). PWC and HWC had a stronger affinity for PFOA sorbed in Lake Mead surface water (K F  = 11 mg (1-n) L n g -1 ) containing a lower (2 mg L -1 ) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration than in a tertiary-filtered wastewater (K F  = 8 mg (1-n) L n g -1 ) with DOC of 4.9 mg L -1 . A pilot-scale study was performed using three parallel adsorbers (GAC, anthracite, and HWC biochar) treating the same tertiary-filtered wastewater. Compared to HWC, and anthracite, GAC was the most effective in mitigating perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPnA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PHxA), PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and DOC (45-67% removed at 4354 bed volumes) followed by HWC, and then anthracite. Based on bench- and pilot-scale results, shorter-chain PFAA [perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), PFPnA, or PFHxA] were more difficult to remove with both biochar and GAC than the longer-chain, PFOS and PFOA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal variations of perfluoroalkyl substances and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in alpine snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgeorg, Torben; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Sigl, Michael; Schwikowski, Margit

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and temporal variation of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the European Alps was investigated in a 10 m shallow firn core from Colle Gnifetti in the Monte Rosa Massif (4455 m above sea level). The firn core encompasses the years 1997–2007. Firn core sections were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (PFASs) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (PBDEs). We detected 12 PFASs and 8 PBDEs in the firn samples. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA; 0.3–1.8 ng L −1 ) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; 0.2–0.6 ng L −1 ) were the major PFASs while BDE 99 ( −1 ) and BDE 47 (n.d.–2.6 ng L −1 ) were the major PBDEs. This study demonstrates the occurrence of PFASs and PBDEs in the European Alps and provides the first evidence that PFASs compositions may be changing to PFBA-dominated compositions. -- Highlights: •PFASs and PBDEs were detected in low ng L −1 concentrations in an Alpine firn core. •BDE 47, BDE 99 and BDE 209 are the dominating PBDEs. •PFOA, PFNA and PFBA are the major PFASs. •We demonstrate a change in the PFASs composition. •Atmospheric degradation of volatile precursor might be the main source for >C8 PFCAs. -- PFAS and PBDE concentrations in European Alpine snow provide information about the occurrence, accumulation and recent changes of these persistent organic pollutants in Alpine regions

  1. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect neither estrogen and androgen receptor activity nor steroidogenesis in human cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Anne-Cathrin; Lichtenstein, Dajana; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso; Buhrke, Thorsten

    2018-07-01

    The perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are used for the fabrication of water- and dirt-repellent surfaces. The use of PFOS and PFOA was restricted due to their reprotoxic properties and their environmental persistence. Therefore, industry switches to alternative PFAS, however, in contrast to PFOA and PFOS only few toxicological data are available for their substitutes. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying reproductive toxicity of PFOA and PFOS are largely unknown. Here, the endocrine properties of PFOA, PFOS, and of six substitutes including perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), ammonium perfluoro(2-methyl-3-oxahexanoate) (PMOH), and 3H-perfluoro-3-[(3-methoxypropoxy) propanoic acid] (PMPP) were examined in vitro by using human cell lines such as MCF-7, H295R, LNCaP and MDA-kb2. PFOA, PFOS and PMOH enhanced 17β-estradiol-stimulated estrogen receptor β activity, and PFOS, PMOH, PFHxA and PFBA enhanced dihydrotestosterone-stimulated androgen receptor activity. In the H295R steroidogenesis assay, PFOA and PFOS slightly enhanced estrone secretion, and progesterone secretion was marginally increased by PFOA. All these effects were only observed at concentrations above 10 μM, and none of the PFAS displayed any effect on any of the molecular endocrine endpoints at concentrations of 10 μM or below. Thus, as the blood serum concentrations of the different PFAS in the general Western population are in the range of 10 nM or below, the results suggest that PFAS might not exert endocrine effects in humans at exposure-relevant concentrations according to the molecular endpoints examined in this study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity and cellular concentration of 14 perfluoroalkyl substances in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Ahrens, Lutz; le Godec, Théo; Lundqvist, Johan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2018-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a molecular target for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Little is known about the cellular uptake of PFASs and how it affects the PPARα activity. We investigated the relationship between PPARα activity and cellular concentration in HepG2 cells of 14 PFASs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Cellular concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and PPARα activity was determined in transiently transfected cells by reporter gene assay. Cellular uptake of the PFASs was low (0.04-4.1%) with absolute cellular concentrations in the range 4-2500 ng mg -1 protein. Cellular concentration of PFCAs increased with perfluorocarbon chain length up to perfluorododecanoate. PPARα activity of PFCAs increased with chain length up to perfluorooctanoate. The maximum induction of PPARα activity was similar for short-chain (perfluorobutanoate and perfluoropentanoate) and long-chain PFCAs (perfluorododecanoate and perfluorotetradecanoate) (approximately twofold). However, PPARα activities were induced at lower cellular concentrations for the short-chain homologs compared to the long-chain homologs. Perfluorohexanoate, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate induced PPARα activities >2.5-fold compared to controls. The concentration-response relationships were positive for all the tested compounds, except perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOS and FOSA, and were compound-specific, as demonstrated by differences in the estimated slopes. The relationships were steeper for PFCAs with chain lengths up to and including PFNA than for the other studied PFASs. To our knowledge, this is the first report establishing relationships between PPARα activity and cellular concentration of a broad range of PFASs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Assessing temporal trends and source regions of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in air under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Shoeib, Mahiba; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Li, Henrik; Fellin, Phil; Su, Yushan; Hung, Hayley

    2018-01-01

    Long-term Arctic air monitoring of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is essential in assessing their long-range transport and for evaluating the effectiveness of chemical control initiatives. We report for the first time temporal trends of neutral and ionic PFASs in air from three arctic stations: Alert (Canada, 2006-2014); Zeppelin (Svalbard, Norway, 2006-2014) and Andøya (Norway, 2010-2014). The most abundant PFASs were the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs). All of these chemicals exhibited increasing trends at Alert with doubling times (t2) of 3.7 years (y) for PFOA, 2.9 y for PFOS, 2.5 y for PFBA, 5.0 y for 8:2 FTOH and 7.0 y for 10:2 FTOH. In contrast, declining or non-changing trends, were observed for PFOA and PFOS at Zeppelin (PFOA, half-life, t1/2 = 7.2 y; PFOS t1/2 = 67 y), and Andøya (PFOA t1/2 = 1.9 y; PFOS t1/2 = 11 y). The differences in air concentrations and in time trends between the three sites may reflect the differences in regional regulations and source regions. We investigate the source region for particle associated compounds using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. Model results showed that PFOA and PFOS are impacted by air masses originating from the ocean or land. For instance, PFOA at Alert and PFOS at Zeppelin were dominated by oceanic air masses whereas, PFOS at Alert and PFOA at Zeppelin were influenced by air masses transported from land.

  4. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, K.; Verta, M.; Marttinen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  5. R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Yashashri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on various aspects of the development and testing of water cooled divertor PFCs. Divertor PFCs are mainly designed to absorb the heat and particle fluxes outflowing from the core plasma of fusion devices like ITER. The Divertor and First Wall Technology Development Division at the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR, India, is extensively working on development and testing of divertor plasma facing components (PFCs. Tungsten and graphite macro-brush type test mock-ups were produced using vacuum brazing furnace technique and tungsten monoblock type of test mock-ups were obtained by hot radial pressing (HRP technique. Heat transfer performance of the developed test mock-ups was tested using high heat flux tests with different heat load conditions as well as the surface temperature monitoring using transient infrared thermography technique. Recently we have established the High Heat Flux Test Facility (HHFTF at IPR with an electron gun EH300V (M/s Von Ardenne Anlagentechnik GmbH, Germany having maximum power 200 kW. Two tungsten monoblock type test mock-ups were probed using HHFTF. Both of the test mock-ups successfully sustained 316 thermal cycles during high heat flux (HHF tests. The test mock-ups were non-destructively tested using infrared thermography before and after the HHF tests. In this note we describe the detailed procedure used for testing macro-brush and monoblock type test mock-ups using in-house transient infrared thermography set-up. An acceptance criteria limit was defined for small scale macro-brush type of mock-ups using DTrefmax value and the surface temperature measured during the HHF tests. It is concluded that the heat transfer behavior of a plasma facing component was checked by the HHF tests followed by transient IR thermography. The acceptance criteria DTrefmax limit for a graphite macro-brush mock-up was found to be ~3°C while for a tungsten macro-brush mock-up it was ~5°C.

  6. Plato (power load analysis tool) - a module of west wall monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Sutapa; Travere, Jean-marcel; Moreau, P.

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamak) project, is to upgrade the medium- sized superconducting Tokamak, Tore Supra in a major scale. One of it's objectives, is to also act as a test-bed for ITER divertor components, to be procured and used in ITER. WEST would be installing actively cooled Tungsten divertor elements, like the ones to be used in ITER. These components would be tested under two experimental scenarios: high power (Ip = 0.8MA, lasting 30s with 15MW injected power) and high fluence (Ip = 0.6 MA, lasting 1000s with 12 MW injected power). Heat load on the divertor target will range from a few MW/m 2 up to 20 MW/m 2 depending on the X point location and the heat flux decay length. The tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are less tolerant to overheating than their Carbon counterparts and prevention of their burnout is a major concern. It is in this context that the Wall Monitoring System (WMS) - a software framework aimed at monitoring the health of the Wall components, was conceived. WMS has been divided into three parts: a) a pre-discharge power load analysis tool to check compatibility between plasma scenario and PFC's operational limits in terms of heat flux b) a real-time system during discharge, to take into account all necessary measurements involved in the PFCs protection c) a set of analysis tools that would be used post-discharge, that would access WEST database and compare predicted and experimental results. This paper presents an overview of PLATo - the pre-pulse module of WMS that has been recently developed under IPR-IRFM research collaboration. PLAto has two major components - one that produces heat flux information of the PFCS and the other that produces energy graphs depending on shot profile defined by time variant magnetic equilibrium and injected power profiles. Preliminary results will be presented based on foreseen WEST plasma reference scenarios. (author)

  7. Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Ma, Jing; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Libelo, E Laurence; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-11-15

    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from

  8. Spatial distribution of organic contaminants in three rivers of Southern England bound to suspended particulate material and dissolved in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John L; Hooda, Peter S; Swinden, Julian; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    The spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other emerging contaminants (ECs) such as plasticisers, perflourinated compounds (PFCs) and illicit drug metabolites in water and bound to suspended particulate material (SPM) is not well-understood. Here, we quantify levels of thirteen selected contaminants in water (n=88) and their partition to suspended particulate material (SPM, n=16) in three previously-unstudied rivers of Greater London and Southern England during a key reproduction/spawning period. Analysis was conducted using an in-house validated method for Solid Phase Extraction followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass-Spectrometry. Analytes were extracted from SPM using an optimised method for ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction. Detection frequencies of contaminants dissolved in water ranged from 3% (ethinylestradiol) to 100% (bisphenol-A). Overall mean concentrations in the aqueous-phase ranged from 14.7ng/L (benzoylecgonine) to 159ng/L (bisphenol-A). Sewage treatment works (STW) effluent was the predominant source of pharmaceuticals, while plasticisers/perfluorinated compounds may additionally enter rivers via other sources. In SPM, detection frequencies ranged from 44% (PFOA) to 94% (hydroxyacetophenone). Mean quantifiable levels of analytes bound to SPM ranged from 13.5ng/g dry SPM (0.33ng bound/L water) perfluorononanoic acid to 2830ng/g dry SPM (14.3ng bound/L water) perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. Long chain (>C7) amphipathic and acidic PFCs were found to more preferentially bind to SPM than short chain PFCs and other contaminants (Kd=34.1-75.5 vs contaminants entering rivers ranged from 0.157μg/person/day of benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) to 58.6μg/person/day of bisphenol-A. The large sample size of this work (n=104) enabled ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD post-hoc tests to establish significant trends in PPCP/EC spatial distribution from headwaters through downstream stretches of studied

  9. Characterization of novel W alloys produced by HIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monge, M.A.; Auger, M.A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R. [Universidad Carlos 3, Dept. de Fisica, Madrid (Spain); Bolzoni, L.; Gordo, E. [Universidad Carlos 3, Dept. de Ciencias de Materiales, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is considered as a candidate material for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a future fusion power reactor because of its refractory characteristics, low tritium retention and low sputtering yielding. However, its use in PFCs requires the development of a tungsten material that, in addition to these properties, maintains good mechanical properties after a prolonged exposure at high temperatures. Sintering would be the most suitable method to produce tungsten materials for these applications if their recrystallization temperature is high enough and the grain growth is restrained. Usual sintering conditions for tungsten requires very high temperatures that induces a coarse grained structure in the sintered material, and a low recrystallization temperature in the hot worked material. This causes the failure of its mechanical properties. The combined addition of a sintering activator, which lowers the sintering temperature and favors the densification, and an insoluble oxide that produces a dispersion strengthening and grain growth inhibition, may result in a tungsten material with improved mechanical characteristics. Cu, Ni and Fe are the most used activators to produce tungsten heavy alloys but they may be no recommendable for PFCs. The present work assesses the possibility of using jointly Ti as sintering activator and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles as strengthening dispersoids in tungsten. Pure tungsten and tungsten alloys having 0.5 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, x wt % Ti and 0.5 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}+ x wt % Ti have been prepared by powder metallurgy; 0{<=}x{<=}4%. Elemental powders were blended or ball milled, canned, out-gassed and finally consolidated by a two-stage HIP process under a pressure of 200 MPa. The first stage was performed at 1523 K for 2 h, and after un-canning, the second HIP at 1973 K for 30 min. It is found that Ti addition favors the densification attaining a fully dense material, while pure W and W-0.5Y{sub 2

  10. W/Cu composites produced by low temperature Pulse Plasma Sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, M.S.; Fortuna, E.; Michalski, A.J.; Kurzydlowski, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    The plasma facing components (PFCs) must withstand the thermal, mechanical and neutron loads under cyclic mode of operation and vacuum. Despite that PFCs of ITER and demonstration reactors must assure reliability and long in service lifetime. For that reason PFCs are designed to be made of beryllium, tungsten or carbon fibre composites armours and copper based heat sink material. Such design concepts can only be used if joining methods of these dissimilar materials are resolved. Several techniques have been developed for joining W and Cu e. g. casting of pure Cu onto W, high temperature brazing, direct diffusion bonding or CVDs of W onto Cu. The main problem in the development of such joints is the large difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion, CTE (alpha Cu > 4 alpha W) and elastic modula (ECu > 0.2 EW). These differences result in large stresses at the W/Cu interfaces during manufacturing and/or during operation, which may lead to cracking or delamination reducing lifetime of the components. Possible solution to this problem is the use of W-Cu composites (FGM). W-Cu composites are widely used for spark erosion electrodes, in heavy duty circuit breakers and as heat sinks of microelectronic devices. They are commonly produced by infiltration of a porous sintered tungsten by liquid copper. Other technological route is powder metallurgy. Coatings can be produced by low pressure plasma spraying. All these methods, however, are known to have some disadvantages. For infiltration there is a 30 wt.% limit of Cu content while for powder metallurgy and plasma spraying techniques porosity is of concern. In our work the W-Cu composites of different composition were produced by pulse plasma sintering (PPS). This new method utilizes pulsed high electric discharges to heat the powders under uniaxial load. The arc discharges clean surface of powder particles and intensify diffusion. The total sintering time is reduced to several minutes. In our investigations various

  11. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Weiss

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.17 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012 for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m−2, which is 6% of the total anthropogenic PFC radiative forcing (Montzka and Reimann, 2011; Oram et al., 2012. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the late 1990s peaking at 6.2 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015 per year (yr for C4F10, at 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C5F12 and 16.6 ppq yr−1 for C6F14 and in the early 1990s for C7F16 at 4.7 ppq yr−1 and in the mid 1990s for C8F18 at 4.8 ppq yr−1. The 2011 globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs are subsequently lower at 2.2 ppq yr−1 for C4F10, 1.4 ppq yr−1 for C5F12, 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C6F14, 3.4 ppq yr−1 for C7F16 and 0.9 ppq yr−1 for C8F18. The more recent slowdown in the growth rates suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s.

  12. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, K., E-mail: kimmo.suominen@evira.fi [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Risk Assessment Research Unit, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland); Verta, M. [Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE), Mechelininkatu 34a, P.O. Box 140, 00251 Helsinki (Finland); Marttinen, S. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  13. MD simulation: determination of the physical properties and surface vaporization analysis of beryllium armours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinzio, M. Di; Aquaro, D.

