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Sample records for perfluorocarboxylic acids pfcas

  1. Method development for liquid chromatographic/triple quadrupole mass spectrometric analysis of trace level perfluorocarboxylic acids in articles of commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method to identify and quantify trace levels of C5 to C12 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in articles of commerce (AOC) is developed and rigorously validated. Solid samples were extracted in methanol, and liquid samples were diluted with a solvent consisting of 60...

  2. Formation of C7F15COOH (PFOA) and other perfluorocarboxylic acids during the atmospheric oxidation of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, T. J.; Hurley, M. D.; Xia, J.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations using a three-dimensional global atmospheric chemistry model (IMPACT) indicate that n-C8F17CH2CH2-OH (widely used in industrial and consumer products) degrades in the atmosphere to give perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFOA is persistent, bio...

  3. Hepatic Toxicity of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    1995). 3. N. V. Reo, C. M. Goecke, L. Narayanan, and B. M. Jarnot. "Effects of Perfluoro-n-octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate ...Artz, and B. M. Jarnot: "ILiver Phosphorous Metabolic Response to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids and Clofibrate in Rats and Guinea Pigs: A 31 P NMR Study...Peroxisome Induction by Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid and Clofibrate in the Rat: Proliferation Versus Activity." International Society for the Study of

  4. Removal of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) from Carpets Treated with Stain-protection Products by Using Carpet Cleaning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    PFCAs are found in a variety of consumer products, including, but not limited to, treated clothing and textiles, floor care products, paper containers for food, and carpets. For example, carpet that has been treated with stain-protection, carpet-care solutions, either by the manu...

  5. Perflourocarboxylic Acid Content in 116 Articles of Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in house dust, suggesting strongly the presence of indoor sources of these compounds. The main goal of this study was to identify and rank potentially important indoor sources by determining th...

  6. Migration of perfluoroalkyl acids from food packaging to food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2013-01-01

    A broad range of fluorochemicals is used to impart oil and water barrier properties to paper and paperboard food packaging. Many of the fluorochemicals are applied to paper and paperboard as complex mixtures containing reaction products and by-products and unreacted starting materials. This work primarily focussed on the determination of seven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in two commercially available food contact papers: a di-perfluoro-alkyloxy-amino-acid and a perfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactant. In addition, the migration of the PFCAs into five food simulants from two commercial packages was evaluated. All seven PFCAs were detected in the range of 700-2220 µg kg⁻¹ of paper, while three perfluoroalkyl sulphonates were under the LOD. Results from migration tests showed that migration depends on paper characteristics, time and food simulant. The percentage of migration after 10 days at 40°C ranged from 4.8% to 100% for the two papers and different food simulants.

  7. Photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid in aqueous periodate with VUV and UV light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, M.H.; Wang, B.B.; Yu, H.S.; Wang, L.L.; Yuan, S.H.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in aqueous periodate (IO 4 - ) was investigated under two types of low-pressure mercury lamps: one emits at 254 nm light (UV light) and the other emits both 254 nm and 185 nm light (VUV light). PFOA decomposed efficiently under VUV light irradiation while it decomposed poorly under UV light irradiation. The addition of IO 4 - significantly increased the rate of decomposition and defluorination of PFOA irradiated with UV light whereas it decreased both processes under VUV irradiation. Reactive radical (IO 3 ·) generated by photolysis of IO 4 - initiated the oxidation of PFOA in UV process. Aquated electrons (e aq - ), generated from water homolysis, scavenged IO 4 - resulting in decrease of reactive radical species production and PFOA decomposition. The shorter-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) formed in a stepwise manner from long-chain PFCAs.

  8. Increased Arctic Deposition of Persistent Compounds as a Result of the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Pickard, H. M.; De Silva, A. O.; Spencer, C.; Criscitiello, A. S.; Muir, D.; Sharp, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are among the diverse groups of compounds characterized as persistent organic pollutants. They are toxic, resistant to environmental degradation, and adversely impact human and environmental health. PFCAs with four or fewer carbons, short-chain PFCAs (scPFCAs), are of particular interest because of their increasing levels in the environment, toxicity to plants, and potential for accumulation in some aquatic ecosystems, making them an emerging environmental concern. A minor source of scPFCAs to the Arctic has been shown to be atmospheric transformation of fluoropolymer precursors, followed by deposition. Additional potential sources of scPFCAs to the Arctic are chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-replacement compounds. Through analysis of an ice core from the Canadian High Arctic, we show that Montreal Protocol-mandated introduction of CFC-replacement compounds for the heat-transfer industry has led to increasing inputs of these scPFCAs to the remote environment. Flux measurements for scPFCAs as a class of contaminants have only been reported in a couple studies to date. Here, we provide the first multi-decadal temporal record of scPFCA deposition, demonstrating a dramatic increase in deposition resulting from emission of CFC-replacements. These results bring to the forefront a need for a holistic approach to environmental risk assessment that considers impacts of replacement substances and degradation products.

  9. Elevated levels of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk among Korean women: Current status and potential challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Habyeong; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Do-Hee; Park, Na-Youn; Kim, Sunmi; Kho, Younglim

    2016-07-01

    Breast milks can be contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Exposure to PFASs during early stages of life may lead to adverse health effects among breastfed infants. To date, perfluorootanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been most frequently measured PFASs in breast milks worldwide. Information on shorter carbon-chain PFASs in breast milk is scarce. In this study, breast milks were sampled from 264 Korean lactating women, and measured for seventeen PFASs, including ten perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), four perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides. PFOA and PFOS were detected in 98.5% of the breast milk samples, with median concentrations of 0.072 and 0.050ng/mL, respectively. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were detected in higher frequencies, ranging between 67.4% and 81.8%. The concentrations of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk such as PFPeA and PFHxA were the highest ever reported to date, and were comparable to that of PFOS. Concentrations of shorter chain PFCA in breast milk tended to be higher among the women with longer lactation period, while those of PFOA showed the opposite trend, suggesting a possibility that breastfeeding might be an important route of excretion for PFOA among lactating women. Fish consumption and the use of consumer products, e.g., skin care products, cosmetics and non-stick coated cooking utensils, were identified as significant predictors of PFAS concentrations in breast milk. Health risks associated with PFOA and PFOS exposure through breastfeeding were estimated negligible, however, risks of the short carbon-chain PFCAs could not be assessed because of lack of relevant toxicological information. Further efforts for source identification and exposure management measures for shorter chain PFCAs are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Li; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yahui

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms were exposed to artificially contaminated soils with ten perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). PFASs with longer perfluorinated carbon chain displayed higher uptake rate coefficients (k u ), longer half-life (t 1/2 ) and time to steady-state (t ss ) but lower elimination rate coefficients (k e ) than the shorter ones. Similarly, perfluorosulfonates acids (PFSAs) displayed higher k u , longer t 1/2 and t ss but lower k e than perflurocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with the same perfluorinated chain length. All the studied PFASs, including those with seven or less perfluorinated carbons, were bioaccumulated in the earthworms and the biota-to-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) increased with perfluorinated carbon chain length and were greater for PFSAs than for PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. The BSAFs were found to be dependent on the concentrations of PFASs in soil and decreased as the level of PFASs in soil increased. -- Highlights: •PFASs with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbons were bioaccumulated in earthworm. •The BSAFs of PFASs in earthworm increased with perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The BSAFs of PFSAs were greater than PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The k u increased with perfluorinated chain length while k e decreased. •The BSAFs of PFASs decreased as their concentrations in soil increased. -- Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be effectively bioaccumulated in earthworms including those with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbon chain length

  11. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acids in corn, popcorn and popcorn bags before and after cooking by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction, liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María Teresa

    2014-08-15

    An analytical method is proposed to determine ten perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) [nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] in corn, popcorn and microwave popcorn packaging by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS). Selected PFAAs were extracted efficiently in only one 10-s cycle by FUSLE, a simple, safe and inexpensive technique. The developed method was validated for microwave popcorn bags matrix as well as corn and popcorn matrices in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and recovery values. The method showed good accuracy with recovery values around 100% except for the lowest chain length PFAAs, satisfactory reproducibility with RSDs under 16%, and sensitivity with limits of detection in the order of hundreds picograms per gram of sample (between 0.2 and 0.7ng/g). This method was also applied to the analysis of six microwave popcorn bags and the popcorn inside before and after cooking. PFCAs contents between 3.50ng/g and 750ng/g were found in bags, being PFHxA (perfluorohexanoic acid) the most abundant of them. However, no PFAAs were detected either corn or popcorn, therefore no migration was assumed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transformation of polyfluorinated compounds in natural waters by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumol, Tarun; Dagnino, Sonia; Vandervort, Darcy R; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-02-01

    The presence of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in source and finished drinking waters is a concern with studies showing bioaccumulation and adverse toxicological effects in wildlife and potentially humans. Per/Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as fluorotelomer alcohols have been identified as precursors for PFCAs in biological pathways. In this study, we investigated the fate of 6:2 and 8:2 homologues of the fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTUCAs) during advanced oxidation process (AOPs). Results showed 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA transformed into 6-C PFCA (PFHxA) and 8-C PFCA (PFOA) respectively with very little other PFCA formation for all AOPs. The degradation of 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA was greater in the GW compared to SW for the ozone processes but similar for UV/H2O2. The formation of n-C PFCA followed O3>O3/H2O2 at same dose and UV/H2O2 had much lower formation at the doses tested. Non-targeted analysis with the LC-MS-qTOF indicated the production of other PFCAs which contribute to the total mass balance, although no intermediate product was discovered indicating a rapid and direct transformation from the FTUCAs to the PFCAs and/or significant volatilization of intermediates. With the use of AOPs essential to water reuse treatment schemes, this work raises concerns over the risk of potential formation of PFCAs in the treatment and their adverse health effects in finished drinking water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Timothy D; Higgins, Christopher P; Quiñones, Oscar; Vanderford, Brett J; Kolstad, Chad; Zeigler-Holady, Janie C; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2014-03-15

    The near ubiquitous presence of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in humans has raised concerns about potential human health effects from these chemicals, some of which are both extremely persistent and bioaccumulative. Because some of these chemicals are highly water soluble, one major pathway for human exposure is the consumption of contaminated drinking water. This study measured concentrations of PFASs in 18 raw drinking water sources and 2 treated wastewater effluents and evaluated 15 full-scale treatment systems for the attenuation of PFASs in water treatment utilities throughout the U.S. A liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method was used to enable measurement of a suite of 23 PFASs, including perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Despite the differences in reporting levels, the PFASs that were detected in >70% of the source water samples (n = 39) included PFSAs, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (74%), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (79%), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (84%), and PFCAs, perfluoropentanoic acid (74%), perfluorohexanoic acid (79%), perfluoroheptanoic acid (74%), and perfluorooctanoic acid (74%). More importantly, water treatment techniques such as ferric or alum coagulation, granular/micro-/ultra- filtration, aeration, oxidation (i.e., permanganate, ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide), and disinfection (i.e., ozonation, chlorine dioxide, chlorination, and chloramination) were mostly ineffective in removing PFASs. However, anion exchange and granular activated carbon treatment preferably removed longer-chain PFASs and the PFSAs compared to the PFCAs, and reverse osmosis demonstrated significant removal for all the PFASs, including the smallest PFAS, perfluorobutanoic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Kyu [Department of Marine Science, College of Natural Sciences, Incheon National University, Incheon, 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: jeoh@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 16 PFAAs in 397 samples of 66 food types and 34 tap water samples were analyzed. • Dietary exposure to PFAAs was estimated by using the PFAAs measured concentrations. • The major contributors of PFAAs dietary exposure were confirmed. - Abstract: We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3 ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60–3.03 and 0.17–1.68 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1} for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}; PFOA: 1500 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water)

  15. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 16 PFAAs in 397 samples of 66 food types and 34 tap water samples were analyzed. • Dietary exposure to PFAAs was estimated by using the PFAAs measured concentrations. • The major contributors of PFAAs dietary exposure were confirmed. - Abstract: We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3 ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60–3.03 and 0.17–1.68 ng kg −1 bw d −1 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150 ng kg −1 bw d −1 ; PFOA: 1500 ng kg −1 bw d −1 ). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water)

  16. Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to an organic soil horizon - Effect of cation composition and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Pereira, Hugo; Ullberg, Malin; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Ahrens, Lutz

    2018-09-01

    Accurate prediction of the sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soils is essential for environmental risk assessment. We investigated the effect of solution pH and calculated soil organic matter (SOM) net charge on the sorption of 14 PFASs onto an organic soil as a function of pH and added concentrations of Al 3+ , Ca 2+ and Na + . Often, the organic C-normalized partitioning coefficients (K OC ) showed a negative relationship to both pH (Δlog K OC /ΔpH = -0.32 ± 0.11 log units) and the SOM bulk net negative charge (Δlog K OC  = -1.41 ± 0.40 per log unit mol c g -1 ). Moreover, perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) sorbed more strongly than perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and the PFAS sorption increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length with 0.60 and 0.83 log K OC units per CF 2 moiety for C 3 -C 10 PFCAs and C 4 , C 6 , and C 8 PFSAs, respectively. The effects of cation treatment and SOM bulk net charge were evident for many PFASs with low to moderate sorption (C 5 -C 8 PFCAs and C 6 PFSA). However for the most strongly sorbing and most long-chained PFASs (C 9 -C 11 and C 13 PFCAs, C 8 PFSA and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)), smaller effects of cations were seen, and instead sorption was more strongly related to the pH value. This suggests that the most long-chained PFASs, similar to other hydrophobic organic compounds, are preferentially sorbed to the highly condensed domains of the humin fraction, while shorter-chained PFASs are bound to a larger extent to humic and fulvic acid, where cation effects are significant. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential role of sea spray generation in the atmospheric transport of perfluorocarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Eva; Ellis, David A

    2010-08-01

    The observed environmental concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its conjugate base (PFO) in remote regions such as the Arctic have been primarily ascribed to the atmospheric transport and degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and to direct PFO transport in ocean currents. These mechanisms are each capable of only partially explaining observations. Transport within marine aerosols has been proposed and may explain transport over short distances but will contribute little over longer distances. However, PFO(A) has been shown to have a very short half-life in aqueous aerosols and thus sea spray was proposed as a mechanism for the generation of PFOA in the gas phase from PFO in a water body. Using the observed PFO concentrations in oceans of the Northern Hemisphere and estimated spray generation rates, this mechanism is shown to have the potential for contributing large amounts of PFOA to the atmosphere and may therefore contribute significantly to the concentrations observed in remote locations. Specifically, the rate of PFOA release into the gas phase from oceans in the Northern Hemisphere is calculated to be potentially comparable to global stack emissions to the atmosphere. The subsequent potential for atmospheric degradation of PFOA and its global warming potential are considered. Observed isomeric ratios and predicted atmospheric concentrations due to FTOH degradation are used to elucidate the likely relative importance of transport pathways. It is concluded that gas phase PFOA released from oceans may help to explain observed concentrations in remote regions. The model calculations performed in the present study strongly suggest that oceanic aerosol and gas phase field monitoring is of vital importance to obtain a complete understanding of the global dissemination of PFCAs. Copyright 2010 SETAC

  18. First-flush loads of perfluorinated compounds in stormwater runoff from Hayabuchi River basin, Japan served by separated sewerage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-08-01

    Worldwide environmental pollution by perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) has been reported. PFCs have also been reported to have nonpoint sources (NPSs). A fixed-point hourly monitoring in the river was conducted during a storm event using an automatic sampler to estimate the impact of the first-flush of PFCs from NPS in this study. Perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) with different chain lengths were monitored. The concentrations of short- to medium-chain-length PFCAs such as PFHpA, PFOA and PFNA, and PFASs such as PFBS, PFPeS, PFHxS, PFHpS and PFOS showed no marked increase with the storm-runoff event. However, in contrast to this, concentrations of long-chain-length PFCAs such as PFDA and PFUnA increased markedly. The concentrations of PFDA and PFUnA increased 3.4 (1.5-5.0 ng L(-1))- and 2.0 (3.3-6.7 ng L(-1))-fold, respectively. This study demonstrates that large loads of long-chain-length PFCAs are discharged to the Hayabuchi River during the first-flush after the rain event.

  19. Abiotic Hydrolysis of Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers as a Source of Perfluorocarboxylates at the Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) are the main product of the fluorotelomer industry. For nearly 10 years, whether FTPs degrade to form perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorocarboxylate (PFCA) homologues has been vigorously contested. Here we show that circum-neutral abiotic h...

  20. Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in Pacific cods from coastal areas in northern Japan: A major source of human dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yukiko; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Harada, Kouji H.; Koizumi, Akio; Kimura, Osamu; Endo, Tetsuya; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) contamination of edible fish muscle from Japanese coastal waters. The concentrations of PFCAs with 8–14 carbon atoms (C8–C14) in Pacific cods in Hokkaido, Japan were 51 (median: pg/g-wet weight) for C8, 93 for C9, 99 for C10, 746 for C11, 416 for C12, 404 for C13, and 93 for C14. The levels of C9–C14 PFCAs in fish were strongly correlated to each other, but not to C8 and the other chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, indicating that C9–C14 PFCAs have a different emission source and/or bioaccumulation mechanism. The relative ratios between estimated PFCAs intake through fish consumption and the reported total dietary exposure of PFCAs were less than 1 for C8 to C9, but were more than 1 for C10 to C14. This result strongly suggests that fish consumption is a significant source of human dietary exposure to C10–C14 PFCAs. - Highlights: • Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids were detected in edible cod fish from Japanese coastal waters. • The levels of long-chain PFCAs in fish were independent from those of C8 and other POPs. • Long chain PFCAs intake through fish and the reported total dietary exposure were comparable. • Sea fish such as Pacific cod may be a significant human dietary source of long-chain PFCAs. - Sea fish are a significant source of long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids for the Japanese population

  1. Uptake of perfluorinated alkyl acids by hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felizeter, Sebastian; McLachlan, Michael S; de Voogt, Pim

    2012-11-06

    An uptake study was carried out to assess the potential human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) through the ingestion of vegetables. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown in PFAA-spiked nutrient solutions at four different concentrations, ranging from 10 ng/L to 10 μg/L. Eleven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and three perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. At the end of the experiment, the major part of the total mass of each of the PFAAs (except the short-chain, C4-C7, PFCAs) taken up by plants appeared to be retained in the nonedible part, viz. the roots. Root concentration factors (RCF), foliage/root concentration factors (FRCF), and transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCF) were calculated. For the long chained PFAAs, RCF values were highest, whereas FRCF were lowest. This indicates that uptake by roots is likely governed by sorption of PFAAs to lipid-rich root solids. Translocation from roots to shoots is restricted and highly depending on the hydrophobicity of the compounds. Although the TSCF show that longer-chain PFCAs (e.g., perfluorododecanoic acid) get better transferred from the nutrient solution to the foliage than shorter-chain PFCAs (e.g., perfluoroheptanoic acid), the major fraction of longer-chain PFCAs is found in roots due to additional adsorption from the spiked solution. Due to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the fluorine atoms the role of the negative charge of the dissociated PFAAs is likely insignificant.

  2. Transport of perfluoroalkyl acids in a water-saturated sediment column investigated under near-natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierke, Lena; Möller, Axel; Klitzke, Sondra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the transport of C 4–10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and C 4,6,8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in a water-saturated sediment column representing a riverbank filtration scenario under near-natural conditions. Short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs with up to six C-atoms showed complete tracer-like breakthrough. Longer chain ones were retarded due to sorption to the sediment or due to other processes in the aqueous phase. The study reports the first column derived sediment–water partition coefficients ranging from 0.01 cm 3 g −1 to 0.41 cm 3 g −1 for C 4,6 PFSAs and from 0.0 cm 3 g −1 to 6.5 cm 3 g −1 for C 4,5,6,8,9 PFCAs. The results clearly indicate that short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs may pose a problem if contaminated surface waters are used for drinking water production via riverbank filtration. Highlights: • Transport of per- and polyfluorinated compounds in a riverbank filtration scenario. • Investigations under near-natural conditions with a water-saturated sediment column. • Processes in water and sediment control the transport of analytes. • Short chain PFCAs and PFSAs are not retarded in the water-saturated sediment column. • First column derived sediment–water partition coefficients. -- Quantification of breakthrough of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) under conditions simulating a riverbank filtration scenario

  3. Emission of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCA) from heated surfaces made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) applied in food contact materials and consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Sölch, Christina; Meisel, Theresa; Still, Mona; Gruber, Ludwig; Wolz, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been widely discussed as a source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which has been used in the production of fluoropolymers. PTFE may also contain unintended perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) caused by thermolysis of PTFE, which has been observed at temperatures above 300°C. Common PTFE coated food contact materials and consumer goods are operated at temperatures above 200°C. However, knowledge on possible emissions of PFCAs is limited. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to investigate and evaluate the emission of PFCAs from PTFE coated products with both, normal use and overheating scenarios. Four pans, claimed to be PFOA free, and nine consumer products were investigated. At normal use conditions (PTFE surfaces were trapped for 1h. Overheating scenarios (>260°C) recorded emissions during a 30min heating of empty pans on a stove. Emissions were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS. Results indicate the emission of PFCAs, whereas no perfluorinated sulfonic acids were traced. At normal use conditions total emissions of PFCAs accounted for 4.75ng per hour. Overheated pans, however, released far higher amounts with up to 12190ng PFCAs per hour at 370°C. Dominating contributors where PFBA and PFOA at normal use and PFBA and PFPeA during overheating. Temperature seems to be the main factor controlling the emission of PFCAs. A worst case estimation of human exposure revealed that emissions of PFCAs from heated PTFE surfaces would be far below the TDI of 1500ng PFOA per kg body weight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of fluorotelomer alcohols and their degradation products in biosolids-amended soils and plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongna; Wen, Bei; Hu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yali; Luo, Lei; Chen, Zien; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-07-24

    Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) was recognized as an additional source of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). Quantification of FTOHs and their degradation products can help shed light on the sources and fates of PFCAs in the environment. In this study, an analytical method was developed for the determination of 6:2 and 8:2 FTOHs, and their degradation products of poly- and perfluorinated acids, including fluorotelomer saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTCAs and FTUCAs), secondary polyfluorinated alcohols and PFCAs in biosolids-amended soils and plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The extract efficiencies of different methods including ethyl acetate and methanol (MeOH) for FTOHs and acetonitrile, MeOH, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), NaOH-MeOH and NaOH-MTBE for poly- and perfluorinated acids were tested. The results showed that 6:2 and 8:2 FTOHs and their degradation products could be simultaneously and satisfactorily extracted by MeOH, cleaned up by Envi-Carb graphitized carbon and solid phase extraction, respectively, and determined by UPLC-MS/MS separately. NaOH in the extractant caused the conversion of 6:2 FTCA and 8:2 FTCA into the corresponding FTUCAs. The selected methods have matrix recoveries ranged from 52% to 102%, and detection limits of 0.01-0.46ng/g dry weight for FTOHs and their degradation products in soil and plant. The optimized method was applied successfully to quantify FTOHs and their degradation products in two biosolids-amended soils and plants. The total concentrations of FTOHs in the soils were 44.1±5.8 and 82.6±7.1ng/g, and in plants tissues 3.58±0.25 and 8.33±0.66ng/g. The total concentrations of poly- and perfluorinated acids in the soils were 168.0±13.2 and 349.6±11.2ng/g, and in plants tissues 78.0±6.4 and 75.5±5.3ng/g. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds in Edible Oil by Gel-Permeation Chromatography Combined with Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Jin, Fen; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yanxin; Wang, Jian; Shao, Hua; Jin, Maojun; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Jing

    2015-09-30

    A simple analytical method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 18 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in edible oil. The target compounds were extracted by acetonitrile, purified by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) using graphitized carbon black (GCB) and octadecyl (C18), and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) in negative ion mode. Recovery studies were performed at three fortification levels. The average recoveries of all target PFCs ranged from 60 to 129%, with an acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) (1-20%, n = 3). The method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.004 to 0.4 μg/kg, which was significantly improved compared with the existing liquid-liquid extraction and cleanup method. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of all target PFCs in edible oil samples collected from markets in Beijing, China, and the results revealed that C6-C10 perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCAs) and C7 perfluorosulfonic acid PFSAs were the major PFCs detected in oil samples.

  6. Hepatic Metabolism of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation in vito

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-06

    L. Narayanan. and B. M. Jamot. ’Effects of Peulluoro-n- octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate on Hepatic Phosphorus Metabolism in...pathways and examined the impact of perfluorocarboxylic acid exposure. This investigative strategy will delineate the metabolic effices exerted by...Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation in Vivo Principal Investigator: Nicholas V. Reo

  7. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-05-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in soils II: optimization of chromatography and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, John W; Henderson, W Matthew; Ellington, J Jackson; Jenkins, Thomas M; Evans, John J

    2008-02-15

    With the objective of detecting and quantitating low concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in soils, we compared the analytical suitability of liquid chromatography columns containing three different stationary phases, two different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) systems, and eight combinations of sample-extract pretreatments, extractions and cleanups on three test soils. For the columns and systems we tested, we achieved the greatest analytical sensitivity for PFCAs using a column with a C(18) stationary phase in a Waters LC/MS/MS. In this system we achieved an instrument detection limit for PFOA of 270 ag/microL, equating to about 14 fg of PFOA on-column. While an elementary acetonitrile/water extraction of soils recovers PFCAs effectively, natural soil organic matter also dissolved in the extracts commonly imparts significant noise that appears as broad, multi-nodal, asymmetric peaks that coelute with several PFCAs. The intensity and elution profile of this noise is highly variable among soils and it challenges detection of low concentrations of PFCAs by decreasing the signal-to-noise contrast. In an effort to decrease this background noise, we investigated several methods of pretreatment, extraction and cleanup, in a variety of combinations, that used alkaline and unbuffered water, acetonitrile, tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, dispersed activated carbon and solid-phase extraction. For the combined objectives of complete recovery and minimization of background noise, we have chosen: (1) alkaline pretreatment; (2) extraction with acetonitrile/water; (3) evaporation to dryness; (4) reconstitution with tetrabutylammonium-hydrogen-sulfate ion-pairing solution; (5) ion-pair extraction to methyl-tert-butyl ether; (6) evaporation to dryness; (7) reconstitution with 60/40 acetonitrile/water (v/v); and (8) analysis by LC/MS/MS. Using this method, we

  9. Highly efficient electrochemical degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by F-doped Ti/SnO{sub 2} electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bo, E-mail: boyang@szu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); School of Environment, POPs Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, Chaojin [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Yu, Gang, E-mail: yg-den@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, POPs Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhuo, Qiongfang [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, The Ministry of Environment Protection, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Deng, Shubo [School of Environment, POPs Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu, Jinhua [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Hong [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A novel SnO{sub 2} electrode is prepared by F doping instead of the traditional Sb doping. • SnF{sub 4} as single-source precursor is used to fabricate the long-life Ti/SnO{sub 2}–F anode. • F-doped Ti/SnO{sub 2} anode possesses high OEP and decomposition ability for PFOA. • Further mechanistic detail of PFOA degradation on Ti/SnO{sub 2}–F electrode is proposed. - Abstract: The novel F-doped Ti/SnO{sub 2} electrode prepared by SnF{sub 4} as the single-source precursor was used for electrochemical degradation of aqueous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Higher oxidation reactivity and significantly longer service life were achieved for Ti/SnO{sub 2}–F electrode than Ti/SnO{sub 2}–X (X = Cl, Br, I, or Sb) electrode, which could decomposed over 99% of PFOA (50 mL of 100 mg L{sup −1}) within 30-min electrolysis. The property of Ti/SnO{sub 2}–F electrode and its electrooxidation mechanism were investigated by XRD, SEM–EDX, EIS, LSV, and interfacial resistance measurements. We propose that the similar ionic radii of F and O as well as strong electronegativity of F caused its electrochemical stability with high oxygen evolution potential (OEP) and smooth surface to generate weakly adsorbed ·OH. The preparation conditions of electrode were also optimized including F doping amount, calcination temperature, and dip coating times, which revealed the formation process of electrode. Additionally, the major mineralization product, F{sup −}, and low concentration of shorter chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in solution. So the reaction pathway of PFOA electrooxidation was proposed by intermediate analysis. These results demonstrate that Ti/SnO{sub 2}–F electrode is promising for highly efficient treatment of PFOA in wastewater.

  10. Perfluorinated carboxylic and sulphonic acids in surface water media from the regions of Tibetan Plateau: Indirect evidence on photochemical degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Eriko; Falandysz, Jerzy; Taniyasu, Sachi; Hui, Ge; Jurkiewicz, Gabriela; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Yang, Yong-Liang; Lam, Paul K S

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated surfactants and repellents are synthetic substances that have found numerous industrial and customer applications. Due to their persistence, at least two groups of these substances-perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs)-are diffused widely in the environment. It is hypothesized that the Tibetan Plateau, is one of few unique places on the Earth, due to its topography, specifically the vast space and high elevation above sea level, geographic location, climate, high solar radiation, lack of industry, little urbanization and general lack of significant direct sources of pollution. There it is believed possible to gain an insight into atmospheric fate (possible photochemical degradation of higher molecular mass and formation of lower molecular mass PFCAs and PFSAs) of PFASs under un-disturbed environmental conditions. Ultratrace analytical method for PFCAs and PFSAs and use of transportation and field blanks, laboratory blanks and isotopically labelled surrogates for recovery control has allowed the determination of nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids and six perfluorinated sulfonic acids at ultra-trace levels in water based samples from the alpine dimension regions of the Tibetan Plateau, the eastern slope of Minya Konka peak at the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and also from the city of Chengdu from the lowland of the Sichuan Province in China. The specific compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs and low levels of pollution with those compounds were observed in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. The fingerprint of the compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs in water samples in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the alpine region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau may be explained by the result of photochemical degradation with dealkylation of longer chain

  11. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in raw water from New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Lippincott, R Lee; Procopio, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were previously detected (≥ 4 ng/L) in 65% and 30%, respectively, of 23 New Jersey (NJ) public drinking water systems (PWS) sampled in 2006. We now report on a 2009 study of the occurrence of PFOA, PFOS, and eight other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in raw water samples from 30 intakes (18 groundwater and 12 surface water) from 29 additional NJ PWS. Between 1 and 8 PFCs were detected (≥ 5 ng/L) in 21 (70%) of 30 PWS samples at total PFC concentrations of 5-174 ng/L. Although PFOA was the most commonly detected PFC (57% of samples) and was found at the highest maximum concentration (100 ng/L), some of the higher levels of other PFCs were at sites with little or no PFOA. Perfluorononanoic acid was detected more frequently (30%) and at higher concentrations (up to 96 ng/L) than in raw or finished drinking water elsewhere, and it was found at several sites as the sole or predominant PFC, a pattern not reported in other drinking water studies. PFOS, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorohexanoic acid were each detected in more than 20% of samples, while perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were detected less frequently. Perfluorobutanoic acid was found only once (6 ng/L), and perfluorodecanoic acid was not detected. Total PFCs were highest in two reservoirs near an airfield; these were also the only sites with total perfluorosulfonic acids higher than total perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFC levels in raw and finished water from the same source were similar at those sites where both were tested. Five wells of two additional NJ PWS known to be contaminated with PFOA were also each sampled 4-9 times in 2010-13 for nine of the same PFCs. Total PFCs (almost completely PFCAs) at one of these PWS located near an industrial source of PFCs were higher than in any other PWS tested (up to 330 ng/L). These results show that multiple PFCs are

  12. Survey of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors present in Japanese consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Feng; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2015-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors have been used in various consumer products. However, limited information regarding their occurrence and concentration levels in products is available. In this study, we investigated 18 PFAAs and 14 PFAA precursors in various categories of consumer products purchased in Japan. Relatively high total concentrations of PFAAs and their precursors were found in sprays for fabrics and textiles (car wash/coating products (acid (PFOS), N-methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (MeFOSE) was detected in a higher frequency (8%) and in greater concentrations (acids (PFCAs) (carbon chain length⩾7) were also detected in greater concentrations than short chain PFCAs (⩽6). This result suggests that consumer products are one of the important sources of long-chain PFCAs in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Courtney D; Blaine, Andrea C; Hundal, Lakhwinder; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-01-20

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids-amended and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted soils results in two potential pathways for movement of these environmental contaminants into terrestrial foodwebs. Uptake of PFAAs by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to unspiked soils with varying levels of PFAAs (a control soil, an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and two AFFF-impacted soils) was measured. Standard 28 day exposure experiments were conducted in each soil, and measurements taken at additional time points in the municipal soil were used to model the kinetics of uptake. Uptake and elimination rates and modeling suggested that steady state bioaccumulation was reached within 28 days of exposure for all PFAAs. The highest concentrations in the earthworms were for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (2160 ng/g) and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA) in the industrially impacted soil (737 ng/g). Wet-weight (ww) and organic carbon (OC)-based biota soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for the earthworms were calculated after 28 days of exposure for all five soils. The highest BSAF in the industrially impacted soil was for PFDoA (0.42 goc/gww,worm). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, dry-weight-basis, dw) were also calculated at 28 days for each of the soils. With the exception of the control soil and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in the industrially impacted soil, all BAF values were above unity, with the highest being for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (139 gdw,soil/gdw,worm). BSAFs and BAFs increased with increasing chain length for the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and decreased with increasing chain length for the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). The results indicate that PFAA bioaccumulation into earthworms depends on soil concentrations, soil characteristics, analyte, and duration of exposure, and that accumulation into earthworms may be a potential

  14. Decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorooctanoic acid in water by photochemical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hisao; Hayakawa, Etsuko; Einaga, Hisahiro; Kutsuna, Shuzo; Koike, Kazuhide; Ibusuki, Takashi; Kiatagawa, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2004-11-15

    The decomposition of persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water by UV-visible light irradiation, by H202 with UV-visible light irradiation, and by a tungstic heteropolyacid photocatalyst was examined to develop a technique to counteract stationary sources of PFOA. Direct photolysis proceeded slowly to produce CO2, F-, and short-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids. Compared to the direct photolysis, H2O2 was less effective in PFOA decomposition. On the other hand, the heteropolyacid photocatalyst led to efficient PFOA decomposition and the production of F- ions and CO2. The photocatalyst also suppressed the accumulation of short-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids in the reaction solution. PFOA in the concentrations of 0.34-3.35 mM, typical of those in wastewaters after an emulsifying process in fluoropolymer manufacture, was completely decomposed by the catalyst within 24 h of irradiation from a 200-W xenon-mercury lamp, with no accompanying catalyst degradation, permitting the catalyst to be reused in consecutive runs. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) measurements showed no trace of environmentally undesirable species such as CF4, which has a very high global-warming potential. When the (initial PFOA)/(initial catalyst) molar ratio was 10: 1, the turnover number for PFOA decomposition reached 4.33 over 24 h of irradiation.

  15. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, David A; Martin, Jonathan W; De Silva, Amila O

    2004-01-01

    Human and animal tissues collected in urban and remote global locations contain persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The source of PFCAs was previously unknown. Here we present smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade...... in the atmosphere to yield a homologous series of PFCAs. Atmospheric degradation of FTOHs is likely to contribute to the widespread dissemination of PFCAs. After their bioaccumulation potential is accounted for, the pattern of PFCAs yielded from FTOHs could account for the distinct contamination profile of PFCAs....... The significance of the gas-phase peroxy radical cross reactions that produce PFCAs has not been recognized previously. Such reactions are expected to occur during the atmospheric degradation of all polyfluorinated materials, necessitating a reexamination of the environmental fate and impact of this important...

  16. Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA in Groundwater under Acidic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghua Yin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA is an emerging contaminant of concern due to its toxicity for human health and ecosystems. However, successful degradation of PFOA in aqueous solutions with a cost-effective method remains a challenge, especially for groundwater. In this study, the degradation of PFOA using activated persulfate under mild conditions was investigated. The impact of different factors on persulfate activity, including pH, temperature (25 °C–50 °C, persulfate dosage and reaction time, was evaluated under different experimental conditions. Contrary to the traditional alkaline-activated persulfate oxidation, it was found that PFOA can be effectively degraded using activated persulfate under acidic conditions, with the degradation kinetics following the pseudo-first-order decay model. Higher temperature, higher persulfate dosage and increased reaction time generally result in higher PFOA degradation efficiency. Experimental results show that a PFOA degradation efficiency of 89.9% can be achieved by activated persulfate at pH of 2.0, with the reaction temperature of 50 °C, molar ratio of PFOA to persulfate as 1:100, and a reaction time of 100 h. The corresponding defluorination ratio under these conditions was 23.9%, indicating that not all PFOA decomposed via fluorine removal. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer analysis results indicate that both SO4−• and •OH contribute to the decomposition of PFOA. It is proposed that PFOA degradation occurs via a decarboxylation reaction triggered by SO4−•, followed by a HF elimination process aided by •OH, which produces one-CF2-unit-shortened perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, Cn−1F2n−1COOH. The decarboxylation and HF elimination processes would repeat and eventually lead to the complete mineralization all PFCAs.

  17. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-01-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT_5_0 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. - Highlights: • Biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs in an aerobic soil was investigated.

  18. Cooking decreases observed perfluorinated compound concentrations in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gobbo, Liana; Tittlemier, Sheryl; Diamond, Miriam; Pepper, Karen; Tague, Brett; Yeudall, Fiona; Vanderlinden, Loren

    2008-08-27

    Dietary intake is a major route of exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Although fish and seafood contribute significantly to total dietary exposure to these compounds, there is uncertainty with respect to the effect of cooking on PFC concentrations in these foods. Eighteen fish species purchased from markets in Toronto, Mississauga, and Ottawa, Canada were analyzed for perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSAs)-based fluorochemicals and perfluorinated acids (PFAs) in raw and cooked (baked, boiled, fried) samples. Of 17 analytes, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was detected most frequently; concentrations ranged from 0.21 to 1.68 ng/g ww in raw and cooked samples. PFOSAs were detected only in scallops at concentrations ranging from 0.20 ng/g ww to 0.76 ng/g ww. Total concentrations of PFAs in samples were 0.21 to 9.20 ng/g ww, respectively, consistent with previous studies. All cooking methods reduced PFA concentrations. Baking appeared to be the most effective cooking method; after baking samples for 15 min at 163 C (325 degrees F), PFAs were not detected in any of the samples. The margin of exposures (MOE) between the toxicological points of reference and the dietary intake of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and PFOS in fish and seafood muscle tissue were greater than 4 orders of magnitude. This indicates that reducing consumption of fish muscle tissue is not warranted on the basis of PFC exposure concerns at the reported levels of contamination, even for high fish consuming populations.

  19. Flow-injection determination of total organic fluorine with off-line defluorination reaction on a solid sorbent bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musijowski, Jacek; Trojanowicz, Marek; Szostek, Bogdan; da Costa Lima, José Luis Fontes; Lapa, Rui; Yamashita, Hiroki; Takayanagi, Toshio; Motomizu, Shoji

    2007-09-26

    Considering recent reports on widespread occurrence and concerns about perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in environmental and biological systems, analysis of these compounds have gained much attention in recent years. Majority of analyte-specific methods are based on a LC/MS/MS or a GC/MS detection, however many environmental or biological studies would benefit from a total organic fluorine (TOF) determination. Presented work was aimed at developing a method for TOF determination. TOF is determined as an amount of inorganic fluoride obtained after defluorination reaction conducted off-line using sodium biphenyl reagent directly on the sorbent without elution of retained analytes. Recovered fluoride was analyzed using flow-injection system with either fluorimetric or potentiometric detection. The TOF method was tested using perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), as model compounds. Considering low concentrations of PFAS in natural samples, solid-phase extraction as a preconcentration procedure was evaluated. Several carbon-based sorbents were tested, namely multi-wall carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres and activated carbon. Good sorption of all analytes was achieved and defluorination reaction was possible to carry out directly on a sorbent bed. Recoveries obtained for PFCAs, adsorbed on an activated carbon sorbent, and measured as TOF, were 99.5+/-1.7, 110+/-9.4, 95+/-26, 120+/-32, 110+/-12 for C4, C6, C8, C10 and C12-PFCA, respectively. Two flow systems that would enable the defluorination reaction and fluoride determination in a single system were designed and tested.

  20. Acute toxicity assessment of perfluorinated carboxylic acids towards the Baltic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latała, Adam; Nędzi, Marcin; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2009-09-01

    The presence of high-energy carbon-fluorine bonds in perfluoro compounds lends them great stability and causes them to be environmentally persistent. Relatively little is known about the acute toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) to ecotoxicological markers such as aquatic plants and animals. This study tested the toxicity of these compounds to the green alga Chlorella vulgaris, the diatom Skeletonema marinoi and the blue-green alga Geitlerinema amphibium, which are species representative of the algal flora of the Baltic Sea. The EC(50) values obtained range from 0.28 mM to 12.84 mM. A distinct relationship between hydrophobicity and toxicity is demonstrated. For every extra perfluoromethylene group in the alkyl chain, the toxicity increases twofold. LogEC(50) values are very well correlated linearly with both the number of carbon atoms in the perfluoroalkyl chain and the partition coefficients. The results also indicate that there are clear differences between the responses of particular taxonomic groups of algae: blue-green algae and diatoms are far more sensitive to PFCAs than green algae, probably because of differences in cell wall structure.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) and Selected Precursors in the Baltic Sea Environment: Do Precursors Play a Role in Food Web Accumulation of PFAAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2016-06-21

    The present study examined the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected precursors in the Baltic Sea abiotic environment and guillemot food web, and investigated the relative importance of precursors in food web accumulation of PFAAs. Sediment, water, zooplankton, herring, sprat, and guillemot eggs were analyzed for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,6,8,10) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-15) along with six perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors and 11 polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs). FOSA, FOSAA and its methyl and ethyl derivatives (Me- and EtFOSAA), and 6:2/6:2 diPAP were detected in sediment and water. While FOSA and the three FOSAAs were detected in all biota, a total of nine diPAPs were only detected in zooplankton. Concentrations of PFOS precursors and diPAPs exceeded PFOS and PFCA concentrations, respectively, in zooplankton, but not in fish and guillemot eggs. Although PFOS precursors were present at all trophic levels, they appear to play a minor role in food web accumulation of PFOS based on PFOS precursor/PFOS ratios and PFOS and FOSA isomer patterns. The PFCA pattern in fish could not be explained by the intake pattern based on PFCAs and analyzed precursors, that is, diPAPs. Exposure to additional precursors might therefore be a dominant exposure pathway compared to direct PFCA exposure for fish.

  2. Determination of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in fish fillet by micro-solid phase extraction, followed by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashgari, Maryam; Lee, Hian Kee

    2014-11-21

    In the current study, a simple, fast and efficient combination of protein precipitation and micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in fish fillet. Ten PFCAs with different hydrocarbon chain lengths (C5-C14) were analysed simultaneously using this method. Protein precipitation by acetonitrile and μ-SPE by surfactant-incorporated ordered mesoporous silica were applied to the extraction and concentration of the PFCAs as well as for removal of interferences. Determination of the PFCAs was carried out by LC-MS/MS in negative electrospray ionization mode. MS/MS parameters were optimized for multiple reaction monitoring of the analytes. (13)C mass labelled PFOA as a stable-isotopic internal standard, was used for calibration. The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.97 ng/g to 2.7 ng/g, with a relative standard deviation of between 5.4 and 13.5. The recoveries were evaluated for each analyte and were ranged from 77% to 120%. The t-test at 95% confidence level showed that for all the analytes, the relative recoveries did not depend on their concentrations in the explored concentration range. The effect of the matrix on MS signals (suppression or enhancement) was also evaluated. Contamination at low levels was detected for some analytes in the fish samples. The protective role of the polypropylene membrane used in μ-SPE in the elimination of matrix effects was evaluated by parallel experiments in classical dispersive solid phase extraction. The results evidently showed that the polypropylene membrane was significantly effective in reducing matrix effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel [Área de Toxicología, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Clementini, Chiara [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra [Department of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Murcia & Instituto Murciano de Investigacion Biomedica (IMIB), (IMIB-VIRGEN DE LA ARRIXACA), Murcia (Spain); Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Guerranti, Cristiana [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bioscience Research Center, Via Aurelia Vecchia 32, 58015 Orbetello, GR (Italy); Cincinelli, Alessandra, E-mail: acincinelli@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  4. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  5. Occurrence and transport of 17 perfluoroalkyl acids in 12 coastal rivers in south Bohai coastal region of China with concentrated fluoropolymer facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Fu, Yaning; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Liu, Shijie; Xie, Shuangwei; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. While PFAAs manufacturing becomes regulated in developed countries, production has been partly shifted to China. Eight fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities located in the South Bohai coastal region, one of the most populated areas of China, have been used to manufacture PFAA-related substances since 2001. The environmental consequence of the intensive production of PFAAs in this region remains largely unknown. We analyzed 17 PFAAs in twelve coastal rivers of this region, and found staggeringly high concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) ranging from 0.96 to 4534.41 ng/L. The highest concentration was observed in the Xiaoqing River which received effluents from certain fluoropolymer facilities. Principal component analysis indicated similar sources of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in all rivers, which indicated that atmospheric transport, wastewater treatment and surface runoff also acted as important supplements to direct discharge to surface water. - Highlights: • PFAAs were detected in rapidly urbanized regions. • PFOA was found predominant followed by short chain PFCAs. • Fluoropolymer facilities were associated with PFAAs contamination. • Higher PFAAs levels were found near the PTFE production facilities. • Diffusion of PFAAs from rivers to the sea was influenced by tide and current. - High level of PFOA was detected in the river water due to the fluoropolymer industries in South Bohai coastal region

  6. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids: a critical review of physicochemical properties, levels and patterns in waters and wastewaters, and treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2009-10-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are an emerging class of environmental contaminants present in various environmental and biological matrices. Two major PFA subclasses are the perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The physicochemical properties and partitioning behavior for the linear PFA members are poorly understood and widely debated. Even less is known about the numerous branched congeners with varying perfluoroalkyl chain lengths, leading to confounding issues around attempts to constrain the properties of PFAs. Current computational methods are not adequate for reliable multimedia modeling efforts and risk assessments. These compounds are widely present in surface, ground, marine, and drinking waters at concentrations that vary from pg L(-1) to microg L(-1). Concentration gradients of up to several orders of magnitude are observed in all types of aquatic systems and reflect proximity to known industrial sources concentrated near populated regions. Some wastewaters contain PFAs at mg L(-1) to low g L(-1) levels, or up to 10 orders of magnitude higher than present in more pristine receiving waters. With the exception of trifluoroacetic acid, which is thought to have both significant natural and anthropogenic sources, all PFSAs and PFCAs are believed to arise from human activities. Filtration and sorption technologies offer the most promising existing removal methods for PFAs in aqueous waste streams, although sonochemical approaches hold promise. Additional studies need to be conducted to better define opportunities from evaporative, extractive, thermal, advanced oxidative, direct and catalyzed photochemical, reductive, and biodegradation methods. Most PFA treatment methods exhibit slow kinetic profiles, hindering their direct application in conventional low hydraulic residence time systems.