    2006-01-01

    The erosion of the divertor and of the first wall determined on the base of the anticipated operating conditions, is a critical issue that could affect the performance and the operating schedule of the nuclear fusion reactor ITER. This paper deals with the analysis of beryllium thermal properties by means of MD simulations, in order to better predict thermal behaviour of beryllium armoured PFCs in fusion devices. The importance of this analysis is clearly connected to thermal response evaluation of PFCs to high heat flux exposure, during off-normal events and Edge Localized Modes. The ensuing strong over-heating, in fact, produces material ablation through vaporization of surface material layers and possible loss of melting material. The overall PFCs erosion has bearings on plasma contamination, due to eroded material transport, and components lifetime, due to armour thickness reduction. An important feature of beryllium is its high vapour pressure. During thermal transients the strong vaporization keeps surface temperature relatively low but eroded thickness results high as well. Small changes in beryllium vapour pressure produce not negligible differences in thermal analyses results. On the basis of available force fields, classical Molecular Dynamics simulations have been carried out in order to better understand surface vaporization in tokamak conditions and to evaluate the effect of beryllium oxides formation. This effect has been successfully modelled by MD simulation, carried out with Moldy code. Morse stretching and bending potential for Be-O bond simulation have been used, and partial charges method, accounting for molecular polarity, has been employed. Since during short thermal transients, such as ELMs, only a few microns of Be armour will be overheated and reach melting threshold, the effective thermal conductivity is very important in determining the temperature evolution of surface layers and the ensuing erosion. Thermal conductivity can be evaluated

  14. Overview of the US-Japan collaborative investigation on hydrogen isotope retention in neutron-irradiated and ion-damaged tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Masashi, E-mail: Masashi.Shimada@inl.gov [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hatano, Y. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Oya, Y. [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Oda, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hara, M. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Cao, G. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Kobayashi, M. [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Sokolov, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watanabe, H. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tyburska-Pueschel, B. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Institute fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Ueda, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Calderoni, P. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Okuno, K. [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    The effect of neutron-irradiation damage has been mainly simulated using high-energy ion bombardment. A recent MIT report (PSFC/RR-10-4, An assessment of the current data affecting tritium retention and its use to project towards T retention in ITER, Lipschultz et al., 2010) summarizes the observations from high-energy ion bombardment studies and illustrates the saturation trend in deuterium concentration due to damage from ion irradiation in tungsten and molybdenum above 1 displacement per atom (dpa). While this prior database of results is quite valuable for understanding the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in plasma facing components (PFCs), it does not encompass the full range of effects that must be considered in a practical fusion environment due to short penetration depth, damage gradient, high damage rate, and high primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy spectrum of the ion bombardment. In addition, neutrons change the elemental composition via transmutations, and create a high radiation environment inside PFCs, which influences the behavior of hydrogen isotope in PFCs, suggesting the utilization of fission reactors is necessary for neutron-irradiation. Under the framework of the US-Japan TITAN program, tungsten samples (99.99 at.% purity from A.L.M.T. Co.) were irradiated by fission neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), at 50 and 300 Degree-Sign C to 0.025, 0.3, and 2.4 dpa, and the investigation of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiated tungsten was performed in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE), the unique high-flux linear plasma facility that can handle tritium, beryllium and activated materials. This paper reports the recent results from the comparison of ion-damaged tungsten via various ion species (2.8 MeV Fe{sup 2+}, 20 MeV W{sup 2+}, and 700 keV H{sup -}) with that from neutron-irradiated tungsten to identify the similarities and differences among them.

  15. Definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor plasma-facing components through systematic experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escourbiac, F; Richou, M; Guigon, R; Durocher, A; Schlosser, J; Grosman, A; Constans, S; Merola, M; Riccardi, B

    2009-01-01

    Experience has shown that a critical part of the high-heat flux (HHF) plasma-facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink bond. An experimental study was performed in order to define acceptance criteria with regards to thermal hydraulics and fatigue performance of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor PFCs. This study, which includes the manufacturing of samples with calibrated artificial defects relevant to the divertor design, is reported in this paper. In particular, it was concluded that defects detectable with non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques appeared to be acceptable during HHF experiments relevant to heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor. On the basis of these results, a set of acceptance criteria was proposed and applied to the European vertical target medium-size qualification prototype: 98% of the inspected carbon fibre composite (CFC) monoblocks and 100% of tungsten (W) monoblock and flat tiles elements (i.e. 80% of the full units) were declared acceptable.

  16. Challenges and opportunities of modeling plasma–surface interactions in tungsten using high-performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian D., E-mail: bdwirth@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hammond, K.D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Krasheninnikov, S.I. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Maroudas, D. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) is critical for ITER and future magnetic fusion reactors. The ITER divertor will be tungsten, which is the primary candidate material for future reactors. Recent experiments involving tungsten exposure to low-energy helium plasmas reveal significant surface modification, including the growth of nanometer-scale tendrils of “fuzz” and formation of nanometer-sized bubbles in the near-surface region. The large span of spatial and temporal scales governing plasma surface interactions are among the challenges to modeling divertor performance. Fortunately, recent innovations in computational modeling, increasingly powerful high-performance computers, and improved experimental characterization tools provide a path toward self-consistent, experimentally validated models of PFC and divertor performance. Recent advances in understanding tungsten–helium interactions are reviewed, including such processes as helium clustering, which serve as nuclei for gas bubbles; and trap mutation, dislocation loop punching and bubble bursting; which together initiate surface morphological modification.

  17. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions - 2005 to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Hjort Mikekkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Thomsen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Authority. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  18. Design and Demonstration of a Material-Plasma Exposure Target Station for Neutron Irradiated Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Juergen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aaron, A. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, Gary L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burgess, Thomas W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ellis, Ronald James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giuliano, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kiggans, James O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lessard, Timothy L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ohriner, Evan Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perkins, Dale E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Varma, Venugopal Koikal [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Fusion energy is the most promising energy source for the future, and one of the most important problems to be solved progressing to a commercial fusion reactor is the identification of plasma-facing materials compatible with the extreme conditions in the fusion reactor environment. The development of plasma–material interaction (PMI) science and the technology of plasma-facing components are key elements in the development of the next step fusion device in the United States, the so-called Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF). All of these PMI issues and the uncertain impact of the 14-MeV neutron irradiation have been identified in numerous expert panel reports to the fusion community. The 2007 Greenwald report classifies reactor plasma-facing materials (PFCs) and materials as the only Tier 1 issues, requiring a “. . . major extrapolation from the current state of knowledge, need for qualitative improvements and substantial development for both the short and long term.” The Greenwald report goes on to list 19 gaps in understanding and performance related to the plasma–material interface for the technology facilities needed for DEMO-oriented R&D and DEMO itself. Of the 15 major gaps, six (G7, G9, G10, G12, G13) can possibly be addressed with ORNL’s proposal of an advanced Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment. Establishing this mid-scale plasma materials test facility at ORNL is a key element in ORNL’s strategy to secure a leadership role for decades of fusion R&D. That is to say, our end goal is to bring the “signature facility” FNSF home to ORNL. This project is related to the pre-conceptual design of an innovative target station for a future Material–Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). The target station will be designed to expose candidate fusion reactor plasma-facing materials and components (PFMs and PFCs) to conditions anticipated in fusion reactors, where PFCs will be exposed to dense high-temperature hydrogen plasmas providing steady

  19. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2015 and 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report is Denmark’s annual documentation report of the greenhouse gas inventory submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The report is prepared in accordance with the UNFCCC reporting guidelines and CMP decisions and contains all...... the mandatory information related to the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. The report contains information on emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 and removals of CO2. The report describes among other aspects the data underpinning the inventory, the methodologies to estimate emissions....../removals and the quality control procedures in place. The main sectoral chapters of the report refer to Denmark, while information on the emission inventory of Greenland and the Faroe Islands is included in Chapter 16 and Annex 7, respectively....

  20. The primary results for the mixed carbon material used for high flux steady-state tokamak operation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Q.G.; Li, J.G.; Zhai, G.T.; Liu, L.; Song, J.R.; Zhang, L.F.; He, Y.X.; Chen, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Several types of carbon mixed materials have been developed in China to be used for high flux steady-state tokamak operation. Performance evaluation of these materials is necessary to determine their applicability as PFCs for high flux steady state. This paper describes the primary results of carbon mixed materials and the effects of dopants on properties are primarily discussed. Test results reveal that bulk boronized graphite has excellent physical and mechanical properties while their thermal conductivity is no more than 73 W/m K due to the formation of a uniform boron-carbon solid solution. In case of multi-element doped graphite, titanium dopant or a decreased boron content is favorable to enhance thermal conductivity. A kind of doped graphite has been developed with thermal conductivity as high as 278 W/m K by optimizing the compositions. Correlations among compositions, microstructure and properties of such doped graphite are discussed

  1. Multiple gas reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kurosawa [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Future global warming has a close relationship with the abatement potential of six greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Therefore, multiple gas reduction flexibility should be assessed. The emission of each non-CO{sub 2} GHG is calculated endogenously by the sum of the product of the emission factor and the endogenous activity index using an integrated assessment model, GRAPE (Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment). The model consists of five modules dealing with issues on energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics and environmental impacts. The uncertainty in the non-CO{sub 2} GHG emission inventory and emission factors is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Remote Metrology, Mapping, and Motion Sensing of Plasma Facing Components Using FM Coherent Laser Radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barry, R.E.; Slotwinsky, A.; Kugel, H.W.; Skinner, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Metrology inside a D/T burning fusion reactor must necessarily be conducted remotely since the in-vessel environment would be highly radioactive due to neutron activation of the torus walls. A technique based on frequency modulated coherent laser radar (FM CLR) for such remote metrology is described. Since the FM CLR relies on frequency shift to measure distances, the results are largely insensitive to surface reflectance characteristics. Results of measurements in TFTR and NSTX fusion devices using a prototype FM CLR unit, capable of remotely measuring distances (range) up to 22 m with better than 0.1-mm precision, are provided. These results illustrate that the FM CLR can be used for precision remote metrology as well as viewing. It is also shown that by conducting Doppler corrected range measurements using the CLR, the motion of objects can be tracked. Thus, the FM CLR has the potential to remotely measure the motion of plasma facing components (PFCs) during plasma disruptions

  3. Design and development of a LIBS system on linear plasma device PSI-2 for in situ real-time diagnostics of plasma-facing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS is a strong candidate for detecting and monitoring the H/D/T content on the surface of plasma facing components (PFCs due to its capability of fast direct in situ measurement in extreme environment (e.g., vacuum, magnetic field, long distance, complex geometry. To study the feasibilities and encounter the challenges of LIBS on plasma devices, a LIBS system has been set up on the linear plasma device PSI-2. A number of key parameters including laser energy, the influence of magnetic field and the persistence of laser induced plasma are studied. Real-time measurements of deuterium outgassing on tungsten samples exposed to deuterium plasma of 1025 D/m2 are performed in the first 40–130 min after plasma exposure. The experimental results are compared to the calculations in the literature.

  4. Definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor plasma-facing components through systematic experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escourbiac, F.; Richou, M.; Guigon, R.; Constans, S.; Durocher, A.; Merola, M.; Schlosser, J.; Riccardi, B.; Grosman, A.

    2009-12-01

    Experience has shown that a critical part of the high-heat flux (HHF) plasma-facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink bond. An experimental study was performed in order to define acceptance criteria with regards to thermal hydraulics and fatigue performance of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor PFCs. This study, which includes the manufacturing of samples with calibrated artificial defects relevant to the divertor design, is reported in this paper. In particular, it was concluded that defects detectable with non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques appeared to be acceptable during HHF experiments relevant to heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor. On the basis of these results, a set of acceptance criteria was proposed and applied to the European vertical target medium-size qualification prototype: 98% of the inspected carbon fibre composite (CFC) monoblocks and 100% of tungsten (W) monoblock and flat tiles elements (i.e. 80% of the full units) were declared acceptable.

  5. Review on the explosive consolidation methods to fabricate tungsten based PFMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuming, E-mail: wangshuming@ustb.edu.cn; Sun, Chongxiao; Guo, Wenhao; Yan, Qingzhi; Zhou, Zhangjian; Zhang, Yingchun; Shen, Weiping; Ge, Changchun

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten is one of the best candidates for plasma-facing materials in the fusion reactors, owing to its many unique properties. In the development of tungsten-based Plasma Facing Materials/Components (PFMs/PFCs), materials scientists have explored many different, innovative preparation and processing routes to meet the requirement of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Some explosive consolidation technology intrinsic characteristics, which make it suitable for powder metallurgy (powders consolidation) and PFMs production, are the high pressure processing, highly short heating time and can be considered as a highly competitive green technology. In this work, an overview of explosive consolidation techniques applied to fabricate tungsten-based PFMs is presented. Emphasis is given to describe the main characteristics and potentialities of the explosive sintering, explosive consolidation techniques. The aspects presented and discussed in this paper indicate the explosive consolidation processes as a promising and competitive technology for tungsten-based PFMs processing.

  6. Lithium Wall Conditioning And Surface Dust Detection On NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, M.G.; Friesen, F.Q.L.; Heim, B.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Rais, B.; Taylor, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    Lithium evaporation onto NSTX plasma facing components (PFC) has resulted in improved energy confinement, and reductions in the number and amplitude of edge-localized modes (ELMs) up to the point of complete ELM suppression. The associated PFC surface chemistry has been investigated with a novel plasma material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface analysis station. Analysis has demonstrated that binding of D atoms to the polycrystalline graphite material of the PFCs is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular deuterium atoms become weakly bonded near lithium atoms themselves bound to either oxygen or the carbon from the underlying material. Surface dust inside NSTX has been detected in real-time using a highly sensitive electrostatic dust detector. In a separate experiment, electrostatic removal of dust via three concentric spiral-shaped electrodes covered by a dielectric and driven by a high voltage 3-phase waveform was evaluated for potential application to fusion reactors

  7. Characterization of fueling NSTX H-mode plasmas diverted to a liquid lithium divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, R., E-mail: kaita@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kugel, H.W.; Abrams, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Heim, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jaworski, M.A., E-mail: mjaworsk@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kallman, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); McLean, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nygren, R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Ono, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); and others

    2013-07-15

    Deuterium fueling experiments were conducted with the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD). Lithium evaporation recoated the LLD surface to approximate flowing liquid Li to sustain D retention. In the first experiment with the diverted outer strike point on the LLD, the difference between the applied D gas input and the plasma D content reached very high values without disrupting the plasma, as would normally occur in the absence of Li pumping, and there was also little change in plasma D content. In the second experiment, constant fueling was applied, as the LLD temperature was varied to change the surface from solid to liquid. The D retention was relatively constant, and about the same as that for solid Li coatings on graphite, or twice that achieved without Li PFC coatings. Contamination of the LLD surface was also possible due to compound formation and erosion and redeposition from carbon PFCs.

  8. Projection of greenhouse gases 2011-2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, O -K; Plejdrup, M S; Winther, M [and others

    2013-02-15

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2035 using a scenario combined with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of industrial plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (Author)

  9. Investigations on in situ diagnostics by an infrared camera to distinguish between the plasma facing tiles with carbonaceous surface layer and defect in the underneath junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Laizhong; Gauthier, Eric; Corre, Yann; Liu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Both a deposition surface layer and a delamination underneath junction existing on plasma facing components (PFCs) can result in abnormal high surface temperature under normal heating conditions. The tile with delamination has to be replaced to prevent from a critical failure (complete delamination) during plasma operation while the carbon deposit can be removed without any repairing. Therefore, distinguishing in situ deposited tiles and junction defect tiles is crucial to avoid the critical failure without unwanted shutdown. In this paper, the thermal behaviors of junction defect tiles and carbon deposit tiles are simulated numerically. A modified time constant method is then introduced to analyze the thermal behaviors of deposited tiles and junction defect tiles. The feasibility of discrimination by analyzing the thermal behaviors of tiles is discussed and the requirements of this method for discrimination are described. Finally, the time resolution requirement of IR cameras to do the discrimination is mentioned

  10. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T. [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time.

  11. An investigation of energy harvesting from renewable sources with PVDF and PZT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatansever, D; Hadimani, R L; Shah, T; Siores, E

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials have been in use for many years; however, with an increasing concern about global warming, piezoelectricity has gained significant importance in research and development for extracting energy from the environment. In this work the voltage responses of ceramic based piezoelectric fibre composite structures (PFCs) and polymer based piezoelectric strips, PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), were evaluated when subjected to various wind speeds and water droplets in order to investigate the possibility of energy generation from these two natural renewable energy sources for utilization in low power electronic devices. The effects of material dimensions, drop mass, releasing height of the drops and wind speed on the voltage output were studied and the power was calculated. This work showed that piezoelectric polymer materials can generate higher voltage/power than ceramic based piezoelectric materials and it was proved that producing energy from renewable sources such as rain drops and wind is possible by using piezoelectric polymer materials

  12. Design and Demonstration of a Material-Plasma Exposure Target Station for Neutron Irradiated Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, Juergen; Aaron, A. M.; Bell, Gary L.; Burgess, Thomas W.; Ellis, Ronald James; Giuliano, D.; Howard, R.; Kiggans, James O.; Lessard, Timothy L.; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Perkins, Dale E.; Varma, Venugopal Koikal

    2015-01-01

    Fusion energy is the most promising energy source for the future, and one of the most important problems to be solved progressing to a commercial fusion reactor is the identification of plasma-facing materials compatible with the extreme conditions in the fusion reactor environment. The development of plasma-material interaction (PMI) science and the technology of plasma-facing components are key elements in the development of the next step fusion device in the United States, the so-called Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF). All of these PMI issues and the uncertain impact of the 14-MeV neutron irradiation have been identified in numerous expert panel reports to the fusion community. The 2007 Greenwald report classifies reactor plasma-facing materials (PFCs) and materials as the only Tier 1 issues, requiring a ''. . . major extrapolation from the current state of knowledge, need for qualitative improvements and substantial development for both the short and long term.'' The Greenwald report goes on to list 19 gaps in understanding and performance related to the plasma-material interface for the technology facilities needed for DEMO-oriented R&D and DEMO itself. Of the 15 major gaps, six (G7, G9, G10, G12, G13) can possibly be addressed with ORNL's proposal of an advanced Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment. Establishing this mid-scale plasma materials test facility at ORNL is a key element in ORNL's strategy to secure a leadership role for decades of fusion R&D. That is to say, our end goal is to bring the ''signature facility'' FNSF home to ORNL. This project is related to the pre-conceptual design of an innovative target station for a future Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). The target station will be designed to expose candidate fusion reactor plasma-facing materials and components (PFMs and PFCs) to conditions anticipated in fusion reactors, where PFCs will be exposed to dense high-temperature hydrogen plasmas providing steady-state heat fluxes of

  13. First mirror deposition/erosion experiment by using multi-purpose manipulators in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Suk-Ho, E-mail: sukhhong@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Eunnam; Son, Soohyun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kogut, Dmitry; Douai, David [CEA, IRFM, Association Euratom-CEA, Paul lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    First mirrors are essential plasma-facing components (PFCs) for fusion devices. Erosion and redeposition on first mirrors are of interest, since they cause degradation of signal intensity. In order to trace deposition/erosion characteristics of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films on first mirrors, two manipulators attached at midplane and divertor regions of KSTAR vacuum vessel are utilized. A net deposition rate of 0.3–0.5 nm/s during a discharge and an erosion rates of 0.1 nm/s during He ion cyclotron wall conditioning (ICWC) are obtained. Property of redeposited layers are different depending on the location, varying from soft polymer-like to hard diamond-like a-C:H layers. For the deposition and erosion of metal layers, a plan for a dedicated experimental session has been set at KSTAR.

  14. The sectoral trends of multigas emissions inventory of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, A.; Shukla, P.R.; Kapshe, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the trends of greenhouse gas (GHG) and local air pollutant emissions of India for 1985-2005. The GHGs covered are six Kyoto gases, namely carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6...... in the same sector is the major source of N2O emissions. PFC emissions are dominated by C2F6 and CF4 emissions from aluminum production. The majority of HFC emissions are contributed by HFC-23, a by-product during the production of HCFC-22 that is widely used in refrigeration industry. CO emissions have...... dominance from biomass burning. Particulate emissions are dominated by biomass burning (residential sector), road transport and coal combustion in large plants. These varied emission patterns provide interesting policy links and disjoints, such as-which and where mitigation flexibility for the Kyoto gases...

  15. Final steps to an all tungsten divertor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, R.; Bobkov, V.; Dux, R.; Kallenbach, A.; Puetterich, Th.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Herrmann, A.; Hopf, Ch.; Krieger, K.; Maggi, C.F.; Maier, H.; Mayer, M.; Rohde, V.; Schmid, K.; Suttrop, W.

    2007-01-01

    Currently 85% of the plasma facing components of ASDEX Upgrade are tungsten coated. Carbon influx from W PFCs is still observed but a reduction of the C content is found in plasma discharges and a lower C fraction is measured in deposited layers in agreement with modelling. W sputtering from the low field side guard and ICRF limiters is mainly due to fast particles from NBI as well as from ions accelerated in the rectified sheath during ICRF operation. The increase of the W source area is reflected in increased W concentrations. For medium to high density discharges the techniques developed so far, namely central heating and ELM pace-making, allow keeping the W concentration in the range of 10 -5 . Boronisation strongly reduces the W influxes and similarly the W content especially during ICRF operation, but this reduction is only temporary and equilibrium is reached already after about 100 discharges

  16. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2010 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Nielsen, Malene; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Albrektsen, R.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.; Hjelgaard, K.; Fauser, P.

    2011-09-15

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using a scenario together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of industrial plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (Author)

  17. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-07-01

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time.

  18. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time

  19. Disruption mitigation studies on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, A.J., E-mail: at546@york.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Helsington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gibson, K.J. [Department of Physics, University of York, Helsington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Harrison, J.R. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Helsington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Kirk, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lisgo, S.W. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, St. Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Lehnen, M. [Institute for Energy Research - Plasma Physics, FZJ, Association EURATOM/FZJ, D-52425 Julich (Germany); Martin, R.; Naylor, G.; Scannell, R.; Cullen, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-01

    Disruptions pose a significant challenge in future devices where the increased stored energy can lead to unacceptably large transient heat loads on plasma facing components (PFCs). One means of mitigating disruptions is that of massive gas injection (MGI), which produces a radiative collapse of the plasma discharge through the injection of impurity gases. The MAST disruption mitigation system is capable of injecting up to 1.95 bar litres into the MAST vacuum vessel over a timescale of 1-2 ms, corresponding to a particle inventory of 5 x 10{sup 22}, around 100 times the plasma particle inventory. High speed infrared thermography, offering full divertor coverage, has shown a 60-70% reduction in divertor power loads during mitigation. A combination of high temporal (0.2 ms) and spatial resolution (1 cm) Thomson scattering and soft X-ray camera array data show evidence for a cooling front associated with the inward propagation of the injected impurities.

  20. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirlian, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: marc.missirlian@cea.fr; Traxler, H. [PLANSEE SE, Technology Center, A-6600 Reutte (Austria); Boscary, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Schedler, B.; Schuler, P. [PLANSEE SE, Technology Center, A-6600 Reutte (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    The non-destructive examination (NDE) method is one of the key issues in developing highly loaded plasma-facing components (PFCs) for a next generation fusion devices such as W7-X and ITER. The most critical step is certainly the fabrication and the examination of the bond between the armour and the heat sink. Two inspection systems based on the infrared thermography methods, namely, the transient thermography (SATIR-CEA) and the pulsed thermography (ARGUS-PLANSEE), are being developed and have been applied to the pre-series of target elements of the W7-X divertor. Results obtained from qualification experiences performed on target elements with artificial calibrated defects allowed to demonstrate the capability of the two techniques and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application.

  1. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Traxler, H.; Boscary, J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J.; Schedler, B.; Schuler, P.

    2007-01-01

    The non-destructive examination (NDE) method is one of the key issues in developing highly loaded plasma-facing components (PFCs) for a next generation fusion devices such as W7-X and ITER. The most critical step is certainly the fabrication and the examination of the bond between the armour and the heat sink. Two inspection systems based on the infrared thermography methods, namely, the transient thermography (SATIR-CEA) and the pulsed thermography (ARGUS-PLANSEE), are being developed and have been applied to the pre-series of target elements of the W7-X divertor. Results obtained from qualification experiences performed on target elements with artificial calibrated defects allowed to demonstrate the capability of the two techniques and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application

  2. Autoantibodies associated with prenatal and childhood exposure to environmental chemicals in faroese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál

    2014-01-01

    to both neural (neurofilaments, cholineacetyltransferase, astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein) and non-neural (actin, desmin, and keratin) antigens were measured and the associations of these autoantibody concentrations with chemical exposures were assessed using linear...... of autoantibodies. However, it is not known if autoantibodies similarly will be generated and detectable in humans following toxicant exposures. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate if autoantibodies specific for neural and non-neural antigens could be detected in children at age 7 years who have...... been exposed to environmental chemicals. Both prenatal and age-7 exposures to mercury, PCBs, and PFCs were measured in 38 children in the Faroe Islands who were exposed to widely different levels of these chemicals due to their seafood-based diet. Concentrations of IgM and IgG autoantibodies specific...

  3. Influence of large dust particles on plasma performance in the HL-2A tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.H., E-mail: huangzh@swip.ac.cn; Yan, L.W.; Feng, Z.; Cheng, J.; Tomita, Y.; Liu, L.; Gao, J.M.; Zhong, W.L.; Jiang, M.; Yang, Q.W.; Xu, Y.; Duan, X.R.

    2015-08-15

    Visible dust particles generated from plasma-facing components (PFCs) and the impact of the dusts on plasma performance as a source of impurities have been studied in the HL-2A tokamak by means of a fast framing camera together with other diagnostics. The camera images display that during a steady state discharge the dusts are accelerated toriodally by the ion drag force and radially by the centrifugal force. The first experimental evidence shows that dust particles originating from the high field side (HFS) lead to a significant reduction of central electron temperature and divertor heat flux, a considerable rise of total radiated power and effective charge, and a slight growth of local electron density. The results reveal that the dusts at the HFS have much stronger effects on plasma performance than those at the low field side (LFS)

  4. Integrated disruption avoidance and mitigation in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jayhyun; Woo, M.H.; Han, H.; In, Y.; Bak, J.G.; Eidietis, N.W.

    2014-01-01

    The final target of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) aims advanced tokamak operation at plasma current 2 MA and toroidal field 3.5 T. In order to safely achieve the target, disruption counter-measures are unavoidable when considering the disruption risks, inevitably accompanied with high performance discharges, such as electro-magnetic load on conducting structures, collisional damage by run-away electrons, and thermal load on plasma facing components (PFCs). In this reason, the establishment of integrated disruption mitigation system (DMS) has been started for routine mega-ampere class operations of KSTAR since 2013 campaign. The DMS mainly consists of the disruption prediction and its avoidance/mitigation in company with logical/technical integration of them. We present the details of KSTAR DMS and the related experimental results in this article. (author)

  5. Theory and models of material erosion and lifetime during plasma instabilities in a tokamak environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-01-01

    Surface and structural damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) due to the frequent loss of plasma confinement remains a serious problem for the tokamak reactor concept. The deposited plasma energy causes significant surface erosion, possible structural failure, and frequent plasma contamination. Surface damage consists of vaporization, spallation, and liquid splatter of metallic materials. Structural damage includes large temperature increases in structural materials and at the interfaces between surface coatings and structural members. To evaluate the lifetimes of plasma-facing materials and nearby components and to predict the various forms of damage that they experience, comprehensive models (contained in the HEIGHTS computer simulation package) are developed, integrated self-consistently, and enhanced. Splashing mechanisms such as bubble boiling and various liquid magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and brittle destruction mechanisms of nonmelting materials are being examined. The design requirements and implications of plasma-facing and nearby components are discussed, along with recommendations to mitigate and reduce the effects of plasma instabilities on reactor components

  6. Removal of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFAS) from aqueous solution using permanently confined micelle arrays (PCMAs)

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Fei

    2014-12-01

    One new sorbent with permanently confined micelle arrays (PCMAs) has been synthesized to remove PFAS compounds from aquatic solutions. The TEM and SEM studies showed that large particle sizes with lots of macro-pores and highly order hexagonal structure of cylindrical micelle had been formed in the sorbent. The FTIR spectrums demonstrated the formation of Si-O-Si covalent bond in the new material. The kinetic study showed that the sorption of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFBuS by PCMAs reached equilibrium within 5 min. The pH and salts in solution are found to have limited effects on sorption of PFOS on the new sorbent, and regeneration experiments revealed that PFAS removal efficiencies by the PCMAs did not decrease after 5 cycle regenerations. The high capabilities of PCMAs make it a potentially attractive sorbent for the removal of PFCs from aqueous solution.

  7. Plasma Surface Interactions Common to Advanced Fusion Wall Materials and EUV Lithography - Lithium and Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzic, D. N.; Alman, D. A.; Jurczyk, B. E.; Stubbers, R.; Coventry, M. D.; Neumann, M. J.; Olczak, W.; Qiu, H.

    2004-09-01

    Advanced plasma facing components (PFCs) are needed to protect walls in future high power fusion devices. In the semiconductor industry, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources are needed for next generation lithography. Lithium and tin are candidate materials in both areas, with liquid Li and Sn plasma material interactions being critical. The Plasma Material Interaction Group at the University of Illinois is leveraging liquid metal experimental and computational facilities to benefit both fields. The Ion surface InterAction eXperiment (IIAX) has measured liquid Li and Sn sputtering, showing an enhancement in erosion with temperature for light ion bombardment. Surface Cleaning of Optics by Plasma Exposure (SCOPE) measures erosion and damage of EUV mirror samples, and tests cleaning recipes with a helicon plasma. The Flowing LIquid surface Retention Experiment (FLIRE) measures the He and H retention in flowing liquid metals, with retention coefficients varying between 0.001 at 500 eV to 0.01 at 4000 eV.

  8. Toxicological perspectives on perfluorinated compounds in avian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesy, J.; Jones, P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals have been widely used in commerce for the last few decades. Until recently little was known about their environmental fate and even less was known about their potential environmental effects. Since Giesy and co-workers first demonstrated the widespread occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in wildlife there has been renewed interest in determining the biological and possible ecological effects of these compounds. The assessment of possible effects of these chemicals has been hampered by a limited understanding of their mode of action and by a lack of toxicological data for wildlife species. Here we summarize recently obtained toxicological studies available for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in two avian species and use this information and environmental concentration data to evaluate the potential for environmental risk that these compounds pose.

  9. Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Barbosa, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore......, the effects of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) on bioaccumulation and elimination mechanisms of these emerging contaminants in marine biota have been poorly studied until now. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of warmer seawater...... and Ruditapes philippinarum). Overall, results showed that warming alone or combined with acidification promoted the bioaccumulation of some compounds (i.e. dechloranes 602, 604, TBBPA), but also facilitated the elimination of others (i.e. iAs, TBBPA). Similarly, lower pH also resulted in higher levels...

  10. Challenges and opportunities of modeling plasma–surface interactions in tungsten using high-performance computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Brian D.; Hammond, K.D.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Maroudas, D.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) is critical for ITER and future magnetic fusion reactors. The ITER divertor will be tungsten, which is the primary candidate material for future reactors. Recent experiments involving tungsten exposure to low-energy helium plasmas reveal significant surface modification, including the growth of nanometer-scale tendrils of “fuzz” and formation of nanometer-sized bubbles in the near-surface region. The large span of spatial and temporal scales governing plasma surface interactions are among the challenges to modeling divertor performance. Fortunately, recent innovations in computational modeling, increasingly powerful high-performance computers, and improved experimental characterization tools provide a path toward self-consistent, experimentally validated models of PFC and divertor performance. Recent advances in understanding tungsten–helium interactions are reviewed, including such processes as helium clustering, which serve as nuclei for gas bubbles; and trap mutation, dislocation loop punching and bubble bursting; which together initiate surface morphological modification

  11. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2007 to 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, Marianne; Fauser, P.

    2009-02-15

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2025 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  12. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions 2009 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Plejdrup, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.; Hjelgaard, K.; Fauser, P.

    2010-09-15

    This report contains a description of models, background data and projections of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (Author)

  13. Projection of greenhouse gas emissions - 2005 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Hjort Mikekkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Thomsen, Marianne [DMU-AU, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)

    2007-01-15

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Authority. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  14. Power balance estimation in long duration discharges on QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Idei, H.

    2013-01-01

    Fully non-inductive plasma start-up was successfully achieved by using a well-controlled microwave on the spherical tokamak, QUEST. Non inductive plasmas could be maintained for approximately 3∼5 min, where power balance could be achieved in the view of monitoring of wall and cooling water temperature. Approximately 80% of the injected power could be detected by a calorimetric measurement and the residual power may be lost in two antenna systems to inject the well-controlled microwave. Almost more than 50% of injected power is deposited on the vacuum wall, not depending on the magnetic configuration. The power distribution to PFCs significantly depends on the magnetic configuration, however some of them is providing from energetic electrons, which have large poloidal orbits and are likely to deposit on the vessel in the low field side. (author)

  15. Definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor plasma-facing components through systematic experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escourbiac, F; Richou, M; Guigon, R; Durocher, A; Schlosser, J; Grosman, A [CEA/IRFM, F-13108, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Constans, S [AREVA-NP, Le Creusot (France); Merola, M [ITER Organization, Cadarache (France); Riccardi, B [Fusion For Energy, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: frederic.escourbiac@cea.fr

    2009-12-15

    Experience has shown that a critical part of the high-heat flux (HHF) plasma-facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink bond. An experimental study was performed in order to define acceptance criteria with regards to thermal hydraulics and fatigue performance of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor PFCs. This study, which includes the manufacturing of samples with calibrated artificial defects relevant to the divertor design, is reported in this paper. In particular, it was concluded that defects detectable with non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques appeared to be acceptable during HHF experiments relevant to heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor. On the basis of these results, a set of acceptance criteria was proposed and applied to the European vertical target medium-size qualification prototype: 98% of the inspected carbon fibre composite (CFC) monoblocks and 100% of tungsten (W) monoblock and flat tiles elements (i.e. 80% of the full units) were declared acceptable.

  16. An experimental study of tracers for labelling of injection gas in oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugstad, Oe.

    1992-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of the PMCP and PMCH as tracers in field experiments. These compounds have properties which make them as well suited for well to well studies as the more common tracers CH 3 T and 85 Kr. In an injection project carried out at the Gullfaks field in the North Sea the two PFCs verified communication between wells. This implies communication between different geological layers in the reservoir and also communication across faults within the same layers. Laboratory studies carried out have focused on the retention of the tracers in dynamic flooding experiments under conditions comparable with those in the petroleum reservoirs. Simultaneous injection of a variety of tracers has shown individual variations in tracer retention which are caused by important reservoir parameters as fluid saturation and rock properties. By proper design of field injection programs the tracers response may therefore be used to estimate fluid saturation if actual rock properties are known. 45 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs

  17. Adiposity and Glycemic Control in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie G.; Rossing, Laura I.; Grontved, Anders

    2014-01-01

    , waist circumference, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations were assessed in 8- to 10-year-old children in 1997 in a subset of the European Youth Heart Study, Danish component. Plasma PFC concentrations were available from 499 children. Linear regression models were......Objective: Our objective was to explore whether childhood exposure to perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), widely used stain- and grease-repellent chemicals, is associated with adiposity and markers of glycemic control. Materials and Methods: Body mass index, skinfold thickness...... perfluorooctane sulfonic acid/mL plasma was associated with 16.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2%-28.3%) higher insulin concentration, 12.0% (95% CI, 2.4%-22.4%) higher β-cell activity, 17.6% (95% CI, 5.8%-30.8%) higher insulin resistance, and 8.6% (95% CI, 1.2%-16.5%) higher triglyceride concentrations...

  18. Towards intelligent video understanding applied to plasma facing component monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, V.; Travere, J.M.; Moncada, V.; Bremond, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we promote intelligent plasma facing component video monitoring for both real-time purposes (machine protection issues) and post event analysis purposes (plasma-wall interaction understanding). We propose a vision-based system able to automatically detect and classify into different pre-defined categories thermal phenomena such as localized hot spots or transient thermal events (e.g. electrical arcing) from infrared imaging data of PFCs. This original computer vision system is made intelligent by endowing it with high level reasoning (i.e. integration of a priori knowledge of thermal event spatio-temporal properties to guide the recognition), self-adaptability to varying conditions (e.g. different thermal scenes and plasma scenarios), and learning capabilities (e.g. statistical modelling of event behaviour based on training samples). (authors)

  19. First mirror deposition/erosion experiment by using multi-purpose manipulators in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Suk-Ho; Bang, Eunnam; Son, Soohyun; Kogut, Dmitry; Douai, David

    2016-01-01

    First mirrors are essential plasma-facing components (PFCs) for fusion devices. Erosion and redeposition on first mirrors are of interest, since they cause degradation of signal intensity. In order to trace deposition/erosion characteristics of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films on first mirrors, two manipulators attached at midplane and divertor regions of KSTAR vacuum vessel are utilized. A net deposition rate of 0.3–0.5 nm/s during a discharge and an erosion rates of 0.1 nm/s during He ion cyclotron wall conditioning (ICWC) are obtained. Property of redeposited layers are different depending on the location, varying from soft polymer-like to hard diamond-like a-C:H layers. For the deposition and erosion of metal layers, a plan for a dedicated experimental session has been set at KSTAR.