  7. Identification of Unsaturated and 2H Polyfluorocarboxylate Homologous Series and Their Detection in Environmental Samples and as Polymer Degradation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pair of homologous series of polyfluorinated degradation products have been identified, both having structures similar to perfluorocarboxylic acids but (i) having a H substitution for F on the α carbon for 2H polyfluorocarboxylic acids (2HPFCAs) and (ii) bearing a double ...

  8. Atmospheric emissions and long-range transport of persistent organic chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheringer M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic chemicals include several groups of halogenated compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs, and polyfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs. These chemicals remain for long times (years to decades in the environment and cycle between different media (air, water, sediment, soil, vegetation, etc.. The environmental distribution of this type of chemicals can conveniently be analyzed by multimedia models. Multimedia models consist of a set of coupled mass balance equations for the environmental media considered; they can be set up at various scales from local to global. Two applications of multimedia models to airborne chemicals are discussed in detail: the day-night cycle of PCBs measured in air near the surface, and the atmospheric long-range transport of volatile precursors of PFCAs, formation of PFCAs by oxidation of these precursors, and subsequent deposition of PFCAs to the surface in remote regions such as the Arctic.

  9. Fluorinated alkyl substances and technical mixtures used in food paper-packaging exhibit endocrine-related activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmai, A K; Taxvig, C; Svingen, T; Trier, X; van Vugt-Lussenburg, B M A; Pedersen, M; Lesné, L; Jégou, B; Vinggaard, A M

    2016-07-01

    Migration of chemicals from packaging materials to foods may lead to human exposure. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) can be used in technical mixtures (TMs) for use in food packaging of paper and board, and PFAS have been detected in human serum and umbilical cord blood. The specific structures of the PFAS in TMs are often unknown, but polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) have been characterized in TMs, food packaging, and in food. PAPs can be metabolized into fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Some PFAS have endocrine activities, highlighting the need to investigate these effects. Herein, we studied the endocrine activity of less characterized PFAS, including short-chain PFCAs and FTOHs, PAPs, and TMs of unknown chemical composition. Long-chain PFCAs were also included. We applied seven assays covering effects on estrogen, glucocorticoid, androgen, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activity, as well as steroidogenesis in vitro and ex vivo. In general, PAPs, FTOHs, TMs, and long-chain PFCAs showed estrogenic activity through receptor activation and/or increasing 17β-estradiol levels. Furthermore, short- and long-chain PFCAs activated PPARα and PPARγ. Collectively, this means that (i) PAPs, FTOHs, and PFCAs exhibit endocrine activity through distinct and sometimes different mechanisms, (ii) two out of three tested TMs exhibited estrogenic activity, and (iii) short-chain FTOHs showed estrogenic activity and short-chain PFCAs generally activate both PPARα and PPARγ with similar potency and efficacy as long-chain PFCAs. In conclusion, several new and divergent toxicological targets were identified for different groups of PFAS. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Shifts in production of perfluoroalkyl acids affect emissions and concentrations in the environment of the Xiaoqing River Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pei [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Lu, Yonglong, E-mail: yllu@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang, Tieyu [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Meng, Jing; Li, Qifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyun [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Yajun [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Ruoshi [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Mass loads demonstrated a greater pattern of increasing PFAAs emissions. • High levels of PFOA were identified near a fluoropolymer facility. • Production activities that could generate PFOA emissions were analyzed. • Partitioning coefficients decreased with high levels of short-chain PFCAs in water. - Abstract: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been widely used in surfactant applications, especially as processing acids for fluoropolymer production. This study provides an analysis of sources of certain PFAAs emitted from the intensive fluoropolymer facilities in the Xiaoqing River Basin of China. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as great as 0.97 mg/L in surface water and 10.5 μg/g dry weight in surface sediment have been detected near the effluent of one facility (F1) that produces polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and other fluoropolymers with massive capacity. With the great emission of PFAAs to water in natural conditions, the log K{sub OC} values decreased for short-chain PFCAs. Mass loads of PFAAs indicated that emissions of PFAAs from other facilities or sources were much less than those from F1, which emitted 174 kg/d of PFAAs including 159 kg/d of PFOA to the rivers. Even though production and emissions of PFOA have been strictly controlled in other countries since 2006, production of PFOA as well as several other fluoropolymers that use PFOA as processing aids has been increasing at F1 in recent years. We recommended that production shift should be taken into consideration in PFOA elimination actions.

  11. Shifts in production of perfluoroalkyl acids affect emissions and concentrations in the environment of the Xiaoqing River Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Meng, Jing; Li, Qifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Sun, Yajun; Wang, Ruoshi; Giesy, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass loads demonstrated a greater pattern of increasing PFAAs emissions. • High levels of PFOA were identified near a fluoropolymer facility. • Production activities that could generate PFOA emissions were analyzed. • Partitioning coefficients decreased with high levels of short-chain PFCAs in water. - Abstract: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been widely used in surfactant applications, especially as processing acids for fluoropolymer production. This study provides an analysis of sources of certain PFAAs emitted from the intensive fluoropolymer facilities in the Xiaoqing River Basin of China. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as great as 0.97 mg/L in surface water and 10.5 μg/g dry weight in surface sediment have been detected near the effluent of one facility (F1) that produces polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and other fluoropolymers with massive capacity. With the great emission of PFAAs to water in natural conditions, the log K_O_C values decreased for short-chain PFCAs. Mass loads of PFAAs indicated that emissions of PFAAs from other facilities or sources were much less than those from F1, which emitted 174 kg/d of PFAAs including 159 kg/d of PFOA to the rivers. Even though production and emissions of PFOA have been strictly controlled in other countries since 2006, production of PFOA as well as several other fluoropolymers that use PFOA as processing aids has been increasing at F1 in recent years. We recommended that production shift should be taken into consideration in PFOA elimination actions.

  12. A Class of Effective of Decarboxylative Perfluoroalkylating Reagents: [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yangjie; Ajitha, Manjaly John; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhang, Zhongxing; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the invention of a class of effective reagents [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF) (1) for the decarboxylative perfluoroalkylation of aryl and heteroaryl halides. Treatment of the copper tert-butyloxide with phenanthroline ligands, with subsequent addition of perfluorocarboxylic acids afforded the air-stable copper(I) perfluorocarboxylato complexes 1. These complexes reacted with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl halides to form perfluoroalkyl(hetero)arenes in moderate to high yields. Computational studies suggested that the coordination of the second phen ligand may reduce the energy barrier for the decarboxylation of perfluorocarboxylate to facilitate the perfluoroalkylation.

  13. A Class of Effective of Decarboxylative Perfluoroalkylating Reagents: [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yangjie

    2016-04-13

    This article describes the invention of a class of effective reagents [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF) (1) for the decarboxylative perfluoroalkylation of aryl and heteroaryl halides. Treatment of the copper tert-butyloxide with phenanthroline ligands, with subsequent addition of perfluorocarboxylic acids afforded the air-stable copper(I) perfluorocarboxylato complexes 1. These complexes reacted with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl halides to form perfluoroalkyl(hetero)arenes in moderate to high yields. Computational studies suggested that the coordination of the second phen ligand may reduce the energy barrier for the decarboxylation of perfluorocarboxylate to facilitate the perfluoroalkylation.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid with beta-Ga2O3 in anoxic aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baoxiu; Lv, Mou; Zhou, Li

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a new-found hazardous persistent organic pollutant, and it is resistant to decomposition by hydroxyl radical (HO*) due to its stable chemical structure and the high electronegativity of fluorine. Photocatalytic reduction of PFOA with beta-Ga2O3 in anoxic aqueous solution was investigated for the first time, and the results showed that the photoinduced electron (e(cb-)) coming from the beta-Ga2O3 conduction band was the major degradation substance for PFOA, and shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs, CnF2n+i1COOH, 1 < or = n < or = 6) were the dominant products. Furthermore, the concentration of F- was measured by the IC technique and defluorination efficiency was calculated. After 3 hr, the photocatalytic degradation efficiency was 98.8% and defluorination efficiency was 31.6% in the presence of thiosulfate and bubbling N2. The degradation reaction followed first-order kinetics (k = 0.0239 min(-1), t1/2 = 0.48 hr). PFCAs (CnF2n+1COOH, 1 < or = n < or = 7) were detected and measured by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS methods. It was deduced that the probable photocatalytic degradation mechanism involves e(cb-) attacking the carboxyl of CnF2n+1COOH, resulting in decarboxylation and the generation of CnF2n+1*. The produced CnF2n+1* reacted with H2O, forming CnF2n+1OH, then CnF2n+1OH underwent HF loss and hydrolysis to form CnF2n+1COOH.

  15. Sorption of Perfluorochemicals to Matrices Relevant to Sites Impacted by Aqueous Film-Forming Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulvado, J.; Higgins, C.

    2011-12-01

    Perfluorochemicals are a class of emerging contaminants consisting of fluorinated surfactants that are chemically and thermally stable and which contain a fluorocarbon tail that is both hydro- and oleophobic. Because of these unique properties, PFCs have a wide variety of uses including food paper packaging products, stain repellants, nonstick coatings, and aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF). At fire-training facilities, repeated application of AFFF is used to extinguish hydrocarbon fuel fires ignited for training purposes. The presence of perfluochemicals (PFCs) in groundwater as a result of repeated AFFF application at these facilities has been documented. Due to factors such as the recent push towards regulation of PFCs in drinking water, concerns have arisen about the fate of these compounds in the subsurface. Groundwater plumes containing PFC subclasses such as perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFAS), and fluorotelomer sulfonates (FtSs) in the μg/L to mg/L range have been detected. These plumes also may contain co-contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuel components and chlorinated solvents, some of which may exist as nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL). This study examined the sorption of PFCs to soil and aquifer material across the concentration range applicable to AFFF-impacted sites (μg/L - mg/L) and looked at the impact of co-contaminants, including NAPL, on PFC sorption. PFC sorption was variable and indicated that similar to previous work on PFC sorption to sediment, subsurface PFC transport will depend on factors such as the sorbent organic carbon content, PFC subclass, solution chemistry, and PFC chain length.

  16. Brain region distribution and patterns of bioaccumulative perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in east greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the comparative accumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in eight brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus, n = 19) collected in 2006 from Scoresby Sound, East Greenland. The PFAAs studied were perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs, C(6) -C(15) chain lengths) and sulfonates (C(4) , C(6) , C(8) , and C(10) chain lengths) as well as selected precursors including perfluorooctane sulfonamide. On a wet-weight basis, blood-brain barrier transport of PFAAs occurred for all brain regions, although inner regions of the brain closer to incoming blood flow (pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus) contained consistently higher PFAA concentrations compared to outer brain regions (cerebellum, striatum, and frontal, occipital, and temporal cortices). For pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus, the most concentrated PFAAs were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), ranging from 47 to 58 ng/g wet weight, and perfluorotridecanoic acid, ranging from 43 to 49 ng/g wet weight. However, PFOS and the longer-chain PFCAs (C(10) -C(15) ) were significantly (p  0.05) different among brain regions. The burden of the sum of PFCAs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide in the brain (average mass, 392 g) was estimated to be 46 µg. The present study demonstrates that both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cross the blood-brain barrier in polar bears and that wet-weight concentrations are brain region-specific. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  17. Determination of fluorotelomer alcohols in selected consumer products and preliminary investigation of their fate in the indoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established an ongoing effort to identify the major perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) sources in nonoccupational indoor environments and characterize their transport and fate. This study determined the concentrations of perfluorote...

  18. Fluorinated alkyl substances and technical mixtures used in food paper-packaging exhibit endocrine-related activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Taxvig, Camilla; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    Migration of chemicals from packaging materials to foods may lead to human exposure. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) can be used in technical mixtures (TMs) for use in food packaging of paper and board, and PFAS have been detected in human serum and umbilical cord blood. The specific structures...... of the PFAS in TMs are often unknown, but polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) have been characterized in TMs, food packaging, and in food. PAPs can be metabolized into fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Some PFAS have endocrine activities, highlighting...... the need to investigate these effects. Herein, we studied the endocrine activity of less characterized PFAS, including short-chain PFCAs and FTOHs, PAPs, and TMs of unknown chemical composition. Long-chain PFCAs were also included. We applied seven assays covering effects on estrogen, glucocorticoid...

  19. Method Development for the Determination of Fluorotelomer Alcohols in Soils by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) have been widely studied as precursors to perfluorocarboxylates, e.g. 8:2 FTOH degrades to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation describes an analytical method for the extraction and analysis of 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 FTOHs. Gas chromatograph...

  20. Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Haglund, Peter; Kärrman, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants, as a result of their incorporation in everyday products and industrial processes. In this study, we measured several classes of persistent PFASs, precursors, transformation intermediates, and newly identified PFASs in influent and effluent sewage water and sludge from three municipal waste water treatment plants in Sweden, sampled in 2015. For sludge, samples from 2012 and 2014 were analyzed as well. Levels of precursors in sludge exceeded those of perfluoroalkyl acids and sulfonic acids (PFCAs and PFSAs), in 2015 the sum of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) were 15-20ng/g dry weight, the sum of fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) was 0.8-1.3ng/g, and the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonamides and ethanols ranged from non-detected to 3.2ng/g. Persistent PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at 1.9-3.9ng/g and 2.4-7.3ng/g dry weight, respectively. The influence of precursor compounds was further demonstrated by an observed substantial increase for a majority of the persistent PFCAs and PFSAs in water after waste water treatment. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had a net mass increase in all WWTPs, with mean values of 83%, 28%, 37% and 58%, respectively. The load of precursors and intermediates in influent water and sludge combined with net mass increase support the hypothesis that degradation of precursor compounds is a significant contributor to PFAS contamination in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Perfluoroalkylated acids in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) near a fluorochemical plant in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffen, Thimo; Lopez-Antia, Ana; D'Hollander, Wendy; Prinsen, Els; Eens, Marcel; Bervoets, Lieven

    2017-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent substances which have been detected in wildlife around the world, including birds. Although bird eggs have often been used to determine and monitor PFAAs levels in the marine environment, this has rarely been done in the terrestrial environment. In the present study we examined the concentrations and composition profile of 12 PFAAs (4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and 8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) collected at a fluorochemical plant and in three other areas, representing a gradient in distance from the pollution source (from 1 to 70 km), in Antwerp, Belgium. The PFSA concentrations measured at the site of the fluorochemical plant were among the highest ever reported in eggs with median concentrations of 10380 ng/g (extrapolated), 99.3 ng/g and 47.7 ng/g for PFOS, PFHxS and PFDS respectively. Furthermore, the median concentration of 19.8 ng/g for PFOA was also among the highest ever reported in bird eggs. Although these concentrations decreased sharply with distance from the fluorochemical plant, levels found in the adjacent sites were still high compared to what has been reported in literature. Moreover, based on what is known in literature, it is likely that these concentrations may cause toxicological effects. PFOS was the dominant contributor to the PFSA and PFAAs (63.4-97.6%) profile at each site, whereas for PFCAs this was PFOA at the plant site and the nearest locations (41.0-52.8%) but PFDoA (37.7%) at the farthest location. Although there is some evidence that PFAAs concentrations close to the plant site are decreasing in comparison with earlier measurements, which may be due to the phase out of PFOS, more research is necessary to understand the extent of the toxicological effects in the vicinity of this PFAAs hotspot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Indoor Air and Dust from Homes and Various Microenvironments in China: Implications for Human Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yiming; Zhao, Yangyang; Sun, Hongwen; Chang, Shuai; Zhu, Lingyan; Alder, Alfredo C; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2018-03-06

    A newly developed solid-phase extraction cartridge composed of mixed sorbents was optimized for collection of both neutral and ionizable per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in indoor air. Eighty-one indoor air samples and 29 indoor dust samples were collected from rooms of homes and hotels, textile shops, and cinemas in Tianjin, China. Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were the predominant PFASs found in air (250-82 300 pg/m 3 ) and hotel dust (24.8-678 ng/g). Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were found at lower levels of nd-125 pg/m 3 in air and 0.32-183 ng/g in dust. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were dominant ionizable PFASs in air samples (121-20 600 pg/m 3 ) with C4-C7 PFCAs contributing to 54% ± 17% of the profiles, suggesting an ongoing shift to short-chain PFASs. Long-chain PFCAs (C > 7) were strongly correlated and the intermediate metabolite of FTOHs, fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acids, occurred in all the air samples at concentrations up to 413 pg/m 3 , suggesting the transformation of precursors such as FTOHs in indoor environment. Daily intake of ∑PFASs via air inhalation and dust ingestion was estimated at 1.04-14.1 ng/kg bw/d and 0.10-8.17 ng/kg bw/d, respectively, demonstrating that inhalation of air with fine suspended particles was a more important direct exposure pathway than dust ingestion for PFASs to adults.

  3. Worldwide drinking water occurrence and levels of newly-identified perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Hermann A; Vo Duy, Sung; Munoz, Gabriel; Méité, Ladji; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Liu, Jinxia; Sory, Traoré Karim; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2018-03-01

    In the last decade or so, concerns have arisen with respect to the widespread occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment, food, drinking water, and humans. In this study, the occurrence and levels of a large range of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in drinking water (bottled and tap water samples) from various locations around the world. Automated off-line solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to analyze PFASs of various chain lengths and functional groups. In total, 29 target and 104 suspect-target PFASs were screened in drinking water samples (n=97) from Canada and other countries (Burkina Faso, Chile, Ivory Coast, France, Japan, Mexico, Norway, and the USA) in 2015-2016. Out of the 29 PFASs quantitatively analyzed, perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs: C 4/14 ), perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs: C 4 , C 6 , C 8 ), and perfluoroalkyl acid precursors (e.g., 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylate (5:3 FTCA)) were recurrently detected in drinking water samples (concentration range: water samples from Canada showed noteworthy differences depending on their source; for instance, ∑ 29 PFASwas significantly greater in those produced from the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence River ecosystem than those produced from other types of sources (14 versus 5.3ngL -1 , respectively). A suspect-target screening approach indicated that other perfluoroalkane sulfonamides (FBSA, FHxSA), perfluoroethyl cyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS), ultrashort chain (C 2 -C 3 ) PFSAs (PFEtS, PFPrS), and two additional PFSAs (PFPeS (C 5 ) and PFHpS (C 7 )) were repeatedly present in tap water samples (concentration ranges: water. According to the newly updated US EPA health advisory for PFOS and PFOA (70ngL -1 ), the drinking water samples collected in the present monitoring would not pose a health risk to consumers as regards PFAA levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in wastewater treatment plants and drinking water treatment plants: Removal efficiency and exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs. The average total PFASs concentrations in the three selected WWTPs were 19.6-232 ng/L in influents, 15.5-234 ng/L in effluents, and 31.5-49.1 ng/g dry weight in sludge. The distribution pattern of PFASs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples, indicating strong partition of PFASs with long carbon chains to sludge. In the WWTPs, most PFASs were not eliminated efficiently in conventional activated sludge treatment, while the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) and Unitank removed approximately 50% of long chain (C ≥ 8) perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). The daily mass loads of total PFASs in WWTPs were in the range of 1956-24773 mg in influent and 1548-25085 mg in effluent. PFASs were found at higher concentrations in the wastewater from plant A with some industrial wastewater input than from the other two plants (plant B and plant C) with mainly domestic wastewater sources. Meanwhile, the average total PFASs concentrations in the two selected DWTPs were detected at 4.74-14.3 ng/L in the influent and 3.34-13.9 ng/L in the effluent. In DWTPs, only granular activated carbon (GAC) and powder activated carbon (PAC) showed significant removal of PFASs. The PFASs detected in the tap water would not pose immediate health risks in the short term exposure. The findings from this

  5. Quantitative characterization of short- and long-chain perfluorinated acids in solid matrices in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Chaojie; Qu, Yan; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants because of their widespread occurrences, persistence, and bioaccumulative and toxicological effects. PFAs have been detected in aquatic environment and biota in China, but the occurrences of these chemicals have not been reported in solid matrices in China. In the present study, short- and long-chain PFAs (C2-C14) have been quantitatively determined in solid matrices including sediments, soils and sludge collected in Shanghai, China. The results indicate that sludge contains more PFAs than sediments and soils, and the total PFAs concentrations in sediments, soil and sludge are 62.5-276 ng g(-1), 141-237 ng g(-1) and 413-755 ng g(-1), respectively. In most cases, trifluoroacetic acid was the major PFA and accounted for 22-90% of the total PFAs. Although the levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were not only lower than trifluoroacetic acid, but also lower than some short-chain PFCAs (PFAs, respectively. Meanwhile, unlike previous studies, PFOS levels were not always higher than PFOA in solids collected in Shanghai, China. Given that some short-chain PFAs such as trifluoroacetic acid are mildly phytotoxic and their higher levels in solid matrices were collected in Shanghai, China, these chemicals should be included in future environmental monitoring efforts.

  6. Ferric ion mediated photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by 254 nm UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuan; Zhang Pengyi; Pan Gang; Chen Hao

    2008-01-01

    The great enhancement of ferric ion on the photochemical decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) under 254 nm UV light was reported. In the presence of 10 μM ferric ion, 47.3% of initial PFOA (48 μM) was decomposed and the defluorination ratio reached 15.4% within 4 h reaction time. While the degradation and defluorination ratio greatly increased to 80.2% and 47.8%, respectively, when ferric ion concentration increased to 80 μM, and the corresponding half-life was shortened to 103 min. Though the decomposition rate was significantly lowered under nitrogen atmosphere, PFOA was efficiently decomposed too. Other metal ions like Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ also slightly improved the photochemical decomposition of PFOA under irradiation of 254 nm UV light. Besides fluoride ion, other intermediates during PFOA decomposition including formic acid and five shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with C7, C6, C5, C4 and C3, respectively, were identified and quantified by IC or LC/MS. The mixture of PFOA and ferric ion had strong absorption around 280 nm. It is proposed that PFOA coordinates with ferric ion to form a complex, and its excitation by 254 nm UV light leads to the decomposition of PFOA in a stepwise way

  7. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid by a wide band gap p-block metal oxyhydroxide InOOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Wu, Miaomiao; Yang, Jingwen; Wang, Zhengmei; Chen, Mindong; Teng, Fei

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we prepared a new wide band gap semiconductor, p-block metal oxyhydroxide InOOH, which exhibits efficient activity for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) degradation under mild conditions and UV light irradiation. The apparent rate constant for PFOA degradation by InOOH is 27.6 times higher than that for P25 titania. Results show that ionized PFOA (C7F15COO-) can be adsorbed much more efficiently on the surface of InOOH than P25. Then, the adsorbed C7F15COO- can be decomposed directly by photo-generated holes to form C7F15COOrad radicals. This process is the key step for the photocalytic degradation of PFOA. Major degradation intermediates, fluoride ions and perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with shorter chain lengths were detected during PFOA degradation. A possible pathway for photocatalytic degradation of PFOA is proposed based on the experimental results. Therefore, this studies indicates a potential new material and method for the efficient treatment of PFCA pollutants under mild conditions.

  8. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in San Francisco Bay wildlife: Temporal trends, exposure pathways, and notable presence of precursor compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Margaret D; Benskin, Jonathan P; Wong, Adam; Grace, Richard; Greig, Denise J

    2017-10-01

    Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay) wildlife have historically been among the highest reported globally. To track continuing exposures to PFASs and assess the impact of the 2002 phase-out of production of PFOS and related chemicals in the US, nine perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C4-C12), three perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA, a PFOS precursor) were measured in SF Bay cormorant eggs in 2012 and harbor seal serum sampled between 2009 and 2014. PFOS remained the dominant perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) in both cormorant eggs (36.1-466 ng/g) and seals (12.6-796 ng/g) from 2012 and 2014, respectively. Concentrations in seal and bird eggs from the South Bay have declined approximately 70% in both matrices. To elucidate potential pathways of exposure, prey fish, sediments and wastewater effluent were analyzed for PFASs, and in the case of sediment and effluent, a suite of PFAA precursors. PFOS was the dominant PFAA in prey fish and sediment. In effluent, different mixtures of PFAAs were measured, with PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA detected in the highest concentrations. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (PFCA-precursors) were observed at concentrations over an order of magnitude higher than PFCAs in sediment, highlighting their importance as a potential, on-going source of PFCAs to SF Bay wildlife. These findings suggest that the PFOS phase-out has resulted in reduced burdens to wildlife in SF Bay, but that exposure to diverse and incompletely characterized PFASs continues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Microbial Growth on Subsurface Perfluoroalkyl Acid Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, T. S.; Higgins, C. P.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The fate and transport of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the presence of active microbial communities has not been widely investigated. These emerging contaminants are commonly utilized in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) and have often been detected in groundwater. This study explores the transport of a suite of perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluoroalkylsulfonates, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in microbially active settings. Single point organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients derived by exposing inactive cellular material to PFASs result in more than an order of magnitude increase in sorption compared to soil organic carbon sorption coefficients found in literature. For example, the sorption coefficients for PFOS are 4.05±0.07 L/kg and 2.80±0.08 L/kg for cellular organic carbon and soil organic carbon respectively. This increase in sorption, coupled with enhanced extracellular polymeric substance production observed during growth of a common hydrocarbon degrading soil microbe exposed to source-level concentrations of PFASs (10 mg/L of 11 analytes, 110 mg/L total) may result in PFAS retardation in situ. To address the upscaling of this phenomenon, flow-through columns packed with low-organic carbon sediment and biostimulated with 10 mg/L glucose were exposed to PFAS concentrations from 15 μg/L to 10 mg/L of each 11 analytes. Breakthrough and tailing of each analyte was measured and modeled with Hydrus-1D to explore sorption coefficients over time for microbially active columns.

  10. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers Pedersen, Kathrine; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert; Greaves, Alana K; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a growing class of contaminants in the Arctic environment, and include the established perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFSAs and PFCAs of varying chain length have been reported to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptor density (dopamine-2 (D2), muscarinic cholinergic (mAChR) and gamma-butyric acid type A (GABA-A)) along with PFSA and PFCA concentrations. Average brain ∑PFSA concentration was 25ng/g ww where PFOS accounted for 91%. Average ∑PFCA concentration was 88ng/g ww where PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA combined accounted for 79%. The highest concentrations of PFASs were measured in brain stem, cerebellum and hippocampus. Correlative analyses were performed both across and within brain regions. Significant positive correlations were found between PFASs and MAO activity in occipital lobe (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.83, p=0.041, n=6) and across brain regions (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.47, p=0.001, ∑PFSA; rp=0.44, p>0.001; n=50). GABA-A receptor density was positively correlated with two PFASs across brain regions (PFOS; rp=0.33, p=0.02 and PFDoDA; rp=0.34, p=0.014; n=52). Significant negative correlations were found between mAChR density and PFASs in cerebellum (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=-0.95, p=0.013, n=5) and across brain regions (e.g.

  11. Spatial trends of polyfluorinated compounds in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggs from North-Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfstrand, Karin; Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn; Tomy, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggs, collected in North-Western Europe, from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Sweden and two locations in Norway. The highest concentrations of PFOS were found in samples from Sweden (mean 400 ng g(-1) wet weight (w.w.)), which were almost five times higher than...

  12. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in target food samples and packaging--method development and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Ullah, Shahid; Sandblom, Oskar; Berger, Urs

    2013-11-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate mono-, di-, and tri-esters (mono-, di-, and triPAPs) are used to water- and grease-proof food packaging materials, and these chemicals are known precursors to perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Existing analytical methods for PAPs lack sample clean-up steps in the sample preparation. In the present study, a method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) was developed and optimized for the analysis of mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including a clean-up step for the raw extracts. The method was applied to food samples and their PAP-containing packaging materials. The optimized UPLC/MS/MS method enabled the separation and identification of a total of 4 monoPAPs, 16 diPAPs, and 7 triPAPs in the technical mixture Zonyl®-RP. For sample clean-up, weak anion exchange solid phase extraction columns were tested. PAPs standard solutions spiked onto the columns were separated into a fraction containing neutral compounds (triPAPs) and a fraction with ionic compounds (mono- and diPAPs) with recoveries between 72-110%. Method limits of quantification for food samples were in the sub to low picogram per gram range. For quantitative analysis of PAPs, compound-specific labeled internal standards showed to be essential as sorption and matrix effects were observed. Mono-, di-, and/or triPAPs were detected in all food packaging materials obtained from the Swedish market. Up to nine diPAPs were detected in the food samples, with the 6:2/6:2 and 6:2/8:2 diPAPs as the dominant compounds. DiPAP concentrations in the food samples ranged from 0.9 to 36 pg/g, which was comparable to individual PFCA concentrations in the same samples. Consumption of food packed in PAP-containing materials could be an indirect source of human exposure to PFCAs.

  13. Atmospheric fate of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs): I. Day–night patterns of air concentrations in summer in Zurich, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Claudia E.; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Bogdal, Christian; Wang, Zhanyun; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are anthropogenic pollutants ubiquitously found in the environment. Volatile PFASs are likely transported atmospherically over long ranges, but identification and quantification of emission sources is a challenging task. In this work, special meteorological conditions were utilized to quantify atmospheric emissions of Zurich City, Switzerland with a dual approach of modeling and field measurements. During high pressure systems in summer, a stable nocturnal boundary layer is formed in which pollutants are enriched. For volatile PFASs, a diel pattern of high concentrations in the night and low concentrations during the day was observed in Zurich, which is likely due to the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics. These results enable to model the emission source strength of Zurich City with a multimedia mass balance model in an accompanying paper. Cluster analyses suggested that perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) are a result of degradation of volatile precursors and direct emissions. - Highlights: ► Atmospheric PFAS concentrations in Zurich increase during the night. ► Diel concentration dynamics are likely due to stable nocturnal boundary layer. ► City is a source of PFASs to the atmosphere. ► 8:2 FTOH concentrations are high: up to 1200 pg/m 3 . ► PFAA concentrations are correlated with ozone, not particulate matter. - Semivolatile PFAS concentrations follow a diel trend in Zurich City in stable summer conditions likely due to atmospheric boundary layer effects and urban emissions.

  14. Transport of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from an arctic glacier to downstream locations: implications for sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Karen Y; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Murphy, Margaret B; Horii, Yuichi; Petrick, Gert; Kallerborn, Roland; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Murano, Kentaro; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been globally detected in various environmental matrices, yet their fate and transport to the Arctic is still unclear, especially for the European Arctic. In this study, concentrations of 17 PFAS were quantified in two ice cores (n=26), surface snow (n=9) and surface water samples (n=14) collected along a spatial gradient in Svalbard, Norway. Concentrations of selected ions (Na(+), SO4(2-), etc.) were also determined for tracing the origins and sources of PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were the dominant compounds found in ice core samples. Taking PFOA, PFNA and perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) as examples, higher concentrations were detected in the middle layers of the ice cores representing the period of 1997-2000. Lower concentrations of C8-C12 perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) were detected in comparison with concentrations measured previously in an ice core from the Canadian Arctic, indicating that contamination levels in the European Arctic are lower. Average PFAS concentrations were found to be lower in surface snow and melted glacier water samples, while increased concentrations were observed in river water downstream near the coastal area. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) was detected in the downstream locations, but not in the glacier, suggesting existence of local sources of this compound. Long-range atmospheric transport of PFAS was the major deposition pathway for the glaciers, while local sources (e.g., skiing activities) were identified in the downstream locations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Okamura, Hideo; Hayashi, Mitsuru; Nakano, Takeshi; Matsumura, Chisato; Fukushi, Keiichi; Wada, Shinpei; Inui, Hideyuki

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analyzed in sediment samples taken from Ajifu Waterway in Osaka city, from Osaka Bay, and from Kagoshima Bay, as well as in fifteen seawater samples collected from Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan. In all sediment samples, only PFCAs were detected, and the highest concentration was determined in Ajifu Waterway, where ΣPFAA was 58990 ng kg -1 dry weight. The total concentrations of PFAAs in sea water samples ranged between the limit of quantification and 53.4 ng L -1 , and perfluorohexanoic acid was the most prevalent and had the highest concentration of 37 ng L -1 . The changes in the patterns and concentrations of PFAAs in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan indicate that the PFAAs in surface waters are influenced by sources from Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, mainly the Yodo River basin, and the dilution effect which naturally occurs during their transport to the Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological responses to perfluorododecanoic acid exposure in rat kidneys as determined by integrated proteomic and metabonomic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA is a perfluorinated carboxylic chemical (PFC that has broad applications and distribution in the environment. While many studies have focused on hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity of PFCAs, few have investigated renal toxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we used comparative proteomic and metabonomic technologies to provide a global perspective on renal response to PFDoA. Male rats were exposed to 0, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.5 mg/kg/day of PFDoA for 110 days. After 2-D DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF analysis, 79 differentially expressed proteins between the control and the PFDoA treated rats (0.2 and 0.5 mg-dosed groups were successfully identified. These proteins were mainly involved in amino acid metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, electron transport, and stress response. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic analysis showed an increase in pyruvate, lactate, acetate, choline, and a variety of amino acids in the highest dose group. Furthermore, the profiles of free amino acids in the PFDoA treated groups were investigated quantitatively by high-coverage quantitative iTRAQ-LC MS/MS, which showed levels of sarcosine, asparagine, histidine, 1-methylhistidine, Ile, Leu, Val, Trp, Tyr, Phe, Cys, and Met increased markedly in the 0.5 mg dosed group, while homocitrulline, α-aminoadipic acid, β-alanine, and cystathionine decreased. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations provide evidence that disorders in glucose and amino acid metabolism may contribute to PFDoA nephrotoxicity. Additionally, α(2u globulin may play an important role in protecting the kidneys from PFDoA toxicity.

  17. Quantitative characterization of short- and long-chain perfluorinated acids in solid matrices in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Chaojie; Qu, Yan; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants because of their widespread occurrences, persistence, and bioaccumulative and toxicological effects. PFAs have been detected in aquatic environment and biota in China, but the occurrences of these chemicals have not been reported in solid matrices in China. In the present study, short- and long-chain PFAs (C2-C14) have been quantitatively determined in solid matrices including sediments, soils and sludge collected in Shanghai, China. The results indicate that sludge contains more PFAs than sediments and soils, and the total PFAs concentrations in sediments, soil and sludge are 62.5-276 ng g -1 , 141-237 ng g -1 and 413-755 ng g -1 , respectively. In most cases, trifluoroacetic acid was the major PFA and accounted for 22-90% of the total PFAs. Although the levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were not only lower than trifluoroacetic acid, but also lower than some short-chain PFCAs (< C8) in some individual cases, PFOA and PFOS were still the major pollution compounds in most cases and they constituted 2-34% and 1-9% of the total PFAs, respectively. Meanwhile, unlike previous studies, PFOS levels were not always higher than PFOA in solids collected in Shanghai, China. Given that some short-chain PFAs such as trifluoroacetic acid are mildly phytotoxic and their higher levels in solid matrices were collected in Shanghai, China, these chemicals should be included in future environmental monitoring efforts.

  18. Uptake and elimination kinetics of perfluoroalkyl substances in submerged and free-floating aquatic macrophytes: Results of mesocosm experiments with Echinodorus horemanii and Eichhornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, N; Ng, J Z; Kelly, B C

    2017-06-15

    Studies investigating the bioaccumulation behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic macrophytes are limited. The present study involved controlled mesocosm experiments to assess uptake and elimination rate constants (k u, k e ), bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in two aquatic plant species, including one submerged species (Echinodorus horemanii) and one free-floating species (Eichhornia crassipes). The results indicated all PFASs were readily accumulated in these aquatic macrophytes. k u and BCFs increased with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length. For PFCAs and PFSAs with identical perfluoroalkyl chain length, the corresponding PFSA exhibited higher bioaccumulation potential. On a whole-plant basis, the bioaccumulation potential of PFASs in submerged and free-floating macrophytes were comparable, indicating sorption to plant biomass is similar in the different species. Conversely, when considering accumulation in foliage, BCFs in the free-floating macrophyte were substantially lower compared to submerged species, especially for longer-chain PFASs. Compounds with shorter perfluoroalkyl chain length (PFBS, PFPeA and PFHxA) exhibited preferential translocation to leaf tissue (TFs >1). BCFs exhibited a sigmoidal relationship with pefluoroalkyl chain length, membrane-water distribution coefficients (D mw ), protein-water distribution coefficients (D pw ) and organic-water partition coefficients (K oc ). For these trends, maximum BCF values were exhibited by long-chain PFCAs, with a log D mw , log D pw and log K oc of 6.47, 5.72 and 5.04, respectively. These findings are useful for future design and implementation of phytoremediation systems, as well for future develop of mechanistic models for predicting the environmental fate and distribution of these contaminants of concern. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in Swedish food: The relative importance of direct and indirect dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbink, Wouter A.; Glynn, Anders; Darnerud, Per Ola; Berger, Urs

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed food market basket samples obtained in Sweden from 1999, 2005, and 2010 for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and a range of precursor compounds. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors were detected in all food year pools with the highest concentrations in 1999. Six polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs, 4:2/6:2, 6:2/6:2, 6:2/8:2, 8:2/8:2, 6:2/10:2, and 10:2/10:2) were detected in the year pools with the highest ∑diPAP concentrations in 1999 and 2005. All precursors were predominantly found in meat, fish, and/or eggs based on analysis of individual food groups from 1999. Based on year pools, PFOS precursors contributed between 4 and 1% as an indirect source to total dietary PFOS intakes between 1999 and 2010. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) exposure originated entirely from diPAPs, whereas for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), diPAPs contributed between 1 and 19% to total exposure. The lowest precursor contributions were generally seen in food samples from 2010. - Highlights: • Three PFOS precursors and six diPAPs were detected in food pools. • Precursor concentrations were highest in 1999 and 2005 food pools, and lowest in 2010. • The relative importance of precursors to total PFOS dietary intake was <4%. • The relative importance of diPAPs as an indirect dietary source of PFCAs was chain length dependent. - The relative contribution of precursors to PFOS dietary intakes is small, whereas the contribution of diPAPs to PFCA dietary intakes varies with the PFCA chain length

  20. Tissue-specific concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2012-11-06

    Several perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) of varying chain length are bioaccumulative in biota. However, wildlife reports have focused on liver and with very little examination of other tissues, and thus there is a limited understanding of their distribution and potential effects in the mammalian body. In the present study, the comparative accumulation of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, and select precursors were examined in the liver, blood, muscle, adipose, and brain of 20 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Scoresby Sound, Central East Greenland. Overall, PFSA and PFCA concentrations were highest in liver followed by blood > brain > muscle ≈ adipose. Liver and blood samples contained proportionally more of the shorter/medium chain length (C(6) to C(11)) PFCAs, whereas adipose and brain samples were dominated by longer chain (C(13) to C(15)) PFCAs. PFCAs with lower lipophilicities accumulated more in the liver, whereas the brain accumulated PFCAs with higher lipophilicities. The concentration ratios (±SE) between perfluorooctane sulfonate and its precursor perfluorooctane sulfonamide varied among tissues from 9 (±1):1 (muscle) to 36 (±7):1 (liver). PFCA and PFSA patterns in polar bears indicate that the pharmacokinetics of these compounds are to some extent tissue-specific, and are the result of several factors that may include differing protein interactions throughout the body.

  1. Photochemical defluorination of aqueous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by Fe(0)/GAC micro-electrolysis and VUV-Fenton photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Hong; Cheng, Jian-Hua; You, Xia; Liang, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Yong-You

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is extremely persistent and bioaccumulative in the environment; thus, it is very urgent to investigate an effective and moderate technology to treat the pollution of PFOA. In this study, a process combined iron and granular activated carbon (Fe(0)/GAC) micro-electrolysis with VUV-Fenton system is employed for the remediation of PFOA. Approximately 50 % PFOA (10 mg L(-1)) could be efficiently defluorinated under the following conditions: pH 3.0, dosage of Fe 7.5 g L(-1), dosage of GAC 12.5 g L(-1), and concentration of H2O2 22.8 mmol L(-1). Meanwhile, during the process, evident defluorination was observed and the concentration of fluoride ion was eventually 3.23 mg L(-1). The intermediates including five shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), i.e., C7, C6, C5, C4, and C3, were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) and defluorination mechanisms of PFOA was proposed, which involved photochemical of OH·, direct photolysis (185-nm VUV), and photocatalytic degradation of PFOA in the presence of Fe(3+) (254-nm UV).

  2. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Pra and Kakum River basins and associated tap water in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, David K; Eshun, Albert; Hogarh, Jonathan N; Bentum, John K; Adjei, Joseph K; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2017-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent environmental pollutants that have been detected in various media including human serum. Due to concerns regarding their bioaccumulation and possible negative health effects, an understanding of routes of human exposure is necessary. PFAAs are recalcitrant in many water treatment processes, making drinking water a potential source of human exposure. This study presents the first report on contamination from PFAAs in river and drinking water in Ghana. The targeted PFAAs were perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with C 4-14 carbon chain and perfluoroalkane sulphonic acids (PFSAs) with C 6, 8, 10 . Five PFAA congeners - PFOA, PFOS, PFHxA, PFDA and PFPeA - were commonly detected in river and tap water. The mean concentrations of ∑PFAAs in the Kakum and Pra Rivers were 281 and 398ng/L, while tap water (supplied from the treatment of water from those rivers) contained concentrations of 197 and 200ng/L, respectively. PFOA and PFOS constituted about 99% of the ∑PFAAs. The risk quotient (RQ) attributed to drinking of tap water was estimated at 1.01 and 1.74 for PFOA and PFOS, respectively. For a country that has not produced these compounds, the RQs were unexpectedly high, raising concerns particularly about contamination from such emerging pollutants in local water sources. The study revealed limitations of local tap water treatment in getting rid of these emerging pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Degradation of Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers Contributes to the Global Occurrence of Fluorotelomer Alcohol and Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylates: A Combined Dynamic Substance Flow and Environmental Fate Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Hu, Jianxin; Wania, Frank

    2017-04-18

    Using coupled dynamic substance flow and environmental fate models, CiP-CAFE and BETR-Global, we investigated whether the degradation of side-chain fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs), mostly in waste stocks (i.e., landfills and dumps), serves as a long-term source of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) to the global environment. The modeling results indicate that, in the wake of the worldwide transition from long-chain to short-chain products, in-use stocks of C8 FTPs will peak and decline afterward, while the in-use stocks of C6 FTPs, and the waste stocks of both FTPs will generally grow. FTP degradation in waste stocks is making an increasing contribution to FTOH generation, the bulk of which readily migrates from waste stocks and degrades into PFCAs in the environment; the remaining part of the generated FTOHs degrade in waste stocks, which makes those stocks reservoirs that slowly release PFCAs into the environment over the long run because of the low leaching rate and extreme persistence of PFCAs. Short-chain FTPs have higher relative release rates of PFCAs from waste stocks than long-chain ones. Estimates of in-use and waste stocks of FTPs were more sensitive to the selected lifespan of finished products, while those of the emissions of FTOHs and PFCAs were more sensitive to the degradation half-life of FTPs in waste stocks. Our preliminary calculations highlight the need for environmentally sound management of obsolete FTP-containing products into the foreseeable future.

  4. Promoted degradation of perfluorooctanic acid by persulfate when adding activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu-Chi [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lo, Shang-Lien, E-mail: sllo@ntuedu.tw [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Jeff [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, California State University, 800 North, State College Blvd., Fullerton (United States); Huang, Chin-Pao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • PFOA removal and defluorination with AC/PS are 12 and 19 times higher than PS only • AC can activate PS to accelerate the decomposition and mineralization of PFOA. • With AC/PS, a lower reaction temperature and a shorter reaction time would suffice • A 2-cycle schematic reaction mechanism was proposed to describe PS oxidation of PFOA. -- Abstract: Treatment of persistent perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water using persulfate (PS) oxidation typically requires an elevated temperature or UV irradiation, which is energy-consuming. Under relatively low temperatures of 25–45 °C, activated carbon (AC) activated PS oxidation of PFOA was evaluated for its potential of practical applications. With presence of AC in PS oxidation, PFOA removal efficiency at 25 °C reached 682% with a high defluorination efficiency of 549% after 12 h and few intermediates of short-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were found. The removal and defluorination rates with the combined AC/PS system were approximately 12 and 19 times higher than those of the PS-only system, respectively. Activated carbon not only removes PFOA through adsorption, but also activates PS to form sulfate radicals that accelerate the decomposition and mineralization of PFOA. The activation energy for PS oxidation of PFOA was reduced from 668 to 261 kJ/mol by the catalytic effect of AC, which implies a lower reaction temperature and a shorter reaction time would suffice. A 2-cycle schematic reaction mechanism was used to describe PS oxidation of PFOA with the generation of various intermediates and end-products.

  5. Promoted degradation of perfluorooctanic acid by persulfate when adding activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Lo, Shang-Lien; Kuo, Jeff; Huang, Chin-Pao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PFOA removal and defluorination with AC/PS are 12 and 19 times higher than PS only • AC can activate PS to accelerate the decomposition and mineralization of PFOA. • With AC/PS, a lower reaction temperature and a shorter reaction time would suffice • A 2-cycle schematic reaction mechanism was proposed to describe PS oxidation of PFOA. -- Abstract: Treatment of persistent perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water using persulfate (PS) oxidation typically requires an elevated temperature or UV irradiation, which is energy-consuming. Under relatively low temperatures of 25–45 °C, activated carbon (AC) activated PS oxidation of PFOA was evaluated for its potential of practical applications. With presence of AC in PS oxidation, PFOA removal efficiency at 25 °C reached 682% with a high defluorination efficiency of 549% after 12 h and few intermediates of short-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were found. The removal and defluorination rates with the combined AC/PS system were approximately 12 and 19 times higher than those of the PS-only system, respectively. Activated carbon not only removes PFOA through adsorption, but also activates PS to form sulfate radicals that accelerate the decomposition and mineralization of PFOA. The activation energy for PS oxidation of PFOA was reduced from 668 to 261 kJ/mol by the catalytic effect of AC, which implies a lower reaction temperature and a shorter reaction time would suffice. A 2-cycle schematic reaction mechanism was used to describe PS oxidation of PFOA with the generation of various intermediates and end-products

  6. Optimization of sample preparation and chromatography for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in sediments from the Yangtze Estuary and East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian-Wen; Yang, Gui-Peng; Zhang, Ze-Ming; Zhang, Jing

    2018-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitous pollutants present in various environmental media, including marine sediments. A method was proposed for the determination of 17 target PFAA analytes in marine sediment samples (n = 49) collected from the Yangtze Estuary and East China Sea. The proposed method involves the use of an optimized pretreatment procedure and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method relied on extraction cycles using methanol followed by concentration, filtration, and small volume injection to UHPLC-MS/MS. The recovery, time efficiency, and detection limit of the proposed method are improved relative to those of traditional methods. Limits of detection varied from 0.003 to 0.045 ng/g, and spike recoveries to sediment ranged from 90% to 110% with suitable precisions (1.7%-14.6%). PFAAs were widely present in the samples, and ΣPFAAs ranged from 0.67 ng/g dw to 36.75 ng/g dw. Results indicated that terrigenous input strongly influences PFAA distribution in sediments from the study areas. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were identified as the dominant perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) and perfluoroalkylsulfonate (PFSA) in sediment samples from the Yangtze Estuary and the East China Sea. Preliminary environmental risk assessment indicated that PFOS may pose a higher environmental risk than PFOA. Furthermore, risk quotient values indicated that PFOS poses a significant risk to the aquatic ecosystem of the study areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, M. D.; Ball, J. C.; Wallington, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... to the atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  8. Relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity and cellular concentration of 14 perfluoroalkyl substances in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Ahrens, Lutz; le Godec, Théo; Lundqvist, Johan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2018-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a molecular target for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Little is known about the cellular uptake of PFASs and how it affects the PPARα activity. We investigated the relationship between PPARα activity and cellular concentration in HepG2 cells of 14 PFASs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Cellular concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and PPARα activity was determined in transiently transfected cells by reporter gene assay. Cellular uptake of the PFASs was low (0.04-4.1%) with absolute cellular concentrations in the range 4-2500 ng mg -1 protein. Cellular concentration of PFCAs increased with perfluorocarbon chain length up to perfluorododecanoate. PPARα activity of PFCAs increased with chain length up to perfluorooctanoate. The maximum induction of PPARα activity was similar for short-chain (perfluorobutanoate and perfluoropentanoate) and long-chain PFCAs (perfluorododecanoate and perfluorotetradecanoate) (approximately twofold). However, PPARα activities were induced at lower cellular concentrations for the short-chain homologs compared to the long-chain homologs. Perfluorohexanoate, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate induced PPARα activities >2.5-fold compared to controls. The concentration-response relationships were positive for all the tested compounds, except perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOS and FOSA, and were compound-specific, as demonstrated by differences in the estimated slopes. The relationships were steeper for PFCAs with chain lengths up to and including PFNA than for the other studied PFASs. To our knowledge, this is the first report establishing relationships between PPARα activity and cellular concentration of a broad range of PFASs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Perfluoroalkylated substances in the global tropical and subtropical surface oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaya, Belén; Dachs, Jordi; Roscales, Jose L; Caballero, Gemma; Jiménez, Begoña

    2014-11-18

    In this study, perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analyzed in 92 surface seawater samples taken during the Malaspina 2010 expedition which covered all the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Nine ionic PFASs including C6-C10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C4 and C6-C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and two neutral precursors perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASAs), were identified and quantified. The Atlantic Ocean presented the broader range in concentrations of total PFASs (131-10900 pg/L, median 645 pg/L, n = 45) compared to the other oceanic basins, probably due to a better spatial coverage. Total concentrations in the Pacific ranged from 344 to 2500 pg/L (median = 527 pg/L, n = 27) and in the Indian Ocean from 176 to 1976 pg/L (median = 329, n = 18). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound, accounting for 33% of the total PFASs globally, followed by perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA, 22%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 12%), being the rest of the individual congeners under 10% of total PFASs, even for perfluorooctane carboxylic acid (PFOA, 6%). PFASAs accounted for less than 1% of the total PFASs concentration. This study reports the ubiquitous occurrence of PFCAs, PFSAs, and PFASAs in the global ocean, being the first attempt, to our knowledge, to show a comprehensive assessment in surface water samples collected in a single oceanic expedition covering tropical and subtropical oceans. The potential factors affecting their distribution patterns were assessed including the distance to coastal regions, oceanic subtropical gyres, currents and biogeochemical processes. Field evidence of biogeochemical controls on the occurrence of PFASs was tentatively assessed considering environmental variables (solar radiation, temperature, chlorophyll a concentrations among others), and these showed significant correlations with some PFASs, but explaining small to moderate percentages of variability

  10. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in environmental solid extracts after phospholipid removal and on-line turbulent flow chromatography purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, M; Polesello, S; Rusconi, M; Valsecchi, S

    2016-07-01

    An on-line TFC (Turbulent Flow Chromatography) clean up procedures coupled with UHPLC-MS/MS (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) multi-residue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 8 perfluroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCA, from 5 to 12 carbon atoms) and 3 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSA, from 4 to 8 carbon atoms) in environmental solid matrices. Fast sample preparation procedure was based on a sonication-assisted extraction with acetonitrile. Phospholipids in biological samples were fully removed by an off-line SPE purification before injection, using HybridSPE(®) Phospholipid Ultra cartridges. The development of the on-line TFC clean-up procedure regarded the choice of the stationary phase, the optimization of the mobile phase composition, flow rate and injected volume. The validation of the optimized method included the evaluation of matrix effects, accuracy and reproducibility. Signal suppression in the analysis of fortified extracts ranged from 1 to 60%, and this problem was overcome by using isotopic dilution. Since no certified reference materials were available for PFAS in these matrices, accuracy was evaluated by recoveries on spiked clam samples which were 98-133% for PFCAs and 40-60% for PFSAs. MLDs and MLQs ranged from 0.03 to 0.3ngg(-1) wet weight and from 0.1 to 0.9ngg(-1) wet weight respectively. Repeatability (intra-day precision) and reproducibility (inter-day precision) showed RSD from 3 to 13% and from 4 to 27% respectively. Validated on-line TFC/UHPLC-MS/MS method has been applied for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in different solid matrices (sediment, fish, bivalves and bird yolk). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Fang; Yeung, Leo W.Y.; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamazaki, Eriko; Wang, Renping; Lam, Paul K.S.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai, Jiayin

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA. Highlights: •The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, followed by PFOS and PFDA in all alligator samples. •Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males. •The concentrations of the five PFCAs showed significant negative correlation to age. -- Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators

  12. Hydrated electron: a destroyer of perfluorinated carboxylates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Li; Dong Wenbo; Hou Huiqi

    2006-01-01

    As a class, perfluorinated carboxylate (PFCA) was ranked among the most prominent organohalogen contaminants in environment with respect to thermal, chemical and biological inertness. Hydrated electron (e aq - ), a highly reactive and strongly reductive species, has been reported to readily decompose perfluoroaromatic compounds via intermolecular electron transfer process in aqueous solution. Question then arose: what would happen if perfluorinated carboxylates encountered with hydrated electron? Original laboratory trial on the interaction between F(CF 2 ) n COO - (n=1, 3, 7) and hydrated electron was attempted by using laser flash photolysis technique in this research work. Abundant hydrated electron (e aq - ) could be produced by photolysis of 1.25 x 10 -4 M K 4 Fe(CN) 6 in nitrogen saturated water. In the presence of F(CF 2 ) n COO - (n=1, 3, 7), the decay of e aq - was observed to enhance dramatically, indicating e aq - was able to attack PFCAs. On addition of perfluorinated carboxylates, the loss of e aq - was mainly due to the following channels. By mixing the solution of K 4 Fe(CN) 6 with excess K 3 Fe(CN) 6 and PFCAs, e aq - turned to decayed corresponding to mixed first- and second-order kinetics. Rate constants for the reactions of e aq - with PFCAs could be then easily determined by monitoring the decay of e aq - absorption at 690 nm. Since perfluorinated carboxylates were salts, the influence of ionic strength on k 3 was examined systematically by carrying out experiments of varying ionic strength ranging from 0.009 up to 0.102 M by adding NaClO 4 . In this manner, the second order rate constants for e-aq with CF 3 COO - , C 3 F 7 COO - , C 7 F 15 COO - were derived to be (1.9±0.2) x 10 6 M -1 S -1 (μ=0), (7.1±0.2) x 10 6 M -1 S -1 (μ=0) and (1.7±0.5) x10 7 M -1 S -1 (μ=0.009 M) respectively. Apparently, the length of F(CF 2 ) n group exerted substantial influence on the rate constant. Further study on byproducts analysis by ion chromatography

  13. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the lower atmosphere and surface waters of the Chinese Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and Yangtze River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Tang, Jianhui; Mi, Lijie; Tian, Chongguo; Zhong, Guangcai; Zhang, Gan; Wang, Shaorui; Li, Qilu; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Xie, Zhiyong; Sun, Hongwen

    2017-12-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in the forms of neutral polyfluoroalkyl substances in the gas phase of air and ionic perfluoroalkyl substances in the dissolved phase of surface water, were investigated during a sampling campaign in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and Yangtze River estuary in May 2012. In the gas phase, the concentrations of neutral ∑PFASs were within the range of 76-551pg/m 3 . Higher concentrations were observed in the South Yellow Sea. 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the predominant compound as it accounted for 92%-95% of neutral ∑PFASs in all air samples. Air mass backward trajectory analysis indicated that neutral ∑PFASs came mainly from the coast of the Yellow Sea, including the Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces of China, and the coastal region of South Korea. The fluxes of gas phase dry deposition were simulated for neutral PFASs, and neutral ∑PFASs fluxes varied from 0.37 to 2.3pg/m 2 /s. In the dissolved phase of the surface water, concentrations of ionic ∑PFASs ranged from 1.6 to 118ng/L, with the Bohai Sea exhibiting higher concentrations than both the Yellow Sea and the Yangtze River estuary. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant compound accounting for 51%-90% of the ionic ∑PFAS concentrations. Releases from industrial and domestic activities as well as the semiclosed geographical conditions increased the level of ionic ∑PFASs in the Bohai Sea. The spatial distributions of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were different significantly. The Laizhou Bay was the major source region of PFCAs and the Yangtze River estuary was the major source of PFSAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipid homeostasis and oxidative stress in the liver of male rats exposed to perfluorododecanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongxia; Shi Zhimin; Liu Yang; Wei Yanhong; Dai Jiayin

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), a perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) with twelve carbon atoms, has broad industrial applications and is widely distributed in both wildlife and the environment. Unlike other PFCAs with short carbon chain, however, limited studies have been performed to date on the toxic effects of PFDoA on animals. To determine the hepatotoxicity of PFDoA, male rats were orally dosed by gavage for 14 days with 0, 1, 5, or 10 mg PFDoA/kg/day. Absolute liver weights were diminished, but the relative liver weight was significantly increased in the 5 and 10 mg PFDoA/kg/day groups. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations were decreased significantly in rats dosed with 1 and 5 mg PFDoA/kg/day, while the liver lipid accumulation was observed in ultrastructure. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and its target genes, and to a lesser extent PPARγ, was induced by PFDoA. No significant changes in the expression of liver X receptor α (LXRα) or its target genes CYP7A1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) were noted, although the mRNA levels of several genes involved in lipogenesis and lipid transport were changed significantly in the certain of the experimental groups. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were activated significantly in the 1 mg PFDoA/kg/day group and inhibited significantly with a concomitant increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in the 5 and 10 mg PFDoA/kg/day groups. Our results demonstrate that PFDoA exerts notable hepatotoxicity in male rats and that PPAR and its target genes, SOD and CAT activity, and LPO levels exhibited sensitivity to the toxicity of PFDoA

  15. Removal efficiency of multiple poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anion exchange (AE) column tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleaf, Philip; Englund, Sophie; Östlund, Anna; Lindegren, Klara; Wiberg, Karin; Ahrens, Lutz

    2017-09-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high concentrations throughout the world which has led to implementation of regulatory guidelines for specific PFASs in drinking water in several European countries and in the U.S. The Swedish National Food Agency has determined that the drinking water of over one third of the country's municipal consumers is at risk or already affected by PFAS contamination. The present study investigated the effects of perfluorocarbon chain length, functional group and isomer structure (branched or linear) on removal of multiple PFASs using granular activated carbon (GAC, Filtrasorb ® 400) and anion exchange (AE, Purolite ® A600) column experiments. The removal of 14 different PFASs, i.e. the C 3 C 11 , C 14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTeDA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and the C 4 , C 6 , C 8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS), was monitored for a 217 day period. The results indicate the selective nature of PFAS removal as the absorbents are loaded with PFASs and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A clear relationship between perfluorocarbon chain length and removal efficiency of PFASs using GAC and AE was found while PFASs with sulfonate functional groups displayed greater removal efficiency than those with carboxylate groups. Similarly, time to column breakthrough increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length and was greater for the PFSAs than the PFCAs for both GAC and AE. Shorter carbon chained PFASs such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA showed desorption behavior and long-chained PFASs showed increased removal towards the end of the experiment indicating agglomeration or micelle development. Linear isomers of PFOS, PFHxS, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) had greater column removal efficiencies using GAC (and also for AE at greater bed volume throughput) than the branched

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substances in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels from 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Hamers, Timo; Swart, Kees; Aars, Jon; Lie, Elisabeth; Nilsen, Else Mari Espseth; Wiig, Oystein; Derocher, Andrew E; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-11-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are protein-binding blood-accumulating contaminants that may have detrimental toxicological effects on the early phases of mammalian development. To enable an evaluation of the potential health risks of PFAS exposure for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), an exposure assessment was made by examining plasma levels of PFASs in polar bear mothers in relation to their suckling cubs-of-the-year (~4 months old). Samples were collected at Svalbard in 1998 and 2008, and we investigated the between-year differences in levels of PFASs. Seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑₇PFCAs: PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (∑₂PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) were detected in the majority of the mothers and cubs from both years. In mothers and cubs, most PFCAs were detected in higher concentrations in 2008 than in 1998. On the contrary, levels of PFOS were lower in 2008 than in 1998, while levels of PFHxS did not differ between the two sampling years. PFOS was the dominating compound in mothers and cubs both in 1998 and in 2008. Concentration of PFHpA did not differ between mothers and cubs, while concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA, PFHxS, and PFOS were higher in mothers than in their cubs. Except from PFHpA, all compounds correlated significantly between mothers and their cubs. The mean cub to mother ratios ranged from 0.15 for PFNA to 1.69 for PFHpA. On average (mean±standard error of mean), the levels of ∑₇PFCAs and ∑₂PFSAs in cubs were 0.24±0.01 and 0.22±0.01 times the levels in their mothers, respectively. Although maternal transfer appears to be a substantial source of exposure for the cubs, the low cub to mother ratios indicate that maternal transfer of PFASs in polar bears is relatively low in comparison with hydrophobic contaminants (e.g. PCBs). Because the level of several PFASs in mothers and cubs from both sampling years exceeded the levels associated

  17. Perfluoroalkyl acids in surface seawater from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean: Contamination, distribution and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zheng, Hongyuan; Wang, Tieyu; Cai, Minghong; Wang, Pei

    2018-03-16

    The bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic properties of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) resulted in strict regulations on PFAAs, especially in developed countries. Consequently, the industry manufacturing of PFAAs shifts from long-chain to short-chain. In order to better understand the pollution situation of PFAAs in marine environment under this new circumstance, the occurrence of 17 linear PFAAs was investigated in 30 surface seawater samples from the North Pacific to Arctic Ocean (123°E to 24°W, 32 to 82°N) during the sixth Chinese Arctic Expedition in 2014. Total concentrations of PFAAs (∑PFAAs) were between 346.9 pg per liter (pg/L) to 3045.3 pg/L. The average concentrations of ∑PFAAs decreased in the order of East China Sea (2791.4 pg/L, n = 2), Sea of Japan (East Sea) (832.8 pg/L, n = 6), Arctic Ocean (516.9 pg/L, n = 7), Chukchi Sea (505.2 pg/L, n = 4), Bering Sea (501.2 pg/L, n = 8) and Sea of Okhotsk (417.7 pg/L, n = 3). C4 to C9 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in more than 80% of the surface water samples. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was the most prevalent compound and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the second abundant homolog. The concentration of individual PFAAs in the surface seawater of East China Sea was much higher than other sampling seas. As the spatial distribution of PFAAs in the marine environment was mainly influenced by the river inflow from the basin countries, which proved the large input from China. Furthermore, the marginal seas of China were found with the greatest burden of PFOA comparing the pollution level in surface seawater worldwide. PFBA concentration in the surrounding seas of China was also high, but distributed more evenly with an obvious increase in recent years. This large-scale monitoring survey will help the improvement and development of PFAAs regulations and management, where production shift should be taken into consideration. Copyright

  18. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of perfluorinated compounds in a eutrophic freshwater food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jian; Guo, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the bioaccumulation of perfluorinated compounds from a food web in Taihu Lake in China was investigated. The organisms included egret bird species, carnivorous fish, omnivorous fish, herbivorous fish, zooplankton, phytoplankton, zoobenthos and white shrimp. Isotope analysis by δ 13 C and δ 15 N indicated that the carnivorous fish and egret were the top predators in the studied web, occupying trophic levels intermediate between 3.66 and 4.61, while plankton was at the lowest trophic level. Perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) with 9–12 carbons were significantly biomagnified, with trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranging from 2.1 to 3.7. The TMF of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (2.9) was generally comparable to or lower than those of the PFCAs in the same food web. All hazard ratio (HR) values reported for PFOS and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were less than unity, suggesting that the detected levels would not cause any immediate health effects to the people in Taihu Lake region through the consumption of shrimps and fish. -- Highlights: • Biomagnification of PFCs in the food web of a eutrophic freshwater lake was studied. • Carnivorous fish and egret were the top predators while plankton was at the lowest trophic level. • PFCAs with 9–12 carbons were significantly biomagnified. • TMF of PFOS was comparable to or lower than those of the PFCAs in the same food web. • PFOS and PFOA would not cause health effects to the people via diet consumption. -- PFCs were found to be bioaccumulated and biomagnified in a food web from a eutrophic freshwater lake in subtropical area

  19. Emission Changes Dwarf the Influence of Feeding Habits on Temporal Trends of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Two Arctic Top Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routti, Heli; Aars, Jon; Fuglei, Eva; Hanssen, Linda; Lone, Karen; Polder, Anuschka; Pedersen, Åshild Ø; Tartu, Sabrina; Welker, Jeffrey M; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2017-10-17

    We monitored concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in relation to climate-associated changes in feeding habits and food availability in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) (192 plasma and 113 liver samples, respectively) sampled from Svalbard, Norway, during 1997-2014. PFASs concentrations became greater with increasing dietary trophic level, as bears and foxes consumed more marine as opposed to terrestrial food, and as the availability of sea ice habitat increased. Long-chained perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in arctic foxes decreased with availability of reindeer carcasses. The ∼9-14% yearly decline of C 6-8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) following the cease in C 6-8 PFSA precursor production in 2001 indicates that the peak exposure was mainly a result of atmospheric transport of the volatile precursors. However, the stable PFSA concentrations since 2009-2010 suggest that Svalbard biota is still exposed to ocean-transported PFSAs. Long-chain ocean-transported PFCAs increased 2-4% per year and the increase in C 12-14 PFCAs in polar bears tended to level off since ∼2009. Emerging short-chain PFASs showed no temporal changes. Climate-related changes in feeding habits and food availability moderately affected PFAS trends. Our results indicate that PFAS concentrations in polar bears and arctic foxes are mainly affected by emissions.

  20. Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Roos, Anna; Lind, Ylva; Hope, Kjell; Ekblad, Alf; Kärrman, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ( 13 C and 15 N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997–2001, 2008–2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008–2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02–2.4 ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02–0.16 ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3–52 ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24–2.7 ng/g). The 15 N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2–3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been observed in

  1. Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ulrika, E-mail: ulrika.eriksson@oru.se [Man-Technology-Environment (MTM) Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro (Sweden); Roos, Anna; Lind, Ylva [Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Hope, Kjell; Ekblad, Alf; Kärrman, Anna [Man-Technology-Environment (MTM) Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro (Sweden)

    2016-08-15

    The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ({sup 13}C and {sup 15}N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997–2001, 2008–2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008–2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02–2.4 ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02–0.16 ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3–52 ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24–2.7 ng/g). The {sup 15}N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2–3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been

  2. Role of Snow Deposition of Perfluoroalkylated Substances at Coastal Livingston Island (Maritime Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Paulo; Zhang, Yifeng; Martin, Jonathan W; Pizarro, Mariana; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous in the environment, including remote polar regions. To evaluate the role of snow deposition as an input of PFAS to Maritime Antarctica, fresh snow deposition, surface snow, streams from melted snow, coastal seawater, and plankton samples were collected over a three-month period (December 2014-February 2015) at Livingston Island. Local sources of PFASs were significant for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and C7-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in snow but limited to the transited areas of the research station. The concentrations of 14 ionizable PFAS (∑PFAS) in freshly deposited snow (760-3600 pg L -1 ) were 1 order of magnitude higher than those in background surface snow (82-430 pg L -1 ). ∑PFAS ranged from 94 to 420 pg L -1 in seawater and from 3.1 to 16 ng g dw -1 in plankton. Ratios of individual PFAS concentrations in freshly deposited snow relative to surface snow (C SD /C Snow ), snowmelt (C SD /C SM ), and seawater (C SD /C SW ) were close to 1 (from 0.44 to 1.4) for all perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) isomers, suggesting that snowfall does not contribute significantly to PFOS in seawater. Conversely, these ratios for PFCAs ranged from 1 to 33 and were positively correlated with the number of carbons in the PFCA alkylated chain. These trends suggest that snow deposition, scavenging sea-salt aerosol bound PFAS, plays a role as a significant input of PFCAs to the Maritime Antarctica.

  3. Characterization of the thermolysis products of Nafion membrane: A potential source of perfluorinated compounds in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-05-01

    The thermal decomposition of Nafion N117 membrane, a typical perfluorosulfonic acid membrane that is widely used in various chemical technologies, was investigated in this study. Structural identification of thermolysis products in water and methanol was performed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). The fluoride release was studied using an ion-chromatography system, and the membrane thermal stability was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis. Notably, several types of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorocarboxylic acids were detected and identified. Based on these data, a thermolysis mechanism was proposed involving cleavage of both the polymer backbone and its side chains by attack of radical species. This is the first systematic report on the thermolysis products of Nafion by simulating its high-temperature operation and disposal process via incineration. The results of this study indicate that Nafion is a potential environmental source of PFCs, which have attracted growing interest and concern in recent years. Additionally, this study provides an analytical justification of the LC/ESI-MS/MS method for characterizing the degradation products of polymer electrolyte membranes. These identifications can substantially facilitate an understanding of their decomposition mechanisms and offer insight into the proper utilization and effective management on these membranes.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine biota of the Canadian Arctic: an overview of spatial and temporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, B M; Outridge, P M; Fisk, A T; Muir, D C G; Helm, P A; Hobbs, K; Hoekstra, P F; Kuzyk, Z A; Kwan, M; Letcher, R J; Lockhart, W L; Norstrom, R J; Stern, G A; Stirling, I

    2005-12-01

    also not yet possible to evaluate whether the recent Hg increases observed in some biota may be due solely to increased anthropogenic inputs or are in part the product of environmental change, e.g., climate warming. Concentrations of most "legacy" OCs (PCBs, DDT, etc.) significantly declined in Canadian Arctic biota from the 1970s to the late 1990s, and today are generally less than half the levels of the 1970s, particularly in seabirds and ringed seals. Chlorobenzenes and endosulfan were among the few OCs to show increases during this period while summation operatorHCH remained relatively constant in most species. A suite of new-use chemicals previously unreported in Arctic biota (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs)) has recently been found, but there is insufficient information to assess species differences, spatial patterns or food web dynamics for these compounds. Concentrations of these new chemicals are generally lower than legacy OCs, but there is concern because some are rapidly increasing in concentration (e.g., PBDEs), while others such as PFOS have unique toxicological properties, and some were not expected to be found in the Arctic because of their supposedly low potential for long-range transport. Continuing temporal monitoring of POPs and Hg in a variety of marine biota must be a priority.

  5. Role of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in environmental cycling of poly- and perfluoroalkyl (PFAS compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in environmental cycling of the poly- and perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFASs through the aqueous effluent, sludge and air emission has been critically reviewed here. Understanding the role WWTPs can provide better understanding of global cycling of persistent PFASs and assist in formulating relevant environmental policies. The review suggested that, the WWTP effluent is a major source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs in surface water. Land application of biosolids (treated sludge have shown preferential bioaccumulation of short chain (perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA and perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA can lead to underestimation total PFAS load derived from WWTPs. Knowledge of the various pathways of PFAS from WWTP to receiving environment, outlined in this study can help to adopt best possible management practices to reduce the release of PFASs from WWTP.

  6. Cooking fish is not effective in reducing exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Zhang, Xianming; Guo, Rui; Braekevelt, Eric; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Reiner, Eric J; Lee, Holly; Bronson, Roni; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2014-05-01

    Consumption of fish is considered a part of a healthy diet; however, health risks from fish consumption exist due to potential exposure to various contaminants accumulated in fish. Cooking fish can reduce exposure to many organic chemicals in fish. Similar results have been presented for low levels of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a class of contaminants of emerging concern, in grocery store fish. We examined the effectiveness of three cooking methods (i.e., baking, broiling, and frying) on reducing PFAS levels in four sport fish species. Samples of Chinook salmon, common carp, lake trout and walleye were collected from four rivers in Ontario, Canada and skin-off fillets were analyzed for regular groups of PFASs such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs), perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPIAs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs), which are PFASs of emerging concern. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS detected and the concentrations were more than an order of magnitude higher than those reported for fish from grocery stores in Canada, Spain, and China. Although concentrations of PFOS in fish fillets generally increase after cooking, amounts of PFOS largely remain unchanged. Relatively minor differences in changes in the fish PFAS amounts after cooking depended on fish species and cooking method used. We conclude that cooking sport fish is generally not an effective approach to reduce dietary exposure to PFASs, especially PFOS. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diet and metabolic state are the main factors determining concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances in female polar bears from Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Lone, Karen; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Polder, Anuschka; Thiemann, Gregory W; Torget, Vidar; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2017-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in organisms worldwide, including Polar Regions. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus), the top predator of Arctic marine ecosystems, accumulates high concentrations of PFASs, which may be harmful to their health. The aim of this study was to investigate which factors (habitat quality, season, year, diet, metabolic state [i.e. feeding/fasting], breeding status and age) predict PFAS concentrations in female polar bears captured on Svalbard (Norway). We analysed two perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) and C 8 -C 13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in 112 plasma samples obtained in April and September 2012-2013. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) in red blood cells and plasma, and fatty acid profiles in adipose tissue were used as proxies for diet. We determined habitat quality based on movement patterns, capture position and resource selection functions, which are models that predict the probability of use of a resource unit. Plasma urea to creatinine ratios were used as proxies for metabolic state (i.e. feeding or fasting state). Results were obtained from a conditional model averaging of 42 general linear mixed models. Diet was the most important predictor of PFAS concentrations. PFAS concentrations were positively related to trophic level and marine diet input. High PFAS concentrations in females feeding on the eastern part of Svalbard, where the habitat quality was higher than on the western coast, were likely related to diet and possibly to abiotic factors. Concentrations of PFSAs and C 8 -C 10 PFCAs were higher in fasting than in feeding polar bears and PFOS was higher in females with cubs of the year than in solitary females. Our findings suggest that female polar bears that are exposed to the highest levels of PFAS are those 1) feeding on high trophic level sea ice-associated prey, 2) fasting and 3) with small cubs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal mineralization behavior of PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS during reactivation of granular activated carbon (GAC) in nitrogen atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Takata, Mitsuyasu; Takemine, Shusuke; Yamamoto, Katsuya

    2018-03-01

    Waste disposal site is one of the important sinks of chemicals. A significant amount of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) have been brought into it. Because of their aqueous solubility, PFASs are released to landfill effluent waters, from which PFASs are efficiently collected by adsorption technique using granular activated carbon (GAC). The exhausted GAC is reactivated by heating processes. The mineralization of PFASs during the reactivation process was studied. Being thermally treated in N 2 atmosphere, the recovery rate of mineralized fluorine and PFC homologues including short-chained perfluorocarboxylic acids was determined. If the reagent form of PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS were treated at 700 °C, the recovery of mineralized fluorine was less than 30, 46, and 72 %, respectively. The rate increased to 51, 74, and 70 %, if PFASs were adsorbed onto GAC in advance; moreover, addition of excess sodium hydroxide (NaOH) improved the recovery to 74, 91, and 90 %. Residual PFAS homologue was less than 1 % of the original amount. Steamed condition did not affect destruction. The significant role of GAC was to suppress volatile release of PFASs from thermal ambient, whereas NaOH enhanced destruction and retained mineralized fluorine on the GAC surface. Comparing the recovery of mineralized fluorine, the degradability of PFOS was considered to be higher than PFOA and PFHxA. Whole mass balance missing 9~26 % of initial amount suggested formation of some volatile organofluoro compounds beyond analytical coverage.

  9. Biotransformation pathways of fluorotelomer-based polyfluoroalkyl substances: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Craig M; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2014-02-01

    The study reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds, with a focus on compounds that ultimately degrade to form perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs). Most metabolism studies have been performed with either microbial systems or rats and mice, and comparatively few studies have used fish models. Furthermore, biotransformation studies thus far have predominately used the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) as the substrate. However, there have been an increasing number of studies investigating 6:2 FTOH biotransformation as a result of industry's transition to shorter-chain fluorotelomer chemistry. Studies with the 8:2 FTOH metabolism universally show the formation of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and, to a smaller fraction, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and lower-chain-length PFCAs. In general, the overall yield of PFOA is low, presumably because of the multiple branches in the biotransformation pathways, including conjugation reactions in animal systems. There have been a few studies of non-FTOH biotransformation, which include polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), 8:2 fluorotelomer acrylate (8:2 FTAC), and fluorotelomer carboxylates (FTCAs, FTUCAs). The PAPs compounds and 8:2 FTAC were shown to be direct precursors to FTOHs and thus follow similar degradation pathways. © 2013 SETAC.

  10. Occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water and sediment of a tropical coastal area (Bay of Bengal coast, Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Md Saiful; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Sekine, Makoto; Tokumura, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-15

    This study reports the first evidence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface waters and sediments collected from the coastal area of Bangladesh. Fifteen target PFAAs, including C4-14-PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylates) and C4, C6, C8, and C10-PFSAs (perfluoroalkyl sulfonates), were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The ΣPFAAs in surface water and sediment samples were in the range of 10.6 to 46.8ng/L and 1.07 to 8.15ng/gdw, respectively. PFOA in water (3.17-27.8ng/L) and PFOS in sediment samples (0.60-1.14ng/gdw) were found to be the most abundant PFAAs, and these concentrations were comparable to or less than most other reported values, particularly those recorded from the coastal areas of China, Japan, Korea and Spain. The majority of the monitored PFAAs did not show clear seasonal variation. The southeastern part (Cox's Bazar and Chittagong) of the Bangladeshi coastal area was more contaminated with PFAAs than the southern (Meghna Estuary) and southwestern parts (Sundarbans). Industrial and municipal wastewater effluents, ship breaking and port activities were identified as potential sources of the PFAA contamination in this region. Field-based sediment water distribution coefficients (KD) were calculated and corrected for organic carbon content (KOC), which reduced the variability between samples. The values of log KD (1.63-2.88) and log KOC (4.02-5.16) were higher than previously reported values, which may indicate that the partitioning of PFAAs in a tropical coastal ecosystem is different from other ecosystems, such as temperate and sub-tropical regions. Although a preliminary environmental hazard assessment indicated that PFOA or PFOS levels do not currently exceed the acute safety thresholds, we should keep in mind that they are bioavailable and can accumulate in the food chain. Therefore, the ubiquity of PFAAs in the coastal area of Bangladesh warrants further studies characterizing their specific sources and the potential long-term risks they present to both

  11. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  12. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  13. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  14. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  15. Determination of household and industrial chemicals, personal care products and hormones in leafy and root vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Irene; Martín, Julia; Abril, Concepción; Santos, Juan Luis; Alonso, Esteban

    2018-01-19

    A multiresidue method has been developed for the determination of emerging pollutants in leafy and root vegetables. Selected compounds were 6 perfluoroalkyl compounds (5 perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), 3 non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol and nonylphenolethoxylates), 8 anionic surfactants (4 alkylsulfates and 4 linear alkylbenzene sulfonates), 4 preservatives (parabens), 2 biocides (triclosan and triclocarban), 2 plasticizers (bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), 6 UV-filters (benzophenones) and 4 hormones. The method is based on ultrasound-assisted extraction, clean-up by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Due to the diversity of the physico-chemical properties of the target compounds, and to better evaluate the influence of sample treatment variables in extraction efficiencies, Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize extraction solvent volume, number of extraction cycles and d-SPE sorbent amount. Linearity (R 2 ) higher than 0.992, accuracy (expressed as relative recoveries) in the range from 81 to 126%, precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) lower than 19% and limits of detection between 0.025 and 12.5ngg -1 dry weight were achieved. The method was applied to leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach and chard) and root vegetables (carrot, turnip and potato) from a local market. The highest concentrations corresponded to the surfactants reaching levels up to 114ngg -1 (dry weight), in one of the lettuce samples analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Photocatalytic removal of perfluoroalkyl substances from water and wastewater: Mechanism, kinetics and controlling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bentuo; Ahmed, Mohammad Boshir; Zhou, John L; Altaee, Ali; Wu, Minghong; Xu, Gang

    2017-12-01

    This review focuses on heterogeneous photocatalysis of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) which are of worldwide concern as emerging persistent organic contaminants. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an effective and advanced technology for PFAS removal from water with relatively high efficacy. During photocatalysis, various short chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA) are produced as intermediates and the efficacy is related to the photo-generated hole (h + ) and photo-generated electron (e - ). PFAS photodegradation in water under UV irradiation is most effective by using In 2 O 3 as the catalyst, followed by Ga 2 O 3 and TiO 2 . Significantly, modifying the chemical composition or morphology of the catalyst can improve its efficacy for PFAS removal. In 2 O 3 porous nanoplates were found to have the best performance of 100% PFAS decomposition under UV light with rate constant (k t ) and half-time (τ 1/2 ) of 0.158 min -1 and 4.4 min, respectively. Catalysts perform well in acidic solution and increasing temperature to a certain extent. The photocatalytic performance is reduced when treating wastewater due to the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM), with the catalysts following the order: needle-like Ga 2 O 3  > In 2 O 3  > TiO 2 . Future studies should focus on the development of novel photocatalysts, and their immobilization and application for PFAS removal in wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Updated national emission of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Ok; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Yu-Mi; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    A nationwide emission estimate of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is required to understand the source-receptor relationship of PFASs and to manage major types of WWTPs. In this study, the concentrations of 13 PFASs (8 perfluorocarboxylic acids, 3 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, and 2 intermediates) in wastewater and sludge from 81 WWTPs in South Korea were collected. The emission pathways of PFASs were redefined, and then the national emission of PFASs from WWTPs was rigorously updated. In addition to the direct calculations, Monte Carlo simulations were also used to calculate the likely range of PFAS emissions. The total (Σ 13 PFAS) emission (wastewater + sludge) calculated from the direct calculation with mean concentrations was 4.03 ton/y. The emissions of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.19 ton/y) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 1.01 ton/y) were dominant. The Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the realistic national emission of Σ 13 PFASs is between 2 ton/y and 20 ton/y. Combined WWTPs treating municipal wastewater from residential and commercial areas were identified as a major emission source, contributing 65% to the total PFAS emissions. The Han and Nakdong Rivers were the primary contaminated rivers, receiving 89% of the total PFAS discharge from WWTPs. The results and methodologies in this study can be useful to establish a management policy for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The acidic functional groups of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanxiang, Li; Shuhe, Sun; Zhai Zongxi, Wu Qihu

    1983-09-01

    The acidic functional groups content, pK value, DELTAH and DELTAS of humic acid (HA) and nitro-humic acid (NHA) were determined by potentiometry, conductometry and calorimetric titration. The thermodynamic parameters of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups of humic acid are similar to that of simple hydroxy-benzoic acid. The configuration sites of acidic functional groups in humic acid from different coals are different. The carbonyl groups on aromatic rings are probably ortho to phenolic -OH for HA and NHA extracted from Huangxian's brown coal and Japanese lignite, while those from Lingshi's weathered coal are not. The weak -COOH groups of the latter possess higher chemical activity. The -COOH content in HA increases, phenolic -OH group decreases and the chemical acidity of acidic functional groups increases when HA is oxidized by nitric acid. (14 refs.)

  19. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  20. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in eggs of coastal and offshore birds: Increasing PFAS levels associated with offshore bird species breeding on the Pacific coast of Canada and wintering near Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Lee, Sandi; Cyr, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) have become virtually ubiquitous throughout the environment, and, based on laboratory studies, have known toxicological consequences. Various national and international voluntary phase-outs and restrictions on these compounds have been implemented over the last 10 to 15 years. In the present study, we examine trends (1990/1991-2010/2011) in aquatic birds (ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus [2009 only]; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus; and great blue herons, Ardea herodias). The PFCA, PFSA, and stable isotope (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) data collected from these species from the Pacific coast of Canada, ranging over 20 to 30 years, were used to investigate temporal changes in PFAS coupled to dietary changes. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominant PFSA compound in all 4 species, increased and subsequently decreased in auklet and cormorant eggs in line with the manufacturing phase-out of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but concentrations continuously increased in petrel eggs and remained largely unchanged in heron eggs. Dominant PFCA compounds varied between the offshore and coastal species, with increases seen in the offshore species and little or variable changes seen in the coastal species. Little temporal change was seen in stable isotope values, indicating that diet alone is not driving observed PFAS concentrations. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene

    2008-01-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  2. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  3. Preparation of fulvic acid and low-molecular organic acids by oxidation of weathered coal humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, T.; Ito, A.; Sasaki, O.; Yazawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, T. [Chiba Institute of Technolgy, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Weathered coal contains much humic acid and a little fulvic acid. Therefore, the production of fulvic acid, the most valuable humic substance because of its water-solubility, was examined by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation of humic acid extracted form Xinjiang (China) weathered coal. The resulting products of the oxidation were water soluble fulvic acid and organic acids, mainly formic acid and oxalic acid. The product yield of fulvic acid was 20 (C%) and that of organic acids were 39 (C%) for formic and acid 13 (C%) for oxalic acid. The formed fulvic acid showed a higher content of oxygen and carboxyl groups, than those of the extracted one from the original weathered coal.

  4. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  5. Enzymatic formation of hexadecenoic acid from palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masao; Fujino, Yasuhiko

    1975-01-01

    Desaturation of palmitic acid was investigated in an enzyme system prepared from rat liver. 2-trans-Hexadecenoic acid as well as 9-cis-gexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid) were found to be formed as monoenoic acid in this system. (author)

  6. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  7. Glycosyltransferase glycosylating flavokermesic acid and/or kermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  8. GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE GLYCOSYLATING FLAVOKERMESIC ACID AND/OR KERMESIC ACID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  9. Specific bile acid radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of unconjugated cholic acid, conjugated cholic acid and conjugated deoxycholic acid in serum and their clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matern, S.; Gerok, W.

    1977-01-01

    Specific radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of serum unconjugated cholic, conjugated cholic and conjugated deoxycholic acids have been developed. Prior to the radioimmunoassay, extraction of serum bile acids was performed with Amberlite XAD-2. Unconjugated cholic acid was separated from glyco- and taurocholic acids by thin-layer chromatography. At 50% displacement of bound labeled glyco[ 3 H]cholic acid using antiserum obtained after immunization with cholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate the cross-reactivity of taurocholic acid was 100%, cholic acid 80%, glycochenodeoxycholic acid 10%, chenodeoxycholic acid 7%, conjugated deoxycholic acid 3%, and conjugated lithocholic acid 3 H]cholic acid was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 80 pmol of unlabeled glycocholic acid. Fasting serum conjugated cholic acid in healthy subjects was 0.68 +- 0.34 μmol/l. Unconjugated cholic acid was determined by a solid phase radioimmunoassay using the cholic acid antibody chemically bound to Sepharose. The displacement curve of [ 3 H]cholic acid in the solid phase radioimmunoassay was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 200 pmol of unlabeled cholic acid. The coefficient of variation between samples was 5%. Fasting serum conjugated deoxycholic acid concentrations in 10 healthy subjects ranged from 0.18 to 0.92 μmol/l determined by a radioimmunoassay using antiserum obtained after immunization with deoxycholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate. The clinical application of these bile acid radioimmunoassays is shown by an 'oral cholate tolerance test' as a sensitive indicator of liver function and by an 'oral cholyglycine tolerance test' as a useful test for bile acid absorption. (orig.) [de

  10. Assessment and improvement of biotransfer models to cow’s milk and beef used in exposure assessment tools for organic pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Takaki, Koki; Wade, Andrew J.; Collins, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and improve the accuracy of biotransfer models for the organic pollutants (PCBs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs, PFCAs, and pesticides) into cow’s milk and beef used in human exposure assessment. Metabolic rate in cattle is known as a key parameter for this biotransfer, however few experimental data and no simulation methods are currently available. In this research, metabolic rate was estimated using existing QSAR biodegradation models of microorganisms (BioWIN) and fish ...

  11. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    acids in the coastal Arabian Sea sediments: whereas amino acids content of fulvic acids was lower than that of humic acids in the coastal sediments of Bay of Bengal. Slope sedimentary humic acids were relatively enriched in amino acids as compared...

  12. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  13. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  14. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  15. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  16. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-07-04

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  17. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  18. Efficacy of Lactic Acid, Lactic Acid-Acetic Acid Blends, and Peracetic Acid To Reduce Salmonella on Chicken Parts under Simulated Commercial Processing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirex-Hernandez, Alejandra; Brashears, Mindy M; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X

    2018-01-01

    The poultry processing industry has been undergoing a series of changes as it modifies processing practices to comply with new performance standards for chicken parts and comminuted poultry products. The regulatory approach encourages the use of intervention strategies to prevent and control foodborne pathogens in poultry products and thus improve food safety and protect human health. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial interventions for reducing Salmonella on inoculated chicken parts under simulated commercial processing conditions. Chicken pieces were inoculated by immersion in a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at 6 log CFU/mL and then treated with organic acids and oxidizing agents on a commercial rinsing conveyor belt. The efficacy of spraying with six different treatments (sterile water, lactic acid, acetic acid, buffered lactic acid, acetic acid in combination with lactic acid, and peracetic acid) at two concentrations was evaluated on skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs at three application temperatures. Skinless chicken breasts were used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of lactic acid and peracetic acid. The color stability of treated and untreated chicken parts was assessed after the acid interventions. The lactic acid and buffered lactic acid treatments produced the greatest reductions in Salmonella counts. Significant differences between the control and water treatments were identified for 5.11% lactic acid and 5.85% buffered lactic acid in both skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs. No significant effect of treatment temperature for skin-on chicken thighs was found. Lactic acid and peracetic acid were effective agents for eluting Salmonella cells attached to chicken breasts.