  20. Bulk Ion Heating with ICRF Waves in Tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER...... when 3 MW of ICRF power tuned to the central 3He ion cyclotron resonance was added to 4.5 MW of deuterium NBI. The radial gradient of the Ti profile reached locally values up to about 50 keV/m and the normalized logarithmic ion temperature gradients R/LTi of about 20, which are unusually large for AUG...

  1. The Effects of Temperature and Oxidation on Deuterium Retention in Solid and Liquid Lithium Films on Molybdenum Plasma-Facing Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) enable in-situ renewal of the surface, thereby offering a solution to neutron damage, erosion, and thermal fatigue experienced by solid PFCs. Lithium in particular has a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, which has resulted in reduced recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices including TFTR, T11-M, FTU, CDX-U, LTX, TJ-II, and NSTX. A key component to the improvement in plasma performance is deuterium retention in Li; however, this process is not well understood in the complex tokamak environment. Recent surface science experiments conducted at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory have used electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption to understand the mechanisms for D retention in Li coatings on Mo substrates. The experiments were designed to give monolayer-control of Li films and were conducted in ultrahigh vacuum under controlled environments. An electron cyclotron resonance plasma source was used to deliver a beam of deuterium ions to the surface over a range of ion energies. Our work shows that D is retained as LiD in metallic Li films. However, when oxygen is present in the film, either by diffusion from the subsurface at high temperature or as a contaminant during the deposition process, Li oxides are formed that retain D as LiOD. Experiments indicate that LiD is more thermally stable than LiOD, which decomposes to liberate D2 gas and D2O at temperatures 100 K lower than the LiD decomposition temperature. Other experiments show how D retention varies with substrate temperature to provide insight into the differences between solid and liquid lithium films. This work was supported by DOE Contract No. DE AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Towards intelligent video understanding applied to plasma facing component monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V.; Bremond, F. [INRIA, Pulsa team-project, Sophia Antipolis (France); Travere, J.M. [CEA IRFM, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Moncada, V.; Dunand, G. [Sophia Conseil Company, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2011-07-01

    Infrared thermography has become a routine diagnostic in many magnetic fusion devices to monitor the heat loads on the plasma facing components (PFCs) for both physics studies and machine protection. The good results of the developed systems obtained so far motivate the use of imaging diagnostics for control, especially during long pulse tokamak operation (e.g. lasting several minutes). In this paper, we promote intelligent monitoring for both real-time purposes (machine protection issues) and post event analysis purposes (PWI understanding). We propose a vision-based system able to automatically detect and classify into different pre-defined categories phenomena as localized hot spots, transient thermal events (e.g. electrical arcing), and unidentified flying objects (UFOs) as dusts from infrared imaging data of PFCs. This original vision system is made intelligent by endowing it with high-level reasoning (i.e. integration of a priori knowledge of thermal event spatial and temporal properties to guide the recognition), self-adaptability to varying conditions (e.g. different plasma scenarios), and learning capabilities (e.g. statistical modelling of thermal event behaviour based on training samples). This approach has been already successfully applied to the recognition of one critical thermal event at Tore Supra. We present here latest results of its extension for the recognition of others thermal events (e.g., B{sub 4}C flakes, impact of fast particles, UFOs) and show how extracted information can be used during plasma operation at Tore Supra to improve the real time control system, and for further analysis of PFC aging. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  3. Plasma edge and plasma-wall interaction modelling: Lessons learned from metallic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wiesen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Robust power exhaust schemes employing impurity seeding are needed for target operational scenarios in present day tokamak devices with metallic plasma-facing components (PFCs. For an electricity-producing fusion power plant at power density Psep/R>15MW/m divertor detachment is a requirement for heat load mitigation. 2D plasma edge transport codes like the SOLPS code as well as plasma-wall interaction (PWI codes are key to disentangle relevant physical processes in power and particle exhaust. With increased quantitative credibility in such codes more realistic and physically sound estimates of the life-time expectations and performance of metallic PFCs can be accomplished for divertor conditions relevant for ITER and DEMO. An overview is given on the recent progress of plasma edge and PWI modelling activities for (carbon-free metallic devices, that include results from JET with the ITER-like wall, ASDEX Upgrade and Alcator C-mod. It is observed that metallic devices offer an opportunity to progress the understanding of underlying plasma physics processes in the edge. The validation of models can be substantially improved by eliminating carbon from the experiment as well as from the numerical system with reduced degrees of freedom as no chemical sputtering from amorphous carbon layers and no carbon or hydro-carbon transport are present. With the absence of carbon as the primary plasma impurity and given the fact that the physics of the PWI at metallic walls is less complex it is possible to isolate the crucial plasma physics processes relevant for particle and power exhaust. For a reliable 2D dissipative plasma exhaust model these are: cross-field drifts, complete kinetic neutral physics, geometry effects (including main-chamber, divertor and sub-divertor structures, SOL transport reflecting also the non-diffusive nature of anomalous transport, as well as transport within the pedestal region in case of significant edge impurity radiation

  4. Design, R&D and commissioning of EAST tungsten divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, D. M.; Luo, G. N.; Zhou, Z. B.; Cao, L.; Li, Q.; Wang, W. J.; Li, L.; Qin, S. G.; Shi, Y. L.; Liu, G. H.; Li, J. G.

    2016-02-01

    After commissioning in 2005, the EAST superconducting tokamak had been operated with its water cooled divertors for eight campaigns up to 2012, employing graphite as plasma facing material. With increase in heating power over 20 MW in recent years, the heat flux going to the divertors rises rapidly over 10 MW m-2 for steady state operation. To accommodate the rapid increasing heat load in EAST, the bolting graphite tile divertor must be upgraded. An ITER-like tungsten (W) divertor has been designed and developed; and firstly used for the upper divertor of EAST. The EAST upper W divertor is modular structure with 80 modules in total. Eighty sets of W/Cu plasma-facing components (PFC) with each set consisting of an outer vertical target (OVT), an inner vertical target (IVT) and a DOME, are attached to 80 stainless steel cassette bodies (CB) by pins. The monoblock W/Cu-PFCs have been developed for the strike points of both OVT and IVT, and the flat type W/Cu-PFCs for the DOME and the baffle parts of both OVT and IVT, employing so-called hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technology for tungsten to CuCrZr heat sink bonding, and electron beam welding for CuCrZr to CuCrZr and CuCrZr to other material bonding. Both monoblock and flat type PFC mockups passed high heat flux (HHF) testing by means of electron beam facilities. The 80 divertor modules were installed in EAST in 2014 and results of the first commissioning are presented in this paper.

  5. Pancreatic fluid collections: What is the ideal imaging technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaka, Narendra; Samanta, Jayanta; Kochhar, Suman; Kalra, Navin; Appasani, Sreekanth; Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2015-12-28

    Pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) are seen in up to 50% of cases of acute pancreatitis. The Revised Atlanta classification categorized these collections on the basis of duration of disease and contents, whether liquid alone or a mixture of fluid and necrotic debris. Management of these different types of collections differs because of the variable quantity of debris; while patients with pseudocysts can be drained by straight-forward stent placement, walled-off necrosis requires multi-disciplinary approach. Differentiating these collections on the basis of clinical severity alone is not reliable, so imaging is primarily performed. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the commonly used modality for the diagnosis and assessment of proportion of solid contents in PFCs; however with certain limitations such as use of iodinated contrast material especially in renal failure patients and radiation exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performs better than computed tomography (CT) in characterization of pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections especially for quantification of solid debris and fat necrosis (seen as fat density globules), and is an alternative in those situations where CT is contraindicated. Also magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is highly sensitive for detecting pancreatic duct disruption and choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic ultrasound is an evolving technique with higher reproducibility for fluid-to-debris component estimation with the added advantage of being a single stage procedure for both diagnosis (solid debris delineation) and management (drainage of collection) in the same sitting. Recently role of diffusion weighted MRI and positron emission tomography/CT with (18)F-FDG labeled autologous leukocytes is also emerging for detection of infection noninvasively. Comparative studies between these imaging modalities are still limited. However we look forward to a time when this gap in literature will be fulfilled.

  6. Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au cours de la periode 1990-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NO{sub x}, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO{sub 2}. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO{sub 2} accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N{sub 2}O (16 %), CH{sub 4} (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF{sub 6} (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

  7. Design and operation results of nitrogen gas baking system for KSTAR plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Tae [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Jin, E-mail: k43689@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Nam-Yong; Im, Dong-Seok; Kim, Kang-Pyo; Kim, Kyung-Min; Bang, Eun-Nam; Kim, Yaung-Soo [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seong-Yeon [Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Vacuum pressure in a vacuum vessel arrived at 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar. • PFC temperature was reached maximum 250 °C by gas temperature at 300 °C. • PFC inlet gas temperature was changed 5 °C per hour during rising and falling. • PFC gas balancing was made temperature difference among them below 8.3 °C. • System has a pre-cooler and a three-way valve to save operation energy. -- Abstract: A baking system for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma facing components (PFCs) is designed and operated to achieve vacuum pressure below 5 × 10{sup −7} mbar in vacuum vessel with removing impurities. The purpose of this research is to prevent the fracture of PFC because of thermal stress during baking the PFC, and to accomplish stable operation of the baking system with the minimum life cycle cost. The uniformity of PFC temperature in each sector was investigated, when the supply gas temperature was varied by 5 °C per hour using a heater and the three-way valve at the outlet of a compressor. The alternative of the pipe expansion owing to hot gas and the cage configuration of the three-way valve were also studied. During the fourth campaign of the KSTAR in 2011, nitrogen gas temperature rose up to 300 °C, PFC temperature reached at 250 °C, the temperature difference among PFCs was maintained at below 8.3 °C, and vacuum pressure of up to 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar was achieved inside the vacuum vessel.

  8. Solution by dilution?--A review on the pollution status of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Scholz-Starke, Björn; Wu, Lingling; Hou, Junli; Yin, Daqiang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ji, Rong; Yuan, Xingzhong; Ottermanns, Richard; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2013-10-01

    The Yangtze River has been a source of life and prosperity for the Chinese people for centuries and is a habitat for a remarkable variety of aquatic species. But the river suffers from huge amounts of urban sewage, agricultural effluents, and industrial wastewater as well as ship navigation wastes along its course. With respect to the vast amounts of water and sediments discharged by the Yangtze River, it is reasonable to ask whether the pollution problem may be solved by simple dilution. This article reviews the past two decades of published research on organic pollutants in the Yangtze River and several adjacent water bodies connected to the main stream, according to a holistic approach. Organic pollutant levels and potential effects of water and sediments on wildlife and humans, measured in vitro, in vivo, and in situ, were critically reviewed. The contamination with organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and others, of water and sediment along the river was described. Especially Wuhan section and the Yangtze Estuary exhibited stronger pollution than other sections. Bioassays, displaying predominantly the endpoints mutagenicity and endocrine disruption, applied at sediments, drinking water, and surface water indicated a potential health risk in several areas. Aquatic organisms exhibited detectable concentrations of toxic compounds like PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, and PFCs. Genotoxic effects could also be assessed in situ in fish. To summarize, it can be stated that dilution reduces the ecotoxicological risk in the Yangtze River, but does not eliminate it. Keeping in mind an approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared to the major European river Rhine, the absolute pollution mass transfer of the Yangtze River is of severe concern for

  9. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel [Área de Toxicología, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Clementini, Chiara [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra [Department of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Murcia & Instituto Murciano de Investigacion Biomedica (IMIB), (IMIB-VIRGEN DE LA ARRIXACA), Murcia (Spain); Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Guerranti, Cristiana [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bioscience Research Center, Via Aurelia Vecchia 32, 58015 Orbetello, GR (Italy); Cincinelli, Alessandra, E-mail: acincinelli@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  10. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Durocher, A.; Schlosser, J.; Farjon, J.-L.; Vignal, N.; Traxler, H.; Schedler, B.; Boscary, J.

    2006-01-01

    As heat exhaust capability and lifetime of plasma-facing component (PFC) during in-situ operation are linked to the manufacturing quality, a set of non-destructive testing must be operated during R-and-D and manufacturing phases. Within this framework, advanced non-destructive examination (NDE) methods are one of the key issues to achieve a high level of quality and reliability of joining techniques in the production of high heat flux components but also to develop and built successfully PFCs for a next generation of fusion devices. In this frame, two NDE infrared thermographic approaches, which have been recently applied to the qualification of CFC target elements of the W7-X divertor during the first series production will be discussed in this paper. The first one, developed by CEA (SATIR facility) and used with successfully to the control of the mass-produced actively cooled PFCs on Tore Supra, is based on the transient thermography where the testing protocol consists in inducing a thermal transient within the heat sink structure by an alternative hot/cold water flow. The second one, recently developed by PLANSEE (ARGUS facility), is based on the pulsed thermography where the component is heated externally by a single powerful flash of light. Results obtained on qualification experiences performed during the first series production of W7-X divertor components representing about thirty mock-ups with artificial and manufacturing defects, demonstrated the capabilities of these two methods and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application. This comparative study, associated to a cross-checking analysis between the high heat flux performance tests and these inspection methods by infrared thermography, showed a good reproducibility and allowed to set a detectable limit specific at each method. Finally, the detectability of relevant defects showed excellent coincidence with thermal images obtained from high heat flux

  11. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) - main concerns and regulatory developments in Europe from an environmental point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierke, Lena [Federal Environment Agency, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Lueneburg (Germany); Staude, Claudia; Biegel-Engler, Annegret; Drost, Wiebke; Schulte, Christoph [Federal Environment Agency, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are the most investigated substances of the group of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Whereas for PFOS regulatory measures are already in force on international level (inclusion in Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants) such activities are missing for PFOA. The environmental concerns of PFOA, which are summarized in the present study, underline the necessity of regulatory measures on an international level for PFOA. Since it seems more likely to agree on a regulation within the European Union first, a regulatory strategy based on the European chemicals regulation REACH (EC No. 1907/2006), is discussed in the present study. PFOA is persistent in the environment, ubiquitous present in surface waters, and subject to long-range transport. It accumulates in biota, especially in top predators. PFOA is increasingly analyzed in food items, and in drinking water. PFOA's intrinsic properties such as its persistency (P), its potential for bioaccumulation (B) and its toxicity (T) suggest that PFOA is a promising candidate for being identified as a Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) under REACH. Because of the dispersive occurrence of PFOA in the environment, the presence in imported products, and the use of PFCs, which can degrade to PFOA in various consumer products, a restriction under REACH seems to be the most effective regulatory measure to minimize human and environmental exposure to PFOA in the European Union. Due to its intrinsic properties, PFOA fulfills the REACH PBT-criteria. The next regulatory step will be the identification of PFOA and its ammonium salt (APFO) as SVHC according to REACH and the addition to the REACH Candidate List. As a second step, a restriction proposal will be prepared to include both substances and precursors into REACH Annex XVII. (orig.)

  12. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  13. Experimental mechanistic investigation of the nanostructuring of tungsten with low energy helium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiflis, P., E-mail: fiflis1@illinois.edu; Connolly, N.; Ruzic, D.N.

    2016-12-15

    Helium ion bombardment of tungsten at temperatures between approximately one third and one half of its melting point has shown growth of nanostructures colloquially referred to as “fuzz”. The nanostructures take the form of thin tendrils of diameter about 30 nm and grow out of the bulk material. Tungsten will and does compose one of the key materials for plasma facing components (PFCs) in fusion reactors. The formation of nanostructured fuzz layers on PFCs would be detrimental to the performance of the reactor, and must therefore be avoided. Previous experiments have shown evidence that tungsten fuzz is initially grown by loop punching of helium bubbles created in the bulk. However, once the tendrils grow to sufficient length, the tendrils should intercept the entire helium flux, halting the production of fuzz. Fuzz continues to grow though. To increase the understanding of the mechanisms of tungsten fuzz formation, and thereby aid the avoidance of its production, a series of tests were performed to examine the validity of several theories regarding later stage tungsten fuzz growth. Tests showed that the fuzz formation was dependent solely on the bombardment of helium ions, and not on electric fields, or adatom diffusion. Experiments employing a tungsten coated molybdenum sample indicate the presence of a strong mixing layer and strongly suggest that tungsten fuzz growth continues to occur from the bottom up even as the tendrils grow in size. Tests also show a similarity between different metals exposed to helium ion fluxes where the ratio of bubble diameter to tendril diameter is constant.

  14. Experiences on vacuum conditioning in the cryostat of KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Pyo, E-mail: kpkim@nfri.er.ke [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Woo, I.S.; Chang, Y.B.; Kwag, S.W.; Song, N.H.; Bang, E.N.; Hong, J.S.; Chu, Y.; Park, K.R. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The vacuum of the cryostat has been stably maintained during the KSTAR operation. ► The detected cold leak at the PF/CS coils and CS structure. ► The present helium leak makes no issue for the cryostat operation. -- Abstract: Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device has been successfully operated for the plasma experiment from KSTAR 1st campaign to 4th campaign. The main pumping system for the cryostat has to maintain the target pressure below 1.0 × 10{sup −4} mbar at room temperature and 1.0 × 10{sup −5} mbar at extremely low temperature for the plasma experiment against the air leak coming from ports of vessel and/or the helium leak from cooling loops in the cryostat. No leak has been detected at room temperature. Unexpectedly, the cold-leak appeared in the cryostat at temperature around 50 K during the cool-down in the KSTAR 2nd campaign. We carefully analyzed the characteristics of detected cold leak because it can cause the increase of the base pressure in the cryostat. After the cool-down, the leak detection was performed to locate the position and size of the leak by the pressurizing the loops. As a result, it is found that the cold leak was located at cooling loops for PF/CS coils and CS structure. Nevertheless, the vacuum inside the cryostat was well maintained below 6.0 × 10{sup −8} mbar during the entire operation period. The impact of the He-leak in present status on the plasma operation is negligible. However, we have found that the leak rate increases as a function of time. Therefore careful monitoring on cold-leak is an important technical issue for the operation of superconducting tokamak.