  19. Molecular interaction of pinic acid with sulfuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Bilde, Merete

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures...

  20. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  1. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.

    2017-05-01

    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  2. Application of citric acid in acid stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhaldi, M.H.; Sarma, H.K. [Adelaide Univ., Adelaide (Australia); Nasr-el-Din, H.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A rotating disk apparatus was used to investigate mass transfer during the reaction of citric acid with calcite. The study evaluated the effects of initial acid concentrations, temperature, and disk rotational speed on the effective diffusion coefficient of citric acid. The diffusion coefficient was calculated at 25, 40, and 50 degrees C using various citric acid concentrations. The study indicated that the coefficient was a function of the interactions between calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions. At high acid concentrations, the effects of calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions were significant. The calculated citric acid diffusion coefficients were not comparable with measured effective diffusion coefficients using the rotating disk. At lower initial citric acid concentrations, the effects of both calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions on citric acid diffusivity were minimal. It was concluded that temperature effects on the diffusion coefficient followed Arrhenius law. Activation energy was equal to 37.9 kJ/mol. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  3. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  4. Determination of dissociation constants or propionic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid) by potentiometry and conductometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeeduddin; Khanzada, A.W.K.

    2004-01-01

    Dissociation constants of propionic acid and 2-hydroxypropionic acid (lactic acid) have been studied at different temperatures between 25 to 50 deg. C interval. Propionic acid is analyzed by conductometry while 2-hydroxypropionic acid is analyzed by potentiometry. Both investigated compounds are symmetrical carboxylic acids having same length of carbon chain but are markedly different in ionic behavior. We were interested to see how the hydroxyl group (-OH) induction in propionic acid affects on pKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid. We observed that as temperature increases pKa values increase. The increase is observed for both the investigated compounds. PKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid are lower as compared to propionic acid because of electron withdrawing (-OH). (author)

  5. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  6. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Katan, Martijn B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  7. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  8. Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2012-09-27

    In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (γ(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), γ(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ↔ SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1).

  9. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  10. Incorporation and distribution of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in cultured human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Human keratinocytes in culture were labelled with 14 C-dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, 14 C-arachidonic acid or 14 C-eicosapentaenoic acid. All three eicosanoid precursor fatty acids were effectively incorporated into the cells. In phospholipids most of the radioactivity was recovered, in neutral lipids a substantial amount, and as free unesterified fatty acids only a minor amount. Most of the radioactivity was found in phosphatidylethanolamine which was also the major phospholipid as measured by phosphorous assay. The incorporation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid into lipid subfractions was essentially similar. Eicosapentaenoic acid was, however, much less effectively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol + phosphatidylserine and, correspondingly, more effectively into triacylglycerols as compared to the two other precursor fatty acids. Once incorporated, the distribution of all three precursor fatty acids was relatively stable, and only minor amounts of fatty acids were released into the culture medium during short term culture (two days). Our study demonstrates that eicosanoid precursor fatty acids are avidly taken up by human keratinocytes and esterified into membrane lipids. The clinical implication of this finding is that dietary manipulations might be employed to cause changes in the fatty acid composition of keratinocytes

  11. Uracil in formic acid hydrolysates of deoxyribonucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Arnold H.

    1966-01-01

    1. When DNA is hydrolysed with formic acid for 30min. at 175° and the hydrolysate is chromatographed on paper with propan-2-ol–2n-hydrochloric acid, in addition to expected ultraviolet-absorbing spots corresponding to guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, an ultraviolet-absorbing region with RF similar to that of uracil can be detected. Uracil was separated from this region and identified by its spectra in acid and alkali, and by its RF in several solvent systems. 2. Cytosine, deoxyribocytidine and deoxyribocytidylic acid similarly treated with formic acid all yielded uracil, as did a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Approx. 4% of deoxyribonucleotide cytosine was converted into uracil by the formic acid treatment. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5949371

  12. Reactive extraction and recovery of levulinic acid, formic acid and furfural from aqueous solutions containing sulphuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Thomas; Blahusiak, Marek; Babic, Katarina; Schuur, Boelo

    2017-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced from lignocellulosic materials via hydroxylation followed by an acid-catalyzed conversion of hexoses. Inorganic homogeneous catalysts are mostly used, in particular sulphuric acid, yielding a mixture of LA with sulphuric acid, formic acid (FA) and furfural.

  13. Well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, E H

    1980-01-23

    The apparatus relates in particular to a well-treating process in which an aqueous acid solution having a pH of < 2 is injected into a subterranean reservoir in a manner such that materials that contain ferric ions are present in the acid and, as the acid reacts within the reservoir and attains a pH exceeding 3, tend to be precipitated as ferric ion-containing solid materials that may plug the pores of the reservoir. Such a precipitation is prevented by dissolving in the acid solution an amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 0.5 to 3 but is less than enough to cause a significant salting-out of solid materials, and an amount of citric acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 3 to 6 but is less than enough to precipitate a significant amount of calcium citrate. The amount of the 5-sulfosalicylic acid may be from 0.01 to 0.05 moles/l and the amount of citric acid is from 0.001 to 0.009 moles/l. 11 claims.

  14. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Gerard

    1972-01-01

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF 3 (CH 3 COOH) 2 . The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF 3 COOH and CH 3 COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation [fr

  15. Role of sialic acid in synaptosomal transport of amino acid transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleska, M.M.; Erecinska, M.

    1987-01-01

    Active, high-affinity, sodium-dependent uptake of [ 14 C]-aminobutyric acid and of the acidic amino acid D-[ 3 H]-aspartate was inhibited by pretreatment of synaptosomes with neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae. Inhibition was of a noncompetitive type and was related to the amount of sialic acid released. The maximum accumulation ratios of both amino acids (intracellular [amino acid]/extracellular [amino acid]) remained largely unaltered. Treatment with neuraminidase affected neither the synaptosomal energy levels nor the concentration of internal potassium. It is suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid and acidic amino acid transporters are glycosylated and that sialic acid is involved in the operation of the carrier proteins directly and not through modification of driving forces responsible for amino acid uptake

  16. Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

  17. 17,21-Secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids in source rocks and crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xueming Pan; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2006-09-15

    The presence of three families of hopanoic acids, 17,21-secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids, is discussed. Oils from West Siberia and tar balls from the Seychelles Islands were found to contain relatively high proportions of 17,21-secohopanoic acids. These acids have not been previously reported in any oils or source rocks. A heavily biodegraded West Siberian oil, was found to contain an homologous series of 25-norhopanoic acids co-occurring with the 25-norhopanes as previously reported in only a small number of oils from Campos Basin, Brazil. 28-Norhopanoic acids have been reported in various sediments and extracts of the Monterey Shale, but in this study their occurrence has been extended to oils, degraded oils, and tar balls sourced from the Monterey Shale. The primary purpose herein is to report the occurrence of these acids and possible relationships between the acids and corresponding hydrocarbons. (Author)

  18. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  19. The bile acids, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid, regulate colonic epithelial wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Magdalena S; Lajczak, Natalia K; Goggins, Bridie J; Keely, Simon; Keely, Stephen J

    2018-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes an innate barrier which, upon injury, undergoes self-repair processes known as restitution. Although bile acids are known as important regulators of epithelial function in health and disease, their effects on wound healing processes are not yet clear. Here we set out to investigate the effects of the colonic bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on epithelial restitution. Wound healing in T 84 cell monolayers grown on transparent, permeable supports was assessed over 48 h with or without bile acids. Cell migration was measured in Boyden chambers. mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. DCA (50-150 µM) significantly inhibited wound closure in cultured epithelial monolayers and attenuated cell migration in Boyden chamber assays. DCA also induced nuclear accumulation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), whereas an FXR agonist, GW4064 (10 µM), inhibited wound closure. Both DCA and GW4064 attenuated the expression of CFTR Cl - channels, whereas inhibition of CFTR activity with either CFTR- inh -172 (10 µM) or GlyH-101 (25 µM) also prevented wound healing. Promoter/reporter assays revealed that FXR-induced downregulation of CFTR is mediated at the transcriptional level. In contrast, UDCA (50-150 µM) enhanced wound healing in vitro and prevented the effects of DCA. Finally, DCA inhibited and UDCA promoted mucosal healing in an in vivo mouse model. In conclusion, these studies suggest bile acids are important regulators of epithelial wound healing and are therefore good targets for development of new drugs to modulate intestinal barrier function in disease treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The secondary bile acid, deoxycholic acid, inhibits colonic epithelial wound healing, an effect which appears to be mediated by activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor, FXR, with subsequent downregulation of CFTR expression and activity. In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid promotes

  20. Temporal variations of perfluoroalkyl substances and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in alpine snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgeorg, Torben; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Sigl, Michael; Schwikowski, Margit

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and temporal variation of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the European Alps was investigated in a 10 m shallow firn core from Colle Gnifetti in the Monte Rosa Massif (4455 m above sea level). The firn core encompasses the years 1997–2007. Firn core sections were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (PFASs) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (PBDEs). We detected 12 PFASs and 8 PBDEs in the firn samples. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA; 0.3–1.8 ng L −1 ) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; 0.2–0.6 ng L −1 ) were the major PFASs while BDE 99 ( −1 ) and BDE 47 (n.d.–2.6 ng L −1 ) were the major PBDEs. This study demonstrates the occurrence of PFASs and PBDEs in the European Alps and provides the first evidence that PFASs compositions may be changing to PFBA-dominated compositions. -- Highlights: •PFASs and PBDEs were detected in low ng L −1 concentrations in an Alpine firn core. •BDE 47, BDE 99 and BDE 209 are the dominating PBDEs. •PFOA, PFNA and PFBA are the major PFASs. •We demonstrate a change in the PFASs composition. •Atmospheric degradation of volatile precursor might be the main source for >C8 PFCAs. -- PFAS and PBDE concentrations in European Alpine snow provide information about the occurrence, accumulation and recent changes of these persistent organic pollutants in Alpine regions

  1. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  2. Classical bile acids in animals, beta-phocaecholic acid in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, M; Klinot, J; Klinotová, E; Ubik, K; Kucera, K

    1989-01-01

    1. Bile samples of different animals were analysed and the percentage content of classical bile acids was determined. 2. Herbivorous birds mostly excreted a large proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid. 3. The anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) excreted deoxycholic acid most probably as a primary bile acid. 4. In the bile of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) a large amount of (23R)3 alpha, 7 alpha, 23-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid (beta-phocaecholic acid) was found.

  3. Decontamination effectiveness of mixtures of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranzini, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study of the decontamination effectiveness of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA mixtures was conducted to assess whether oxalic acid could be removed from decontamination solutions to minimize corrosion. In loop experiments, radioactive specimens from two boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor were suspended in solutions of single acids or in mixtures of reagents at total reagent concentrations of less than 0.1 wt% under conditions similar to those used to decontaminate reactor systems. Rate constants for dissolution of oxides and decontamination factors were measured. Based on the results, it was concluded that under certain conditions, oxalic acid was the most effective reagent for the dissolution of oxides. It was also found, however, that conditions under which effective dissolution occurred in solutions of oxalic acid and/or citric acid were difficult to define and control. EDTA was found to be an effective reagent for dissolution of oxides such that rates of dissolution in EDTA containing solutions at 117 degrees Celsius were comparable to rates in oxalic acid containing solutions. At 90 degrees Celsius, EDTA acted synergistically with oxalic acid such that the rate of dissolution of oxides in citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions was higher than in citric-acid/EDTA solutions. The rates of dissolution of oxides were significantly reduced when 60 mg/kg of ferric ion was added to the citric-acid/oxalic-acid, citric-acid/EDTA and citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions. It was concluded that effective decontaminations of BWR and PWR systems could be achieved with mixtures of citric acid and EDTA

  4. Radioimmunoassay of conjugated cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and deoxycholic acid from human serum, with use of 125I-labeled ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeentausta, O.; Jaenne, O.

    1979-01-01

    We describe a method for radioimmunoassay of conjugated cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and deoxycholic acid in serum. In the method, 125 I-labeled bile acid conjugates are used as the tracers along with antibodies raised against individual bile acid-bovine serum albumin conjugates. Antibody-bound and free bile acids were separated by polyethylene glycol precipitation (final concentration, 125 g/L). The lowest measurable amounts of the bile acids, expressed as pmol/tube, were: cholic acid conjugates, 2; chenodeoxycholic acid conjugates, 0.5; and deoxycholic acid conjugates, 2. Analytical recovery of bile acids added to bile acid-free serum ranged from 85 to 110%; intra-assay and inter-assay CVs ranged from 8.3 to 5.3% and from 5.3 to 12.2%, respectively. Concentrations (mean +- SD) of the bile acid conjugates in serum from apparently healthy women and men (in μmol/L) were: cholic acid conjugates, 0.43 +- 0.17 (n=126); chenodeoxycholic acid conjugates, 0.47 +- 0.23 (n=111); and deoxycholic acid conjugates, 0.33 +- 0.11 (n=96). The values for primary bile acids were greatly increased in patients with various hepatobiliary diseases

  5. Continuous non-marine inputs of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to the High Arctic: a multi-decadal temporal record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Heidi M.; Criscitiello, Alison S.; Spencer, Christine; Sharp, Martin J.; Muir, Derek C. G.; De Silva, Amila O.; Young, Cora J.

    2018-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent, in some cases, bioaccumulative compounds found ubiquitously within the environment. They can be formed from the atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursor compounds and undergo long-range transport (LRT) through the atmosphere and ocean to remote locations. Ice caps preserve a temporal record of PFAA deposition making them useful in studying the atmospheric trends in LRT of PFAAs in polar or mountainous regions, as well as in understanding major pollutant sources and production changes over time. A 15 m ice core representing 38 years of deposition (1977-2015) was collected from the Devon Ice Cap in Nunavut, providing us with the first multi-decadal temporal ice record in PFAA deposition to the Arctic. Ice core samples were concentrated using solid phase extraction and analyzed by liquid and ion chromatography methods. Both perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were detected in the samples, with fluxes ranging from air mass transport densities, and comparing temporal trends in deposition with production changes of possible sources, we find that Eurasian sources, particularly from Continental Asia, are large contributors to the global pollutants impacting the Devon Ice Cap. Comparison of PFAAs to their precursors and correlations of PFCA pairs showed that deposition of PFAAs is dominated by atmospheric formation from volatile precursor sources. Major ion analysis confirmed that marine aerosol inputs are unimportant to the long-range transport mechanisms of these compounds. Assessments of deposition, homologue profiles, ion tracers, air mass transport models, and production and regulation trends allow us to characterize the PFAA depositional profile on the Devon Ice Cap and further understand the LRT mechanisms of these persistent pollutants.

  6. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including structural PFOS isomers in plasma from elderly men and women from Sweden: Results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihovic, Samira; Kärrman, Anna; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica; Lindström, Gunilla; van Bavel, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of compounds with unique chemical properties that have been shown useful in a wide variety of applications because they provide materials with reduced surface tension and exceptional non-stick properties. PFASs are commonly found in impregnation materials, coatings of papers and textiles, fire-fighting foams, pesticides, and cleaning agents. The potential for human exposure to PFASs is high because of their widespread distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of PFASs in men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender and parity among women. Levels of 13 PFASs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001-2004 from 1016 (507 women) 70year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). The PFASs studied were nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). In addition, structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were determined in a subset of 398 individuals. The detection rates were high and the majority of the studied compounds were detected in more than 75% of the participants. Levels of the selected analytes were found to be similar to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations. Gender differences were observed in levels of PFHpA which was higher in men, while PFHxS was higher in women. Parity among women was shown to have a minor effect on PFAS concentrations and we found primi- and multiparous women to have slightly lower levels of PFUnDA when compared to nulliparous women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparative Study of the Radical-scavenging Activity of the Phenolcarboxylic Acids Caffeic Acid, p-Coumaric Acid, Chlorogenic Acid and Ferulic Acid, With or Without 2-Mercaptoethanol, a Thiol, Using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolcarboxylic acid antioxidants do not act in vivo as radical-scavengers in isolation, but rather together with GSH (glutathione, a coantioxidant, they constitute an intricate antioxidant network. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid with or without 2-mercaptoethanol (ME, as a substitute for GSH, was investigated by the induction period (IP method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a source of alkyl radicals, R. and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a source of peroxy radicals, PhCOO. using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Upon PhCOO. radical scavenging, the stoichiometric factors (n, number of free radical trapped by one mole of antioxidant for caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid were 2.4, 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9, whereas upon R. radical scavenging, the corresponding values were 1.3, 1.2, 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Antioxidants with n values close to 2 suggest the stepwise formation of semiquinone radicals and quinones. By contrast, those with n values close to 1 suggest the formation of dimers after single-electron oxidation, possibly due to recombination of corresponding aryloxy radicals. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (kinh/kp declined in the order chlorogenic acid > p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid. The ratio of the observed IP for the phenolcarboxylic acid/2-mercapto-ethanol (ME mixture (1:1 molar ratio (A to the calculated IP (the simple sum of phenol acid antioxidant and ME (B was investigated. Upon R. scavenging, the caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid/ME mixture was A/B > 1, particularly the former was 1.2, suggesting a synergic effect. By contrast, upon PhCOO. scavenging, the corresponding mixture was A/B < 1, particularly the latter was 0.7, suggesting an antagonistic effect. Upon both radicals scavenging, the A/B for the ferulic acid or chlorogenic acid

  8. Catalyzed oxidation reactions. IV. Picolinic acid catalysis of chromic acid oxidations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocek, J.; Peng, T.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Picolinic acid and several closely related acids are effective catalysts in the chromic acid oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols; the oxidation of other substrates is accelerated only moderately. The reaction is first order in chromium-(VI), alcohol, and picolinic acid; it is second order in hydrogen ions at low acidity and approaches acidity independence at high perchloric acid concentrations. A primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect is observed at high but not at low acidities. At low acidity the reaction has a considerably lower activation energy and more negative activation entropy than at higher acidities. The reactive intermediate in the proposed mechanism is a negatively charged termolecular complex formed from chromic acid, picolinic acid, and alcohol. The rate-limiting step of the reaction changes with the acidity of the solution. At higher acidities the intermediate termolecular complex is formed reversibly and the overall reaction rate is determined by the rate of its decomposition into reaction products; at low acidities the formation of the complex is irreversible and hence rate limiting. Picolinic acids with a substituent in the 6 position show a greatly reduced catalytic activity. This observation is interpreted as suggesting a square pyramidal or octahedral structure for the reactive chromium (VI) intermediate. The temperature dependence of the deuterium isotope effect has been determined and the significance of the observed large values for E/sub a//sup D/ - E/sub a//sup H/ and A/sup D//A/sup H/ is discussed

  9. Targeted metabolomics analysis reveals the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and fatty acids and amino acids profiles in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhipeng; Liu, Rui; Chou, Jing; Yu, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaowei; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying; Liu, Liyan

    2018-07-15

    Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence offspring's health by affecting development and metabolism. This study aimed to analyze the influence of maternal folic acid (FA) supplementation on the metabolism of rat pups using targeted metabolomics. Twenty female rats were randomly assigned to a FA supplementation (FAS group, n = 10) or control group (n = 10), which were fed AIN93G diet with 2 or 10 mg/kg FA, respectively. We then measured amino acids and their derivatives, biogenic amines, and fatty acids in the female rats and their pups by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS). In maternal rats, the significant changes of three metabolites (proline, γ-aminobutyric acid and esterified octadecatetraenoic acid, P acids (leucine, isoleucine, serine, proline) were obtained in FAS pups. Furthermore, there were the decreased esterified fatty acids (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosatetraenoic acid) and free fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, octadecatetraenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and selacholeic acid) in FAS pups. Metabolic changes in the FAS pups were characterized by changes in fatty acids and amino acids. These results suggested that FA supplementation during pregnancy influenced amino acids and fatty acids metabolism in rat pups. This study provides new insights into the regulation of amino acids and fatty acids metabolism during early life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  11. Validation of a multi-analyte HPLC-DAD method for determination of uric acid, creatinine, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid and 2-methylhippuric acid in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remane, Daniela; Grunwald, Soeren; Hoeke, Henrike; Mueller, Andrea; Roeder, Stefan; von Bergen, Martin; Wissenbach, Dirk K

    2015-08-15

    During the last decades exposure sciences and epidemiological studies attracts more attention to unravel the mechanisms for the development of chronic diseases. According to this an existing HPLC-DAD method for determination of creatinine in urine samples was expended for seven analytes and validated. Creatinine, uric acid, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and 2-methylhippuric acid were separated by gradient elution (formate buffer/methanol) using an Eclipse Plus C18 Rapid Resolution column (4.6mm×100mm). No interfering signals were detected in mobile phase. After injection of blank urine samples signals for the endogenous compounds but no interferences were detected. All analytes were linear in the selected calibration range and a non weighted calibration model was chosen. Bias, intra-day and inter-day precision for all analytes were below 20% for quality control (QC) low and below 10% for QC medium and high. The limits of quantification in mobile phase were in line with reported reference values but had to be adjusted in urine for homovanillic acid (45mg/L), niacinamide 58.5(mg/L), and indole-3-acetic acid (63mg/L). Comparison of creatinine data obtained by the existing method with those of the developed method showing differences from -120mg/L to +110mg/L with a mean of differences of 29.0mg/L for 50 authentic urine samples. Analyzing 50 authentic urine samples, uric acid, creatinine, hippuric acid, and 2-methylhippuric acid were detected in (nearly) all samples. However, homovanillic acid was detected in 40%, niacinamide in 4% and indole-3-acetic acid was never detected within the selected samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of sulfamic acid from plutonium sulfamate--sulfamic acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    1978-10-01

    Plutonium metal can be readily dissolved in aqueous solutions of sulfamic acid. When the plutonium sulfamate--sulfamic acid solutions are added to normal purex process streams, the sulfamate ion is oxidized by addition of sodium nitrite. This generates sodium sulfate which must be stored as radioactive waste. When recovery of ingrown 241 Am or storage of the dissolved plutonium must be considered, the sulfamate ion poses major and undesirable precipitation problems in the process streams. The present studies show that 40 to 80% of the sulfamate present in the dissolver solutions can be removed by precipitation as sulfamic acid by the addition of concentrated nitric acid. Addition of 64% nitric acid allows precipitation of 40 to 50% of the sulfamate; addition of 72% nitric acid allows precipitation of 50 to 60% of the sulfamate. If the solutions are chilled, additional sulfamic acid will precipitate. If the solutions are chilled to -10 0 C, about 70 to 80% of the orginal sulfamic acid in the dissolver will precipitate. A single, low-volume wash of the sulfamic acid crystals with concentrated nitric acid will decontaminate the crystals to a plutonium content of 5 dis/(min-gram)

  13. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-07

    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  14. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing-capacity streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Mitch, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands

  15. 15N NMR spectroscopic investigation of nitrous and nitric acids in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, G.K.S.; Heiliger, L.; Olah, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Both nitrous and nitric acids were studied in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acid strengths by 15 N NMR spectroscopy. The study gives new insights into the nature of intermediates present at different acid strengths. Furthermore, we have also discovered a novel redox reaction between NO 2 + and NO + ions involving the intermediacy of their respective acids. A mechanism is proposed to explain the observed results. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Serum n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic Acid and Tetracosahexaenoic Acid Increase Following Higher Dietary α-Linolenic Acid but not Docosahexaenoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Lin, Yu-Hong; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-02-01

    n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-3, TPAn-3) and tetracosahexaenoic acid (24:6n-3, THA) are believed to be important intermediates to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis. The purpose of this study is to report for the first time serum concentrations of TPAn-3 and THA and their response to changing dietary α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) and DHA. The responses will then be used in an attempt to predict the location of these fatty acids in relation to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway. Male Long Evans rats (n = 6 per group) were fed either a low (0.1% of total fatty acids), medium (3%) or high (10%) ALA diet with no added DHA, or a low (0%), medium (0.2%) or high (2%) DHA diet with a background of 2% ALA for 8 weeks post-weaning. Serum n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations (nmol/mL ± SEM) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serum THA increases from low (0.3 ± 0.1) to medium (5.8 ± 0.7) but not from medium to high (4.6 ± 0.9) dietary ALA, while serum TPAn-3 increases with increasing dietary ALA from 0.09 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.09 to 1.23 ± 0.14 nmol/mL. Following DHA feeding, neither TPAn-3 or THA change across all dietary DHA intake levels. Serum TPAn-3 demonstrates a similar response to dietary DHA. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that increases in dietary ALA but not DHA increase serum TPAn-3 and THA in rats, suggesting that both fatty acids are precursors to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway.

  17. Parabanic acid is the singlet oxygen specific oxidation product of uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Sayaka; Ohkubo, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Fujisawa, Akio

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid quenches singlet oxygen physically or reacts with it, but the oxidation product has not been previously characterized. The present study determined that the product is parabanic acid, which was confirmed by LC/TOFMS analysis. Parabanic acid was stable at acidic pH (acid at neutral or alkaline pH. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid based on consumed uric acid were ~100% in clean singlet oxygen production systems such as UVA irradiation of Rose Bengal and thermal decomposition of 3-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-epidioxy-4-methyl-1-naphthyl)propionic acid. However, the ratio of the amount of uric acid consumed to the total amount of singlet oxygen generated was less than 1/180, indicating that most of the singlet oxygen was physically quenched. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid were high in the uric acid oxidation systems with hydrogen peroxide plus hypochlorite or peroxynitrite. They became less than a few percent in peroxyl radical-, hypochlorite- or peroxynitrite-induced oxidation of uric acid. These results suggest that parabanic acid could be an in vivo probe of singlet oxygen formation because of the wide distribution of uric acid in human tissues and extracellular spaces. In fact, sunlight exposure significantly increased human skin levels of parabanic acid.

  18. A GC-ECD method for estimation of free and bound amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, and acetyl salicylic acid from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with electron capture detection method for estimation of selected metabolites--amino acids (free and bound), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), salicylic acid (SA), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) from tomato--is reported. The method is based on nitrophenylation of the metabolites by 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene under aqueous alkaline conditions to form dinitophenyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable under the operating conditions of GC. Analysis of bound amino acids comprised perchloric acid precipitation of protein, alkylation (carboxymethylation) with iodoacetic acid, vapor-phase hydrolysis, and derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in that order. The metabolites were resolved in 35 min, using a temperature-programmed run. The method is rapid, sensitive, and precise. It easily measured the typical amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) used for identification and quantification of a protein, resolved amino acids of the same mass (leucine and isoleucine), satisfactorily measured sulfur amino acid (methionine, cystine, and cysteine), and quantified GABA, SA, and ASA, as well. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, and precision. It has been applied and recommended for estimation of 25 metabolites from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

  19. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  20. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  1. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  2. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Eoin; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Ross, R Paul; Quigley, Eamonn M; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15) were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9) microorganisms/day) alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w) linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w) α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (pbreve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (pbreve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (pbreve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated rats significantly modified the palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents in tissues. The effect was not observed in non-separated animals.

  3. A novel approach in acidic disinfection through inhibition of acid resistance mechanisms; Maleic acid-mediated inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase activity enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Ranju; Barnes, Ruth H; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas G

    2018-02-01

    Here it is demonstrated a novel approach in disinfection regimes where specific molecular acid resistance systems are inhibited aiming to eliminate microorganisms under acidic conditions. Despite the importance of the Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) system for survival of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens under acidic conditions, its potential inhibition by specific compounds that could lead to its elimination from foods or food preparation premises has not been studied. The effects of maleic acid on the acid resistance of L. monocytogenes were investigated and found that it has a higher antimicrobial activity under acidic conditions than other organic acids, while this could not be explained by its pKa or Ka values. The effects were found to be more pronounced on strains with higher GAD activity. Maleic acid affected the extracellular GABA levels while it did not affect the intracellular ones. Maleic acid had a major impact mainly on GadD2 activity as also shown in cell lysates. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that maleic acid is able to partly remove biofilms of L. monocytogenes. Maleic acid is able to inhibit the GAD of L. monocytogenes significantly enhancing its sensitivity to acidic conditions and together with its ability to remove biofilms, make a good candidate for disinfection regimes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  5. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin Barrett

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15 were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9 microorganisms/day alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05 compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01 and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05, and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001. B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated

  6. Aminocaproic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Fail to Reverse Dabigatran-Induced Coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael; Huang, Margaret; Henderson, Sean O; Carmelli, Guy; Thomas, Stephen H

    In recent years, dabigatran has emerged as a popular alternative to warfarin for treatment of atrial fibrillation. If rapid reversal is required, however, no reversal agent has clearly been established. The primary purpose of this manuscript was to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid as agents to reverse dabigatran-induced coagulopathy. Rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups. Each rat received either dabigatran or oral placebo, followed by saline, tranexamic acid, or aminocaproic acid. An activated clotting test was used to measure the coagulopathy. Neither tranexamic acid nor aminocaproic acid successfully reversed dabigatran-induced coagulopathy. In this rodent model of dabigatran-induced coagulopathy, neither tranexamic acid nor aminocaproic acid were able to reverse the coagulopathy.

  7. Acidizing reservoirs while chelating iron with sulfosalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, W A; Berkshire, D C

    1980-09-30

    A well treating process is described in which an aqueous solution of a strong acid capable of dissolving solids in a manner increasing the permeability of a subterranean earth formation is injected into a subterranean reservoir that contains an asphaltenic oil. At least the first injected portion of the aqueous acid and a solution or homogeneous dispersion of at least enough 5-sulfosalicylic acid to chelate with and prevent the formation of iron-asphaltene solids are included with substantially all of the ferric ions that become dissolved within the strong acid solution that enters the earth formation. 10 claims.

  8. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  9. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  10. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  11. Heart and bile acids - Clinical consequences of altered bile acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavan, Tharni; Ferraro, Elisa; Ibrahim, Effendi; Dixon, Peter; Gorelik, Julia; Williamson, Catherine

    2018-04-01

    Cardiac dysfunction has an increased prevalence in diseases complicated by liver cirrhosis such as primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. This observation has led to research into the association between abnormalities in bile acid metabolism and cardiac pathology. Approximately 50% of liver cirrhosis cases develop cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Bile acids are directly implicated in this, causing QT interval prolongation, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and abnormal haemodynamics of the heart. Elevated maternal serum bile acids in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, a disorder which causes an impaired feto-maternal bile acid gradient, have been associated with fatal fetal arrhythmias. The hydrophobicity of individual bile acids in the serum bile acid pool is of relevance, with relatively lipophilic bile acids having a more harmful effect on the heart. Ursodeoxycholic acid can reverse or protect against these detrimental cardiac effects of elevated bile acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Discovery of C5-C17 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in water by in-line SPE-HPLC-Orbitrap with in-source fragmentation flagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanna; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W

    2015-04-21

    The presence of unknown organofluorine compounds in environmental samples has prompted the development of nontargeted analytical methods capable of detecting new perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). By combining high volume injection with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultrahigh resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry, a sensitive (0.003-0.2 ng F/mL for model mass-labeled PFASs) untargeted workflow was developed for discovery and characterization of novel PFASs in water. In the first step, up to 5 mL of water is injected to in-line solid phase extraction, chromatographed by HPLC, and detected by electrospray ionization with mass spectral acquisition in parallel modes cycling back and forth: (i) full scan with ultrahigh resolving power (RP = 120,000, mass accuracy ≤3 ppm), and (ii) in-source fragmentation flagging scans designed to yield marker fragment ions including [C2F5](-) (m/z 118.992), [C3F7](-) (m/z 168.988), [SO4H](-) (m/z 96.959), and [Cl](-) (m/z 34.9). For flagged PFASs, plausible empirical formulas were generated from accurate masses, isotopic patterns, and fragment ions. In the second step, another injection is made to collect high resolution MS/MS spectra of suspect PFAS ions, allowing further confirmation of empirical formulas while also enabling preliminary structural characterization. The method was validated by applying it to an industrial wastewater, and 36 new PFASs were discovered. Of these, 26 were confidently assigned to 3 new PFAS classes that have not previously been reported in the environment: polyfluorinated sulfates (CnFn+3Hn-2SO4(-); n = 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15), chlorine substituted perfluorocarboxylates (ClCnF2nCO2(-); n = 4-11), and hydro substituted perfluorocarboxylates (HCnF2nCO2(-); n = 5-16). Application of the technique to environmental water samples is now warranted.

  14. Studies on the complexes of uranium(IV), thorium(IV) and lanthanum(III) acetates with p-aminobenzoic acid, m-aminobenzoic acid, benzilic acid and phthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mangal; Singh, Ajaib

    1979-01-01

    Complexes of acetates of U(IV), Th(IV) and La(III) with the ligands p-aminobenzoic acid, m-aminobenzoic acid, benzilic acid and phthalic acid have been prepared. Colour and chemical analytical data are recorded. They are characterised on the basis of IR and reflectance spectra and magnetic susceptibility data. (M.G.B.)

  15. Incorporation of oxygen into abscisic acid and phaseic acid for molecular oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creelman, R.A.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Abscisic acid accumulates in detached, wilted leaves of Xanthium strumariu. When these leaves are subsequently rehydrated, phaseic acid, a catabolite of abscisic acid, accumulates. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of phaseic acid isolated from stressed and subsequently rehydrated leaves placed in an atmosphere containing 20% 18 O 2 and 80% N 2 indicates that one atom of 18 O is incorporated in the 6'-hydroxymethyl group of phaseic acid. This suggests that the enzyme that converts abscisic acid to phaseic acid is an oxygenase. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of abscisic acid isolated from stressed leaves kept in an atmosphere containing 18 O 2 indicates that one atom of 18 O is presented in the carboxyl group of abscisic acid. Thus, when abscisic acid accumulates in water-streesed leaves, only one of the four oxygens present in the abscisic acid molecule is derived from molecular oxygen. This suggest that either (a) the oxygen present in the 1'-, 4'-, and one of the two oxygens at the 1-position of abscisic acid arise from water, or (b) there exists a stored precursor with oxygen atoms already present in the 1'- and 4'-positions of abscisic acid which is converted to abscisic acid under conditions of water stress. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 tables

  16. Incorporation of oxygen into abscisic Acid and phaseic Acid from molecular oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Zeevaart, J A

    1984-05-01

    Abscisic acid accumulates in detached, wilted leaves of Xanthium strumarium. When these leaves are subsequently rehydrated, phaseic acid, a catabolite of abscisic acid, accumulates. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of phaseic acid isolated from stressed and subsequently rehydrated leaves placed in an atmosphere containing 20% (18)O(2) and 80% N(2) indicates that one atom of (18)O is incorporated in the 6'-hydroxymethyl group of phaseic acid. This suggests that the enzyme that converts abscisic acid to phaseic acid is an oxygenase.Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of abscisic acid isolated from stressed leaves kept in an atmosphere containing (18)O(2) indicates that one atom of (18)O is present in the carboxyl group of abscisic acid. Thus, when abscisic acid accumulates in water-stressed leaves, only one of the four oxygens present in the abscisic acid molecule is derived from molecular oxygen. This suggests that either (a) the oxygen present in the 1'-, 4'-, and one of the two oxygens at the 1-position of abscisic acid arise from water, or (b) there exists a stored precursor with oxygen atoms already present in the 1'- and 4'-positions of abscisic acid which is converted to abscisic acid under conditions of water stress.

  17. Amino acid and fatty acid compositions of Rusip from fermented Anchovy fish (Stolephorussp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesoemawardani, D.; Hidayati, S.; Subeki

    2018-04-01

    Rusip is a typical food of Bangka Belitung Indonesia made from fermented anchovy. This study aims to determine the properties of chemistry, microbiology, composition of amino acids and fatty acids from fermented fish spontaneously and non spontaneously. Spontaneous rusip treatment is done by anchovy fish (Stolephorussp) after cleaning and added salt 25% (w/w) and palm sugar 10% (w/w). While, non-spontaneous rusip is done by adding a culture mixture of Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus bacteria 2% (w/v). The materials are then incubated for 2 weeks. The data obtained were then performed t-test at the level of 5%. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip fermentation process showed significant differences in total acid, reducing sugar, salt content, TVN, total lactic acid bacteria, total mold, and total microbial. The dominant amino acid content of spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are glutamic acid and aspartic acid, while the dominant fatty acids in spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are docosahexaenoic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, stearic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, palmitoleic acid, and myristic acid.

  18. Stimulation of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter expands the bile acid pool and generates bile acids with positive feedback properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudling, Mats; Bonde, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    Bile acid synthesis has been considered a prototype for how a physiological process is controlled by end product feedback inhibition. By this feedback inhibition, bile acid concentrations are kept within safe ranges. However, careful examination of published rodent data strongly suggests that bile acid synthesis is also under potent positive feedback control by hydrophilic bile acids. Current concepts on the regulation of bile acid synthesis are derived from mouse models. Recent data have shown that mice have farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonistic bile acids capable of quenching responses elicited by FXR agonistic bile acids. This is important to recognize to understand the regulation of bile acid synthesis in the mouse, and in particular to clarify if mouse model findings are valid also in the human situation. In addition to classic end product feedback inhibition, regulation of bile acid synthesis in the mouse largely appears also to be driven by changes in hepatic levels of murine bile acids such as α- and β-muricholic acids. This has not been previously recognized. Stimulated bile acid synthesis or induction of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter in the intestine, increase the availability of chenodeoxycholic acid in the liver, thereby promoting hepatic conversion of this bile acid into muricholic acids. Recognition of these mechanisms is essential for understanding the regulation of bile acid synthesis in the mouse, and for our awareness of important species differences in the regulation of bile acid synthesis in mice and humans. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Increased Bile Acid Synthesis and Impaired Bile Acid Transport in Human Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Camastra, Stefania; Nannipieri, Monica; Astiarraga, Brenno; Castro-Perez, Jose; Xie, Dan; Wang, Liangsu; Chakravarthy, Manu; Ferrannini, Ele

    2015-01-01

    We measured plasma bile acids, markers of bile acid synthesis, and expression of bile acid transporters in obese and nonobese subjects. We found that obesity was associated with increased bile acid synthesis and 12-hydroxylation, blunted response of plasma bile acids to insulin infusion or a mixed meal, and decreased expression of liver bile acid transporters.

  20. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  1. Transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Nishida, T.; Yao, T.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo 7 beta-epimerization of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid and the role of 7-ketolithocholic acid as an intermediate in this biotransformation were studied in 11 patients with Crohn's disease and in 5 healthy volunteers. The incorporation of deuterium into biliary ursodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid was determined by computed gas chromatography-mass fragmentography after ingestion of a dideuterated chenodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic-11,12-d2 acid. The incorporation of deuterium into ursodeoxycholic acid increased to a peak level at 48 h in the patients with Crohn's disease, but was delayed in healthy volunteers. In 8 patients and 2 healthy controls there were small amounts of 7-ketolithocholic acid in bile. The incorporation of deuterium into 7-ketolithocholic acid was confirmed in only 2 patients and the peak level was noted at 48 h. These observations suggest that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate of this biotransformation in patients with Crohn's disease

  2. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Youhou; Sun, Yulin; Chen, Ziming; Fan, Sigang

    2016-01-01

    Fish maws are commonly recommended and consumed in Asia over many centuries because it is believed to have some traditional medical properties. This study highlights and provides new information on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws of Cynoscion acoupa, Congresox talabonoides and Sciades proops. The results indicated that fish maws were excellent protein sources and low in fat content. The proteins in fish maws were rich in functional amino acids (FAAs) and the ratio of FAAs and total amino acids in fish maws ranged from 0.68 to 0.69. Among species, croaker C. acoupa contained the most polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapntemacnioc acid, showing the lowest value of index of atherogenicity and index of thrombogenicity, showing the highest value of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, which is the most desirable.

  3. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  4. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  5. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid affects arachidonic acid uptake in megakaryocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, P.K.; Webster, P.

    1987-01-01

    Dietary omega 3 fatty acids are thought to prevent atherosclerosis, possibly by modifying platelet (PT) function and arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism. The study was designed to determine whether omega 3 fatty acids primarily affect 20:4 metabolism in megakaryocytes (MK), bone marrow precursors of PT, rather than in circulating PT. MK and PT were isolated from guinea pigs and incubated with [ 14 C]-20:4 (0.13uM). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) is a major omega 3 fatty acid in marine oils. The incubation of MK with 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) resulted in the decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into total MK phospholipids, 16% and 41% respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), a major omega 3 fatty acid present in American diets, had no effect on 20:4 uptake in MK. 22:6 primarily affected the uptake of [ 14 C]-20:4 into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in MK. In MK, 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) caused a decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into PE, 21% and 55% respectively; a decrease into PS, 16% and 48% respectively; but only a decrease of 4% and 18%, respectively, into phosphatidylcholine; and a decrease of 3% and 21% into phosphatidylinositol 22:6 (3.0 uM) had no effect on the uptake of AA into PT phospholipids. The study shows that 22:6 has a selective effect on AA uptake in MK and that the acylation or transacylation of PE and PS are primarily affected. 22:6 and other marine omega 3 fatty acids appear to primarily affect megakaryocytes which may result in the production of platelets with abnormal content and compartmentalization of AA

  7. Transport of acidic amino acids by human jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, V.M.; Harig, J.M.; Adams, M.B.; Ramaswamy, K.

    1987-01-01

    This study characterizes the transport of radiolabeled acidic amino acids into brush-border membrane vesicles prepared from human jejunum. The uptakes of L-glutamic, L-aspartic, and D-aspartic acids were stimulated by a Na + gradient. Concentrative uptake (resulting in an overshoot phenomenon) of these dicarboxylic amino acids occurred when there was an outward K + gradient. In addition, increasing K + gradients resulted in enhanced uptake of L-glutamic acid. This K + requirement is somewhat specific as Rb + and Cs + could enhance uptake to a limited extent, whereas Li + and choline + showed no enhancement. The presence of a K + gradient did not affect the affinity of the carrier system for L-glutamic acid but it did increase the V/sub max/. The presence of extravesicular anions having differing membrane permeabilities did not altar L-glutamic acid uptake indicating an absence of an effect of membrane potential on the transport process. Finally, the human transport system for L-glutamic acid appears to be specific for acidic amino acids as demonstrated by inhibition studies. The studies demonstrate a transport system in human jejunum specific for acidic amino acids that is energized by an inward Na + gradient and an outward K + gradient

  8. SYNTHESIS OF FLAVANONE-6-CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES FROM SALICYLIC ACID DERIVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idham Darussalam Mardjan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of flavanone-6-carboxylic acid derivatives had been conducted via the route of chalcone. The synthesis was carried out from salicylic acid derivative, i.e. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, via esterification, Fries rearrangement, Claisen-Schmidt condensation and 1,4-nucleophilic addition reactions. Structure elucidation of products was performed using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrometers. Reaction of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with methanol catalyzed with sulfuric acid produced methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in 87% yield. The acid-catalyzed-acetylation of the product using acetic anhydride gave methyl 4-acetoxybenzoate in 75% yield. Furthermore, solvent-free Fries rearrangement of methyl 4-acetoxybenzoate in the presence of AlCl3 produced 3-acetyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid as the acetophenone derivatives in 67% yield. Then, Claisen-Schmidt condensation of the acetophenone and benzaldehyde derivatives of p-anisaldehyde and veratraldehyde in basic condition gave 2'-hydroxychalcone-5'-carboxylic acid derivatives  in 81 and 71 % yield, respectively. Finally, the ring closure reaction of the chalcone yielded the corresponding flavanone-6-carboxylic acids in 67 and 59% yield, respectively.

  9. Extraterrestrial material analysis: loss of amino acids during liquid-phase acid hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Arnaud; Brault, Amaury; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Searching for building blocks of life in extraterrestrial material is a way to learn more about how life could have appeared on Earth. With this aim, liquid-phase acid hydrolysis has been used, since at least 1970 , in order to extract amino acids and other organic molecules from extraterrestrial materials (e.g. meteorites, lunar fines) or Earth analogues (e.g. Atacama desert soil). This procedure involves drastic conditions such as heating samples in 6N HCl for 24 h, either under inert atmosphere/vacuum, or air. Analysis of the hydrolyzed part of the sample should give its total (free plus bound) amino acid content. The present work deals with the influence of the 6N HCl hydrolysis on amino acid degradation. Our experiments have been performed on a standard solution of 17 amino acids. After liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (6N HCl) under argon atmosphere (24 h at 100°C), the liquid phase was evaporated and the dry residue was derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. After comparison with derivatized amino acids from the standard solution, a significant reduction of the chromatographic peak areas was observed for most of the amino acids after liquid-phase acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the same loss pattern was observed when the amino acids were exposed to cold 6N HCl for a short amount of time. The least affected amino acid, i.e. glycine, was found to be 73,93% percent less abundant compared to the non-hydrolyzed standard, while the most affected, i.e. histidine, was not found in the chromatograms after hydrolysis. Our experiments thereby indicate that liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, even under inert atmosphere, leads to a partial or total loss of all of the 17 amino acids present in the standard solution, and that a quick cold contact with 6N HCl is sufficient to lead to a loss of amino acids. Therefore, in the literature, the reported increase

  10. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  11. "JCE" Classroom Activity #109: My Acid Can Beat Up Your Acid!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putti, Alice

    2011-01-01

    In this guided-inquiry activity, students investigate the ionization of strong and weak acids. Bead models are used to study acid ionization on a particulate level. Students analyze seven strong and weak acid models and make generalizations about the relationship between acid strength and dissociation. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  12. Metabolic pathways regulated by abscisic acid, salicylic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid in association with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are known to play roles in regulating plant stress responses. This study was conducted to determine metabolites and associated pathways regulated by ABA, SA and GABA that could contribute to drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants were foliar sprayed with ABA (5 μM), GABA (0.5 mM) and SA (10 μM) or water (untreated control) prior to 25 days drought stress in controlled growth chambers. Application of ABA, GABA or SA had similar positive effects on alleviating drought damages, as manifested by the maintenance of lower electrolyte leakage and greater relative water content in leaves of treated plants relative to the untreated control. Metabolic profiling showed that ABA, GABA and SA induced differential metabolic changes under drought stress. ABA mainly promoted the accumulation of organic acids associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and malic acid). SA strongly stimulated the accumulation of amino acids (proline, serine, threonine and alanine) and carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose and cellobiose). GABA enhanced the accumulation of amino acids (GABA, glycine, valine, proline, 5-oxoproline, serine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, malonic acid and ribonic acid). The enhanced drought tolerance could be mainly due to the enhanced respiration metabolism by ABA, amino acids and carbohydrates involved in osmotic adjustment (OA) and energy metabolism by SA, and amino acid metabolism related to OA and stress-defense secondary metabolism by GABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Complexity in Acid-Base Titrations: Multimer Formation Between Phosphoric Acids and Imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Christian; Kim, Heejae; Wagner, Manfred; Hunger, Johannes

    2017-08-10

    Solutions of Brønsted acids with bases in aprotic solvents are not only common model systems to study the fundamentals of proton transfer pathways but are also highly relevant to Brønsted acid catalysis. Despite their importance the light nature of the proton makes characterization of acid-base aggregates challenging. Here, we track such acid-base interactions over a broad range of relative compositions between diphenyl phosphoric acid and the base quinaldine in dichloromethane, by using a combination of dielectric relaxation and NMR spectroscopy. In contrast to what one would expect for an acid-base titration, we find strong deviations from quantitative proton transfer from the acid to the base. Even for an excess of the base, multimers consisting of one base and at least two acid molecules are formed, in addition to the occurrence of proton transfer from the acid to the base and simultaneous formation of ion pairs. For equimolar mixtures such multimers constitute about one third of all intermolecular aggregates. Quantitative analysis of our results shows that the acid-base association constant is only around six times larger than that for the acid binding to an acid-base dimer, that is, to an already protonated base. Our findings have implications for the interpretation of previous studies of reactive intermediates in organocatalysis and provide a rationale for previously observed nonlinear effects in phosphoric acid catalysis. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux promotes aspiration of bile acids in lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Vanaudenaerde, Bart A; Verleden, Geert M; Van Raemdonck, Dirk E; Sifrim, Daniel; Dupont, Lieven J

    2009-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and aspiration of bile acids have been implicated as non-alloimmune risk factors for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between GER and gastric aspiration of bile acids and to establish which reflux characteristics may promote aspiration of bile acids into the lungs and may feature as a potential diagnostic tool in identifying lung transplantation (LTx) patients at risk for aspiration. Twenty-four stable LTx recipients were studied 1 year after transplantation. All patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory impedance-pH recording for the detection of acid (pH acidic (pH 4 to 7) reflux. On the same day, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and then analyzed for the presence of bile acids (Bioquant enzymatic assay). Increased GER was detected in 13 patients, of whom 9 had increased acid reflux and 4 had exclusively increased weakly acidic reflux. Sixteen patients had detectable bile acids in the BALF (0.6 [0.4 to 1.5] micromol/liter). The 24-hour esophageal volume exposure was significantly increased in patients with bile acids compared to patients without bile acids in the BALF. Acid exposure and the number of reflux events (total, acid and weakly acidic) were unrelated to the presence of bile acids in the BALF. However, both nocturnal volume exposure and the number of nocturnal weakly acidic reflux events were significantly higher in patients with bile acids in the BALF. Weakly acidic reflux events, especially during the night, are associated with the aspiration of bile acids in LTx recipients and may therefore feature as a potential risk factor for the development of BOS.

  15. Enzymatic synthesis of 11C-pyruvic acid and 11C-L-lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.B.; Spolter, L.; Chang, C.C.; Cook, J.S.; Macdonald, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    L-Lactic acid is formed as the end product of glycolysis under anaerobic conditions in all cells, but this reaction is of special significance in the myocardium. L-Lactic acid is reversibly formed from and is in equilibrium with myocardial pyruvic acid, which is its sole metabolic pathway. 11 C-Pyruvic acid is synthesized from 11 C carbon dioxide using pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and coenzymes. The 11 C-pyruvic acid is then converted to 11 -L-lactic acid by lactic acid dehydrogenase. The availability of 11 C-pyruvic acid and 11 C-L-lactic acid will permit the in vivo investigation of lactate metabolism. (author)

  16. Acid rain. Les pluies acides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, T

    1979-11-28

    This report was produced for the use of Members of Parliament and House of Commons committees. The document describes the formation of acid rain, emissions of acidifying pollutants in North America, the growth of the problem and its environmental effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, human health and man-made structures. Areas of Canada which are most susceptible are identified. Actions taken by Parliament are given, including the formation of a sub-committee on acid rain and the passing of Bill C-51 in 1980 to amend the Clean Air Act, bringing it closer to a similar law in the U.S. A chronology of government responses to acid rain at the international, national and provincial level, is given. The most recent government actions included the passing of the US Clean Air Act by the Senate, the amending of the act into law, and commencement of negotiations to develop a Canada-US Air Quality Accord. 10 refs.

  17. Incorporation of Oxygen into Abscisic Acid and Phaseic Acid from Molecular Oxygen 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Robert A.; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Abscisic acid accumulates in detached, wilted leaves of Xanthium strumarium. When these leaves are subsequently rehydrated, phaseic acid, a catabolite of abscisic acid, accumulates. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of phaseic acid isolated from stressed and subsequently rehydrated leaves placed in an atmosphere containing 20% 18O2 and 80% N2 indicates that one atom of 18O is incorporated in the 6′-hydroxymethyl group of phaseic acid. This suggests that the enzyme that converts abscisic acid to phaseic acid is an oxygenase. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of abscisic acid isolated from stressed leaves kept in an atmosphere containing 18O2 indicates that one atom of 18O is present in the carboxyl group of abscisic acid. Thus, when abscisic acid accumulates in water-stressed leaves, only one of the four oxygens present in the abscisic acid molecule is derived from molecular oxygen. This suggests that either (a) the oxygen present in the 1′-, 4′-, and one of the two oxygens at the 1-position of abscisic acid arise from water, or (b) there exists a stored precursor with oxygen atoms already present in the 1′- and 4′-positions of abscisic acid which is converted to abscisic acid under conditions of water stress. PMID:16663564

  18. Synthesis and biological activity of amino acid conjugates of abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Yasushi; Narita, Kenta; Muramatsu, Taku; Shimomura, Hajime; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Mizutani, Masaharu; Ueno, Kotomi; Hirai, Nobuhiro

    2011-03-01

    We prepared 19 amino acid conjugates of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and investigated their biological activity, enzymatic hydrolysis by a recombinant Arabidopsis amidohydrolases GST-ILR1 and GST-IAR3, and metabolic fate in rice seedlings. Different sets of ABA-amino acids induced ABA-like responses in different plants. Some ABA-amino acids, including some that were active in bioassays, were hydrolyzed by recombinant Arabidopsis GST-IAR3, although GST-ILR1 did not show hydrolysis activity for any of the ABA-amino acids. ABA-L-Ala, which was active in all the bioassays, an Arabidopsis seed germination, spinach seed germination, and rice seedling elongation assays, except in a lettuce seed germination assay and was hydrolyzed by GST-IAR3, was hydrolyzed to free ABA in rice seedlings. These findings suggest that some plant amidohydrolases hydrolyze some ABA-amino acid conjugates. Because our study indicates the possibility that different plants have hydrolyzing activity toward different ABA-amino acids, an ABA-amino acid may function as a species-selective pro-hormone of ABA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tgoto@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Ohue, Ryuji [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Nomura, Wataru [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Sugawara, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Marine Bioproducts Technology, Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yu, Rina [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kitamura, Nahoko [Laboratory of Fermentation Physiology and Applied Microbiology, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); and others

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.

  20. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis

  1. Uptake of actinides by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin from acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaya Mohandas; Srinivasa Rao, V.; Vijayakumar, N.; Kumar, T.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of uranium and americium from nitric acid solutions by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin has been investigated. The capacity of the sulphonated resin exceeds the capacities of phosphinic acid resin and commercial cation exchange resin. Other advantages of the sulphonated resin for uranium and americium removal include reduced sensitivity to acidity and inert salt concentration. (author)

  2. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation of organic acids from trace carbon in acidic oxidizing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrassier, C.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon 14 does not fully desorb as CO 2 during the hot concentrated nitric acid dissolution step of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing: a fraction is entrained in solution into the subsequent process steps as organic species. The work described in this dissertation was undertaken to identify the compounds arising from the dissolution in 3 N nitric acid of uranium carbides (selected as models of the chemical form of carbon 14 in spent fuel) and to understand their formation and dissolution mechanism. The compounds were present at traces in solution, and liquid-solid extraction on a specific stationary phase (porous graphite carbon) was selected to concentrate the monoaromatic poly-carboxylic acids including mellitic acid, which is mentioned in the literature but has not been formally identified. The retention of these species and of oxalic acid - also cited in the literature - was studied on this stationary phase as a function of the mobile phase pH, revealing an ion exchange retention mechanism similar to the one observed for benzyltrimethylammonium polystyrene resins. The desorption step was then optimized by varying the eluent pH and ionic strength. Mass spectrometry analysis of the extracts identified acetic acid, confirmed the presence of mellitic acid, and revealed compounds of high molecular weight (about 200 g/mol); the presence of oxalic acid was confirmed by combining gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Investigating the dissolution of uranium and zirconium carbides in nitric acid provided considerable data on the reaction and suggested a reaction mechanism. The reaction is self-catalyzing via nitrous acid, and the reaction rate de pends on the acidity and nitrate ion concentration in solution. Two uranium carbide dissolution mechanisms are proposed: one involves uranium at oxidation state +IV in solution, coloring the dissolution solution dark green, and the other assumes that uranium monocarbide is converted to uranium oxide. The carboxylic acid

  4. Synthesis of bio-based methacrylic acid by decarboxylation of itaconic acid and citric acid catalyzed by solid transition-metal catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Nôtre, Jérôme; Witte-van Dijk, Susan C M; van Haveren, Jacco; Scott, Elinor L; Sanders, Johan P M

    2014-09-01

    Methacrylic acid, an important monomer for the plastics industry, was obtained in high selectivity (up to 84%) by the decarboxylation of itaconic acid using heterogeneous catalysts based on Pd, Pt and Ru. The reaction takes place in water at 200-250 °C without any external added pressure, conditions significantly milder than those described previously for the same conversion with better yield and selectivity. A comprehensive study of the reaction parameters has been performed, and the isolation of methacrylic acid was achieved in 50% yield. The decarboxylation procedure is also applicable to citric acid, a more widely available bio-based feedstock, and leads to the production of methacrylic acid in one pot in 41% selectivity. Aconitic acid, the intermediate compound in the pathway from citric acid to itaconic acid was also used successfully as a substrate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Role of nitrous acid during the dissolution of UO2 in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deigan, N.; Pandey, N.K.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Joshi, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dissolution behaviour of sintered UO 2 pellet in nitric acid is very important in designing an industrial scale dissolution system for the plutonium rich fast reactor MOX fuel. In the current article we have established the role of nitrous acid on the dissolution kinetics of UO 2 pellets in nitric acid. Under the chemical conditions that prevail in a typical Purex process, NO and NO 2 gases gets generated in the process streams. These gases produce nitrous acid in nitric acid medium. In addition, during the dissolution of UO 2 in nitric acid medium, nitrous acid is further produced in-situ at the pellet solution interface. As uranium dissolves oxidatively in nitric acid medium wherein it goes from U(IV) in solid to U(VI) in liquid, presence of nitrous acid (a good oxidizing agent) accelerates the reaction rate. Hence for determining the reaction mechanism of UO 2 dissolution in nitric acid medium, knowing the nitrous acid concentration profile during the course of dissolution is important. The current work involves the measurement of nitrous acid concentration during the course of dissolution of sintered UO 2 pellets in 8M starting nitric acid concentration as a function of mixing intensity from unstirred condition to 1500 RPM

  6. Research and performance evaluation on an HA integrated acid system for sandstone acidizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When the conventional sandstone acidizing technologies are adopted, many slugs are needed in the injection of prepad fluid, treatment fluid and postpad fluid, and consequently the production and operation suffers inconveniences and difficulties. In view of this, a kind of HA integrated acid system which is mainly composed of organic polybasic acids (HA+HCl + HF and an efficient organic solvent was developed in this paper based on the idea of integrated acid replacing ''multiple steps'' and high efficiency and intensification. Via this HA integrated acid system, the complicated blockage in sandstone reservoirs can be removed effectively. Then, experiments were carried out on this system to evaluate its performance in terms of its retardance, organic blockage dissolution, chelating and precipitation inhibition. It is indicated that this new system can not only realize the acidizing of conventional integrated acid, but also present a good retarding performance by controlling H+ multi-stage ionization step by step and by forming silica acid-aluminum phosphonate film on the surface of clay minerals; that via this new HA integrated acid system, the organic blockage can be removed efficiently; and that it is wider in pH solution range than conventional APCs (aminopolycarboxyliates chelants, stronger in chelating capacity of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ than conventional chelants (e.g. EDTA, NTA and DTPA, and better in precipitation inhibition on metal fluoride, fluosilicic acid alkali metal, fluoaluminic acid alkali metal and hydroxide than multi-hydrogen acid, fluoboric acid and mud acid systems. These research results provide a technical support for the plugging removal in high-temperature deep oil and gas reservoirs. Keywords: Organic polybasic acid, Integrated acid, Retardance, Chelating, Precipitation, Acidizing, Sandstone, Reservoir

  7. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  8. Reaction Kinetics of Monomethylhydrazine With Nitrous Acid in Perchloric Acid Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yan; Wang Hui; Pan Yongjun; Cong Haifeng; Jiao Haiyang; Jia Yongfen; Zheng Weifang

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) by nitrous acid was researched in perchloric acid solution with spectrophotometry. The rate equation has been determined as follows: -dc (HNO 2 ) /dt= kc (H + ) 0.9 c (MMH) 1.1 c (HNO 2 ), k is (46.0 ± 2.7) L 2 / (mol 2 · s) with the initial perchlorate concentration of 0.50 mol/L at the temperature of 4.5 degree C. The corresponding activation energy of the reaction is (42.4 ± 0.1) kJ/mol. The results indicate that oxidation of mono-methylhydrazine (MMH) by nitrous acid is fast. The higher concentration of MMH can accelerate the reduction process of nitrous acid. Higher acidity can also speed up the reduction of nitrous acid. (authors)

  9. Bile acids: regulation of apoptosis by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Joana D; Viana, Ricardo J S; Ramalho, Rita M; Steer, Clifford J; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2009-09-01

    Bile acids are a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with peculiar physical-chemical and biological characteristics. At high concentrations they become toxic to mammalian cells, and their presence is pertinent in the pathogenesis of several liver diseases and colon cancer. Bile acid cytoxicity has been related to membrane damage, but also to nondetergent effects, such as oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strikingly, hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and its taurine-conjugated form (TUDCA), show profound cytoprotective properties. Indeed, these molecules have been described as potent inhibitors of classic pathways of apoptosis, although their precise mode of action remains to be clarified. UDCA, originally used for cholesterol gallstone dissolution, is currently considered the first choice therapy for several forms of cholestatic syndromes. However, the beneficial effects of both UDCA and TUDCA have been tested in other experimental pathological conditions with deregulated levels of apoptosis, including neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here, we review the role of bile acids in modulating the apoptosis process, emphasizing the anti-apoptotic effects of UDCA and TUDCA, as well as their potential use as novel and alternate therapeutic agents for the treatment of apoptosis-related diseases.

  10. Phytanic acid-an overlooked bioactive fatty acid in dairy fat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    dissipation in skeletal muscles. Phytanic acid levels in serum are associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer, but the available data do not support a general causal link between circulating phytanic acid and prostate cancer risk. However, certain individuals, with specific single......Phytanic acid is a multibranched fatty acid with reported retinoid X receptor (RXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) agonist activity, which have been suggested to have preventive effects on metabolic dysfunctions. Serum level in man is strongly correlated...

  11. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  12. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  13. Oxidative cleavage of erucic acid for the synthesis of brassylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed J. Nasrullah; Pooja Thapliyal; Erica N. Pfarr; Nicholas S. Dusek; Kristofer L. Schiele; James A. Bahr

    2010-10-29

    The main focus of this work is to synthesize Brassylic Acid (BA) using oxidative cleavage of Erucic Acid (EA). Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is an industrial oilseed grown in North Dakota. Crambe has potential as an industrial fatty acid feedstock as a source of Erucic acid (EA). It has approximately 50-60 % of EA, a C{sub 22} monounsaturated fatty acid. Oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids derived from oilseeds produces long chain (9, 11, and 13 carbon atoms) dibasic and monobasic acids. These acids are known commercial feedstocks for the preparation of nylons, polyesters, waxes, surfactants, and perfumes. Other sources of EA are Rapeseed seed oil which 50-60 % of EA. Rapeseed is grown outside USA. The oxidative cleavage of EA was done using a high throughput parallel pressure reactor system. Kinetics of the reaction shows that BA yields reach a saturation at 12 hours. H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} was found to be the best catalyst for the oxidative cleavage of EA. High yields of BA were obtained at 80 C with bubbling of O{sub 2} or 10 bar of O{sub 2} for 12 hours.

  14. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  15. Glutamic acid and folic acid production in aerobic and anaerobic probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Taghi Abadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:From an industrial application or commercial point of view, glutamic acid is one of the most important amino acids and its microbial production has been reported from some bacteria. Regarding the role of probiotics to modulate human health and the ever-increasing demand of prebiotics in the food industry, in the current study, production of glutamic acid and folic acid from three probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Sporolactobacillus was evaluated for the first time. Materials and methods: MRS broth and exclusive media was used for probiotic culture. The glutamic acid was identified using thin-layer chromatography and folic acid production was measured by folate kit. Each bacterium in terms of quality and quantity were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Results: Production of glutamic acid confirmed is based on the thin layer chromatography analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography results. In addition, it was observed that all three probiotics produce folic acid. The prevalence of folate in Bifidobacterium was measured as 315 mg/ml that was more than two other bacteria. Discussion and conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of microbial production of glutamic acid and folate from the probiotic bacteria. These beneficial bacteria can be used as a good source for mass production of these valuable compounds.

  16. Folic acid and pantothenic acid protection against valproic acid-induced neural tube defects in CD-1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jennifer E [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Raymond, Angela M [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Winn, Louise M [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2006-03-01

    In utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). Although the mechanism by which VPA mediates these effects is unknown, VPA-initiated changes in embryonic protein levels have been implicated. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of in utero VPA exposure on embryonic protein levels of p53, NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, c-Myb, Bax, and Bcl-2 in the CD-1 mouse. We also evaluated the protective effects of folic acid and pantothenic acid on VPA-induced NTDs and VPA-induced embryonic protein changes in this model. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered a teratogenic dose of VPA prior to neural tube closure and embryonic protein levels were analyzed. In our study, VPA (400 mg/kg)-induced NTDs (24%) and VPA-exposed embryos with an NTD showed a 2-fold increase in p53, and 4-fold decreases in NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, and c-Myb protein levels compared to their phenotypically normal littermates (P < 0.05). Additionally, VPA increased the ratio of embryonic Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels (P < 0.05). Pretreatment of pregnant dams with either folic acid or pantothenic acid prior to VPA significantly protected against VPA-induced NTDs (P < 0.05). Folic acid also reduced VPA-induced alterations in p53, NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, c-Myb, and Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels, while pantothenic acid prevented VPA-induced alterations in NF-{kappa}B, Pim-1, and c-Myb. We hypothesize that folic acid and pantothenic acid protect CD-1 embryos from VPA-induced NTDs by independent, but not mutually exclusive mechanisms, both of which may be mediated by the prevention of VPA-induced alterations in proteins involved in neurulation.

  17. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on ... are no risks with this test. Images Uric acid test Uric acid crystals References Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical ...

  18. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  19. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  20. Kinetic study on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose to levulinic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, B.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    A variety of interesting bulk chemicals is accessible by the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose. An interesting example is levulinic acid, a versatile precursor for fuel additives, polymers, and resins. A detailed kinetic study on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose to levulinic acid is

  1. Occurrences and behavior of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Japan and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakoti, Binaya Raj; Tanaka, Shuhei; Fujii, Shigeo; Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Musirat, Chanatip; Seneviratne, S T M L D; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2010-06-01

    This study examines occurrences of 11 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in several wastewater treatment plants in Japan and Thailand. Surveys are conducted in eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Japan and central WWTPs of five industrial estates (IEs) in Thailand. Samples are collected from all major treatment processes in order to understand the behavior of PFCs in WWTPs. PFCs are detected in all WWTPs in Japan and Thailand. Concentrations of PFCs even exceed several thousands ng/L in some WWTPs. PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA are mainly detected in WWTPs in Japan, while PFBuS, PFOA, and PFHxA are mainly detected in WWTP of IEs in Thailand. Even though some of the investigated WWTPs utilize biological treatment processes coupled with chlorination, ozonation, or activated carbon adsorption, they are found ineffective to remove PFCs. During the treatment process, PFCs are found to accumulate at exceptionally high concentration levels in the activated sludge of an aeration tank and returned activated sludge. Overall, the estimated total daily mass of discharged PFCs is 124.95 g/d (PFASs: 49.81 g/d; PFCAs: 75.14 g/d) from eight WWTPs in Japan and 55.04 g/d (PFASs: 12 g/d; PFCAs: 43.04 g/d) from five WWTPs in Thailand. Although the presented data are from a single observation in each WWTP, the results indicate that certain industries using PFCs in manufacturing processes could be the principle point source, while domestic activities could be releasing PFCs at detectable levels causing environmental concern.

  2. Utilization of acidic α-amino acids as acyl donors: an effective stereo-controllable synthesis of aryl-keto α-amino acids and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Tachrim, Zetryana Puteri; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2014-05-16

    Aryl-keto-containing α-amino acids are of great importance in organic chemistry and biochemistry. They are valuable intermediates for the construction of hydroxyl α-amino acids, nonproteinogenic α-amino acids, as well as other biofunctional components. Friedel-Crafts acylation is an effective method to prepare aryl-keto derivatives. In this review, we summarize the preparation of aryl-keto containing α-amino acids by Friedel-Crafts acylation using acidic α-amino acids as acyl-donors and Lewis acids or Brönsted acids as catalysts.

  3. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu; Zhang, Jizhe; Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids

  4. Effect of acute acid loading on acid-base and calcium metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acid-base and calcium metabolic responses to acute non-carbonic acid loading in idiopathic calcium stone-formers and healthy males using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h ammonium chloride loading studies were performed in 12...... male recurrent idiopathic calcium stone-formers and 12 matched healthy men using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Arterialized capillary blood, serum and urine were collected hourly for measurement of electrolytes, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and acid-base...... status. Concentrations of non-metabolizable base (NB) and acid (NA) were calculated from measured concentrations of non-metabolizable ions. RESULTS: The extracellular acid-base status in the stone-formers during basal conditions and acid loading was comparable to the levels in the healthy controls...

  5. Study on Corrosion of Materials by Fluoric Acid and Silicofluoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kun You; Kwon, Yeong Soo; Kuk, Myung Ho; Kim, Myun Sup

    1986-01-01

    The corrosion properties of 304 Stainless steel, Cupro-nickel, NiCrMo alloy in hydrofluoric acid and silicofluoric acid has been studied. The corrosion resistance of NiCrMo alloy and Cupro-nickel in hydrofluoric acid or mixed acid of hydrofluoric and sulfuric acid is excellent. Because of lower corrosion resistance of 304 Stainless steel, it would not be used for these corrosion resistant materials. The corrosion activation energy of 304 Stainless steel, Cupro-nickel and NiCrMo alloy in 40% HF solution are 42.7, 58.9 and 89.7 kJ/mol, respectively. By these values, it is assumed that the corrosion rate determining step is the chemical reaction on surface of metals. In the plastics, Teflon and polychloro tetrafluoroethylene are most excellent for corrosion resistance in hydrofluoric acid

  6. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  7. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; Park, Si-Bum; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transport of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid by pancreatic islet cells from neonatal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, A; Farver, O; Thorn, N A

    1991-01-01

    . Dehydroascorbic acid was converted to ascorbic acid by an unknown mechanism after uptake. The uptake of both ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid was inhibited by tri-iodothyronine, and uptake of ascorbic acid, but not of dehydroascorbic acid, was inhibited by glucocorticoids. Isolated secretory granules...

  9. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  10. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben

    2016-01-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing. (paper)

  11. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and P-90-1985...

  13. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  14. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  15. Method for distinctive estimation of stored acidity forms in acid mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Fan, Rong; Schumann, Russell C; Gerson, Andrea R; Smart, Roger St C

    2014-10-07

    Jarosites and schwertmannite can be formed in the unsaturated oxidation zone of sulfide-containing mine waste rock and tailings together with ferrihydrite and goethite. They are also widely found in process wastes from electrometallurgical smelting and metal bioleaching and within drained coastal lowland soils (acid-sulfate soils). These secondary minerals can temporarily store acidity and metals or remove and immobilize contaminants through adsorption, coprecipitation, or structural incorporation, but release both acidity and toxic metals at pH above about 4. Therefore, they have significant relevance to environmental mineralogy through their role in controlling pollutant concentrations and dynamics in contaminated aqueous environments. Most importantly, they have widely different acid release rates at different pHs and strongly affect drainage water acidity dynamics. A procedure for estimation of the amounts of these different forms of nonsulfide stored acidity in mining wastes is required in order to predict acid release rates at any pH. A four-step extraction procedure to quantify jarosite and schwertmannite separately with various soluble sulfate salts has been developed and validated. Corrections to acid potentials and estimation of acid release rates can be reliably based on this method.

  16. Complexity in Acid?Base Titrations: Multimer Formation Between Phosphoric Acids and Imines

    OpenAIRE

    Malm, Christian; Kim, Heejae; Wagner, Manfred; Hunger, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Solutions of Br?nsted acids with bases in aprotic solvents are not only common model systems to study the fundamentals of proton transfer pathways but are also highly relevant to Br?nsted acid catalysis. Despite their importance the light nature of the proton makes characterization of acid?base aggregates challenging. Here, we track such acid?base interactions over a broad range of relative compositions between diphenyl phosphoric acid and the base quinaldine in dichloromethane, by u...

  17. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Studies on removal of plutonium from oxalic acid containing hydrochloric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadse, D R; Noronha, D M; Joshi, A R [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Solution containing hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid and considerable quantities of plutonium may be generated while recycling of scrap produced during the metallic fuel fabrication. Plutonium from such waste is normally recovered by anion exchange method after the destruction of oxalic acid using suitable oxidising agent. Solvent extraction and ion exchange methods are being explored in this laboratory for recovery of Pu from oxalic acid containing HCl solutions without prior destruction of oxalic acid. This paper describes the results on the determination of distribution ratios for extraction of Pu(IV) from hydrochloric acid using Aliquot-336 or HDEHP under varying experimental conditions. (author). 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Synthesis of labelled compound of ferulic acid and caffeic acid with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Mingguang; Wang Caiyun

    1986-01-01

    Effective components of Chinese traditional herbs consist of many compounds, but some of the compounds usually contain unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds. The unsaturated organic compounds 3 H-Ferulic acid and 3 H-Caffeic acid are prepared with their tritiated intermediates made by electric-dischange exposure method, which ensures the compounds contaning double bonds not hydrogenated. The 3 H-Ferulic acid is composed of 3 H-vanillin and Malonic acid. The 3 H-Caffeic acid is composed of 3 H-protocatechuyl aldehyde and Malonic acid and the specific activity of the products is 0.2 mCi/mg. The radiochemicaly purity is greater than 90%

  20. Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaria, F K; Dahl, S; Carballo, F J; Malcata, F X

    2002-10-01

    Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus genera, were previously isolated from 180-d-old Serra da Estrela cheese, a traditional Portuguese cheese manufactured from raw milk and coagulated with a plant rennet. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to catabolize free amino acids, when incubated independently with each amino acid in free form or with a mixture thereof. Attempts were made in both situations to correlate the rates of free amino acid uptake with the numbers of viable cells. When incubated individually, leucine, valine, glycine, aspartic acid, serine, threonine, lysine, glutamic acid, and alanine were degraded by all strains considered; arginine tended to build up, probably because of transamination of other amino acids. When incubated together, the degradation of free amino acids by each strain was dependent on pH (with an optimum pH around 6.0). The volatiles detected in ripened Serra da Estrela cheese originated mainly from leucine, phenylalanine, alanine, and valine, whereas in vitro they originated mainly from valine, phenylalanine, serine, leucine, alanine, and threonine. The wild strains tested offer a great potential for flavor generation, which might justify their inclusion in a tentative starter/nonstarter culture for that and similar cheeses.

  1. Combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid inhibits tumor cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Yamamoto, Katsunori; Sato, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shinjiro; Morinaga, Tetsuo; Hirano, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Placental extract contains several biologically active compounds, and pharmacological induction of placental extract has therapeutic effects, such as improving liver function in patients with hepatitis or cirrhosis. Here, we searched for novel molecules with an anti-tumor activity in placental extracts. Active molecules were separated by chromatographic analysis, and their antiproliferative activities were determined by a colorimetric assay. We identified aspartic acid and glutamic acid to possess the antiproliferative activity against human hepatoma cells. Furthermore, we showed that the combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid exhibited enhanced antiproliferative activity, and inhibited Akt phosphorylation. We also examined in vivo tumor inhibition activity using the rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. The treatment mixture (emulsion of the amino acids with Lipiodol) administered by hepatic artery injection inhibited tumor cell growth of the rabbit VX2 liver. These results suggest that the combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid may be useful for induction of tumor cell death, and has the potential for clinical use as a cancer therapeutic agent.

  2. Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols...... (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were...... incorporated into all the analyzed tissues when a diet containing VA but not c9,t11-CLA was fed. Most of the observed effects on the fatty acid profiles were seen in the CLA group, whereas only minor effects were observed in the VA groups compared with the CA group. Thus, CLA increased n-3 polyunsaturated...

  3. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  4. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.

    2009-01-01

    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  5. Reciprocal effects of 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid on fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, D A; Chatzidakis, C; Kasziba, E; Cook, G A

    1985-10-01

    Under certain incubation conditions 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) stimulated the oxidation of palmitate by hepatocytes, as observed by others. A decrease in malonyl-CoA concentration accompanied the stimulation of oxidation. Under other conditions, however, TOFA inhibited fatty acid oxidation. The observed effects of TOFA depended on the TOFA and fatty acid concentrations, the cell concentration, the time of TOFA addition relative to the addition of fatty acid, and the nutritional state of the animal (fed or starved). The data indicate that only under limited incubation conditions may TOFA be used as an inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis without inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. When rat liver mitochondria were preincubated with TOFA, ketogenesis from palmitate was slightly inhibited (up to 20%) at TOFA concentrations that were less than that of CoA, but the inhibition became almost complete (up to 90%) when TOFA was greater than or equal to the CoA concentration. TOFA had only slight or no inhibitory effects on the oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA, palmitoyl(-)carnitine, or butyrate. Since TOFA can be converted to TOFyl-CoA, the data suggest that the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation from palmitate results from the decreased availability of CoA for extramitochondrial activation of fatty acids. These data, along with previous data of others, indicate that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by CoA sequestration is a common mechanism of a group of carboxylic acid inhibitors. A general caution is appropriate with regard to the interpretation of results when using TOFA in studies of fatty acid oxidation.

  6. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  7. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  8. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K.; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G.; Futter, Martyn N.; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4–4.7 ng L"−"1) and PFBS (< MQL – 10.2 ng L"−"1) among PFCAs and PFSAs, respectively. Prevalence of short-chain PFAS indicates that the effects of PFOA and PFOS substitution are visible in environmental samples from India. The spatial pattern of C_5–C_7 PFCAs co-varied with that of PFOS suggesting similar emission drivers. PFDA and PFNA had much lower concentrations and covaried with PFOA especially in two hotspots downstream of Kanpur and Patna. PFOS and PFOA emissions to the river varied dramatically along the transect (0.20–190 and 0.03–150 g d"−"1, respectively). PFOS emission pattern could be explained by the number of urban residents in the subcatchment (rather than total population). Per-capita emissions were lower than in many developed countries. In groundwater, PFBA (< MQL – 9.2 ng L"−"1) and PFBS (< MQL – 4.9 ng L"−"1) had the highest concentrations among PFCAs and PFSAs, respectively. Concentrations and trends in groundwater were generally similar to those observed in surface water suggesting the aquifer was contaminated by wastewater receiving river water. Daily PFAS exposure intakes through drinking water were below safety

  9. The use of lactic acid-producing, malic acid-producing, or malic acid-degrading yeast strains for acidity adjustment in the wine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yun; Li, Ying-Ying; Li, Hua

    2014-03-01

    In an era of economic globalization, the competition among wine businesses is likely to get tougher. Biotechnological innovation permeates the entire world and intensifies the severity of the competition of the wine industry. Moreover, modern consumers preferred individualized, tailored, and healthy and top quality wine products. Consequently, these two facts induce large gaps between wine production and wine consumption. Market-orientated yeast strains are presently being selected or developed for enhancing the core competitiveness of wine enterprises. Reasonable biological acidity is critical to warrant a high-quality wine. Many wild-type acidity adjustment yeast strains have been selected all over the world. Moreover, mutation breeding, metabolic engineering, genetic engineering, and protoplast fusion methods are used to construct new acidity adjustment yeast strains to meet the demands of the market. In this paper, strategies and concepts for strain selection or improvement methods were discussed, and many examples based upon selected studies involving acidity adjustment yeast strains were reviewed. Furthermore, the development of acidity adjustment yeast strains with minimized resource inputs, improved fermentation, and enological capabilities for an environmentally friendly production of healthy, top quality wine is presented.

  10. Acid Balance, Dietary Acid Load, and Bone Effects—A Controversial Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Frassetto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern Western diets, with higher contents of animal compared to fruits and vegetable products, have a greater content of acid precursors vs. base precursors, which results in a net acid load to the body. To prevent inexorable accumulation of acid in the body and progressively increasing degrees of metabolic acidosis, the body has multiple systems to buffer and titrate acid, including bone which contains large quantities of alkaline salts of calcium. Both in vitro and in vivo studies in animals and humans suggest that bone base helps neutralize part of the dietary net acid load. This raises the question of whether decades of eating a high acid diet might contribute to the loss of bone mass in osteoporosis. If this idea is true, then additional alkali ingestion in the form of net base-producing foods or alkalinizing salts could potentially prevent this acid-related loss of bone. Presently, data exists that support both the proponents as well as the opponents of this hypothesis. Recent literature reviews have tended to support either one side or the other. Assuming that the data cited by both sides is correct, we suggest a way to reconcile the discordant findings. This overview will first discuss dietary acids and bases and the idea of changes in acid balance with increasing age, then review the evidence for and against the usefulness of alkali therapy as a treatment for osteoporosis, and finally suggest a way of reconciling these two opposing points of view.

  11. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  12. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  13. The Defense-Related Isoleucic Acid Differentially Accumulates in Arabidopsis Among Branched-Chain Amino Acid-Related 2-Hydroxy Carboxylic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał P. Maksym

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA related 2-hydroxy carboxylic acid isoleucic acid (ILA enhances salicylic acid-mediated pathogen defense in Arabidopsis thaliana. ILA has been identified in A. thaliana as its glucose conjugate correlated with the activity of the small-molecule glucosyltransferase UGT76B1, which can glucosylate both salicylic acid and ILA in vitro. However, endogenous levels of the ILA aglycon have not yet been determined in planta. To quantify ILA as well as the related leucic acid (LA and valic acid (VA in plant extracts, a sensitive method based on the derivatization of small carboxylic acids by silylation and gas chromatography–mass spectrometric analysis was developed. ILA was present in all species tested including several monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants as well as broadleaf and coniferous trees, whereas LA and VA were only detectable in a few species. In A. thaliana both ILA and LA were found. However, their levels varied during plant growth and in root vs. leaves. ILA levels were higher in 2-week-old leaves and decreased in older plants, whereas LA exhibited a reverted accumulation pattern. Roots displayed higher ILA and LA levels compared to leaves. ILA was inversely related to UGT76B1 expression level indicating that UGT76B1 glucosylates ILA in planta. In contrast, LA was not affected by the expression of UGT76B1. To address the relation of both 2-hydroxy acids to plant defense, we studied ILA and LA levels upon infection by Pseudomonas syringae. LA abundance remained unaffected, whereas ILA was reduced. This change suggests an ILA-related attenuation of the salicylic acid response. Collectively, the BCAA-related ILA and LA differentially accumulated in Arabidopsis, supporting a specific role and regulation of the defense-modulating small-molecule ILA among these 2-hydroxy acids. The new sensitive method will pave the way to further unravel their role in plants.

  14. Serum levels of environmental pollutants is a risk factor for breast cancer in Inuit: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielsøe, Maria; Kern, Peder; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2017-06-13

    Environmental Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) can alter the hormone homeostasis by mimicking, interfering or blocking the function of hormones; moreover POPs are hypothesized to modify the risk of breast cancer. The association between POPs and breast cancer has been widely studied but the conclusions are inconsistent. The present study examined the associations between serum levels of POPs and breast cancer with focus on the highly exposed Greenlandic Inuit population. The study design was a case-control study of Inuit women from Greenland. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire with information on reproductive history and lifestyle and to provide a blood sample. The sampling was carried out in two time periods (2000-2003 and 2011-2014). The serum levels were determined of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 16 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), and 9 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Independent samples t-test was used to compare differences between cases and controls and odds ratios (OR) adjusted for identified confounders were obtained using logistic regression. The study population included 77 breast cancer cases and 84 controls. The majority of the measured compounds declined significantly from 2000 - 2003 to 2011-2014. However, for the perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) an increase was observed. The serum levels were significantly higher in cases compared to controls for the majority of the compounds, and after adjusting for age the difference was maintained for ∑OCP, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), ∑PFAA, ∑perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). For the lipophilic POPs, high serum levels (middel/highest vs. lowest tertile) of ∑PCB, ∑estrgoenicPCB, PCB99, PCB138, PCB153, PCB170, PCB170, and PCB183 was associated with breast cancer risk; for the amphiphilic PFAAs, high

  15. Influence of acid diffusion on the performance of lead-acid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappus, W.; Bohmann, J.

    1983-11-01

    A model for the discharge performance of the lead-acid cell is proposed. Diffusion of acid into the porous electrodes, which is connected with diffusional polarization, is considered as the principal factor in the transport process. The end of discharge is determined either by acid depletion inside the electrodes or by exhaustion of the active material, where utilization of the active material as a function of the acid density and the specific current is determined from empirical expressions. Curves of diffusional polarizations as a function of the discharge time are presented. Calculated discharge capacities show the influence of various parameters such as electrode thickness, current, and acid density. Tubular and pasted plates are considered.

  16. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  17. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  18. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln, glutamic acid (Glu, aspartic acid (Asp and asparagines (Asn were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  19. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongbin; Yu, Xiaoyu; Fang, Jiaxing; Lu, Yunhao; Liu, Ping; Xing, Yage; Wang, Qin; Che, Zhenming; He, Qiang

    2018-05-29

    Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn) were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  20. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  1. Comparison of clinical characteristics of chronic cough due to non-acid and acid gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghuai; Yang, Zhongmin; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Li; Liang, Siwei; Lü, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about non-acid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC). The purpose of the study is to explore the clinical characteristics of non-acid GERC. Clinical symptoms, cough symptom score, capsaicin cough sensitivity, gastroesophageal reflux diagnostic questionnaire (GerdQ) score, findings of multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH) and response to pharmacological anti-reflux therapy were retrospectively reviewed in 38 patients with non-acid GERC and compared with those of 49 patients with acid GERC. Non-acid GERC had the similar cough character, cough symptom score, and capsaicin cough sensitivity to acid GERC. However, non-acid GERC had less frequent regurgitation (15.8% vs 57.1%, χ(2)  = 13.346, P = 0.000) and heartburn (7.9% vs 32.7%, χ(2)  = 7.686, P  = 0.006), and lower GerdQ score (7.4 ± 1.4 vs 10.6 ± 2.1, t = -6.700, P = 0.003) than acid GERC. Moreover, MII-pH revealed more weakly acidic reflux episodes, gas reflux episodes and a higher symptom association probability (SAP) for non-acid reflux but lower DeMeester score, acidic reflux episodes and SAP for acid reflux in non-acid GERC than in acid GERC. Non-acid GERC usually responded to the standard anti-reflux therapy but with delayed cough resolution or attenuation when compared with acid GERC. Fewer patients with non-acid GERC needed an augmented acid suppressive therapy or treatment with baclofen. There are some differences in the clinical manifestations between non-acid and acid GERC, but MII-pH is essential to diagnose non-acid GERC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Reactions of tritium atoms with amino acids, deuterated amino acids and mixtures of amino acids. Additivity property and isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, G.A.; Filatov, Eh.S.

    1988-01-01

    Interaction of tritium atoms with glycine (1) and leucine (2) amino acids, deuterated amino acids, their mixtures and glycylleucine (3) peptide in the 77-300 K temperature range is studied in isothermal and gradient regimes. Tagged amino acids were separated from targets after conducting the reaction. At T 150 K are associated with intermolecular transmission of free valence in the mixture of amino acids. Regularities of the reaction found for the mixture of amino acids are conserved for (3) as well, i.e. the peptide bond does not essentially affect the reaction of isotopic exchange conditioned by atomic tritium

  3. Comparative analysis of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives in protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    New types of aggregation suppressors, such as amino acids and their derivatives, were focused on as fourth-component additives. Data were obtained that indicated that the additives promote protein crystallization. Optimal conditions for protein crystallization are difficult to determine because proteins tend to aggregate in saturated solutions. This study comprehensively evaluates amino acids and amino-acid derivatives as additives for crystallization. This fourth component of the solution increases the probability of crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme in various precipitants owing to a decrease in aggregation. These results suggest that the addition of certain types of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives, such as Arg, Lys and esterified and amidated amino acids, is a simple method of improving the success rate of protein crystallization

  4. Studies on the solvent extraction behaviour of Pu(IV) from nitric acid, nitric-perchloric acid and hydrochloric acids, by di,2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phal, D.G.; Kannan, S.K.; Ramakrishna, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Extraction of plutonium (IV) from aqueous nitric acid, nitric-perchloric acid and hydrochloric acids by di,2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, the dimeric form of which is represented as H 2 Y 2 , in different diluents (dodecane, toluene and chloroform) was investigated. The composition of the extracted Pu(IV) species were found to be Pu(NO 3 ) 2 (HY) 2 , Pu(NO 3 )(ClO 4 )(HY 2 ) 2 , PuClY(HY 2 ) 2 and PuCl 2 (HY 2 ) 2 from nitric, nitric-perchloric and hydrochloric acids respectively, the last one being pre-dominant at high aqueous acidities (i.e. 5M HCl). Synergic enhancement in the extraction of Pu(IV) from different aqueous media, by the addition of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) to HDEHP was also investigated and was attributed to the formation and extraction of the species PuX(TTA)(HY 2 ) 2 , and Pu(TTA) 2 (HY 2 ) 2 where X=Cl - or NO 3 - . The addition of the neutral extractant TOPO to H 2 Y 2 also resulted in synergism. The possible equilibria in these systems were inferred and the corresponding equilibrium constants determined. (author). 24 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs

  5. The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 +/- 4 g/l, 42 +/- 7 g/l and 18 +/- 6 g/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS) showed that Me-Soy resulted in 71% open-chain SLs with 59% of those molecules remaining esterified at the carboxyl end of the fatty acids. Et-Soy and Pro-Soy resulted in 43% and 80% open-chain free-acid SLs, respectively (containing linoleic acid and oleic acid as the principal fatty acid species linked to the sophorose sugar at the omega-1 position), with no evidence of residual esterification.