  15. IMAGE Project: Results of Laboratory Tests on Tracers for Supercritical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvoll, Øyvind; Opsahl Viig, Sissel; Nardini, Isabella; Muller, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    The use of tracers is a well-established technique for monitoring dynamic behaviour of water and gas through a reservoir. In geothermal reservoirs special challenges are encountered due to high temperatures and pressures. In this work, tracer candidates for monitoring water at supercritical conditions (temperature > 374°C, pressure ca 218 bar), are tested in laboratory experiments. Testing of tracers at supercritical water conditions requires experimental set-ups which tolerate harsh conditions with respect to high temperature and pressure. In addition stringent HES (health, environment and safety) factors have to be taken into consideration when designing and performing the experiments. The setup constructed in this project consists of a pressure vessel, high pressure pump, instrumentation for pressure and temperature control and instrumentation required for accurate sampling of tracers. In order to achieve accurate results, a special focus has been paid to the development of the tracer sampling technique. Perfluorinated cyclic hydrocarbons (PFCs) have been selected as tracer candidates. This group of compounds is today commonly used as gas tracers in oil reservoirs. According to the literature they are stable at temperatures up to 400°C. To start with, five PFCs have been tested for thermal stability in static experiments at 375°C and 108 bar in the experimental setup described above. The tracer candidates will be further tested for several months at the relevant conditions. Preliminary results indicate that some of the PFC compounds show stability after three months. However, in order to arrive at conclusive results, the experiments have to be repeated over a longer period and paying special attention to more accurate sampling procedures.

  16. Partitioning behaviour of perfluorinated alkyl contaminants between water, sediment and fish in the Orge River (nearby Paris, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie, Pierre; Chevreuil, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the partitioning behaviour of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including C 4 -C 10 sulfonates and C 5 -C 14 carboxylic acids, between water, sediment and fish (European chub, Leuciscus cephalus) in the Orge River (nearby Paris). Total PFC levels were 73.0 ± 3.0 ng L -1 in water and 8.4 ± 0.5 ng g -1 in sediment. They were in the range 43.1-4997.2 ng g -1 in fish, in which PFC tissue distribution followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. Sediment-water distribution coefficients (log K d ) and bioaccumulation factors (log BAF) were in the range 0.8-4.3 and 0.9-6.7, respectively. Both distribution coefficients positively correlated with perfluoroalkyl chain length. Field-based biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) are also reported, for the first time for PFCs other than perfluorooctane sulfonate. log BSAF ranged between -1.3 and 1.5 and was negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. - Research highlights: → PFC tissue distribution in European chub followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. → K d and BAF correlated with PFC alkyl chain length. → BSAF negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. → BSAF did not correlate with alkyl chain length of sulfonates. - Sediment-water, biota-water and biota-sediment partitioning coefficients were determined for perfluorinated acids and sulfonates and were generally correlated with alkyl chain length.

  17. Mechanical behavior of novel W alloys produced by HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, J.Y.; Martin, A.; Llorca, J.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: W appears to be one of the candidate materials being considered for making plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a future fusion power reactor because of its refractory characteristics, low tritium retention and low sputtering yielding. However, its use in PFCs requires the development of W materials that, in addition to these properties, maintains good mechanical properties at high temperatures. In W, high temperature strength and creep resistance may be effectively increased by solid-solution and dispersion strengthening. Sintering could be a suitable method to produce solid-solution and dispersion strengthening in W alloys for these applications if their recrystallization temperature is high enough and the grain growth is restrained. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of W materials produced by liquid phase sintering using Ti as sintering activator and nanoparticles of Y 2 O 3 as strengthening dispersoids. The mechanical behaviour of pure W and W alloys, having 0.5 wt % Y 2 O 3 , X Wt % Ti and 0.5 wt % Y 2 O 3 + X wt % Ti prepared by powder metallurgy have been studied (0≤X≤4). Three point bending tests have been performed on 2 x 2 x 25 mm 3 specimens cut from ingots consolidated by a two-stage hot isostatic pressing process. The bending strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus have been determined as a function of temperature. The fracture surfaces have been analyzed to find the fracture mode and investigate the temperature dependence of the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. The effect of the Y 2 O 3 dispersion and Ti content on the mechanical properties is also investigated. (authors)

  18. Mechanical behavior of novel W alloys produced by HIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, J.Y.; Martin, A.; Llorca, J. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, Dept de Ciencia de Materiales (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Madrid Univ. Carlos 3, Dept. de Fisica (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: W appears to be one of the candidate materials being considered for making plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a future fusion power reactor because of its refractory characteristics, low tritium retention and low sputtering yielding. However, its use in PFCs requires the development of W materials that, in addition to these properties, maintains good mechanical properties at high temperatures. In W, high temperature strength and creep resistance may be effectively increased by solid-solution and dispersion strengthening. Sintering could be a suitable method to produce solid-solution and dispersion strengthening in W alloys for these applications if their recrystallization temperature is high enough and the grain growth is restrained. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of W materials produced by liquid phase sintering using Ti as sintering activator and nanoparticles of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as strengthening dispersoids. The mechanical behaviour of pure W and W alloys, having 0.5 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, X Wt % Ti and 0.5 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} + X wt % Ti prepared by powder metallurgy have been studied (0{<=}X{<=}4). Three point bending tests have been performed on 2 x 2 x 25 mm{sup 3} specimens cut from ingots consolidated by a two-stage hot isostatic pressing process. The bending strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus have been determined as a function of temperature. The fracture surfaces have been analyzed to find the fracture mode and investigate the temperature dependence of the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. The effect of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion and Ti content on the mechanical properties is also investigated. (authors)

  19. Serum biomarkers of polyfluoroalkyl compound exposure in young girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinney, Susan M.; Biro, Frank M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Herrick, Robert L.; Yaghjyan, Lusine; Calafat, Antonia M.; Succop, Paul; Sucharew, Heidi; Ball, Kathleen M.; Kato, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N = 351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12–19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens. -- Highlights: • PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls. • Study sites in Greater Cincinnati (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 351). • The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA. • Lower PFOA in girls living in areas with granular activated carbon water treatment. -- Serum concentrations of PFCs in young girls were higher in girls who had been breast fed longer, and lower in girls in areas with granular activated carbon municipal water treatment

  20. The Association of Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals with Glucocorticoid and Androgenic Hormones in Cord Blood Samples: The Hokkaido Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Houman; Araki, Atsuko; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Mitsui, Takahiko; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Nonomura, Katsuya; Kishi, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) disrupt cholesterol homeostasis. All steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol, and steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids and androgenic hormones mediate several vital physiologic functions. However, the in utero effects of PFCs exposure on the homeostasis of these steroid hormones are not well understood in humans. We examined the relationship between prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and cord blood levels of glucocorticoid and androgenic hormones. We conducted a hospital-based birth cohort study between July 2002 and October 2005 in Sapporo, Japan (n = 514). In total, 185 mother-infant pairs were included in the present study. Prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels in maternal serum samples were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Cord blood levels of glucocorticoid (cortisol and cortisone) and androgenic hormones [dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione] were also measured in the same way. We found a dose-response relationship of prenatal PFOS, but not PFOA, exposure with glucocorticoid levels after adjusting for potential confounders. Cortisol and cortisone concentrations were -23.98-ng/mL (95% CI: -0.47.12, -11.99; p for trend = 0.006) and -63.21-ng/mL (95% CI: -132.56, -26.72; p for trend blood. Citation: Goudarzi H, Araki A, Itoh S, Sasaki S, Miyashita C, Mitsui T, Nakazawa H, Nonomura K, Kishi R. 2017. The association of prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals with glucocorticoid and androgenic hormones in cord blood samples: the Hokkaido Study. Environ Health Perspect 125:111-118; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP142.

  1. Perfluorinated compounds in fish and blood of anglers at Lake Möhne, Sauerland area, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzer, Jürgen; Göen, Thomas; Just, Paul; Reupert, Rolf; Rauchfuss, Knut; Kraft, Martin; Müller, Johannes; Wilhelm, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in fish samples and blood plasma of anglers in a cross-sectional study at Lake Möhne, Sauerland area, Germany. Human plasma and drinking water samples were analyzed by solid phase extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). PFCs in fish fillet were measured by ion pair extraction followed by HPLC and MS/MS. PFOS concentrations in 44 fish samples of Lake Möhne ranged between 4.5 and 150 ng/g. The highest median PFOS concentrations have been observed in perches (median: 96 ng/g) and eels (77 ng/g), followed by pikes (37 ng/g), whitefish (34 ng/g), and roaches (6.1 ng/g). In contrast, in a food surveillance program only 11% of fishes at retail sale contained PFOS at detectable concentrations. One hundred five anglers (99 men, 6 women; 14-88 years old; median 50.6 years) participated in the human biomonitoring study. PFOS concentrations in blood plasma ranged from 1.1 to 650 μg/L (PFOA: 2.1-170 μg/L; PFHxS: 0.4-17 μg/L; LOD: 0.1 μg/L). A distinct dose-dependent relationship between fish consumption and internal exposure to PFOS was observed. PFOS concentrations in blood plasma of anglers consuming fish 2-3 times per month were 7 times higher compared to those without any fish consumption from Lake Möhne. The study results strongly suggest that human internal exposure to PFC is distinctly increased by consumption of fish from PFC-contaminated sites.

  2. Determination of ten perfluorinated compounds in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delinsky, Amy D.; Strynar, Mark J.; Nakayama, Shoji F.; Varns, Jerry L.; Ye, XiBiao; McCann, Patricia J.; Lindstrom, Andrew B.

    2009-01-01

    A rigorous solid phase extraction/liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in fish fillets is described and applied to fillets of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) collected from selected areas of Minnesota and North Carolina. The 4 PFC analytes routinely detected in bluegill fillets were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoic acid (C10), perfluoroundecanoic acid (C11), and perflurododecanoic acid (C12). Measures of method accuracy and precision for these compounds showed that calculated concentrations of PFCs in spiked samples differed by less than 20% from their theoretical values and that the %RSD for repeated measurements was less than 20%. Minnesota samples were collected from areas of the Mississippi River near historical PFC sources, from the St. Croix River as a background site, and from Lake Calhoun, which has no documented PFC sources. PFOS was the most prevalent PFC found in the Minnesota samples, with median concentrations of 47.0-102 ng/g at locations along the Mississippi River, 2.08 ng/g in the St. Croix River, and 275 ng/g in Lake Calhoun. North Carolina samples were collected from two rivers with no known historical PFC sources. PFOS was the predominant analyte in fish taken from the Haw and Deep Rivers, with median concentrations of 30.3 and 62.2 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of C10, C11, and C12 in NC samples were among the highest reported in the literature, with respective median values of 9.08, 23.9, and 6.60 ng/g in fish from the Haw River and 2.90, 9.15, and 3.46 ng/g in fish from the Deep River. These results suggest that PFC contamination in freshwater fish may not be limited to areas with known historical PFC inputs.

  3. Perfluorinated compound levels in cord blood and neurodevelopment at 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Huei; Ha, Eun-Hee; Liao, Hua-Fang; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Su, Yi-Ning; Wen, Ting-Wen; Lien, Guang-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2013-11-01

    Epidemiologic data regarding the potential neurotoxicity of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are inconclusive. We investigated the associations between in utero exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS) and early childhood neurodevelopment. We recruited 239 mother-infant pairs in northern Taiwan from the Taiwan Birth Panel Study, which was established in 2004. We examined the association between PFCs in cord blood and children's neurodevelopment at 2 years of age, using the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers. This tool contains cognitive, language, motor, social, and self-help domains; test scores were further transformed into developmental quotients according to standardized norms. All multivariate regression models were adjusted for infant sex and gestational age, maternal education, family income, cord blood cotinine levels, postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and breastfeeding. Prenatal PFOS concentrations in both untransformed and natural log (Ln)-transformed values were associated with adverse performance on the whole test and the domains related to development. A dose-response relationship was observed when PFOS levels were categorized into four groups. This association was most obvious in relation to the gross-motor subdomain. Across the PFOS interquartile range, the quotients of the gross-motor subdomain decreased by 3.7 points (95% confidence interval [CI] = -6.0 to -1.5), with an increasing odds ratio of poor performance (2.4; 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.2). In contrast, measures of association between PFOA concentrations and test scores were close to null. Prenatal exposure to PFOS, but not PFOA, may affect children's development, especially gross-motor development at 2 years of age.

  4. Experimental mechanistic investigation of the nanostructuring of tungsten with low energy helium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiflis, P.; Connolly, N.; Ruzic, D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Helium ion bombardment of tungsten at temperatures between approximately one third and one half of its melting point has shown growth of nanostructures colloquially referred to as “fuzz”. The nanostructures take the form of thin tendrils of diameter about 30 nm and grow out of the bulk material. Tungsten will and does compose one of the key materials for plasma facing components (PFCs) in fusion reactors. The formation of nanostructured fuzz layers on PFCs would be detrimental to the performance of the reactor, and must therefore be avoided. Previous experiments have shown evidence that tungsten fuzz is initially grown by loop punching of helium bubbles created in the bulk. However, once the tendrils grow to sufficient length, the tendrils should intercept the entire helium flux, halting the production of fuzz. Fuzz continues to grow though. To increase the understanding of the mechanisms of tungsten fuzz formation, and thereby aid the avoidance of its production, a series of tests were performed to examine the validity of several theories regarding later stage tungsten fuzz growth. Tests showed that the fuzz formation was dependent solely on the bombardment of helium ions, and not on electric fields, or adatom diffusion. Experiments employing a tungsten coated molybdenum sample indicate the presence of a strong mixing layer and strongly suggest that tungsten fuzz growth continues to occur from the bottom up even as the tendrils grow in size. Tests also show a similarity between different metals exposed to helium ion fluxes where the ratio of bubble diameter to tendril diameter is constant.

  5. An update: improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon-mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R Littlejohn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximise the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labelling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC, perfluorodecalin (PFD enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal impact on physiology. Here, we assess the use of the perfluorocarbons PFD, and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (PP11 for in vivo plant leaf imaging using 4 advanced modes of microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM, Two-photon fluorescence (TPF microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG microscopy and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS microscopy. For every mode of imaging tested, we observed an improved signal when leaves were mounted in PFD or in PP11, compared to mounting the samples in water. Using an image analysis technique based on autocorrelation to quantitatively assess LSCM image deterioration with depth, we show that PP11 outperformed PFD as a mounting medium by enabling the acquisition of clearer images deeper into the tissue. In addition, we show that SRS microscopy can be used to image perfluorocarbons directly in the mesophyll and thereby easily delimit the negative space within a leaf, which may have important implications for studies of leaf development. Direct comparison of on and off resonance SRS micrographs show that PFCs do not to form intracellular aggregates in live plants. We conclude that the application of PFCs as mounting media substantially increases advanced microscopy image quality of living mesophyll and leaf vascular bundle cells.

  6. High heat flux testing impact on the Tore Supra toroidal pumped limiter achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Cordier, J.J.; Mitteau, R.; Durocher, A.; Grosman, A.

    2003-01-01

    The toroidal pumped limiter of Tore Supra is made of 576 elementary high heat flux (HHF) cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs) and designed to sustain 10 MW/m 2 in steady state. One of the main technical difficulties is to ensure a high quality of the bond between the carbon fiber composite armor tile and the water-cooled heat sink due to the high thermal stresses that develop at the bond during operation. Consequently, a HHF facility able to reproduce in service operation of PFCs is required all along the development and manufacturing route. In Europe, the FE200 facility (electron beam, 200 kW, France) operating since 1991, was extensively used for such a development. A first testing campaign in 1995 was devoted to the qualification of this bond: AMC technology from Plansee GmbH was selected. Afterwards, a second campaign on scale-one elements (1996) allowed an optimization of the element design and series production to be launched. During the mass production, a non-destructive control process - cheaper and faster than HHF testing - based on infrared characterization was routinely operated on 100% of the manufactured elements. Strong variability of the bond quality was observed and a repair process allowing the replacement of deficient tiles was developed. In 2000 and 2001, 2 campaigns of HHF testing were launched to correlate the non-destructive measurements and to optimize and validate the repair process. This was done, in two steps, with success. This yielded moreover interesting information for qualifying both tests across each other and also to analyze the fatigue evolution of the bond. The qualification and the achievement of the Tore Supra limiter has greatly been made possible by such HHF tests, which appears as essential before and during PFC manufacturing. (authors)

  7. EROD activity, chromosomal damage, and oxidative stress in response to contaminants exposure in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings from Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul; Bigorgne, Emilie; Oziolor, Elias; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra; Erickson, Richard A.; Aagaard, Kevin; Matson, Cole W.

    2017-01-01

    Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, nestlings were collected from 60 sites in the Great Lakes, which included multiple sites within 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) and six sites not listed as AOCs from 2010 to 2014. Nestlings, approximately 12 days-of-age, were evaluated for ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity, chromosomal damage, and six measures of oxidative stress. Data on each of these biomarkers were divided into four equal numbered groups from the highest to lowest values and the groups were compared to contaminant concentrations using multivariate analysis. Contaminant concentrations, from the same nestlings, included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 17 elements. Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (aPAHs) and parent PAHs (pPAHs) were measured in pooled nestling dietary samples. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and pesticides were measured in sibling eggs. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, and PCBs, in that order, were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest EROD activities; PFCs, PBDEs, the remaining pesticides, and all elements were of secondary importance. The four categories of chromosomal damage did not separate out well based on the contaminants measured. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, heptachlor, PCBs, chlordane, and dieldrin were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest activities of two oxidative stress measures, total sulfhydryl (TSH) activity and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH) activity. The four categories of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the ratio of GSSG/GSH did not separate well based on the contaminants measured.

  8. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of perfluorinated compounds in a eutrophic freshwater food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jian; Guo, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the bioaccumulation of perfluorinated compounds from a food web in Taihu Lake in China was investigated. The organisms included egret bird species, carnivorous fish, omnivorous fish, herbivorous fish, zooplankton, phytoplankton, zoobenthos and white shrimp. Isotope analysis by δ 13 C and δ 15 N indicated that the carnivorous fish and egret were the top predators in the studied web, occupying trophic levels intermediate between 3.66 and 4.61, while plankton was at the lowest trophic level. Perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) with 9–12 carbons were significantly biomagnified, with trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranging from 2.1 to 3.7. The TMF of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (2.9) was generally comparable to or lower than those of the PFCAs in the same food web. All hazard ratio (HR) values reported for PFOS and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were less than unity, suggesting that the detected levels would not cause any immediate health effects to the people in Taihu Lake region through the consumption of shrimps and fish. -- Highlights: • Biomagnification of PFCs in the food web of a eutrophic freshwater lake was studied. • Carnivorous fish and egret were the top predators while plankton was at the lowest trophic level. • PFCAs with 9–12 carbons were significantly biomagnified. • TMF of PFOS was comparable to or lower than those of the PFCAs in the same food web. • PFOS and PFOA would not cause health effects to the people via diet consumption. -- PFCs were found to be bioaccumulated and biomagnified in a food web from a eutrophic freshwater lake in subtropical area

  9. Operation of an ITER relevant inspection robot on Tore Supra tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, Laurent [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)], E-mail: laurent.gargiulo@cea.fr; Bayetti, Pascal; Bruno, Vincent; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Hernandez, Caroline; Houry, Michael [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Keller, Delphine [CEA, LIST, Service de Robotique Interactive, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Martins, Jean-Pierre [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Measson, Yvan; Perrot, Yann [CEA, LIST, Service de Robotique Interactive, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Samaille, Frank [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2009-06-15

    Robotic operations are one of the major maintenance challenges for ITER and future fusion reactors. CEA has developed a multipurpose carrier able to realize deployments in the plasma vessel without breaking the Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) and temperature conditioning. A 6 years R and D programme was jointly conducted by CEA-LIST Interactive Robotics Unit and the Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM) in order to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of an in-vessel inspection robot relevant to ITER requirements. The Articulated Inspection Arm robot (AIA) is an 8-m long multilink carrier with a payload up to 10 kg operable between plasma under tokamak conditioning environment; its geometry allows a complete close inspection of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) of the Tore Supra vessel. Different tools are being developed by CEA to be plugged at the front head of the carrier. The diagnostic presently in operation consists in a viewing system offering accurate visual inspection of PFCs. Leak detection of first wall based on helium sniffing and laser compact system for carbon co-deposited layers characterizations or treatments are also considered for demonstration. In April 2008, the AIA robot equipped with its vision diagnostic has realized a complete deployment into Tore Supra and the first closed inspection of the vessel under UHV conditions. During the upcoming experimental campaign, the same operation will be performed under relevant conditions (10{sup -6} Pa and 120 deg. C) after a conditioning phase at 200 deg. C to avoid outgassing pollution of the chamber. This paper describes the different steps of the project development, robot capabilities with the present operations conducted on Tore Supra and future requirements for making the robot a tool for tokamak routine operation.

  10. Investigation on bonding defects in ITER first wall beryllium armour components by combining analytical and experimental methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Germán, E-mail: german.perez.pichel@gmail.com; Mitteau, Raphaël; Eaton, Russell; Raffray, René

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Bonding defects at the ITER first wall beryllium armour are studied. • Experimental and analytical methods are combined. • Models supporting test results interpretation are proposed. • Guidelines for new experimental protocols are suggested. • Contribution to the definition of defects acceptance criteria. - Abstract: The reliability of the plasma facing components (PFCs) is essential for the efficient plasma operation in a fusion machine. This concerns especially the bond between the armour tiles facing the plasma and the heat sink material (copper alloy). The different thermal expansions of the bonded materials cause a stress distribution in the bond, which peaks at the bond edge. Under cyclic heat flux and accounting for the possible presence of bonding defects, this stress could reach a level where the component might be jeopardised. Because of the complexity of describing realistically by analyses and models the stress evolution in the bond, “design by experiments” is the main procedure for defining and qualifying the armour joint. Most of the existing plasma operation know-how on actively cooled PFCs has been obtained with carbon composite armour tiles. In ITER, the tiles of the first wall are made out of beryllium, which means that the know-how is progressively adapted to this specific bimetallic pair. Nonetheless, analyses are still performed for supporting the R&D experimental programme. This paper: explores methods for combining experimental results with finite element and statistical analyses; benchmarks test results; proposes hypothesis and rationales consistent with test results interpretations; suggests guidelines for defining possible further experimental protocols; and contributes to the definition of defects acceptance criteria.

  11. Investigation on bonding defects in ITER first wall beryllium armour components by combining analytical and experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Germán; Mitteau, Raphaël; Eaton, Russell; Raffray, René

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bonding defects at the ITER first wall beryllium armour are studied. • Experimental and analytical methods are combined. • Models supporting test results interpretation are proposed. • Guidelines for new experimental protocols are suggested. • Contribution to the definition of defects acceptance criteria. - Abstract: The reliability of the plasma facing components (PFCs) is essential for the efficient plasma operation in a fusion machine. This concerns especially the bond between the armour tiles facing the plasma and the heat sink material (copper alloy). The different thermal expansions of the bonded materials cause a stress distribution in the bond, which peaks at the bond edge. Under cyclic heat flux and accounting for the possible presence of bonding defects, this stress could reach a level where the component might be jeopardised. Because of the complexity of describing realistically by analyses and models the stress evolution in the bond, “design by experiments” is the main procedure for defining and qualifying the armour joint. Most of the existing plasma operation know-how on actively cooled PFCs has been obtained with carbon composite armour tiles. In ITER, the tiles of the first wall are made out of beryllium, which means that the know-how is progressively adapted to this specific bimetallic pair. Nonetheless, analyses are still performed for supporting the R&D experimental programme. This paper: explores methods for combining experimental results with finite element and statistical analyses; benchmarks test results; proposes hypothesis and rationales consistent with test results interpretations; suggests guidelines for defining possible further experimental protocols; and contributes to the definition of defects acceptance criteria.

  12. Evaluation of the short- and long-term effectiveness and safety of fully covered self-expandable metal stents for drainage of pancreatic fluid collections: results of a Spanish nationwide registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Baron, Todd H; Pérez-Miranda, Manuel; Sánchez-Yagüe, Andres; Gornals, Joan; Gonzalez-Huix, Ferran; de la Serna, Carlos; Gonzalez Martin, Juan Angel; Gimeno-Garcia, Antonio Z; Marra-Lopez, Carlos; Castellot, Ana; Alberca, Fernando; Fernandez-Urien, Ignacio; Aparicio, Jose Ramon; Legaz, Maria Luisa; Sendino, Oriol; Loras, Carmen; Subtil, Jose Carlos; Nerin, Juan; Perez-Carreras, Mercedes; Diaz-Tasende, Jose; Perez, Gustavo; Repiso, Alejandro; Vilella, Angels; Dolz, Carlos; Alvarez, Alberto; Rodriguez, Santiago; Esteban, Jose Miguel; Juzgado, Diego; Albillos, Agustin

    2016-09-01

    Initial reports suggest that fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) may be better suited for drainage of dense pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs), such as walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The primary aim was to analyze the effectiveness and safety of FCSEMSs for drainage of different types of PFCs in a large cohort. The secondary aim was to investigate which type of FCSEMS is superior. This was a retrospective, noncomparative review of a nationwide database involving all hospitals in Spain performing EUS-guided PFC drainage. From April 2008 to August 2013, all patients undergoing PFC drainage with an FCSEMS were included in a database. The main outcome measurements were technical success, short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (6 months) effectiveness, adverse events, and need for surgery. The study included 211 patients (pseudocyst/walled-off pancreatic necrosis, 53%/47%). The FCSEMSs used were straight biliary (66%) or lumen-apposing (34%). Technical success was achieved in 97% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 93%-99%). Short-term- and long-term clinical success was obtained in 94% (95% CI, 89%-97%) and 85% (95% CI, 79%-89%) of patients, respectively. Adverse events occurred in 21% of patients (95% CI, 16%-27%): infection (11%), bleeding (7%), and stent migration and/or perforation (3%). By multivariate analysis, patient age (>58 years) and previous failed drainage were the most important factors associated with negative outcome. An FCSEMS is effective and safe for PFC drainage. Older patients with a history of unsuccessful drainage are more likely to fail EUS-guided drainage. The type of FCSEMS does not seem to influence patient outcome. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma-wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium: progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J. W.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Schmid, K.; Kirschner, A.; Hakola, A.; Tabares, F. L.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Reinhart, M.; Tsitrone, E.; Ahlgren, T.; Aints, M.; Airila, M.; Almaviva, S.; Alves, E.; Angot, T.; Anita, V.; Arredondo Parra, R.; Aumayr, F.; Balden, M.; Bauer, J.; Ben Yaala, M.; Berger, B. M.; Bisson, R.; Björkas, C.; Bogdanovic Radovic, I.; Borodin, D.; Bucalossi, J.; Butikova, J.; Butoi, B.; Čadež, I.; Caniello, R.; Caneve, L.; Cartry, G.; Catarino, N.; Čekada, M.; Ciraolo, G.; Ciupinski, L.; Colao, F.; Corre, Y.; Costin, C.; Craciunescu, T.; Cremona, A.; De Angeli, M.; de Castro, A.; Dejarnac, R.; Dellasega, D.; Dinca, P.; Dittmar, T.; Dobrea, C.; Hansen, P.; Drenik, A.; Eich, T.; Elgeti, S.; Falie, D.; Fedorczak, N.; Ferro, Y.; Fornal, T.; Fortuna-Zalesna, E.; Gao, L.; Gasior, P.; Gherendi, M.; Ghezzi, F.; Gosar, Ž.; Greuner, H.; Grigore, E.; Grisolia, C.; Groth, M.; Gruca, M.; Grzonka, J.; Gunn, J. P.; Hassouni, K.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Huber, S.; Jacob, W.; Jepu, I.; Jiang, X.; Jogi, I.; Kaiser, A.; Karhunen, J.; Kelemen, M.; Köppen, M.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kreter, A.; Kubkowska, M.; Laan, M.; Laguardia, L.; Lahtinen, A.; Lasa, A.; Lazic, V.; Lemahieu, N.; Likonen, J.; Linke, J.; Litnovsky, A.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Loewenhoff, T.; Lungu, C.; Lungu, M.; Maddaluno, G.; Maier, H.; Makkonen, T.; Manhard, A.; Marandet, Y.; Markelj, S.; Marot, L.; Martin, C.; Martin-Rojo, A. B.; Martynova, Y.; Mateus, R.; Matveev, D.; Mayer, M.; Meisl, G.; Mellet, N.; Michau, A.; Miettunen, J.; Möller, S.; Morgan, T. W.; Mougenot, J.; Mozetič, M.; Nemanič, V.; Neu, R.; Nordlund, K.; Oberkofler, M.; Oyarzabal, E.; Panjan, M.; Pardanaud, C.; Paris, P.; Passoni, M.; Pegourie, B.; Pelicon, P.; Petersson, P.; Piip, K.; Pintsuk, G.; Pompilian, G. O.; Popa, G.; Porosnicu, C.; Primc, G.; Probst, M.; Räisänen, J.; Rasinski, M.; Ratynskaia, S.; Reiser, D.; Ricci, D.; Richou, M.; Riesch, J.; Riva, G.; Rosinski, M.; Roubin, P.; Rubel, M.; Ruset, C.; Safi, E.; Sergienko, G.; Siketic, Z.; Sima, A.; Spilker, B.; Stadlmayr, R.; Steudel, I.; Ström, P.; Tadic, T.; Tafalla, D.; Tale, I.; Terentyev, D.; Terra, A.; Tiron, V.; Tiseanu, I.; Tolias, P.; Tskhakaya, D.; Uccello, A.; Unterberg, B.; Uytdenhoven, I.; Vassallo, E.; Vavpetič, P.; Veis, P.; Velicu, I. L.; Vernimmen, J. W. M.; Voitkans, A.; von Toussaint, U.; Weckmann, A.; Wirtz, M.; Založnik, A.; Zaplotnik, R.; PFC contributors, WP

    2017-11-01

    The provision of a particle and power exhaust solution which is compatible with first-wall components and edge-plasma conditions is a key area of present-day fusion research and mandatory for a successful operation of ITER and DEMO. The work package plasma-facing components (WP PFC) within the European fusion programme complements with laboratory experiments, i.e. in linear plasma devices, electron and ion beam loading facilities, the studies performed in toroidally confined magnetic devices, such as JET, ASDEX Upgrade, WEST etc. The connection of both groups is done via common physics and engineering studies, including the qualification and specification of plasma-facing components, and by modelling codes that simulate edge-plasma conditions and the plasma-material interaction as well as the study of fundamental processes. WP PFC addresses these critical points in order to ensure reliable and efficient use of conventional, solid PFCs in ITER (Be and W) and DEMO (W and steel) with respect to heat-load capabilities (transient and steady-state heat and particle loads), lifetime estimates (erosion, material mixing and surface morphology), and safety aspects (fuel retention, fuel removal, material migration and dust formation) particularly for quasi-steady-state conditions. Alternative scenarios and concepts (liquid Sn or Li as PFCs) for DEMO are developed and tested in the event that the conventional solution turns out to not be functional. Here, we present an overview of the activities with an emphasis on a few key results: (i) the observed synergistic effects in particle and heat loading of ITER-grade W with the available set of exposition devices on material properties such as roughness, ductility and microstructure; (ii) the progress in understanding of fuel retention, diffusion and outgassing in different W-based materials, including the impact of damage and impurities like N; and (iii), the preferential sputtering of Fe in EUROFER steel providing an in situ W

  14. Markers of anthropogenic contamination: A validated method for quantification of pharmaceuticals, illicit drug metabolites, perfluorinated compounds, and plasticisers in sewage treatment effluent and rain runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John L; Swinden, Julian; Hooda, Peter S; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    An effective, specific and accurate method is presented for the quantification of 13 markers of anthropogenic contaminants in water using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Validation was conducted according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. Method recoveries ranged from 77 to 114% and limits of quantification between 0.75 and 4.91 ng/L. A study was undertaken to quantify the concentrations and loadings of the selected contaminants in 6 sewage treatment works (STW) effluent discharges as well as concentrations in 5 rain-driven street runoffs and field drainages. Detection frequencies in STW effluent ranged from 25% (ethinylestradiol) to 100% (benzoylecgonine, bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-S (BPS) and diclofenac). Average concentrations of detected compounds in STW effluents ranged from 3.62 ng/L (ethinylestradiol) to 210 ng/L (BPA). Levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) as well as the plasticiser BPA were found in street runoff at maximum levels of 1160 ng/L, 647 ng/L and 2405 ng/L respectively (8.52, 3.09 and 2.7 times more concentrated than maximum levels in STW effluents respectively). Rain-driven street runoff may have an effect on levels of PFCs and plasticisers in receiving rivers and should be further investigated. Together, this method with the 13 selected contaminants enables the quantification of various markers of anthropogenic pollutants: inter alia pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites from humans and improper disposal of drugs, while the plasticisers and perfluorinated compounds may also indicate contamination from industrial and transport activity (street runoff). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Perez, Francisca; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia; Andreu, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    PFCs present significant thermal and chemical stability being persistent in the environment, where they can bio-accumulate and adversely affect humans and wildlife (Llorca et al., 2012). Human exposure to PFCs is of concern since PFCs tend to be associated with fatty acid binding proteins in the liver or albumin proteins in blood, and have been detected in human serum, urine, saliva, seminal plasma and breast milk (Sundstrom et al., 2011). This study is aimed at the screening of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The main objective is to identify target compounds at low levels in water, sediments and biota of the Llobregat River (2010), second longest river in Catalonia and one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. PFCs were extracted from water samples by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE); from sediment by ultrasonication with acidified methanol followed by an off-line SPE procedure (Picó et al., 2012), and from biota (fish) with alkaline digestion, clean-up by TurboFlow™ on line technology coupled to LC-MS/MS (Llorca et al., 2012). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were calculated by analysis of spiked river water, sediment, and biota with minimum concentrations of each individual compound at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and 10, respectively. The LODs and LOQs of the method in river water ranged between 0.004 and 0.8 ng L-1 and between 0.01 and 2 ng L-1, respectively. In sediment LODs were 0.013-2.667 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and LOQs were 0.04-8 ng g-1 dw, meanwhile in biota these were 0.006-0.7 pg μL-1 and 0.02-2.26 pg μL-1, respectively. Recoveries ranged between 65% and 102% for all target compounds. The method was applied to study the spatial distribution of these compounds in the Llobregat River basin. For this, a total of 40 samples were analysed (14 water, 14 sediments, 12 fishes). Of the 21 target

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Julian; Pérez, Francisca; Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g −1 ) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg −1 ) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L −1 ). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L −1 was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the different tropic

  17. Perfluoroalkyl acids in surface seawater from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean: Contamination, distribution and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zheng, Hongyuan; Wang, Tieyu; Cai, Minghong; Wang, Pei

    2018-03-16

    The bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic properties of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) resulted in strict regulations on PFAAs, especially in developed countries. Consequently, the industry manufacturing of PFAAs shifts from long-chain to short-chain. In order to better understand the pollution situation of PFAAs in marine environment under this new circumstance, the occurrence of 17 linear PFAAs was investigated in 30 surface seawater samples from the North Pacific to Arctic Ocean (123°E to 24°W, 32 to 82°N) during the sixth Chinese Arctic Expedition in 2014. Total concentrations of PFAAs (∑PFAAs) were between 346.9 pg per liter (pg/L) to 3045.3 pg/L. The average concentrations of ∑PFAAs decreased in the order of East China Sea (2791.4 pg/L, n = 2), Sea of Japan (East Sea) (832.8 pg/L, n = 6), Arctic Ocean (516.9 pg/L, n = 7), Chukchi Sea (505.2 pg/L, n = 4), Bering Sea (501.2 pg/L, n = 8) and Sea of Okhotsk (417.7 pg/L, n = 3). C4 to C9 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in more than 80% of the surface water samples. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was the most prevalent compound and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the second abundant homolog. The concentration of individual PFAAs in the surface seawater of East China Sea was much higher than other sampling seas. As the spatial distribution of PFAAs in the marine environment was mainly influenced by the river inflow from the basin countries, which proved the large input from China. Furthermore, the marginal seas of China were found with the greatest burden of PFOA comparing the pollution level in surface seawater worldwide. PFBA concentration in the surrounding seas of China was also high, but distributed more evenly with an obvious increase in recent years. This large-scale monitoring survey will help the improvement and development of PFAAs regulations and management, where production shift should be taken into consideration. Copyright

  18. Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in Mediterranean Spanish sewage treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Julian; Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylates, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in influent, effluent and sludge from 16 different sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the Ebro (6), Guadalquivir (5), Jucar (2) and Llobregat (3) Rivers, in two consecutive years (2010 and 2011). The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by Liquid Chromatography triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples, except two sludges from Guadalquivir River STPs, were contaminated with at least one PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS) were the most frequently detected. The highest concentration in water was determined in 2010 in a Guadalquivir River STP (perfluorohexanoate, PFHxA: 5.60 μg L −1 ) and, in 2011, in an Ebro River STP (perfluorobutane sulfonate, L-PFBS: 0.31 μg L −1 ). In sludge samples, the maximum concentration in 2010 was 1.79 μg g −1 dry weight (dw) (L-PFOS, in a Llobregat River STP), and in 2011, 1.88 μg g −1 dw (PFBA, in one Guadalquivir River STP). High PFAS values in sludge could be related to positive removal efficiencies, and can be attributed to their adsorption. Distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined ranging between 0.32 L kg −1 (perfluorohexane sulfonate, L-PFHxS) and 36.6 10 3 L kg −1 (PFBA). The total PFAS loads discharged into the basins showed high values for the Ebro River STPs (66.9 g day −1 ) while in the others, the loads were between 3.97 g day −1 , in the Jucar STPs, and 32.2 g day −1 , in the Guadalquivir STPs. - Highlights: • Twenty-one PFASs were quantified in wastewater and dehydrated sludge samples. • PFAS loads discharged to the Rivers were from 16 g day −1 (Llobregat) to 67 g day −1 (Ebro). • STPs could be a focal point of PFAS contamination to the Rivers. • Removal efficiencies in STPs confirm that PFASs are only

  19. Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in Mediterranean Spanish sewage treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: Julian.Campo@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute of Water Research, ICRA Catalan Institute for Water Research — ICRA, C/Emili Grahit, 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylates, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in influent, effluent and sludge from 16 different sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the Ebro (6), Guadalquivir (5), Jucar (2) and Llobregat (3) Rivers, in two consecutive years (2010 and 2011). The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by Liquid Chromatography triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples, except two sludges from Guadalquivir River STPs, were contaminated with at least one PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS) were the most frequently detected. The highest concentration in water was determined in 2010 in a Guadalquivir River STP (perfluorohexanoate, PFHxA: 5.60 μg L{sup −1}) and, in 2011, in an Ebro River STP (perfluorobutane sulfonate, L-PFBS: 0.31 μg L{sup −1}). In sludge samples, the maximum concentration in 2010 was 1.79 μg g{sup −1} dry weight (dw) (L-PFOS, in a Llobregat River STP), and in 2011, 1.88 μg g{sup −1} dw (PFBA, in one Guadalquivir River STP). High PFAS values in sludge could be related to positive removal efficiencies, and can be attributed to their adsorption. Distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined ranging between 0.32 L kg{sup −1} (perfluorohexane sulfonate, L-PFHxS) and 36.6 10{sup 3} L kg{sup −1} (PFBA). The total PFAS loads discharged into the basins showed high values for the Ebro River STPs (66.9 g day{sup −1}) while in the others, the loads were between 3.97 g day{sup −1}, in the Jucar STPs, and 32.2 g day{sup −1}, in the Guadalquivir STPs. - Highlights: • Twenty-one PFASs were quantified in wastewater and dehydrated sludge samples. • PFAS loads discharged to the Rivers were from 16 g day{sup −1} (Llobregat) to 67 g day{sup −1} (Ebro). • STPs could be a focal point of PFAS contamination to the Rivers.

  20. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and fluorinated alternatives in urine and serum by on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kayoko; Kalathil, Akil A; Patel, Ayesha M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M

    2018-06-14

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), man-made chemicals with variable length carbon chains containing the perfluoroalkyl moiety (C n F 2n+1 -), are used in many commercial applications. Since 1999-2000, several long-chain PFAS, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), have been detected at trace levels in the blood of most participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-representative samples of the U.S. general population-while short-chain PFAS have not. Lower detection frequencies and concentration ranges may reflect lower exposure to short-chain PFAS than to PFOS or PFOA or that, in humans, short-chain PFAS efficiently eliminate in urine. We developed on-line solid phase extraction-HPLC-isotope dilution-MS/MS methods for the quantification in 50 μL of urine or serum of 15 C 3 -C 11 PFAS (C 3 only in urine), and three fluorinated alternatives used as PFOA or PFOS replacements: GenX (ammonium salt of 2,3,3,3,-tetrafluoro-2-(1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate, also known as HFPO-DA), ADONA (ammonium salt of 4,8-dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoate), and 9Cl-PF3ONS (9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-1-sulfonate), main component of F53-B. Limit of detection for all analytes was 0.1 ng/mL. To validate the method, we analyzed 50 commercial urine/serum paired samples collected in 2016 from U.S. volunteers with no known exposure to the chemicals. In serum, detection frequency and concentration patterns agreed well with those from NHANES. By contrast, except for perfluorobutanoate, we did not detect long-chain or short-chain PFAS in urine. Also, we did not detect fluorinated alternatives in either urine or serum. Together, these results suggest limited exposure to both short-chain PFAS and select fluorinated alternatives in this convenience population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: Julian.Campo@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Pérez, Francisca [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit, 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g{sup −1}) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg{sup −1}) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L{sup −1}). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L{sup −1} was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the

  2. Progress of High Heat Flux Component Manufacture and Heat Load Experiments in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Lian, Y.; Xu, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.; Wang, Q.; Duan, X., E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengu (China); Luo, G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Yan, Q. [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: High heat flux components for first wall and divertor are the key subassembly of the present fusion experiment apparatus and fusion reactors in the future. It is requested the metallurgical bonding among the plasma facing materials (PFMs), heat sink and support materials. As to PFMs, ITER grade vacuum hot pressed beryllium CN-G01 was developed in China and has been accepted as the reference material of ITER first wall. Additionally pure tungsten and tungsten alloys, as well as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) W coating are being developed for the aims of ITER divertor application and the demand of domestic fusion devices, and significant progress has been achieved. For plasma facing components (PFCs), high heat flux components used for divertor chamber are being studied according to the development program of the fusion experiment reactor of China. Two reference joining techniques of W/Cu mockups for ITER divertor chamber are being developed, one is mono-block structure by pure copper casting of tungsten surface following by hot iso-static press (HIP), and another is flat structure by brazing. The critical acceptance criteria of high heat flux components are their high heat load performance. A 60 kW Electron-beam Material testing Scenario (EMS-60) has been constructed at Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP),which adopts an electron beam welding gun with maximum energy of 150 keV and 150 x 150 mm{sup 2} scanning area by maximum frame rate of 30 kHz. Furthermore, an Engineering Mockup testing Scenario (EMS-400) facility with 400 kW electron-beam melting gun is under construction and will be available by the end of this year. After that, China will have the comprehensive capability of high heat load evaluation from PFMs and small-scale mockups to engineering full scale PFCs. A brazed W/CuCrZr mockup with 25 x 25 x 40 mm{sup 3} in dimension was tested at EMS-60. The heating and cooling time are 10 seconds and 15 seconds, respectively. The experiment

  3. Pop, heavy metal and the blues: secondary analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POP), heavy metals and depressive symptoms in the NHANES National Epidemiological Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J; Andreazza, Ana C; Pasco, Julie A; Dodd, Seetal; Jacka, Felice N; Moylan, Steven; Reiner, Eric J; Magalhaes, Pedro V S

    2014-07-18

    Persistent environmental pollutants, including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have a ubiquitous presence. Many of these pollutants affect neurobiological processes, either accidentally or by design. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between assayed measures of POPs and heavy metals and depressive symptoms. We hypothesised that higher levels of pollutants and metals would be associated with depressive symptoms. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 15 140 eligible people were included across the three examined waves of NHANES. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the nine-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), using a cut-off point of 9/10 as likely depression cases. Organic pollutants and heavy metals, including cadmium, lead and mercury, as well as polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), pesticides, phenols and phthalates, were measured in blood or urine. Higher cadmium was positively associated with depression (adjusted Prevalence Ratios (PR)=1.48, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.90). Higher levels of mercury were negatively associated with depression (adjusted PR=0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.78), and mercury was associated with increased fish consumption (n=5500, r=0.366, p<0.001). In addition, several PFCs (perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid and perfluorononanoic acid) were negatively associated with the prevalence of depression. Cadmium was associated with an increased likelihood of depression. Contrary to hypotheses, many of persistent environmental pollutants were not associated or negatively associated with depression. While the inverse association between mercury and depressive symptoms may be explained by a protective role for fish consumption, the negative associations with other pollutants remains unclear. This exploratory study suggests the need for further investigation of the role of various agents and classes of agents in the

  4. Towards the procurement of the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.; Tivey, R.; Martin, A.; Pick, M.

    2006-01-01

    The procurement of the ITER divertor is planned to start in 2009. On the basis of the present common understanding of the sharing of the ITER components, the Japanese Participating Team (JAPT) will supply the outer vertical target, the Russian Federation (RF) PT the dome liner and will perform the high heat flux testing, the EU PT will supply the inner vertical targets and the cassette bodies, including final assembly of the divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs). The manufacturing of the PFCs of the ITER divertor represents a challenging endeavor due to the high technologies which are involved, and due to the unprecedented series production. To mitigate the associated risks, special arrangements need to be put in place prior to and during procurement to ensure quality and to keep to the time schedule. Before procurement can start, an ITER review of the qualification and production capability of each candidate PT is planned. Well in advance of the assumed start of the procurement, each PT which would like to contribute to the divertor PFC procurement, should first demonstrate its technical qualification to carry out the procurement with the required quality, and in an efficient and timely manner. Appropriate precautions, like subdivision of the procurement into stages, are also to be adopted during the procurement phase to mitigate the consequences of possible unexpected manufacturing problems. In preparation for writing the procurement specification for the vertical targets, the topic of setting acceptance criteria is also being addressed. This activity has the objective of defining workable acceptance criteria for the PFC armour joints. A complete set of analyses is also in progress to assess the latest design modifications against the design requirements. This task includes neutronic, shielding, thermo-mechanical and electromagnetic analyses. More than half of the ITER plasma parameters that must be measured and the related diagnostics are located in the

  5. The ITER Equatorial Visible/Infra-Red Wide Angle Viewing System: Status of design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasca, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.salasca@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, Marie-Helene; Benoit, Fabrice; Cantone, Bruno; Corre, Yann; Delchambre, Elise; Ferlet, Marc; Gauthier, Eric; Guillon, Christophe; Houtte, Didier van; Keller, Delphine; Labasse, Florence; Larroque, Sebastien; Loarer, Thierry; Micolon, Frederic; Peluso, Bertrand; Proust, Maxime [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Blanchet, David; Peneliau, Yannick [CEA, DEN/DER, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Alonso, Javier [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The status of Equatorial Visible/Infra-Red Wide Angle Viewing System is presented. • An assessment of measurement parameters relevant for machine protection has been done. • Remaining uncertainties will be clarified during the System Level Design (SLD). • WAVS design is not considered mature enough to launch prototypes of subcomponents. • Mandatory prototypes and qualification tests are already identified. • Next stage (SLD) will enable to do trade-offs and address pending design issues. - Abstract: The Equatorial Visible/Infra-Red Wide Angle Viewing System (WAVS) is one of the ITER key diagnostics owing to its role in machine investment protection through the monitoring of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) by Infra-Red thermography and visible imaging. Foreseen to be installed in 4 equatorial port plugs to maximize the coverage of divertor, first wall, heating antennas and upper strike zone, the WAVS will likely be composed of 15 lines of sight and 15 optical systems transferring the light along several meters from the PFCs through the port plug and interspace up to detectors located in the port cell. After a conceptual design phase led by ITER Organization, the design is being further developed through a Framework Partnership Agreement signed between the European Domestic Agency, Fusion for Energy, and a consortium gathering CEA, CIEMAT (with INTA as third party) and Bertin Technologies company. The next design step is the System Level Design (SLD) which will enable to consolidate the WAVS specifications as well as the performance realistically achievable (taking into account ITER and project constraints). The SLD has been preceded by a preparatory phase aiming at clarifying the WAVS functions and identifying critical prototyping. The outcomes of this preparatory phase are reported in this paper. First a review by the consortium of the WAVS measurement specifications is presented, for the purpose of a clearer separation of measurement

  6. Atmospheric pollution assessment from a mountainous environment in Southern Ghana: case study of Abetifi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Linda Maud Naa-Dedei

    2016-07-01

    In the pursuit to improve man’s livelihood, human activities which include emission of heavy metals from various industries and sectors, as well as the past use of chemicals such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and flame retardants have often mobilized and redistributed natural substances and anthropogenic pollutants into the atmosphere, predisposing it to relatively high concentrations of such pollutants even in pristine areas in the environment. This study assessed the level of atmospheric pollution, contributing sources and human health exposure risk of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along with selected heavy metals with focus on Abetifi, one of the highest altitude environments in Ghana. Passive sampling with polyurethane foam (PUF) as adsorbent was employed. Samplers were deployed every 84 days for two years. A total of 65 polyurethane foams were deployed and twelve (12) groups of analytes were considered together with their various isomers. High resolution gas chromatographic technique coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) and electron capture detectors (ECD) were used in the analysis of the POPs. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with MS was employed in analysing the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) while the heavy metals were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and UNMIX model were used to group pollution source contribution of all analytes (POPs and heavy metals) in this study. Diagnostic isomer and other predictive ratios were also employed for source apportionment of various individual analyte groups. Results revealed that polychlorinated dibenzo-furans gave with the least total mean concentration (0.074 pg/m"3) for the sampling period and polybrominated biphenyls gave the highest (55 pg/m"3). The pesticide group gave values in the order of DRINs (53 pg/m"3) > DDT (41 pg/m"3) > HCHs (28 pg/m"3). Data for perflourinated compounds (PFCs) in

  7. Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Barbosa, Vera; Alves, Ricardo; Anacleto, Patrícia; Fogaça, Fabiola; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Kotterman, Michiel; Cunha, Sara C; Fernandes, José O; Rasmussen, Rie R; Sloth, Jens J; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Marques, António

    2018-02-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore, the effects of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) on bioaccumulation and elimination mechanisms of these emerging contaminants in marine biota have been poorly studied until now. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of warmer seawater temperatures (Δ = + 4°C) and lower pH levels (Δ = - 0.4 pH units), acting alone or combined, on the bioaccumulation and elimination of emerging FRs (dechloranes 602, 603 and 604, and TBBPA), inorganic arsenic (iAs), and PFCs (PFOA and PFOS) in two estuarine bivalve species (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ruditapes philippinarum). Overall, results showed that warming alone or combined with acidification promoted the bioaccumulation of some compounds (i.e. dechloranes 602, 604, TBBPA), but also facilitated the elimination of others (i.e. iAs, TBBPA). Similarly, lower pH also resulted in higher levels of dechloranes, as well as enhanced iAs, PFOA and PFOS elimination. Data also suggests that, when both abiotic stressors are combined, bivalves' capacity to accumulate contaminants may be time-dependent, considering significantly drastic increase observed with Dec 602 and TBBPA, during the last 10 days of exposure, when compared to reference conditions. Such changes in contaminants' bioaccumulation/elimination patterns also suggest a potential increase of human health risks of some compounds, if the climate continues changing as forecasted. Therefore, this first study pointed out the urgent need for further research on the effects of abiotic conditions on emerging contaminants kinetics, to adequately estimate the potential toxicological hazards associated to these compounds and

  8. Importância dos carreadores de oxigênio livre de células Oxygen carriers free of cells in transfusion medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Z. Novaretti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os procedimentos necessários para redução de efeitos adversos associados à transfusão de sangue, em especial aqueles decorrentes da transmissão de agentes infecciosos e da aloimunização leucócito-mediada têm impacto nos custos de produção de hemocomponentes. Paralelamente, as necessidades transfusionais têm aumentado globalmente, ficando evidente a necessidade de um substituto seguro e amplamente disponível para o sangue, chamado de sangue artificial ou de substituto do sangue. Visto que o seu desenvolvimento tem se concentrado na função de carrear oxigênio aos tecidos, daí utilizarmos, nesse texto, a denominação "Carreadores de oxigênio livre de células". Atualmente, dois tipos de carreadores de oxigênio livre de células têm sido testados: as soluções de hemoglobina modificadas (de origem humana ou bovina e os perfluorocarbonos (PFCs. Entretanto, esses produtos não são isentos de efeitos adversos e um grande número de pesquisas clínicas está em andamento para testar sua eficácia e segurança. O maior conhecimento desses carreadores de oxigênio livre de células e seus mecanismos de ação permitiu que aplicações outras, até mesmo não clínicas, estivessem em teste com as novas gerações desses produtos, expandindo assim as fronteiras da medicina transfusional.The procedures needed to reduce transfusion-associated adverse effects, especially those related to transfusion-transmitted diseases and leukocyte-mediated alloimmunization, have a great impact on the production cost of blood components. Additionally, blood transfusion has increased worldwide making the need for a safe substitute for blood evident. These products have been named artificial blood or blood substitutes. Based on the fact that their focus has been oxygen delivery to tissues, "free oxygen carrying cells" is more appropriate. Two major groups of free oxygen carring cells have been tested: modified hemoglobin solutions (bovine or human and

  9. Modelling of Power Fluxes during Thermal Quenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konz, C.; Coster, D. P.; Lackner, K.; Pautasso, G.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma disruptions, i. e. the sudden loss of magnetic confinement, are unavoidable, at least occasionally, in present day and future tokamaks. The expected energy fluxes to the plasma facing components (PFCs) during disruptions in ITER lie in the range of tens of GW/m''2 for timescales of about a millisecond. Since high energy fluxes can cause severe damage to the PFCs, their design heavily depends on the spatial and temporal distribution of the energy fluxes during disruptions. We investigate the nature of power fluxes during the thermal quench phase of disruptions by means of numerical simulations with the B2 SOLPS fluid code. Based on an ASDEX Upgrade shot, steady-state pre-disruption equilibria are generated which are then subjected to a simulated thermal quench by artificially enhancing the perpendicular transport in the ion and electron channels. The enhanced transport coefficients flows the Rechester and Rosenbluth model (1978) for ergodic transport in a tokamak with destroyed flux surfaces, i. e. χ, D∼const. xT''5/2 where the constants differ by the square root of the mass ratio for ions and electrons. By varying the steady-state neutral puffing rate we can modify the divertor conditions in terms of plasma temperature and density. Our numerical findings indicate that the disruption characteristics depend on the pre disruptive divertor conditions. We study the timescales and the spatial distribution of the divertor power fluxes. The simulated disruptions show rise and decay timescales in the range observed at ASDEX Upgrade. The decay timescale for the central electron temperature of ∼800 μs is typical for non-ITB disruptions. Varying the divertor conditions we find a distinct transition from a regime with symmetric power fluxes to inboard and outboard divertors to a regime where the bulk of the power flux goes to the outboard divertor. This asymmetry in the divertor peak fluxes for the higher puffing case is accompanied by a time delay between the

  10. Study of the performance of three LC-MS/MS platforms for analysis of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca, Marta; Farre, Marinella [IDAEA-CSIC, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain); Pico, Yolanda [Universitat de Valencia, Laboratori de Nutricio i Bromatologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [IDAEA-CSIC, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain); King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-10-15

    The analytical suitabilities of three different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) systems, (1) triple quadrupole (QqQ), (2) conventional 3D ion trap (IT), and (3) quadrupole-linear IT (QqLIT), to determine trace levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in fish and shellfish were compared. Sample preparation was performed using alkaline extraction and solid-phase-extraction cleanup. This evaluation was focused on both quantitative (sensitivity, precision, and accuracy) and qualitative (identification capabilities) aspects. In the three instruments, the former facet was evaluated using selected reaction monitoring (SRM), which is the standard mode for quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis. Accuracy was similar in the three systems, with recoveries always over 70 %. Precision was better for the QqLIT and QqQ systems (7-15%) than for the IT system (10-17%). The QqLIT (working in SRM mode) and QqQ systems offered a linear dynamic range of at least 3 orders of magnitude, whereas that of the IT system was 2 orders of magnitude. The QqLIT system achieved at least 20-fold higher sensitivity than the QqQ system, and this was at least tenfold higher sensitivity than for the IT system. In the IT system, identification was based on sensitive full mass range acquisition and MS{sup n} fragmentation and in the QqLIT system, it was based on the use of an information-dependent-acquisition scan function, which allows the combination of an SRM or MS full scan acting as the survey scan and an enhanced product ion scan followed by MS{sup 3} as the dependent scan in the same analysis. Three instruments were applied to monitor the content in fish and shellfish (anchovies, swordfish, tuna, mussels, and oysters) obtained from Valencia and Barcelona markets (Spain). The eight target PFCs were detected at mean concentrations in the range from 10 ng kg {sup -1} (perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid and perfluoro-1-decanesulfonate) to 4,200 ng kg {sup -1} (perfluoropentanoic acid

  11. Design of the ITER Plasma-Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merola, M.

    2009-07-01

    The ITER plasma-facing components cover an area of about 850 m{sup 2} and consist of the Divertor, the Blanket and the Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) with their corresponding frames. The Divertor is located at the bottom of the plasma chamber and is aimed at exhausting the major part of the plasma thermal power (including alpha power) and at minimizing the helium and impurity content in the plasma. It consists of 54 cassette assemblies. Each assembly has 3 plasma-facing components (PFCs), namely the inner and outer target and the dome, which are mounted onto a steel support structure, the cassette body. The targets directly intercept the magnetic field lines and are designed to withstand heat fluxes as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2}. CFC is the reference design solution for the armour of the lower part of the targets. However, the resultant high erosion rate could potentially limit machine operation in the DT phase (due to co-deposition with T). Therefore, prior to the DT phase, the divertor PFCs will be replaced with a new set entirely covered with W armour. The Divertor is a RH Class 1 component, which is planned to be replaced 3 times during the 20 years of the ITER operation. The construction phase of the ITER Divertor is being launched. The Blanket covers the largest fraction of the plasma-facing surface. Each of the 440 Blanket modules consists of a first wall (FW) panel, which is mechanically attached onto a Shield Module (SM). The design heat flux is set up to 1 or 5 MW/m{sup 2}. The FW panels are covered by Be tiles, which are joined onto a copper alloy (CuCrZr) heat sink, which is in turn intimately joined onto a 316L(N) stainless steel part. The SM is a block of 316L(N)-IG steel, where an array of cooling channels are obtained by machining and welding. The TBMs are mock-ups of DEMO breeding blankets. There are three ITER equatorial ports devoted to TBM testing, each of them allocating two TBMs, inserted in a thick steel frame. The frame is a water-cooled 316L

  12. Recent QUEST experiments on non-inductive current drive and plasma-wall interaction towards steady state operation of spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Idei, H.; Nakamura, K.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Higashijima, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Ishiguro, M.; Tashima, S.; Kalinnikova, E.I.; Mitarai, O.; Maekawa, T.; Fukuyama, A.; Takase, Y.; Gao, X.; Liu, H.; Qian, J.; Ono, M.; Raman, R.; Peng, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Steady state operation (SSO) of magnetic fusion devices is one of the goals for fusion research. Development of non-inductive current drive and investigation of plasma-wall interaction (PWI) are issues to be resolved for SSO. Because of the very limited central solenoid (CS) flux in a spherical tokamak (ST), methods for non-inductive plasma current start-up and sustainment are necessary. Fully non-inductive plasma up to approximately 5 min was successfully demonstrated on the spherical tokamak QUEST. Furthermore, recharging of the center solenoid coil was also achieved in OH+RF plasmas with plasma current feedback using the CS. During the plasma start-up phase, precession motion of trapped electrons can drive some current, which plays an essential role in forming a closed flux surface. On QUEST, the main parts of the plasma facing components (PFCs) are covered by tungsten plates (W) or coated by W plasma spray and are actively cooled by water circulation. The increase in water temperature quantitatively provides the deposited power to each PFC. The power balance during long duration discharges has been studied for various types of magnetic configurations such as limiter, upper and lower single-null divertor discharges. As, the temperature of any PFCs reaches a steady-state condition during long pulse, the power balance can be obtained. It is found that the discharge duration of QUEST is significantly limited by particle imbalance shown by gradual increment of plasma and neutral density. The additional influx of neutrals was provided by recycling of hydrogen, which is still uncontrollable. A point model of particle balance was applied to a long-duration divertor discharge, and it was found that a small increment of particle-influx occurred around the end of the long duration discharge. A post-mortem analysis of surface-attaching specimen during an experimental campaign indicates that the increased amount of neutral influx could be

  13. Atmospheric abundance and global emissions of perfluorocarbons CF4, C2F6 and C3F8 since 1800 inferred from ice core, firn, air archive and in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Trudinger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorocarbons (PFCs are very potent and long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, released predominantly during aluminium production and semiconductor manufacture. They have been targeted for emission controls under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Here we present the first continuous records of the atmospheric abundance of CF4 (PFC-14, C2F6 (PFC-116 and C3F8 (PFC-218 from 1800 to 2014. The records are derived from high-precision measurements of PFCs in air extracted from polar firn or ice at six sites (DE08, DE08-2, DSSW20K, EDML, NEEM and South Pole and air archive tanks and atmospheric air sampled from both hemispheres. We take account of the age characteristics of the firn and ice core air samples and demonstrate excellent consistency between the ice core, firn and atmospheric measurements. We present an inversion for global emissions from 1900 to 2014. We also formulate the inversion to directly infer emission factors for PFC emissions due to aluminium production prior to the 1980s. We show that 19th century atmospheric levels, before significant anthropogenic influence, were stable at 34.1 ± 0.3 ppt for CF4 and below detection limits of 0.002 and 0.01 ppt for C2F6 and C3F8, respectively. We find a significant peak in CF4 and C2F6 emissions around 1940, most likely due to the high demand for aluminium during World War II, for example for construction of aircraft, but these emissions were nevertheless much lower than in recent years. The PFC emission factors for aluminium production in the early 20th century were significantly higher than today but have decreased since then due to improvements and better control of the smelting process. Mitigation efforts have led to decreases in emissions from peaks in 1980 (CF4 or early-to-mid-2000s (C2F6 and C3F8 despite the continued increase in global aluminium production; however, these decreases in emissions appear to have recently halted. We see a temporary

  14. Advanced divertor configurations with large flux expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A., E-mail: vlad@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaye, S.; Kolemen, E.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); McLean, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Menard, J.E.; Paul, S.F.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ryutov, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Scotti, F.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mueller, D.M.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Reimerdes, H.; Canal, G.P. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom Confédération Suisse, Lausanne (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-15

    Experimental studies of the novel snowflake divertor concept (D. Ryutov, Phys. Plasmas 14 (2007) 064502) performed in the NSTX and TCV tokamaks are reviewed in this paper. The snowflake divertor enables power sharing between divertor strike points, as well as the divertor plasma-wetted area, effective connection length and divertor volumetric power loss to increase beyond those in the standard divertor, potentially reducing heat flux and plasma temperature at the target. It also enables higher magnetic shear inside the separatrix, potentially affecting pedestal MHD stability. Experimental results from NSTX and TCV confirm the predicted properties of the snowflake divertor. In the NSTX, a large spherical tokamak with a compact divertor and lithium-coated graphite plasma-facing components (PFCs), the snowflake divertor operation led to reduced core and pedestal impurity concentration, as well as re-appearance of Type I ELMs that were suppressed in standard divertor H-mode discharges. In the divertor, an otherwise inaccessible partial detachment of the outer strike point with an up to 50% increase in divertor radiation and a peak divertor heat flux reduction from 3–7 MW/m{sup 2} to 0.5–1 MW/m{sup 2} was achieved. Impulsive heat fluxes due to Type-I ELMs were significantly dissipated in the high magnetic flux expansion region. In the TCV, a medium-size tokamak with graphite PFCs, several advantageous snowflake divertor features (cf. the standard divertor) have been demonstrated: an unchanged L–H power threshold, enhanced stability of the peeling–ballooning modes in the pedestal region (and generally an extended second stability region), as well as an H-mode pedestal regime with reduced (×2–3) Type I ELM frequency and slightly increased (20–30%) normalized ELM energy, resulting in a favorable average energy loss comparison to the standard divertor. In the divertor, ELM power partitioning between snowflake divertor strike points was demonstrated. The NSTX

  15. Characterization and performance of a field aligned ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna in Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukitch, S. J.; Garrett, M. L.; Ochoukov, R.; Terry, J. L.; Hubbard, A.; Labombard, B.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Miller, D.; Reinke, M. L.; Whyte, D.; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2013-05-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating is expected to provide auxiliary heating for ITER and future fusion reactors where high Z metallic plasma facing components (PFCs) are being considered. Impurity contamination linked to ICRF antenna operation remains a major challenge particularly for devices with high Z metallic PFCs. Here, we report on an experimental investigation to test whether a field aligned (FA) antenna can reduce impurity contamination and impurity sources. We compare the modification of the scrape of layer (SOL) plasma potential of the FA antenna to a conventional, toroidally aligned (TA) antenna, in order to explore the underlying physics governing impurity contamination linked to ICRF heating. The FA antenna is a 4-strap ICRF antenna where the current straps and antenna enclosure sides are perpendicular to the total magnetic field while the Faraday screen rods are parallel to the total magnetic field. In principle, alignment with respect to the total magnetic field minimizes integrated E|| (electric field along a magnetic field line) via symmetry. A finite element method RF antenna model coupled to a cold plasma model verifies that the integrated E|| should be reduced for all antenna phases. Monopole phasing in particular is expected to have the lowest integrated E||. Consistent with expectations, we observed that the impurity contamination and impurity source at the FA antenna are reduced compared to the TA antenna. In both L and H-mode discharges, the radiated power is 20%-30% lower for a FA-antenna heated discharge than a discharge heated with the TA-antennas. However, inconsistent with expectations, we observe RF induced plasma potentials (via gas-puff imaging and emissive probes to be nearly identical for FA and TA antennas when operated in dipole phasing). Moreover, the highest levels of RF-induced plasma potentials are observed using monopole phasing with the FA antenna. Thus, while impurity contamination and sources are indeed

  16. The effects of tantalum addition on the microtexture and mechanical behaviour of tungsten for ITER applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejado, E., E-mail: elena.tejado@mater.upm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CIME, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Carvalho, P.A. [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); ICEMS, Departamento de Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Munoz, A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III, Leganés (Spain); Dias, M. [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, J.B. [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2015-12-15

    Tungsten (W) and its alloys are very promising materials for producing plasma-facing components (PFCs) in the fusion power reactors of the near future, even as a structural part in them. However, whereas the properties of pure tungsten are suitable for a PFC, its structural applications are still limited due to its low toughness, ductile to brittle transition temperature and recrystallization behaviour. Therefore, many efforts have been made to improve its performance by alloying tungsten with other elements. Hence, in this investigation, the thermo-mechanical performance of two new tungsten-tantalum materials has been evaluated. Materials with W–5wt.%Ta and W–15wt.%Ta were processed by mechanical alloying (MA) and later consolidation by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), with distinct settings for each composition. Thus, it was possible to determine the relationship between the microstructure and the addition of Ta with the macroscopic mechanical properties. These were measured by means of hardness, flexural strength and fracture toughness, in the temperature range of 300–1473 K. The microstructure and the fracture surfaces features of the tested materials were analysed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM).

  17. Retention/Diffusivity Studies in Free-Surface Flowing Liquid Lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Stubbers; G.H. Miley; M. Nieto; W. Olczak; D.N. Ruzic; A. Hassanein

    2004-01-01

    FLIRE was designed to measure the hydrogen and helium retention and diffusivity in a flowing stream of liquid lithium, and it has accomplished these goals. Retention coefficients for helium in the flowing liquid stream were 0.1-2% for flow speeds of 44 cm/s and implantation energies between 500 and 2000 eV. The energy dependence of retention is linear for the energy range considered, as expected, and the dependence of retention on flow velocity fits the expected square-root of flow speed dependence. Estimates of the helium diffusion coefficient in the flowing lithium stream were ∼ 4 x 10 -7 cm 2 /s, and are independent of implantation energy. This value is much lower than expected, which could be due to several factors, such as mixing, bubble formation or surface film formation. In the case of hydrogen, long term retention and release mechanisms are of greatest importance, since this relates to tritium inventory in flowing lithium PFCs for fusion applications. The amount of hydride formation was measured for flowing lithium exposed to neutral deuterium gas. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements indicate that the hydride concentration was between 0.1 and 0.2% over a wide range of pressures (6.5 x 10 -5 to 1 Torr). This result implies that the deuterium absorption rate is limited by the surface dissociation rate, since deuterium (hydrogen/tritium) is absorbed in its atomic form, not its molecular form

  18. The effects of tantalum addition on the microtexture and mechanical behaviour of tungsten for ITER applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejado, E.; Carvalho, P.A.; Munoz, A.; Dias, M.; Correia, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten (W) and its alloys are very promising materials for producing plasma-facing components (PFCs) in the fusion power reactors of the near future, even as a structural part in them. However, whereas the properties of pure tungsten are suitable for a PFC, its structural applications are still limited due to its low toughness, ductile to brittle transition temperature and recrystallization behaviour. Therefore, many efforts have been made to improve its performance by alloying tungsten with other elements. Hence, in this investigation, the thermo-mechanical performance of two new tungsten-tantalum materials has been evaluated. Materials with W–5wt.%Ta and W–15wt.%Ta were processed by mechanical alloying (MA) and later consolidation by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), with distinct settings for each composition. Thus, it was possible to determine the relationship between the microstructure and the addition of Ta with the macroscopic mechanical properties. These were measured by means of hardness, flexural strength and fracture toughness, in the temperature range of 300–1473 K. The microstructure and the fracture surfaces features of the tested materials were analysed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM).

  19. Calorimetry of the JET ITER-Like Wall components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaux, S., E-mail: stephane.devaux@ccfe.ac.uk [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Arnoux, G. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Corre, Y. [Association EURTATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Gardarein, J-L.; Gaspar, J. [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University Marseille (France); Jacquet, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Marcotte, F. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Matthews, G.; Beaumont, P.; Cramp, S.; Dalley, S.; Kinna, D.; Horton, A.; Lomas, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Mertens, Ph. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Riccardo, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Valcàrcel, D. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    As part of the ILW project, new diagnostics have been installed in order to protect the plasma-facing components (PFCs). Here we present the diagnostics used to monitor the PFC temperature, thermocouples and cameras, and assess the consistency of their measurements. In dedicated limited L-mode plasmas, the surface of the limiter tiles are heated up to 900 °C. The comparison of surface temperature measurements from IR and near IR cameras, which have been calibrated against a black-body source, leads to a Be emissivity of 0.18, comparable with the theoretical one. Energy calculation derived from thermocouples, which are embedded in both limiters and divertor target plates (W-coated CFC), is compared to a 1D model based on thermal quadrupole approach (benchmarked with an ANSYS model) associated to an inversion computation. The analysis of 20 pulses shows that a good energy balance is achieved within the error bar of the model, assessed to be of 30%.

  20. Calorimetry of the JET ITER-Like Wall components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, S.; Arnoux, G.; Corre, Y.; Gardarein, J-L.; Gaspar, J.; Jacquet, P.; Marcotte, F.; Matthews, G.; Beaumont, P.; Cramp, S.; Dalley, S.; Kinna, D.; Horton, A.; Lomas, P.; Mertens, Ph.; Riccardo, V.; Valcàrcel, D.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the ILW project, new diagnostics have been installed in order to protect the plasma-facing components (PFCs). Here we present the diagnostics used to monitor the PFC temperature, thermocouples and cameras, and assess the consistency of their measurements. In dedicated limited L-mode plasmas, the surface of the limiter tiles are heated up to 900 °C. The comparison of surface temperature measurements from IR and near IR cameras, which have been calibrated against a black-body source, leads to a Be emissivity of 0.18, comparable with the theoretical one. Energy calculation derived from thermocouples, which are embedded in both limiters and divertor target plates (W-coated CFC), is compared to a 1D model based on thermal quadrupole approach (benc