  6. Animal model of acid-reflux esophagitis: pathogenic roles of acid/pepsin, prostaglandins, and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koji; Nagahama, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis was induced in rats within 3 h by ligating both the pylorus and transitional region between the forestomach and glandular portion under ether anesthesia. This esophageal injury was prevented by the administration of acid suppressants and antipepsin drug and aggravated by exogenous pepsin. Damage was also aggravated by pretreatment with indomethacin and the selective COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibitor, whereas PGE2 showed a biphasic effect depending on the dose; a protection at low doses, and an aggravation at high doses, with both being mediated by EP1 receptors. Various amino acids also affected this esophagitis in different ways; L-alanine and L-glutamine had a deleterious effect, while L-arginine and glycine were highly protective, both due to yet unidentified mechanisms. It is assumed that acid/pepsin plays a major pathogenic role in this model of esophagitis; PGs derived from COX-1 are involved in mucosal defense of the esophagus; and some amino acids are protective against esophagitis. These findings also suggest a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of esophagitis, in addition to acid suppressant therapy. The model introduced may be useful to test the protective effects of drugs on esophagitis and investigate the mucosal defense mechanism in the esophagus.

  7. Phenolic biotransformations during conversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kumar, Balvir

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives.

  8. Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives. PMID:24066293

  9. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  10. Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via house dust in Korea: Implication to exposure pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhexi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Jong-Eun

    2016-05-15

    A wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), were measured in fifteen house dust and two nonresidential indoor dust of Korea. Total concentrations of PFASs in house dust ranged from 29.9 to 97.6 ng g(-1), with a dominance of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by 8:2 FTOH, N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA). In a typical exposure scenario, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of total PFASs via house dust ingestion were 2.83 ng d(-1) for toddlers and 1.13 ng d(-1) for adults, which were within the range of the mean EDIs reported from several countries. For PFOA and PFOS exposure via house dust ingestion, indirect exposure (via precursors) was a minor contributor, accounting for 5% and 12%, respectively. An aggregated exposure (hereafter, overall-EDIs) of PFOA and PFOS occurring via all pathways, estimated using data compiled from the literature, were 53.6 and 14.8 ng d(-1) for toddlers, and 20.5 and 40.6 ng d(-1) for adults, respectively, in a typical scenario. These overall-EDIs corresponded to 82% (PFOA) and 92% (PFOS) of a pharmacokinetic model-based EDIs estimated from adults' serum data. Direct dietary exposure was a major contributor (>89% of overall-EDI) to PFOS in both toddlers and adults, and PFOA in toddlers. As for PFOA exposure of adults, however direct exposure via tap water drinking (37%) and indirect exposure via inhalation (22%) were as important as direct dietary exposure (41%). House dust-ingested exposure (direct+indirect) was responsible for 5% (PFOS in toddlers) and house-dust ingestion was a minor contributor in this study, but should not be ignored for toddlers' PFOS exposure due to its significance in the worst-case scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited informationabout nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition offatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp..The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids,total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography(HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fattyacid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggscontained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.Keywords: Amino acids, carotenoid total, fatty acid, flying fish egg, α-tocopherol

  12. Microencapsulated acids associated with essential oils and acid salts for piglets in the nursery phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Callegari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial blends of organic and inorganic acids combined with essential oils for piglets in the nursery phase. The formulations were administered as microcapsules or as acid salts. Ninety-six, Pen Ar Lan, barrow and female piglets, weaned at a body weight of 600 kg ± 12 kg and age of 23 days were subjected to four treatments. The animals were distributed in randomized blocks of three animals per pen and 8 replicates per treatment. The treatments consisted of four different diets: control (free of organic acids; acid and essential oil blends (fumaric acid 10,5%, malic acid 8.0%, essential oils; in microencapsulated form; microencapsulated acid blend (phosphoric acid 10%, citric acid 10%, malic acid 10%, fumaric acid 20%; in microencapsulated form; and acid salt blend (formic acid 40.5%, phosphoric acid 13.6%, propionic acid 4.9% and salts (23.2% calcium and 4.4% phosphorus available. The performance parameters, digestive transit time, weights of organs of the digestive tract, bacterial count of feces (Lactobacillus, E coli and Salmonella ssp and Clostridium, pH of the stomach and duodenal content did not differ between treatment groups (P > 005. All treatments containing organic acids exhibited positive effects on diarrhea control (P < 005. The cecal contents of volatile fatty acids (VFA were higher in piglets fed diets containing acids than in animals that received the control diet (P < 005, and blends containing essential oils improved the jejunum villus height compared with the control group. The use of diets containing acids improved diarrhea control and VFA production in the cecum, and specifically the diets containing microencapsulated acid blends required the lowest doses to be effective.

  13. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  15. Bile acids deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid differentially regulate human β-defensin-1 and -2 secretion by colonic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajczak, Natalia K; Saint-Criq, Vinciane; O'Dwyer, Aoife M; Perino, Alessia; Adorini, Luciano; Schoonjans, Kristina; Keely, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    Bile acids and epithelial-derived human β-defensins (HβDs) are known to be important factors in the regulation of colonic mucosal barrier function and inflammation. We hypothesized that bile acids regulate colonic HβD expression and aimed to test this by investigating the effects of deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid on the expression and release of HβD1 and HβD2 from colonic epithelial cells and mucosal tissues. DCA (10-150 µM) stimulated the release of both HβD1 and HβD2 from epithelial cell monolayers and human colonic mucosal tissue in vitro In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid (50-200 µM) inhibited both basal and DCA-induced defensin release. Effects of DCA were mimicked by the Takeda GPCR 5 agonist, INT-777 (50 μM), but not by the farnesoid X receptor agonist, GW4064 (10 μM). INT-777 also stimulated colonic HβD1 and HβD2 release from wild-type, but not Takeda GPCR 5 -/- , mice. DCA stimulated phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB, an effect that was attenuated by ursodeoxycholic acid, whereas an NF-κB inhibitor, BMS-345541 (25 μM), inhibited DCA-induced HβD2, but not HβD1, release. We conclude that bile acids can differentially regulate colonic epithelial HβD expression and secretion and discuss the implications of our findings for intestinal health and disease.-Lajczak, N. K., Saint-Criq, V., O'Dwyer, A. M., Perino, A., Adorini, L., Schoonjans, K., Keely, S. J. Bile acids deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid differentially regulate human β-defensin-1 and -2 secretion by colonic epithelial cells. © FASEB.

  16. Molecular Design of a Chiral Brønsted Acid with Two Different Acidic Sites: Regio-, Diastereo-, and Enantioselective Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction of Azopyridinecarboxylate with Amidodienes Catalyzed by Chiral Carboxylic Acid-Monophosphoric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momiyama, Norie; Tabuse, Hideaki; Noda, Hirofumi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Fujinami, Takeshi; Yamanishi, Katsunori; Izumiseki, Atsuto; Funayama, Kosuke; Egawa, Fuyuki; Okada, Shino; Adachi, Hiroaki; Terada, Masahiro

    2016-09-07

    A chiral Brønsted acid containing two different acidic sites, chiral carboxylic acid-monophosphoric acid 1a, was designed to be a new and effective concept in catalytic asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of azopyridinecarboxylate with amidodienes. The multipoint hydrogen-bonding interactions among the carboxylic acid, monophosphoric acid, azopyridinecarboxylate, and amidodiene achieved high catalytic and chiral efficiency, producing substituted 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridazines with excellent stereocontrol in a single step. This constitutes the first example of regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective azo-hetero-Diels-Alder reactions by chiral Brønsted acid catalysis.

  17. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  18. Molecular pharmacology of homologues of ibotenic acid at cloned metabotropic glutamic acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Nielsen, B; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the enantiomers of 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid (homoibotenic acid, HIBO) and analogues substituted with a methyl, bromo or butyl group in the four position of the ring at cloned metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster...... ovary (CHO) cells. In contrast to the parent compound ibotenic acid, which is a potent group I and II agonist, the (S)-forms of homoibotenic acid and its analogues are selective and potent group I antagonists whereas the (R)-forms are inactive both as agonists and antagonists at group I, II, and III m......Glu receptors. Interestingly, (S)-homoibotenic acid and the analogues display equal potency at both mGlu1alpha and mGlu5a with Ki values in the range of 97 to 490 microM, (S)-homoibotenic acid and (S)-2-amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid [(S)-4-butylhomoibotenic acid] displaying the lowest...

  19. Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives.

  20. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  1. Separation and purification of hyaluronic acid by glucuronic acid imprinted microbeads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdamar, H.Acelya; Sarioezlue, Nalan Yilmaz [Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ozcan, Ayca Atilir; Ersoez, Arzu [Department of Chemistry, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Say, Ridvan, E-mail: rsay@anadolu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); BIBAM (Plant, Drug and Scientific Researches Center), Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2009-05-05

    The purification of hyaluronic acid (HA) is relatively significant to use in biomedical applications. The structure of HA is formed by the repetitive units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine. In this study, glucuronic acid-imprinted microbeads have been supplied for the purification of HA from cell culture (Streptococcus equi). Histidine-functional monomer, methacryloylamidohistidine (MAH) was chosen as the metal-complexing monomer. The glucuronic acid-imprinted poly(ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate-MAH-Copper(II)) [p(EDMA-MAH-Cu{sup 2+})] microbeads have been synthesized by typical suspension polymerization procedure. The template glucuronic acid has been removed by employing 5 M methanolic KOH solution. p(EDMA-MAH-Cu{sup 2+}) microbeads have been characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and swelling studies. Moreover, HA adsorption experiments have been performed in a batch experimental set-up. Purification of HA from cell culture supernatant has been also investigated by determining the hyaluronidase activity using purified HA as substrate. The glucuronic acid imprinted p(EDMA-MAH-Cu{sup 2+}) particles can be used many times with no significant loss in adsorption capacities. Also, the selectivity of prepared molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) has been examined. Results have showed that MIP particles are 19 times more selective for glucuronic acid than N-acetylglucose amine.

  2. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  3. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  4. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Woo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release.

  5. Phytanic acid alpha-oxidation: accumulation of 2-hydroxyphytanic acid and absence of 2-oxophytanic acid in plasma from patients with peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brink, H. J.; Schor, D. S.; Kok, R. M.; Poll-The, B. T.; Wanders, R. J.; Jakobs, C.

    1992-01-01

    A stable isotope dilution method was developed for the measurement of 2-hydroxyphytanic acid and 2-oxophytanic acid in plasma. In plasma from healthy individuals and from patients with Refsum's disease, 2-hydroxyphytanic acid was found at levels less than 0.2 mumol/l, whereas the acid accumulated in

  6. Nitrosation and Nitration of Fulvic Acid, Peat and Coal with Nitric Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Thorn

    Full Text Available Nitrohumic acids, produced from base extraction of coals and peats oxidized with nitric acid, have received considerable attention as soil ammendments in agriculture. The nitration chemistry however is incompletely understood. Moreover, there is a need to understand the reaction of nitric acid with natural organic matter (NOM in general, in the context of a variety of environmental and biogeochemical processes. Suwannee River NOM, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Pahokee Peat fulvic acid were treated with 15N-labeled nitric acid at concentrations ranging from 15% to 22% and analyzed by liquid and solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. Bulk Pahokee peat and Illinois #6 coal were also treated with nitric acid, at 29% and 40% respectively, and analyzed by solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. In addition to nitro groups from nitration of aromatic carbon, the 15N NMR spectra of all five samples exhibited peaks attributable to nitrosation reactions. These include nitrosophenol peaks in the peat fulvic acid and Suwannee River samples, from nitrosation of phenolic rings, and N-nitroso groups in the peat samples, from nitrosation of secondary amides or amines, the latter consistent with the peat samples having the highest naturally abundant nitrogen contents. Peaks attributable to Beckmann and secondary reactions of the initially formed oximes were present in all spectra, including primary amide, secondary amide, lactam, and nitrile nitrogens. The degree of secondary reaction product formation resulting from nitrosation reactions appeared to correlate inversely with the 13C aromaticities of the samples. The nitrosation reactions are most plausibly effected by nitrous acid formed from the reduction of nitric acid by oxidizable substrates in the NOM and coal samples.

  7. Acid-base properties of 2-phenethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid, an antitumor agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilova, N. E.; Kutina, N. N.; Petukhova, O. A.; Kharitonov, Yu. Ya.

    2013-07-01

    The acid-base properties of the 2-phenethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid (PET) substance belonging to the class of isothiocyanates and capable of inhibiting the development of tumors on many experimental models were studied. The acidity and hydrolysis constants of the PET substance in ethanol, acetone, aqueous ethanol, and aqueous acetone solutions were determined from the data of potentiometric (pH-metric) titration of ethanol and acetone solutions of PET with aqueous solidum hydroxide at room temperature.

  8. Effects of water on the esterification of free fatty acids by acid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Deog-Keun; Lee, Jin-Suk [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Wang, Zhong-Ming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, No. 2 Nengyuan Rd, Wushan, Tianhe, Guangzhou 510-640 (China)

    2010-03-15

    To maximize the production of biodiesel from soybean soapstock, the effects of water on the esterification of high-FFA (free fatty acid) oils were investigated. Oleic acid and high acid acid oil (HAAO) were esterified by reaction with methanol in the presence of Amberlyst-15 as a heterogeneous catalyst or sulfuric acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was studied at oil to methanol molar ratios of 1:3 and 1:6 and reaction temperatures of 60 and 80 C. The rate of esterification of oleic acid significantly decreased as the initial water content increased to 20% of the oil. The activity of Amberlyst-15 decreased more rapidly than that of sulfuric acid, due to the direct poisoning of acid sites by water. Esterification using sulfuric acid was not affected by water until there was a 5% water addition at a 1:6 molar ratio of oil to methanol. FAME content of HAAO prepared from soapstock rapidly increased for the first 30 min of esterification. Following the 30-min mark, the rate of FAME production decreased significantly due to the accumulation of water. When methanol and Amberlyst-15 were removed from the HAAO after 30 min of esterification and fresh methanol and a catalyst were added, the time required to reach 85% FAME content was reduced from 6 h to 1.8 h. (author)

  9. Identification of an itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Huang, Xuenian; Zhong, Chengwei; Li, Jianjun; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    Itaconic acid, one of the most promising and flexible bio-based chemicals, is mainly produced by Aspergillus terreus. Previous studies to improve itaconic acid production in A. terreus through metabolic engineering were mainly focused on its biosynthesis pathway, while the itaconic acid-degrading pathway has largely been ignored. In this study, we used transcriptomic, proteomic, bioinformatic, and in vitro enzymatic analyses to identify three key enzymes, itaconyl-CoA transferase (IctA), itaconyl-CoA hydratase (IchA), and citramalyl-CoA lyase (CclA), that are involved in the catabolic pathway of itaconic acid in A. terreus. In the itaconic acid catabolic pathway in A. terreus, itaconic acid is first converted by IctA into itaconyl-CoA with succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor, and then itaconyl-CoA is hydrated into citramalyl-CoA by IchA. Finally, citramalyl-CoA is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate by CclA. Moreover, IctA can also catalyze the reaction between citramalyl-CoA and succinate to generate succinyl-CoA and citramalate. These results, for the first time, identify the three key enzymes, IctA, IchA, and CclA, involved in the itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing A. terreus. The results will facilitate the improvement of itaconic acid production by metabolically engineering the catabolic pathway of itaconic acid in A. terreus.

  10. Strong activation of bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) by ursodeoxycholic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemuth, Dominik; Sahin, Hacer; Lefèvre, Cathérine M.T.; Wasmuth, Hermann E.; Gründer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC gene family of unknown function. Rat BASIC (rBASIC) is inactive at rest. We have recently shown that cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the bile ducts, are the main site of BASIC expression in the liver and identified bile acids, in particular hyo- and chenodeoxycholic acid, as agonists of rBASIC. Moreover, it seems that extracellular divalent cations stabilize the resting state of rBASIC, because removal of extracellular divalent cations opens the channel. In this addendum, we demonstrate that removal of extracellular divalent cations potentiates the activation of rBASIC by bile acids, suggesting an allosteric mechanism. Furthermore, we show that rBASIC is strongly activated by the anticholestatic bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), suggesting that BASIC might mediate part of the therapeutic effects of UDCA. PMID:23064163

  11. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines; Extraction de quelques acides par des amines aliphatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutano, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [French] Les acides chlorhydrique, nitrique, sulfurique, perchlorique, phosphorique, acetique et formique, en solution aqueuse - 0,05 a 10 M - sont extraits par l'amberlite LA2 et la trilaurylamine en solution, a 5 pour cent en volume, dans le kerosene et le xylene respectivement. L'extraction comprend: une neutralisation de l'amine par l'acide avec formation d'un sel d'amine; une 'extraction moleculaire', c'est-a-dire une extraction d'acide en exces par rapport a la stoechiometrie du sel d'amine. Suivant le comportement des acides au cours de l'extraction nous distinguons trois groupes: acides entierement dissocies, acides carboxyliques, acide phosphorique. Cette classification est egalement valable pour l'extraction de l'eau qui est simultanee a celle de l'acide. Un mecanisme d'extraction pour l'acide formique est propose et nous calculons la constante de formation de son sel d'amine. (auteur)

  12. Sleep disorders and the prevalence of asymptomatic nocturnal acid and non-acid reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Christine; Marzio, Dina Halegoua-De; Shah, Paurush; Denuna-Rivera, Susie; Doghramji, Karl; Cohen, Sidney; Dimarino, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal acid reflux is associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic sleep arousals, leading to fragmented sleep. The frequency and influence of acid reflux in patients with various forms of insomnia has not been reported. The aim of this study was to quantify nocturnal acid and nonacid reflux in patients with primary sleep disorders as previously diagnosed by polysomnography. THIRTY ONE SUBJECTS WERE STUDIED: (A) 9 subjects with a polysomnographically diagnosed sleep disorder (1 with restless legs syndrome, 4 with narcolepsy, 4 with periodic limb movement disorder); (B) 12 subjects with primary insomnia (PI) and unrevealing polysomnography; and (C) 10 controls without disturbed sleep. All subjects underwent a physical examination and 24 h transnasal pH and impedance monitoring to detect acid and non-acid reflux. The 21 subjects with fragmented sleep due to a primary sleep disorder had significantly more recumbent acid exposure (>1.2% of time) as compared with control subjects (33% versus 0%). When fragmented sleep subjects were divided into two groups, 17% of PI subjects and 55% of subjects with a diagnosed sleep disorder had significant recumbent acid exposure (P=0.009). Likewise, the median recumbent nonacid events were increased in the sleep disordered group (P=0.011). This study indicates that patients with primary sleep disorders have prominent nocturnal acid reflux without symptoms of daytime acid reflux. Acid reflux is most prominent in patients with polysomnographic findings of disturbed sleep as compared to patients with PI; while non acid reflux is increased minimally in these patients.

  13. Effect of aspartic acid and glutamate on metabolism and acid stress resistance of Acetobacter pasteurianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haisong; Zhang, Renkuan; Xia, Menglei; Bai, Xiaolei; Mou, Jun; Zheng, Yu; Wang, Min

    2017-06-15

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are widely applied in food, bioengineering and medicine fields. However, the acid stress at low pH conditions limits acetic acid fermentation efficiency and high concentration of vinegar production with AAB. Therefore, how to enhance resistance ability of the AAB remains as the major challenge. Amino acids play an important role in cell growth and cell survival under severe environment. However, until now the effects of amino acids on acetic fermentation and acid stress resistance of AAB have not been fully studied. In the present work the effects of amino acids on metabolism and acid stress resistance of Acetobacter pasteurianus were investigated. Cell growth, culturable cell counts, acetic acid production, acetic acid production rate and specific production rate of acetic acid of A. pasteurianus revealed an increase of 1.04, 5.43, 1.45, 3.30 and 0.79-folds by adding aspartic acid (Asp), and cell growth, culturable cell counts, acetic acid production and acetic acid production rate revealed an increase of 0.51, 0.72, 0.60 and 0.94-folds by adding glutamate (Glu), respectively. For a fully understanding of the biological mechanism, proteomic technology was carried out. The results showed that the strengthening mechanism mainly came from the following four aspects: (1) Enhancing the generation of pentose phosphates and NADPH for the synthesis of nucleic acid, fatty acids and glutathione (GSH) throughout pentose phosphate pathway. And GSH could protect bacteria from low pH, halide, oxidative stress and osmotic stress by maintaining the viability of cells through intracellular redox equilibrium; (2) Reinforcing deamination of amino acids to increase intracellular ammonia concentration to maintain stability of intracellular pH; (3) Enhancing nucleic acid synthesis and reparation of impaired DNA caused by acid stress damage; (4) Promoting unsaturated fatty acids synthesis and lipid transport, which resulted in the improvement of cytomembrane

  14. An efficient synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives with extended conjugation from L-Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisht Surendra S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetramic acids with polyenyl substituents are an important class of compounds in medicinal chemistry. Both solid and solution phase syntheses of such molecules have been reported recently. Thiolactomycin, a clinical candidate for treatment of tuberculosis has led to further explorations in this class. We have recently developed an efficient synthesis of tetramic acids derivatives from L- ascorbic acid. In continuation of this work, we have synthesised dienyl tetramic acid derivatives. Results 5,6-O-Isopropylidene-ascorbic acid on reaction with DBU led to the formation of tetronolactonyl allyl alcohol, which on oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave the respective tetranolactonyl allylic aldehydes. Wittig olefination followed by reaction of the resulting tetranolactonyl dienyl esters with different amines resulted in the respective 5-hydroxy lactams. Subsequent dehydration of the hydroxy lactams with p-toluene sulphonic acid afforded the dienyl tetramic acid derivatives. All reactions were performed at ambient temperature and the yields are good. Conclusion An efficient and practical method for the synthesis of dienyl tetramic acid derivatives from inexpensive and easily accessible ascorbic acid has been developed. The compounds bear structural similarities to the tetramic acid based polyenic antibiotics and thus this method offers a new and short route for the synthesis of tetramic acid derivatives of biological significance.

  15. Quantification of Lewis acid induced Brønsted acidity of protogenic Lewis bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathem, A Paige; Heiden, Zachariah M

    2017-05-09

    Proton transfer promoted by the coordination of protogenic Lewis bases to a Lewis acid is a critical step in catalytic transformations. Although the acidification of water upon coordination to a Lewis acid has been known for decades, no attempts have been made to correlate the Brønsted acidity of the coordinated water molecule with Lewis acid strength. To probe this effect, the pK a 's (estimated error of 1.3 pK a units) in acetonitrile of ten protogenic Lewis bases coordinated to seven Lewis acids containing Lewis acidities varying 70 kcal mol -1 , were computed. To quantify Lewis acid strength, the ability to transfer a hydride (hydride donor ability) from the respective main group hydride was used. Coordination of a Lewis acid to water increased the acidity of the bound water molecule between 20 and 50 pK a units. A linear correlation exhibiting a 2.6 pK a unit change of the Lewis acid-water adduct per ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride was obtained. For the ten protogenic Lewis bases studied, the coordinated protogenic Lewis bases were acidified between 10 and 50 pK a units. On average, a ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride resulted in about a 2.8 pK a unit change in the Brønsted acidity of the Lewis acid-Lewis base adducts. Since attempts to computationally investigate the pK a of main group dihydrogen complexes were unsuccessful, experimental determination of the first reported pK a of a main group dihydrogen complex is described. The pK a of H 2 -B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 was determined to be 5.8 ± 0.2 in acetonitrile.

  16. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of very long chain fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, phytanic acid and plasmalogen for the screening of peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Horibe, Ryoko; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Kondo, Naomi

    2003-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), phytanic acid, and plasmalogens are usually measured individually. A novel method for the screening of peroxisomal disorders, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was developed. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids,

  17. Ultraviolet B irradiation induces changes in the distribution and release of arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, the eicosanoids, play an important role in the inflammatory responses of the human skin. To better understand the metabolic fate of fatty acids in the skin, the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation (280-320 nm) on the distribution and release of 14 C-labeled arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture was investigated. Ultraviolet B irradiation induced the release of all three 14 C-labeled fatty acids from the phospholipids, especially from phosphatidylethanolamine, and this was accompanied by increased labeling of the nonphosphorus lipids. This finding suggests that UVB induces a significant liberation of eicosanoid precursor fatty acids from cellular phospholipids, but the liberated fatty acids are largely reincorporated into the nonphosphorus lipids. In conclusion, the present study suggests that not only arachidonic acid but also dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid might be involved in the UVB irradiation-induced inflammatory reactions of human skin

  18. The effects of borate minerals on the synthesis of nucleic acid bases, amino acids and biogenic carboxylic acids from formamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Barontini, Maurizio; Cossetti, Cristina; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Crestini, Claudia

    2011-08-01

    The thermal condensation of formamide in the presence of mineral borates is reported. The products afforded are precursors of nucleic acids, amino acids derivatives and carboxylic acids. The efficiency and the selectivity of the reaction was studied in relation to the elemental composition of the 18 minerals analyzed. The possibility of synthesizing at the same time building blocks of both genetic and metabolic apparatuses, along with the production of amino acids, highlights the interest of the formamide/borate system in prebiotic chemistry.

  19. C-11 Acid and the Stereochemistry of Abietic Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    While many features, like the phenanthrene-type of fusion of the three ... thought to contain the original ring A of abietic acid, retaining the. 'nuclear methyl .... Thinking that the anhydride he had obtained by the action of heat on the C-11 acid ...

  20. Reaction of nitrous acid with U(IV) and nitric acid in 30% TBP-kerosene solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangrong; Hu Jingxin; Huang Huaian; Qiu Xiaoxi

    1990-01-01

    Reaction of nitrous acid with U(IV) and nitric acid in 30% TBP-kerosene solution is investigated, the rate equations of oxidation of U(IV) by nitrous acid and that of nitrous acid reacting with nitric acid are obtained

  1. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...... acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...

  2. Acidity in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  3. One-pot synthesis of bioactive cyclopentenones from α-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Daniel; Müller, Sara Mareike; Hahmeier, Monika; Löwe, Jana; Feussner, Ivo; Gröger, Harald; Viehhauser, Andrea; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2018-04-01

    Oxidation products of the poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are bioactive in plants and animals as shown for the cyclopentenones prostaglandin 15d-PGJ 2 and PGA 2 , cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid (12-OPDA), and 14-A-4 neuroprostane. In this study an inexpensive and simple enzymatic multi-step one-pot synthesis is presented for 12-OPDA, which is derived from α-linolenic acid, and the analogous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived cyclopentenone [(4Z,7Z,10Z)-12-[[-(1S,5S)-4-oxo-5-(2Z)-pent-2-en-1yl]-cyclopent-2-en-1yl] dodeca-4,7,10-trienoic acid, OCPD]. The three enzymes utilized in this multi-step cascade were crude soybean lipoxygenase or a recombinant lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase and allene oxide cyclase from Arabidopsis thaliana. The DHA-derived 12-OPDA analog OCPD is predicted to have medicinal potential and signaling properties in planta. With OCPD in hand, it is shown that this compound interacts with chloroplast cyclophilin 20-3 and can be metabolized by 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase (OPR3) which is an enzyme relevant for substrate bioactivity modulation in planta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the solubility of nicotinic acid and isonicotinic acid in water and organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Michael H.; Acree, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solubilities of nicotinic acid and isonicotinic acids in organicsolvents have been determined. ► Solubilities are used to calculate Abraham descriptors for the two acids. ► These descriptors then yield water-solvent and gas-solvent partitions into numerous solvents. ► The solubility of the neutral acids in water is obtained. ► The method is straightforward and can be applied to any set of compound solubilities. -- Abstract: We have determined the solubility of nicotinic acid in four solvents and the solubility of isonicotinic acid in another four solvents. These results, together with literature data on the solubility of nicotinic acid in five other organic solvents and isonicotinic acid in four other organic solvents, have been analyzed through two linear Gibbs energy relationships in order to extract compound properties, or descriptors, that encode various solute–solvent interactions. The descriptors for nicotinic acid and isonicotinic acid can then be used in known equations for partition of solutes between water and organic solvents to predict partition coefficients and then further solubility in a host of organic solvents, as well as to predict a number of other physicochemical properties

  5. Brain uptake of pipecolic acid, amino acids, amines following intracarotid injection in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, H.; Giacobini, E.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of pipecolic acid by the mouse brain was compared to that of several amino acids and amines, following an injection of a double-labeled mixture into the carotid artery. In general, BUI (brain uptake index) values were lower in the mouse than those previously reported in the rat. The only exception was proline. Lysine, a precursor of pipecolic acid biosynthesis in brain, showed a higher BUI than pipecolic acid. The BUI of D,L-[3H]pipecolic acid was found to be 3.39 (at 0.114 mM). This was saturable between a concentration of 0.114 and 3.44 mM. Kinetic analysis suggests the presence of two kinds of transport systems. Substances structurally related to pipecolic acid, such as nipecotic acid, isonipecotic acid, L-proline, and piperidine show a significant inhibitory effect. Amont the amino acids tested, only GABA showed an inhibitory effect. Data are reported which, when considered with other findings present evidence that pipecolic acid is (1) synthesized both in vitro and in vivo in the mouse brain, (2) actively transported in vivo into the brain, and (3) taken up in vitro by synaptosomal preparations

  6. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerello, Elisa

    2018-04-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to increase in prevalence. While a relationship between uric acid stones and low urinary pH has been for long known, additional association with various metabolic conditions and pathophysiological basis has recently been elucidated. Some conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome disease, excessive dietary intake, and increased endogenous uric acid production and/or defect in ammoniagenesis are associated with low urinary pH. In addition, the phenomenon of global warming could result in an increase in areas with greater climate risk for uric acid stone formation. There are three therapeutic steps to be taken for management of uric acid stones: identification of urinary pH profiles, assessment of urinary volume status, and identification of disorders leading to excessive uric acid production. However, the most important factor for uric acid stone formation is acid urinary pH, which is a prerequisite for uric acid precipitation. This article reviews recent insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stones and their management.

  7. Biopropionic acid production via molybdenumcatalyzed deoxygenation of lactic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, T.J.; Kleijn, H.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    As the search for non-fossil based building blocks for the chemical industry increases, new methods for the deoxygenation of biomass-derived substrates are required. Here we present the deoxygenation of lactic acid to propionic acid, using a catalyst based on the non-noble and abundant metal

  8. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  9. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  10. Pd(II)/Bipyridine-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Arylboronic Acids to α,β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids. Synthesis of β-Quaternary Carbons Substituted Carboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Yang, Zhenyu; Ni, Yuxin; Song, Kaixuan; Shen, Kai; Lin, Shaohui; Pan, Qinmin

    2017-08-04

    Pd(II)/bipyridine-catalyzed conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids (including β,β-disubstituted acrylic acids) was developed and optimized, which provided a mild and convenient method for the highly challenging synthesis of β-quaternary carbons substituted carboxylic acids.

  11. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  12. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%, since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%, it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%, linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%, linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%, stearic acid (6.36–7.73%, oleic acid (4.31–6.98%, arachidic acid (ND–3.48%, margaric acid (1.44–2.16%, pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%, and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%. Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  13. Activation of the Glutamic Acid-Dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Leads to Increase of the Fatty Acid Biotransformation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ji-Min; Kim, Ji-Won; Song, Ji-Won; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    The biosynthesis of carboxylic acids including fatty acids from biomass is central in envisaged biorefinery concepts. The productivities are often, however, low due to product toxicity that hamper whole-cell biocatalyst performance. Here, we have investigated factors that influence the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium chain carboxylic acid (i.e., n-heptanoic acid)-induced stress. The metabolic and genomic responses of E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655 grown in the presence of n-heptanoic acid indicated that the GadA/B-based glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system might be critical for cellular tolerance. The GDAR system, which is responsible for scavenging intracellular protons by catalyzing decarboxylation of glutamic acid, was inactive in E. coli BL21(DE3). Activation of the GDAR system in this strain by overexpressing the rcsB and dsrA genes, of which the gene products are involved in the activation of GadE and RpoS, respectively, resulted in acid tolerance not only to HCl but also to n-heptanoic acid. Furthermore, activation of the GDAR system allowed the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing the alcohol dehydrogenase of Micrococcus luteus and the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida to reach 60% greater product concentration in the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid (i.e., 12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (1)) into n-heptanoic acid (5) and 11-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (4). This study may contribute to engineering E. coli-based biocatalysts for the production of carboxylic acids from renewable biomass.

  14. Activation of the Glutamic Acid-Dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 Leads to Increase of the Fatty Acid Biotransformation Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Min Woo

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of carboxylic acids including fatty acids from biomass is central in envisaged biorefinery concepts. The productivities are often, however, low due to product toxicity that hamper whole-cell biocatalyst performance. Here, we have investigated factors that influence the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium chain carboxylic acid (i.e., n-heptanoic acid-induced stress. The metabolic and genomic responses of E. coli BL21(DE3 and MG1655 grown in the presence of n-heptanoic acid indicated that the GadA/B-based glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GDAR system might be critical for cellular tolerance. The GDAR system, which is responsible for scavenging intracellular protons by catalyzing decarboxylation of glutamic acid, was inactive in E. coli BL21(DE3. Activation of the GDAR system in this strain by overexpressing the rcsB and dsrA genes, of which the gene products are involved in the activation of GadE and RpoS, respectively, resulted in acid tolerance not only to HCl but also to n-heptanoic acid. Furthermore, activation of the GDAR system allowed the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3 expressing the alcohol dehydrogenase of Micrococcus luteus and the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida to reach 60% greater product concentration in the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid (i.e., 12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (1 into n-heptanoic acid (5 and 11-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (4. This study may contribute to engineering E. coli-based biocatalysts for the production of carboxylic acids from renewable biomass.

  15. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl...... esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids......, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half...

  16. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Pippa J.; Clark, Joanna M.; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K.

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer. - Seasonal variations in soil solution ANC is controlled by seasonal variations in seasalt deposition and production of dissolved organic acids

  17. Non-Acidic Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 Agonists with Antidiabetic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves de Azavedo, Carlos M. B. P.; Watterson, Kenneth R; Wargent, Ed T

    2016-01-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4 or GPR120) has appeared as an interesting potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. At present, most FFA4 ligands are carboxylic acids that are assumed to mimic the endogenous long-chain fatty acid agonists. Here, we report preliminary structure......-activity relationship studies of a previously disclosed non-acidic sulfonamide FFA4 agonist. Mutagenesis studies indicate that the compounds are orthosteric agonists despite the absence of a carboxylate function. The preferred compounds showed full agonist activity on FFA4 and complete selectivity over FFA1, although...... a significant fraction of these non-carboxylic acids also showed partial antagonistic activity on FFA1. Studies in normal and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with the preferred compound 34 showed improved glucose tolerance after oral dosing in an oral glucose tolerance test. Chronic dosing of 34 in DIO mice...

  18. High-level exogenous glutamic acid-independent production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) with organic acid addition in a new isolated Bacillus subtilis C10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Zhang, Anyi; Hong, Yizhi; Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

    2012-07-01

    A new exogenous glutamic acid-independent γ-PGA producing strain was isolated and characterized as Bacillus subtilis C10. The factors influencing the endogenous glutamic acid supply and the biosynthesis of γ-PGA in this strain were investigated. The results indicated that citric acid and oxalic acid showed the significant capability to support the overproduction of γ-PGA. This stimulated increase of γ-PGA biosynthesis by citric acid or oxalic acid was further proved in the 10 L fermentor. To understand the possible mechanism contributing to the improved γ-PGA production, the activities of four key intracellular enzymes were measured, and the possible carbon fluxes were proposed. The result indicated that the enhanced level of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity caused by oxalic acid was important for glutamic acid synthesized de novo from glucose. Moreover, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were the positive regulators of glutamic acid biosynthesis, while 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was the negative one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potentiometric studies on mixed-ligand chelates of uranyl ion with carboxylic acid phenolic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandiwadekar, S.P.; Chavar, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Mixed ligand complexes of UO 2 2+ with bidentate carboxylic and phenolic acids have been studied potentiometrically at 30 ± 0.1degC and μ=0.2M (NaClO 4 ). 1:1 and 1:2 complexes of UO 2 2+ with phthalic acid (PTHA), maleic acid (MAE), malonic acid (MAL), quinolinic acid (QA), 5-sulphosalicylic acid (5-SSA), salicylic acid (SA), and only 1:1 complexes in the case of mandelic acid (MAD) have been detected. The formation of 1:1:1 mixed ligand complexes has been inferred from simultaneous equilibria in the present study. The values of ΔlogK, Ksub(DAL), Ksub(2LA) or Ksub(2AL) for the ternary complexes have been calculated. The stabilities of mixed ligand complexes depend on the size of the chelate ring and the stabilities of the binary complexes. (author). 15 refs

  20. Eicosahexanoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA in Muscle Damage and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Ochi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplementation not only helps in improving and maintaining performance in sports and exercise, but also contributes in reducing exercise fatigue and in recovery from exhaustion. Fish oil contains large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3. It is widely known that omega-3 fatty acids are effective for improving cardiac function, depression, cognitive function, and blood as well as lowering blood pressure. In the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and exercise performance, previous studies have been predicted improved endurance performance, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, and effectivity against delayed-onset muscle soreness. However, the optimal dose, duration, and timing remain unclear. This review focuses on the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on muscle damage and function as evaluated by human and animal studies and summarizes its effects on muscle and nerve damage, and muscle mass and strength.

  1. Succinic acid production from acid hydrolysate of corn fiber by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kequan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Yao, Jiaming; Wu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    Dilute acid hydrolysate of corn fiber was used as carbon source for the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were obtained by orthogonal experiments. When corn fiber particles were of 20 mesh in size and treated with 1.0% sulfuric acid at 121 degrees C for 2 h, the total sugar yield could reach 63.3%. It was found that CaCO(3) neutralization combined with activated carbon adsorption was an effective method to remove fermentation inhibitors especially furfural that presented in the acid hydrolysate of corn fiber. Only 5.2% of the total sugar was lost, while 91.9% of furfural was removed. The yield of succinic acid was higher than 72.0% with the detoxified corn fiber hydrolysate as the carbon source in anaerobic bottles or 7.5 L fermentor cultures. It was proved that the corn fiber hydrolysate could be an alternative to glucose for the production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113.

  2. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  3. Gibberellic acid promoting phytic acid degradation in germinating soybean under calcium lactate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Qianru; Wang, Mian; Wang, Pei; Ma, Ya; Gu, Zhenxin; Yang, Runqiang

    2018-01-01

    Phytic acid as a phosphorus storage vault provides phosphorus for plant development. It is an anti-nutritional factor for humans and some animals. However, its degradation products lower inositol phosphates have positive effects on human health. In this study, the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on phytic acid degradation under calcium lactate (Ca) existence was investigated. The results showed that Ca + GA treatment promoted the growth status, hormone metabolism and phytic acid degradation in germinating soybean. At the same time, the availability of phosphorus, the activity of phytic acid degradation-associated enzyme and phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) increased. However, the relative genes expression of phytic acid degradation-associated enzymes did not vary in accordance with their enzymes activity. The results revealed that GA could mediate the transport and function of calcium and a series of physiological and biochemical changes to regulate phytic acid degradation of soybean sprouts. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Biooxidation of fatty acid distillates to dibasic acids by a mutant of Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Nandi, Sumit; Ghosh, Santinath

    2006-01-01

    Fatty acid distillates (FADs) produced during physical refining of vegetable oil contains large amount of free fatty acid. A mutant of Candida tropicalis (M20) obtained after several stages of UV mutation are utilized to produce dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) from the fatty acid distillates of rice bran, soybean, coconut, palm kernel and palm oil. Initially, fermentation study was carried out in shake flasks for 144 h. Products were isolated and identified by GLC analysis. Finally, fermentation was carried out in a 2 L jar fermenter, which yielded 62 g/L and 48 g/L of total dibasic acids from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate and coconut oil fatty acid distillate respectively. FADs can be effectively utilized to produce DCAs of various chain lengths by biooxidation process.

  5. Colorimetric study of oxidation kinetics of thiolactic acid (2 - mercaptopropionic acid) by hexacyanoferrate (III) in acid and alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachhwaha, O.P.; Potter, P.C.; Kapoor, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of thiolactic acid by hexacyanoferrate (III) in acid and alkaline media employing the calorimetric method have been described. The two compounds react in equimolar ratio in both media, but the kinetic results are different in both media. In acid medium the total order is three, two with respect to thiol and one in oxidant. The rate of the reaction shows an inverse proportionality to (H + ) and also varies inversely with decreasing dielectric constant of the medium. In alkaline medium, the total order of the reaction is two, being unity in each reactant. The rate increases with increased pH value. Additions of ferrocyanide and dithio dilactic acid have no effect on the rate in both media. Additions of a neutral electrolyte does not affect the rate in the acid medium, while a positive salt effect was observed in an alkaline medium. Activation parameters have been evaluated in both media and in a medium of low dialectric. Different reaction schemes have been proposed for acid and alkaline media and have satisfactory explained the experimental data, except for the pH rate. (author)

  6. Measurement of acid dissociation constants of weak acids by cation exchange and conductometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Nara, Osamu (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A simple strategy is presented for the determination of acid dissociation constants based on the measurement of conductance of a known concentration of the acid and/or the conductance of a solution of its fully or partially neutralized alkali-metal salts. For an n-protic acid, 2n conductance measurements are minimally necessary. In the simplest case of a typical monoprotic acid, the conductance of its alkali salt solution is measured before and after passage through an H{sup +}-form exchanger. From these data both the pK{sub a} of the acid and the equivalent conductance of the anion can be computed. The underlying equations are rigorously solved for monoprotic acids and some diprotic acid systems. For other diprotic and multiprotic acid systems, initial estimates are obtained by making approximations; the complete data set is then subjected to multiparametric fitting. The method does not require pH measurements; conductance can generally be measured accurately at low enough ionic strengths to obviate the need for major activity correction. Several experimental measurements are presented and excellent agreement with literature pK{sub a} values is observed. The reliability of the equivalent conductance values computed in this fashion is limited, however.

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  8. Study on the metabolism of 15 p-131iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid [p-iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid] as a tracer of free fatty acids in comparison to 1-14C-palmitic acid (C-palmitic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    In an animal experiment under identical metabolic influences the metabolism of a new radiopharmaceutical, 15 p- 131 iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid (IPPA), was compared to the marked physiological fatty acid, 1- 14 C-palmitic acid (PA). The pharmacological kinetics of both tracers in tissues with widely varied turnover rates of fatty acids (heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, small intestine, skeletal muscle) was studied. By alkali extraction of the tissue lipids and then a chromatographic separation of the lipid fractions quantitatively comparable statements about the metabolism of PA and IPPA were made possible. The analyses of autoradiographs of the chromatographically separated lipids show a qualitatively congruous assimilation of both markers in the major lipid fractions. The quantitative evaluation shows minor differences as a result of a preferred assimilation of IPPA in triglycerides and of PA in phospholipids. The fractionated separation of tissue lipids which had been marked with PA and IPPA in vivo agrees very well with values which have been determined by other authors using 14 C- or 3 H-marked fatty acids. The close correlation of the tissue-specific metabolism kinetics of both markers makes it clear that both fatty acids are metabolized by similar, respectively, primarily identical metabolic pathyways. In conclusion, this study makes clear the extensive congruence of the metabolism kinetics of IPPA and the kinetics of the physiological palmitic acid. As a result of the presented results of the γ-radiating radiopharmaceutical IPPA as a free fatty acid analog new possibilities for the non-invasive external comprehension of lipid metabolism are opened up, whose use especially in the diagnostic of heart diseases promises success. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Formation of iso-ursodeoxycholic acid during administration of ursodeoxycholic acid in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; Fischer, S.; Spengler, U.; Paumgartner, G.

    1991-01-01

    The appearance of iso-ursodeoxycholic acid (isoUDCA; 3 beta,7 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid) in serum of patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease and of healthy subjects during administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is reported. Comparison of the mass spectrum of the newly

  10. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation Changes Fatty Acid Composition and Corrects Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Yamakawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on vascular endothelial function and free fatty acid composition in Japanese hyperlipidemic subjects. In subjects with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL and/or triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, lipid profile and forearm blood flow (FBF during reactive hyperemia were determined before and 3 months after supplementation with 1800 mg/day EPA. Peak FBF during reactive hyperemia was lower in the hyperlipidemic group than the normolipidemic group. EPA supplementation did not change serum levels of total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, remnant-like particle (RLP cholesterol, RLP triglycerides, or malondialdehyde-modified LDL cholesterol. EPA supplementation did not change total free fatty acid levels in serum, but changed the fatty acid composition, with increased EPA and decreased linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation recovered peak FBF after 3 months. Peak FBF recovery was correlated positively with EPA and EPA/arachidonic acid levels and correlated inversely with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation restores endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hyperlipidemic patients despite having no effect on serum cholesterol and triglyceride patterns. These results suggest that EPA supplementation may improve vascular function at least partly via changes in fatty acid composition.

  11. Uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid with octylphenyl acid phosphate. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.D.; McKamey, D.R.; Baes, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were continued of a process for recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid with octylphenyl acid phosphate (OPAP), a mixture of mono- and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids. The mixture contained at least nine impurities, the principal one being octyl phenol, and also material that readily hydrolyzed to octyl phenol and orthophosphoric acid. The combination of mono- and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids was the principal uranium extractant, but some of the impurities also extracted uranium. Hydrolysis of the extractant had little effect on uranium extraction, as did the presence of moderate concentrations of octyl phenol and trioctylphenyl phosphate. Diluent choice among refined kerosenes, naphthenic mixtures, and paraffinic hydrocarbons also had little effect on uranium extraction, but extraction was much lower when an aromatic diluent was used. Purified OPAP fractions were sparingly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents. The solubility was increased by the presence of impurities such as octyl phenol, and by the addition of water or an acidic solution to the extractant-diluent mixture. In continuous stability tests, extractant loss by distribution to the aqueous phase was much less to wet-process phosphoric acid than to reagent grade acid. Uranium recovery from wet-process acid decreased steadily because of the combined effects of extractant poisoning and precipitation of the extractant as a complex with ferric iron. Unaccountable losses of organic phase volume occurred in the continuous tests. While attempts to recover the lost organic phase were unsuccessful, the test results indicate it was not lost by entrainment or dissolution in the phosphoric acid solutions. 21 figures, 8 tables

  12. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  13. Individual bile acids have differential effects on bile acid signaling in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Peizhen; Rockwell, Cheryl E.; Cui, Julia Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate BA synthesis and transport by the farnesoid X receptor in the liver (FXR-SHP) and intestine (FXR-Fgf15). However, the relative importance of individual BAs in regulating these processes is not known. Therefore, mice were fed various doses of five individual BAs, including cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxoycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in their diets at various concentrations for one week to increase the concentration of one BA in the enterohepatic circulation. The mRNA of BA synthesis and transporting genes in liver and ileum were quantified. In the liver, the mRNA of SHP, which is the prototypical target gene of FXR, increased in mice fed all concentrations of BAs. In the ileum, the mRNA of the intestinal FXR target gene Fgf15 was increased at lower doses and to a higher extent by CA and DCA than by CDCA and LCA. Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis, was decreased more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Cyp8b1, the enzyme that 12-hydroxylates BAs and is thus responsible for the synthesis of CA, was decreased much more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Surprisingly, neither a decrease in the conjugated BA uptake transporter (Ntcp) nor increase in BA efflux transporter (Bsep) was observed by FXR activation, but an increase in the cholesterol efflux transporter (Abcg5/Abcg8) was observed with FXR activation. Thus in conclusion, CA and DCA are more potent FXR activators than CDCA and LCA when fed to mice, and thus they are more effective in decreasing the expression of the rate limiting gene in BA synthesis Cyp7a1 and the 12-hydroxylation of BAs Cyp8b1, and are also more effective in increasing the expression of Abcg5/Abcg8, which is responsible for biliary cholesterol excretion. However, feeding BAs do not alter the mRNA or protein levels of Ntcp or Bsep, suggesting that the uptake or efflux of BAs is not regulated by FXR at physiological and

  14. Individual bile acids have differential effects on bile acid signaling in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Peizhen, E-mail: songacad@gmail.com; Rockwell, Cheryl E., E-mail: rockwelc@msu.edu; Cui, Julia Yue, E-mail: juliacui@uw.edu; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2015-02-15

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate BA synthesis and transport by the farnesoid X receptor in the liver (FXR-SHP) and intestine (FXR-Fgf15). However, the relative importance of individual BAs in regulating these processes is not known. Therefore, mice were fed various doses of five individual BAs, including cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxoycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in their diets at various concentrations for one week to increase the concentration of one BA in the enterohepatic circulation. The mRNA of BA synthesis and transporting genes in liver and ileum were quantified. In the liver, the mRNA of SHP, which is the prototypical target gene of FXR, increased in mice fed all concentrations of BAs. In the ileum, the mRNA of the intestinal FXR target gene Fgf15 was increased at lower doses and to a higher extent by CA and DCA than by CDCA and LCA. Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis, was decreased more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Cyp8b1, the enzyme that 12-hydroxylates BAs and is thus responsible for the synthesis of CA, was decreased much more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Surprisingly, neither a decrease in the conjugated BA uptake transporter (Ntcp) nor increase in BA efflux transporter (Bsep) was observed by FXR activation, but an increase in the cholesterol efflux transporter (Abcg5/Abcg8) was observed with FXR activation. Thus in conclusion, CA and DCA are more potent FXR activators than CDCA and LCA when fed to mice, and thus they are more effective in decreasing the expression of the rate limiting gene in BA synthesis Cyp7a1 and the 12-hydroxylation of BAs Cyp8b1, and are also more effective in increasing the expression of Abcg5/Abcg8, which is responsible for biliary cholesterol excretion. However, feeding BAs do not alter the mRNA or protein levels of Ntcp or Bsep, suggesting that the uptake or efflux of BAs is not regulated by FXR at physiological and

  15. Crystal and molecular structure of eight organic acid-base adducts from 2-methylquinoline and different acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Jin, Shouwen; Tao, Lin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi

    2014-08-01

    Eight supramolecular complexes with 2-methylquinoline and acidic components as 4-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, malic acid, sebacic acid, and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All of the complexes are organic salts except compound 2. All supramolecular architectures of 1-8 involve extensive classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between acidic components and 2-methylquinoline are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic acid-base adducts. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, the complexes 1-8 displayed 2D-3D framework structure.

  16. Transformation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids/Esters to Corresponding Keto Fatty Acids/Esters by Aerobic Oxidation with Pd(II)/Lewis Acid Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, Ahmed M; Zhang, Sicheng; Zeng, Miao; Chen, Zhuqi; Yin, Guochuan

    2017-08-16

    Utilization of renewable biomass to partly replace the fossil resources in industrial applications has attracted attention due to the limited fossil feedstock with the increased environmental concerns. This work introduced a modified Wacker-type oxidation for transformation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, in which Cu 2+ cation was replaced with common nonredox metal ions, that is, a novel Pd(II)/Lewis acid (LA) catalyst. It was found that adding nonredox metal ions can effectively promote Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, even much better than Cu 2+ , and the promotional effect is highly dependent on the Lewis acidity of added nonredox metal ions. The improved catalytic efficiency is attributed to the formation of heterobimetallic Pd(II)/LA species, and the oxidation mechanism of this Pd(II)/LA catalyst is also briefly discussed.

  17. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: sunday.leonard@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  18. Characterization of acid tars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Sunday A.; Stegemann, Julia A.; Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  19. The metabolism of phytanic acid and pristanic acid in man: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, N. M.; Wanders, R. J.; Poll-The, B. T.; Saudubray, J. M.; Jakobs, C.

    1998-01-01

    The branched-chain fatty acid phytanic acid is a constituent of the diet, present in diary products, meat and fish. Degradation of this fatty acid in the human body is preceded by activation to phytanoyl-CoA and starts with one cycle of alpha-oxidation. Intermediates in this pathway are

  20. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Bowu; Yang, Xuanxuan; Li, Linfan; Yu, Ming; Li, Jingye

    2011-02-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  1. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Bo [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Yu Yang; Zhang Bowu; Yang Xuanxuan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19, Yuquan Road, Shijingshan Dist., 100049 Beijing (China); Li Linfan; Yu Ming [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Li Jingye, E-mail: jingyeli@sinap.ac.c [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China)

    2011-02-15

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  2. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Yu Yang; Zhang Bowu; Yang Xuanxuan; Li Linfan; Yu Ming; Li Jingye

    2011-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  3. Valproic Acid-induced Agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chuan Hsu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is considered to be the most well-tolerated antiepileptic drug. However, few cases of neutropenia or leukopenia caused by valproic acid have been reported. We present a patient who took valproic acid to treat a complication of brain surgery and in whom severe agranulocytosis occurred after 2.5 months. Valproic acid was stopped immediately, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered for 2 days. The patient's white blood cell count returned to normal within 2 weeks. The result of bone marrow aspiration was compatible with drug-induced agranulocytosis. This case illustrates that patients who take valproic acid may need regular checking of complete blood cell count.

  4. Synthesis of ellagic acid and its 4,4'-di-Ο-alky derivatives from gallic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Ashraful; 高口, 豊; 坪井, 貞夫

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of ellagic acid and its 4,4'-di-Ο-alkyl derivatives from gallic acid is described. Ellagic acid is prepared by oxidative coupling of gallic acid with ο-chloranil. Functionalized methyl bormogallate underwent Ullmann coupling to give the biphenyl that upon lactonization resulted in the ellagic acid and its alkoxy derivatives.

  5. Simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances including ultrashort-chain C2 and C3 compounds in rain and river water samples by ultra performance convergence chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Leo W Y; Stadey, Christopher; Mabury, Scott A

    2017-11-03

    An analytical method using ultra performance convergence chromatography (UPC 2 ) coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer operated in negative electrospray mode was developed to measure perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including the ultrashort-chain PFASs (C2-C3). Compared to the existing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using an ion exchange column, the new method has a lower detection limit (0.4pg trifluoroacetate (TFA) on-column), narrower peak width (3-6s), and a shorter run time (8min). Using the same method, different classes of PFASs (e.g., perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorinated phosphonates (PFPAs) and phosphinates (PFPiAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs)) can be measured in a single analysis. Rain (n=2) and river water (n=2) samples collected in Toronto, ON, were used for method validation and application. Results showed that short-chain PFAS (C2-C7 PFCAs and C4 PFSA) contributed to over 80% of the detectable PFASs in rain samples and the C2-C3 PFASs alone accounted for over 40% of the total. Reports on environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs are relatively scarce. Relatively large contribution of these ultrashort-chain PFASs to the total PFASs indicate the need to include the measurement of short-chain PFASs, especially C2 and C3 PFASs, in environmental monitoring. The sources of TFA and other short-chain PFASs in the environment are not entirely clear. The newly developed analytical method may help further investigation on the sources and the environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids by ion-exclusion chromatography with various cation-exchange resin columns and sulfuric acid as eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Jin, Ji-Ye; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Fujimoto, Chuzo; Choi, Seong-Ho; Ryoo, Jae-Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2003-05-16

    The application of various hydrophilic cation-exchange resins for high-performance liquid chromatography (sulfonated silica gel: TSKgel SP-2SW, carboxylated silica gel: TSKgel CM-2SW, sulfonated polymethacrylate resin: TSKgel SP-5PW, carboxylated polymethacrylate resins: TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) as stationary phases in ion-exclusion chromatography for C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic, caproic, 2-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, trimellitic, hemimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic, salicylic acids and phenol) was carried out using diluted sulfuric acid as the eluent. Silica-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-2SW and TSKgel CM-2SW) were very suitable for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids was achieved on a TSKgel SP-2SW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 17 min using a 2.5 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.4 as the eluent. Polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-5PW, TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) acted as advanced stationary phases for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these C1-C7 acids was achieved on a TSKgel CM-5PW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 32 min using a 0.05 mM sulfuric acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent.

  7. Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Tavaria, F. K.; Dahl, S.; Carballo, F. J.; Malcata, F. X.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus genera, were previously isolated from 180- d-old Serra da Estrela cheese, a traditional Portuguese cheese manufactured from raw milk and coagulated with a plant rennet. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to catabolize free amino acids, when incubated independently with each amino acid in free form or with a mixture thereof. Attempts...

  8. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu

    2014-09-30

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids and salts as the molybdenum-containing multi-functional catalysts for biomass conversion. In embodiments of the invention, the reactions employ successive hydrolysis, retro-aldol fragmentation, and selective oxidation in a noble metal-free system.

  9. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  10. Use of topical tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid to prevent bleeding after major surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipema, Heather J; Tanzi, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the literature describing topical use of tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid for prevention of postoperative bleeding after major surgical procedures. Literature was retrieved through MEDLINE (1946-September 2011) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-September 2011) using the terms tranexamic acid, aminocaproic acid, antifibrinolytic, topical, and surgical. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All identified articles in English were evaluated. Clinical trials, case reports, and meta-analyses describing topical use of tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid to prevent postoperative bleeding were included. A total of 16 publications in the setting of major surgical procedures were included; the majority of data were for tranexamic acid. For cardiac surgery, 4 trials used solutions containing tranexamic acid (1-2.5 g in 100-250 mL of 0.9% NaCl), and 1 trial assessed a solution containing aminocaproic acid (24 g in 250 mL of 0.9% NaCl). These solutions were poured into the chest cavity before sternotomy closure. For orthopedic procedures, all of the data were for topical irrigation solutions containing tranexamic acid (500 mg-3 g in 50-100 mL of 0.9% NaCl) or for intraarticular injections of tranexamic acid (250 mg to 2 g in 20-50 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride, with or without carbazochrome sodium sulfate). Overall, use of topical tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid reduced postoperative blood loss; however, few studies reported a significant reduction in the number of packed red blood cell transfusions or units given, intensive care unit stay, or length of hospitalization. Topical application of tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid to decrease postsurgical bleeding after major surgical procedures is a promising strategy. Further data are needed regarding the safety of this hemostatic approach.

  11. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the size and acidity of the acid pocket in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, Wout O; Bennink, Roelof J; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-07-01

    The gastric acid pocket is believed to be the reservoir from which acid reflux events originate. Little is known about how changes in position, size, and acidity of the acid pocket contribute to the therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Thirty-six patients with GERD (18 not taking PPIs, 18 taking PPIs; 19 men; age, 55 ± 2.1 y) were analyzed by concurrent high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring after a standardized meal. The acid pocket was visualized using scintigraphy after intravenous administration of (99m)technetium-pertechnetate. The size of the acid pocket was measured and its position was determined, relative to the diaphragm, using radionuclide markers on a high-resolution manometry catheter. At the end of the study, the acid pocket was aspirated, and its pH level was measured. The number of reflux episodes was comparable between patients on and off PPIs, but the number of acid reflux episodes was reduced significantly in patients on PPIs. In patients on PPIs, the acid pocket was smaller and more frequently located below the diaphragm. The mean pH of the acid pocket was significantly lower in patients not taking PPIs (n = 6) than in those who were (n = 16) (0.9; range, 0.7-1.2 vs 4.0; range, 1.6-5.9; P pH of acid pockets correlated significantly with the lowest pH values measured for refluxate (r = 0.72; P < .01). Based on analyses of acid pockets in patients with GERD, the acid pocket appears to be a reservoir from which reflux occurs when patients are receiving PPIs. PPIs might affect the size, acidity, or position of the acid pocket, which contributes to the efficacy in patients with GERD. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of plutonium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions using anion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasar, U.M.; Pawar, S.M.; Joshi, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    An anion exchange method using Amberlyst A-26 (MP) resin was developed for removal of Pu from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions without destroying oxalate. The method consists of sorption of Pu(IV) on Amberlyst A-26, a macroporous anion exchange resin, from nitric acid-oxalic acid medium in the presence of Al(NO 3 ) 3 . Pu(IV) breakthrough capacity of Amberlyst A-26 using synthetic feed solution was determined. (author)

  13. A study of partial molar volumes of citric acid and tartaric acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partial molar volumes of citric acid and tartaric acid have been determined in water and binary aqueous mixtures of ethanol (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% by weight of ethanol) at different temperatures and acid concentrations from the solution density measurements. The data have been evaluated by using Masson equation and ...

  14. Digestibility of Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dairy Cows Fed with Tallow or Saturated Fats Rich in Stearic Acid or Palmitic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben; Børsting, Christian Friis

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestibility was studied with five lactating cows fed three different fat sources in a 5 × 5 latin square experiment. The treatments were 500 g of tallow, 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in stearic acid (C18:0) (SARF) or 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in palmitic acid (C16......:0) (PARF) per day. The total daily fatty acid intake was about 1100 g in rations with the highest fat inclusion. The fatty acid digestibilities were 76% for tallow, 74 and 64% for 500 and 1000 g SARF, respectively, and 87 and 81% for 500 and 1000 g of PARF, respectively. When compared to fatty acid...... digestibility for tallow predicted from a model based on literature values, PARF had a higher fatty acid digestibility at both fat intakes, and SARF had a lower fatty acid digestibility, especially at high fat intake....

  15. The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

  16. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  17. Acid Evolution of Escherichia coli K-12 Eliminates Amino Acid Decarboxylases and Reregulates Catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amanda; Penix, Stephanie R; Basting, Preston J; Griffith, Jessie M; Creamer, Kaitlin E; Camperchioli, Dominic; Clark, Michelle W; Gonzales, Alexandra S; Chávez Erazo, Jorge Sebastian; George, Nadja S; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2017-06-15

    Acid-adapted strains of Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 were obtained by serial culture in medium buffered at pH 4.6 (M. M. Harden, A. He, K. Creamer, M. W. Clark, I. Hamdallah, K. A. Martinez, R. L. Kresslein, S. P. Bush, and J. L. Slonczewski, Appl Environ Microbiol 81:1932-1941, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03494-14). Revised genomic analysis of these strains revealed insertion sequence (IS)-driven insertions and deletions that knocked out regulators CadC (acid induction of lysine decarboxylase), GadX (acid induction of glutamate decarboxylase), and FNR (anaerobic regulator). Each acid-evolved strain showed loss of one or more amino acid decarboxylase systems, which normally help neutralize external acid (pH 5 to 6) and increase survival in extreme acid (pH 2). Strains from populations B11, H9, and F11 had an IS 5 insertion or IS-mediated deletion in cadC , while population B11 had a point mutation affecting the arginine activator adiY The cadC and adiY mutants failed to neutralize acid in the presence of exogenous lysine or arginine. In strain B11-1, reversion of an rpoC (RNA polymerase) mutation partly restored arginine-dependent neutralization. All eight strains showed deletion or downregulation of the Gad acid fitness island. Strains with the Gad deletion lost the ability to produce GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and failed to survive extreme acid. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of strain B11-1 showed upregulated genes for catabolism of diverse substrates but downregulated acid stress genes (the biofilm regulator ariR , yhiM , and Gad). Other strains showed downregulation of H 2 consumption mediated by hydrogenases ( hya and hyb ) which release acid. Strains F9-2 and F9-3 had a deletion of fnr and showed downregulation of FNR-dependent genes ( dmsABC , frdABCD , hybABO , nikABCDE , and nrfAC ). Overall, strains that had evolved in buffered acid showed loss or downregulation of systems that neutralize unbuffered acid and showed altered regulation of

  18. Bile Acid Metabolism in Liver Pathobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John Y. L.; Ferrell, Jessica M.

    2018-01-01

    Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism. The gut-to-liver axis plays a critical role in the regulation of enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, bile acid pool size, and bile acid composition. Bile acids control gut bacteria overgrowth, and gut bacteria metabolize bile acids to regulate host metabolism. Alteration of bile acid metabolism by high-fat diets, sleep disruption, alcohol, and drugs reshapes gut microbiome and causes dysbiosis, obesity, and metabolic disorders. Gender differences in bile acid metabolism, FXR signaling, and gut microbiota have been linked to higher prevalence of fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in males. Alteration of bile acid homeostasis contributes to cholestatic liver diseases, inflammatory diseases in the digestive system, obesity, and diabetes. Bile acid-activated receptors are potential therapeutic targets for developing drugs to treat metabolic disorders. PMID:29325602

  19. Use of hexadeuterated valproic acid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acheampong, A.A.; Abbott, F.S.; Orr, J.M.; Ferguson, S.M.; Burton, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Di-[( 3,3,3- 2 H3]propyl)acetic acid, a hexadeuterated analogue of valproic acid, was synthesized and its pharmacokinetic properties compared with valproic acid. Concentrations of valproic acid and [ 2 H]valproic acid in serum and saliva were determined by GC-MS using selected-ion monitoring. Saliva drug levels were measured with good precision down to 0.1 microgram/mL. Kinetic equivalence of valproic acid and [ 2 H]valproic acid was demonstrated in a single-dose study in a human volunteer. An isotope effect was observed for omega-oxidation, but the difference in metabolism was not sufficient to make [ 2 H]valproic acid biologically nonequivalent. The application of [ 2 H]valproic acid to determine the kinetics of valproic acid under steady-state concentrations was evaluated in the same volunteer. The kinetic data obtained with [ 2 H]valproic acid was consistent with previously reported values for valproic acid including kinetic differences observed between single-dose and steady-state experiments. Saliva levels of valproic acid were found to give a good correlation with total serum valproic acid under multiple-dose conditions. A concentration dependence was found for the ratio of saliva valproic acid to free valproic acid in serum, low ratios being observed at high serum concentrations of valproic acid

  20. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  1. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional amino acid transport into brain during diabetes: Effect of plasma amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mans, A.M.; DeJoseph, M.R.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of phenylalanine and lysine into the brain was measured in 4-wk streptozotocin-diabetic rats to assess the effect on the neutral and basic amino acid transport systems at the blood-brain barrier. Amino acid concentrations in plasma and brain were also measured. Regional permeability-times-surface area (PS) products and influx were determined using a continuous infusion method and quantitative autoradiography. The PS of phenylalanine was decreased by an average of 40% throughout the entire brain. Influx was depressed by 35%. The PS of lysine was increased by an average of 44%, but the influx was decreased by 27%. Several plasma neutral amino acids (branched chain) were increased, whereas all basic amino acids were decreased. Brain tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine contents were markedly decreased. The transport changes were almost entirely accounted for by the alterations in the concentrations of the plasma amino acids that compete for the neutral and basic amino acid carriers. The reduced influx could be responsible for the low brain content of some essential amino acids, with possibly deleterious consequences for brain functions

  3. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid acetate (BAAC) was most effective than other betulinic acid derivatives. It had most ... blastoma (Schmidt et al., 1997), malignant brain tumor .... 96 well plate and incubated in 37oC, 5% CO2 and 90% humidity.

  4. Structure-dependent binding and activation of perfluorinated compounds on human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lianying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); College of Life Science, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Ren, Xiao-Min; Wan, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Guo, Liang-Hong, E-mail: LHGuo@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been shown to disrupt lipid metabolism and even induce cancer in rodents through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Lines of evidence showed that PPARα was activated by PFCs. However, the information on the binding interactions between PPARγ and PFCs and subsequent alteration of PPARγ activity is still limited and sometimes inconsistent. In the present study, in vitro binding of 16 PFCs to human PPARγ ligand binding domain (hPPARγ-LBD) and their activity on the receptor in cells were investigated. The results showed that the binding affinity was strongly dependent on their carbon number and functional group. For the eleven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), the binding affinity increased with their carbon number from 4 to 11, and then decreased slightly. The binding affinity of the three perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) was stronger than their PFCA counterparts. No binding was detected for the two fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs). Circular dichroim spectroscopy showed that PFC binding induced distinctive structural change of the receptor. In dual luciferase reporter assays using transiently transfected Hep G2 cells, PFCs acted as hPPARγ agonists, and their potency correlated with their binding affinity with hPPARγ-LBD. Molecular docking showed that PFCs with different chain length bind with the receptor in different geometry, which may contribute to their differences in binding affinity and transcriptional activity. - Highlights: • Binding affinity between PFCs and PPARγ was evaluated for the first time. • The binding strength was dependent on fluorinated carbon chain and functional group. • PFC binding induced distinctive structural change of the receptor. • PFCs could act as hPPARγ agonists in Hep G2 cells.

  5. The effect of amino acid backbone length on molecular packing: crystalline tartrates of glycine, β-alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and DL-α-aminobutyric acid (AABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losev, Evgeniy; Boldyreva, Elena

    2018-02-01

    We report a novel 1:1 cocrystal of β-alanine with DL-tartaric acid, C 3 H 7 NO 2 ·C 4 H 6 O 6 , (II), and three new molecular salts of DL-tartaric acid with β-alanine {3-azaniumylpropanoic acid-3-azaniumylpropanoate DL-tartaric acid-DL-tartrate, [H(C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) 2 ] + ·[H(C 4 H 5 O 6 ) 2 ] - , (III)}, γ-aminobutyric acid [3-carboxypropanaminium DL-tartrate, C 4 H 10 NO 2 + ·C 4 H 5 O 6 - , (IV)] and DL-α-aminobutyric acid {DL-2-azaniumylbutanoic acid-DL-2-azaniumylbutanoate DL-tartaric acid-DL-tartrate, [H(C 4 H 9 NO 2 ) 2 ] + ·[H(C 4 H 5 O 6 ) 2 ] - , (V)}. The crystal structures of binary crystals of DL-tartaric acid with glycine, (I), β-alanine, (II) and (III), GABA, (IV), and DL-AABA, (V), have similar molecular packing and crystallographic motifs. The shortest amino acid (i.e. glycine) forms a cocrystal, (I), with DL-tartaric acid, whereas the larger amino acids form molecular salts, viz. (IV) and (V). β-Alanine is the only amino acid capable of forming both a cocrystal [i.e. (II)] and a molecular salt [i.e. (III)] with DL-tartaric acid. The cocrystals of glycine and β-alanine with DL-tartaric acid, i.e. (I) and (II), respectively, contain chains of amino acid zwitterions, similar to the structure of pure glycine. In the structures of the molecular salts of amino acids, the amino acid cations form isolated dimers [of β-alanine in (III), GABA in (IV) and DL-AABA in (V)], which are linked by strong O-H...O hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the three crystal structures comprise different types of dimeric cations, i.e. (A...A) + in (III) and (V), and A + ...A + in (IV). Molecular salts (IV) and (V) are the first examples of molecular salts of GABA and DL-AABA that contain dimers of amino acid cations. The geometry of each investigated amino acid (except DL-AABA) correlates with the melting point of its mixed crystal.

  6. Classifying Your Food as Acid, Low-Acid, or Acidified

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Karleigh

    2012-01-01

    As a food entrepreneur, you should be aware of how ingredients in your product make the food look, feel, and taste; as well as how the ingredients create environments for microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, and molds to survive and grow. This guide will help you classifying your food as acid, low-acid, or acidified.

  7. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  8. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of the lipid supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11 or rumenic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. The study addressed the concept and origin of the CLA-c9t11 in ruminants. There is an international trend to improve nutrition quality , which implies an increase in consumption of animal protein, including the healthy and rich in CLA-c9t11 dairy products. CLA-c9t11 has proved to have anticancer effects in animal models. CLA-c9t11 in the bovine milk results from the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and from the extent of rumen biohydrogenation. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable origin allows to increase the concentration of CLA-c9t11 and to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk, but the response varies depending on the source of fat used, its level, and its interaction with basal diet

  9. Theobromine inhibits uric acid crystallization. A potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

  10. More than just sugar: allocation of nectar amino acids and fatty acids in a Lepidopteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eran; McCue, Marshall D; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2017-02-08

    The ability to allocate resources, even when limited, is essential for survival and fitness. We examine how nutrients that occur in minute amounts are allocated among reproductive, somatic, and metabolic demands. In addition to sugar, flower nectars contain two macronutrients-amino acids and fatty acids. We created artificial nectars spiked with 13 C-labelled amino acids and fatty acids and fed these to adult moths (Manduca sexta: Sphingidae) to understand how they allocate these nutrients among competing sinks (reproduction, somatic tissue, and metabolic fuel). We found that both essential and non-essential amino acids were allocated to eggs and flight muscles and were still detectable in early-instar larvae. Parental-derived essential amino acids were more conserved in the early-instars than non-essential amino acids. All amino acids were used as metabolic fuel, but the non-essential amino acids were oxidized at higher rates than essential amino acids. Surprisingly, the nectar fatty acids were not vertically transferred to offspring, but were readily used as a metabolic fuel by the moth, minimizing losses of endogenous nutrient stores. We conclude that the non-carbohydrate components of nectar may play important roles in both reproductive success and survival of these nectar-feeding animals. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. The effect of linoleic acid on the whole body synthesis rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids from α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in free-living rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is thought to be important for brain function. The main dietary source of DHA is fish, however, DHA can also be synthesized from precursor omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), the most abundantly consumed being α-linolenic acid (ALA). The enzymes required to synthesize DHA from ALA are also used to synthesize longer chain omega-6 (n-6) PUFA from linoleic acid (LNA). The large increase in LNA consumption that has occurred over the last century has led to concern that LNA and other n-6 PUFA outcompete n-3 PUFA for enzymes involved in DHA synthesis, and therefore, decrease overall DHA synthesis. To assess this, rats were fed diets containing LNA at 53 (high LNA diet), 11 (medium LNA diet) or 1.5% (low LNA diet) of the fatty acids with ALA being constant across all diets (approximately 4% of the fatty acids). Rats were maintained on these diets from weaning for 8 weeks, at which point they were subjected to a steady-state infusion of labeled ALA and LNA to measure DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) synthesis rates. DHA and ARA synthesis rates were generally highest in rats fed the medium and high LNA diets, while the plasma half-life of DHA was longer in rats fed the low LNA diet. Therefore, increasing dietary LNA, in rats, did not impair DHA synthesis; however, low dietary LNA led to a decrease in DHA synthesis with tissue concentrations of DHA possibly being maintained by a longer DHA half-life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2. The path from PGA to fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasunori [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-02-01

    By incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into the fatty acid chain in the presence of unlabelled precursor, we showed that fatty acids are synthesized from PGA, PEP and pyruvate by intact spinach chloroplasts in the light. /sup 13/C-tracer experiments confirmed that 1-C of pyruvate is decarboxylated and 2-C is incorporated into fatty acids by the chloroplasts. The patterns of fatty acids synthesized from PGA and pyruvate were the same as that from acetate. The highest rate of fatty acid synthesis was reached at the physiological concentration of PGA (3 mM) and pyruvate (1 mM). These results indicate the operation of the following path in the chloroplasts in light: PGA..-->..PEP..-->..pyruvate..-->..acetylCoA..-->..fatty acids. Since citrate and OAA were much less active and malate and glyoxylate were inert as precursors for fatty acid synthesis, PEP or pyruvate carboxylation, citrate lyase reaction and malate synthetase reaction are not involved in the formation of acetylCoA and fatty acids. Since pyruvate was much more effective as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis than lactate, acetaldehyde or acetate, direct decarboxylation path is considered to be the primary path from pyruvate to acetylCoA. The insignificant effect of chloroplast-washing on fatty acid synthesis from PGA and pyruvate indicates that the glycolytic path from PGA to pyruvate is associated with the chloroplasts. Since pyruvate was more effectively incorporated into fatty acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%).

  13. Ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin by elution with benzoic acid-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Mori, Masanobu; Xu, Qun; Helaleh, Murad I H; Ikedo, Mikaru; Taoda, Hiroshi; Hu, Wenzhi; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Fritz, James S; Haddad, Paul R

    2003-05-16

    In this study, an aqueous solution consisting of benzoic acid with low background conductivity and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) of hydrophilic nature and the inclusion effect to benzoic acid were used as eluent for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids with different pKa values and hydrophobicity on a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H+ form. With increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in the eluent, the retention times of the carboxylic acids decreased due to the increased hydrophilicity of the polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resin surface from the adsorption of OH groups of beta-cyclodextrin. Moreover, the eluent background conductivity decreased with increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in 1 mM benzoic acid, which could result in higher sensitivity for conductimetric detection. The ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of carboxylic acids with high resolution and sensitivity was accomplished successfully by elution with a 1 mM benzoic acid-10 mM cyclodextrin solution without chemical suppression.

  14. Effects of Gibberellic acid and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and gibberellic acid (GA3) spray on vegetative and reproductive growth components of tomato. The experiment consists of two tomato varieties, one processing (Roma VF) and one fresh market (Fetan), three levels of 2,4-D (0, ...

  15. Formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1921-12-03

    The production of formic acid by the oxidation of methane with a metallic oxide or by the interaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor in the presence of a catalyst, preferably a metallic oxide, is described along with the destructive distillation of carbonaceous material in the preesnce of formic acid vapor for the purpose of increasing the yield of condensible hydrocarbons.

  16. Metabolic Conversion of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joan C.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1975-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid-1-14C and its oxidation product, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, produced labeled oxalic acid in oxalate-accumulating plants such as spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) and the detached leaves of woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta and O. oregana), shamrock (Oxalis adenopylla), and begonia (Begonia evansiana). In O. oregana, conversion occurred equally well in the presence or absence of light. This relationship between l-ascorbic acid metabolism and oxalic acid formation must be given careful consideration in attempts to explain oxalic accumulation in plants. PMID:16659288

  17. Catalytic Cracking of Lactide and Poly(Lactic Acid) to Acrylic Acid at Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrade, Frédéric G; van Krieken, Jan; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Bouwman, Elisabeth

    2017-05-09

    Despite being a simple dehydration reaction, the industrially relevant conversion of lactic acid to acrylic acid is particularly challenging. For the first time, the catalytic cracking of lactide and poly(lactic acid) to acrylic acid under mild conditions is reported with up to 58 % yield. This transformation is catalyzed by strong acids in the presence of bromide or chloride salts and proceeds through simple S N 2 and elimination reactions. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  19. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Kobayashi, Toyoaki; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins

  20. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Len, E-mail: len@ksc.kwansei.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Toyoaki [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins.

  1. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  2. Degradation of amino acids to short-chain fatty acids in humans. An in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H S; Holtug, K; Mortensen, P B

    1988-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) originate mainly in the colon through bacterial fermentation of polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis that SCFA may originate from polypeptides as well, the production of these acids from albumin and specific amino acids was examined in a faecal incubation system....... Albumin was converted to all C2-C5-fatty acids, whereas amino acids generally were converted to specific SCFA, most often through the combination of a deamination and decarboxylation of the amino acids, although more complex processes also took place. This study indicates that a part of the intestinal...

  3. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  4. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, Lotte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746213; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between

  5. Bile acid analysis in human disorders of bile acid biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids in the gut, but are also needed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, induce bile flow, excrete toxic substances and regulate energy metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Bile acid biosynthesis is a complex process distributed across many cellular

  6. Ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid exert anti-inflammatory actions in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joseph B J; Lajczak, Natalia K; Kelly, Orlaith B; O'Dwyer, Aoife M; Giddam, Ashwini K; Ní Gabhann, Joan; Franco, Placido; Tambuwala, Murtaza M; Jefferies, Caroline A; Keely, Simon; Roda, Aldo; Keely, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Ward JB, Lajczak NK, Kelly OB, O'Dwyer AM, Giddam AK, Ní Gabhann J, Franco P, Tambuwala MM, Jefferies CA, Keely S, Roda A, Keely SJ. Ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid exert anti-inflammatory actions in the colon. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 312: G550-G558, 2017. First published March 30, 2017; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00256.2016.-Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise a group of common and debilitating chronic intestinal disorders for which currently available therapies are often unsatisfactory. The naturally occurring secondary bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), has well-established anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions and may therefore be effective in treating IBD. We aimed to investigate regulation of colonic inflammatory responses by UDCA and to determine the potential impact of bacterial metabolism on its therapeutic actions. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of UDCA, a nonmetabolizable analog, 6α-methyl-UDCA (6-MUDCA), and its primary colonic metabolite lithocholic acid (LCA) was assessed in the murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mucosal injury. The effects of bile acids on cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, Il-1β, and IFN-γ) release from cultured colonic epithelial cells and mouse colonic tissue in vivo were investigated. Luminal bile acids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. UDCA attenuated release of proinflammatory cytokines from colonic epithelial cells in vitro and was protective against the development of colonic inflammation in vivo. In contrast, although 6-MUDCA mimicked the effects of UDCA on epithelial cytokine release in vitro, it was ineffective in preventing inflammation in the DSS model. In UDCA-treated mice, LCA became the most common colonic bile acid. Finally, LCA treatment more potently inhibited epithelial cytokine release and protected against DSS-induced mucosal inflammation than did UDCA. These studies identify a new role for the primary metabolite of UDCA, LCA, in preventing colonic

  7. Homogentisic acid: a phenolic acid as a marker of strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Tuberoso, C; Floris, I; Reniero, F; Guillou, C; Ghelli, S

    1999-10-01

    Analysis of organic acids in strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) honey showed the presence of an unknown acid as the main constituent. This compound was isolated and identified as homogentisic acid (2, 5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) by MS and NMR techniques. Its average content in honey was 378 +/- 92 mg/kg. Analysis of nectar confirmed the floral origin of the compound found in honey. Since this acid was not detected in any of the different monofloral honeys, it could be used as a marker of strawberry-tree (A. unedo) honey.

  8. The Cardioprotective Effects of Citric Acid and L-Malic Acid on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xilan; Liu, Jianxun; Dong, Wei; Li, Peng; Li, Lei; Lin, Chengren; Zheng, Yongqiu; Hou, Jincai; Li, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids in Chinese herbs, the long-neglected components, have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet aggregation activities; thus they may have potentially protective effect on ischemic heart disease. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the protective effects of two organic acids, that is, citric acid and L-malic acid, which are the main components of Fructus Choerospondiatis, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms. In in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, we found that treatments with citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum levels of TNF-α, and platelet aggregation. In vitro experiments revealed that both citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced LDH release, decreased apoptotic rate, downregulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3, and upregulated the expression of phosphorylated Akt in primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. These results suggest that both citric acid and L-malic acid have protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury; the underlying mechanism may be related to their anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation and direct cardiomyocyte protective effects. These results also demonstrate that organic acids, besides flavonoids, may also be the major active ingredient of Fructus Choerospondiatis responsible for its cardioprotective effects and should be attached great importance in the therapy of ischemic heart disease. PMID:23737849

  9. Acid-regulated proteins induced by Streptococcus mutans and other oral bacteria during acid shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, I R; Svensäter, G

    1998-10-01

    Our previous research has demonstrated that with the more aciduric oral bacteria, an acid shock to sub-lethal pH values results in the induction of an acid tolerance response that protects the cells at extremely low pH (pH 3.0-4.0) that kills unadapted control cells maintained at pH 7.5 (Oral Microbiol Immunol 1997: 12: 266-273). In this study, we were interested in comparing the protein profiles of acid-shocked and control cells of nine organisms from three acid-ogenic genera that could be categorized as strong, weak and non-acid responders in an attempt to identify proteins that could be classified as acid-regulated proteins and which may be important in the process of survival at very low pH. For this, log-phase cultures were rapidly acidified from pH 7.5 to 5.5 in the presence of [14C]-amino acids for varying periods up to 2 h, the period previously shown to be required for maximum induction of the acid response. The cells were extracted for total protein and subjected to one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide chromatography with comparable control and acid-shocked protein profiles compared by scanning and computer analysis. Of particular interest were the proteins in the acid-shocked cells that showed enhanced labeling (i.e., synthesis) over the control cells, since these were considered acid-regulated proteins of importance in pH homeostasis. Streptococcus mutans LT11 generated the most rapid and complex pattern: a total of 36 acid-regulated proteins showing enhanced synthesis, with 25 appearing within the first 30 min of acid shock. The enhanced synthesis was transient with all proteins, with the exception of two with molecular weights of 50/49 and 33/32 kDa. Within the acid-regulated proteins were proteins having molecular weights comparable to the heat shock proteins and the various subunits of the membrane H+/ATPase. By comparison, the strong responder, Lactobacillus casei 151, showed the enhanced formation of only nine proteins within the

  10. Role of the Intestinal Bile Acid Transporters in Bile Acid and Drug Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane transporters expressed by the hepatocyte and enterocyte play critical roles in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, an effective recycling and conservation mechanism that largely restricts these potentially cytotoxic detergents to the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. In doing so, the hepatic and enterocyte transport systems ensure a continuous supply of bile acids to be used repeatedly during the digestion of multiple meals throughout the day. Absorption of bile acids from the intestinal lumen and export into the portal circulation is mediated by a series of transporters expressed on the enterocyte apical and basolateral membranes. The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter (abbreviated ASBT; gene symbol, SLC10A2) is responsible for the initial uptake of bile acids across the enterocyte brush border membrane. The bile acids are then efficiently shuttled across the cell and exported across the basolateral membrane by the heteromeric Organic Solute Transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. This chapter briefly reviews the tissue expression, physiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and transport properties of the ASBT and OSTα-OSTα. In addition, the chapter discusses the relationship between the intestinal bile acid transporters and drug metabolism, including development of ASBT inhibitors as novel hypocholesterolemic or hepatoprotective agents, prodrug targeting of the ASBT to increase oral bioavailability, and involvement of the intestinal bile acid transporters in drug absorption and drug-drug interactions. PMID:21103970

  11. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Atmospheric concentrations and trends of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) over 7 years of sampling in the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauert, Cassandra; Shoieb, Mahiba; Schuster, Jasmin K; Eng, Anita; Harner, Tom

    2018-07-01

    Poly- and per-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) were monitored at 21 sites in the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network. Atmospheric concentrations previously reported from 2009 were compared to concentrations measured at these sites in 2013 and 2015, to assess trends over 7 years of monitoring. Concentrations of the fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and fluorinated sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs and FOSEs) were stable at these sites from 2009 to 2015 with no significant difference (p > 0.05) in concentrations. Elevated concentrations of all the neutral PFAS were detected at the urban sites as compared to the polar/background sites. The perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), meanwhile, saw a significant increase (p  0.05). Concentrations of the PFSAs and the PFCAs were similar at all location types, showing the global reach of these persistent compounds. Concentrations of the cyclic VMS (cVMS) were at least an order of magnitude higher than the linear VMS (lVMS) and the PFAS. Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) saw a weak significant increase in concentrations from 2009 to 2013 (p < 0.05), however, hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3) had a strong significant decrease in concentrations from 2009 to 2015 (p < 0.01). Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection and formation scenario of citric acid, pyruvic acid, and other possible metabolism precursors in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Reed, Chris; Nguyen, Dang; Carter, Malika; Wang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites deliver a variety of organic compounds to Earth that may have played a role in the origin and/or evolution of biochemical pathways. Some apparently ancient and critical metabolic processes require several compounds, some of which are relatively labile such as keto acids. Therefore, a prebiotic setting for any such individual process would have required either a continuous distant source for the entire suite of intact precursor molecules and/or an energetic and compact local synthesis, particularly of the more fragile members. To date, compounds such as pyruvic acid, oxaloacetic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, and α-ketoglutaric acid (all members of the citric acid cycle) have not been identified in extraterrestrial sources or, as a group, as part of a “one pot” suite of compounds synthesized under plausibly prebiotic conditions. We have identified these compounds and others in carbonaceous meteorites and/or as low temperature (laboratory) reaction products of pyruvic acid. In meteorites, we observe many as part of three newly reported classes of compounds: keto acids (pyruvic acid and homologs), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (citric acid and homologs), and tricarboxylic acids. Laboratory syntheses using 13C-labeled reactants demonstrate that one compound alone, pyruvic acid, can produce several (nonenzymatic) members of the citric acid cycle including oxaloacetic acid. The isotopic composition of some of the meteoritic keto acids points to interstellar or presolar origins, indicating that such compounds might also exist in other planetary systems. PMID:21825143

  14. Theobromine inhibits uric acid crystallization. A potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    Full Text Available To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL was evaluated using a flow system.The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments.Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

  15. Improvement in HPLC separation of acetic acid and levulinic acid in the profiling of biomass hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rui; Tu, Maobing; Wu, Yonnie; Adhikari, Sushil

    2011-04-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural could be separated by the Aminex HPX-87H column chromatography, however, the separation and quantification of acetic acid and levulinic acid in biomass hydrolysate have been difficult with this method. In present study, the HPLC separation of acetic acid and levulinic acid on Aminex HPX-87H column has been investigated by varying column temperature, flow rate, and sulfuric acid content in the mobile phase. The column temperature was found critical in resolving acetic acid and levulinic acid. The resolution for two acids increased dramatically from 0.42 to 1.86 when the column temperature was lowered from 60 to 30 °C. So did the capacity factors for levulinic acid that was increased from 1.20 to 1.44 as the column temperature dropped. The optimum column temperature for the separation was found at 45 °C. Variation in flow rate and sulfuric acid concentration improved not as much as the column temperature did. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Molecular pharmacology of 4-substituted glutamic acid analogues at ionotropic and metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Nielsen, B; Stensbøl, T B

    1997-01-01

    (subtypes 1alpha and 2), respectively, whereas (S)-4-methyleneglutamic acid showed high but rather non-selective affinity for the (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA), kainic acid, NMDA and mGlu receptors (subtypes 1alpha and 2). Although none of the compounds were specific......The pharmacology of (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid, (2S,4S)-4-methylglutamic acid and (S)- and (R)-4-methyleneglutamic acids (obtained in high chemical and enantiomeric purity from racemic 4-methyleneglutamic acid by chiral HPLC using a Crownpak CR(+) column), was examined in binding experiments...... using rat brain ionotropic glutamate receptors, and in functional assays using cloned metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. As a notable result of these studies, (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid and (2S,4S)-4-methylglutamic acid were shown to be selective for kainic acid receptors and mGlu receptors...

  17. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  18. Interactive effects of ambient acidity and salinity on thyroid function during acidic and post-acidic acclimation of air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, M C Subhash; Rejitha, V

    2011-11-01

    The interactive effects of ambient acidity and salinity on thyroid function are less understood in fish particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, examined the thyroid function particularly the osmotic and metabolic competences of freshwater (FW) and salinity-adapted (SA; 20 ppt) air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus) during acidic and post-acidic acclimation, i.e., during the exposure of fish to either acidified water (pH 4.2 and 5.2) for 48 h or clean water for 96 h after pre-exposure. A substantial rise in plasma T(4) occurred after acidic exposure of both FW and SA fish. Similarly, increased plasma T(3) and T(4) were found in FW fish kept for post-acidic acclimation and these suggest an involvement of THs in short-term acidic and post-acidic acclimation. Water acidification produced significant hyperglycaemia and hyperuremia in FW fish but not in SA fish. The SA fish when kept for post-acclimation, however, produced a significant hypouremia. In both FW and SA fish, gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity decreased but kidney Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity increased upon acidic acclimation. During post-acidic acclimation, gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity of the FW fish showed a rise while decreasing its activity in the SA fish. Similarly, post-acidic acclimation reduced the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity of intestine but elevated its activity in the liver of SA fish. A higher tolerance of the SA fish to water acidification was evident in these fish as they showed tight plasma and tissue mineral status due to the ability of this fish to counteract the ion loss. In contrast, FW fish showed more sensitivity to water acidification as they loose more ions in that medium. The positive correlations of plasma THs with many tested metabolic and hydromineral indices of both FW and SA fish and also with water pH further confirm the involvement of THs in acidic and post-acidic acclimation in these fish. We conclude that thyroid function of this fish is more sensitive to

  19. Effect of Hydrochloric Acid Concentration on the Conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse to Levulinic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggorowati, Heni; Jamilatun, Siti; Cahyono, Rochim B.; Budiman, Arief

    2018-01-01

    Levulinic acid is a new green platform chemical used to the synthesis of a variety of materials for numerous applications such as fuel additives, polymers and resins. It can be produced using renewable resources such as biomass like sugarcane bagasse which are cheap and widely available as waste in Indonesia. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid with a solid liquid ratio 1:10. The effects of hydrochloric acid concentration at temperature of 180 °C and reaction time of 30 min were studied. The presence of levulinic acid in product of hydrolysis was measured with gas chromatography (GC). It was found that the highest concentration of levulinic acid was obtained at 1 M hydrochloric acid in 25.56 yield%.

  20. An NMR and ab initio quantum chemical study of acid-base equilibria for conformationally constrained acidic alpha-amino acids in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Aadal; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2001-01-01

    The protonation states of a series of piperidinedicarboxylic acids (PDAs), which are conformationally constrained acidic alpha -amino acids, have been studied by C-13 NMR titration in water. The resulting data have been correlated with theoretical results obtained by HF/6-31+G* calculations using...

  1. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  2. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  3. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  4. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  5. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  6. Effect of dietary arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on survival, growth and pigmentation in larvae of common sole ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence confirms that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA are involved in growth as well in pigmentation of marine fish larvae. In the present study we examined the performance of common sole larvae reared...... on Artemia enriched with 10 formulated emulsions, differing in inclusions of ARA, EPA, and DHA. The specific growth rate of the sole larvae until late metamorphosis, 21 days after hatching (dah) was 20 to 27% d(-1). Even though the relative tissue essential fatty acid (EFA) concentrations significantly...... reflected dietary composition, neither standard growth nor larval survival were significantly related to the absolute concentrations of ARA, EPA and DHA or their ratios. This suggests low requirements for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in common sole. Malpigmentation was significantly related...

  7. Effects of acetic acid and lactic acid on physicochemical characteristics of native and cross-linked wheat starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Beparva, Paniz

    2014-03-15

    The effects of two common organic acids; lactic and acetic acids (150 mg/kg) on physicochemical properties of native and cross-linked wheat starches were investigated prior and after gelatinization. These acids caused formation of some cracks and spots on the granules. The intrinsic viscosity of both starches decreased in the presence of the acids particularly after gelatinization. Water solubility increased while water absorption reduced after addition of the acids. The acids caused reduction in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization of both starches. The starch gels became softer, less cohesive, elastic and gummy when acids were added. These changes may indicate the degradation of the starch molecules by the acids. Cross-linked wheat starch was more resistant to the acids. However, both starches became more susceptible to the acids after gelatinization. The effect of lactic acid on physicochemical properties of both starches before and after gelatinization was greater than acetic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dependence of the metabolic fecal amino acids on the amino acid content of the feed. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawielitzki, K.; Schadereit, R.; Voelker, T.; Reichel, K.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of metabolic fecal amino acids (MFAA) in dependence on the amino acid intake was determined for graded maize rations in 15 N-labelled rats and the part of labelled endogenous amino acids in feces was calculated by the isotope dilution method. The excretion of amino acids and MFAA in feces are described as functions of the amino acid intake for 17 amino acids and calculated regressively. For all 17 amino acids investigated, there was a more or less steep increase of MFAA according to an increasing amino acid intake. In contrast to N-free feeding, the MFAA increase to the 2- to 4.5-fold value in feeding with pure maize (16.5% crude protein). The thesis of the constancy of the excretion of MFAA can consequently be no longer maintained. The true digestibility according to the conventional method is, on an average of all amino acids, 7.3 units below ascertained according to the 15 N method. The limiting amino acids lysine and threonine revealed the greatest difference. Tryptophane as first limiting amino acid could not be determined. The true digestibility of nearly all amino acids ascertained for maize by the isotope method is above 90%. (author)

  9. Regional oesophageal sensitivity to acid and weakly acidic reflux in patients with non-erosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerenziani, S; Ribolsi, M; Sifrim, D; Blondeau, K; Cicala, M

    2009-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying symptoms in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) remain to be elucidated. Non-erosive reflux disease patients appear to be more sensitive to intraluminal stimula than erosive patients, the proximal oesophagus being the most sensitive. In order to assess regional oesophageal changes in reflux acidity and sensitivity to reflux, according either to the acidity or the composition of the refluxate, combined multiple pH and multiple pH-impedance (pH-MII) was performed in 16 NERD patients. According to multiple pH-metry, 29% and 12% of reflux events reached the middle and proximal oesophagus respectively, and 35% and 19% according to conventional pH-MII (P acid reflux became weakly acidic at the proximal oesophagus. In all patients, the frequency of symptomatic refluxes, both acid and weakly acidic, was significantly higher at the proximal, compared with distal oesophagus (25 +/- 8%vs 11 +/- 2% for acid reflux and 27 +/- 8%vs 8 +/- 2% for weakly acidic reflux; P reflux. As approximately 30% of acid reflux becomes weakly acidic along the oesophageal body, to better characterize proximal reflux, in clinical practice, combined proximal pH-impedance monitoring should be used. In NERD patients, the proximal oesophagus seems to be more sensitive to both acid and weakly acidic reflux.

  10. Zirconium for nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The excellent corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid has been known for over 30 years. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using zirconium for nitric acid services. Therefore, an extensive research effort has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the corrosion properties of zirconium in nitric acid. Particular attention is paid to the effect of concentration, temperature, structure, solution impurities, and stress. Immersion, autoclave, U-bend, and constant strain-rate tests were used in this study. Results of this study indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid is little affected by changes in temperature and concentration, and the presence of common impurities such as seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, iron, and stainless steel. Moreover, the presence of seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, and stainless steel has little effect on the stress corrosion craking (SCC) susceptibility of zirconium in 70% nitric acid at room temperatures. However, zirconium could be attacked by fluoride-containing nitric acid and the vapors of chloride-containing nitric acid. Also, high sustained tensile stresses should be avoided when zirconium is used to handle 70% nitric acid at elevated temperatures or > 70% nitric acid

  11. Treatment of menorrhagia during menstruation: randomised controlled trial of ethamsylate, mefenamic acid, and tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnar, J; Sheppard, B L

    1996-09-07

    To compare the efficacy and acceptability of ethamsylate, mefenamic acid, and tranexamic acid for treating menorrhagia. Randomised controlled trial. A university department of obstetrics and gynaecology. 76 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Treatment for five days from day 1 of menses during three consecutive menstrual periods. 27 patients were randomised to take ethamsylate 500 mg six hourly, 23 patients to take mefenamic acid 500 mg eight hourly, and 26 patients to take tranexamic acid 1 g six hourly. Menstrual loss measured by the alkaline haematin method in three control menstrual periods and three menstrual periods during treatment; duration of bleeding; patient's estimation of blood loss; sanitary towel usage; the occurrence of dysmenorrhoea; and unwanted events. Ethamsylate did not reduce mean menstrual blood loss whereas mefenamic acid reduced blood loss by 20% (mean blood loss 186 ml before treatment, 148 ml during treatment) and tranexamic acid reduced blood loss by 54% (mean blood loss 164 ml before treatment, 75 ml during treatment). Sanitary towel usage was significantly reduced in patients treated with mefenamic acid and tranexamic acid. Tranexamic acid given during menstruation is a safe and highly effective treatment for excessive bleeding. Patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding should be offered medical treatment with tranexamic acid before a decision is made about surgery.

  12. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  13. Voltammetric Determination of Tumor Biomarkers for Neuroblastoma (Homovanillic Acid, Vanillylmandelic Acid, and 5-Hydroxyindole-3-acetic Acid) at Screen-printed Carbon Electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlíková, Anna; Ktena, E.; Economou, A.; Fischer, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Barek, J.; Vyskočil, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2017), s. 146-153 ISSN 1040-0397 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Homovanillic acid * Vanillylmandelic acid * 5-Hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 2.851, year: 2016

  14. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  15. Facile synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids from the corresponding α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Padrah, Shahrokh; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    An effective and improved procedure is developed for the synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids by treatment of the corresponding protonated α-amino acid with tert-butyl nitrite in 1,4-dioxane-water. The amino moiety must be protonated and located α to a carboxylic acid function in order...

  16. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the size and acidity of the acid pocket in the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, Wout O.; Bennink, Roelof J.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2014-01-01

    The gastric acid pocket is believed to be the reservoir from which acid reflux events originate. Little is known about how changes in position, size, and acidity of the acid pocket contribute to the therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

  17. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %.

  18. Chain-modified radioiodinated fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Several carbon chain manipulations have been studied in terms of their effects on myocardial activity levels and residence time. The manipulations examined included: chain length, chain branching, chain unsaturation, and carbon-iodine bond stabilization. It was found that chain length affects myocardial activity levels for both straight-chain alkyl acids and branched chain alkyl and aryl acids. Similar results have been reported for the straight-chain aryl acids. Generally, the longer chain lengths correlated with higher myocardial activity levels and longer residence times. This behavior is attributed to storage as triglycerides. Branched chain acids are designed to be anti-metabolites but only the aryl β-methyl acids possessed the expected time course of constant or very slowly decreasing activity levels. The alkyl β-methyl acids underwent rapid deiodination - a process apparently independent of β-oxidation. Inhibition of β-oxidation by incorporation of carbon-carbon double and triple bonds was studied. Deiodination of ω-iodo alkyl fatty acids prevented an assessment of suicide inhibition using an unsaturated alkynoic acid. Stabilization of the carbon-iodine bond by attachment of iodine to a vinylic or aryl carbon was studied. The low myocardial values and high blood values observed for an eleven carbon ω-iodo vinylic fatty acid were not encouraging but ω-iodo aryl fatty acids appear to avoid the problems of rapid deiodination. (Auth.)

  19. Photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid mediated by iron in strongly acidic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Masaki, E-mail: mohno@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Ito, Masataka; Ohkura, Ryouichi [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Mino A, Esteban R. [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Kose, Tomohiro [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Okuda, Tetsuji [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Nakai, Satoshi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Kawata, Kuniaki [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Nishijima, Wataru [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was decomposed based on ferric ion performance. • Complete decomposition of PFOA was confirmed in strongly acidic conditions. • Fe{sup 2+} changed to Fe{sup 3+} to restore chemical equilibrium in this condition. • Fe{sup 3+} was only produced from Fe{sup 2+} by hydroxyl radical in weakly acidic conditions. • The Fe{sup 3+} regeneration mechanisms resulted in the performance of Fe{sup 3+} for PFOA. - Abstract: The performance of a ferric ion mediated photochemical process for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) decomposition in strongly acidic conditions of pH 2.0 was evaluated in comparison with those in weakly acidic conditions, pH 3.7 or pH 5.0, based on iron species composition and ferric ion regeneration. Complete decomposition of PFOA under UV irradiation was confirmed at pH 2.0, whereas perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and other intermediates were accumulated in weakly acidic conditions. Iron states at each pH were evaluated using a chemical equilibrium model, Visual MINTEQ. The main iron species at pH 2.0 is Fe{sup 3+} ion. Although Fe{sup 3+} ion is consumed and is transformed to Fe{sup 2+} ion by photochemical decomposition of PFOA and its intermediates, the produced Fe{sup 2+} ion will change to Fe{sup 3+} ion to restore chemical equilibrium. Continuous decomposition will occur at pH 2.0. However, half of the iron cannot be dissolved at pH 3.7. The main species of dissolved iron is Fe(OH){sup 2+}. At pH 3.7 or higher pH, Fe{sup 3+} ion will only be produced from the oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ion by hydroxyl radical produced by Fe(OH){sup 2+} under UV irradiation. These different mechanisms of Fe{sup 3+} regeneration that prevail in strongly and weakly acidic conditions will engender different performances of the ferric ion.

  20. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  1. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  2. Corn stover lignin is modified differently by acetic acid compared to sulfuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthier, Thibaut; Appeldoorn, Maaike M.; Pel, Herman; Schols, Henk A.; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, two acid catalysts, acetic acid (HAc) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), were compared in thermal pretreatments of corn stover, in particular to assess the less understood fate of lignin. HAc-insoluble lignin, analyzed by pyrolysis GC–MS, showed decreasing levels (%) of Cα-oxidized (from 3.7

  3. Complexation and molecular modeling studies of europium(III)-gallic acid-amino acid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mohamed; Khan, Imran; Coutinho, João A P

    2016-04-01

    With many metal-based drugs extensively used today in the treatment of cancer, attention has focused on the development of new coordination compounds with antitumor activity with europium(III) complexes recently introduced as novel anticancer drugs. The aim of this work is to design new Eu(III) complexes with gallic acid, an antioxida'nt phenolic compound. Gallic acid was chosen because it shows anticancer activity without harming health cells. As antioxidant, it helps to protect human cells against oxidative damage that implicated in DNA damage, cancer, and accelerated cell aging. In this work, the formation of binary and ternary complexes of Eu(III) with gallic acid, primary ligand, and amino acids alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and tryptophan was studied by glass electrode potentiometry in aqueous solution containing 0.1M NaNO3 at (298.2 ± 0.1) K. Their overall stability constants were evaluated and the concentration distributions of the complex species in solution were calculated. The protonation constants of gallic acid and amino acids were also determined at our experimental conditions and compared with those predicted by using conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) model. The geometries of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes were characterized by the density functional theory (DFT). The spectroscopic UV-visible and photoluminescence measurements are carried out to confirm the formation of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interactive Effects of Jasmonic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Gibberellin on Induction of Trichomes in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traw, M. Brian; Bergelson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Leaf trichomes protect plants from attack by insect herbivores and are often induced following damage. Hormonal regulation of this plant induction response has not been previously studied. In a series of experiments, we addressed the effects of artificial damage, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Artificial damage and jasmonic acid caused significant increases in trichome production of leaves. The jar1-1 mutant exhibited normal trichome induction following treatment with jasmonic acid, suggesting that adenylation of jasmonic acid is not necessary. Salicylic acid had a negative effect on trichome production and consistently reduced the effect of jasmonic acid, suggesting negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate-dependent defense pathways. Interestingly, the effect of salicylic acid persisted in the nim1-1 mutant, suggesting that the Npr1/Nim1 gene is not downstream of salicylic acid in the negative regulation of trichome production. Last, we found that gibberellin and jasmonic acid had a synergistic effect on the induction of trichomes, suggesting important interactions between these two compounds. PMID:14551332

  5. Modification of oligo-Ricinoleic Acid and Its Derivatives with 10-Undecenoic Acid via Lipase-Catalyzed Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Claudia Montiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipases were employed under solvent-free conditions to conjugate oligo-ricinoleic acid derivatives with 10-undecenoic acid, to incorporate a reactive terminal double bond into the resultant product. First, undecenoic acid was covalently attached to oligo-ricinoleic acid using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (CAL at a 30% yield. Thirty percent conversion also occurred for CAL-catalyzed esterification between undecenoic acid and biocatalytically-prepared polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR, with attachment of undecenoic acid occurring primarily at free hydroxyls of the polyglycerol moiety. The synthesis of oligo-ricinoleyl-, undecenoyl- structured triacylglycerols comprised two steps. The first step, the 1,3-selective lipase-catalyzed interesterification of castor oil with undecenoic acid, occurred successfully. The second step, the CAL-catalyzed reaction between ricinoleyl-, undecenoyl structured TAG and ricinoleic acid, yielded approximately 10% of the desired structured triacylglycerols (TAG; however, a significant portion of the ricinoleic acid underwent self-polymerization as a side-reaction. The employment of gel permeation chromatography, normal phase HPLC, NMR, and acid value measurements was effective for characterizing the reaction pathways and products that formed.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is...

  7. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ...

  8. Topochemical approach to efficiently produce main-chain poly(bile acid)s with high molecular weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weina; Li, Xuesong; Zhu, Wei; Li, Changxu; Xu, Dan; Ju, Yong; Li, Guangtao

    2011-07-21

    Based on a topochemical approach, a strategy for efficiently producing main-chain poly(bile acid)s in the solid state was developed. This strategy allows for facile and scalable synthesis of main-chain poly(bile acid)s not only with high molecular weights, but also with quantitative conversions and yields.

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid supplementation alter rat skeletal muscle fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Sun-Young

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPAn-6 are highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, ≥ 20 carbons, ≥ 3 double bonds that differ by a single carbon-carbon double bond at the Δ19 position. Membrane 22:6n-3 may support skeletal muscle function through optimal ion pump activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and electron transport in the mitochondria. Typically n-3 fatty acid deficient feeding trials utilize linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA as a comparison group, possibly introducing a lower level of HUFA in addition to n-3 fatty acid deficiency. The use of 22:5n-6 as a dietary control is ideal for determining specific requirements for 22:6n-3 in various physiological processes. The incorporation of dietary 22:5n-6 into rat skeletal muscles has not been demonstrated previously. A one generation, artificial rearing model was utilized to supply 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 to rats from d2 after birth to adulthood. An n-3 fatty acid deficient, artificial milk with 18:2n-6 was supplemented with 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 resulting in four artificially reared (AR dietary groups; AR-LA, AR-DHA, AR-DPAn-6, AR-DHA+DPAn-6. A dam reared group (DAM was included as an additional control. Animals were sacrificed at 15 wks and soleus, white gastrocnemius and red gastrocnemius muscles were collected for fatty acid analyses. Results In all muscles of the DAM group, the concentration of 22:5n-6 was significantly lower than 22:6n-3 concentrations. While 22:5n-6 was elevated in the AR-LA group and the AR-DPAn-6 group, 20:4n-6 tended to be higher in the AR-LA muscles and not in the AR-DPAn-6 muscles. The AR-DHA+DPAn-6 had a slight, but non-significant increase in 22:5n-6 content. In the red gastrocnemius of the AR-DPAn-6 group, 22:5n-6 levels (8.1 ± 2.8 wt. % did not reciprocally replace the 22:6n-3 levels observed in AR-DHA reared rats (12.2 ± 2.3 wt. % suggesting a specific preference/requirement for 22:6n-3 in red

  10. Analytical application of aminohydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl Elmoula, Abd ELfatah Abdella

    2000-11-01

    Anthranilic hydroxamic acid was prepared by coupling of methylanthranilate (prepared by esterification of anthranilic acid with methyl alcohol using the fisher-speir method) with freshly prepared hydroxylamine. The lignad was characterized by the usual reaction of hydroxamic acid with acidic V(V) and Fe(III) solutions that gives blood-red colour in amyl alcohol and deep-violet colour in aqueous solution, respectively. The absorbance of Fe(III)-hydroxamic acids complexes increases with increase of pH. In this study, the effect of pH on the absorbance of Fe(III)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid was in accordance with this trend. The maximum absorbance was obtained at pH 5.0 at maximum wavelength of 482 nm. For Cu(II)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex, the use of acidic basic pH lead to precipitation of Cu(II)-ligand complex. But when using buffer pH (acetic acid/sodium acetate) a clear green colour of Cu(II)-ligand complex was obtained. The maximum wavelength of 390 nm. V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex was extracted in acidic medium in amyl alcohol at pH 2.0 because in aqueous solution V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex has not clear colour. It was observed the the maximum extraction in acidic medium decrease sharply with the increasing of pH value. The maximum wavelength for maximum absorbance was recorded at 472 nm. V(V) interfered with determination of Fe(III)) above concentration of 2 ppm, whereas Cu(II) interferes slightly with the determination of Fe(III) ions even at a high concentration of the Cu(II) ions. Both Cu(II) and Ni(II) do not interfere with the determination of V(V) ions even at high concentrations, Fe(III) ion produced slight interference, while Mo(VI) ions have a pronounced interference. Both V(V) and Fe(III) ions interfered markedly with the determination of Cu(II) ions, and made impractical under conditions. However, the calibration curves for the three metal ions produced a practical linear dynamic range.(Author)

  11. Suppressed hepatic bile acid signalling despite elevated production of primary and secondary bile acids in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Na; Baker, Susan S; Chapa-Rodriguez, Adrian; Liu, Wensheng; Nugent, Colleen A; Tsompana, Maria; Mastrandrea, Lucy; Buck, Michael J; Baker, Robert D; Genco, Robert J; Zhu, Ruixin; Zhu, Lixin

    2017-08-03

    Bile acids are regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, and modulate inflammation in the liver and other tissues. Primary bile acids such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) are produced in the liver, and converted into secondary bile acids such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid by gut microbiota. Here we investigated the possible roles of bile acids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and the impact of the gut microbiome on bile acid signalling in NAFLD. Serum bile acid levels and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), liver gene expression profiles and gut microbiome compositions were determined in patients with NAFLD, high-fat diet-fed rats and their controls. Serum concentrations of primary and secondary bile acids were increased in patients with NAFLD. In per cent, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonistic DCA was increased, while the agonistic CDCA was decreased in NAFLD. Increased mRNA expression for cytochrome P450 7A1, Na + -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and paraoxonase 1, no change in mRNA expression for small heterodimer partner and bile salt export pump, and reduced serum FGF19 were evidence of impaired FXR and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4)-mediated signalling in NAFLD. Taurine and glycine metabolising bacteria were increased in the gut of patients with NAFLD, reflecting increased secondary bile acid production. Similar changes in liver gene expression and the gut microbiome were observed in high-fat diet-fed rats. The serum bile acid profile, the hepatic gene expression pattern and the gut microbiome composition consistently support an elevated bile acid production in NAFLD. The increased proportion of FXR antagonistic bile acid explains, at least in part, the suppression of hepatic FXR-mediated and FGFR4-mediated signalling. Our study suggests that future NAFLD intervention may target the components of FXR signalling, including the bile acid converting gut microbiome. © Article

  12. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  13. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  14. New fermentation processes for producing itaconic acid and citric acid for industrial uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaconic acid is an important industrial chemical that we have produced by fermentation of simple sugars using the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica. Itaconic acid is priced at ~$4 per kg and has an annual market volume of about 15,000 metric tons. Itaconic acid is used in the polymer industry and for m...

  15. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from...... in rich medium and growth in defined medium supplemented with 2-methylpropanoic acid lead to extensive alteration of the fatty acid composition in the cell membrane. In rich medium, a change from 51.7% to 17.1% anteiso-C15:0, and from 3.6% to 33.9% iso-C14:0 fatty acids as compared to the wild-type strain...... for 2-methylpropanoic acid production, revealing that the IlvE protein plays an important, but not essential role in the biosynthesis of branched-chain fatty acids and secondary metabolites in S. carnosus....

  16. The first proton sponge-based amino acids: synthesis, acid-base properties and some reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeryanskii, Valery A; Gorbacheva, Anastasia Yu; Pozharskii, Alexander F; Vlasenko, Marina P; Tereznikov, Alexander Yu; Chernov'yants, Margarita S

    2015-08-21

    The first hybrid base constructed from 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (proton sponge or DMAN) and glycine, N-methyl-N-(8-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl)aminoacetic acid, was synthesised in high yield and its hydrobromide was structurally characterised and used to determine the acid-base properties via potentiometric titration. It was found that the basic strength of the DMAN-glycine base (pKa = 11.57, H2O) is on the level of amidine amino acids like arginine and creatine and its structure, zwitterionic vs. neutral, based on the spectroscopic (IR, NMR, mass) and theoretical (DFT) approaches has a strong preference to the zwitterionic form. Unlike glycine, the DMAN-glycine zwitterion is N-chiral and is hydrolytically cleaved with the loss of glycolic acid on heating in DMSO. This reaction together with the mild decarboxylative conversion of proton sponge-based amino acids into 2,3-dihydroperimidinium salts under air-oxygen was monitored with the help of the DMAN-alanine amino acid. The newly devised amino acids are unique as they combine fluorescence, strongly basic and redox-active properties.

  17. Effect of humic acid on the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry of copper in acetic acid soil extract solutions at mercaptoacetic acid-modified gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Gregoire; Beni, Valerio; Dillon, Patrick H.; Barry, Thomas; Arrigan, Damien W.M

    2004-05-24

    Electrochemical measurements were undertaken for the investigation of the underpotential deposition-stripping process of copper at bare and modified gold electrodes in 0.11 M acetic acid, the first fraction of the European Union's Bureau Communautaire de References (BCR) sequential extraction procedure for fractionating metals within soils and sediments. Gold electrodes modified with mercaptoacetic acid showed higher sensitivity for the detection of copper than bare gold electrodes, both in the absence and in the presence of humic acid in acetic acid solutions, using the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) method. In the presence of 50 mg l{sup -1} of humic acid, the mercaptoacetic acid modified electrode proved to be 1.5 times more sensitive than the bare gold electrode. The mercaptoacetic acid monolayer formed on the gold surface provided efficient protection against the adsorption of humic acid onto the gold electrode surface. Variation of the humic acid concentration in the solution showed little effect on the copper stripping signal at the modified electrode. UPD-SV at the modified electrode was applied to the analysis of soil extract samples. Linear correlation of the electrochemical results with atomic spectroscopic results yielded the straight-line equation y ({mu}g l{sup -1}) = 1.10x - 44 (ppb) (R=0.992, n=6), indicating good agreement between the two methods.

  18. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  19. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  20. Selective fluorescent detection of aspartic acid and glutamic acid employing dansyl hydrazine dextran conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasomphan, Weerachai; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Smanmoo, Srung

    2014-01-01

    Highly water soluble polymer (DD) was prepared and evaluated for its fluorescence response towards various amino acids. The polymer consists of dansyl hydrazine unit conjugated into dextran template. The conjugation enhances higher water solubility of dansyl hydrazine moiety. Of screened amino acids, DD exhibited selective fluorescence quenching in the presence of aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu). A plot of fluorescence intensity change of DD against the concentration of corresponding amino acids gave a good linear relationship in the range of 1 × 10(-4) M to 25 × 10(-3) M. This establishes DD as a potential polymeric sensor for selective sensing of Asp and Glu.

  1. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  2. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  3. The Effect of Acid Pre-Treatment using Acetic Acid and Nitric Acid in The Production of Biogas from Rice Husk during Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Syafrudin; Keumala, Cut Fadhila; Matin, Hasfi Hawali Abdul; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Pretreatment during biogas production aims to assist in degradation of lignin contained in the rice husk. In this study, pretreatment which is used are acid and biological pretreatment. Acid pretreatment was performed using acetic acid and nitric acid with a variety levels of 3% and 5%. While biological pretreatment as a control variable. Acid pretreatment was conducted by soaking the rice straw for 24 hours with acid variation. The study was conducted using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD) with 21% TS. Biogas production was measured using water displacement method every two days for 60 days at room temperature conditions. The results showed that acid pretreatment gave an effect on the production of biogas yield. The yield of the biogas produced by pretreatment of acetic acid of 5% and 3% was 43.28 and 45.86 ml/gr.TS. While the results without pretreatment biogas yield was 29.51 ml/gr.TS. The results yield biogas produced by pretreatment using nitric acid of 5% and 3% was 12.14 ml/gr.TS and 21.85 ml/gr.TS. Results biogas yield with acetic acid pretreatment was better than the biogas yield results with nitric acid pretreatment.

  4. Oleic Acid enhances all-trans retinoic Acid loading in nano-lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsriwongkul, Akhayachatra; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sila-On, Warisada; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the enhancement of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) loading in nano-lipid emulsions and stability by using oleic acid. The effect of formulation factors including initial ATRA concentration and the type of oil on the physicochemical properties, that is, percentage yield, percentage drug release, and photostability of formulations, was determined. The solubility of ATRA was increased in the order of oleic acid > MCT > soybean oil > water. The physicochemical properties of ATRA-loaded lipid emulsion, including mean particle diameter and zeta potential, were modulated by changing an initial ATRA concentration as well as the type and mixing ratio of oil and oleic acid as an oil phase. The particles of lipid emulsions had average sizes of less than 250 nm and negative zeta potential. The addition of oleic acid in lipid emulsions resulted in high loading capacity. The photodegradation rate was found to be dependent on the initial drug concentration but independent of the type of oily phase used in this study. The release rates were not affected by initial ATRA concentration but were affected by the type of oil, where oleic acid showed the highest release rate of ATRA from lipid emulsions.

  5. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.; Bonsignore, P.; Moon, S.H.; Frank, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}40,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food processing and industrial applications. lactic acid h,as the potential of becoming a very large volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from renewable carbohydrates for use as feedstocks for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, plant growth regulators, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and specially chemical intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from crude fermentation broths and the conversion of tactic acid to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. The development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes, extractive distillations integrated with fermentation, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The use of bipolar ED can virtually eliminate the salt or gypsum waste produced in the current lactic acid processes. In this paper, the recent technical advances in tactic and polylactic acid processes are discussed. The economic potential and manufacturing cost estimates of several products and process options are presented. The technical accomplishments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the future directions of this program at ANL are discussed.

  6. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  7. Clofibric Acid Increases the Formation of Oleic Acid in Endoplasmic Reticulum of the Liver of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    広瀬, 明彦; 山崎, 研; 坂本, 武史; 須永, 克佳; 津田, 整; 光本, 篤史; 工藤, なをみ; 川嶋, 洋一

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (clofibric acid) on the formation of oleic acid (18:1) from stearic acid (18:0) and utilization of the 18:1 formed for phosphatidylcholine (PC) formation in endoplasmic reticulum in the liver of rats were studied in vivo. [14C]18:0 was intravenously injected into control Wistar male rats and rats that had been fed on a diet containing 0.5% (w/w) clofibric acid for 7 days; and the distribution of radiolabeled fatty acids among subcellul...

  8. Danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by hydrochloric acid. The interaction of boron containing ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan with mineral acids, including hydrochloric acid was studied. The optimal conditions of extraction of valuable components from danburite composition were determined. The chemical composition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was determined as well. The kinetics of decomposition of calcined danburite by hydrochloric acid was studied. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid was calculated.

  9. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1978-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of adding methionine on the loss of amino acid by γ-irradiation in amino acid mixture, because methionine is one of the most radio-sensitive in amino acids, the remaining amino acids in γ-irradiated aqueous solution of amino acid mixture were studied by determining the total amount of each remaining amino acid. The mixture of 18 amino acids which contains methionine and that of 17 amino acids without methionine were used. Amino acids and the irradiation products were determined with an automatic amino acid analyzer. The total amount of remaining amino acids in the irradiated solution of 18 amino acid mixture was more than that of 17 amino acid mixture. The order of the total amount of each remaining amino acid by low-dose irradiation was Gly>Ala>Asp>Glu>Val>Ser, Pro>Ile, Leu>Thr>Lys>Tyr>Arg>His>Phe>Try>Cys>Met. In case of the comparison of amino acids of same kinds, the total remaining amount of each amino acid in amino acid mixture was more than that of individually irradiated amino acid. The total remaining amounts of glycine, alanine and aspartic acid in irradiated 17 amino acid mixture resulted in slight increase. Ninhydrin positive products formed from 18 amino acid mixture irradiated with 2.640 x 10 3 rad were ammonia, methionine sulfoxide and DOPA of 1.34, 0.001 and 0.25 μmoles/ml of the irradiated solution, respectively. (Kobake, H.)

  10. Vibrational studies in aqueous solutions. Part II. The acid oxalate ion and oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippey, T. A.

    1980-08-01

    Assignments for oxalic acid in solution are re-examined. A detailed assignment of the IR and Raman spectra of the acid oxalate ion is presented for the first time. Raman spectroscopy is used to study the first ionization of oxalic acid.

  11. Thermometric titration of acids in pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, R; Mukherjee, L M

    1974-04-01

    Thermometric titration of HClO(4), HI, HNO(3), HBr, picric acid o-nitrobenzoic acid, 2,4- and 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid have been attempted in pyridine as solvent, using 1,3-diphenylguanidine as the base. Except in the case of 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid, the results are, in general, reasonably satisfactory. The approximate molar heats of neutralization have been calculated.

  12. Waht is 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tytko, K.H.; Baethe, G.; Mehmke, K.

    1987-01-01

    According to a comparative study of the literature, supplemented by well-aimed experimental investigations and equilibrium calculations, the terms 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid', used for many substances, species, or solutions in the literature, are applicable to a species, a solution, and two solids: a) The monomeric molybdic acid, most probably having the formula MoO 2 (OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 (= H 2 MoO 4 , aq), exists in (aqueous) solution only and never exceeds a concentration of ∼ 10 -3 M since at higher concentrations it reacts with other monomeric molybdenum(VI) species to give anionic or cationic polymers. b) A concentrated (> 0.1 M Mo VI ) aqueous molybdate solution of degree of acidification P = 2 (realized, e.g., by a solution of one of the Mo VI oxides; by any molybdate solutions whose cations have been exchanged by H 2 O + on a cation exchanger; by suitable acidification of a molybdate solution) contains 8 H 3 O + and the well-known polyanion Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 8- exactly in the stoichiometric proportions. c) A glassy substance, obtained from an alkali metal salt-free solution prepared acording to (b), refers to the compound (H 3 O) 8 [Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 ] · xH 2 O, x = 25 - 29. d) A solid having the ideal composition [(H 3 O)Mo 5 O 15 (OH)H 2 O · H 2 O] ∞ consists of a polymolybdate skeleton (the well-known 'decamolybdate' structure), in the tunnels of which H 3 O + and H 2 O are intercalated. The structure is very unstable if only H 3 O + cations are present, but it is enormously stabilized by a partial exchange of H 3 O + by certain alkali or alkaline earth metal cations. For the compounds MoO 3 , MoO 3 ·H 2 O, and MoO 3 · 2 H 2 O the term 'molybdic acid' is unjustified. The commercial product 'molybdic acid, ∼ 85% MoO 3 ' is the well-known polymolybdate (NH 4 ) 2 O · 4 MoO 3 with a layer structure of the polyanion. 84 refs. (author)

  13. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  14. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  15. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid and other fatty acids induce a decrease in pHi in Jurkat T-cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aires, Virginie; Hichami, Aziz; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induced rapid (t1/2=33 s) and dose-dependent decreases in pHi in BCECF-loaded human (Jurkat) T-cells. Addition of 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger, prolonged DHA-induced acidification as a function of time, indicating that the exchanger is implicated in pHi recovery.Other fatty acids like oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, but not palmitic acid, also induced a fall in pHi in these cells.To assess the role of calcium in t...

  18. Solution of Azelaic Acid (20%), Resorcinol (10%) and Phytic Acid (6%) Versus Glycolic Acid (50%) Peeling Agent in the Treatment of Female Patients with Facial Melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Taheri, Azam; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Melasma, a common acquired disorder of hyperpigmentation, especially in women, is often resistant to therapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid solution in chemical peeling of melasma in comparison to 50% glycolic acid. This clinical trial was performed, on 42 female patients with bilateral melasma. Severity of melasma was assessed by melasma area and severity index (MASI). Combination of (20% azelaic acid + 10% resorcinol + 6% phytic acid) was used as a new peeling agent on the right side of the face and 50% glycolic acid on the left side every 2 weeks for 6 times. Follow-up was carried out for 3 months after the last session. Any decrease in MASI score and unwanted complications following peeling were evaluated and compared during the trial. Patients showed marked improvement as calculated with MASI score before and after treatment in both sides of the face. The efficacy of combination formula (azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid) was similar to glycolic acid, but with fewer complications. There was no statistically difference in improvement between two groups ( P > 0.05). However, the patient's discomfort following procedures was significantly lower with azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic compared with the glycolic acid peels ( P < 0.05) and there was the same duration in the beginning of the therapeutic response in both groups. Results showed that triple-combination was found to be an effective and safe peeling agent in the treatment of melasma and it was as effective as 50% glycolic acid peel.

  19. Aquatic chemistry of acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumm, W; Sigg, L; Schnoor, J L

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acid precipitation in many regions of the Northern hemisphere is a consequnece of human interference in the cycles that unite land, water and atmosphere. The oxidation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, resulting mostly from fossil fuel burning, rivals oxidation processes induced by photosynthesis and respiration and disturbs redox conditions in the atmosphere. The paper discusses oxidation-reduction reactions, particularly those involving atmospheric pollutants that are important in the formation of acid precipitation. Topics covered are: a stoichiometric model of acid rain formation; sulfur dioxide and ammonia adsorption; acid neutralizing capacity. The paper concludes that explanations of simple chemical equilibria between gases and water aid our understanding of how acidifying gases become dissolved in cloud water, in droplets of falling rain, or in fog. Rigorous definitions of base- or acid-neutralizing capacities are prerequisites to measuring and interpreting residual acidity in dry and wet deposition and for assessing the disturbance caused by the transfer of acid to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 20 references.

  20. Effect of azithromycin on acid reflux, hiatus hernia and proximal acid pocket in the postprandial period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, W O; Bennink, R J; de Ruigh, A A; Hirsch, D P; Zwinderman, A H; Boeckxstaens, G E

    2012-12-01

    The risk for acidic reflux is mainly determined by the position of the gastric acid pocket. It was hypothesised that compounds affecting proximal stomach tone might reduce gastro-oesophageal reflux by changing the acid pocket position. To study the effect of azithromycin (Azi) on acid pocket position and acid exposure in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Nineteen patients with GORD were included, of whom seven had a large hiatal hernia (≥3 cm) (L-HH) and 12 had a small or no hiatal hernia (S-HH). Patients were randomised to Azi 250 mg/day or placebo during 3 days in a crossover manner. On each study day, reflux episodes were detected using concurrent high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring after a standardised meal. The acid pocket was visualised using scintigraphy, and its position was determined relative to the diaphragm. Azi reduced the number of acid reflux events (placebo 8.0±2.2 vs Azi 5.6±1.8, pacid exposure (placebo 10.5±3.8% vs Azi 5.9±2.5%, preflux episodes. Acid reflux occurred mainly when the acid pocket was located above, or at the level of, the diaphragm, rather than below the diaphragm. Treatment with Azi reduced hiatal hernia size and resulted in a more distal position of the acid pocket compared with placebo (below the diaphragm 39% vs 29%, p=0.03). Azi reduced the rate of acid reflux episodes in patients with S-HH (38% to 17%) to a greater extent than in patients with L-HH (69% to 62%, p=0.04). Azi reduces acid reflux episodes and oesophageal acid exposure. This effect was associated with a smaller hiatal hernia size and a more distal position of the acid pocket, further indicating the importance of the acid pocket in the pathogenesis of GORD. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1970 NTR1970.

  1. Backbone and sidechain 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments of the human brain-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP7) in its apo form and the holo forms binding to DHA, oleic acid, linoleic acid and elaidic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oeemig, Jesper S; Jørgensen, Mathilde L; Hansen, Mikka S

    2009-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present the backbone and side chain assignments of human brain-type fatty acid binding protein, also known as FABP7, in its apo form and in four different holo forms, bound to DHA, oleic acid, linoleic acid and elaidic acid.......In this manuscript, we present the backbone and side chain assignments of human brain-type fatty acid binding protein, also known as FABP7, in its apo form and in four different holo forms, bound to DHA, oleic acid, linoleic acid and elaidic acid....

  2. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  3. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan.

  4. Role of Acid and weakly acidic reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease off proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hea Jung; Cho, Yu Kyung; Moon, Sung Jin; Kim, Jin Su; Lim, Chul Hyun; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gye

    2012-07-01

    Available data about reflux patterns and symptom determinants in the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) subtypes off proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are lacking. We aimed to evaluate reflux patterns and determinants of symptom perception in patients with GERD off PPI therapy by impedance-pH monitoring. We retrospectively reviewed the impedance-pH data in patients diagnosed as GERD based on results of impedance-pH monitoring, endoscopy and/or typical symptoms. The characteristics of acid and weakly acidic reflux were evaluated. Symptomatic and asymptomatic reflux were compared according to GERD subtypes and individual symptoms. Forty-two patients (22 males, mean age 46 years) were diagnosed as GERD (17 erosive reflux disease, 9 pH(+) non-erosive reflux disease [NERD], 9 hypersensitive esophagus and 7 symptomatic NERD). A total of 1,725 reflux episodes were detected (855 acid [50%], 857 weakly acidic [50%] and 13 weakly alkaline reflux [Acid reflux was more frequently symptomatic and bolus clearance was longer compared with weakly acidic reflux. In terms of globus, weakly acidic reflux was more symptomatic. Symptomatic reflux was more frequently acid and mixed reflux; these associations were more pronounced in erosive reflux disease and symptomatic NERD. The perception of regurgitation was related to acid reflux, while that of globus was more related to weakly acidic reflux. In patients not taking PPI, acid reflux was more frequently symptomatic and had longer bolus clearance. Symptomatic reflux was more frequently acid and mixed type; however, weakly acidic reflux was associated more with globus. These data suggest a role for impedance-pH data in the evaluation of globus.

  5. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  6. Uric acid disrupts hypochlorous acid production and the bactericidal activity of HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Larissa A C; Lopes, João P P B; Kaihami, Gilberto H; Silva, Railmara P; Bruni-Cardoso, Alexandre; Baldini, Regina L; Meotti, Flavia C

    2018-06-01

    Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans and is an alternative physiological substrate for myeloperoxidase. Oxidation of uric acid by this enzyme generates uric acid free radical and urate hydroperoxide, a strong oxidant and potentially bactericide agent. In this study, we investigated whether the oxidation of uric acid and production of urate hydroperoxide would affect the killing activity of HL-60 cells differentiated into neutrophil-like cells (dHL-60) against a highly virulent strain (PA14) of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While bacterial cell counts decrease due to dHL-60 killing, incubation with uric acid inhibits this activity, also decreasing the release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α). In a myeloperoxidase/Cl - /H 2 O 2 cell-free system, uric acid inhibited the production of HOCl and bacterial killing. Fluorescence microscopy showed that uric acid also decreased the levels of HOCl produced by dHL-60 cells, while significantly increased superoxide production. Uric acid did not alter the overall oxidative status of dHL-60 cells as measured by the ratio of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione. Our data show that uric acid impairs the killing activity of dHL-60 cells likely by competing with chloride by myeloperoxidase catalysis, decreasing HOCl production. Despite diminishing HOCl, uric acid probably stimulates the formation of other oxidants, maintaining the overall oxidative status of the cells. Altogether, our results demonstrated that HOCl is, indeed, the main relevant oxidant against bacteria and deviation of myeloperoxidase activity to produce other oxidants hampers dHL-60 killing activity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Features of Humic Acids and Fulvic Acids from Contrasting Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Judith; Buurman, Peter; Kalbitz, Karsten; Zomeren, van Andre; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Cerli, Chiara; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Insight in the molecular structure of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) can contribute to identify relationships between their molecular properties, and further our quantitative abilities to model important organic matter functions such as metal complexation and association with mineral

  8. Sinapic acid or its derivatives interfere with abscisic acid homeostasis during Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Baodi; Tang, Jingliang; Han, Shuang; Guo, Jinggong; Miao, Yuchen

    2017-06-06

    Sinapic acid and its esters have broad functions in different stages of seed germination and plant development and are thought to play a role in protecting against ultraviolet irradiation. To better understand the interactions between sinapic acid esters and seed germination processes in response to various stresses, we analyzed the role of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of sinapic acid esters involved in seed germination and early seedling growth. We found that exogenous sinapic acid promotes seed germination in a dose-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that exogenous sinapic acid increased the sinapoylcholine content of imbibed seeds. Furthermore, sinapic acid affected ABA catabolism, resulting in reduced ABA levels and increased levels of the ABA-glucose ester. Using mutants deficient in the synthesis of sinapate esters, we showed that the germination of mutant sinapoylglucose accumulator 2 (sng2) and bright trichomes 1 (brt1) seeds was more sensitive to ABA than the wild-type. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants deficient in either abscisic acid deficient 2 (ABA2) or abscisic acid insensitive 3 (ABI3) displayed increased expression of the sinapoylglucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT) and sinapoylcholine esterase (SCE) genes with sinapic acid treatment. This treatment also affected the accumulation of sinapoylcholine and free choline during seed germination. We demonstrated that sinapoylcholine, which constitutes the major phenolic component in seeds among various minor sinapate esters, affected ABA homeostasis during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. Our findings provide insights into the role of sinapic acid and its esters in regulating ABA-mediated inhibition of Arabidopsis seed germination in response to drought stress.

  9. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufactur