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Sample records for perfluorocarbon pfc emissions

  1. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions as potential drug carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhas, J.M.; Goodman, R.L.; Moore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    PFC emulsions have excellent oxygen transporting properties and have been reported to enhance the response of murine tumors to both radiation and BCNU. While the presently available emulsions are far too toxic to the immune system to be used in cancer therapy, they can be used to investigate the overall potential of this approach. As an example, the authors have found that these emulsions can alter drug availability. The lipophilicity of both the PFC and the drug in question determine the partitioning of the drug between the organic and aqueous phases of an emulsion. In vitro, this can reduce drug effectiveness by reducing the amount of drug available to the cells. In vivo, however, this partitioning may produce sustained drug exposure, which could be of benefit in cancer therapy and other applications. In brief, as the drug is absorbed from the circulating aqueous phase, additional drug would leach from the PFC, thereby providing a sustained drug exposure similar to that obtained with liposomes. While a great deal more work will be required to evaluate the practicality of this approach, the existence of this phenomenon must be taken into account in both the design and interpretation of efficacy studies in which anesthetics, chemotherapeutics, etc are employed

  2. Universal Approach to Estimate Perfluorocarbons Emissions During Individual High-Voltage Anode Effect for Prebaked Cell Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Lukas; Gaboury, Simon; Picard, Frédéric; Kiss, Laszlo I.; Poncsak, Sandor; Morais, Nadia

    2018-04-01

    Recent investigations on aluminum electrolysis cell demonstrated limitations to the commonly used tier-3 slope methodology to estimate perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions from high-voltage anode effects (HVAEs). These limitations are greater for smelters with a reduced HVAE frequency. A novel approach is proposed to estimate the specific emissions using a tier 2 model resulting from individual HVAE instead of estimating monthly emissions for pot lines with the slope methodology. This approach considers the nonlinear behavior of PFC emissions as a function of the polarized anode effect duration but also integrates the change in behavior attributed to cell productivity. Validation was performed by comparing the new approach and the slope methodology with measurement campaigns from different smelters. The results demonstrate a good agreement between measured and estimated emissions as well as more accurately reflect individual HVAE dynamics occurring over time. Finally, the possible impact of this approach for the aluminum industry is discussed.

  3. Cyclo-octafluorobutane (PFC-318) in the global atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, J.; Vollmer, M. K.; Fraser, P. J.; Rhee, T. S.; Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Steele, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Leist, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Lunder, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Reimann, S.; Simmonds, P.; Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.

    2010-12-01

    PFC-318 (c-C4F8, cyclo-octafluorobutane) is a long-lived (3200 years) perfluorocarbon (PFC) greenhouse gas with a high 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100 = 10,300) and a wide range of industrial uses. We extend previous atmospheric measurements of PFC-318 in the Cape Grim Air Archive (Oram, 1999) with our new in situ measurements from remote and urban AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) and affiliated stations. Our longest in situ record is from the Jungfraujoch observatory in the Swiss Alps, and our data set is augmented by measurements of flasks from the King Sejong and Troll coastal Antarctic stations and several locations in the Northern Hemisphere. In mid-2009 we find ˜1.25 ppt (parts-per-trillion, dry mol fraction) in the Northern Hemisphere and ˜1.20 ppt in the Southern Hemisphere, with rise rates of ˜0.03 ppt/yr and an interhemispheric ratio of ˜1.04. We obtain PFC-318 emissions for 2008-2010 of ˜1 Gg/yr using a simple box model, and preliminary measurements of older archived air at SIO indicate similar emissions since at the least the late 1990s. In contrast, the EDGAR v4 emissions database estimates much lower PFC-318 emissions of 0.02 Gg/yr for 2005. Using GWP100 we calculate ˜10 million tons of CO2-equivalent PFC-318 emissions/yr for 2008-2010, about double the CO2-equivalent PFC-218 annual emissions, or 0.4 times the CO2-equivalent PFC-116 annual emissions, reported for 2008-2009 by Mühle et al. (2010). Thus PFC-318 is the third most important PFC in terms of CO2-equivalent emissions. We find mostly baseline conditions at remote AGAGE stations and urban sites in the USA, Europe, and Australia, in contrast to frequent above baseline conditions at Gosan station, Jeju Island, South Korea, indicating significant emission sources in East Asia as found by Saito et al. (2010). Oram, D.E., Trends of long-lived anthropogenic halocarbons in the Southern Hemisphere and model calculation of global emissions, Ph.D. thesis, University

  4. Physicochemical characteristics of PFC surfactants for dry decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Lee, Chi Woo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Even the trace amount of the used nuclear fuels of high radioactivity are hazardous to the earth and humans. Perfluorocarbons and perfluorocarbon surfactants are emerging to be efficient chemicals in the dry decontamination process of the used fuels of high radioactivity. The theme was undertaken to increase the knowledge on perfluorocarbon surfactants to develop the perfluorocarbon system in the dry decontamination process in Korea. Several cationic and anionic pfc surfactants were synthesized. Effects of pfc surfactants on electrochemical etching of silicon were investigated to form porous silicons. Forces were measured between silicon surfaces and AFM tip in the absence and presence of pfc surfactants. 7 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  5. Atmospheric abundance and global emissions of perfluorocarbons CF4, C2F6 and C3F8 since 1800 inferred from ice core, firn, air archive and in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Trudinger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorocarbons (PFCs are very potent and long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, released predominantly during aluminium production and semiconductor manufacture. They have been targeted for emission controls under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Here we present the first continuous records of the atmospheric abundance of CF4 (PFC-14, C2F6 (PFC-116 and C3F8 (PFC-218 from 1800 to 2014. The records are derived from high-precision measurements of PFCs in air extracted from polar firn or ice at six sites (DE08, DE08-2, DSSW20K, EDML, NEEM and South Pole and air archive tanks and atmospheric air sampled from both hemispheres. We take account of the age characteristics of the firn and ice core air samples and demonstrate excellent consistency between the ice core, firn and atmospheric measurements. We present an inversion for global emissions from 1900 to 2014. We also formulate the inversion to directly infer emission factors for PFC emissions due to aluminium production prior to the 1980s. We show that 19th century atmospheric levels, before significant anthropogenic influence, were stable at 34.1 ± 0.3 ppt for CF4 and below detection limits of 0.002 and 0.01 ppt for C2F6 and C3F8, respectively. We find a significant peak in CF4 and C2F6 emissions around 1940, most likely due to the high demand for aluminium during World War II, for example for construction of aircraft, but these emissions were nevertheless much lower than in recent years. The PFC emission factors for aluminium production in the early 20th century were significantly higher than today but have decreased since then due to improvements and better control of the smelting process. Mitigation efforts have led to decreases in emissions from peaks in 1980 (CF4 or early-to-mid-2000s (C2F6 and C3F8 despite the continued increase in global aluminium production; however, these decreases in emissions appear to have recently halted. We see a temporary

  6. Development of filtration equipment to reuse PFC decontamination wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Sung Yeol; Won, Hui Jun; Jung Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin; Park, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    When PFC(Perfluorocarbonate) decontamination technology is applied to removal of radioactive contaminated particulate adhered at surface during the operation of nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to develop a filtration equipment to reuse of PFC solution due to high price, also to minimize the volume of second wastewater. Contaminated characteristics of hot particulate was investigated and a filtration process was presented to remove suspended radioactive particulate from PFC decontamination wastewater generated on PFC decontamination

  7. An advanced expiratory circuit for the recovery of perfluorocarbon liquid from non-saturated perfluorocarbon vapour during partial liquid ventilation: an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Mark W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loss of perfluorocarbon (PFC vapour in the expired gases during partial liquid ventilation should be minimized both to prevent perfluorocarbon vapour entering the atmosphere and to re-use the recovered PFC liquid. Using a substantially modified design of our previously described condenser, we aimed to determine how much perfluorocarbon liquid could be recovered from gases containing PFC and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation, and to determine if the amount recovered differed with background flow rate (at flow rates suitable for use in neonates. Methods The expiratory line of a standard ventilator circuit set-up was mimicked, with the addition of two condensers. Perfluorocarbon (30 mL of FC-77 and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation, were passed through the circuit at a number of flow rates and the percentage recovery of the liquids measured. Results From 14.2 mL (47% to 27.3 mL (91% of the infused 30 mL of FC-77 was recovered at the flow rates studied. Significantly higher FC-77 recovery was obtained at lower flow rates (ANOVA with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test, p -1 (ANOVA with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test, p -1, respectively. Conclusion Using two condensers in series 47% to 91% of perfluorocarbon liquid can be recovered, from gases containing perfluorocarbon and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation.

  8. Oxygen Sensing with Perfluorocarbon-Loaded Ultraporous Mesostructured Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amani L; Gee, Clifford T; Weegman, Bradley P; Einstein, Samuel A; Juelfs, Adam R; Ring, Hattie L; Hurley, Katie R; Egger, Sam M; Swindlehurst, Garrett; Garwood, Michael; Pomerantz, William C K; Haynes, Christy L

    2017-06-27

    Oxygen homeostasis is important in the regulation of biological function. Disease progression can be monitored by measuring oxygen levels, thus producing information for the design of therapeutic treatments. Noninvasive measurements of tissue oxygenation require the development of tools with minimal adverse effects and facile detection of features of interest. Fluorine magnetic resonance imaging ( 19 F MRI) exploits the intrinsic properties of perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquids for anatomical imaging, cell tracking, and oxygen sensing. However, the highly hydrophobic and lipophobic properties of perfluorocarbons require the formation of emulsions for biological studies, though stabilizing these emulsions has been challenging. To enhance the stability and biological loading of perfluorocarbons, one option is to incorporate perfluorocarbon liquids into the internal space of biocompatible mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Here, we developed perfluorocarbon-loaded ultraporous mesostructured silica nanoparticles (PERFUMNs) as 19 F MRI detectable oxygen-sensing probes. Ultraporous mesostructured silica nanoparticles (UMNs) have large internal cavities (average = 1.8 cm 3 g -1 ), facilitating an average 17% loading efficiency of PFCs, meeting the threshold fluorine concentrations needed for imaging studies. Perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether PERFUMNs have the highest equivalent nuclei per PFC molecule and a spin-lattice (T 1 ) relaxation-based oxygen sensitivity of 0.0032 mmHg -1 s -1 at 16.4 T. The option of loading PFCs after synthesizing UMNs, rather than traditional in situ core-shell syntheses, allows for use of a broad range of PFC liquids from a single material. The biocompatible and tunable chemistry of UMNs combined with the intrinsic properties of PFCs makes PERFUMNs a MRI sensor with potential for anatomical imaging, cell tracking, and metabolic spectroscopy with improved stability.

  9. 78 FR 12310 - Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC..., petrochemical production, phosphoric acid, titanium dioxide, lime production, and several fluorinated gas...

  10. Perfluorocarbon in Delayed Recompression with a Mixed Gender Swine Model of Decompression Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, William A; Hall, Aaron A; Auker, Charles R; Mahon, Richard T

    2018-01-01

    Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are fluorinated hydrocarbons that dissolve gases to a much greater degree than plasma and hold promise in treating decompression sickness (DCS). The efficacy of PFC in a mixed gender model of DCS and safety in recompression therapy has not been previously explored. Swine (25 kg; N = 104; 51 male and 53 female) were randomized into normal saline solution (NSS) or PFC emulsion treatment groups and subjected to compression on air in a hyperbaric chamber at 200 fsw for 31 min. Then the animals were decompressed and observed for signs of DCS. Afterwards, they were treated with oxygen and either PFC (4 cc · kg-1) or NSS (4 cc · kg-1). Surviving animals were observed for 4 h, at which time they underwent recompression therapy using a standard Navy Treatment Table 6. After 24 h the animals were assessed and then euthanized. Survival rates were not significantly different between NSS (74.04%) and PFC (66.67%) treatment groups. All swine that received recompression treatment survived to the end of the study and no seizures were observed in either PFC or NSS animals. Within the saline treated swine group there were no significant differences in DCS survival between male (75.00%, N = 24) and female (73.08%, N = 26) swine. Within the PFC treated swine, survival of females (51.85%, N = 27) was significantly lower than males (81.48%, N = 27). In this large animal mixed gender efficacy study in DCS, PFC did not improve mortality or spinal cord injury, but appears safe during recompressive therapy. Gender differences in DCS treatment with PFC will need further study.Cronin WA, Hall AA, Auker CR, Mahon RT. Perfluorocarbon in delayed recompression with a mixed gender swine model of decompression sickness. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):14-18.

  11. Enhanced oxygen delivery induced by perfluorocarbon emulsions in capillary tube oxygenators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaslef, S N; Goldstick, T K

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies showed that a new generation of perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions increased tissue PO2 in the cat retina to a degree that could not be explained by the small increase in arterial O2 content seen after the infusion of low doses of 1 g PFC/kg body weight. It seems that increased O2 delivery at the tissue level after PFC infusion is caused by a local effect in the microcirculation. The authors studies this effect in vitro at steady state in a closed loop circuit, consisting of one of two types of capillary tube oxygenators, deoxygenator(s), a reservoir bag filled with anticoagulated bovine blood or saline (control), and a roller pump, to see if the addition of PFC would have an effect on the PO2 difference (delta PO2) across the capillary tube membrane oxygenator at a blood flow rate of 3 l/min. Perfluorocarbon was added in three incremental doses, each giving about 0.7 vol% of PFC. The delta PO2 across the oxygenator was measured before and after each dose. The mean percent increases in delta PO2 in blood for two types of oxygenators were 19.2 +/- 8% (mean +/- SD, n = 6, P = 0.002) and 9.9 +/- 4% (n = 3, P = 0.05), respectively, whereas the mean percent change in delta PO2 in saline was -4.9 +/- 2% (n = 2, P = 0.2). Inlet PO2s to the oxygenator were only minimally increased. The authors conclude that O2 delivery was significantly enhanced after injection of PFC in blood in this capillary tube model. A near wall excess of PFC particles may account for the augmentation of O2 diffusion in this model.

  12. The sectoral trends of multigas emissions inventory of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, A.; Shukla, P.R.; Kapshe, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the trends of greenhouse gas (GHG) and local air pollutant emissions of India for 1985-2005. The GHGs covered are six Kyoto gases, namely carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6...... in the same sector is the major source of N2O emissions. PFC emissions are dominated by C2F6 and CF4 emissions from aluminum production. The majority of HFC emissions are contributed by HFC-23, a by-product during the production of HCFC-22 that is widely used in refrigeration industry. CO emissions have...... dominance from biomass burning. Particulate emissions are dominated by biomass burning (residential sector), road transport and coal combustion in large plants. These varied emission patterns provide interesting policy links and disjoints, such as-which and where mitigation flexibility for the Kyoto gases...

  13. Cell Labeling for 19F MRI: New and Improved Approach to Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsion Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Williams

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This report describes novel perfluorocarbon (PFC nanoemulsions designed to improve ex vivo cell labeling for 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. 19F MRI is a powerful non-invasive technique for monitoring cells of the immune system in vivo, where cells are labeled ex vivo with PFC nanoemulsions in cell culture. The quality of 19F MRI is directly affected by the quality of ex vivo PFC cell labeling. When co-cultured with cells for longer periods of time, nanoemulsions tend to settle due to high specific weight of PFC oils (1.5–2.0 g/mL. This in turn can decrease efficacy of excess nanoemulsion removal and reliability of the cell labeling in vitro. To solve this problem, novel PFC nanoemulsions are reported which demonstrate lack of sedimentation and high stability under cell labeling conditions. They are monodisperse, have small droplet size (~130 nm and low polydispersity (<0.15, show a single peak in the 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum at −71.4 ppm and possess high fluorine content. The droplet size and polydispersity remained unchanged after 160 days of follow up at three temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C. Further, stressors such as elevated temperature in the presence of cells, and centrifugation, did not affect the nanoemulsion droplet size and polydispersity. Detailed synthetic methodology and in vitro testing for these new PFC nanoemulsions is presented.

  14. Effect of oxygen breathing and perfluorocarbon emulsion treatment on air bubbles in adipose tissue during decompression sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, T; Hyldegaard, O

    2009-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) after air diving has been treated with success by means of combined normobaric oxygen breathing and intravascular perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions causing increased survival rate and faster bubble clearance from the intravascular compartment. The beneficial PFC effect...... has been explained by the increased transport capacity of oxygen and inert gases in blood. However, previous reports have shown that extravascular bubbles in lipid tissue of rats suffering from DCS will initially grow during oxygen breathing at normobaric conditions. We hypothesize that the combined...... effect of normobaric oxygen breathing and intravascular PFC infusion could lead to either enhanced extravascular bubble growth on decompression due to the increased oxygen supply, or that PFC infusion could lead to faster bubble elimination due to the increased solubility and transport capacity in blood...

  15. Clinical applications of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for molecular imaging and targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trung D; Caruthers, Shelton D; Hughes, Michael; Marsh, John N; Cyrus, Tillmann; Winter, Patrick M; Neubauer, Anne M; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a novel tool that has allowed non-invasive diagnostic imaging to transition from gross anatomical description to identification of specific tissue epitopes and observation of biological processes at the cellular level. This technique has been confined to the field of nuclear imaging; however, recent advances in nanotechnology have extended this research to include ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The exploitation of nanotechnology for MR and US molecular imaging has generated several candidate contrast agents. One multimodality platform, targeted perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles, is useful for noninvasive detection with US and MR, targeted drug delivery, and quantification.

  16. Treatment of micro air bubbles in rat adipose tissue at 25 kPa altitude exposures with perfluorocarbon emulsions and nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsøe, Thomas; Hyldegaard, O

    2014-01-01

    . The effect is ascribed to an increased solubility and transport capacity of respiratory gases in the PFC emulsion and possibly enhanced nitrogen washout through NO-increased blood flow rate and/or the removal of endothelial micro bubble nuclei precursors. Previous reports have shown that metabolic gases (i......INTRODUCTION: Perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFC) and nitric oxide (NO) releasing agents have on experimental basis demonstrated therapeutic properties in treating and preventing the formation of venous gas embolism as well as increased survival rate during decompression sickness from diving...

  17. The effect of the perfluorocarbon emulsion Oxycyte on platelet count and function in the treatment of decompression sickness in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, William A; Senese, Angela L; Arnaud, Francoise G; Regis, David P; Auker, Charles R; Mahon, Richard T

    2016-09-01

    Decompression from elevated ambient pressure is associated with platelet activation and decreased platelet counts. Standard treatment for decompression sickness (DCS) is hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Intravenous perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion is a nonrecompressive therapy being examined that improves mortality in animal models of DCS. However, PFC emulsions are associated with a decreased platelet count. We used a swine model of DCS to study the effect of PFC therapy on platelet count, function, and hemostasis. Castrated male swine (n = 50) were fitted with a vascular port, recovered, randomized, and compressed to 180 feet of sea water (fsw) for 31 min followed by decompression at 30 fsw/min. Animals were observed for DCS, administered 100% oxygen, and treated with either emulsified PFC Oxycyte (DCS-PFC) or isotonic saline (DCS-NS). Controls underwent the same procedures, but were not compressed (Sham-PFC and Sham-NS). Measurements of platelet count, thromboelastometry, and coagulation were obtained 1 h before compression and 1, 24, 48, 96, 168 and 192 h after treatment. No significant changes in normalized platelet counts were observed. Prothrombin time was elevated in DCS-PFC from 48 to 192 h compared with DCS-NS, and from 96 to 192 h compared with Sham-PFC. Normalized activated partial thromboplastin time was also elevated in DCS-PFC from 168 to 192 h compared with Sham-PFC. No bleeding events were noted. DCS treated with PFC (Oxycyte) does not impact platelet numbers, whole blood clotting by thromboelastometry, or clinical bleeding. Late changes in prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time associated with PFC use in both DCS therapy and controls warrant further investigation.

  18. Phase-Change Nanoparticles Using Highly Volatile Perfluorocarbons: Toward a Platform for Extravascular Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry O. Matsunaga, Paul S. Sheeran, Samantha Luois, Jason E. Streeter, Lee B. Mullin, Bhaskar Banerjee, Paul A. Dayton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent efforts using perfluorocarbon (PFC nanoparticles in conjunction with acoustic droplet vaporization has introduced the possibility of expanding the diagnostic and therapeutic capability of ultrasound contrast agents to beyond the vascular space. Our laboratories have developed phase-change nanoparticles (PCNs from the highly volatile PFCs decafluorobutane (DFB, bp =-2 °C and octafluoropropane (OFP, bp =-37 °C for acoustic droplet vaporization. Studies with commonly used clinical ultrasound scanners have demonstrated the ability to vaporize PCN emulsions with frequencies and mechanical indices that may significantly decrease tissue bioeffects. In addition, these contrast agents can be formulated to be stable at physiological temperatures and the perfluorocarbons can be mixed to modulate the balance between sensitivity to ultrasound and general stability. We herein discuss our recent efforts to develop finely-tuned diagnostic/molecular imaging agents for tissue interrogation. We discuss studies currently under investigation as well as potential diagnostic and therapeutic paradigms that may emerge as a result of formulating PCNs with low boiling point PFCs.

  19. Perfluorocarbons and Gilbert syndrome (phenotype) in the C8 Health Study Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongmin [Cancer Center, School of Public Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 265050-9190 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Hebei United University, Hebei 063000 (China); Ducatman, Alan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, West Virginia University (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, West Virginia University (United States); Clinical Translational Science Institute, West Virginia University (United States); Zhang, Jianjun [Department of Biostatistics, School Public Health, West Virginia University (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Background: Gilbert syndrome (GS) is an inherited defect of bilirubin conjugation, most commonly caused by a gene mutation for the enzyme UGT1A. GS is known to affect the metabolism and excretion of drugs and xenobiotics. Perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) are bio-persistent environmental contaminants that affect metabolic regulation. In this study, we examined the associations of GS phenotype and serum PFCs in the C8 Health Study Population. Materials and methods: Using 2005–2006 data from a large PFC-exposure population survey, we compared serum PFCs concentrations between GS and non GS clinical phenotypes, in a cross sectional design, adjusting for standard risk factors, including age, BMI, smoking status, socioeconomic status and gender. Results: Among 10 PFC compounds considered, only perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was seen at a significantly higher concentration in GS men and women. Conclusion: PFHxA exposure may be associated with GS. Our findings do not support increased exposure in GS for other PFCs. - Highlights: • Most serum PFCs are not associated with clinically evident Gilbert syndrome. • However, serum perfluorohexanoic acid is positively associated. • The investigation addresses the clinical presentation, not the genetic mutation.

  20. The feasibility study of hot cell decontamination by the PFC spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui-Jun Won; Chong-Hun Jung; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFC) are colorless, non-toxic, easily vaporized and nonflammable. Also, some of them are liquids of a high density, low surface tension, low latent heat and low specific heat. These particular chemical and physical properties of fluoro-organic compounds permit their use in very different fields such as electronics, medicine, tribology, nuclear and material science. The Sonatol process was developed under a contract with the DOE. The Sonatol process uses an ultrasonic agitation in a PFC solution that contains a fluorinated surfactant to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. They applied the Sonatol process to the decontamination of a heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibited an excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents a transportation of such a waste to a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing dry decontamination technologies applicable to a decontamination of a highly radioactive area loosely contaminated with radioactive particles. This contamination has occurred as a result of an examination of a post-irradiated material or the development of the DUPIC process. The dry decontamination technologies developed are the carbon dioxide pellet spray method and the PFC spray method. As a part of the project, PFC ultrasonic decontamination technology was developed in 2004. The PFC spray decontamination method which is based on the test results of the PFC ultrasonic method has been under development since 2005. The developed PFC spray decontamination equipment consists of four modules (spray, collection, filtration and distillation). Vacuum cup of the collection module gathers the contaminated PFC solution, then the solution is moved to the filtration module and it is recycled. After a multiple recycling of the spent PFC solution, it is purified in the distillation

  1. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  2. Delayed inflammation associated with retained perfluorocarbon liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old woman, with history of cataract surgery 1 year back, presented with features of ocular inflammation for last 3 months. She had no history of any other intraocular surgery. On examination, anterior segment showed frothy material in the inferior angle with moderate anterior chamber reaction (cells+/flare+ and sulcus intraocular lens with large posterior capsule rent. Fundoscopy showed multiple, small to medium-sized transparent bubbles of perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL with membranes in the vitreous cavity. Ultrasonography confirmed the presence of PFCL in the vitreous cavity. Pars plana vitrectomy with anterior chamber wash was done which led to good visual recovery. To conclude, retained PFCL can cause late onset fibrinous inflammation after a quiescent period but surgical intervention may lead to good visual outcome.

  3. In vitro characterization of perfluorocarbon droplets for focused ultrasound therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schad, Kelly C; Hynynen, Kullervo, E-mail: khynynen@sri.utoronto.c [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2010-09-07

    Focused ultrasound therapy can be enhanced with microbubbles by thermal and cavitation effects. However, localization of treatment is difficult as bioeffects can occur outside of the target region. Spatial control of bubbles can be achieved by ultrasound-induced conversion of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets to gas bubbles. This study was undertaken to determine the acoustic parameters for bubble production by droplet conversion and how it depends on the acoustic conditions and droplet physical parameters. Lipid-encapsulated droplets containing dodecafluoropentane were manufactured with sizes ranging from 1.9 to 7.2 {mu}m in diameter and diluted to a concentration of 8 x 10{sup 6} droplets mL{sup -1}. The droplets were sonicated in vitro with a focused ultrasound transducer and varying frequency and exposure under flow conditions through an acoustically transparent vessel. The sonications were 10 ms in duration at frequencies of 0.578, 1.736 and 2.855 MHz. The pressure threshold for droplet conversion was measured with an active transducer operating in pulse-echo mode and simultaneous measurements of broadband acoustic emissions were performed with passive acoustic detection. The results show that droplets cannot be converted at low frequency without broadband emissions occurring. However, the pressure threshold for droplet conversion decreased with increasing frequency, exposure and droplet size. The pressure threshold for broadband emissions was independent of the droplet size and was 2.9, 4.4 and 5.3 MPa for 0.578, 1736 and 2.855 MHz, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated that droplet conversion is feasible for clinically relevant sized droplets and acoustic exposures.

  4. In vitro characterization of perfluorocarbon droplets for focused ultrasound therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, Kelly C; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-01-01

    Focused ultrasound therapy can be enhanced with microbubbles by thermal and cavitation effects. However, localization of treatment is difficult as bioeffects can occur outside of the target region. Spatial control of bubbles can be achieved by ultrasound-induced conversion of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets to gas bubbles. This study was undertaken to determine the acoustic parameters for bubble production by droplet conversion and how it depends on the acoustic conditions and droplet physical parameters. Lipid-encapsulated droplets containing dodecafluoropentane were manufactured with sizes ranging from 1.9 to 7.2 μm in diameter and diluted to a concentration of 8 x 10 6 droplets mL -1 . The droplets were sonicated in vitro with a focused ultrasound transducer and varying frequency and exposure under flow conditions through an acoustically transparent vessel. The sonications were 10 ms in duration at frequencies of 0.578, 1.736 and 2.855 MHz. The pressure threshold for droplet conversion was measured with an active transducer operating in pulse-echo mode and simultaneous measurements of broadband acoustic emissions were performed with passive acoustic detection. The results show that droplets cannot be converted at low frequency without broadband emissions occurring. However, the pressure threshold for droplet conversion decreased with increasing frequency, exposure and droplet size. The pressure threshold for broadband emissions was independent of the droplet size and was 2.9, 4.4 and 5.3 MPa for 0.578, 1736 and 2.855 MHz, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated that droplet conversion is feasible for clinically relevant sized droplets and acoustic exposures.

  5. In vitro characterization of perfluorocarbon droplets for focused ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Kelly C.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-09-01

    Focused ultrasound therapy can be enhanced with microbubbles by thermal and cavitation effects. However, localization of treatment is difficult as bioeffects can occur outside of the target region. Spatial control of bubbles can be achieved by ultrasound-induced conversion of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets to gas bubbles. This study was undertaken to determine the acoustic parameters for bubble production by droplet conversion and how it depends on the acoustic conditions and droplet physical parameters. Lipid-encapsulated droplets containing dodecafluoropentane were manufactured with sizes ranging from 1.9 to 7.2 µm in diameter and diluted to a concentration of 8 × 106 droplets mL-1. The droplets were sonicated in vitro with a focused ultrasound transducer and varying frequency and exposure under flow conditions through an acoustically transparent vessel. The sonications were 10 ms in duration at frequencies of 0.578, 1.736 and 2.855 MHz. The pressure threshold for droplet conversion was measured with an active transducer operating in pulse-echo mode and simultaneous measurements of broadband acoustic emissions were performed with passive acoustic detection. The results show that droplets cannot be converted at low frequency without broadband emissions occurring. However, the pressure threshold for droplet conversion decreased with increasing frequency, exposure and droplet size. The pressure threshold for broadband emissions was independent of the droplet size and was 2.9, 4.4 and 5.3 MPa for 0.578, 1736 and 2.855 MHz, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated that droplet conversion is feasible for clinically relevant sized droplets and acoustic exposures.

  6. Perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, and octafluoropropane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mühle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present atmospheric baseline growth rates from the 1970s to the present for the long-lived, strongly infrared-absorbing perfluorocarbons (PFCs tetrafluoromethane (CF4, hexafluoroethane (C2F6, and octafluoropropane (C3F8 in both hemispheres, measured with improved accuracies (~1–2% and precisions (<0.3%, or <0.2 ppt (parts per trillion dry air mole fraction, for CF4; <1.5%, or <0.06 ppt, for C2F6; <4.5%, or <0.02 ppt, for C3F8 within the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE. Pre-industrial background values of 34.7±0.2 ppt CF4 and 0.1±0.02 ppt C2F6 were measured in air extracted from Greenland ice and Antarctic firn. Anthropogenic sources are thought to be primary aluminum production (CF4, C2F6, C3F8, semiconductor production (C2F6, CF4, C3F8 and refrigeration use (C3F8. Global emissions calculated with the AGAGE 2-D 12-box model are significantly higher than most previous emission estimates. The sum of CF4 and C2F6 emissions estimated from aluminum production and non-metal production are lower than observed global top-down emissions, with gaps of ~6 Gg/yr CF4 in recent years. The significant discrepancies between previous CF4, C2F6, and C3F8 emission estimates and observed global top-down emissions estimated from AGAGE measurements emphasize the need for more accurate, transparent, and complete emission reporting, and for verification with atmospheric measurements to assess the emission sources of these long-lived and potent greenhouse gases, which alter the radiative budget of the atmosphere, essentially permanently, once emitted.

  7. Treatment of micro air bubbles in rat adipose tissue at 25 kPa altitude exposures with perfluorocarbon emulsions and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randsøe, Thomas; Hyldegaard, O

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFC) and nitric oxide (NO) releasing agents have on experimental basis demonstrated therapeutic properties in treating and preventing the formation of venous gas embolism as well as increased survival rate during decompression sickness from diving. The effect is ascribed to an increased solubility and transport capacity of respiratory gases in the PFC emulsion and possibly enhanced nitrogen washout through NO-increased blood flow rate and/or the removal of endothelial micro bubble nuclei precursors. Previous reports have shown that metabolic gases (i.e., oxygen in particular) and water vapor contribute to bubble growth and stabilization during altitude exposures. Accordingly, we hypothesize that the administration of PFC and NO donors upon hypobaric pressure exposures either (1) enhance the bubble disappearance rate through faster desaturation of nitrogen, or in contrast (2) promote bubble growth and stabilization through an increased oxygen supply. In anesthetized rats, micro air bubbles (containing 79% nitrogen) of 4-500 nl were injected into exposed abdominal adipose tissue. Rats were decompressed in 36 min to 25 kPa (~10,376 m above sea level) and bubbles studied for 210 min during continued oxygen breathing (FIO2 = 1). Rats were administered PFC, NO, or combined PFC and NO. In all groups, most bubbles grew transiently, followed by a stabilization phase. There were no differences in the overall bubble growth or decay between groups or when compared with previous data during oxygen breathing alone at 25 kPa. During extreme altitude exposures, the contribution of metabolic gases to bubble growth compromises the therapeutic effects of PFC and NO, but PFC and NO do not induce additional bubble growth.

  8. Commercial applications of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    Tracer technology can be successfully applied to many leak-checking and monitoring evaluations of operating systems (e.g., building HVACs), manufacturing processes and products (e.g., air conditioners), and subsurface components and systems (e.g., underground storage tanks). Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology is the most sensitive of all tracer technologies because the ambient background levels of the five (5) routinely-used PFTs are in the range of parts per 10 15 parts of air (i.e., parts per quadrillion-ppq) and this technology's instrumentation can measure down to those levels. The effectiveness of this technology is achieved both in terms of cost (very little PFT need to be used) and detectability; for example, very small leaks can be rapidly detected. The PFT compounds, which are environmentally and biologically safe to use, are commercially available as are the sampling and analysis instrumentation. This presentation concerns (1) the steps being taken to commercialize this technology, (2) new applications of processes currently under study, and (3) applications in areas of use that will be particularly beneficial to the environment. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Phase change events of volatile liquid perfluorocarbon contrast agents produce unique acoustic signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Dayton, Paul A; Matsunaga, Terry O

    2014-01-01

    Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) provide a dynamic platform to approach problems in medical ultrasound (US). Upon US-mediated activation, the liquid core vaporizes and expands to produce a gas bubble ideal for US imaging and therapy. In this study, we demonstrate through high-speed video microscopy and US interrogation that PCCAs composed of highly volatile perfluorocarbons (PFCs) exhibit unique acoustic behavior that can be detected and differentiated from standard microbubble contrast agents. Experimental results show that when activated with short pulses PCCAs will over-expand and undergo unforced radial oscillation while settling to a final bubble diameter. The size-dependent oscillation phenomenon generates a unique acoustic signal that can be passively detected in both time and frequency domain using confocal piston transducers with an ‘activate high’ (8 MHz, 2 cycles), ‘listen low’ (1 MHz) scheme. Results show that the magnitude of the acoustic ‘signature’ increases as PFC boiling point decreases. By using a band-limited spectral processing technique, the droplet signals can be isolated from controls and used to build experimental relationships between concentration and vaporization pressure. The techniques shown here may be useful for physical studies as well as development of droplet-specific imaging techniques. (paper)

  10. Cerebral Microvascular and Systemic Effects Following Intravenous Administration of the Perfluorocarbon Emulsion Perftoran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutarboush, Rania; Saha, Biswajit K; Mullah, Saad H; Arnaud, Francoise G; Haque, Ashraful; Aligbe, Chioma; Pappas, Georgina; Auker, Charles R; McCarron, Richard M; Moon-Massat, Paula F; Scultetus, Anke H

    2016-11-18

    Oxygen-carrying perfluorocarbon (PFC) fluids have the potential to increase tissue oxygenation during hypoxic states and to reduce ischemic cell death. Regulatory approval of oxygen therapeutics was halted due to concerns over vasoconstrictive side effects. The goal of this study was to assess the potential vasoactive properties of Perftoran by measuring brain pial arteriolar diameters in a healthy rat model. Perftoran, crystalloid (saline) or colloid (Hextend) solutions were administered as four sequential 30 min intravenous (IV) infusions, thus allowing an evaluation of cumulative dose-dependent effects. There were no overall changes in diameters of small-sized (<50 μm) pial arterioles within the Perftoran group, while both saline and Hextend groups exhibited vasoconstriction. Medium-sized arterioles (50-100 μm) showed minor (~8-9%) vasoconstriction within saline and Hextend groups and only ~5% vasoconstriction within the Perftoran group. For small- and medium-sized pial arterioles, the mean percent change in vessel diameters was not different among the groups. Although there was a tendency for arterial blood pressures to increase with Perftoran, pressures were not different from the other two groups. These data show that Perftoran, when administered to healthy anesthetized rats, does not cause additional vasoconstriction in cerebral pial arterioles or increase systemic blood pressure compared with saline or Hextend.

  11. Design of ultrasonically-activatable nanoparticles using low boiling point perfluorocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Luois, Samantha H; Mullin, Lee B; Matsunaga, Terry O; Dayton, Paul A

    2012-04-01

    Recently, an interest has developed in designing biomaterials for medical ultrasonics that can provide the acoustic activity of microbubbles, but with improved stability in vivo and a smaller size distribution for extravascular interrogation. One proposed alternative is the phase-change contrast agent. Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) consist of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) that are initially in liquid form, but can then be vaporized with acoustic energy. Crucial parameters for PCCAs include their sensitivity to acoustic energy, their size distribution, and their stability, and this manuscript provides insight into the custom design of PCCAs for balancing these parameters. Specifically, the relationship between size, thermal stability and sensitivity to ultrasound as a function of PFC boiling point and ambient temperature is illustrated. Emulsion stability and sensitivity can be 'tuned' by mixing PFCs in the gaseous state prior to condensation. Novel observations illustrate that stable droplets can be generated from PFCs with extremely low boiling points, such as octafluoropropane (b.p. -36.7 °C), which can be vaporized with acoustic parameters lower than previously observed. Results demonstrate the potential for low boiling point PFCs as a useful new class of compounds for activatable agents, which can be tailored to the desired application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CityFlux perfluorocarbon tracer experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Petersson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, two perfluorocarbon tracer experiments were conducted in central Manchester UK as part of the CityFlux campaign. The main aim was to investigate vertical dispersion in an urban area during convective conditions, but dispersion mechanisms within the street network were also studied. Paired receptors were used in most cases where one receptor was located at ground level and one at roof level. One receptor was located on the roof of Portland Tower which is an 80 m high building in central Manchester. Source receptor distances in the two experiments varied between 120 and 600 m.

    The results reveal that maximum concentration was sometimes found at roof level rather than at ground level implying the effectiveness of convective forces on dispersion. The degree of vertical dispersion was found to be dependent on source receptor distance as well as on building height in proximity to the release site.

    Evidence of flow channelling in a street canyon was also found. Both a Gaussian profile and a street network model were applied and the results show that the urban topography may lead to highly effective flow channelling which therefore may be a very important dispersion mechanism should the right meteorological conditions prevail.

    The experimental results from this campaign have also been compared with a simple urban dispersion model that was developed during the DAPPLE framework and show good agreement with this.

    The results presented here are some of the first published regarding vertical dispersion. More tracer experiments are needed in order to further characterise vertical concentration profiles and their dependence on, for instance, atmospheric stability. The impact of urban topography on pollutant dispersion is important to focus on in future tracer experiments in order to improve performance of models as well as for our understanding of the relationship between air quality and public health.

  13. CityFlux perfluorocarbon tracer experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, F. K.; Martin, D.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Longley, I.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2010-07-01

    In June 2006, two perfluorocarbon tracer experiments were conducted in central Manchester UK as part of the CityFlux campaign. The main aim was to investigate vertical dispersion in an urban area during convective conditions, but dispersion mechanisms within the street network were also studied. Paired receptors were used in most cases where one receptor was located at ground level and one at roof level. One receptor was located on the roof of Portland Tower which is an 80 m high building in central Manchester. Source receptor distances in the two experiments varied between 120 and 600 m. The results reveal that maximum concentration was sometimes found at roof level rather than at ground level implying the effectiveness of convective forces on dispersion. The degree of vertical dispersion was found to be dependent on source receptor distance as well as on building height in proximity to the release site. Evidence of flow channelling in a street canyon was also found. Both a Gaussian profile and a street network model were applied and the results show that the urban topography may lead to highly effective flow channelling which therefore may be a very important dispersion mechanism should the right meteorological conditions prevail. The experimental results from this campaign have also been compared with a simple urban dispersion model that was developed during the DAPPLE framework and show good agreement with this. The results presented here are some of the first published regarding vertical dispersion. More tracer experiments are needed in order to further characterise vertical concentration profiles and their dependence on, for instance, atmospheric stability. The impact of urban topography on pollutant dispersion is important to focus on in future tracer experiments in order to improve performance of models as well as for our understanding of the relationship between air quality and public health.

  14. New mechanisms for non-porative ultrasound stimulation of cargo delivery to cell cytosol with targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soman, N R; Marsh, J N; Lanza, G M; Wickline, S A [Washington University School of Medicine, Consortium for Translational Research in Advanced Imaging and Nanomedicine, CTRAIN, Campus Box 8215, St Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: saw@wuphys.wustl.edu

    2008-05-07

    The cell membrane constitutes a major barrier for non-endocytotic intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules from drug delivery vehicles. Existing approaches to breaching the cell membrane include cavitational ultrasound (with microbubbles), electroporation and cell-penetrating peptides. We report the use of diagnostic ultrasound for intracellular delivery of therapeutic bulky cargo with the use of molecularly targeted liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles. To demonstrate the concept, we used a lipid with a surrogate polar head group, nanogold-DPPE, incorporated into the nanoparticle lipid monolayer. Melanoma cells were incubated with nanogold particles and this was followed by insonication with continuous wave ultrasound (2.25 MHz, 5 min, 0.6 MPa). Cells not exposed to ultrasound showed gold particles partitioned only in the outer bilayer of the cell membrane with no evidence of the intracellular transit of nanogold. However, the cells exposed to ultrasound exhibited numerous nanogold-DPPE components inside the cell that appeared polarized inside intracellular vesicles demonstrating cellular uptake and trafficking. Further, ultrasound-exposed cells manifested no incorporation of calcein or the release of lactate dehydrogenase. These observations are consistent with a mechanism that suggests that ultrasound is capable of stimulating the intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules via non-porative mechanisms. Therefore, non-cavitational adjunctive ultrasound offers a novel paradigm in intracellular cargo delivery from PFC nanoparticles.

  15. New mechanisms for non-porative ultrasound stimulation of cargo delivery to cell cytosol with targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, N R; Marsh, J N; Lanza, G M; Wickline, S A

    2008-01-01

    The cell membrane constitutes a major barrier for non-endocytotic intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules from drug delivery vehicles. Existing approaches to breaching the cell membrane include cavitational ultrasound (with microbubbles), electroporation and cell-penetrating peptides. We report the use of diagnostic ultrasound for intracellular delivery of therapeutic bulky cargo with the use of molecularly targeted liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles. To demonstrate the concept, we used a lipid with a surrogate polar head group, nanogold-DPPE, incorporated into the nanoparticle lipid monolayer. Melanoma cells were incubated with nanogold particles and this was followed by insonication with continuous wave ultrasound (2.25 MHz, 5 min, 0.6 MPa). Cells not exposed to ultrasound showed gold particles partitioned only in the outer bilayer of the cell membrane with no evidence of the intracellular transit of nanogold. However, the cells exposed to ultrasound exhibited numerous nanogold-DPPE components inside the cell that appeared polarized inside intracellular vesicles demonstrating cellular uptake and trafficking. Further, ultrasound-exposed cells manifested no incorporation of calcein or the release of lactate dehydrogenase. These observations are consistent with a mechanism that suggests that ultrasound is capable of stimulating the intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules via non-porative mechanisms. Therefore, non-cavitational adjunctive ultrasound offers a novel paradigm in intracellular cargo delivery from PFC nanoparticles

  16. New mechanisms for non-porative ultrasound stimulation of cargo delivery to cell cytosol with targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, N. R.; Marsh, J. N.; Lanza, G. M.; Wickline, S. A.

    2008-05-01

    The cell membrane constitutes a major barrier for non-endocytotic intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules from drug delivery vehicles. Existing approaches to breaching the cell membrane include cavitational ultrasound (with microbubbles), electroporation and cell-penetrating peptides. We report the use of diagnostic ultrasound for intracellular delivery of therapeutic bulky cargo with the use of molecularly targeted liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles. To demonstrate the concept, we used a lipid with a surrogate polar head group, nanogold-DPPE, incorporated into the nanoparticle lipid monolayer. Melanoma cells were incubated with nanogold particles and this was followed by insonication with continuous wave ultrasound (2.25 MHz, 5 min, 0.6 MPa). Cells not exposed to ultrasound showed gold particles partitioned only in the outer bilayer of the cell membrane with no evidence of the intracellular transit of nanogold. However, the cells exposed to ultrasound exhibited numerous nanogold-DPPE components inside the cell that appeared polarized inside intracellular vesicles demonstrating cellular uptake and trafficking. Further, ultrasound-exposed cells manifested no incorporation of calcein or the release of lactate dehydrogenase. These observations are consistent with a mechanism that suggests that ultrasound is capable of stimulating the intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules via non-porative mechanisms. Therefore, non-cavitational adjunctive ultrasound offers a novel paradigm in intracellular cargo delivery from PFC nanoparticles.

  17. Effect of oxygenated perfluorocarbon on isolated islets during transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Sachio; Tsujimura, Toshiaki; Li, Shiri; Hori, Yuichi; Toyama, Hirochika; Shinzeki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ippei; Kuroda, Yoshikazu; Ku, Yonson

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the efficacy of the two-layer method (TLM) using oxygenated perfluorochemicals (PFC) for pancreas preservation. The current study investigated the effect of oxygenated PFC on isolated islets during transportation. Purified rat islets were stored in an airtight conical tube for 24h in RPMI culture medium at 22 degrees C or University of Wisconsin solution (UW) at 4 degrees C, either with or without oxygenated PFC. After storage, the islets were assessed for in vitro viability by static incubation (SI), FDA/PI staining, and energy status (ATP, energy charge, and ADP/ATP ratio) and for in vivo viability by a transplantation study. UW at 4 degrees C and RPMI medium at 22 degrees C maintained islet quality almost equally in both in vitro and in vivo assessments. The ATP levels and energy status in the groups with PFC were significantly lower than those without PFC. The groups with PFC showed a significantly higher ADP/ATP ratio than those without PFC. In the transplantation study, blood glucose levels and AUC in the UW+PFC group were significantly higher than those in UW group. UW at 4 degrees C and RPMI medium at 22 degrees C maintained islet quality equally under the conditions for islet transportation. The addition of oxygenated PFC, while advantageous for pancreas preservation, is not useful for islet transportation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Atmospheric Nitrogen Trifluoride: Optimized emission estimates using 2-D and 3-D Chemical Transport Models from 1973-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M. L.; Prinn, R. G.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We present optimized annual global emissions from 1973-2008 of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), a powerful greenhouse gas which is not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. In the past few decades, NF3 production has dramatically increased due to its usage in the semiconductor industry. Emissions were estimated through the 'pulse-method' discrete Kalman filter using both a simple, flexible 2-D 12-box model used in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network and the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v4.5), a full 3-D atmospheric chemistry model. No official audited reports of industrial NF3 emissions are available, and with limited information on production, a priori emissions were estimated using both a bottom-up and top-down approach with two different spatial patterns based on semiconductor perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v3.2) and Semiconductor Industry Association sales information. Both spatial patterns used in the models gave consistent results, showing the robustness of the estimated global emissions. Differences between estimates using the 2-D and 3-D models can be attributed to transport rates and resolution differences. Additionally, new NF3 industry production and market information is presented. Emission estimates from both the 2-D and 3-D models suggest that either the assumed industry release rate of NF3 or industry production information is still underestimated.

  19. Effect of metabolic gases and water vapor, perfluorocarbon emulsions, and nitric oxide on tissue bubbles during decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randsøe, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    In aviation and diving, fast decrease in ambient pressure, such as during accidental loss of cabin pressure or when a diver decompresses too fast to sea level, may cause nitrogen (N2) bubble formation in blood and tissue resulting in decompression sickness (DCS). Conventional treatment of DCS is oxygen (O2) breathing combined with recompression.  However, bubble kinetic models suggest, that metabolic gases, i.e. O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor contribute significantly to DCS bubble volume and growth at hypobaric altitude exposures. Further, perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFC) and nitric oxide (NO) donors have, on an experimental basis, demonstrated therapeutic properties both as treatment and prophylactic intervention against DCS. The effect was ascribed to solubility of respiratory gases in PFC, plausible NO elicited nuclei demise and/or N2 washout through enhanced blood flow rate. Accordingly, by means of monitoring injected bubbles in exposed adipose tissue or measurements of spinal evoked potentials (SEPs) in anaesthetized rats, the aim of this study was to: 1) evaluate the contribution of metabolic gases and water vapor to bubble volume at different barometrical altitude exposures, 2) clarify the O2 contribution and N2 solubility from bubbles during administration of PFC at normo- and hypobaric conditions and, 3) test the effect of different NO donors on SEPs during DCS upon a hyperbaric air dive and, to study the influence of  NO on tissue bubbles at high altitude exposures. The results support the bubble kinetic models and indicate that metabolic gases and water vapor contribute significantly to bubble volume at 25 kPa (~10,376 m above sea level) and constitute a threshold for bubble stabilization or decay at the interval of 47-36 kPa (~6,036 and ~7,920 m above sea level). The effect of the metabolic gases and water vapor seemed to compromise the therapeutic properties of both PFC and NO at altitude, while PFC significantly increased bubble

  20. European Union-Emission Trading Scheme: outlook for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, P.; Alberola, E.

    2013-01-01

    From 2013, under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), Europe will cap its emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and per-fluorocarbons (PFC) from the chemical industry. Besides, 336 chemical industry facilities will be forced to limit their emissions at 45.8 million tons of CO 2 per year from 2013 to 2020. At date August 1, 2012, almost 70% of the carbon credits issued by the clean development mechanism (CDM) were carried out mainly through the destruction of hydro-fluorocarbons (HFC-23) (42%) and N 2 O (22%). The contribution of emission reductions through chemical processes in the Joint Implementation (JI) projects is smaller but still amounted to 32% of all projects. From 1 May 2013 the European Union will refuse CDM and JI credits from emission reductions of HFC-23 and N 2 O. The issues of the introduction of the chemical industry in the EU-ETS in the context of low CO 2 prices and limited validity of CDM and JI chemical projects are high. Therefore, domestic CO 2 emissions reductions from energy consumption of the chemistry sector will take a larger share. (authors)

  1. PLGA/PFC particles loaded with gold nanoparticles as dual contrast agents for photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan J.; Strohm, Eric M.; Sun, Yang; Niu, Chengcheng; Zheng, Yuanyi; Wang, Zhigang; Kolios, Michael C.

    2014-03-01

    Phase-change contrast agents consisting of a perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid core stabilized by a lipid, protein, or polymer shell have been proposed for a variety of clinical applications. Previous work has demonstrated that vaporization can be induced by laser irradiation through optical absorbers incorporated inside the droplet. In this study, Poly-lactide-coglycolic acid (PLGA) particles loaded with PFC liquid and silica-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were developed and characterized using photoacoustic (PA) methods. Microsized PLGA particles were loaded with PFC liquid and GNPs (14, 35, 55nm each with a 20nm silica shell) using a double emulsion method. The PA signal intensity and optical vaporization threshold were investigated using a 375 MHz transducer and a focused 532-nm laser (up to 450-nJ per pulse). The laser-induced vaporization threshold energy decreased with increasing GNP size. The vaporization threshold was 850, 690 and 420 mJ/cm2 for 5μm-sized PLGA particles loaded with 14, 35 and 55 nm GNPs, respectively. The PA signal intensity increased as the laser fluence increased prior to the vaporization event. This trend was observed for all particles sizes. PLGA particles were then incubated with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 6 hours to investigate passive targeting, and the vaporization of the PLGA particles that were internalized within cells. The PLGA particles passively internalized by MDA cells were visualized via confocal fluorescence imaging. Upon PLGA particle vaporization, bubbles formed inside the cells resulting in cell destruction. This work demonstrates that GNPs-loaded PLGA/PFC particles have potential as PA theranostic agents in PA imaging and optically-triggered drug delivery systems.

  2. An update: improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon-mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R Littlejohn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximise the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labelling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC, perfluorodecalin (PFD enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal impact on physiology. Here, we assess the use of the perfluorocarbons PFD, and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (PP11 for in vivo plant leaf imaging using 4 advanced modes of microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM, Two-photon fluorescence (TPF microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG microscopy and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS microscopy. For every mode of imaging tested, we observed an improved signal when leaves were mounted in PFD or in PP11, compared to mounting the samples in water. Using an image analysis technique based on autocorrelation to quantitatively assess LSCM image deterioration with depth, we show that PP11 outperformed PFD as a mounting medium by enabling the acquisition of clearer images deeper into the tissue. In addition, we show that SRS microscopy can be used to image perfluorocarbons directly in the mesophyll and thereby easily delimit the negative space within a leaf, which may have important implications for studies of leaf development. Direct comparison of on and off resonance SRS micrographs show that PFCs do not to form intracellular aggregates in live plants. We conclude that the application of PFCs as mounting media substantially increases advanced microscopy image quality of living mesophyll and leaf vascular bundle cells.

  3. Ozone depleting substances and gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Consumption and emissions 2003; Ozonlagsnedbrydende stoffer og drivhusgasserne HFC'er PFC'er og SF6. Forbrug og emissioner 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T.

    2005-07-01

    The evaluation includes a calculation of actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} in Denmark. In this calculation of actual emissions, the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. The evaluation has partly been prepared to enable Denmark to fulfil its international obligations to provide information within this area, and partly to follow the trend in consumption and emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. (BA)

  4. Investigation of stormwater quality improvements utilizing permeable friction course (PFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report describes research into the water quality and hydraulics of the Permeable Friction Course (PFC). : Water quality monitoring of 3 locations in the Austin area indicates up to a 90 percent reduction in pollutant : discharges from PFC compar...

  5. The separation of particulate within PFC decontamination wastewater generated by PFC decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Sung Yeol; Won, Hui Jun; Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin; Park, Jin Ho; Narayan, M.

    2005-01-01

    When PFC(Perfluoro carbonate) decontamination technology is applied to removal of radioactive contaminated particulate adhered at surface during the operation of nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to develop a filtration equipment to reuse of PFC solution due to high price, also to minimize the volume of second wastewater. Contaminated characteristics of hot particulate was investigated and a filtration process was presented to remove suspended radioactive particulate from PFC decontamination wastewater generated on PFC decontamination. The range of size of hot particulate adhered at the surface of research facilities measured by SEM was 0.1∼10μm. Hot particulate of more than 2μm in PFC contamination wastewater was removed by first filter and then hot particulate of more than 0.2μm was removed by second filter. Results of filter experiments showed that filtration efficiency of PVDF(Poly vinylidene fluoride), PP(Polypropylene), Ceramic filter was 95∼97%. A ceramic filter showed a higher filtration efficiency with a little low permeate volume. Also, a ceramic of inorganic compound could be broken easily on experiment and has a high price but was highly stable at radioactivity in comparison of PVDF and PP of a macromolecule which generate H 2 gas in alpha radioactivity environment

  6. Ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} consumption and emissions; Ozonlagsnedbrydende stoffer og drivhusgasserne HFC'er, PFC'er og SF{sub 6}. Forbrug og emissioner 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [Planmiljoe, Veksoe Sjaelland (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the project is to map the 2002 Danish consumption of produced ozone depleting substances and the consumption and actual emission of the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. The inventory is performed, partly according to the guidelines recommended by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and partly according to the method that has been used for previous mappings. The mapping is done partly in order to meet Denmark's international commitments to report and partly in order to monitor how the consumption of ozone depleting substances and the emissions of greenhouse gases develop. The mapping of ozone depleting substances includes the net consumption, meaning the amount of the imported raw materials in bulk or in drums minus any re-export of the substances in the form of raw materials. Mapping of the actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} is done in continuation of previous greenhouse gas inventories. The inventory process is continuously improving due to development of international approved guidelines (IPCC) and the production of increasingly detailed data. (BA)

  7. Neurotrophic effects of perfluorocarbon emulsion gel: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacs Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive neurotrophic effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment may be more easily achieved by applying a Perflourocarbon (PFC emulsion gel to the repair site. PFCs are halogen substituted carbon oils with unique oxygen transport potentials that are capable of increasing oxygen availability in local tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of a PFC emulsion to a repaired nerve would improve recovery. Materials and methods The left tibial nerve of 21 immature female Sprague-Dawley rats was transected, immediately repaired, and then circumferentially coated with PFC gel (Group A, n = 7, PFC-less gel (Group B, n = 7, or nothing (suture only, Group C, n = 7. At eight weeks post surgery, electrophysiological testing and histological and morphological analysis was performed. Results No statistically significant differences between experimental groups were found for muscle size and weight, axon counts, or nerve conduction velocity. Group A had a significantly smaller G-ratio than Groups B and C (p Conclusion Overall results do not indicate a functional benefit associated with application of a PFC emulsion gel to rodent tibial nerve repairs. A positive effect on myelination was seen.

  8. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of perfluorocarbons with fluorinated ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, S.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.; Pereiro, A.B.; Marrucho, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibria perfluorocarbons and fluorinated ionic liquids. • Non-Random Two Liquid model was successfully applied. • Thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the feasibility of partially replace perfluorocarbons (PFCs) with fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs) in PFCs-in-water emulsions, usually used for biomedical purposes, herein the (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of FILs containing fluorinated chains longer than four carbons with PFCs were carried out in a wide range of temperatures. With this goal in mind, two PFCs (perfluorooctane and perfluorodecalin) were selected and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the binary mixtures of these PFCs and FILs were studied at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range from T (293.15 to 343.15) K. For these studies, FILs containing ammonium, pyridinium and imidazolium cations and different anions with fluorocarbon alkyl chains between 4 and 8 were included. Additionally, Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) thermodynamic model was successfully applied to correlate the behaviour of the PFCs + FILs binary mixtures. Moreover, thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated from the experimental data

  9. In vitro surfactant and perfluorocarbon aerosol deposition in a neonatal physical model of the upper conducting airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estibalitz Goikoetxea

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aerosol delivery holds potential to release surfactant or perfluorocarbon (PFC to the lungs of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome with minimal airway manipulation. Nevertheless, lung deposition in neonates tends to be very low due to extremely low lung volumes, narrow airways and high respiratory rates. In the present study, the feasibility of enhancing lung deposition by intracorporeal delivery of aerosols was investigated using a physical model of neonatal conducting airways. METHODS: The main characteristics of the surfactant and PFC aerosols produced by a nebulization system, including the distal air pressure and air flow rate, liquid flow rate and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD, were measured at different driving pressures (4-7 bar. Then, a three-dimensional model of the upper conducting airways of a neonate was manufactured by rapid prototyping and a deposition study was conducted. RESULTS: The nebulization system produced relatively large amounts of aerosol ranging between 0.3±0.0 ml/min for surfactant at a driving pressure of 4 bar, and 2.0±0.1 ml/min for distilled water (H2Od at 6 bar, with MMADs between 2.61±0.1 µm for PFD at 7 bar and 10.18±0.4 µm for FC-75 at 6 bar. The deposition study showed that for surfactant and H2Od aerosols, the highest percentage of the aerosolized mass (∼65% was collected beyond the third generation of branching in the airway model. The use of this delivery system in combination with continuous positive airway pressure set at 5 cmH2O only increased total airway pressure by 1.59 cmH2O at the highest driving pressure (7 bar. CONCLUSION: This aerosol generating system has the potential to deliver relatively large amounts of surfactant and PFC beyond the third generation of branching in a neonatal airway model with minimal alteration of pre-set respiratory support.

  10. Effects of Enhanced Oxygen Delivery by Perfluorocarbons in Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    indicator of spinal cord ischemia. Acta Med Okayama 1997; 51:71–77. 10. Daugherty WP, Levasseur JE, Sun D, Spiess BD, Bullock MR: Perfluorocarbon... Spiess B. Perflurocarbon emulsions as a promising technology: a review of tissue and vascular gas dynamics. J Appl Physiol 2009; 106: 1444–1452. 12...Neurosurg Spine. 2008; 2: 213-20. 13. Zhou Z, Sun D, Levasseur JE, Merenda A, Hamm RJ, Zhu J, Spiess BD, Bullock MR. Perfluorocarbon emulsions improve

  11. The potential role of perfluorocarbon emulsions in decompression illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Bruce D

    2010-03-01

    Decompression illness (DCI) is an occasional occurrence in sport, professional, and military diving as well as a potential catastrophe in high-altitude flight, space exploration, mining, and caisson bridge construction. DCI theoretically could be a success-limiting problem in escape from a disabled submarine (DISSUB). Perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFCs) have previously been investigated as 'blood substitutes' with one approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of myocardial ischaemia. PFCs possess enhanced (as compared to plasma) respiratory gas solubility characteristics, including oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. This review examines approximately 30 years of research regarding the utilization of PFCs in gas embolism as well as experimental DCI. To date, no humans have been treated with PFCs for DCI.

  12. Power factor correction (PFC) converters feeding brushless DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of power factor correction (PFC) converters for feeding brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive. This work explores various configurations of PFC converters which are classified into five different categories of non-isolated, bridgeless (BL) non-isolated, isolated, BL-isolated PFC ...

  13. PFOS and PFC releases and associated pollution from a PFC production plant in Minnesota (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliaei, Fardin; Kriens, Don; Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and PFOS-related substances have been listed as persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention. From August 2012, Parties to the Convention needed to address the use, storage, and disposal of PFOS-including production sites and sites where PFOS wastes have been deposited-in their national implementation plans. The paper describes the pollution in Minnesota (USA) caused by the 3M Company at one of the largest per/polyfluorinated chemical (PFC) production facilities. From early 1950s until the end of 2002, when 3M terminated PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) production, PFOS, PFOA, and other PFC production wastes were disposed around the plant and in local disposal sites. Discharges from the site and releases from deposits caused widespread contamination of ground and surface waters including local drinking water wells. Fish in the river downstream were contaminated with PFOS to levels that led to fish consumption advisories. Human exposures resulted from ingesting contaminated drinking water, requiring installation of water treatment facilities and alternate water supplies. The critical evaluation of the assessments done revealed a range of gaps in particular of human exposure where relevant exposure pathways including the entire exposure via food have not been taken into consideration. Currently, the exposure assessment of vulnerable groups such as children or Hmong minorities is inadequate and needs to be improved/validated by epidemiological studies. The assessment methodology described for this site may serve-with highlighted improvements-as a model for assessment of other PFOS/PFC production sites in the Stockholm Convention implementation.

  14. High Efficiency PFC Frontend for Class-D Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Frium, Mads P.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the design of high eciency Power Factor Correction (PFC) converter for Class-D amplier at universal line and 3.5kW power range. The work starts with an overview on dierent high eciency Bridgeless PFC topologies and investigates their applicability with respect to the given...... speci- cations in Chapter 1. Based on the conclusions of Chapter 2, the single-phase Two-Boost-Circuit Bridgeless PFC converter topology is considered the most promising to start with regarding the achievable converter eciency and the EMI performances.The subsequent Chapters discuss the method...

  15. Subretinal Perfluorocarbon Liquid for Dissection of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Dalma-Weiszhausz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR is a frequent condition following complex retinal detachments or trauma, and subretinal PVR is a common cause of retinal redetachment. Subretinal PVR removal is challenging and may require creating multiple or large retinotomies, making manipulation of the retina difficult and sometimes hazardous. We propose a novel surgical technique that may facilitate subretinal removal of PVR. After peripheral retinotomy of 180 degrees or greater, perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL is carefully introduced into the subretinal space as a single bubble which provides space to perform the maneuvers. The PFCL serves as a second hand which folds the retina over, thereby allowing better visualization for safer and easier subretinal PVR removal. PFCL in then removed by direct aspiration as a single bubble while still under balanced salt solution, taking advantage of its high surface tension which prevents leaving bubbles behind. The described technique allows adequate exposure of the subretinal space for proper dissection of difficult-to-reach subretinal PVR. We applied this technique in five patients with chronic retinal detachment, extensive subretinal PVR and poor visual potential. The utilization of subretinal PFCL can assist dissection of subretinal PVR and may be useful in eyes with complicated retinal detachment and poor visual prognosis.

  16. Subretinal Perfluorocarbon Liquid for Dissection of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalma-Weiszhausz, Jose; Franco-Cardenas, Valentina; Dalma, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a frequent condition following complex retinal detachments or trauma, and subretinal PVR is a common cause of retinal redetachment. Subretinal PVR removal is challenging and may require creating multiple or large retinotomies, making manipulation of the retina difficult and sometimes hazardous. We propose a novel surgical technique that may facilitate subretinal removal of PVR. After peripheral retinotomy of 180 degrees or greater, perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) is carefully introduced into the subretinal space as a single bubble which provides space to perform the maneuvers. The PFCL serves as a second hand which folds the retina over, thereby allowing better visualization for safer and easier subretinal PVR removal. PFCL in then removed by direct aspiration as a single bubble while still under balanced salt solution, taking advantage of its high surface tension which prevents leaving bubbles behind. The described technique allows adequate exposure of the subretinal space for proper dissection of difficult-to-reach subretinal PVR. We applied this technique in five patients with chronic retinal detachment, extensive subretinal PVR and poor visual potential. The utilization of subretinal PFCL can assist dissection of subretinal PVR and may be useful in eyes with complicated retinal detachment and poor visual prognosis. PMID:23502847

  17. Power factor correction (PFC) converters feeding brushless DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    1Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, INDIA ... Hence, power factor correction (PFC) converters are used for achieving a unity ...... He is currently working as a Systems Engineer (Power IC) in AvantGarde ...

  18. Chemical and radiolytical characterization of some perfluorocarbon fluids used as coolants for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Battistin, M; Setnescu, R; Teissandier, B; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2006-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon fluids, - mainly C6F14 - used as coolants within High Energy Physics Detectors in the Large Hadrons Collider (LHC) at CERN, were characterized by applying mainly the following methods: GC, FT-IR and UV-Vis. The aim of this work was the quality control, the identification and the quantification of different impurities which could increase the radiation sensitivity of these fluids. Thus, the presence of H containing molecules within perfluorocarbons strongly influences the appearance of hydrofluoric acid during their irradiation. The procedures settled-up in this work are sensitive to the presence of such impurities and would be used for the analyses of the received perfluorocarbon fluids as well as to assess the radiation induced modifications and the efficiency of their purification treatments.

  19. vlPFC-vmPFC-Amygdala Interactions Underlie Age-Related Differences in Cognitive Regulation of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Insel, Catherine; Powers, Alisa; Franz, Peter; Helion, Chelsea; Martin, Rebecca E; Weber, Jochen; Mischel, Walter; Casey, B J; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2017-07-01

    Emotion regulation is a critical life skill that develops throughout childhood and adolescence. Despite this development in emotional processes, little is known about how the underlying brain systems develop with age. This study examined emotion regulation in 112 individuals (aged 6-23 years) as they viewed aversive and neutral images using a reappraisal task. On "reappraisal" trials, participants were instructed to view the images as distant, a strategy that has been previously shown to reduce negative affect. On "reactivity" trials, participants were instructed to view the images without regulating emotions to assess baseline emotional responding. During reappraisal, age predicted less negative affect, reduced amygdala responses and inverse coupling between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and amygdala. Moreover, left ventrolateral prefrontal (vlPFC) recruitment mediated the relationship between increasing age and diminishing amygdala responses. This negative vlPFC-amygdala association was stronger for individuals with inverse coupling between the amygdala and vmPFC. These data provide evidence that vmPFC-amygdala connectivity facilitates vlPFC-related amygdala modulation across development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Perfluorocarbon emulsion therapy attenuates pneumococcal infection in sickle cell mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Nawal; Andrew, Peter W; Pandya, Hitesh C

    2015-05-15

    Impaired immunity and tissue hypoxia-ischemia are strongly linked with Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenesis in patients with sickle cell anemia. Perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFCEs) have high O2-dissolving capacity and can alleviate tissue hypoxia. Here, we evaluate the effects of intravenous PFCE therapy in transgenic sickle cell (HbSS) mice infected with S. pneumoniae. HbSS and C57BL/6 (control) mice intravenously infected with S. pneumoniae were treated intravenously with PFCE or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and then managed in either air/O2 (FiO2 proportion, 50%; hereafter referred to as the PFCE-O2 and PBS-O2 groups) or air only (hereafter, the PFCE-air and PBS-air groups) gas mixtures. Lungs were processed for leukocyte and bacterial counts and cytokine measurements. HbSS mice developed severe pneumococcal infection significantly faster than C57BL/6 mice (Kaplan-Maier analysis, P < .05). PFCE-O2-treated HbSS mice had significantly better survival at 72 hours than HBSS mice treated with PFCE-air, PBS-O2, or PBS-air (P < .05). PFCE-O2-treated HbSS mice also had significantly lower pulmonary leukocyte counts, lower interleukin 1β and interferon γ levels, and higher interleukin 10 levels than PFCE-air-treated HbSS mice. Clearance of S. pneumoniae from lungs of HbSS mice or C57BL/6 mice was not altered by PFCE treatment. Improved survival of PFCE-O₂-treated HbSS mice infected with S. pneumoniae is associated with altered pulmonary inflammation but not enhanced bacterial clearance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Climate change. The first national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the present greenhouse gas inventory report follows the order established in the R evised 1996 IPCC Guidelines-Greenhouse Gas Inventory Workbook, volume 2 , which has identified six major economic sectors, as follows: Energy, industrial processes, solvent and other product use, agriculture, land use change and forestry and waste. These guidelines have considered the following greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, methane, non methane volatile organic compounds, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride. It should be noted that the protocol developed for the United Nations framework convention on climate change in the conference of parties 3, held in Kyoto on December 10, 1997 has determined six greenhouse gases to be controlled: CH 4 , CO 2 , N 2 O, HF C, PFC, S F 6 . This report summaries pictures of all important results obtained by the National Inventory team:The emitted amount of each greenhouse in all sectors in Lebanon. Tables and charts have been developed to show the contributions of various sectors to total emissions of gases in Lebanon

  2. Liquid−Liquid Equilibria in Ternary Systems of Hexafluoroisopropanol plus Perfluorocarbon plus Water or Methanol at 298.15 K

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strejc, M.; Řehák, K.; Beier, Petr; Morávek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 11 (2014), s. 3510-3516 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : liquid-liquid equilibrium * perfluorocarbons * hexafluoroisopropanol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.037, year: 2014

  3. Bridgeless SEPIC PFC Converter for Multistring LED Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Aman; Singh, Bhim

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with Power Factor Correction (PFC) in Low Voltage High Current (LVHC) multi-string light emitting diode (LED) using a bridgeless (BL) single ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC). This application is designed for large area LED lighting with illumination control. A multi-mode LED dimming technique is used for the lighting control. The BL-SEPIC PFC converter is used as a load emulator for high power factor. The regulated low voltage from flyback converter is a source power to the synchronous buck converters for multi-string LED driver and forced cooling system for LED junction. The BL-SEPIC PFC converter inductor design is based on Discontinuous Inductor Current Modes (DICM) which provides good PFC at low cost. Test results are found quite satisfactory for universal input AC (90-265 V). There is significant improvement in the power factor and input current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) with good margin of harmonic limits for lighting IEC 61000-3-2 Class C.

  4. Leaching of PFC from soils contaminated with PFC of different origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbe, Ute; Piechotta, Christian; Rothe, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Leaching tests are fundamental tools for the assessment of groundwater impact by contaminated soils concerning the soil-groundwater pathway. Such procedures are supposed to serve as the basis for a reliable leachate prognosis. They can be applied to determine the short and long term leaching behaviour as well as the source term of contaminated soils. For this purpose two types of leaching procedures have been validated in Germany for the examination of the leaching behaviour of frequently occurring organic substances (DIN 19528 - column test and DIN 19529 - batch test). A liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) of 2 L/kg and 10 L/kg) is the basis for the risk assessment which is implemented in different German regulations. The equivalence of test results for both tests for the same material under investigation has been investigated for a variety of pollutants in order to assess their reliability in compliance testing. However, for emerging pollutants there is hardly data available on this issue. Leaching tests on soils contaminated with emerging pollutants such as PFC (Perfluorinated Surfactants) are currently coming more into consideration due to the increasing detection of contaminated sites. Therefore, two soils were investigated in this study from different contamination source (paper sludge containing compost and fire distinguishing foam) using both leaching tests and both liquid-to-solid ratios. The leachability of the various perfluorinated compounds in relation to their content in solid matter was considered. Furthermore the eluate pre-treatment prior analysis (in particular liquid/solid separation step needed for batch tests) has been taken into account. The comparability of the results from batch and column is dependent on the solubility of the various compounds, on the L/S and on the turbidity in the eluates.

  5. Stunted PFC activity during neuromuscular control under stress with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for impaired cognition, which is primarily regulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, very little is known about the neural pathways that underlie obesity-related declines in neuromuscular control, particularly under stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the PFC on neuromuscular control during handgrip exertions under stress with obesity. Twenty non-obese and obese young adults performed submaximal handgrip exertions in the absence and presence of a concurrent stressful task. Primary dependent measures included oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2: a measure of PFC activity) and force fluctuations (an indicator of neuromuscular control). Higher HbO2 levels in the PFC were observed in the non-obese compared to the obese group (P = 0.009). In addition, higher HbO2 levels were observed in the stress compared to the control condition in the non-obese group; however, this trend was reversed in the obese group (P = 0.043). In general, force fluctuations increased by 26% in the stress when compared to the control condition (P = 0.001) and obesity was associated with 39% greater force fluctuation (P = 0.024). Finally, while not significant, obesity-related decrements in force fluctuations were magnified under stress (P = 0.063). The current study provides the first evidence that neuromuscular decrements with obesity were associated with impaired PFC activity and this relationship was augmented in stress conditions. These findings are important because they provide new information on obesity-specific changes in brain function associated with neuromuscular control since the knowledge previously focused largely on obesity-specific changes in peripheral muscle capacity.

  6. Statistical data analysis method for multi-zonal airflow measurement using multiple kinds of perfluorocarbon tracer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Hiroyasu; Onishi, Yoshinori [Institute of Technology, Shimizu Corporation, 4-17, Etchujima 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8530 (Japan); Tanabe, Shin-ichi [School of Science and Engineering, Department of Architecture, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kashihara, Seiichi [R and D Laboratories, Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, 2-1, Samejima Fuji-shi, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    Conventional multi-zonal ventilation measurement methods by multiple types of perfluorocarbon tracers use a number of different gases equal to the number of zones (n). The possible n x n+n airflows are estimated from the mass balance of the gases and the airflow balance. However, some airflows may not occur because of inter-zonal geometry, and the introduction of unnecessary, unknown parameters can impair the accuracy of the estimation. Also, various error factors often yield an irrational negative airflow rate. Conventional methods are insufficient for the evaluation of error. This study describes a way of using the least-squares technique to improve the precision of estimation and to evaluate reliability. From the equations' residual, the error variance-covariance matrix {lambda}{sub q} of the estimated airflow rate error is deduced. In addition, the coefficient of determinant using the residual sum of squares and total variation is introduced. Furthermore, the error matrix{sub m}{lambda}{sub q} from the measurement errors in the gas concentration and gas emission rate is deduced. The discrepancy ratio of the model premises is defined by dividing the diagonal elements of the former by those of the latter. Moreover, the index of irrationality of the estimated negative airflow rate is defined, based on the different results of the three estimation methods. Some numerical experiments are also carried out to verify the flow rate estimation and the reliability evaluation theory. (author)

  7. 78 FR 76389 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Aberdeen, South Dakota. Application Number: 13-03-C-00-ABR. Application Type: Impose and use a PFC. PFC... related improvements--design and construction. Redundant main electrical service feed--construction...

  8. An update: improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon-mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, George R; Mansfield, Jessica C; Christmas, Jacqueline T; Witterick, Eleanor; Fricker, Mark D; Grant, Murray R; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Everson, Richard M; Moger, Julian; Love, John

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximize the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labeling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC), perfluorodecalin (PFD) enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal impact on physiology. Here, we assess the use of the PFCs, PFD, and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (PP11) for in vivo plant leaf imaging using four advanced modes of microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. For every mode of imaging tested, we observed an improved signal when leaves were mounted in PFD or in PP11, compared to mounting the samples in water. Using an image analysis technique based on autocorrelation to quantitatively assess LSCM image deterioration with depth, we show that PP11 outperformed PFD as a mounting medium by enabling the acquisition of clearer images deeper into the tissue. In addition, we show that SRS microscopy can be used to image PFCs directly in the mesophyll and thereby easily delimit the "negative space" within a leaf, which may have important implications for studies of leaf development. Direct comparison of on and off resonance SRS micrographs show that PFCs do not to form intracellular aggregates in live plants. We conclude that the application of PFCs as mounting media substantially increases advanced microscopy image quality of living mesophyll and leaf vascular bundle cells.

  9. Activity in dlPFC and its effective connectivity to vmPFC are associated with temporal discounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A Hare

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread interest in identifying computational and neurobiological mechanisms that influence the ability to choose long-term benefits over more proximal and readily available rewards in domains such as dietary and economic choice. We present the results of a human fMRI study that examines how neural activity relates to observed individual differences in the discounting of future rewards during an intertemporal monetary choice task. We found that a region of left dlPFC BA-46 was more active in trials where subjects chose delayed rewards, after controlling for the subjective value of those rewards. We also found that the connectivity from dlPFC BA-46 to a region of vmPFC widely associated with the computational of stimulus values, increased at the time of choice, and especially during trials in which subjects chose delayed rewards. Finally, we found that estimates of effective connectivity between these two regions played a critical role in predicting out-of-sample, between-subject differences in discount rates. Together with previous findings in dietary choice, these results suggest that a common set of computational and neurobiological mechanisms facilitate choices in favor of long- term reward in both settings.

  10. Lithium vapor trapping at a high-temperature lithium PFC divertor target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Michael; Abrams, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; de Temmerman, G.; Scholten, J.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    Liquid lithium has been proposed as a novel plasma-facing material for NSTX-U and next-step fusion devices but questions remain on the ultimate temperature limits of such a PFC during plasma bombardment. Lithium targets were exposed to high-flux plasma bombardment in the Magnum-PSI experimental device resulting in a temperature ramp from room-temperature to above 1200°C. A stable lithium vapor cloud was found to form directly in front of the target and persist to temperature above 1000°C. Consideration of mass and momentum balance in the pre-sheath region of an attached plasma indicates an increase in the magnitude of the pre-sheath potential drop with the inclusion of ionization sources as well as the inclusion of momentum loss terms. The low energy of lithium emission from a surface measured in previous experiments (Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Ultrafast Switching Superjunction MOSFETs for Single Phase PFC Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a guide on characterizing state-of-the-art silicon superjunction (SJ) devices in the 600V range for single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications. The characterization procedure is based on a minimally inductive double pulse tester (DPT) with a very low intrusive...... current measurement method, which enables reaching the switching speed limits of these devices. Due to the intrinsic low and non-linear capacitances in vertical SJ MOSFETs, special attention needs to be paid to the gate drive design to minimize oscillations and limit the maximum at turn off. This paper...

  12. Pharmacological and therapeutic directions in ADHD: Specificity in the PFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Florence

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent directions in the treatment of ADHD have involved both a broadening of pharmacological perspectives to include nor-adrenergic as well as dopaminergic agents. A review of animal and human studies of pharmacological and therapeutic directions in ADHD suggests that the D1 receptor is a specific site for dopaminergic regulation of the PFC, but optimal levels of dopamine (DA are required for beneficial effects on working memory. Animal and human studies indicate that the alpha-2A receptor is also important for prefrontal regulation, leaving open the question of the relative importance of these receptor sites. The therapeutic effects of ADHD medications in the prefrontal cortex have focused attention on the development of working memory capacity in ADHD. Hypothesis The actions of dopaminergic vs noradrenergic agents, currently available for the treatment of ADHD have overlapping, but different actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and subcortical centers. While stimulants act on D1 receptors in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, they also have effects on D2 receptors in the corpus striatum and may also have serotonergic effects at orbitofrontal areas. At therapeutic levels, dopamine (DA stimulation (through DAT transporter inhibition decreases noise level acting on subcortical D2 receptors, while NE stimulation (through alpha-2A agonists increases signal by acting preferentially in the PFC possibly on DAD1 receptors. On the other hand, alpha-2A noradrenergic transmission is more limited to the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and thus less likely to have motor or stereotypic side effects, while alpha-2B and alpha-2C agonists may have wider cortical effects. The data suggest a possible hierarchy of specificity in the current medications used in the treatment of ADHD, with guanfacine likely to be most specific for the treatment of prefrontal attentional and working memory deficits. Stimulants may have broader effects on both vigilance

  13. Fuzzy Controlled Parallel AC-DC Converter for PFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Subba Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paralleling of converter modules is a well-known technique that is often used in medium-power applications to achieve the desired output power by using smaller size of high frequency transformers and inductors. In this paper, a parallel-connected single-phase PFC topology using flyback and forward converters is proposed to improve the output voltage regulation with simultaneous input power factor correction (PFC and control. The goal of the control is to stabilize the output voltage of the converter against the load variations. The paper presents the derivation of fuzzy control rules for the dc/dc converter circuit and control algorithm for regulating the dc/dc converter. This paper presents a design example and circuit analysis for 200 W power supply. The proposed approach offers cost effective, compact and efficient AC/DC converter by the use of parallel power processing. MATLAB/SIMULINK is used for implementation and simulation results show the performance improvement.

  14. 76 FR 34124 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...--construction. Security equipment--fingerprinting machine (replacement). PFC Administrative costs. Brief... rescue and firefighting vehicle replacement. Electrical substation and distribution system rehabilitation...

  15. Investigating the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC in the assessment of brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Paulo eSantos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC is believed to be important in everyday preference judgments, processing emotions during decision-making. However, there is still controversy in the literature regarding the participation of the vmPFC. To further elucidate the contribution of the vmPFC in brand preference, we designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study where 18 subjects assessed positive, indifferent and fictitious brands. Also, both the period during and after the decision process were analyzed, hoping to unravel temporally the role of the vmPFC, using modeled and model-free fMRI analysis. Considering together the period before and after decision-making, there was activation of the vmPFC when comparing positive with indifferent or fictitious brands. However, when the decision-making period was separated from the moment after the response, and especially for positive brands, the vmPFC was more active after the choice than during the decision process itself, challenging some of the existing literature. The results of the present study support the notion that the vmPFC may be unimportant in the decision stage of brand preference, questioning theories that postulate that the vmPFC is in the origin of such a choice. Further studies are needed to investigate in detail why the vmPFC seems to be involved in brand preference only after the decision process.

  16. 76 FR 70809 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    .... Pavement condition index airfield inspection. Brief Description of Withdrawn Projects: Safety management... management services. East terminal expansion. New upper level roadway, design and construction. PFC...

  17. Estimation of reliability of a interleaving PFC boost converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulam Amer Sandepudi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability plays an important role in power supplies. For other electronic equipment, a certain failure mode, at least for a part of the total system, can often be employed without serious (critical effects. However, for power supply no such condition can be accepted, since very high demands on its reliability must be achieved. At higher power levels, the continuous conduction mode (CCM boost converter is preferred topology for implementation a front end with PFC. As a result, significant efforts have been made to improve the performance of high boost converter. This paper is one of the efforts for improving the performance of the converter from the reliability point of view. In this paper, interleaving boost power factor correction converter is simulated with single switch in continuous conduction mode (CCM, discontinuous conduction mode (DCM and critical conduction mode (CRM under different output power ratings. Results of the converter are explored from reliability point of view.

  18. Study on a Novel High-Efficiency Bridgeless PFC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Taiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement a high-efficiency bridgeless power factor correction converter, a new topology and operation principles of continuous conduction mode (CCM and DC steady-state character of the converter are analyzed, which show that the converter not only has bipolar-gain characteristic but also has the same characteristic as the traditional Boost converter, while the voltage transfer ratio is not related with the resonant branch parameters and switching frequency. Based on the above topology, a novel bridgeless Bipolar-Gain Pseudo-Boost PFC converter is proposed. With this converter, the diode rectifier bridge of traditional AC-DC converter is eliminated, and zero-current switching of fast recovery diode is achieved. Thus, the efficiency is improved. Next, we also propose the one-cycle control policy of this converter. Finally, experiments are provided to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed converter.

  19. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...

  20. Study of radiation heat transfer between PFC and vacuum vessel during SST-1 baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh E-mail: paritosh@ipr.res.in; Chenna Reddy, D.; Santra, P.; Khirwadkar, S.; Ravi Pragash, N.; Saxena, Y.C

    2003-01-01

    Steady-state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with superconducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of SST-1 are placed inside the vacuum vessel (VV) of the tokamak and are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m{sup 2}. In addition to remove high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at high temperature. Since it is difficult to calculate the radiation heat loads between PFC and VV in a 3-D irregular geometry, a simplified model of concentric cylinders has been chosen for the purpose of estimation of the power requirements and the thermal responses of PFC and VV during their bakeout phases. Thermal responses of the PFC and VV have been analysed and the analytical results have been compared with 2-D finite element analysis using ANSYS. The radiation losses between PFC and VV also have been evaluated on the actual model containing all PFC inside the VV.

  1. 76 FR 12405 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... monitoring terminals. Update pavement management program. Reimbursement for jet bridges and acquisition and.... Mandatory pavement markings. Airport signage. Runway guard lights. Wildlife study. PFC application.... Runway 18/36 pavement maintenance. Runway 13/31 pavement maintenance. PFC administration fees. Brief...

  2. 14 CFR 158.47 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued outside the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and... required to collect a PFC on air travel tickets issued on its own ticket stock unless it serves a point or... public agency controlling the last airport at which the passenger is enplaned prior to departure from the...

  3. Velocity of sound measurements in gaseous per-fluorocarbons and their custom mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Vacek, V; Lindsay, S

    2000-01-01

    An inexpensive sonar instrument was prepared for measurements of sound velocity in two fluorocarbon vapors; per-fluoro-n-propane (C3F8), per-fluoro-n-butane (C4F10), and their custom mixtures. The apparatus, measurement principle and instrument software are described. All sound velocity measurements in per-fluorocarbons were made in the low pressure range between 0.01 and 0.4 MPa, and at temperatures between 253 and 303 K. The purity of the C3F8 and C4F10 samples was checked using gas chromatography. Uncertainties in the speed of sound measurements were better than ± 0.1 %. Comparisons were made with theoretical predictions of sound velocity for the two individual components. The instrument was then used for concentration monitoring of custom C3F8/C4F10 mixtures.

  4. Use of sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorocarbon tracers in plutonium storage containers for leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, J.K.

    1998-05-01

    This study involves an investigation of the feasibility of a tracer-based leak detection system for long-term interim plutonium storage. In particular, a protocol has been developed based on the use of inert tracers with varying concentrations in order to open-quotes fingerprintclose quotes or open-quotes tagclose quotes specific containers. A particular combination of tracers at specific ratios could be injected into the free volume of each container, allowing for the detection of leaks as well as determination of the location of leaking containers. Based on plutonium storage considerations, sulfur hexafluoride and four perfluorocarbon tracers were selected and should allow a wide range of viable fingerprinting combinations. A open-quotes high-lowclose quotes protocol which uses two distinct chromatographic peak areas or concentration levels, is recommended. Combinations of air exchange rates, detection durations, and detectability limits are examined in order to predict minimum tracer concentrations required for injection in storage containers

  5. Overall behaviour of PFC integrated SST-1 vacuum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip C.; Paravasu, Yuvakiran; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; George, Siju; Shoaib, Mohammad; Prakash, Arun; Babu, Gattu R.; Thankey, Prashant; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    As a part of phase-I up-gradation of Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1), Graphite Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been integrated inside SST-1 vacuum vessel as a first wall (FW) during Nov 14 and May 2015. The SST-1 FW has a total surface area of the installed PFCs exposed to plasma is ∼ 40 m2 which is nearly 50% of the total surface area of stainless steel vacuum chamber (∼75 m2). The volume of the vessel within the PFCs is ∼ 16 m3. After the integration of PFCs, the entire vessel as well as the PFC cooling/baking circuits has been qualified with an integrated helium leak tightness of baked at 250 °C for nearly 20 hours employing hot nitrogen gas to remove the absorbed water vapours. Thereafter, Helium glow discharges cleaning were carried out towards the removal of surface impurities. The pump down characteristics of SST-1 vacuum chamber and the changes in the residual gaseous impurities after the installation of the PFCs will be discussed in this paper.

  6. Webová aplikace v PLC PFC200

    OpenAIRE

    Michalík, David

    2017-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se věnuje implementaci vlastního způsobu ovládání vstupů, výstupů a paměti PLC PFC200 od firmy WAGO pomocí dynamického webového rozhraní. Součástí práce je popis PLC, způsobů jeho ovládání, rešerše volně dostupných webových serverů pro Linux a popis metod pro vytvoření real-time ovládání. Výstupem je webová aplikace běžící na webovém serveru v PLC, využívající vlastní runtime systém formou daemon programů. This bachelor’s thesis is mainly focused on implementation of ...

  7. HIDRA: A new device for PFC and PMI development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David N.; Allain, Jean Paul; Curreli, Davide; HIDRA Team

    2014-10-01

    A toroidal plasma device is being constructed at the University of Illinois dedicated in part as a toroidal liquid-metal PFC technology test bench. The Hybrid Illinois stellarator/tokamak Device for Research and Applications (HIDRA) is a medium sized classical stellarator (previously WEGA, IPP Greifswald) with, R = 0.72 m, a = 0.19 m, B < 0.5 T and will be able to reach Te = 10-50 eV, ne = 1017--1018 m-3 with plasmas running up to several minutes. A critical knowledge gap for liquid-metal PFCs is their integration and performance in asymmetric confinement fusion environments. HIDRA will be used to evaluate technologies such as TEMHD driven flows for the first wall, help address key questions including whether a full toroidal liquid-metal loop can operate in a toroidal machine, test low recycling regimes and whether D can be removed and recycled easily. Also, UIUC's experience with in-situ diagnostics will open up new opportunities for innovative Material Application Testing (HIDRA-MAT).

  8. Japanese universities' activities for PFC development and PMI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.

    1998-01-01

    Development of reliable plasma facing components (PFC) with active cooling structures is required for divertor plates of fusion devices in order to remove a large heat flow to the divertor. It is also known that plasma material interactions (PMIs), i.e. fuel hydrogen recycling and erosion of plasma facing material (PFM) determine the energy confinement characteristics. The lifetime of PFCs is limited by the erosion of PFMs. In Japanese universities, studies concerning PFCs and PMIs have been carried out so far for LHD and ITER. For the LHD divertor, both graphite/copper brazed components and mechanical joint components have been developed, and the heat load performance has been examined. For the particle control in LHD, a localized divertor called LID has been designed, the preliminary experiment was conducted in a small helical device, the CHS. In order to reduce the oxygen impurity level, boronization experiments have been conducted systematically, and properties such as oxygen gettering and hydrogen retention were clarified. In the TRIAM-1M tokamak, the damage of PFMs has been investigated using a surface probe. Data on hydrogen retention, which determines the degree of hydrogen recycling, have been accumulated for graphite, Li, B, B 4 C, SiC and W. Conditioning methods are also suggested. In this paper, the problems associated with PFCs and PMIs are pointed out and data recently obtained in Japanese universities and NIFS are briefly introduced. (orig.)

  9. Effect of PFC recycling conditions on JET pedestal density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesen, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Dittmar, T.; Matveev, D.; Harting, D.; De la Luna, E.; Schmid, K.

    2016-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that the pedestal dynamics in type-I ELMy H-mode discharges is significantly affected by a change in the recycling conditions at the tungsten plasma-facing components (W-PFCs) after an ELM event. The integrated code JINTRAC has been employed to assess the impact of recycling conditions during type-I ELMs in JET ITER-like wall H-mode discharges. By employing a heuristic approach, a model to mimic the physical processes leading to formation and release (i.e. outgassing) of finite near-surface fuel reservoirs in W-PFCs has been implemented into the EDGE2D-EIRENE plasma-wall interaction code being part of JINTRAC. As main result it is shown, that a delay in the density pedestal build-up after an ELM event can be provoked by reduced recycling induced by depleted W-PFC particle near-surface reservoirs. However the pedestal temperature evolution is barely affected by the change in recycling parameters suggesting that the presented model is incomplete. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  10. Report on achievement in the preceding research related to global industry technologies for the global industry technology research and development project. Research on gas systems substituting global warming gases such as PFC used in manufacturing semiconductors; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu. Handotai seizo nado ni shiyosuru PFC nado no chikyu ondanka gas no daitai gas system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present semiconductor manufacturing process uses a great amount of PFC having large global warming coefficients and extremely long atmospheric life. A research was made particularly on reduction of its emission from etching processes. After introducing how the semiconductor industry has been working conventionally on protection of the global environment, this paper makes clear the purpose and positioning of this preceding research, as well as how it is moved forward. The paper also reports the results of analyzing and discussing the exhaust gases from etching devices using several kinds of substitute PFC gases. Survey results are reported on the possibilities of new substitute gases, plasma decomposition and treatment of exhaust gases, reaction process simulation, and in-situ analyzing and evaluating technologies. Investigations were made on the possibility of using no PFC in wiring processes which consume greater amount of PFC, as well as on wiring techniques using inter-layer insulation film with low dielectric rate, a new wiring structure forming technology, new functional elements, circuits and systems in a wide range. Proposals were given on specific research and development themes and plans that begin in fiscal 1999. (NEDO)

  11. Design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of PFC baking for SST-1 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh E-mail: paritosh@ipr.res.in; Reddy, D. Chenna; Khirwadkar, S.; Prakash, N. Ravi; Santra, P.; Saxena, Y.C

    2001-09-01

    The Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium-size tokamak with super-conducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of the SST-1, consisting of divertors, passive stabilisers, baffles, and poloidal limiters, are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. Except for the poloidal limiters, all other PFC are structurally continuous in the toroidal direction. As SST-1 is designed to run double-null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. The passive stabilisers are located close to the plasma to provide stability against the vertical instability of the elongated plasma. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m{sup 2}. In addition to removing high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 deg. C. Different flow parameters and various tube layouts have been examined to select the optimum thermal-hydraulic parameters and tube layout for different PFC of SST-1. Thermal response of the PFC during baking has been performed analytically (using a Fortran code) and two-dimensional finite element analysis using ANSYS. The detailed thermal hydraulics and thermal responses of PFC baking is presented in this paper.

  12. Design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of PFC baking for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Reddy, D. Chenna; Khirwadkar, S.; Prakash, N. Ravi; Santra, P.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2001-01-01

    The Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium-size tokamak with super-conducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of the SST-1, consisting of divertors, passive stabilisers, baffles, and poloidal limiters, are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. Except for the poloidal limiters, all other PFC are structurally continuous in the toroidal direction. As SST-1 is designed to run double-null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. The passive stabilisers are located close to the plasma to provide stability against the vertical instability of the elongated plasma. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m 2 . In addition to removing high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 deg. C. Different flow parameters and various tube layouts have been examined to select the optimum thermal-hydraulic parameters and tube layout for different PFC of SST-1. Thermal response of the PFC during baking has been performed analytically (using a Fortran code) and two-dimensional finite element analysis using ANSYS. The detailed thermal hydraulics and thermal responses of PFC baking is presented in this paper

  13. Functionality of albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based artificial oxygen carriers in the Langendorff-heart †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobeln, Anna; Schlüter, Klaus D; Linders, Jürgen; Zähres, Manfred; Mayer, Christian; Kirsch, Michael; Ferenz, Katja B

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to prove whether albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based nanoparticles (capsules) can operate as a novel artificial oxygen carrier in a rat Langendorff-heart perfusion model. Hearts perfused with capsules showed increased left ventricular pressure and rate pressure product compared to hearts perfused with pure Krebs-Henseleit (KH)-buffer. The capsules prevented the myocardium from functional fail when in their absence a noxious ischemia was observed. Capsules did not change rheological properties of KH-buffer and could repeatedly reload with oxygen. This albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based artificial oxygen carrier preserved the function of rat hearts due to the transport of oxygen in a satisfactory manner. Because of these positive results, the functionality of the applied capsules should be verified in living animals.

  14. Fluorine cardiovascular magnetic resonance angiography in vivo at 1.5 T with perfluorocarbon nanoparticle contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Anne M; Caruthers, Shelton D; Hockett, Franklin D; Cyrus, Tillman; Robertson, J David; Allen, J Stacy; Williams, Todd D; Fuhrhop, Ralph W; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2007-01-01

    While the current gold standard for coronary imaging is X-ray angiography, evidence is accumulating that it may not be the most sensitive technique for detecting unstable plaque. Other imaging modalities, such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), can be used for plaque characterization, but suffer from long scan and reconstruction times for determining regions of stenosis. We have developed an intravascular fluorinated contrast agent that can be used for angiography with cardiovascular magnetic resosnace at clinical field strengths (1.5 T). This liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticle contains a high concentration of fluorine atoms that can be used to generate contrast on 19F MR images without any competing background signal from surrounding tissues. By using a perfluorocarbon with 20 equivalent fluorine molecules, custom-built RF coils, a modified clinical scanner, and an efficient steady-state free procession sequence, we demonstrate the use of this agent for angiography of small vessels in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. The surprisingly high signal generated with very short scan times and low doses of perfluorocarbon indicates that this technique may be useful in clinical settings when coupled with advanced imaging strategies.

  15. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  16. Neuroanatomy of the vmPFC and dlPFC predicts individual differences in cognitive regulation during dietary self-control across regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liane; Tusche, Anita; Manoharan, Nicolas; Hutcherson, Cendri; Hare, Todd; Plassmann, Hilke

    2018-06-04

    Making healthy food choices is challenging for many people. Individuals differ greatly in their ability to follow health goals in the face of temptation, but it is unclear what underlies such differences. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated in healthy humans (i.e., men and women) links between structural variation in gray matter volume and individuals' level of success in shifting toward healthier food choices. We combined MRI and choice data into a joint dataset by pooling across three independent studies that employed a task prompting participants to explicitly focus on the healthiness of food items before making their food choices. Within this dataset, we found that individual differences in gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) predicted regulatory success. We extended and confirmed these initial findings by predicting regulatory success out of sample and across tasks in a second dataset requiring participants to apply a different regulation strategy that entailed distancing from cravings for unhealthy, appetitive foods. Our findings suggest that neuroanatomical markers in the vmPFC and dlPFC generalized to different forms of dietary regulation strategies across participant groups. They provide novel evidence that structural differences in neuroanatomy of two key regions for valuation and its control, the vmPFC and dlPFC, predict an individual's ability to exert control in dietary choices. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dieting involves regulating food choices in order to eat healthier foods and fewer unhealthy foods. People differ dramatically in their ability to achieve or maintain this regulation, but it is unclear why. Here, we show that individuals with more gray matter volume in the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are better at exercising dietary self-control. This relationship was observed across four different studies examining two different forms of dietary

  17. Reward acts on the pFC to enhance distractor resistance of working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Sean James; Cools, Roshan

    2014-12-01

    Working memory and reward processing are often thought to be separate, unrelated processes. However, most daily activities involve integrating these two types of information, and the two processes rarely, if ever, occur in isolation. Here, we show that working memory and reward interact in a task-dependent manner and that this task-dependent interaction involves modulation of the pFC by the ventral striatum. Specifically, BOLD signal during gains relative to losses in the ventral striatum and pFC was associated not only with enhanced distractor resistance but also with impairment in the ability to update working memory representations. Furthermore, the effect of reward on working memory was accompanied by differential coupling between the ventral striatum and ignore-related regions in the pFC. Together, these data demonstrate that reward-related signals modulate the balance between cognitive stability and cognitive flexibility by altering functional coupling between the ventral striatum and the pFC.

  18. 75 FR 65551 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... lot and rehabilitate north public parking lot. Install high mast lighting for cargo apron. PFC program... that the portions of the proposed project related to the solar energy project were not eligible...

  19. Plasma Facing Components Generic Facilities Review Panel (PFC-GFRP): Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.; Allen, S.; Hill, D.; Brooks, J.; Mattas, R.; Davis, J.; Lipschultz, B.; Ulrickson, M.

    1993-10-01

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) Facilities Review Panel was chartered by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and Technology Division, to outline the program plan and identify the supporting test facilities that lead to reliable, long-lived plasma facing components for ITER. This report summarizes the panel's findings and identifies the necessary and sufficient set of test facilities required for ITER PFC development

  20. Evaluation of 600V Superjunction Devices in Single Phase PFC Applications under CCM Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    electromagnetic interference (EMI). The dynamic characterization is based on a low inductive double pulse tester (DPT). The measured switching energy is used in order to evaluate the devices performance in a conventional PFC. This data is used together with the mathematical model for prediction of the conducted...... electromagnetic interference. The method allows comparing different devices and evaluating the performance as a function of the PFC power density and efficiency....

  1. Differential Functional Connectivity Alterations of Two Subdivisions within the Right dlPFC in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Caspers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD often show impairments in executive function (EF like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function. To investigate whether these functionally distinct subdivisions of right dlPFC are differentially affected in PD, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity (FC in 39 PD patients and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were examined both after at least 12 h withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs (OFF and under their regular dopaminergic medication (ON. We found that only the posterior right dlPFC subdivision shows FC alterations in PD, while the anterior part remains unaffected. PD-related decreased FC with posterior right dlPFC was found in the bilateral medial posterior parietal cortex (mPPC and left dorsal premotor region (PMd in the OFF state. In the medical ON, FC with left PMd normalized, while decoupling with bilateral mPPC remained. Furthermore, we observed increased FC between posterior right dlPFC and the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC in PD in the ON state. Our findings point to differential disturbances of right dlPFC connectivity in PD, which relate to its hierarchical organization of EF processing by stronger affecting the functionally basal posterior aspect than the hierarchically higher anterior part.

  2. Engineering and thermal-hydraulics design of PFC cooling for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Reddy, D. Chenna; Santra, P.; Khiwadkar, S.; Prakash, N. Rabi; Ramash, G.; Dubey, Santosh; Prakash, Arun; Saxena, Y. C.

    2003-01-01

    The main consideration in the design of the PFC cooling for SST-1 tokamak is the steady state heat removal of upto 1MW/m2. The PFC also has been design to withstand the peak heat fluxes without significant erosion such that frequent replacement is not necessary. Proper brazing of cooling tube on the copper back plate is necessary for the efficient heat transfer from the tube to the back plate. Design considerations included 2-D steady state and transient tile temperature distribution and resulting thermal loads in PFC during baking, and cooling, coolant parameters necessary to maintain optimum thermal-hydraulic design, and tile fitting mechanism. Finite Element (FE) models using ANSYS have been developed to conduct the heat transfer and stress analyses of the PFC to understand its thermal and mechanical behaviors. The temperature distribution results for different PFC obtained by FE results were assessed by comparison with 2-D Finite Difference code. The results of the calculation led to a good understanding of the coolant flow behavior and the temperature distribution in the tube wall and the different parts of the PFC. The contact at the brazed joint of the tube to the backplate is critical for the above application. The manufactured modules need to be evaluated for the quality of brazed joint. Using an infra-red-camera, spatial and temporal evaluation of the temperature profile is studied under various flow parameters. These results of this study will be presented in details in this paper

  3. Feasibility of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) in atmospheric source-receptor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    1984-03-01

    A brief description of the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) system, which includes the tracers and the release equipment, the air samplers and the analyzers, is presented along with details on the research needs to provide a viable system for MATEX-scenario experiments. The present family of 2 viable PFTs needs to be increased to 5 to 6. Given the present precision of the analysis system, a one year long tracer experiment consisting of 4 hour releases every 60 hours from 5 different sites would require nearly 150 metric tons of PFTs at a cost of $15,000,000. Shortcomings in the programmable sampler include the pump, the sampling sequence control flexibility, data storage and retrieval, and the lack of remote communication capability; sampler adsorbent studies are also needed. The analytical system, including the catalyst processing bed, the chromatography column resolution, and the linearity of the detector, is in need of significant improvement. A higher resolution analysis system could significantly reduce analysis time but, more importantly, reduce tracer requirements more than 10-fold, for a cost savings potential of more than $13,000,000. A model is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of tracer material balances. Assessment of earlier long-range tracer experiments indicates the need for possibly 400 ground sampling sites requiring $8 to $14 million worth of samplers for a one-year tracer experiment. As many as six aircraft would be needed to conduct airborne model validation and material balance studies for each tracer plume

  4. USE OF PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER (PFT) TECHNOLOGY FOR SUBSURFACE BARRIER INTEGRITY VERIFICATION AT THE WALDO TEST SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.; HEISER,J.; SENUM,G.; MILLIAN,L.

    2000-02-27

    Researchers from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) tested perfluorocarbon (PFT) gas tracers on a subsurface barrier with known flaws at the Waldo test facility [operated by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc (SEA)]. The tests involved the use of five unique PFT tracers with a different tracer injected along the interior of each wall of the barrier. A fifth tracer was injected exterior to the barrier to examine the validity of diffusion controlled transport of the PFTs. The PFTs were injected for three days at a nominal flow rate of 15 cm{sup 3}/min and a concentrations in the range of a few hundred ppm. Approximately 65 liters of air laced with tracer was injected for each tracer. The tracers were able to accurately detect the presence of the engineered flaws. Two flaws were detected on the north and east walls and lane flaw was detected on the south and west walls. In addition, one non-engineered flaw at the seam between the north and east walls was also detected. The use of multiple tracers provided independent confirmation of the flaws and permitted a distinction between tracers arriving at a monitoring port after being released from a nearby flaw and non-engineered flaws. The PFTs detected the smallest flaw, 0.5 inches in diameter. Visual inspection of the data showed excellent agreement with the known flaw locations and the relative size of the flaws was accurately estimated.

  5. Acoustic Droplet Vaporization, Cavitation, and Therapeutic Properties of Copolymer-Stabilized Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Christensen, Douglas A.; Rapoport, Natalya; Kennedy, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic and therapeutic properties of Doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions have been investigated in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. The nanoemulsions were stabilized by two biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers that differed in the structure of the hydrophobic block. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) and cavitation parameters were measured as a function of ultrasound frequency, pressure, duty cycles, and temperature. The optimal parameters that induced ADV and inertial cavitation of the formed microbubbles were used in vivo in the experiments on the ultrasound-mediated chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. A combination tumor treatment by intravenous injections of drug-loaded perfluoropentane nanoemulsions and tumor-directed 1-MHz ultrasound resulted in a dramatic decrease of ovarian or breast carcinoma tumor volume and sometimes complete tumor resolution. However, tumors often recurred three to six weeks after the treatment indicating that some cancer cells survived the treatment. The recurrent tumors proved more aggressive and resistant to the repeated therapy than initial tumors suggesting selection for the resistant cells during the first treatment.

  6. Transport of Perfluorocarbon Tracers in the Cranfield Geological Carbon Sequestration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, J.; Soltanian, M. R.; Amooie, M. A.; Cole, D. R.; Graham, D. E.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Phelps, T.

    2017-12-01

    A field-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection pilot project was conducted by the Southeast Regional Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) at Cranfield, Mississippi. Two associated campaigns in 2009 and 2010 were carried out to co-inject perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) with CO2. Tracers in gas samples from two observation wells were analyzed to construct breakthrough curves. We present the compiled field data as well as detailed numerical modeling of the flow and transport of CO2, brine, and introduced tracers. A high-resolution static model of the formation geology in the Detailed Area Study (DAS) was used in order to capture the impact of connected flow pathways created by fluvial channels on breakthrough curves and breakthrough times of PFTs and SF6 tracers. We use the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state, which takes into account the polar nature of water molecules, to describe the phase behavior of CO2-brine-tracer mixtures. We show how the combination of multiple tracer injection pulses with detailed numerical simulations provide a powerful tool in constraining both formation properties and how complex flow pathways develop over time.

  7. Engineering and thermal-hydraulic design of water cooled PFC for SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paritosh Chaudhuri; Santra, P.; Rabi Prakash, N.; Khirwadkar, S.; Arun Prakash, A.; Ramash, G.; Dubey, S.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Steady state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with superconducting magnetic field coils. It is a large aspect ratio tokamak with a major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. SST-1 is designed for plasma discharge duration of ∼1000 seconds to obtain fully steady state plasma with total input power up to 1.0 MW. First Wall or Plasma Facing Components (PFC) is one or the major sub-systems of SST-1 tokamak consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles, and poloidal limiters are designed to be compatible for steady state operation. All the PFC has the same basic configuration: graphite tiles are mechanically attached to a back plate made of high strength copper alloy, and SS tubes are embedded in the groove made in the back plate. Same tube will be used for cooling during plasma operation and baking during wall conditioning. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m 2 . In addition to remove high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for high temperature baking at 350 deg. C. Water was chosen as the coolant because of its appropriate thermal properties, and while baking, hot nitrogen gas would flow through these tubes to bake the PFC at high temperature. Extensive studies, involving different flow parameters and various cooling layouts, has been done to select the final cooling parameters and layout, compatible for cooling and baking. During steady state operation, divertor and passive stabilizer heat loads are expected to be 0.6 and 0.25 MW/m 2 . The PFC also has been design to withstand the peak heat fluxes without significant erosion such that frequent replacement is not necessary. Since the tile must be mechanically attached to the back plate (heat sink), the fitting technique must provide the highest mechanical stress so that thermal transfer efficiency is maximized. Proper brazing of cooling tube on the copper back

  8. Cocaine craving during protracted withdrawal requires PKCε priming within vmPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bailey W; Wroten, Melissa G; Sacramento, Arianne D; Silva, Hannah E; Shin, Christina B; Vieira, Philip A; Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Kippin, Tod E; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-05-01

    In individuals with a history of drug taking, the capacity of drug-associated cues to elicit indices of drug craving intensifies or incubates with the passage of time during drug abstinence. This incubation of cocaine craving, as well as difficulties with learning to suppress drug-seeking behavior during protracted withdrawal, are associated with a time-dependent deregulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) function. As the molecular bases for cocaine-related vmPFC deregulation remain elusive, the present study assayed the consequences of extended access to intravenous cocaine (6 hours/day; 0.25 mg/infusion for 10 day) on the activational state of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), an enzyme highly implicated in drug-induced neuroplasticity. The opportunity to engage in cocaine seeking during cocaine abstinence time-dependently altered PKCε phosphorylation within vmPFC, with reduced and increased p-PKCε expression observed in early (3 days) and protracted (30 days) withdrawal, respectively. This effect was more robust within the ventromedial versus dorsomedial PFC, was not observed in comparable cocaine-experienced rats not tested for drug-seeking behavior and was distinct from the rise in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase observed in cocaine-seeking rats. Further, the impact of inhibiting PKCε translocation within the vmPFC using TAT infusion proteins upon cue-elicited responding was determined and inhibition coinciding with the period of testing attenuated cocaine-seeking behavior, with an effect also apparent the next day. In contrast, inhibitor pretreatment prior to testing during early withdrawal was without effect. Thus, a history of excessive cocaine taking influences the cue reactivity of important intracellular signaling molecules within the vmPFC, with PKCε playing a critical role in the manifestation of cue-elicited cocaine seeking during protracted drug withdrawal. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Verification of radiation heat transfer analysis in KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel during baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.Y. [Chungnam National University, 79 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34167 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.J., E-mail: k43689@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.T.; Jung, N.Y.; Im, D.S.; Gong, J.D.; Lee, J.M.; Park, K.R.; Oh, Y.K. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Thermal network is used to analyze heat transfer from PFC to VV. • Three heat transfer rate equations are derived based on the thermal network. • The equations is verified using Experimental data and design documents. • Most of the heat lost in tokamak is transferred to experimental room air. • The heat loss to the air is 101 kW of the total heat loss of 154 kW in tokamak. - Abstract: KSTAR PFC (Plasma Facing Component) and VV (Vacuum Vessel) were not arrived at the target temperatures in bake-out phase, which are 300 °C and 110 °C, respectively. The purpose of this study is to find out the reason why they have not been reached the target temperature. A thermal network analysis is used to investigate the radiation heat transfer from PFC to VV, and the thermal network is drawn up based on the actual KSTAR tokamak. The analysis model consists of three equations, and is solved using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The heat transfer rates obtained with the analysis model is verified using the experimental data at the KSTAR bake-out phase. The analyzed radiation heat transfer rates from PFC to VV agree quite well with those of experiment throughout the bake-out phase. Heat loss from PFC to experimental room air via flange of VV is also calculated and compared, which is found be the main reason of temperature gap between the target temperature and actually attained temperature of KSTAR PFC.

  10. Verification of radiation heat transfer analysis in KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel during baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, S.Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, S.T.; Jung, N.Y.; Im, D.S.; Gong, J.D.; Lee, J.M.; Park, K.R.; Oh, Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal network is used to analyze heat transfer from PFC to VV. • Three heat transfer rate equations are derived based on the thermal network. • The equations is verified using Experimental data and design documents. • Most of the heat lost in tokamak is transferred to experimental room air. • The heat loss to the air is 101 kW of the total heat loss of 154 kW in tokamak. - Abstract: KSTAR PFC (Plasma Facing Component) and VV (Vacuum Vessel) were not arrived at the target temperatures in bake-out phase, which are 300 °C and 110 °C, respectively. The purpose of this study is to find out the reason why they have not been reached the target temperature. A thermal network analysis is used to investigate the radiation heat transfer from PFC to VV, and the thermal network is drawn up based on the actual KSTAR tokamak. The analysis model consists of three equations, and is solved using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The heat transfer rates obtained with the analysis model is verified using the experimental data at the KSTAR bake-out phase. The analyzed radiation heat transfer rates from PFC to VV agree quite well with those of experiment throughout the bake-out phase. Heat loss from PFC to experimental room air via flange of VV is also calculated and compared, which is found be the main reason of temperature gap between the target temperature and actually attained temperature of KSTAR PFC.

  11. Perfluorocarbon-perfused 23 gauge three-dimensional vitrectomy for complicated diabetic tractional retinal detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Background Perfluorocarbon liquid (PCL)-perfused vitrectomy has been shown in previous studies to be feasible, safe, and to have advantages in managing complicated cases of tractional retinal detachment. The present study had the objectives of describing the anatomical results and measuring surgical time and PCL consumption when combining PCL-perfused techniques with modern vitrectomy equipment. Methods A prospective, interventional consecutive case series was investigated. We enrolled patients with diabetic tractional retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy and poor vision. A 23 gauge PCL-perfused vitrectomy was done with three-dimensional settings. During the procedure, we assessed the degree of surgical bleeding, visualization quality, and difficulty of membrane dissections. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and anatomical success were assessed at one and 3 months of follow-up. Results Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. There were no statistical significant changes in intraocular pressure and visual acuity throughout the follow-up period. Surgery was performed in a hemorrhage-free environment in almost all cases, with good visualization and low technical difficulty. The mean complete surgical time was 94.92 ± 25.03 minutes. The mean effective vitrectomy time was 22.50 ± 19.04 minutes and the mean PCL consumption was 25.08 ± 9.76 mL, with a speed of 1.11 mL/minute. Anatomical success was 67% at 3 months. Conclusion Although the technique proved to have some advantages in managing complicated cases of diabetic tractional retinal detachment, there was a high consumption of PCL. A redesign of the entire system is needed in order to decrease the amount of PCL needed for the technique. PMID:22267907

  12. Simple Digital Control of a Two-Stage PFC Converter Using DSPIC30F Microprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2010-01-01

    The use of dsPIC digital signal controllers (DSC) in Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) applications opens new perspectives for cheap and flexible digital control solutions. This paper presents the digital control of a two stage power factor corrector (PFC) converter. The PFC circuit is designed...... and built for 70W rated output power. Average current mode control for boost converter and current programmed control for forward converter are implemented on a dsPIC30F1010. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used to drive the switching MOSFETs. Results show that digital solutions with ds...

  13. 77 FR 33805 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... AGENCY: Tri State Airport Authority, Huntington, West Virginia. APPLICATION NUMBER: 12-07-C-00-HTS... equipment. Install perimeter fencing. Rehabilitate terminal building. Rehabilitate taxiway A (west). Access.... Passenger loading bridges. Security exit lane equipment. PFC consulting fees. Brief Description of...

  14. Engagement of the PFC in Consolidation and Recall of Recent Spatial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Wanda C.; Bruno, Martin A.; Allard, Simon; Nader, Karim; Cuello, A. Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The standard model of system consolidation proposes that memories are initially hippocampus dependent and become hippocampus independent over time. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the retrieval of remote memories. The transformations required to make a memory undergo system's…

  15. 76 FR 56001 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ...: Regional intermodal transportation center. Determination: Partially approved. The FAA determined that... Approved for Collection and Use at a $3.00 PFC Level: Public information display kiosks. Wildlife hazard assessment study. Interactive employee training module. Blast fence extension--taxiway D. Aircraft rescue and...

  16. 14 CFR 158.45 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... travel ticket, issuing air carriers and their agents shall collect a PFC from a passenger only for the.... (3) Issuing carriers and their agents shall collect PFCs based on the itinerary at the time of... travel on a nonrefundable or expired ticket is not a change in itinerary. If the ticket purchaser is not...

  17. 78 FR 57211 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... removal equipment. Emergency radio system upgrade. PFC administrative fees. Decision Date: November 1... Use: Taxiway A pavement analysis and soil test. Taxiway A pavement rehabilitation. Runway 17/35 rehabilitation design. Taxiway/apron/fuel road pavement replacement. Taxiway/apron/fuel road pavement replacement...

  18. A low cost rapid prototype platform for a three phase PFC rectifier application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Frerk; Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a low cost rapid prototype platform for a Three Phase PFC rectifier application is presented. The active rectifier consists of a SiC-MOSFET based PWM converter and a low cost rapid prototype platform for simulating and implementing the digital control...

  19. Robust control of boost PFC converter using adaptive PLL for line synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Mathe, Laszlo; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The continuous development of the digital processing technology made advanced control strategies available for switched-mode power-supply applications. This paper presents the study and implementation of an adaptive Phased-Locked Loop (PLL)-based grid-fault tolerant control of a boost PFC converter...

  20. On temporal connectivity of PFC via Gauss-Markov modeling of fNIRS signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydöre, Sergül; Mihçak, M Kivanç; Ciftçi, Koray; Akin, Ata

    2010-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an optical imaging method, which monitors the brain activation by measuring the successive changes in the concentration of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin in real time. In this study, we present a method to investigate the functional connectivity of prefrontal cortex (PFC) Sby applying a Gauss-Markov model to fNIRS signals. The hemodynamic changes on PFC during the performance of cognitive paradigm are measured by fNIRS for 17 healthy adults. The color-word matching Stroop task is performed to activate 16 different regions of PFC. There are three different types of stimuli in this task, which can be listed as incongruent stimulus (IS), congruent stimulus (CS), and neutral stimulus (NS), respectively. We introduce a new measure, called "information transfer metric" (ITM) for each time sample. The behavior of ITMs during IS are significantly different from the ITMs during CS and NS, which is consistent with the outcome of the previous research, which concentrated on fNIRS signal analysis via color-word matching Stroop task. Our analysis shows that the functional connectivity of PFC is highly relevant with the cognitive load, i.e., functional connectivity increases with the increasing cognitive load.

  1. 75 FR 33376 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Firefighting Station. Runway 18r/34l Overlay/Rehabilitation. Pavement Management Plan. Security Enhancement... maintain runway 16/34 pavement. PFC administration. Repair and maintain runway 03/21 pavement. Repair and maintain taxiway A pavement. Repair and maintain taxiway B pavement. [[Page 33377

  2. Coagulation performance of a novel poly-ferric-acetate (PFC) coagulant in phosphate-kaolin synthetic water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yanxin; Lu, Jinpeng; Dong, Xiongzi; Yao, Chengli [Hefei Normal University, Hefei (China); Hao, Jianwen [Anhui Vocational and Technical College, Hefei (China)

    2017-10-15

    The process of coagulation-flocculation is increasingly applied in wastewater treatment. And the polymerized inorganic coagulants are widely used among these coagulation-flocculation processes. However, conventional coagulants using sulfates or chlorides as counter anion may give rise to corrosion. The purpose of this study was to synthesize PFC coagulants in which acetate is used as counter anion. The influences on the preparation of PFC were optimized. The synthesis was done at the optimum conditions, such as temperature of 60 .deg. C, the Fe/CH{sub 3}COOH molar ratio of 1 : 4.0 and reaction time of 6 h, respectively. The prepared PFC coagulants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PFC was found to mainly form complexation polymeric species and present more cluster and lamellar structure. A series of jar tests were carried out to study the coagulation performance of PFC and PFS in phosphate-kaolin synthetic water treatment. Results showed that the coagulation performance of PFC was more efficient than PFS's in terms of the phosphorus removal efficiency and the residual turbidity. Due to using acetate as counter anion to iron, PFC is less harmful to the processes of water treatment and equipment than that of the conventional coagulants applied chlorides or sulfates. Therefore, PFC is a promising coagulant in the process of corrosion sensitive applications and the process of wastewater containing phosphorus treatment.

  3. Uncertainty-Dependent Extinction of Fear Memory in an Amygdala-mPFC Neural Circuit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhe; Nakae, Ken; Ishii, Shin; Naoki, Honda

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty of fear conditioning is crucial for the acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Fear memory acquired through partial pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) is more resistant to extinction than that acquired through full pairings; this effect is known as the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE). Although the PREE has been explained by psychological theories, the neural mechanisms underlying the PREE remain largely unclear. Here, we developed a neural circuit model based on three distinct types of neurons (fear, persistent and extinction neurons) in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the model, the fear, persistent and extinction neurons encode predictions of net severity, of unconditioned stimulus (US) intensity, and of net safety, respectively. Our simulation successfully reproduces the PREE. We revealed that unpredictability of the US during extinction was represented by the combined responses of the three types of neurons, which are critical for the PREE. In addition, we extended the model to include amygdala subregions and the mPFC to address a recent finding that the ventral mPFC (vmPFC) is required for consolidating extinction memory but not for memory retrieval. Furthermore, model simulations led us to propose a novel procedure to enhance extinction learning through re-conditioning with a stronger US; strengthened fear memory up-regulates the extinction neuron, which, in turn, further inhibits the fear neuron during re-extinction. Thus, our models increased the understanding of the functional roles of the amygdala and vmPFC in the processing of uncertainty in fear conditioning and extinction. PMID:27617747

  4. 2-D temperature distribution and heat flux of PFC in 2011 KSTAR campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Eunnam, E-mail: bang14@nfri.re.kr; Hong, Suk-Ho; Yu, Yaowei; Kim, Kyungmin; Kim, Hongtack; Kim, Hakkun; Lee, Kunsu; Yang, Hyunglyul

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The heat flux on PFC tiles of 12 s pulse duration and 630 kA plasma current is about 0.02 MW/m{sup 2}. • When the cryopump is operated, the heat flux of CD is higher than without cryopump. • The more H-mode duration is long, the more heat flux on divertor is high. -- Abstract: KSTAR has reached a plasma current up to 630 kA, plasma duration up to 12 s, and has achieved high confinement mode (H-mode) in 2011 campaign. The heat flux of PFC tile was estimated from the temperature increase of PFC since 2010. The heat flux of PFC tiles increases significantly with higher plasma current and longer pulse duration. The time-averaged heat flux of shots in 2010 campaign (with 3 s pulse durations and I{sub p} of 611 kA) is 0.01 MW/m{sup 2} while that in 2011 campaign (with 12 s pulse duration and I{sub p} of 630 kA) is about 0.02 MW/m{sup 2}. The heat flux at divertor is 1.4–2 times higher than that at inboard limiter or passive stabilizer. With the cryopump operation, the heat flux at the central divertor is higher than that without cryopump. The heat flux at divertor is proportional to, of course, the duration of H-mode. Furthermore, a software tool, which visualizes the 2D temperature distribution of PFC tile and estimates the heat flux in real time, is developed.

  5. Uncertainty-Dependent Extinction of Fear Memory in an Amygdala-mPFC Neural Circuit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhe; Nakae, Ken; Ishii, Shin; Naoki, Honda

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty of fear conditioning is crucial for the acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Fear memory acquired through partial pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) is more resistant to extinction than that acquired through full pairings; this effect is known as the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE). Although the PREE has been explained by psychological theories, the neural mechanisms underlying the PREE remain largely unclear. Here, we developed a neural circuit model based on three distinct types of neurons (fear, persistent and extinction neurons) in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the model, the fear, persistent and extinction neurons encode predictions of net severity, of unconditioned stimulus (US) intensity, and of net safety, respectively. Our simulation successfully reproduces the PREE. We revealed that unpredictability of the US during extinction was represented by the combined responses of the three types of neurons, which are critical for the PREE. In addition, we extended the model to include amygdala subregions and the mPFC to address a recent finding that the ventral mPFC (vmPFC) is required for consolidating extinction memory but not for memory retrieval. Furthermore, model simulations led us to propose a novel procedure to enhance extinction learning through re-conditioning with a stronger US; strengthened fear memory up-regulates the extinction neuron, which, in turn, further inhibits the fear neuron during re-extinction. Thus, our models increased the understanding of the functional roles of the amygdala and vmPFC in the processing of uncertainty in fear conditioning and extinction.

  6. USING PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS FOR VERIFICATION OF CAP AND COVER SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEISER, J.; SULLIVAN, T.

    2001-01-01

    subsurface barriers (1,2). The technology uses perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) to determine flaws (e.g., holes or cracks) and high permeability areas in subsurface barriers. Gaseous tracers are injected on one side of the barrier and searched for on the opposite side of the barrier. The sampling grid, concentration, and time of arrival of the tracer(s) on the opposite side are used to determine the size and location of flaws and relative permeability of the barrier. In addition, there are multiple tracers available, which allows different tracers to be injected in different quadrants of the barrier. This yields additional information on transport phenomena of the barrier

  7. The effect of isovolemic hemodilution with oxycyte, a perfluorocarbon emulsion, on cerebral blood flow in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood flow (CBF is auto-regulated to meet the brain's metabolic requirements. Oxycyte is a perfluorocarbon emulsion that acts as a highly effective oxygen carrier compared to blood. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of Oxycyte on regional CBF (rCBF, by evaluating the effects of stepwise isovolemic hemodilution with Oxycyte on CBF. METHODOLOGY: Male rats were intubated and ventilated with 100% O(2 under isoflurane anesthesia. The regional (striatum CBF (rCBF was measured with a laser doppler flowmeter (LDF. Stepwise isovolemic hemodilution was performed by withdrawing 4ml of blood and substituting the same volume of 5% albumin or 2 ml Oxycyte plus 2 ml albumin at 20-minute intervals until the hematocrit (Hct values reached 5%. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the albumin-treated group, rCBF progressively increased to approximately twice its baseline level (208+/-30% when Hct levels were less than 10%. In the Oxycyte-treated group on the other hand, rCBF increased by significantly smaller increments, and this group's mean rCBF was only slightly higher than baseline (118+/-18% when Hct levels were less than 10%. Similarly, in the albumin-treated group, rCBF started to increase when hemodilution with albumin caused the CaO(2 to decrease below 17.5 ml/dl. Thereafter, the increase in rCBF was accompanied by a nearly proportional decrease in the CaO(2 level. In the Oxycyte-treated group, the increase in rCBF was significantly smaller than in the albumin-treated group when the CaO(2 level dropped below 10 ml/dl (142+/-20% vs. 186+/-26%, and rCBF returned to almost baseline levels (106+/-15 when the CaO(2 level was below 7 ml/dl. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hemodilution with Oxycyte was accompanied with higher CaO(2 and PO(2 than control group treated with albumin alone. This effect may be partially responsible for maintaining relatively constant CBF and not allowing the elevated blood flow that was observed with albumin.

  8. Simple adaptive control system design for a quadrotor with an internal PFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Nakamura, Takuto; Kumon, Makoto; Takagi, Taro [Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kumamoto University 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    The paper deals with an adaptive control system design problem for a four rotor helicopter or quadrotor. A simple adaptive control design scheme with a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) in the internal loop of the considered quadrotor will be proposed based on the backstepping strategy. As is well known, the backstepping control strategy is one of the advanced control strategy for nonlinear systems. However, the control algorithm will become complex if the system has higher order relative degrees. We will show that one can skip some design steps of the backstepping method by introducing a PFC in the inner loop of the considered quadrotor, so that the structure of the obtained controller will be simplified and a high gain based adaptive feedback control system will be designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  9. Study of intermittent bifurcations and chaos in boost PFC converters by nonlinear discrete models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Ma Xikui; Xue Bianling; Liu Weizeng

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with nonlinear phenomena like intermittent bifurcations and chaos in boost PFC converters under peak-current control mode. Two nonlinear models in the form of discrete maps are derived to describe precisely the nonlinear dynamics of boost PFC converters from two points of view, i.e., low- and high-frequency regimes. Based on the presented discrete models, both the evolution of intermittent behavior and the periodicity of intermittency are investigated in detail from the fast and slow-scale aspects, respectively. Numerical results show that the occurrence of intermittent bifurcations and chaos with half one line period is one of the most distinguished dynamical characteristics. Finally, we make some instructive conclusions, which prove to be helpful in improving the performances of practical circuits

  10. Isolated EWiRaC: A New Low-Stress Single-Stage Isolated PFC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Bergendorff, Stefan Pihl; Petersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper is to inve......A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper...

  11. High-power piezo drive amplifier for large stack and PFC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingman, Dan J.; Gamble, Mike

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes the continuing development of Boeing High Power Piezo Drive Amplifiers. Described is the development and testing of a 1500 Vpp, 8 amp switching amplifier. This amplifier is used to drive a piezo stack driven rotor blade trailing edge flap on a full size helicopter. Also discuss is a switching amplifier designed to drive a Piezo Fiber Composite (PFC) active twist rotor blade. This amplifier was designed to drive the PFC material at 2000 Vpp and 0.5 amps. These amplifiers recycle reactive energy, allowing for a power and weight efficient amplifier design. This work was done in conjunction with the DARPA sponsored Phase II Smart Rotor Blade program and the NASA Langley Research Center sponsored Active Twist Rotor (ATR) blade program.

  12. Forward Conduction Mode Controlled Piezoelectric Transformer-Based PFC LED Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roedgaard, M. S.; Weirich, M.; Andersen, M. A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) illumination is getting more and more common; as LED's performance is rising, the price is falling and is getting competitive. Some of the challenges of ac mains supplied illumination are the requirement of power factor correction (PFC) and the competitiveness of a low...... priced market. In this paper, a new forward conduction mode (FCM) control method for piezoelectric transformer (PT)-based power converters is proposed. A PT-based LED drive facilitating passive PFC is developed, utilizing and validating the FCM control method. The drive utilizes an inductorless half...... LED drive has been developed, supplied from 230-V 50-Hz ac mains, achieving a power factor of 0.96....

  13. Suitability of non-energy GHGs for emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.; Proestos, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of different sources of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading. Different forms of emissions trading are defined and criteria for determining whether a source is suitable for emissions trading are proposed. The suitability for emissions trading is assessed for: methane (CH4) from oil and gas production; CH4 from coal mines; CH4 from landfills; CH4 from wastewater treatment; CH4 from enteric fermentation; CH4 from livestock manure, nitrous oxide (N2O) from adipic acid production; N2O from fertilizer use; N2O from nitric acid production, carbon dioxide (CO2) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) from aluminum smelting; sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) from magnesium smelting and die casting; HFCs from HCFC production, other uses of SF6, PFCs and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs); CO2 from ammonia production; lime and cement production, and iron ore reduction

  14. vmPFC activation during a stressor predicts positive emotions during stress recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Garcia, Katelyn M; Jung, Youngkyoo; Whitlow, Christopher T; McRae, Kateri; Waugh, Christian E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Despite accruing evidence showing that positive emotions facilitate stress recovery, the neural basis for this effect remains unclear. To identify the underlying mechanism, we compared stress recovery for people reflecting on a stressor while in a positive emotional context with that for people in a neutral context. While blood–oxygen-level dependent data were being collected, participants (N = 43) performed a stressful anagram task, which was followed by a recovery period during which they reflected on the stressor while watching a positive or neutral video. Participants also reported positive and negative emotions throughout the task as well as retrospective thoughts about the task. Although there was no effect of experimental context on emotional recovery, we found that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation during the stressor predicted more positive emotions during recovery, which in turn predicted less negative emotions during recovery. In addition, the relationship between vmPFC activation and positive emotions during recovery was mediated by decentering—the meta-cognitive detachment of oneself from one’s feelings. In sum, successful recovery from a stressor seems to be due to activation of positive emotion-related regions during the stressor itself as well as to their downstream effects on certain cognitive forms of emotion regulation. PMID:29462404

  15. Investigation of lithium PFC surface characteristics and low recycling at LTX/LTX-Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, Anurag; Kaita, Robert; Elliott, Drew; Boyle, Dennis; Majeski, Richard; Donovan, David; Buzi, Luxherta; Koel, Bruce E.; Biewer, Theodore M.

    2017-10-01

    Lithium coatings on high-Z PFCs at LTX have led to improved plasma performance. The initial hypothesis was that lithium retains hydrogen by forming lithium hydride and thereby enabling low recycling in LTX. However, recent in-vacuo measurements indicate the presence of lithium oxide in deposited lithium coatings. Improved plasma performance continued to be observed in the presence of lithium oxide. These observations raise questions like what is the nature of the lithium oxide surface, whether the PFC is an amorphous mixture of lithium and lithium oxide or something more ordered like a lithium oxide layer growing on top of lithium, and whether lithium oxide is responsible for any retention of hydrogen from the plasma. To investigate the mechanism by which the LTX PFC might be responsible for low recycling, we discuss the results of deuterium retention measurements using NRA/RBS and sample characterization using high resolution XPS (HR-XPS) in bulk lithium samples. Baseline HR-XPS scans indicate the presence of Lithium Oxide on sputtered lithium samples. Status of related planned experiments at LTX- β will also be discussed. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 and DE-AC02-09CH11466. BEK acknowledges support of this work by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science/FES under Award Number DE-SC0012890.

  16. An isolated bridgeless AC-DC PFC converter using a LC resonant voltage doubler rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin-woo; Do, Hyun-Lark

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposed an isolated bridgeless AC-DC power factor correction (PFC) converter using a LC resonant voltage doubler rectifier. The proposed converter is based on isolated conventional single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) PFC converter. The conduction loss of rectification is reduced than a conventional one because the proposed converter is designed to eliminate a full-bridge rectifier at an input stage. Moreover, for zero-current switching (ZCS) operation and low voltage stresses of output diodes, the secondary of the proposed converter is designed as voltage doubler with a LC resonant tank. Additionally, an input-output electrical isolation is provided for safety standard. In conclusion, high power factor is achieved and efficiency is improved. The operational principles, steady-state analysis and design equations of the proposed converter are described in detail. Experimental results from a 60 W prototype at a constant switching frequency 100 kHz are presented to verify the performance of the proposed converter.

  17. 5-HT2a receptor in mPFC influences context-guided reconsolidation of object memory in perirhinal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Miranda, Magdalena; Gallo, Francisco Tomás; Zanoni, Belén; Bekinschtein, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Context-dependent memories may guide adaptive behavior relaying in previous experience while updating stored information through reconsolidation. Retrieval can be triggered by partial and shared cues. When the cue is presented, the most relevant memory should be updated. In a contextual version of the object recognition task, we examined the effect of medial PFC (mPFC) serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) blockade during retrieval in reconsolidation of competing objects memories. We found that mPFC 5-HT2aR controls retrieval and reconsolidation of object memories in the perirhinal cortex (PRH), but not in the dorsal hippocampus in rats. Also, reconsolidation of objects memories in PRH required a functional interaction between the ventral hippocampus and the mPFC. Our results indicate that in the presence of conflicting information at retrieval, mPFC 5-HT2aR may facilitate top-down context-guided control over PRH to control the behavioral response and object memory reconsolidation. PMID:29717980

  18. [Blood plasma protein adsorption capacity of perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by proxanol 268 (in vitro and in vivo studies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklifas, A N; Zhalimov, V K; Temnov, A A; Kukushkin, N I

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption abilities of the perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by Proxanol 268 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the saturation point for the blood plasma proteins was nearly reached after five minutes of incubation of the emulsion with human/rabbit blood plasma and was stable for all incubation periods studied. The decrease in volume ratio (emulsion/plasma) was accompanied by the increase in the adsorptive capacity of the emulsion with maximal values at 1/10 (3.2 and 1.5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion, for human and rabbit blood plasma, respectively) that was unchanged at lower ratios. In vivo, in rabbits, intravenously injected with the emulsion, the proteins with molecular masses of 12, 25, 32, 44, 55, 70, and 200 kDa were adsorbed by the emulsion (as in vitro) if it was used 6 hours or less before testing. More delayed testing (6 h) revealed elimination of proteins with molecular masses of 25 and 44 kDa and an additional pool of adsorpted new ones of 27, 50, and 150 kDa. Specific adsorptive capacity of the emulsion enhanced gradually after emulsion injection and reached its maximum (3.5-5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion) after 24 hours.

  19. High-intensity focused ultrasound sonothrombolysis: the use of perfluorocarbon droplets to achieve clot lysis at reduced acoustic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajek, Daniel; Burgess, Alison; Huang, Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate use of intravascular perfluorocarbon droplets to reduce the sonication power required to achieve clot lysis with high-intensity focused ultrasound. High-intensity focused ultrasound with droplets was initially applied to blood clots in an in vitro flow apparatus, and inertial cavitation thresholds were determined. An embolic model for ischemic stroke was used to illustrate the feasibility of this technique in vivo. Recanalization with intravascular droplets was achieved in vivo at 24 ± 5% of the sonication power without droplets. Recanalization occurred in 71% of rabbits that received 1-ms pulsed sonications during continuous intravascular droplet infusion (p = 0.041 vs controls). Preliminary experiments indicated that damage was confined to the ultrasonic focus, suggesting that tolerable treatments would be possible with a more tightly focused hemispheric array that allows the whole focus to be placed inside of the main arteries in the human brain. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intraoperative Macula Protection by Perfluorocarbon Liquid for the Metallic Intraocular Foreign Body Removal during 23-Gauge Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rejdak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate visual and safety outcomes of 23-gauge (G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with application of perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL for intraoperative protection of the macula during intraocular foreign body (IOFB removal. Methods. Retrospective study of 42 patients who underwent 23 G PPV for IOFB removal from posterior segment with intraoperative PFCL application for the macula shielding. Collected data included corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, size of IOFB, and complication rate. The mean follow-up period was 12 months. Results. The mean preoperative CDVA was 0.54 logMAR (SD 0.46, and the final mean CDVA was 0.68 logMAR (SD 0.66. All IOFBs were metallic with mean dimensions of 4.6 mm × 2.1 mm. Twenty-two IOFBs were removed through the corneal tunnel and 20 IOFBs through the sclerotomy. No intraoperative iatrogenic lesion of the macula was observed. As a tamponade, silicon oil was applied in 31 eyes, SF6 gas in 5 eyes, air in 4 eyes, and 2 eyes required no tamponade. Secondary retinal detachment was observed in 17% of cases, but at the end of the follow-up, all the retinas were attached. Conclusion. PFCL application during PPV is a safe method of protecting the macula from unexpected falling of the metallic IOFB during its removal.

  1. A Single Phase to Three Phase PFC Half-Bridge Converter Using BLDC Drive with SPWM Technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Srinu Duvvada; Manmadha Kumar B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a buck half-bridge DC-DC converter is used as a single-stage power factor correction (PFC) converter for feeding a voltage source inverter (VSI) based permanent magnet brushless DC motor (BLDC) drive. The front end of this PFC converter is a diode bridge rectifier (DBR) fed from single-phase AC mains. The BLDC is used to drive a compressor load of an air conditioner through a three-phase VSI fed from a controlled DC link voltage. The speed of the compressor is controlled to ach...

  2. A Comparison between Boundary and Continuous Conduction Modes in Single Phase PFC Using 600V Range Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and comparison of boundary conduction mode (BCM) and continuous conduction mode (CCM) in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications. The comparison is based on double pulse tester (DPT) characterization results of state-of-the-art superjunction devices...... in the 600V range. The measured switching energy is used to evaluate the devices performance in a conventional PFC. This data is used together with a mathematical model for prediction of the conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI). This allows comparing the different devices in BCM and CCM operation...

  3. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T. [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time.

  4. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-07-01

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time.

  5. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  7. Chronic LSD alters gene expression profiles in the mPFC relevant to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David A; Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, David E; Nichols, Charles D

    2014-08-01

    Chronic administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) every other day to rats results in a variety of abnormal behaviors. These build over the 90 day course of treatment and can persist at full strength for at least several months after cessation of treatment. The behaviors are consistent with those observed in animal models of schizophrenia and include hyperactivity, reduced sucrose-preference, and decreased social interaction. In order to elucidate molecular changes that underlie these aberrant behaviors, we chronically treated rats with LSD and performed RNA-sequencing on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an area highly associated with both the actions of LSD and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. We observed widespread changes in the neurogenetic state of treated animals four weeks after cessation of LSD treatment. QPCR was used to validate a subset of gene expression changes observed with RNA-Seq, and confirmed a significant correlation between the two methods. Functional clustering analysis indicates differentially expressed genes are enriched in pathways involving neurotransmission (Drd2, Gabrb1), synaptic plasticity (Nr2a, Krox20), energy metabolism (Atp5d, Ndufa1) and neuropeptide signaling (Npy, Bdnf), among others. Many processes identified as altered by chronic LSD are also implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and genes affected by LSD are enriched with putative schizophrenia genes. Our results provide a relatively comprehensive analysis of mPFC transcriptional regulation in response to chronic LSD, and indicate that the long-term effects of LSD may bear relevance to psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilization of diagnostic ultrasound and intravenous lipid-encapsulated perfluorocarbons in non-invasive targeted cardiovascular therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Thomas R; Choudhury, Songita A; Xie, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound (DUS) pressures have the ability to induce inertial cavitation (IC) of systemically administered microbubbles; this bioeffect has many diagnostic and therapeutic implications in cardiovascular care. Diagnostically, commercially available lipid-encapsulated perfluorocarbons (LEP) can be utilized to improve endocardial and vascular border delineation as well as assess myocardial perfusion. Therapeutically, the liquid jets induced by IC can alter endothelial function and dissolve thrombi within the immediate vicinity of the cavitating microbubbles. The cavitating LEP can also result in the localized release of any bound therapeutic substance at the site of insonation. DUS-induced IC has been tested in pre-clinical studies to determine what effect it has on acute vascular and microvascular thrombosis as well as nitric oxide (NO) release. These pre-clinical studies have consistently shown that DUS-induced IC of LEP is effective in restoring coronary vascular and microvascular flow in acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), with microvascular flow improving even if upstream large vessel flow has not been achieved. The initial clinical trials examining the efficacy of short pulse duration DUS high mechanical index impulses in patients with STEMI are underway, and preliminary studies have suggested that earlier epicardial vessel recanalization can be achieved prior to arriving in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. DUS high mechanical index impulses have also been effective in pre-clinical studies for targeting DNA delivery that has restored islet cell function in type I diabetes and restored vascular flow in the extremities downstream from a peripheral vascular occlusion. Improvements in this technique will come from three dimensional arrays for therapeutic applications, more automated delivery techniques that can be applied in the field, and use of submicron-sized acoustically activated LEP droplets that may better permeate the

  9. Research on High Efficient Single-Phase Multi-Stage Interleaved Bridgeless PFC Frontend for Class-D Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a 3.5kW single-phase high efficient interleaved Bridgeless PFC (IBPFC) is proposed for class-D amplifiers. This topology achieves a relatively higher efficiency in a wide output power range, which helps to reduce the energy consuming of the whole system. In addition, a detailed...

  10. The effect of future time perspective on delay discounting is mediated by the gray matter volume of vmPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiqun; Chen, Zhiyi; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-07-28

    Although several previous studies have shown that individuals' attitude towards time could affect their intertemporal preference, little is known about the neural basis of the relation between time perspective (TP) and delay discounting. In the present study, we quantified the gray matter (GM) cortical volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods to investigate the effect of TP on delay discounting (DD) across two independent samples. For group 1 (102 healthy college students; 46 male; 20.40 ± 1.87 years), behavioral results showed that only Future TP was a significant predictor of DD, and higher scores on Future TP were related to lower discounting rates. Whole-brain analysis revealed that steeper discounting correlated with greater GM volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and ventral part of posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC). Also, GM volume of a cluster in the vmPFC was correlated with Future TP. Interestingly, there was an overlapping region in vmPFC that was correlated with both DD and Future TP. Region-of-interest analysis further indicated that the overlapping region of vmPFC played a partially mediating role in the relation between Future TP and DD in the other independent dataset (Group 2, 36 healthy college students; 14 male; 20.18±1.80 years). Taken together, our results provide a new perspective from neural basis for explaining the relation between DD and future TP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NMDA antagonist, but not nNOS inhibitor, requires AMPA receptors in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to induce antidepressant-like effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, V. S.; Wegener, Gregers; Joca, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    of the glutamatergic and nitrergic systems of the vmPFC on the behavioral consequences induced by forced swimming (FS), an animal model of depression. Male Wistar rats (230-260g) with guide cannulas aimed at the prelimbic (PL) region of vmPFC were submitted to a 15min session of FS and, 24h later, they were submitted...

  12. In Vivo Assessment of the Potential for Renal Bio-Effects from the Vaporization of Perfluorocarbon Phase-Change Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyankima, A Gloria; Rojas, Juan D; Cianciolo, Rachel; Johnson, Kennita A; Dayton, Paul A

    2018-02-01

    Low-boiling-point perfluorocarbon phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) provide an alternative to microbubble contrast agents. Although parameter ranges related to in vivo bio-effects of microbubbles are fairly well characterized, few studies have been done to evaluate the potential of bio-effects related to PCCAs. To bridge this gap, we present an assessment of biological effects (e.g., hemorrhage) related to acoustically excited PCCAs in the rodent kidney. The presence or absence of bio-effects was observed after sonication with various perfluorocarbon core PCCAs (decafluorobutane, octafluoropropane or a 1:1 mixture) and as a function of activation pulse mechanical index (MI; minimum activation threshold, which was a moderate MI of 0.81-1.35 vs. a clinical maximum of 1.9). Bio-effects on renal tissue were assessed through hematology and histology including measurement of blood creatinine levels and the quantity of red blood cell (RBC) casts present in hematoxylin and eosin-stained kidney tissue sections after sonication. Short-term (24 h) and long-term (2 and 4 wk) analyses were performed after treatment. Results indicated that bio-effects from PCCA vaporization were not observed at lower mechanical indices. At higher mechanical indices, bio-effects were observed at 24 h, although these were not observable 2 wk after treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Experimental Qualification of the Sleeved Pin Multilink Attachment for Divertor PFC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poutanen, J.; McCallum, A.; Turner, A.; Merola, M.

    2006-01-01

    The latest design for connecting the limited life ITER divertor plasma facing components (PFC's) to the reusable cassette body is the so called sleeved pin multilink attachment. The connection is made by expanding a 43 mm diameter hollow AlBr pin inside the fixation holes of components of the cassette body and PFC by a swaging process. The multilink is an easy, safe and fast assembly method, but the original dismantling method of drilling out the pin was found troublesome. Therefore, in the latest attachment design a thin sleeve is incorporated between the pin and the holes, which makes it possible to dismantle the joint by simply pulling out the pin and sleeve sequentially. Experimental qualification of the new sleeved design is now proceeding. The aim of the experimental qualification is to prove that the sleeved design meets the requirements of load carrying capability, clearance free connection, and easy and safe removal. Associated analytical studies were performed to develop and verify theoretical models and correlations for use in design. Results from the experimental qualification will provide reference information for developing tools for making and removing the connection. Theoretical finite element models in association with the results of earlier test campaigns with nonsleeved design were used to determine pin expansion parameters. The expansion parameters were verified with plate-pin tests measuring contact pressures produced by pin expansion. The plate-pin tests were also used to demonstrate the feasibility of pin removal and develop pin removal methodology. The mechanical capabilities of the connection design are being examined with test series of cyclic tensile loading plus articulation-induced loading of a single connection mock-up. Remaking properties of the attachment are being studied with multiple swaging and removing of the pin into the fixation holes. Finally the dismantling of the connection will be examined with full length pin extraction

  14. Simulating tokamak PFC performance using simultaneous dual beam particle loading with pulsed heat loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Gregory; Gonderman, Sean; Tripathi, Jitendra; Ray, Tyler; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) in a fusion device are expected to change due to high flux particle loading during operation. Tungsten (W) is a promising PFC candidate material, due to its high melting point, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium retention. However, ion irradiation of D and He have each shown to diminish the thermal strength of W. This work investigates the synergistic effect between ion species, using dual beam irradiation, on the thermal response of W during ELM-like pulsed heat loading. Experiments studied three different loading conditions: laser, laser + He+, and laser + He+ + D+. 100 eV He+ and D+ exposures used a flux of 3.0-3.5 x 1020 m-2 s-1. ELM-like loading was applied using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at an energy density of 0.38-1.51 MJ m-2 (3600 1 ms pulses at 1 Hz). SEM imaging revealed that laser + He+ loading at 0.76 MJ m-2 caused surface melting, inhibiting fuzz formation. Increasing the laser fluence decreased grain size and increased surface pore density. Thermally-enhanced migration of trapped gases appear to reflect resultant molten morphology. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation PIRE project.

  15. The feasibility of beryllium as structural material for the ITER plasma-facing components (PFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieider, G.; Cardella, A.; Gorenflo, H.

    1993-01-01

    Be as plasma-facing armour has attractive features including excellent plasma compatibility, no T-retention via co-deposition and the potential for in-situ repair via plasma spraying. In order to avoid the bonding of the Be-armour to a heatsink structure in e.g., Cu-alloys, the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) proposed for the divertor tubular elements with monolithic Be, both as plasma-facing and structural material. The analysis of these Be-tubes with 5 mm wall thickness at a heat load of 5 MW/m 2 showed that even for the most favourable assumptions thermal stresses exceed by far the allowed values according to design codes. Damage by neutrons and disruptions would worsen further the case for Be as monolithic plasma-facing and structural material. For PFC at heat flux significantly above 1 MW/m 2 it appears evident that Be should be used merely as armour bonded to a suitable structural material as heatsink. (orig.)

  16. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  17. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect; Substances relatives a l'accroissement de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  18. Exploring liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) concepts-Liquid metal film flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, M.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.; Morley, N.B.; Ni, M.; Miraghaie, R.; Burris, J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of fast moving liquid metal streams or 'liquid walls' as a plasma contact surface is a very attractive option and has been looked upon with considerable interest over the past several years, both by the plasma physics and fusion engineering programs. Flowing liquid walls provide an ever replenishing contact surface to the plasma, leading to very effective particle pumping and surface heat flux removal. A key feasibility issue for flowing liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) systems, pertains to their magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) behavior under the spatially varying magnetic field environment, typical of a fusion device. MHD forces hinder the development of a smooth and controllable liquid metal flow needed for PFC applications. The present study builds up on the ongoing research effort at UCLA, directed towards providing qualitative and quantitative data on liquid metal free surface flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

  19. Ex vivo dissection of optogenetically activated mPFC and hippocampal inputs to neurons in the basolateral amygdala: implications for fear and emotional memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora eHübner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many lines of evidence suggest that a reciprocally interconnected network comprising the amygdala, ventral hippocampus (vHC, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC participates in different aspects of the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses and fear behavior. This could at least in part be mediated by direct connections from mPFC or vHC to amygdala to control amygdala activity and output. However, currently the interactions between mPFC and vHC afferents and their specific targets in the amygdala are still poorly understood. Here, we use an ex-vivo optogenetic approach to dissect synaptic properties of inputs from mPFC and vHC to defined neuronal populations in the basal amygdala (BA, the area that we identify as a major target of these projections. We find that BA principal neurons (PNs and local BA interneurons (INs receive monosynaptic excitatory inputs from mPFC and vHC. In addition, both these inputs also recruit GABAergic feedforward inhibition in a substantial fraction of PNs, in some neurons this also comprises a slow GABAB-component. Amongst the innervated PNs we identify neurons that project back to subregions of the mPFC, indicating a loop between neurons in mPFC and BA, and a pathway from vHC to mPFC via BA. Interestingly, mPFC inputs also recruit feedforward inhibition in a fraction of INs, suggesting that these inputs can activate dis-inhibitory circuits in the BA. A general feature of both mPFC and vHC inputs to local INs is that excitatory inputs display faster rise and decay kinetics than in PNs, which would enable temporally precise signaling. However, mPFC and vHC inputs to both PNs and INs differ in their presynaptic release properties, in that vHC inputs are more depressing. In summary, our data describe novel wiring, and features of synaptic connections from mPFC and vHC to amygdala that could help to interpret functions of these interconnected brain areas at the network level.

  20. Ex vivo dissection of optogenetically activated mPFC and hippocampal inputs to neurons in the basolateral amygdala: implications for fear and emotional memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Cora; Bosch, Daniel; Gall, Andrea; Lüthi, Andreas; Ehrlich, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Many lines of evidence suggest that a reciprocally interconnected network comprising the amygdala, ventral hippocampus (vHC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) participates in different aspects of the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses and fear behavior. This could at least in part be mediated by direct connections from mPFC or vHC to amygdala to control amygdala activity and output. However, currently the interactions between mPFC and vHC afferents and their specific targets in the amygdala are still poorly understood. Here, we use an ex-vivo optogenetic approach to dissect synaptic properties of inputs from mPFC and vHC to defined neuronal populations in the basal amygdala (BA), the area that we identify as a major target of these projections. We find that BA principal neurons (PNs) and local BA interneurons (INs) receive monosynaptic excitatory inputs from mPFC and vHC. In addition, both these inputs also recruit GABAergic feedforward inhibition in a substantial fraction of PNs, in some neurons this also comprises a slow GABAB-component. Amongst the innervated PNs we identify neurons that project back to subregions of the mPFC, indicating a loop between neurons in mPFC and BA, and a pathway from vHC to mPFC via BA. Interestingly, mPFC inputs also recruit feedforward inhibition in a fraction of INs, suggesting that these inputs can activate dis-inhibitory circuits in the BA. A general feature of both mPFC and vHC inputs to local INs is that excitatory inputs display faster rise and decay kinetics than in PNs, which would enable temporally precise signaling. However, mPFC and vHC inputs to both PNs and INs differ in their presynaptic release properties, in that vHC inputs are more depressing. In summary, our data describe novel wiring, and features of synaptic connections from mPFC and vHC to amygdala that could help to interpret functions of these interconnected brain areas at the network level. PMID:24634648

  1. Aggression and increased glutamate in the mPFC during withdrawal from intermittent alcohol in outbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Lara S; Nathanson, Anna J; Shimamoto, Akiko; Tayeh, Jillian K; Wilens, Allison R; Holly, Elizabeth N; Newman, Emily L; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2015-08-01

    Disrupted social behavior, including occasional aggressive outbursts, is characteristic of withdrawal from long-term alcohol (EtOH) use. Heavy EtOH use and exaggerated responses during withdrawal may be treated using glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. The current experiments explore aggression and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamate as consequences of withdrawal from intermittent access to EtOH and changes in aggression and mPFC glutamate caused by NMDAR antagonists memantine and ketamine. Swiss male mice underwent withdrawal following 1-8 weeks of intermittent access to 20 % EtOH. Aggressive and nonaggressive behaviors with a conspecific were measured 6-8 h into EtOH withdrawal after memantine or ketamine (0-30 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. In separate mice, extracellular mPFC glutamate after memantine was measured during withdrawal using in vivo microdialysis. At 6-8 h withdrawal from EtOH, mice exhibited more convulsions and aggression and decreased social contact compared to age-matched water controls. Memantine, but not ketamine, increased withdrawal aggression at the 5-mg/kg dose in mice with a history of 8 weeks of EtOH but not 1 or 4 weeks of EtOH or in water drinkers. Tonic mPFC glutamate was higher during withdrawal after 8 weeks of EtOH compared to 1 week of EtOH or 8 weeks of water. Five milligrams per kilogram of memantine increased glutamate in 8-week EtOH mice, but also in 1-week EtOH and water drinkers. These studies reveal aggressive behavior as a novel symptom of EtOH withdrawal in outbred mice and confirm a role of NMDARs during withdrawal aggression and for disrupted social behavior.

  2. tDCS Stimulation of the dlPFC Selectively Moderates the Detrimental Impact of Emotion on Analytical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémolière, Bastien; Maheux-Caron, Véronique; Lepage, Jean-François; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence of a detrimental effect of emotion on reasoning. Recent studies suggest that this relationship is mediated by working memory, a function closely associated with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Relying on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), the present research explores the possibility that anodal stimulation of the dlPFC has the potential to prevent the effect of emotion on analytical reasoning. Thirty-four participants took part in a lab experiment and were tested twice: one session using offline anodal stimulation (with a 2 mA current stimulation applied to the left dlPFC for 20 min), one session using a control (sham) stimulation. In each session, participants solved syllogistic reasoning problems featuring neutral and emotionally negative contents. Results showed that anodal stimulation diminished the deleterious effect of emotion on syllogistic reasoning, but only for a subclass of problems: problems where the conclusion was logically valid. We discuss our results in the light of the reasoning literature as well as the apparent variability of tDCS effects.

  3. Numerical Simulations of Slow Stick Slip Events with PFC, a DEM Based Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S. H.; Young, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Nonvolcanic tremors around subduction zone have become a fascinating subject in seismology in recent years. Previous studies have shown that the nonvolcanic tremor beneath western Shikoku is composed of low frequency seismic waves overlapping each other. This finding provides direct link between tremor and slow earthquakes. Slow stick slip events are considered to be laboratory scaled slow earthquakes. Slow stick slip events are traditionally studied with direct shear or double direct shear experiment setup, in which the sliding velocity can be controlled to model a range of fast and slow stick slips. In this study, a PFC* model based on double direct shear is presented, with a central block clamped by two side blocks. The gauge layers between the central and side blocks are modelled as discrete fracture networks with smooth joint bonds between pairs of discrete elements. In addition, a second model is presented in this study. This model consists of a cylindrical sample subjected to triaxial stress. Similar to the previous model, a weak gauge layer at a 45 degrees is added into the sample, on which shear slipping is allowed. Several different simulations are conducted on this sample. While the confining stress is maintained at the same level in different simulations, the axial loading rate (displacement rate) varies. By varying the displacement rate, a range of slipping behaviour, from stick slip to slow stick slip are observed based on the stress-strain relationship. Currently, the stick slip and slow stick slip events are strictly observed based on the stress-strain relationship. In the future, we hope to monitor the displacement and velocity of the balls surrounding the gauge layer as a function of time, so as to generate a synthetic seismogram. This will allow us to extract seismic waveforms and potentially simulate the tremor-like waves found around subduction zones. *Particle flow code, a discrete element method based numerical simulation code developed by

  4. Thermal analysis and improvement of cascode GaN device package for totem-pole bridgeless PFC rectifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Shuojie; Zhang, Wenli; Liu, Zhengyang; Lee, Fred C.; Huang, Xiucheng; Du, Weijing; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The totem-pole bridgeless power factor correction (PFC) rectifier has a simpler topology and higher efficiency than other boost-type bridgeless PFC rectifiers. Its promising performance is enabled by using high-voltage gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron-mobility transistors, which have considerably better figures of merit (e.g., lower reverse recovery charges and less switching losses) than the state-of-the-art silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Cascode GaN devices in traditional packages, i.e., the TO-220 and power quad flat no-lead, are used in the totem-pole PFC boost rectifier. But the parasitic inductances induced by the traditional packages not only significantly deteriorate the switching characteristics of the discrete GaN device but also adversely affect the performance of the built PFC rectifier. A new stack-die packaging structure with an embedded capacitor has been introduced and proven to be efficient in reducing parasitic ringing at the turn-off transition and achieving true zero-voltage-switching turn-on. However, the thermal dissipation capability of the device packaged in this configuration becomes a limitation on further pushing the operating frequency and the output current level for high-efficiency power conversion. This paper focuses on the thermal analysis of the cascode GaN devices in different packages and the GaN-based multichip module used in a two-phase totem-pole bridgeless PFC boost rectifier. A series of thermal models are built based on the actual structures and materials of the packaged devices to evaluate their thermal performance. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulation results of the cascode GaN device in a flip-chip format demonstrate the possibility of increasing the device switching speed while maintaining the peak temperature of the device below 125 °C. Thermal analysis of the GaN-based power module in a very similar structure is also conducted using the FEA method. Experimental data measured using

  5. Effect of Physical Activity on Symptoms of Morphine Addiction in Rats, after and before of Lesion of the mPFC Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajiheh Saedi-Marghmaleki

    2013-10-01

    Administration of morphine as aforementioned, and treadmill running on rats with mPFC area, significantly alleviated some of the symptoms and signs, such as, bruxism, cycling, body lift, licking, standing and scratching (P

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Three-Phase Isolated Matrix-Type PFC Rectifier Concepts for High Efficiency 380VDC Supplies of Future Telco and Data Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Patricio; Bortis, Dominik; Pittini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    rectifier and in many cases a mains transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation. In order to achieve a high efficiency in the DC voltage generation and to implement the required isolation, a single-stage concept, such as a matrix-type rectifier that enables PFC functionality and galvanic isolation...... in a single conversion, can be beneficial. In addition, due to the fact that with the matrix-type rectifier the galvanic isolation is performed with a high-frequency transformer, this results in a more compact rectifier system compared to conventional systems where the mains-frequency isolation transformer...... is located at the input of the PFC rectifier. In this paper, an overview of isolated matrix-type PFC rectifier topologies is given and a new converter circuit is proposed, analyzed and comparatively evaluated against another promising PFC rectifier concept, the phase-modular IMY-rectifier....

  7. Combustion Control System Design of Diesel Engine via ASPR based Output Feedback Control Strategy with a PFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Tsunematsu, Junpei; Fujii, Seiya

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a design method of an output feedback control system with a simple feedforward input for a combustion model of diesel engine will be proposed based on the almost strictly positive real-ness (ASPR-ness) of the controlled system for a combustion control of diesel engines. A parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) design scheme which renders the resulting augmented controlled system ASPR will also be proposed in order to design a stable output feedback control system for the considered combustion model. The effectiveness of our proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  8. Borsa de PFC de l'ETSEIB: un projecte col·laboratiu entre la Biblioteca i el seu centre

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Laia; Ceña Cosials, Margarita; Codina Vila, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain a degree, the final step for the student at the Industrial Engineering School of Barcelona (ETSEIB) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) is the submission of his/her dissertation. Before implementing the “Stock Exchange of Dissertations” the process of PFC was generally quite regulated and systematized, and with a good support of interaction through a web site, except in the initial part of the process, when the students have to choose the subject and the director...

  9. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a target of the dorsolateral prefrontal modulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; Lopes, Isabela Bittencourt Coutinho; Souza, Rodolpho Albuquerque; Klauss, Jaisa; Batista, Edson Kruger; Conti, Catarine Lima; Moscon, Janine Andrade; de Souza, Rodrigo Stênio Moll

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report some electrophysiologic and imaging effects of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in drug addiction, notably in alcohol and crack-cocaine dependence. The low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) analysis obtained through event-related potentials (ERPs) under drug-related cues, more specifically in its P3 segment (300-500 ms) in both, alcoholics and crack-cocaine users, showed that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was the brain area with the largest change towards increasing activation under drug-related cues in those subjects that kept abstinence during and after the treatment with bilateral tDCS (2 mA, 35 cm(2), cathodal left and anodal right) over dlPFC, applied repetitively (five daily sessions). In an additional study in crack-cocaine, which showed craving decreases after repetitive bilateral tDCS, we examined data originating from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and we found increased DTI parameters in the left connection between vmPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), such as the number of voxels, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), in tDCS-treated crack-cocaine users when compared to the sham-tDCS group. This increasing of DTI parameters was significantly correlated with craving decreasing after the repetitive tDCS. The vmPFC relates to the control of drug seeking, possibly by extinguishing this behavior. In our studies, the bilateral dlPFC tDCS reduced relapses and craving to the drug use, and increased the vmPFC activation under drug cues, which may be of a great importance in the control of drug use in drug addiction.

  10. Kinetic properties and adrenergic control of TREK-2-like channels in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ładno, W; Gawlak, M; Szulczyk, P; Nurowska, E

    2017-06-15

    TREK-2-like channels were identified on the basis of electrophysiological and pharmacological tests performed on freshly isolated and enzymatically/mechanically dispersed pyramidal neurons of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Single-channel currents were recorded in cell-attached configuration and the impact of adrenergic receptors (α 1 , α 2 , β) stimulation on spontaneously appearing TREK-2-like channel activity was tested. The obtained results indicate that noradrenaline decreases the mean open probability of TREK-2-like channel currents by activation of β 1 but not of α 1 - and α 2 -adrenergic receptors. Mean open time and channel conductance were not affected. The system of intracellular signaling pathways depends on the activation of protein kinase A. We also show that adrenergic control of TREK-2-like channel currents by adrenergic receptors was similar in pyramidal neurons isolated from young, adolescent, and adult rats. Immunofluorescent confocal scans of mPFC slices confirmed the presence of the TREK-2 protein, which was abundant in layer V pyramidal neurons. The role of TREK-2-like channel control by adrenergic receptors is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of methods for monitoring low airborne concentrations of argon-41 and tritium, with MIT-PFC design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoughlin, J.C.

    1990-08-01

    Two primary methods, GM- and NaI-detection, of airborne 41 Ar monitoring were compared experimentally to determine the lowest resolvable concentration given reasonable sample sizes. NaI-detectors provided a lower resolvable concentration than GM tubes, primarily due to energy resolution, which greatly reduced background noise. Airborne 3 H collection was compared for two primary collection and one ancillary method (direct condensation). All 3 H detection was performed via liquid scintillation. Tritium collection with water baths yielded higher collection efficiencies than dessicant traps for short sampling durations. As the length of the sampling duration increased, water traps yielded lower collection efficiencies than dessicant traps, primarily due to evaporation of water from the water traps. Direct condensation as a collection method of airborne 3 H was found unsuitable, since large amounts of gas were initially condensed, yet evaporated as the sample's coolant was removed. 41 Ar detection for the MIT-PFC was determined to be best provided by a low 40 K NaI crystal shielded with lead and steel. A Marinelli beaker was used as a monitoring volume to hold the effluent sample. 3 H monitoring at the MIT-PFC was fulfilled with dessicant traps to catalytically separate the [HTO] and [HT] fractions without the use of a carrier gas for the [HT

  12. A PFC3D-based numerical simulation of cutting load for lunar rock simulant and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jiang, Shengyuan; Tang, Dewei; Xu, Bo

    2017-05-01

    For sake of striking a balance between the need of drilling efficiency and the constrains of power budget on the moon, the penetrations per revolution of drill bit are generally limited in the range around 0.1 mm, and besides the geometric angle of the cutting blade need to be well designed. This paper introduces a simulation approach based on PFC3D (particle flow code 3 dimensions) for analyzing the cutting load feature on lunar rock simulant, which is derived from different geometric-angle blades with a small cutting depth. The mean values of the cutting force of five blades in the survey region (four on the boundary points and one on the center point) are selected as the macroscopic responses of model. The method of experimental design which includes Plackett-Burman (PB) design and central composite design (CCD) method is adopted in the matching procedure of microparameters in PFC model. Using the optimization method of enumeration, the optimum set of microparameters is acquired. Then, the experimental validation is implemented by using other twenty-five blades with different geometric angles, and the results from both simulations and laboratory tests give fair agreements. Additionally, the rock breaking process cut by different blades are quantified from simulation analysis. This research provides the theoretical support for the refinement of the rock cutting load prediction and the geometric design of cutting blade on the drill bit.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of tungsten and graphite based PFC for divertor target elements of ITER like tokamak application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khirwadkar, S.S., E-mail: sameer@ipr.res.in [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Singh, K.P.; Patil, Y.; Khan, M.S.; Buch, J.J.U.; Patel, Alpesh; Tripathi, Sudhir [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Jaman, P.M.; Rangaraj, L.; Divakar, C. [Materials Science Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, CSIR, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2011-10-15

    The development of the fabrication technology of macro-brush configuration of tungsten (W) and carbon (graphite and CFC) plasma facing components (PFCs) for ITER like tokamak application is presented. The fabrication of qualified joint of PFC is a requirement for fusion tokamak. Vacuum brazing method has been employed for joining of W/CuCrZr and C/CuCrZr. Oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper casting on W tiles was performed followed by machining, polishing and ultrasonic cleaning of the samples prior to vacuum brazing. The W/CuCrZr and graphite/CuCrZr based test mockups were vacuum brazed using silver free alloys. The mechanical shear and tensile strengths were evaluated for the W/CuCrZr and graphite/CuCrZr brazed joint samples. The micro-structural examination of the joints showed smooth interface. The details of fabrication and characterization procedure for macro-brush tungsten and carbon based PFC test mockups are presented.

  14. Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Liu, Hao-Li; Su, Chia-Hao; Hua, Mu-Yi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Weng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Po-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-07

    This paper presents new albumin-shelled Gd-DTPA microbubbles (MBs) that can concurrently serve as a dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound (US) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during focused ultrasound brain drug delivery. Perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were prepared with a mean diameter of 2320 nm and concentration of 2.903×10(9) MBs ml(-1) using albumin-(Gd-DTPA) and by sonication with perfluorocarbon (C(3)F(8)) gas. The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were then centrifuged and the procedure was repeated until the free Gd(3+) ions were eliminated (which were detected by the xylenol orange sodium salt solution). The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were also characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by US and MR imaging. Focused US was used with the albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs to induce disruption of the BBB in 18 rats. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence MR imaging. Heavy T(2)*-weighted 3D fast low-angle shot sequence MR imaging was used to detect ICH. In vitro US imaging experiments showed that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can significantly enhance the US contrast in T(1)-, T(2)- and T(2)*-weighted MR images. The r(1) and r(2) relaxivities for Gd-DTPA were 7.69 and 21.35 s(-1)mM(-1), respectively, indicating that the MBs represent a positive contrast agent in T(1)-weighted images. In vivo MR imaging experiments on 18 rats showed that focused US combined with albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can be used to both induce disruption of the BBB and detect ICH. To compare the signal intensity change between pure BBB opening and BBB opening accompanying ICH, albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MB imaging can provide a ratio of 5.14 with significant difference (p = 0.026), whereas Gd-DTPA imaging only provides a ratio of 2.13 and without significant difference (p = 0.108). The results indicate that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs have potential as a US/MR dual

  15. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions. PMID:26696865

  16. Alteration of synaptic transmission in the hippocampal-mPFC pathway during extinction trials of context-dependent fear memory in juvenile rat stress models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Hiroyo; Matsumoto, Machiko; Togashi, Hiroko; Miura, Yoshihide; Fukushima, Kazuaki; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2009-09-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been proposed to be essential for extinction of fear memory, but its neural mechanism has been poorly understood. The present study examined whether synaptic transmission in the hippocampal-mPFC pathway is related to extinction of context-dependent fear memory in freely moving rats using electrophysiological approaches combined with behavioral analysis. Population spike amplitude in the mPFC was decreased during the first extinction trial by exposure to contextual fear conditioning. This synaptic inhibition was reversed by repeated extinction trials, accompanied by decreases in fear-related freezing behavior. These results suggest that alteration of synaptic transmission in the hippocampal-mPFC pathway is associated with the extinction processes of context-dependent fear memory. Further experiments were performed to elucidate whether early postnatal stress alters the synaptic response in the mPFC during extinction trials using a juvenile stress model, based on our previous findings that early postnatal stress affects the behavioral response to emotional stress. Adult rats that previously were exposed to five footshocks (FS) (shock intensity, 0.5 mA; intershock interval, 28 seconds; shock duration, 2 seconds) at postnatal day 21 to 25 (week 3; 3W-FS) exhibited impaired reversal of both inhibitory synaptic transmission and freezing behavior induced by repeated extinction trials. The neuronal and behavioral deficits observed in the 3W-FS group were prevented by pretreatment with the serotonin(1A) receptor agonist tandospirone (1 mg/kg, i.p.). These results indicate the possiblity that aversive stress exposure during the third postnatal week impaired extinction processes of context-dependent fear memory. The deficits in extinction observed in the 3W-FS group might be attributable to dysfunction of hippocampal-mPFC neural circuits involving 5-HT(1A) receptor mechanisms. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Meso-pores carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) tissues-perfluorocarbons (PFCs) hybrid air-electrodes for Li-O2 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaish, Moran; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2018-03-01

    Adding immiscible perfluorocarbons (PFCs), possessing superior oxygen solubility and diffusivity, to a free-standing (metal-free and binder-free) CNTs air-electrode tissues with a meso-pore structure, fully maximized the advantages of PFCs as oxygenated-species' channels-providers. The discharge behavior of hybrid PFCs-CNT Li-O2 systems demonstrated a drastic increase in cell capacity at high current density (0.2 mA cm-2), where oxygen transport limitations are best illustrated. The results of this research revealed several key factors affecting PFCs-Li-O2 systems. The incorporation of PFCs with higher superoxide solubility and oxygen diffusivity, but more importantly higher PFCs/electrolyte miscibility, in a meso-pore air-electrode enabled better exploitation of PFCs potential. Consequently, the utilization of the air-electrode' surface area was enhanced via the formation of artificial three phase reaction zones with additional oxygen transportation routes, leading to uniform and intimate Li2O2 deposit at areas further away from the oxygen reservoir. Associated mechanisms are discussed along with insights into an improved Li-O2 battery system.

  18. Effect of PEEP and inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary gas exchange during gaseous and partial liquid ventilation with small volumes of perfluorocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M; Kuhlen, R; Falter, F; Reyle-Hahn, M; Dembinski, R; Rossaint, R

    2000-04-01

    Partial liquid ventilation, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and inhaled nitric oxide (NO) can improve ventilation/perfusion mismatch in acute lung injury (ALI). The aim of the present study was to compare gas exchange and hemodynamics in experimental ALI during gaseous and partial liquid ventilation at two different levels of PEEP, with and without the inhalation of nitric oxide. Seven pigs (24+/-2 kg BW) were surfactant-depleted by repeated lung lavage with saline. Gas exchange and hemodynamic parameters were assessed in all animals during gaseous and subsequent partial liquid ventilation at two levels of PEEP (5 and 15 cmH2O) and intermittent inhalation of 10 ppm NO. Arterial oxygenation increased significantly with a simultaneous decrease in cardiac output when PEEP 15 cmH2O was applied during gaseous and partial liquid ventilation. All other hemodynamic parameters revealed no relevant changes. Inhalation of NO and instillation of perfluorocarbon had no additive effects on pulmonary gas exchange when compared to PEEP 15 cmH2O alone. In experimental lung injury, improvements in gas exchange are most distinct during mechanical ventilation with PEEP 15 cmH2O without significantly impairing hemodynamics. Partial liquid ventilation and inhaled NO did not cause an additive increase of PaO2.

  19. Measurement of differences in pO2 in response to perfluorocarbon/carbogen in FSa and NFSa murine fibrosarcomas with low-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, H J; Yu, C; Peric, M; Barth, E D; Karczmar, G S; River, J N; Grdina, D J; Teicher, B A

    1996-05-01

    We have used very low-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry to measure the change in oxygen concentration (delta pO2) due to change in breathing atmosphere in FSa and NFSa fibrosarcomas implanted in the legs of C3H mice infused with perfluoro-octylbromine (PFOB). Measurements in each tumor were made before and after the administration of the high-density (47% v/v) perfluorocarbon PFOB, perflubron (Alliance Pharmaceutical Corporation, San Diego, CA). Measurements in each tumor were also made, after the administration of the PFOB, both before (PFOB/air) and after the administration of carbogen (95% O2 + 5% CO2, PFOB/carbogen). Large changes (delta p02) relative to PFOB/air oxygenation were seen with the administration of PFOB/carbogen. No significant difference in oxygen concentration was seen between air-breathing mice with and without PFOB. The mean delta pO2 for FSa tumors was 13 +/- 6 torr, while the mean for NFSa fibrosarcomas was 28 +/- 7 torr. There were such large intertumor differences that the trend toward a smaller change in the more hypoxic FSa tumors was not significant (P = 0.13). This paper describes a novel method of measuring differences in oxygenation in tumor tissues. The results of such measurements indicate large differences in pO2 response to different breathing atmospheres in PFOB-infused tumors of similar histology. The intertumor delta pO2 differences may correlate with differences in radiation response.

  20. Měření výpočetního výkonu PLC PFC200

    OpenAIRE

    Majchrák, František

    2017-01-01

    V práci sa analyzujú možnosti merania výpočetného výkonu PLC PFC200 od firmy WAGO. Prvú časť práce venujem priblíženiu funkčnosti automatu, jeho využitiu, jednotlivým možnostiam programovania, zoznamujem sa s implementáciou vlastných programových blokov v prostredí embedded Linux a zisťujem jeho prepojenie s PLC prostredím. V druhej časti práce sa sústredím na meranie výkonu, jeho typy, popis certifikovaných meraní a jeho celkové zhodnotenie. V poslednej časti je vysvetlená aplikácia, ktorá z...

  1. Estimation of bias with the single-zone assumption in measurement of residential air exchange using the perfluorocarbon tracer gas method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryswyk, K; Wallace, L; Fugler, D; MacNeill, M; Héroux, M È; Gibson, M D; Guernsey, J R; Kindzierski, W; Wheeler, A J

    2015-12-01

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are vital in understanding the temporal and spatial drivers of indoor air quality (IAQ). Several methods to quantify AERs have been used in IAQ research, often with the assumption that the home is a single, well-mixed air zone. Since 2005, Health Canada has conducted IAQ studies across Canada in which AERs were measured using the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gas method. Emitters and detectors of a single PFT gas were placed on the main floor to estimate a single-zone AER (AER(1z)). In three of these studies, a second set of emitters and detectors were deployed in the basement or second floor in approximately 10% of homes for a two-zone AER estimate (AER(2z)). In total, 287 daily pairs of AER(2z) and AER(1z) estimates were made from 35 homes across three cities. In 87% of the cases, AER(2z) was higher than AER(1z). Overall, the AER(1z) estimates underestimated AER(2z) by approximately 16% (IQR: 5-32%). This underestimate occurred in all cities and seasons and varied in magnitude seasonally, between homes, and daily, indicating that when measuring residential air exchange using a single PFT gas, the assumption of a single well-mixed air zone very likely results in an under prediction of the AER. The results of this study suggest that the long-standing assumption that a home represents a single well-mixed air zone may result in a substantial negative bias in air exchange estimates. Indoor air quality professionals should take this finding into consideration when developing study designs or making decisions related to the recommendation and installation of residential ventilation systems. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Health Canada.

  2. Aggregation-enhanced emission and piezochromic luminescence of 9,10-bis(p-dibutylaminostyryl)-2,6-bis(p-t-butylstyryl)anthracene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingxiao; Zhang, Deteng; Li, Yiping; Wang, Jianfeng; Gao, Yangyang; Yang, Wenjun, E-mail: ywjph2004@qust.edu.cn

    2014-04-15

    A cruciform 9,10-distyrylanthracene-containing luminogen, 9,10-bis(p-dibutylaminostyryl)-2,6-bis(p-t-butylstyryl)anthracene (DDC), has been synthesized and the optical properties investigated. The results show that DDC is an aggregation-induced enhanced emission (AIEE) and piezofluorochromic (PFC) dye. The fluorescence quantum yield in THF/water=1/9 (18.1%) is about 12-fold over that in THF (1.53%). PFC experiment shows that the fluorescence colors (emission spectra) of DDC solid change reversibly between orange-red (602 nm) and red (632 nm) emissions upon pressing and annealing. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetric analyses reveal that the grinding has induced the phase transition of DDC solid from pristine crystalline to ground amorphous states, and annealing could cause the re-crystallization of amorphized DDC solid. This transformation between crystalline and amorphous states is responsible for the reversible PFC behavior upon external stimuli. Highlights: • A two-dimensional cross-conjugated luminogen (DDC) was synthesized. • DDC exhibits aggregation-enhanced emission and piezofluorochromic behaviors. • DDC emits bluer light in the crystalline phase than in the amorphous phase. • The PFC mechanism is ascribed to grinding-induced amorphization.

  3. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  4. Age-related changes in overcoming proactive interference in associative memory: The role of PFC-mediated executive control processes at retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulas, Michael R; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-05-15

    Behavioral evidence has shown age-related impairments in overcoming proactive interference in memory, but it is unclear what underlies this deficit. Imaging studies in the young suggest overcoming interference may require several executive control processes supported by the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether age-related changes in dissociable executive control processes underlie deficits in overcoming proactive interference in associative memory during retrieval. Participants were tasked with remembering which associate (face or scene) objects were paired with most recently during study, under conditions of high or low proactive interference. Behavioral results demonstrated that, as interference increased, memory performance decreased similarly across groups, with slight associative memory deficits in older adults. Imaging results demonstrated that, across groups, left mid-VLPFC showed increasing activity with increasing interference, though activity did not distinguish correct from incorrect associative memory responses, suggesting this region may not directly serve in successful resolution of proactive interference, per se. Under conditions of high interference, older adults showed reduced associative memory accuracy effects in the DLPFC and anterior PFC. These results suggest that age-related PFC dysfunction may not be ubiquitous. Executive processes supported by ventral regions that detect mnemonic interference may be less affected than processes supported by dorsal and anterior regions that directly resolve interference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dose-response characteristics of methylphenidate on locomotor behavior and on sensory evoked potentials recorded from the VTA, NAc, and PFC in freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swann Alan C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylphenidate (MPD is a psychostimulant commonly prescribed for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The mode of action of the brain circuitry responsible for initiating the animals' behavior in response to psychostimulants is not well understood. There is some evidence that psychostimulants activate the ventral tegmental area (VTA, nucleus accumbens (NAc, and prefrontal cortex (PFC. Methods The present study was designed to investigate the acute dose-response of MPD (0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg on locomotor behavior and sensory evoked potentials recorded from the VTA, NAc, and PFC in freely behaving rats previously implanted with permanent electrodes. For locomotor behavior, adult male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY; n = 39 rats were given saline on experimental day 1 and either saline or an acute injection of MPD (0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg, i.p. on experimental day 2. Locomotor activity was recorded for 2-h post injection on both days using an automated, computerized activity monitoring system. Electrophysiological recordings were also performed in the adult male WKY rats (n = 10. Five to seven days after the rats had recovered from the implantation of electrodes, each rat was placed in a sound-insulated, electrophysiological test chamber where its sensory evoked field potentials were recorded before and after saline and 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD injection. Time interval between injections was 90 min. Results Results showed an increase in locomotion with dose-response characteristics, while a dose-response decrease in amplitude of the components of sensory evoked field responses of the VTA, NAc, and PFC neurons. For example, the P3 component of the sensory evoked field response of the VTA decreased by 19.8% ± 7.4% from baseline after treatment of 0.6 mg/kg MPD, 37.8% ± 5.9% after 2.5 mg/kg MPD, and 56.5% ± 3.9% after 10 mg/kg MPD. Greater attenuation from baseline was observed in the NAc and PFC. Differences in the intensity of

  6. Nucleus Accumbens Shell and mPFC but not Insula Orexin-1 Receptors Promote Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Lei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Addiction to alcohol remains a major social and economic problem, in part because of the high motivation for alcohol that humans exhibit and the hazardous binge intake this promotes. Orexin-1-type receptors (OX1Rs promote reward intake under conditions of strong drives for reward, including excessive alcohol intake. While systemic modulation of OX1Rs can alter alcohol drinking, the brain regions that mediate this OX1R enhancement of excessive drinking remain unknown. Given the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and anterior insular cortex (aINS in driving many addictive behaviors, including OX1Rs within these regions, we examined the importance of OX1Rs in these regions on excessive alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice during limited-access alcohol drinking in the dark cycle. Inhibition of OX1Rs with the widely used SB-334867 within the medial NAc Shell (mNAsh significantly reduced drinking of alcohol, with no effect on saccharin intake, and no effect on alcohol consumption when infused above the mNAsh. In contrast, intra-mNAsh infusion of the orexin-2 receptor TCS-OX2-29 had no impact on alcohol drinking. In addition, OX1R inhibition within the aINS had no effect on excessive drinking, which was surprising given the importance of aINS-NAc circuits in promoting alcohol consumption and the role for aINS OX1Rs in driving nicotine intake. However, OX1R inhibition within the mPFC did reduce alcohol drinking, indicating cortical OXR involvement in promoting intake. Also, in support of the critical role for mNAsh OX1Rs, SB within the mNAsh also significantly reduced operant alcohol self-administration in rats. Finally, orexin ex vivo enhanced firing in mNAsh neurons from alcohol-drinking mice, with no effect on evoked EPSCs or input resistance; a similar orexin increase in firing without a change in input resistance was observed in alcohol-naïve mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that OX1Rs within the mNAsh, but not the aINS, play a

  7. AAV-mediated overexpression of the CB1 receptor in the mPFC of adult rats alters cognitive flexibility, social behavior and emotional reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eKlugmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid (ECB system is strongly involved in the regulation of cognitive processing and emotional behavior and evidence indicates that ECB signaling might affect these behavioral abilities by modulations of prefrontal cortical functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the CB1 receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC on cognitive flexibility and emotional behavior. Therefore, the CB1 receptor was overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene transfer specifically in the mPFC of adult Wistar rats. Animals were then tested in different anxiety-related paradigms for emotional reactivity (e.g. elevated plus maze (EPM, light/dark emergence test (EMT, social interaction and the attentional set shift task (ASST - an adaptation of the human Wisconsin card sorting test - for cognitive abilities and behavioral flexibility. A subtle increase in exploratory behavior was found in CB1 receptor overexpressing animals (CB1-R compared to empty vector injected controls (Empty in the EMT and EPM, although general locomotor activity did not differ between the groups. During social interaction testing, social contact behavior towards the unknown conspecific was found to be decreased, whereas social withdrawal was increased in CB1-R animals and they showed an inadequate increase in exploratory behavior compared to control animals. In the ASST, impaired reversal learning abilities were detected in CB1-R animals compared to controls, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. In conclusion, upregulation of the CB1 receptor specifically in the rat mPFC induces alterations in emotional reactivity, leads to inadequate social behavior and impairs cognitive flexibility. These findings might be relevant for neuropsychiatric disorders, since higher cortical CB1 receptor expression levels as well as similar behavioral impairments as observed in the present study have been described in schizophrenic patients.

  8. The Plasma-Facing Components Transporter (PFCT) : a Prototype System for PFC Replacement on the new ITER 2001 Cassette Mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micciche, G.; Lorenzelli, L.; Muro, L.; Irving, M.

    2006-01-01

    The remote maintainability of the early ITER divertor cassette (based on the ITER 1998 design) was successfully proved during test campaigns carried out in the Divertor Refurbishment Platform (DRP) at the ENEA research centre at Brasimone over the period 1999-2003. Due to subsequent major modifications in the ITER divertor cassette design, the main focus over the past few years has been on the design and manufacture of the various components, devices and tools needed for refurbishment of the new ITER 2001 Divertor Cassette. The design of this new cassette differs substantially from the earlier version: in particular the shape, weight and attachment system of the Plasma Facing Components (PFC's) has been completely revised, and this also entailed a review of the procedures adopted for its refurbishment. One of the major requirements of the cassette refurbishment process is removal and replacement of the three PFC's. In the old cassette concept, target replacement was performed by means of a purpose-built '' C '' frame slung from a standard bridge crane. The 2001 cassette design precludes such handling methods for a number of reasons, notably because of the extremely tight inter-PFC clearances, and the need for controlled inclination of the target in addition to normal translational movements, both impossible with a simple Cartesian crane. To demonstrate the refurbishment feasibility operations for the new ITER Divertor 2001 cassettes, an experimental machine known as the Plasma-Facing Component Transporter (PFCT) has been designed, fabricated and commissioned in the years 2004-5. This full six degree-of-freedom system has been designed to handle payloads of up to 5 tonnes with good positional accuracy, and axes capable of very low joint velocities, including inclination of the PFC's over the range of ± 10 o in both horizontal axes, and controlled rotation about the vertical axis. Preliminary trials carried out during the commissioning phase have proved its

  9. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  10. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  11. Emission inventory; Inventaire des emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontelle, J.P. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Statistics on air pollutant (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonium) emissions, acid equivalent emissions and their evolution since 1990 in the various countries of Europe and the USA, are presented. Emission data from the industrial, agricultural, transportation and power sectors are given, and comparisons are carried out between countries based on Gnp and population, pollution import/export fluxes and compliance to the previous emission reduction objectives

  12. Intermittent Ethanol during Adolescence Leads to Lasting Behavioral Changes in Adulthood and Alters Gene Expression and Histone Methylation in the PFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T. Wolstenholme

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents primarily consume alcohol in binges, which can be particularly harmful to the developing frontal cortex and increase risk for an adult alcohol use disorder. We conducted a study investigating immediate and long lasting changes to the prefrontal cortex (PFC transcriptome to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying adult ethanol behavioral sensitivity following binge ethanol in adolescence. DBA/2J mice were orally dosed with 4 g/kg ethanol intermittently from day 29 to 42. Adolescent mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior and ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting reflex task. As adults, mice were tested for cognitive changes using the novel object recognition task, ethanol-induced anxiolysis and ethanol sensitivity. Adolescent binge ethanol altered ethanol sensitivity in young mice and led to lasting memory deficits in the object recognition test and greater ethanol sensitivity in adulthood. Using genomic profiling of transcripts in the PFC, we found that binge ethanol reduced myelin-related gene expression and altered chromatin modifying genes involved in histone demethylation at H3K9 and H3K36. We hypothesize that ethanol’s actions on histone methylation may be a switch for future transcriptional changes that underlie the behavioral changes lasting into adulthood.

  13. Activation of human B lymphocytes. 8. Differential radiosensitivity of subpopulations of lymphoid cells involved in the polyclonally-induced PFC responses of peripheral blood B lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauci, A S; Pratt, K R; Whalen, G [National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1978-11-01

    The differential effect of various doses of irradiation on subpopulations of human peripheral blood lymphoid cells involved in the pokeweed mitogen induced PFC response against sheep red blood cells was studied. The plaque forming B cells were quite sensitive to low doses of irradiation with complete suppression of responses at 300 to 500 rad. On the contrary, helper T-cell function was resistant to 2000 rad. Co-culture of irradiated T cells with autologous or allogeneic B cells resulted in marked enhancement of PFC responses consistent with the suppression of naturally occurring suppressor cells with a resulting pure helper effect. Irradiated T-cell-depleted suspensions failed to produce this effect as did heat killed T cells, whereas mitomycin C treated T cells gave effects similar to irradiated T cells. These findings are consistent with a lack of requirement of cell division for a T-cell helper effect and a requirement of mitosis or another irradiation sensitive, mitomycin C sensitive process for a T-suppressor cell effect. These studies have potential relevance in the evaluation of subpopulations of human lymphoid cells involved in antibody production in normal individuals and in disease states.

  14. Projections of global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschrey, Barbara; Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are currently covered under the Montreal Protocol, which focuses on ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), and under the Kyoto Protocol, which controls emissions of HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (perfluorocarbons) and SF{sub 6} (sulfur hexafluoride). This study bridges the gap between political regimes and their reporting systems by giving an overview of banks and emissions of all fluorinated gases in 2005, and projections of banks and emissions of fluorinated gases in 2050. The Montreal Protocol and its amendments will eventually result in the full phase out of CFCs and HCFCs. Developed countries have already completed the phase out of CFCs and will reach full phase out of HCFCs by 2020. Developing countries, in contrast, will phase out CFCs by 2010 and HCFCs by 2030. Although climate-friendly technology is available for most applications, the risk occurs that substitutes for ozone-depleting substances rely on HFCs, which cause global warming. This study determines global emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} (Kyoto F-gases) in 2050 in a ''business-as-usual'' scenario. The global population is expected to increase to ca. 8.7 billion people, and high economic growth of 3.5% per year is assumed. Emissions in 2050 are quantified for each sector of application as well as for developed and developing countries based on growth rates of each sector. In 2050, total global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are projected to amount to 4 GT CO{sub 2} eq. which equals ca. 5.9% of the total greenhouse gas emissions at this time. Compared to a relatively small share of F-gas emissions ranging around 1.3% of total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004, this percentage reflects an enormous increase. Relative to projected direct CO{sub 2} emissions alone, the 2050 F-gas emissions will even account for ca. 7.9%. In case of CO{sub 2} mitigation, this share

  15. Predicting Motivation: Computational Models of PFC Can Explain Neural Coding of Motivation and Effort-based Decision-making in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassena, Eliana; Deraeve, James; Alexander, William H

    2017-10-01

    Human behavior is strongly driven by the pursuit of rewards. In daily life, however, benefits mostly come at a cost, often requiring that effort be exerted to obtain potential benefits. Medial PFC (MPFC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) are frequently implicated in the expectation of effortful control, showing increased activity as a function of predicted task difficulty. Such activity partially overlaps with expectation of reward and has been observed both during decision-making and during task preparation. Recently, novel computational frameworks have been developed to explain activity in these regions during cognitive control, based on the principle of prediction and prediction error (predicted response-outcome [PRO] model [Alexander, W. H., & Brown, J. W. Medial prefrontal cortex as an action-outcome predictor. Nature Neuroscience, 14, 1338-1344, 2011], hierarchical error representation [HER] model [Alexander, W. H., & Brown, J. W. Hierarchical error representation: A computational model of anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Neural Computation, 27, 2354-2410, 2015]). Despite the broad explanatory power of these models, it is not clear whether they can also accommodate effects related to the expectation of effort observed in MPFC and DLPFC. Here, we propose a translation of these computational frameworks to the domain of effort-based behavior. First, we discuss how the PRO model, based on prediction error, can explain effort-related activity in MPFC, by reframing effort-based behavior in a predictive context. We propose that MPFC activity reflects monitoring of motivationally relevant variables (such as effort and reward), by coding expectations and discrepancies from such expectations. Moreover, we derive behavioral and neural model-based predictions for healthy controls and clinical populations with impairments of motivation. Second, we illustrate the possible translation to effort-based behavior of the HER model, an extended version of PRO

  16. The Small GTPase Rac1 Contributes to Extinction of Aversive Memories of Drug Withdrawal by Facilitating GABAA Receptor Endocytosis in the vmPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weisheng; Ju, Yun-Yue; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Tang, Jian-Xin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Shuo; Chen, Zhong-Guo; Wang, Yu-Jun; Ji, Hui; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2017-07-26

    Extinction of aversive memories has been a major concern in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders and drug addiction. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of aversive memories are not fully understood. Here, we report that extinction of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABA A receptor (GABA A R) endocytosis via triggering synaptic translocation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) through facilitating actin polymerization. Active Rac1 is essential and sufficient for GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction. Knockdown of Rac1 expression within the vmPFC of rats using Rac1-shRNA suppressed GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction, whereas expression of a constitutively active form of Rac1 accelerated GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction. The crucial role of GABA A R endocytosis in the LTP induction and CPA extinction is evinced by the findings that blockade of GABA A R endocytosis by a dynamin function-blocking peptide (Myr-P4) abolishes LTP induction and CPA extinction. Thus, the present study provides first evidence that Rac1-dependent GABA A R endocytosis plays a crucial role in extinction of aversive memories and reveals the sequence of molecular events that contribute to learning experience modulation of synaptic GABA A R endocytosis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study reveals that Rac1-dependent GABA A R endocytosis plays a crucial role in extinction of aversive memories associated with drug withdrawal and identifies Arc as a downstream effector of Rac1 regulations of synaptic plasticity as well as learning and memory, thereby suggesting therapeutic targets to promote extinction of the unwanted memories. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377096-15$15.00/0.

  17. The emissivity of W coatings deposited on carbon materials for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruset, C.; Falie, D.; Grigore, E.; Gherendi, M.; Zoita, V.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Matthews, G.; Courtois, X.; Bucalossi, J.; Likonen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The emissivity of tungsten coatings deposited on carbon substrates such as CFC and fine grain graphite was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm in the temperature range of 400 °C–1200 °C. • The emissivity of other materials of interest for nuclear fusion such as tungsten and beryllium was measured as well. • The influence of substrate structure and of the viewing angle on the emissivity of W coatings was investigated in detail. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings deposited on carbon materials such as carbon fiber composite (CFC) or fine grain graphite are currently used in fusion devices as amour for plasma facing components (PFC). More than 4000 carbon tiles were W-coated by Combined Magnetron Sputtering and Ion Implantation technology for the ITER-like Wall at JET, ASDEX Upgrade and WEST tokamaks. The emissivity of W coatings is a key parameter required by protection systems of the W-coated PFC and also by the diagnostic tools in order to get correct values of temperature and heat loading. The emissivity of tungsten is rather well known, but the literature data refer to bulk tungsten or tungsten foils and not to coatings deposited on carbon materials. The emissivity was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm. It was found that the structure of the substrate has a significant influence on the emissivity values. The temperature dependence of the emissivity in the range of 400 °C–1200 °C and the influence of the viewing angle were investigated as well. The results are given in a table for W coatings and for other materials of interest for fusion such as bulk W and bulk Be.

  18. The emissivity of W coatings deposited on carbon materials for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruset, C., E-mail: ruset@infim.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Falie, D.; Grigore, E.; Gherendi, M.; Zoita, V. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Zastrow, K.-D.; Matthews, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Courtois, X.; Bucalossi, J. [IRFM, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 SAINT PAUL LEZ DURANCE (France); Likonen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The emissivity of tungsten coatings deposited on carbon substrates such as CFC and fine grain graphite was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm in the temperature range of 400 °C–1200 °C. • The emissivity of other materials of interest for nuclear fusion such as tungsten and beryllium was measured as well. • The influence of substrate structure and of the viewing angle on the emissivity of W coatings was investigated in detail. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings deposited on carbon materials such as carbon fiber composite (CFC) or fine grain graphite are currently used in fusion devices as amour for plasma facing components (PFC). More than 4000 carbon tiles were W-coated by Combined Magnetron Sputtering and Ion Implantation technology for the ITER-like Wall at JET, ASDEX Upgrade and WEST tokamaks. The emissivity of W coatings is a key parameter required by protection systems of the W-coated PFC and also by the diagnostic tools in order to get correct values of temperature and heat loading. The emissivity of tungsten is rather well known, but the literature data refer to bulk tungsten or tungsten foils and not to coatings deposited on carbon materials. The emissivity was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm. It was found that the structure of the substrate has a significant influence on the emissivity values. The temperature dependence of the emissivity in the range of 400 °C–1200 °C and the influence of the viewing angle were investigated as well. The results are given in a table for W coatings and for other materials of interest for fusion such as bulk W and bulk Be.

  19. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, A.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Di Gaetano, J.O.; D'Atellis, C.E.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  20. A novel escapable social interaction test reveals that social behavior and mPFC activation during an escapable social encounter are altered by post-weaning social isolation and are dependent on the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Dayton J; Ahern, Megan A; Baynard, Jessica; Wall, Vanessa L; Bland, Sondra T

    2017-01-15

    Post-weaning social isolation (PSI) has been shown to increase aggressive behavior and alter medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function in social species such as rats. Here we developed a novel escapable social interaction test (ESIT) allowing for the quantification of escape and social behaviors in addition to mPFC activation in response to an aggressive or nonaggressive stimulus rat. Male rats were exposed to 3 weeks of PSI (ISO) or group (GRP) housing, and exposed to 3 trials, with either no trial, all trials, or the last trial only with a stimulus rat. Analysis of social behaviors indicated that ISO rats spent less time in the escape chamber and more time engaged in social interaction, aggressive grooming, and boxing than did GRP rats. Interestingly, during the third trial all rats engaged in more of the quantified social behaviors and spent less time escaping in response to aggressive but not nonaggressive stimulus rats. Rats exposed to nonaggressive stimulus rats on the third trial had greater c-fos and ARC immunoreactivity in the mPFC than those exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. Conversely, a social encounter produced an increase in large PSD-95 punctae in the mPFC independently of trial number, but only in ISO rats exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. The results presented here demonstrate that PSI increases interaction time and aggressive behaviors during escapable social interaction, and that the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat in a social encounter is an important component of behavioral and neural outcomes for both isolation and group-reared rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel escapable social interaction test reveals that social behavior and mPFC activation during an escapable social encounter are altered by post-weaning social isolation and are dependent on the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Dayton J.; Ahern, Megan A.; Baynard, Jessica; Wall, Vanessa L.; Bland, Sondra T.

    2016-01-01

    Post-weaning social isolation (PSI) has been shown to increase aggressive behavior and alter medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function in social species such as rats. Here we developed a novel escapable social interaction test (ESIT) allowing for the quantification of escape and social behaviors in addition to mPFC activation in response to an aggressive or nonaggressive stimulus rat. Male rats were exposed to 3 weeks of PSI (ISO) or group (GRP) housing, and exposed to 3 trials, with either no trial, all trials, or the last trial only with a stimulus rat. Analysis of social behaviors indicated that ISO rats spent less time in the escape chamber and more time engaged in social interaction, aggressive grooming, and boxing than did GRP rats. Interestingly, during the third trial all rats engaged in more of the quantified social behaviors and spent less time escaping in response to aggressive but not nonaggressive stimulus rats. Rats exposed to nonaggressive stimulus rats on the third trial had greater c-fos and ARC immunoreactivity in the mPFC than those exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. Conversely, a social encounter produced an increase in large PSD-95 punctae in the mPFC independently of trial number, but only in ISO rats exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. The results presented here demonstrate that PSI increases interaction time and aggressive behaviors during escapable social interaction, and that the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat in a social encounter is an important component of behavioral and neural outcomes for both isolation and group-reared rats. PMID:27633556

  2. The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shang

    fear, and the importance of the ventral anterior cingulate (ACC/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in mediating anxiety symptoms.

  3. Evaluation of 18F-labeled targeted perfluorocarbon-filled albumin microbubbles as a probe for microUS and microPET in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Weng, Chien-Hsiu; Wu, Ming-Fang; Li, Pai-Chi

    2013-02-01

    In this study, albumin-shelled, targeted MBs (tMBs) were first demonstrated with the expectation of visualization of biodistribution of albumin-shelled tMBs. The actual biodistribution of albumin-shelled tMBs is of vital importance either for molecular imaging or for drug delivery. Recently, albumin microbubbles (MBs) have been studied for drug and gene delivery in vitro and in vivo through cavitation. Targeted lipid-shelled MBs have been applied for ultrasound molecular imaging and conjugated with radiolabeled antibodies for whole-body biodistribution evaluations. The novelty of the work is that, in addition to the lipid tMBs, the albumin tMBs was also applied in biodistribution detection. Multimodality albumin-shelled, (18)F-SFB-labeled VEGFR2 tMBs were synthesized, and their characteristics in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer were investigated with micro-positron-emission tomography (microPET) and high-frequency ultrasound (microUS). Albumin-shelled MBs can be labeled with (18)F-SFB directly and conjugated with antibodies for dual molecular imaging. The albumin-shelled tMBs show a lifetime in 30min in the blood pool and a highly specific adherence to tumor vessels in mice bearing human breast cancer. From the evaluations of whole-body biodistribution, the potential of the dual molecular imaging probe for drug or gene delivery in animal experiments with albumin shelled MBs has been investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Air emissions in France overseas substances involved in the acidification, eutrophication, photochemical and greenhouse effect processes; Emissions dans l'air en France Outre-mer substances impliquees dans les phenomenes d'acidification, de photochimie et d'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The concerned substances are SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} for the DOM (overseas departments); the six direct greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6}) and non direct gases (VOC, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}) for the overseas departments and territories; the NH{sub 3} emissions for the eutrophication. Emissions are presented by the mean of charts. (A.L.B.)

  5. Size Effect on Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Coal-Rock Damage Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal-gas outburst, rock burst, and other mine dynamic disasters are closely related to the instability and failure of coal-rock. Coal-rock is the assemblies of mineral particles of varying sizes and shapes bonded together by cementing materials. The damage and rupture process of coal-rock is accompanied by acoustic emission (AE, which can be used as an effective means to monitor and predict the instability of coal-rock body. In this manuscript, considering the size effect of coal-rock, the influence of different height to diameter ratio on the acoustic emission characteristics of coal-rock damage evolution was discussed by microparticle flow PFC2D software platform. The results show that coal-rock size influences the uniaxial compressive strength, peak strain, and elastic modulus of itself; the size effect has little effect on the acoustic emission law of coal-rock damage and the effects of the size of coal-rock samples on acoustic emission characteristics are mainly reflected in three aspects: the triggering time of acoustic emission, the strain range of strong acoustic emission, and the intensity of acoustic emission; the damage evolution of coal-rock specimen can be divided into 4 stages: initial damage, stable development, accelerated development, and damage.

  6. Blonanserin Ameliorates Phencyclidine-Induced Visual-Recognition Memory Deficits: the Complex Mechanism of Blonanserin Action Involving D3-5-HT2A and D1-NMDA Receptors in the mPFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Mori, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yurie; Seki, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Blonanserin differs from currently used serotonin 5-HT2A/dopamine-D2 receptor antagonists in that it exhibits higher affinity for dopamine-D2/3 receptors than for serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D3 receptors in the effects of blonanserin on cognitive impairment in an animal model of schizophrenia. We also sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this involvement. Blonanserin, as well as olanzapine, significantly ameliorated phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairment of visual-recognition memory, as demonstrated by the novel-object recognition test (NORT) and increased extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With blonanserin, both of these effects were antagonized by DOI (a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist) and 7-OH-DPAT (a dopamine-D3 receptor agonist), whereas the effects of olanzapine were antagonized by DOI but not by 7-OH-DPAT. The ameliorating effect was also antagonized by SCH23390 (a dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist) and H-89 (a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor). Blonanserin significantly remediated the decrease in phosphorylation levels of PKA at Thr197 and of NR1 (an essential subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors) at Ser897 by PKA in the mPFC after a NORT training session in the PCP-administered mice. There were no differences in the levels of NR1 phosphorylated at Ser896 by PKC in any group. These results suggest that the ameliorating effect of blonanserin on PCP-induced cognitive impairment is associated with indirect functional stimulation of the dopamine-D1-PKA-NMDA receptor pathway following augmentation of dopaminergic neurotransmission due to inhibition of both dopamine-D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC. PMID:25120077

  7. Emission Inventory for Fugitive Emissions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2007. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2, dioxin, PAH and particulate matter. In 2007 the total Danish emission of greenhouse...

  8. Comparison of the Fc fragment from a human IgG1 and its CH2, pFc', and tFc' subfragments. A study using reductive methylation and 13C NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentoft, J.E.; Rayford, R.

    1989-01-01

    The Fc fragment of a human monoclonal IgG1 was compared with subfragments containing (a) the intact CH2 domain (CH2 fragment) or (b) the intact CH3 domain (pFc' and tFc' fragments). All fragments were reductively 13 C-methylated and their resulting dimethyllysyl resonances characterized in 0.1 M KCl as a function of pH by 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Seven resonances were characterized for the 18 lysine residues of the Fc fragment, eight for the 12 lysines of the CH2 fragment, and five each for the 9 lysines of the pFc' and the 6 lysines of the tFc' fragments, respectively. The multiplicity of resonances indicates that the lysine residues in each fragment exist in a variety of microenvironments and that the fragments are all highly structured. The correspondence between 6 of the 12 or 13 perturbed lysine residues in the Fc fragment and the smaller subfragments indicates that the conformation of the CH2 and CH3 domains is largely unchanged in the smaller fragments. However, in addition to three lysines at the CH2-CH3 domain interface, whose environments were known to be disrupted in the smaller fragments, three or four lysine residues have somewhat different properties in the Fc fragment and in the subfragments, indicating that some local perturbations are included in the domain structure in the subfragments

  9. P.F.C Sigma® cruciate retaining fixed-bearing versus mobile-bearing knee arthroplasty: a prospective comparative study with minimum 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, O; Aqil, A; Sisodia, G; Chakrabarty, G

    2017-12-01

    To prospectively compare long-term clinical and radiological outcomes following a cruciate retaining fixed-bearing (FB) and a mobile-bearing (MB) primary total knee replacement (TKR). We prospectively reviewed 113 TKRs in 99 patients (14 bilateral) with a PFC sigma cruciate retaining rotating platform system, at an average follow-up of 11.1 years (range 10-12). Results were contrasted with those from 89 TKRs in 72 patients (17 bilateral) with a PFC sigma cruciate fixed-bearing prosthesis, at an average follow-up of 12.1 years (range 10-14.1). Outcomes collected included pre- and post-operative range of motion, Oxford Knee Scores, complications encountered, as well as radiographical assessments of polyethylene wear. In the MB group, mean Oxford Knee Scores improved from 16 pre-operatively to 42 at final follow-up. The mean range of motion was 115° (75-130). In the FB group, mean Oxford Knee Scores improved from 16.2 pre-operatively to 42.5 at final follow-up. The mean range of motion was 111.2 (80-135) degrees at final follow-up. We failed to elicit an objectively demonstrable clinical difference between the MB- and FB-implanted knees. Similarly, radiological benefits of the MB implants with regard to polyethylene wear were not evident at a minimum 10-year follow-up.

  10. Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

  11. Non-toxic brominated perfluorocarbons radiopaque agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Non-toxic bromofluorocarbon radiopaque agents are disclosed. Certain monobrominated acyclic fluorocarbons, e.g., CF 3 (CF 2 ) 6 CF 2 Br, are improved non-toxic radiopaque agents useful in diagnostic roentgenology, for example in visualizing the gastrointestinal tract, the tracheobronchial tree, the alveolar spaces or parenchyma of the lung, the spleen, the urinary bladder and ureters, the common bile duct and its radicals, the pancreatic ducts, the blood vessels, etc. 13 claims, no drawings

  12. Plasma emission mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melrose, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Only three emission processes are thought to play a role in solar radio emission: plasma emission, gyromagnetic emission and bremsstrahlung. In this chapter plasma emission is discussed and the processes involved in its production are treated, namely, the generation of Langmuir turbulence, the partial conversion into fundamental transverse radiation, production of secondary Langmuir waves and the generation of second-harmonic transverse radiation. (U.K.)

  13. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, O.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs

  15. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahem, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  16. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the la......The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...

  17. Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse (EMCH) supports and promotes emissions modeling activities both internal and external to the EPA. Through this site, the EPA...

  18. National Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...

  19. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  20. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  1. World Emission RETRO ANTHRO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions data were generated monthly covering a period of 1960 to 2000. Anthropogenic emissions in the RETRO inventory are derived...

  2. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  3. Biodiesel Emissions Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using existing data, the EPA's biodiesel emissions analysis program sought to quantify the air pollution emission effects of biodiesel for diesel engines that have not been specifically modified to operate on biodiesel.

  4. Dioxin emissions and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the seminar discussed dioxin emissions and sources, dioxin pollution of soils, waste water and sewage sludge, stocktaking of emission sources, and exposure and risk analyses for dioxin and other pollutants. (EF) [de

  5. National Emission Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajtakova, E.; Spisakova, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation the Slovak National Emission Information System (NEIS) is presented. The NEIS represents hierarchical oriented modular system of acquisition, verification, saving and reporting of data about annual emissions and payments for pollution of atmosphere

  6. Blue Emission in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sohini; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band struc...

  7. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Emission Computed Tomography is a technique used for producing single or multiple cross-sectional images of the distribution of radionuclide labelled agents in vivo. The techniques of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are described with particular regard to the function of the detectors used to produce images and the computer techniques used to build up images. (UK)

  8. Mechanical Properties and Acoustic Emission Properties of Rocks with Different Transverse Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the stability of engineering rock masses has important practical significance to projects like mining, tunneling, and petroleum engineering, it is necessary to study mechanical properties and stability prediction methods for rocks, cementing materials that are composed of minerals in all shapes and sizes. Rocks will generate acoustic emission during damage failure processes, which is deemed as an effective means of monitoring the stability of coal rocks. In the meantime, actual mining and roadway surrounding rocks tend to have transverse effects; namely, the transverse scale is larger than the length scale. Therefore, it is important to explore mechanical properties and acoustic emission properties of rocks under transverse size effects. Considering the transverse scale effects of rocks, this paper employs the microparticle flow software PFC2D to explore the influence of different aspect ratios on damage mechanics and acoustic emission properties of rocks. The results show that (1 the transverse scale affects uniaxial compression strength of rocks. As the aspect ratio increases, uniaxial compression strength of rocks decreases initially and later increases, showing a V-shape structure and (2 although it affects the maximum hit rate and the strain range of acoustic emission, it has little influence on the period of occurrence. As the transverse scale increases, both damage degree and damage rate of rocks decrease initially and later increase.

  9. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  10. Shipping emissions in ports

    OpenAIRE

    Merk, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  11. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  12. Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au cours de la periode 1990-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NO{sub x}, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO{sub 2}. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO{sub 2} accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N{sub 2}O (16 %), CH{sub 4} (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF{sub 6} (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

  13. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  14. Prompt neutron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, R.

    1959-01-01

    It is shown that Ramanna and Rao's tentative conclusion that prompt fission neutrons are emitted (in the fragment system) preferentially in the direction of fragment motion is not necessitated by their angular distribution measurements, which are well explained by the usual assumptions of isotropic emission with a Maxwell (or Maxwell-like) emission spectrum. The energy distribution (Watt spectrum) and the angular distribution, both including the effects of anisotropic emission, are given. (author) [fr

  15. Radio emission from Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velusamy, T.

    1976-01-01

    The basic features of the different radio emissions from the planet Jupiter are reviewed. These radio emissions characterized into three types as thermal, decimetric and decametric, are discussed. The coherent emission mechanism for the origin of the decametric bursts and the acceleration mechanism for relativistic electrons in the decimetric radiation have not been properly understood. The emissions are much related to the magnetic field of Jupiter. The system III rotation period for Jupiter has been calculated as 092 55 m 29.74 S. (A.K.)

  16. VOC emissions chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to support the development of test methods and reference materials for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from building materials and furnishings,...

  17. Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) utilizes a low-frequency acceleration measurement system for the characterization of rigid body inertial forces generated...

  18. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  19. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 78.103... CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a) A CARS station may be authorized to employ any type of emission, for which there are technical standards...

  20. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  1. Uncertainties in emission inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenne, van J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Emission inventories provide information about the amount of a pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere as a result of a specific anthropogenic or natural process at a given time or place. Emission inventories can be used for either policy or scientific purposes. For

  2. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 24 selections. Some of the titles are: Positron Emission Tomography Instrumentation, Generator Systems for Positron Emitters, Reconstruction Algorithms, Cerebral Glucose Consumption: Methodology and Validation, Cerebral Blood Flow Tomography Using Xenon-133 Inhalation: Methods and Clinical Applications, PET Studies of Stroke, Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography, and Use of PET in Oncology

  3. National pollutants emission limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Pawelec, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  4. National pollutants emission limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Pawelec, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  5. Database of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  6. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  7. Carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  8. Carbon emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhu [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Sustainability Science Program

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  9. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  10. Electronic Reporting of Air Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulations require affected sources to perform emissions source tests, conduct continuous emissions monitoring, and submit compliance and emissions reports. This site provides technical resources and access for providing such submissions.

  11. Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegetation and nitric oxide (NO) emission from soils. Recent BEIS development has been restricted to the SMOKE system

  12. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  13. Emission sources and quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines emission sources and quantities for SO 2 and NO x . Natural SO 2 is released from volcanic sources and to a much lower extent from marsh gases. In nature NO x is mainly produced in the course of the chemical and bacterial denitrification processes going on in the soil. Manmade pollutants are produced in combustion processes. The paper concentrates on manmade pollution. Aspects discussed include: mechanism of pollution development; manmade emission sources (e.g. industry, traffic, power plants and domestic sources); and emission quantities and forecasts. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Quantification in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena 2 - Main problems impacting quantification in PET and SPECT: problems, consequences, correction methods, results (Attenuation, scattering, partial volume effect, movement, un-stationary spatial resolution in SPECT, fortuitous coincidences in PET, standardisation in PET); 3 - Synthesis: accessible efficiency, know-how, Precautions, beyond the activity measurement

  15. Single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technique. Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; Principle and role of functional or molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, main emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Single photon emission computed tomography: gamma cameras and their components, gamma camera specifications, planar single photon imaging characteristics, gamma camera and tomography; 4 - Quantification in single photon emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movements, others; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion

  16. National Emission Inventory (NEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data exchange allows states to submit data to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). NEI is a national database of air...

  17. 2011 NATA - Emissions Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all emissions sources that were modeled in the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), inlcluding point, nonpoint, and mobile sources, and...

  18. Cardiac positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Ejmalian, G.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is an intrinsically tool that provide a unique and unparalleled approach for clinicians and researchers to interrogate the heart noninvasively. The ability to label substances of physiological interest with positron-emitting radioisotopes has permitted insight into normal blood flow and metabolism and the alterations that occur with disease states. Positron emission tomography of the heart has evolved as a unique, noninvasive approach for the assessment of myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and function. Because of the intrinsic quantitative nature of positron emission tomography measurements as well as the diverse compounds that can be labeled with positron- emitting radioisotopes, studies with positron emission tomography have provided rich insight into the physiology of the heart under diverse conditions

  19. Pulsar Emission Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Emission spectrum is calculated for a weak axisymmetric pulsar. Also calculated are the observed spectrum, efficiency, and the observed efficiency. The underlying flow of electrons and positrons turns out to be curiously intricate.

  20. Biogenic Emission Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic emissions sources come from natural sources and need to accounted for in photochemical grid models. They are computed using a model which utilizes spatial information on vegetation and land use.

  1. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  2. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, Masahiro

    1982-01-01

    Utilization of positron emission tomography was reviewed in relation to construction and planned construction of small-size medical cyclotrons, planned construction of positron cameras and utilization of short-lived radionuclides. (Chiba, N.)

  3. Radiated Emissions Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    1. Draft Department of Transportation (DOT) Test Plan to Develop : Interference Tolerance Masks for GNSS Receivers in the L1 : Radiofrequency Band (1559 1610 MHz) provides high level : overview of radiated emissions test setup : 2. Presenta...

  4. Nanoscale Terahertz Emission Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Kim, Hyewon; Colvin, Vicki L.

    By utilizing plasmonic coupling to an AFM probe, we demonstrate Laser Terahertz Emission Nanoscopy (LTEN) with sub-20 nm resolution. We demonstrate the resolution by imaging a single gold nanorod on an InAs substrate....

  5. Emission spectrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, R.D.; Bruks, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    The emission spectrochemical method of analysis based on the fact that atoms of elements can be excited in the electric arc or in the laser beam and will emit radiation with characteristic wave lengths is considered. The review contains the data on spectrochemical analysis, of liquids geological materials, scheme of laser microprobe. The main characteristics of emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescent analysis, are aeneralized

  6. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, Preethi; Himabindu, Pucha

    2000-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive nuclear imaging technique used to study different molecular pathways and anatomical structures. PET has found extensive applications in various fields of medicine viz. cardiology, oncology, psychiatry/psychology, neuro science and pulmonology. This study paper basically deals with the physics, chemistry and biology behind the PET technique. It discusses the methodology for generation of the radiotracers responsible for emission of positrons and the annihilation and detection techniques. (author)

  7. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, O.

    1989-01-01

    The principle is briefly described of positron emission tomography, and its benefits and constraints are listed. It is emphasized that positron emission tomography (PET) provides valuable information on metabolic changes in the organism that are otherwise only very difficult to obtain, such as brain diagnosis including relationships between mental disorders and the physiology and pathophysiology of the brain. A PET machine is to be installed in Czechoslovakia in the near future. (L.O.)

  8. Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.

    1989-12-01

    Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new technique that reduces the occurrence of self-absorption in optically thick solid samples so that analytically useful emission spectra may be observed. Conventional emission spectroscopy, in which the sample is held at an elevated, uniform temperature, is practical only for optically thin samples. In thick samples the emission from deep layers of the material is partially absorbed by overlying layers.1 This self-absorption results in emission spectra from most optically thick samples that closely resemble black-body spectra. The characteristic discrete emission bands are severely truncated and altered in shape. TIRES bypasses this difficulty by using a laser to heat only an optically thin surface layer. The increased temperature of the layer is transient since the layer will rapidly cool and thicken by thermal diffusion; hence the emission collection must be correlated with the laser heating. TIRES may be done with both pulsed and cw lasers.2,3 When a pulsed laser is used, the spectrometer sampling must be synchronized with the laser pulsing so that only emission during and immediately after each laser pulse is observed.3 If a cw laser is used, the sample must move rapidly through the beam. The hot, transient layer is then in the beam track on the sample at and immediately behind the beam position, so the spectrometer field of view must be limited to this region near the beam position.2 How much self-absorption the observed emission suffers depends on how thick the heated layer has grown by thermal diffusion when the spectrometer samples the emission. Use of a pulsed laser synchronized with the spectrometer sampling readily permits reduction of the time available for heat diffusion to about 100 acs .3 When a cw laser is used, the heat-diffusion time is controlled by how small the spectrometer field of view is and by how rapidly the sample moves past within this field. Both a very small field of view and a

  9. Stress-altered synaptic plasticity and DAMP signaling in the hippocampus-PFC axis; elucidating the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα expression in neural changes associated with a prolonged exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Olalekan M; Ebenezer, Philip J; Lee, Charles C; Francis, Joseph

    2017-06-14

    Traumatic stress patients showed significant improvement in behavior after a prolonged exposure to an unrelated stimulus. This treatment method attempts to promote extinction of the fear memory associated with the initial traumatic experience. However, the subsequent prolonged exposure to such stimulus creates an additional layer of neural stress. Although the mechanism remains unclear, prolonged exposure therapy (PET) likely involves changes in synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter function and inflammation; especially in parts of the brain concerned with the formation and retrieval of fear memory (Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex: PFC). Since certain synaptic proteins are also involved in danger-associated molecular pattern signaling (DAMP), we identified the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα expression as a potential link between the concurrent progression of synaptic and inflammatory changes in stress. Thus, a comparison between IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα, synaptic and DAMP proteins in stress and PET may highlight the significance of PET on synaptic morphology and neuronal inflammatory response. In behaviorally characterized Sprague-Dawley rats, there was a significant decline in neural IGF-1 (pIGF-1R expression. These animals showed a significant loss of presynaptic markers (synaptophysin; pIGF-1 (pIGF-1R was recorded in the Stress-PET group (pIGF-1/IGF-1R, an increase in activated hippocampal and cortical microglia was seen in stress (pIGF1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα. Firstly, we showed a direct relationship between IGF-1/IGF-1R expression, presynaptic function (synaptophysin) and neurotransmitter activity in stress and PET. Secondly, we identified the possible role of CaMKIIα in post-synaptic function and regulation of small ion conductance channels. Lastly, we highlighted some of the possible links between IGF1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα, the expression of DAMP proteins, Microglia activation, and its implication on synaptic plasticity during stress and PET. Copyright © 2017

  10. Economical benzene emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Benzene has been classified as a toxic compound under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This has prompted the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to introduce specific reporting and monitoring guidelines for the oil and gas industry regarding excessive benzene emissions. Glycol dehydration units have been determined to be the major single source of benzene emissions causing air and soil pollution. DualTank Corp. has designed a condensation and storage tank unit to enhance emission reduction, odour elimination and liquid recovery from dehydration units. Their newly designed combined tank unit consists of a large, uninsulated surface area for cooling, and an excessive internal volume for increased retention time. The first prototype was installed in December 1998 at an Enerplus Resources Site. The system provides excellent benzene emission reduction and the elimination of odours and visual plumes. Effective January 1, 1999, the petroleum and natural gas industry must either clean up excessive emissions voluntarily or face government imposed regulations, facility shutdowns and/or fines. 1 fig

  11. PFC Diego Tomás

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Requena, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Desarrollo de una aplicación móvil que permita buscar y localizar ofertas online. Estas ofertas serán publicadas por los comercios adscritos al proyecto. La idea básica es no tener que encontrar la oferta mientras paseas un día por el centro, si no que puedas buscar, a través de una aplicación móvil, dónde se encuentran esas ofertas. Desenvolupament d'una aplicació mòbil que permet buscar i localitzar ofertes en línia. Aquestes ofertes seran publicades pels comerços adscrits al projecte. L...

  12. DC Motor Drive with PFC Rectifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lascu Mihaela

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to study theperformances of a hybrid controller used to controlDC Motor drive with a single-phase power factorcorrection rectifier. This study is made usingcomputer simulation (Simulink. The first part isdevoted to the control system of the DC Motors. Inthe second part, the design of the hybrid controllerwill be presented. The third part is the design ofthe fast response single-phase boost power factorcorrection rectifier. The last parts are devoted tosimulation and experimental results.

  13. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  14. Practical acoustic emission testing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  15. Instantaneous wave emission model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1970-12-01

    A useful treatment of electrostatic wave emission by fast particles in a plasma is given. First, the potential due to a fast particle is expressed as a simple integration over the particle orbit; several interesting results readily follow. The potential in the wake of an accelerating particle is shown to be essentially that produced through local excitation of the plasma by the particle free-streaming about its instantaneous orbit. Application is made to one dimension, and it is shown that the wave emission and adsorption synchronize to the instantaneous velocity distribution function. Guided by these calculations, we then formulate a test particle model for computing the instantaneous wave emission by fast particles in a Vlasov plasma. This model lends itself to physical interpretation and provides a direct approach to many problems. By adopting a Fokker-Planck description for the particle dynamics, we calculate the broadening of the wave-particle resonance due to velocity diffusion and drag

  16. Tomography by positrons emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosconi, Sergio L.

    1999-01-01

    The tomography by positrons emission is a technology that allows to measure the concentration of positrons emission in a tri dimensional body through external measurements. Among the isotope emissions have carbon isotopes are ( 11 C), of the oxygen ( 15 O), of the nitrogen ( 13 N) that are three the element that constitute the base of the organic chemistry. Theses have on of the PET's most important advantages, since many biological interesting organic molecules can be tracer with these isotopes for the metabolism studies 'in vivo' through PET, without using organic tracers that modify the metabolism. The mentioned isotopes, also possess the characteristic of having short lifetime, that constitute on of PET's advantages from the dosimetric point of view. Among 11 C, 15 O, and 13 N, other isotopes that can be obtained of a generator as the 68 Ga and 82 Rb

  17. Carbon emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  18. Field emission electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

  19. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienhard, K.; Heiss, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and selected clinical applications of positron emission tomography are described. In this technique a chemical compound is labeled with a positron emitting isotope and its biochemical pathway is traced by coincidence detection of the two annihilation photons. The application of the techniques of computed tomography allows to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the radioactivity within a subject. The 18 F-deoxyglucose method for quantitative measurement of local glucose metabolism is discussed in order to illustrate the possibilities of positron emission tomography to record physiological processes in vivo. (orig.) [de

  20. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paans, A.M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals have special applications in in-vivo studies of biochemical processes. The combination of a cyclotron for the production of radionuclides and a positron emission tomograph for the registration of the distribution of radioactivity in the body enables the measurement of local radioactivity concentration in tissues, and opens up new possibilities in the diagnosis and examination of abnormalities in the metabolism. The principles and procedures of positron emission tomography are described and the necessary apparatus considered, with emphasis on the positron camera. The first clinical applications using 55 Co bloemycine for tumor detection are presented. (C.F.)

  1. Secondary ion emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Saha-Langmuir equation that describes the equilibrium emission process, surface ionization, has also been used to describe ion yields observed in the non-equilibrium emission process, sputtering. In describing sputtering, it is probably best to include the potential due to an image charge in the expression for negative as well as positive ion yield and to treat the work function and the temperature as parameters having limited physical significance. Arguments are presented to suggest that sputtered material is not emitted from a plasma. (Auth.)

  2. Atmospheric observations for quantifying emissions of point-source synthetic greenhouse gases (CF4, NF3 and HFC-23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tim; Manning, Alistair J.; Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Park, Sunyoung; Fraser, Paul J.; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Steele, L. Paul; Krummel, Paul B.; Mühle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2016-04-01

    The fluorinated species carbon tetrafluoride (CF4; PFC-14), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and trifluoromethane (CHF3; HFC-23) are potent greenhouse gases with 100-year global warming potentials of 6,630, 16,100 and 12,400, respectively. Unlike the majority of CFC-replacement compounds that are emitted from fugitive and mobile emission sources, these gases are largely emitted from large single point sources - semiconductor manufacturing facilities (all three), aluminium smelting plants (CF4) and chlorodifluoromethane factories (HFC-23). In this work we show the potential for atmospheric measurements to understand regional sources of these gases and to highlight emission 'hotspots'. We target our analysis on measurements from two Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) long term monitoring sites that are particularly sensitive to regional emissions of these gases: Gosan on Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea and Cape Grim on Tasmania in Australia. These sites measure CF4, NF3 and HFC-23 alongside a suite of greenhouse and stratospheric ozone depleting gases every two hours using automated in situ gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry instrumentation. We couple each measurement to an analysis of air history using the regional atmospheric transport model NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) driven by 3D meteorology from the Met Office's Unified Model, and use a Bayesian inverse method (InTEM - Inversion Technique for Emission Modelling) to calculate yearly emission changes over a decade (2005-2015) at high spatial resolution. At present these gases make a small contribution to global radiative forcing, however, given that their impact could rise significantly and that point sources of such gases can be mitigated, atmospheric monitoring could be an important tool for aiding emissions reduction policy.

  3. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Gullberg, G.T.; Huesman, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the methods of computer assisted tomography for determination of the three-dimensional distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the human body. The major applications of emission computed tomography are in biological research and medical diagnostic procedures. The objectives of these procedures are to make quantitative measurements of in vivo biochemical and hemodynamic functions

  4. Emissions - problems and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.; Hurd, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Air pollution due to emissions arising from the use of biomass in electricity generation is discussed. One of the most attractive aspects of the use of biomass is that there is no net increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. During growth biomass absorbs CO 2 ; during combustion, either directly or as biomass derived fuels, it releases CO 2 , making a closed cycle. Another benefit from the use of biomass is its typically very low sulphur content and the consequent low sulphur oxide emissions from biomass-fired generation plants. Biomass is, however, less satisfactory in relation to nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Control of the nitrogen content of the biomass feedstock, advanced high technology combustion techniques and some post-engine treatment may all be necessary to comply with the legal limits for NO x emissions. The low ash content of biomass, particularly biomass derived oils, makes it possible to limit particulate emission to very low levels. It will be important, though, to bear in mind the need to limit the sodium and potassium content to below 1 ppm by mass in bio-oil to be used in a high temperature gas turbine. Levels of micropollutants will be low if the chlorine content of biomass feedstock is low. However, residence times at peak temperature in typical gas turbines combustors are too short to destroy some micropollutants. (UK)

  5. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavuk, M.

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this project is to provide a simple summary of new trends in positron emission tomography and its basic physical principles. It provides thereby compendious introduction of the trends of the present development in diagnostics using PET systems. A review of available literature was performed. (author)

  6. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  7. Positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, AMJ

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a method for determining biochemical and physiological processes in vivo in a quantitative way by using radiopharmaceuticals labelled with positron emitting radionuclides as C-11, N-13, O-15 and F-18 and by measuring the annihilation radiation using a

  8. Quantifying Anthropogenic Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Pierre, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change, including local environmental disturbances, moderate rates of wind-driven soil erosion and dust emission. These human-dust cycle interactions impact ecosystems and agricultural production, air quality, human health, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. While the impacts of land use activities and land management on aeolian processes can be profound, the interactions are often complex and assessments of anthropogenic dust loads at all scales remain highly uncertain. Here, we critically review the drivers of anthropogenic dust emission and current evaluation approaches. We then identify and describe opportunities to: (1) develop new conceptual frameworks and interdisciplinary approaches that draw on ecological state-and-transition models to improve the accuracy and relevance of assessments of anthropogenic dust emissions; (2) improve model fidelity and capacity for change detection to quantify anthropogenic impacts on aeolian processes; and (3) enhance field research and monitoring networks to support dust model applications to evaluate the impacts of disturbance processes on local to global-scale wind erosion and dust emissions.

  9. Emissions from urban waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacha, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Indiscriminate emission of gases and fumes from improper storage, transport systems and wastes disposals have polluted the environment especially surface and underground water and air. This has irreversibly affects on the environment some of which can be devastating to life.Some of the potential adverse effects on environment include the ozone depletion, acid rain,soil degradation and climate change

  10. Improved Emission Spectrographic Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goergen, C.R.; Lethco, A.J.; Hosken, G.B.; Geckeler, D.R.

    1980-10-01

    The Savannah River Plant's original Emission Spectrographic Laboratory for radioactive samples had been in operation for 25 years. Due to the deteriorated condition and the fire hazard posed by the wooden glove box trains, a project to update the facility was funded. The new laboratory improved efficiency of operation and incorporated numerous safety and contamination control features

  11. Radioecology, emissions and immissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1988-01-01

    7 contributions are presented on radionuclide emissions from particular nuclear installations, on radionuclide migration and measurements in the environment, on the equipment of a particular laboratory and on setting limiting values. All of them are in INIS scope and are treated separately. (qui)

  12. Atmospheric observations and inverse modelling for quantifying emissions of point-source synthetic greenhouse gases in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tim; Manning, Alistair; Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Park, Sunyoung; Muhle, Jens; Weiss, Ray

    2017-04-01

    The fluorinated species carbon tetrafluoride (CF4; PFC-14), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and trifluoromethane (CHF3; HFC-23) are potent greenhouse gases with 100-year global warming potentials of 6,630, 16,100 and 12,400, respectively. Unlike the majority of CFC-replacements that are emitted from fugitive and mobile emission sources, these gases are mostly emitted from large single point sources - semiconductor manufacturing facilities (all three), aluminium smelting plants (CF4) and chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) factories (HFC-23). In this work we show that atmospheric measurements can serve as a basis to calculate emissions of these gases and to highlight emission 'hotspots'. We use measurements from one Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) long term monitoring sites at Gosan on Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. This site measures CF4, NF3 and HFC-23 alongside a suite of greenhouse and stratospheric ozone depleting gases every two hours using automated in situ gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry instrumentation. We couple each measurement to an analysis of air history using the regional atmospheric transport model NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) driven by 3D meteorology from the Met Office's Unified Model, and use a Bayesian inverse method (InTEM - Inversion Technique for Emission Modelling) to calculate yearly emission changes over seven years between 2008 and 2015. We show that our 'top-down' emission estimates for NF3 and CF4 are significantly larger than 'bottom-up' estimates in the EDGAR emissions inventory (edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu). For example we calculate South Korean emissions of CF4 in 2010 to be 0.29±0.04 Gg/yr, which is significantly larger than the Edgar prior emissions of 0.07 Gg/yr. Further, inversions for several separate years indicate that emission hotspots can be found without prior spatial information. At present these gases make a small contribution to global radiative forcing, however, given

  13. Positron emission tomography quantification of serotonin(1A) receptor binding in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory M; Oquendo, Maria A; Milak, Matthew; Miller, Jeffrey M; Burke, Ainsley; Ogden, R Todd; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John

    2015-02-01

    Serotonergic system dysfunction has been associated with increased lethal suicide attempts and suicide. Dysfunction includes higher binding of serotonin(1A) autoreceptor in the brainstem raphe of individuals who die by suicide. To determine the relationships between brain serotonin(1A) binding and suicidal behavior in vivo in major depressive disorder (MDD) using positron emission tomography and the serotonin(1A) antagonist radiotracer carbon C 11 [11C]-labeled WAY-100635. Cross-sectional positron emission tomography study at an academic medical center from 1999 through 2009. We compared serotonin(1A) binding between individuals with MDD who did not attempt suicide (nonattempters) (n = 62) and those who attempted suicide (attempters) (n = 29). We subdivided the attempters into those with lower (n = 16) and higher (n = 13) levels of lethality. The binding potential (BPF) of [11C]WAY-100635 (calculated as the number of receptors available divided by affinity) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and brainstem, estimated by kinetic modeling with an arterial input function; the severity of suicidal behaviors, including lethality and intent of suicide attempts; and suicidal ideation. Using a linear mixed-effects model, we found no difference between attempters and nonattempters with MDD in serotonin(1A) BPF in the PFC regions (F1,88 = 0.03; P = .87) or in the raphe nuclei (F1,88 = 0.29; P = .59). Raphe nuclei serotonin(1A) BPF was 45.1% greater in higher-lethality attempters compared with lower-lethality attempters (F1,25 = 7.33; P = .01), whereas no difference was observed in the PFC regions (F1,25 = 0.12; P = .73). Serotonin(1A )BPF in the raphe nuclei of suicide attempters was positively correlated with the lethality rating (F1,25 = 10.56; P = .003) and the subjective lethal intent factor (F1,25 = 10.63; P = .003; R2 = 0.32) based on the most recent suicide attempt. Suicide ideation in participants with

  14. Positron Emission Tomography Quantification of Serotonin1A Receptor Binding in Suicide Attempters With Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory M.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Milak, Matthew; Miller, Jeffrey M.; Burke, Ainsley; Ogden, R. Todd; Parsey, Ramin V.; Mann, J. John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Serotonergic system dysfunction has been associated with increased lethal suicide attempts and suicide. Dysfunction includes higher binding of serotonin1A autoreceptor in the brainstem raphe of individuals who die by suicide. OBJECTIVES To determine the relationships between brain serotonin1A binding and suicidal behavior in vivo in major depressive disorder (MDD) using positron emission tomography and the serotonin1A antagonist radiotracer carbon C 11 [11C]–labeled WAY-100635. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional positron emission tomography study at an academic medical center from 1999 through 2009. We compared serotonin1A binding between individuals with MDD who did not attempt suicide (nonattempters) (n = 62) and those who attempted suicide (attempters) (n = 29). We subdivided the attempters into those with lower (n = 16) and higher (n = 13) levels of lethality. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The binding potential (BPF) of [11C]WAY-100635 (calculated as the number of receptors available divided by affinity) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and brainstem, estimated by kinetic modeling with an arterial input function; the severity of suicidal behaviors, including lethality and intent of suicide attempts; and suicidal ideation. RESULTS Using a linear mixed-effects model, we found no difference between attempters and nonattempters with MDD in serotonin1A BPF in the PFC regions (F1,88 = 0.03; P = .87) or in the raphe nuclei (F1,88 = 0.29; P = .59). Raphe nuclei serotonin1A BPF was 45.1% greater in higher-lethality attempters compared with lower-lethality attempters (F1,25 = 7.33; P = .01), whereas no difference was observed in the PFC regions (F1,25 = 0.12; P = .73). Serotonin1A BPF in the raphe nuclei of suicide attempters was positively correlated with the lethality rating (F1,25 = 10.56; P = .003) and the subjective lethal intent factor (F1,25 = 10.63; P = .003; R2 = 0.32) based on the most recent suicide attempt. Suicide ideation in

  15. Emissions Models and Other Methods to Produce Emission Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emissions inventory is a summary or forecast of the emissions produced by a group of sources in a given time period. Inventories of air pollution from mobile sources are often produced by models such as the MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES).

  16. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    . This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish...... emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic...... compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH3 to 73 800 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission...

  17. Pre-equilibrium gamma emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sudip

    1993-01-01

    Together with the direct reaction and the compound nuclear emissions the pre-equilibrium (PEQ) or pre-compound processes give a fairly complete picture of nuclear reactions induced by light ions at energies of some tens of MeV. PEQ particle emissions covering the higher energy continuum spectra have been investigated in detail both experimentally and theoretically. In contrast, very little work has been done on PEQ γ- emissions. The reason is that in spite of extensive work done on PEQ particle emissions, the mechanism is not yet fully understood. Also, the PEQ γ-emission cross-sections (∼ micro barns) are very small compared to the PEQ particle emission cross-sections (∼ milli barns). Yet apart from the academic interest the understanding of PEQ γ-emissions is important for applied fusion research etc. In this paper the PEQ γ-emissions is discussed and the work done in this field is reviewed. (author). 14 refs

  18. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources...

  19. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  20. Global emissions inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dignon, J.

    1995-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions

  1. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.L.; Thompson, C.J.; Diksic, M.; Meyer, E.; Feindel, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    One of the most exciting new technologies introduced in the last 10 yr is positron emission tomography (PET). PET provides quantitative, three-dimensional images for the study of specific biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. This approach is analogous to quantitative in-vivo autoradiography but has the added advantage of permitting non-invasive in vivo studies. PET scanning requires a small cyclotron to produce short-lived positron emitting isotopes such as oxygen-15, carbon-11, nitrogen-13 and fluorine-18. Proper radiochemical facilities and advanced computer equipment are also needed. Most important, PET requires a multidisciplinary scientific team of physicists, radiochemists, mathematicians, biochemists and physicians. The most recent trends are reviewed in the imaging technology, radiochemistry, methodology and clinical applications of positron emission tomography. (author)

  2. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emission spectrometric isotope analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Meier, G.; Nitschke, W.; Rose, W.; Schmidt, G.; Rahm, N.; Andrae, G.; Krieg, D.; Kuefner, W.; Tamme, G.; Wichlacz, D.

    1982-01-01

    An emission spectrometric isotope analyzer has been designed for determining relative abundances of stable isotopes in gaseous samples in discharge tubes, in liquid samples, and in flowing gaseous samples. It consists of a high-frequency generator, a device for defined positioning of discharge tubes, a grating monochromator with oscillating slit and signal converter, signal generator, window discriminator, AND connection, read-out display, oscillograph, gas dosing device and chemical conversion system with carrier gas source and vacuum pump

  4. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenkov, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    The foundations of the positron emission tomography (PET), widely used for the medical diagnostics, are considered. The brief description of the cyclotron for production of radionuclides, applied in the PET, the target devices for manufacturing the position emitters, the moduli for the radiopharmaceuticals synthesis (RPS) for the PET is presented. The necessity and concept of complete automation of the RPS for the PET are discussed [ru

  5. Power plant emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  6. Field emission in RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Electron field emission limits the accelerating gradient in superconducting cavities. It is shown how and why it is an important problem. The phenomenology of field emission is then described, both in DC and RF regimes. Merits of a few plausible 'remedies' to field emission are discussed. (author)

  7. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  8. Emissions trading stalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, R.

    1998-01-01

    A brief article examines prospects for emission trading of greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Topics covered include a checklist of principles for any trading system, plans for oil companies to do it internally, the possibility for carbon sinks as well as emissions and developments around the world. (UK) alt. Directly northward of the Sigsbee Escarpment, there is a relatively thin, low-velocity zone known as a ''gumbo zone''. Here two other pressure compartments are proposed. The origin of them is two-fold. First, initial sedimentation consists of pelagic clay draped over oceanic and transitional crust. Later, as the continental margin progrades nearer sedimentation becomes hemipelagic and coarser as gravity-driven sediments predominate. Secondly, as the salt wedge overrides a given spot of the basement, it is possible to develop a shear couple between the migrating salt and the stationary basement. The resultant shear (the site of the next strike-slip fault) may change pressures beneath the salt such that the shear may create two pressure compartments. The differences between the two compartments may be accentuated by lithologic changes caused by depositional mechanisms. (author)

  9. White emission via electroplex emission from two blue materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junming; Song, Dandan; Zhao, Suling; Zhang, Fujun; Xu, Zheng; Song, Jinglu; Lu, Lifang; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yongsheng

    2010-03-01

    Influences of electric fields on the emission from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK); 2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (BCP); and tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) were studied. There are three emission peaks at 420 nm, 520 nm, and 620 nm of the device ITO/PEDOT: PSS/PVK/BCP/LiF/Al under different driving voltages. The emissions at 420 nm and 520 nm should be from the exciton emission of PVK and Alq3, respectively. The last emission at 620 nm could be attributed to electroplex emission at the interface between the PVK and BCP layers. A high intensity white emission via electroplex formation was obtained with Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates (0.33, 0.34) at 15 V, which is very close to the equienergy white point (0.33, 0.33).

  10. Emission inventory for fugitive emissions from fuel in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2013. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter, Black carbon, heavy metals, dioxin and PAHs. In 2013 the total...... Danish emission of greenhouse gasses was 54 584 Gg CO2 equivalents. Fugitive emissions from fuels account for 387 Gg CO2 equivalents or approximately 1 %. The major part of the fugitive emissions are emitted as CO2 (61 %) mainly from flaring in upstream oil and gas production. The major source...... of fugitive CH4 emission is production of oil and gas in the North Sea, refining of oil and loading of oil onto ships both offshore and onshore. The fugitive emissions of NMVOC originate for the major part from oil and gas production, loading of ships, transmission and distribution of oil, and to a less...

  11. Computer tomographic assessment of partial liquid ventilation in dogs with inhalation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liya; Gong Honghan; Xiao Xiangzuo; Guo Guanghua; Li Guohui; Zhou Li; Fu Lihui; Fan Kunwu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT and pathologic findings of lung in dogs with inhalation injury, and to provide reliable basis to explore the mechanism of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) treatment on inhalation injury. Methods: Respiratory tract injury models in 14 dogs were made by steam inhalation and they were divided into 2 groups. The control group was treated by high frequency ventilation (HFV) and the treatment group was treated by partial liquid with perfluorocarbon plus HFV. CT scan of the lung in dogs with inhalation injury was performed before and after perfluorocarbon (PFC) PLV, and then the histopathologic pieces with isolation lung were obtained. Analysis and comparison of the results among them was conducted. Results: After steam inhalation injury, CT appeared as exudation with patchy and mass in 6 dogs, cotton-wool spots in 2 dogs, ground-glass opacity in 2 dogs, and consolidation in 4 dogs. CT appeared as mass in 5 dogs with inhalation injury of perfluorocarbon-filled lungs during partial liquid ventilation, patchy in 2 dogs, and homogeneous in 1 dog. The distribution of perfluorocarbon was in the posterior region of lung. The CT findings were in accordance with those in histopathology. Conclusion: Perfluorocarbon is distributed predominantly in the dependent regions of the lung and the distribution of perfluorocarbon is gravity dependent. It is benefit for the inhalation injury

  12. Austrian emission under international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Gager, M.; Gugele, B.; Huttunen, K.; Kurzweil, A.; Poupa, S.; Ritter, M.; Wappel, D.; Wieser, M.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between anthropogenic emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SO 2 , NO x , volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), NH 3 and CO from the European Union, European Union candidate countries and Austria is presented. Data covers the years 1999-2001 and the emissions values per habitant are provided as well as a comparison against the Kyoto goals. In the middle of the European mean values are the austrian emissions values, austrian SO 2 emissions are the smallest, however CH 4 , CO and NMVOC emissions are over the European mean values. 8 figs., 6 tabs. (nevyjel)

  13. Aspects related to 'emission trading'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutuianu, Ovidiu

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the aspects of international GHG (greenhouse gases) emission trading, such as: quality of GHG emission data, possible partners, monitoring activity, market mechanisms and difficulties. The following conclusions are drown: - debates on international trade with GHG emissions are currently in a very early stage; - actions are possible and feasible, particularly after Kyoto Conference, as versatile mechanism (besides the Joint Implementation Projects) which have in view the lowering of the global emission costs in different zones of the planet; - difficulties concerning monitoring, reporting and verification, practically preclude implementing a system of emission trading covering all the GHG, all the sources and reservoirs; - an international viable system of emission trading could initiate with a limited number of participants and consideration of only emission categories easy to be confined and surveyed; - existence of a national market and corresponding institutions for monitoring which could booster an international system development

  14. Inventory compilation of F-gases 2008. Data on HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for the national emissions reporting under the Framework Convention on Climate Change for the reporting year 2008; Emissionen fluorierter Treibhausgase in Deutschland 2008. Inventarermittlung der F-Gase 2008 Daten von HFKW, FKW und SF6 fuer die nationale Emissionsberichterstattung gemaess Klimarahmenkonvnention fuer das Berichtsjahr 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This report presents the 2008 data on the German emissions of the fluorinated greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} (F-gases) to be entered into the ZSE (Centralised System of Emissions at the German Environmental Agency). The overall emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 have doubled from 1995 to 2008, from 3,241 to 7,202 metric tons. In terms of global warming, the emissions in 2008 exceeded again the 1995 level, with 18.0 vs. 15.5 million tons CO{sub 2} equivalent. Against the previous your, the emissions in metric units have decreased the first time since 1995, however the global warming emissions, have increased by further 0.7 million t CO{sub 2} equivalent. PFC emissions remained in 2008 at the 2007 level although they show a constant down trend from 1995 onwards. Emissions of SF6, which had decreased before 2002, are increasing again from 2003/04. HFC emissions, which continue rising since 1995, stopped growing in 2008 due to a consumption drop in the foam sector. They represent almost two thirds of the total German F-gas emissions. However, only refrigeration and air conditioning are still substantial applications of HFCs, while in the formerly large application sectors of CFCs and HCFCs, such as hard foam, fire extinguishers, and aerosols, natural fluids are being used widely, today. In stationary refrigeration and mobile air conditioning, the upward trend in HFCs emissions was still ongoing in 2008. Section I of this report presents the F-gas emissions data for 2008, in addition to those in 1995, 2000, 2004, and 2007. In section II the data sources of survey are documented. Section III presents the F-gas emissions 1995 - 2008 in detailed tables, by individual sectors. (orig.)

  15. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs

  16. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  17. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

  18. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  19. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    In order to improve the security of handling special nuclear materials at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a sensitive acoustic emission detector has been developed that will detect forcible entry through block or tile walls, concrete floors, or concrete/steel vault walls. A small, low-powered processor was designed to convert the output from a sensitive, crystal-type acoustic transducer to an alarm relay signal for use with a supervised alarm loop. The unit may be used to detect forcible entry through concrete, steel, block, tile, and/or glass

  20. Positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Paans, A M J

    2006-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a method for measuring biochemical and physiological processes in vivo in a quantitative way by using radiopharmaceuticals labelled with positron emitting radionuclides such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F and by measuring the annihilation radiation using a coincidence technique. This includes also the measurement of the pharmacokinetics of labelled drugs and the measurement of the effects of drugs on metabolism. Also deviations of normal metabolism can be measured and insight into biological processes responsible for diseases can be obtained. At present the combined PET/CT scanner is the most frequently used scanner for whole-body scanning in the field of oncology.

  1. VOC emissions control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spessard, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The air pollution control equipment marketplace offers many competing technologies for controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. If any technology was economically and technically superior under all conditions, it would be the only one on the market. In fact, each technology used to control VOCs is superior under some set of conditions. The reasons for choosing one control technology over another are situation-specific. Some general guidelines to VOC control technologies and the situations where each may be appropriate are presented in this article. The control technologies and applications are summarized in a table

  2. GHG emissions due to deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croezen, H.; Van Valkengoed, M.

    2009-05-01

    An assessment was made for the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests in Malaysia and Indonesia related to Dutch economic activities. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are calculated in relation to (1) the emissions related to vegetation removal sec; and (2) the emissions related to removal and more long term effects related to assimilation of CO2 in forest regrowth and changes in organic material in soils. Emissions related to vegetation removal and aggregated emissions for both vegetation removal and long term effects are reported separately. Soil organic carbon stock changes are considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emissions. Changes in carbon stocks and N2O emissions and actually also changes in vegetation all are events that occur gradually, rather than immediately. Only removal of existing vegetation and possible burning of this vegetation and associated emissions related to both activities are immediate by nature. Carbon stocks and N2O emissions change to a new level within several decades after deforestation or forest degradation. Removed vegetation can grow back or be replaced eventually by other vegetation, thereby changing the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to deforestation or forest degradation. Vegetation extracted for commercial purposes such as timber or pulp will also take years or decades to become waste and be converted into CO2. In IPCC and LCA's all these emissions are taken into account - or at least all emissions occurring within a period of 20 years, as required by IPCC. Soil organic carbon stock changes are also considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emmissions.

  3. Emission- and product standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, P. de

    1988-01-01

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an inventarization of the use of radioactive materials and ionizing-radiation emitting apparates in the Netherlands. Ch. 2 deals with the varous applications of radioactive materials in the Netherlands. Herein also the numbers and the various locations by application, and the amounts and character of the radioactive materials used, come under discussion. Besides, the various waste currents are considered separately. The use of ionizing-radiation emitting apparates is treated in ch. 3. In ch. 4 the differences and agreements of the various applications, concentrating on the emission and product standards to be drawn up, are entered further. Also on the base of these considerations, a number of starting points are formulated with regard to the way in which emission and product standards may be drawn up. Ch. 7 deals with the conclusions and indicates the most important hiates. (H.W.). 25 refs.; 5 figs.; 25 tabs

  4. For sale: Sulfur emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiderscheit, J.

    1992-01-01

    The allowance trading market has started a slow march to maturity. Competitive developers should understand the risks and opportunities now presented. The marketplace for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions allowances - the centerpiece of Title 4's acid rain reduction program - remains enigmatic 19 months after the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 were passed. Yet it is increasingly clear that the emission allowance market will likely confound the gloom and doom of its doubters. The recently-announced $10 million dollar Wisconsin Power and Light allowance sales to Duquesne Light and the Tennessee Valley Authority are among the latest indications of momentum toward a stabilizing market. This trend puts additional pressure on independent developers to finalize their allowance strategies. Developers who understand what the allowance trading program is and what it is not, know the key players, and grasp the unresolved regulatory issues will have a new competitive advantage. The topics addressed in this article include the allowance marketplace, marketplace characteristics, the regulatory front, forward-looking strategies, and increasing marketplace activity

  5. Positron emission tomography. Positronemisionstomografi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolwig, T G; Haunsoe, S; Dahlgaard Hove, J; Hesse, B; Hoejgard, L; Jensen, M; Paulson, O B; Hastrup Svendsen, J; Soelvsten Soerensen, S

    1994-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a method for quantitative imaging of regional physiological and biochemical parameters. Positron emitting radioactive isotopes can be produced by a cyclotron, eg. the biologically important carbon ([sup 11]C), oxygen ([sup 15]O), and nitrogen ([sup 13]N) elements. With the tomographic principles of the PET scanner the quantitative distribution of the administered isotopes can be determined and images can be provided as well as dynamic information on blood flow, metabolism and receptor function. In neurology PET has been used for investigations on numerous physiological processes in the brain: circulation, metabolism and receptor studies. In Parkinson's disease PET studies have been able to localize the pathology specifically, and in early stroke PET technique can outline focal areas with living but non-functioning cells, and this could make it possible to intervene in this early state. With positron emission tomography a quantitative evaluation of myocardial blood flow, glucose and fatty acid metabolism can be made as well as combined assessments of blood flow and metabolism. Combined studies of blood flow and metabolism can determine whether myocardial segments with abnormal motility consist of necrotic or viable tissue, thereby delineating effects of revascularisation. In the future it will probably be possible to characterize the myocardial receptor status in different cardiac diseases. The PET technique is used in oncology for clinical as well as more basic research on tumor perfusion and metabolism. Further, tumor uptake of positron labelled cytotoxic drugs might predict the clinical benefit of treatment. (au) (19 refs.).

  6. Syncrude emissions reduction project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, M.A. [Alstom Power Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Ibbotson, P. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described an emissions reduction project conducted by Syncrude Canada and various other companies currently developing and processing oil sands in Alberta. Syncrude's upgrader expansion program included the installation of an ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurizer (FGD) designed to remove sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from a coker train. Syncrude is also installing the FGD technology at its existing plants. It is expected that installation of the FGDs will reduced total site emissions of SO{sub 2} by 60 per cent. The fluid cokers are used to crack the long hydrocarbon chain bitumen molecules into shorter molecules. It is expected that the FGD system will also reduce particulate and SO{sub 3} levels. The FGD system was selected after an evaluation of technologies used by the coal-fired power industry. A dry FGD system was selected to operate above the water saturation temperature of the flue gas. Calcium oxide was used as a reagent. Hot gas was quenched in a spray dryer absorber with a slurry of calcium hydroxide. Rotary atomizers were used to developer uniform droplets of slurry. The system's fabric filter was a low ratio reverse gas-cleaned unit. Particulate matter from the gases was deposited on the interior of the filter bags. Clean hot gas was drawn through reverse gas fans into a reverse gas manifold. A timeline of the FGD technology installation process was included. 3 tabs., 28 figs.

  7. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  8. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolwig, T.G.; Haunsoe, S.; Dahlgaard Hove, J.; Hesse, B.; Hoejgard, L.; Jensen, M.; Paulson, O.B.; Hastrup Svendsen, J.; Soelvsten Soerensen, S.

    1994-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a method for quantitative imaging of regional physiological and biochemical parameters. Positron emitting radioactive isotopes can be produced by a cyclotron, eg. the biologically important carbon ( 11 C), oxygen ( 15 O), and nitrogen ( 13 N) elements. With the tomographic principles of the PET scanner the quantitative distribution of the administered isotopes can be determined and images can be provided as well as dynamic information on blood flow, metabolism and receptor function. In neurology PET has been used for investigations on numerous physiological processes in the brain: circulation, metabolism and receptor studies. In Parkinson's disease PET studies have been able to localize the pathology specifically, and in early stroke PET technique can outline focal areas with living but non-functioning cells, and this could make it possible to intervene in this early state. With positron emission tomography a quantitative evaluation of myocardial blood flow, glucose and fatty acid metabolism can be made as well as combined assessments of blood flow and metabolism. Combined studies of blood flow and metabolism can determine whether myocardial segments with abnormal motility consist of necrotic or viable tissue, thereby delineating effects of revascularisation. In the future it will probably be possible to characterize the myocardial receptor status in different cardiac diseases. The PET technique is used in oncology for clinical as well as more basic research on tumor perfusion and metabolism. Further, tumor uptake of positron labelled cytotoxic drugs might predict the clinical benefit of treatment. (au) (19 refs.)

  9. Biomass burning - Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Winstead, Edward L.; Rhinehart, Robert P.; Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Sebacher, Shirley; Stocks, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    After detailing a technique for the estimation of the instantaneous emission of trace gases produced by biomass burning, using satellite imagery, attention is given to the recent discovery that burning results in significant enhancement of biogenic emissions of N2O, NO, and CH4. Biomass burning accordingly has an immediate and long-term impact on the production of atmospheric trace gases. It is presently demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions, and could be used to estimate long-term postburn biogenic emission of trace gases to the atmosphere.

  10. Data analysis in emission tomography using emission-count posteriors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, Arkadiusz

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to the analysis of emission tomography data using the posterior probability of the number of emissions per voxel (emission count) conditioned on acquired tomographic data is explored. The posterior is derived from the prior and the Poisson likelihood of the emission-count data by marginalizing voxel activities. Based on emission-count posteriors, examples of Bayesian analysis including estimation and classification tasks in emission tomography are provided. The application of the method to computer simulations of 2D tomography is demonstrated. In particular, the minimum-mean-square-error point estimator of the emission count is demonstrated. The process of finding this estimator can be considered as a tomographic image reconstruction technique since the estimates of the number of emissions per voxel divided by voxel sensitivities and acquisition time are the estimates of the voxel activities. As an example of a classification task, a hypothesis stating that some region of interest (ROI) emitted at least or at most r-times the number of events in some other ROI is tested. The ROIs are specified by the user. The analysis described in this work provides new quantitative statistical measures that can be used in decision making in diagnostic imaging using emission tomography. (paper)

  11. Data analysis in emission tomography using emission-count posteriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Arkadiusz

    2012-11-01

    A novel approach to the analysis of emission tomography data using the posterior probability of the number of emissions per voxel (emission count) conditioned on acquired tomographic data is explored. The posterior is derived from the prior and the Poisson likelihood of the emission-count data by marginalizing voxel activities. Based on emission-count posteriors, examples of Bayesian analysis including estimation and classification tasks in emission tomography are provided. The application of the method to computer simulations of 2D tomography is demonstrated. In particular, the minimum-mean-square-error point estimator of the emission count is demonstrated. The process of finding this estimator can be considered as a tomographic image reconstruction technique since the estimates of the number of emissions per voxel divided by voxel sensitivities and acquisition time are the estimates of the voxel activities. As an example of a classification task, a hypothesis stating that some region of interest (ROI) emitted at least or at most r-times the number of events in some other ROI is tested. The ROIs are specified by the user. The analysis described in this work provides new quantitative statistical measures that can be used in decision making in diagnostic imaging using emission tomography.

  12. Calibration of acoustic emission transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschek, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating an acoustic emission transducer to be used in a pre-set frequency range. The absolute reception sensitivity of a reference transducer is determined at frequencies selected within the frequency range. The reference transducer and the acoustic emission transducer are put into acoustic communication with the surface of a limited acoustic medium representing an equivalent acoustic load appreciably identical to that of the medium in which the use of the acoustic emission transducer is intended. A blank random acoustic noise is emitted in the acoustic medium in order to establish a diffuse and reverberating sound field, after which the output responses of the reference transducer and of the acoustic emission transducer are obtained with respect to the diffuse and reverberating field, for selected frequencies. The output response of the acoustic emission transducer is compared with that of the reference transducer for the selected frequencies, so as to determine the reception sensitivity of the acoustic emission transducer [fr

  13. Methane emissions from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.; Mitchell, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the problems associated with the prediction of levels of methane emission from underground and surface coal mines. Current knowledge of coal mining emissions sources is outlined. On the basis of this information the methodology proposed by the IPCC/OECD Programme on National Inventories is critically examined and alternatives considered. Finally, the technical options for emissions control are examined together with their feasibility. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. F centers emission in KCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkura, H.; Carmo, L.C.S. do; Kalinowski, H.J.; Ribeiro, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    The emission spectrum of F centers in KCN is reported. The temperature dependence of this emission between 62 K and 178K was measured and the energy gap between the relaxed excited state and conduction band could be determined as 070 eV. Below the antiferroelectric transition temperature at 83K a blue shift in the peak of the emission spectrum is observed due partially to the internal Stark effect

  15. Fraud risks in emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The system of emission trading is a complex composed entity with on the one hand a strong environmental component and on the other hand a financial world that hooked on this instrument. In chapter 2 an introduction is provided to the emission trading system. The subsequent chapters elaborate Types of Fraud (Chapter 3), Powers (Chapter 4), and Instruments (Chapter 5). The report shows that various forms of fraud are occurring in emission trading, such as VAT fraud and identity theft. [nl

  16. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

    2008-03-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid.

  17. The Emissions Gap Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    This fifth Emissions Gap report has a different focus from previous years. While it updates the 2020 emissions gap analysis, it gives particular attention to the implications of the global carbon dioxide emissions budget for staying within the 2 °C limit beyond 2020. It does so because countries...... are giving increasing attention to where they need to be in 2025, 2030 and beyond. Furthermore, this year’s update of the report benefits from the findings on the emissions budget from the latest series of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports...

  18. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... in 2010). The standard is expected to include an 80% reduction of the maximum particulate emissions from diesel cars. The fulfillment of this requirement entails development and production of particulate filters for diesel cars and trucks. Theoretically the paper suggests a rethinking of public industry...

  19. Carbon emissions and income inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravallion, M.; Heil, M.; Jalan, J.

    2000-01-01

    We find that the distribution of income matters to aggregate carbon dioxide emissions and hence global warming. Higher inequality, both between and within countries is associated with lower carbon emissions at given average incomes. We also confirm that economic growth generally comes with higher emissions. Thus our results suggest that trade-offs exist between climate control (on the one hand) and both social equity and economic growth (on the other). However, economic growth improves the trade off with equity, and lower inequality improves the trade off with growth. By combining growth with equity, more pro-poor growth processes yield better longer-term trajectories of carbon emissions. (Author)

  20. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  1. Gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Stockpiled coal undergoes atmospheric oxidation and desorption processes during open air storage. These processes release gases to the environment which may effect health and safety by their toxicity and flammability. In extreme cases, this could lead to a fire. This report discusses gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles. It covers gas emission mechanisms, and gas sampling and testing methods, before examining in more detail the principal gases that have been emitted. It concludes that there is limited research in this area and more data are needed to evaluate the risks of gaseous emissions. Some methods used to prevent coal self-heating and spontaneous combustion can be applied to reduce emissions from coal stockpiles.

  2. Continuous acoustic emission from aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenici, P.; Kiesewetter, N.; Schiller, P.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous acoustic emission of aluminum single crystals and polycrystals during tensile tests at constant cross-head speed and at room temperature is measured with a Root Mean Square Level recorder. By means of the Kaiser effect it is shown that the continuous emission is related to the plastic deformation. The plot of continuous emission against strain takes different shapes for pure single crystals, pure polycrystals and impure polycrystals. The measured voltages have about the same value for pure single and polycrystals and are considerably greater than that for impure polycrystals. A method is developed to distinguish between continuous emission and burst

  3. FTIR Emission spectroscopy of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Woerkom, P. C. M.

    A number of vibrational spectroscopic techniques are available For the study of surfaces, such as ATR, IR reflection-absorption, IR emission, etc. Infrared emission is hardly used, although interesting applications are possible now due to the high sensitivity of Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectrometers. Two examples, where infrared emission measurements are very fruitful, will be given. One is the investigation of the curing behaviour of organic coatings, the other is the in situ study of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Undoubtedly, infrared emission measurements offer a number of specific advantages in some cases. Especially the less critical demands on the sample preparation are important.

  4. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    Although there are many common aspects to x-ray transmission and radionuclide emission (ECT) computerized tomography, there are added difficulties and a number of particular factors which form the basis of ECT. The relationship between the physical factors, system design, methodologic approach and assumptions of ECT is discussed. The instrumentation design and application strategies in ECT at this time are diverse and in a rapid stage of development. The approaches are divided into two major categories of Single Photon Counting (SPC) employing scanner and camera concepts with radionuclides of 99 /sup m/Tc, 201 Tl, 123 I etc., and Annihilation Coincidence Detection (ACD) of positron-emitting radionuclides. Six systems in the former and ten systems in the latter category, with examples of typical studies, illustrate the different approaches

  5. Positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, M.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Regional mycardial blood flow and substrate metabolism can be non-invasively evaluated and quantified with positron emission computed tomography (Positron-CT). Tracers of exogenous glucose utilization and fatty acid metabolism are available and have been extensively tested. Specific tracer kinetic models have been developed or are being tested so that glucose and fatty acid metabolism can be measured quantitatively by Positron-CT. Tracers of amino acid and oxygen metabolism are utilized in Positron-CT studies of the brain and development of such tracers for cardiac studies are in progress. Methods to quantify regional myocardial blood flow are also being developed. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of Positron-/CT to document myocardial infarction. Experimental and clinical studies have begun to identify metabolic markers of reversibly ischemic myocardium. The potential of Positron-CT to reliably detect potentially salvageable myocardium and, hence, to identify appropriate therapeutic interventions is one of the most exciting applications of the technique

  6. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector planes positioned side-by-side around a patient area to detect radiation. Each plane includes a plurality of photomultiplier tubes and at least two rows of scintillation crystals on each photomultiplier tube extend across to adjacent photomultiplier tubes for detecting radiation from the patient area. Each row of crystals on each photomultiplier tube is offset from the other rows of crystals, and the area of each crystal on each tube in each row is different than the area of the crystals on the tube in other rows for detecting which crystal is actuated and allowing the detector to detect more inter-plane slides. The crystals are offset by an amount equal to the length of the crystal divided by the number of rows. The rows of crystals on opposite sides of the patient may be rotated 90 degrees relative to each other

  7. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each ring contains a plurality of scintillation detectors which are positioned around an inner circumference with a septum ring extending inwardly from the inner circumference along each outer edge of each ring. An additional septum ring is positioned in the middle of each ring of detectors and parallel to the other septa rings, whereby the inward extent of all the septa rings may be reduced by one-half and the number of detectors required in each ring is reduced. The additional septa reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  8. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each detector ring or offset ring includes a plurality of photomultiplier tubes and a plurality of scintillation crystals are positioned relative to the photomultiplier tubes whereby each tube is responsive to more than one crystal. Each alternate crystal in the ring is offset by one-half or less of the thickness of the crystal such that the staggered crystals are seen by more than one photomultiplier tube. This sharing of crystals and photomultiplier tubes allows identification of the staggered crystal and the use of smaller detectors shared by larger photomultiplier tubes thereby requiring less photomultiplier tubes, creating more scanning slices, providing better data sampling, and reducing the cost of the camera. The offset detector ring geometry reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  9. Emission tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Williams, C.W.; Burgiss, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    In the present invention a positron emission tomographic system is provided in which the random photon coincidence background is determined for the lines of sight along which the positron annihiliations are located. The circuitry is arranged so that this background may be subtracted almost simultaneously from the total photon coincidence measurement, or may be stored in a temporary memory for latter subtraction. In this system, an appropriate coincidence resolution time is selected and coincidences of photons detected at 180 degree opposed detectors within the time resolution are recorded as the overall coincidence count. This total count includes a source(true events) count plus a background(random coincidences) count. The background count is determined by measuring photons detected at these same sets of photon detectors and employing the same coincidence resolution period, where the signals from one set of detectors are passed through a delay longer in time than this resolution period

  10. Emission computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Y.; Kanno, I.; Koga, K.; Miura, S.; Uemura, K.

    1981-01-01

    Emission computed tomograph wherein a pluralty of detectors surround an object to be examined so as to detect x- or gamma radiation emitted by said object. In front of each of said detectors there is provided a collimator which comprises a pair of main plates and a subsidiary plate interposed therebetween. The plates are made of a material capable of blocking penetration of the radiation therethrough and so supported as to be swingable over an angle sufficient to cover the whole of said object. The plates of all the collimators are simultaneously swung to the same side and at the same angular speed thereby to change the direction of incidence of said radiation on each of said detectors

  11. Emission allowances stall in marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Misinformation and public misunderstanding have given emissions trading a bad reputation in the public marketplace, says William F. Malec, executive vice president of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), in Knoxville, Tennessee. Media coverage of a May 1992 emissions-allowance trade between TVA and Wisconsin Power and Light open-quotes focused on the agreement's pollution-trading aspects, not its overall potential economic and environmental benefits,close quotes Malec says. Such negative portrayal of TVA's transaction sparked severe public criticism and charges that emissions trading gives utilities the right to pollute. open-quotes The fact is that TVA sought the emissions-trading agreement as a means to reduce overall emissions in the most cost-effective way,close quotes Malec explains. Emissions trading allows a company with emission levels lower than clean-air standards to earn open-quotes credits.close quotes These credits then may be purchased by a company with emission levels that exceed federal standards. Under this arrangement, the environment is protected and companies that buy credits save money because they do not have to purchase expensive emissions-control devices or reduce their production levels. Malec says TVA decided to enter into the emissions-allowance market, not only to cut costs, but also to publicize the existence and benefits of emissions trading. However, TVA's experience proves that open-quotes people will not accept what they do not understand,close quotes concludes Malec, open-quotes especially when complex environmental issues are involved.close quotes

  12. Carbon emissions and an equitable emission reduction criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golomb, Dan

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the world-wide carbon emissions reached 5.8 billion metric tonnes per year (GTC/y). The Kyoto protocol calls for a reduction of carbon emissions from the developed countries (Annex I countries) of 6-8% below 1990 levels on the average, and unspecified commitments for the less developed (non-Annex I) countries. It is doubtful that the Kyoto agreement will be ratified by some parliaments, especially the USA Congress. Furthermore, it is shown that if the non-Annex I countries will not curtail their carbon emissions drastically, the global emissions will soar to huge levels by the middle of the next century. An equitable emission criterion is proposed which may lead to a sustainable rate of growth of carbon emissions, and be acceptable to all countries of the world. The criterion links the rate of growth of carbon emissions to the rate of growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A target criterion is proposed R = 0.15 KgC/SGDP, which is the current average for western European countries and Japan. This allows for both the growth of the GDP and carbon emissions. However, to reach the target in a reasonable time, the countries for which R≤ 0.3 would be allowed a carbon emission growth rate of 1%./y, and countries for which R≥ 0.3, 0.75%/y. It is shown that by 2050 the world-wide carbon emissions would reach about 10 GTC/y, which is about 3 times less than the Kyoto agreement would allow. (Author)

  13. Exciton emissions in alkali cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weid, J.P. von der.

    1979-10-01

    The emissions of Alkali Cyanides X irradiated at low temperature were measured. In addition to the molecular (Frenkel Type) exciton emissions, another emitting centre was found and tentatively assigned to a charge transfer self trapped exciton. The nature of the molecular exciton emitting state is discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...

  15. NORTRIP emission model user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denby, Rolstad Bruce

    2012-07-01

    The NORTRIP emission model has been developed at NILU, in conjunction with other Nordic institutes, to model non-exhaust traffic induced emissions. This short summary document explains how to run the NORTRIP model from the MATLAB environment or by using the executable user interface version. It also provides brief information on input files and the model architecture.(Author)

  16. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  17. Acoustic Emission Technology and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Y. S.; Lim, S. H.; Eom, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Jung, H. K.

    2003-10-01

    Acoustic emission is the elastic wave that is generated by the rapid release of energy from the localized sources within a material. After the observation of acoustic emission phenomenon in 1950, the research and further investigation had been performed. Acoustic emission examination becomes a rapidly matured nondestructive testing method with demonstrated capabilities for characterizing material behavior and for detecting the defect. It is of interest as a possible passive monitoring technique for detecting, locating and characterizing the defects in component and structure. Acoustic emission technology has recently strengthened the on-line monitoring application for the detection of incipient failures and the assurance of structural integrity. The field of acoustic emission testing is still growing vigorously and presents many challenges. Especially, acoustic emission has been successfully applied in the leak detection of primary pressure boundary of nuclear power plants. In this state-of-art report, the principle, measurement and field applications of acoustic emission technique is reviewed and summarized. Acoustic emission technology will contribute to the assurance of nuclear safety as the on-line monitoring technique of structural integrity of NSSS components and structures

  18. Estimates of wildland fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; John J. Qu; Wanting Wang; Xianjun Hao

    2013-01-01

    Wildland fire missions can significantly affect regional and global air quality, radiation, climate, and the carbon cycle. A fundamental and yet challenging prerequisite to understanding the environmental effects is to accurately estimate fire emissions. This chapter describes and analyzes fire emission calculations. Various techniques (field measurements, empirical...

  19. Emission of formaldehyde from furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Klinke, Helene B.; Funch, Lis Winther

    The emission of formaldehyde from 20 pieces of furniture, representing a variety of types, was measured in climate chambers. Most tests show low emissions but certain scenarios of furnishing, including furniture with large surface areas in relation to room volume can emit formaldehyde resulting...

  20. Pricing Carbon Emissions in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); T.K. Mai (Te-Ke); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThe purpose of the paper is to provide a clear mechanism for determining carbon emissions pricing in China as a guide to how carbon emissions might be mitigated to reduce fossil fuel pollution. The Chinese Government has promoted the development of clean energy, including

  1. The Emissions Gap Report 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, D.P. van

    2012-01-01

    One of the fundamental questions in the global climate negotiations is: what level of “ambition”, in terms of collective emission reductions, is needed to protect global climate? To help answer this question UNEP and the scientific community have published a series of reports on the “emissions

  2. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask participants to

  3. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  4. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  5. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which.......3 % of the worlds pig population. The main number of pigs is in Asia (59.6 %) where the main pig population stay in China (47.8 % of the worlds pig population). The objective of the chapter is therefore: To obtain a general overview of the pigs’ contribution to methane emission. Where is the pigs’ enteric gas...... produced and how is it measured. The variation in methane emission and factors affecting the emission. Possibility for reducing the enteric methane emission and the consequences....

  6. Nanoparticle emissions from combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

     This book focuses on particulate matter emissions produced by vehicles with combustion engines. It describes the physicochemical properties of the particulate matter, the mechanisms of its formation and its environmental impacts (including those on human beings). It discusses methods for measuring particulate mass and number, including the state-of-the-art in Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) equipment for measuring the exhaust emissions of both light and heavy-duty vehicles and buses under actual operating conditions. The book presents the authors’ latest investigations into the relations between particulate emission (mass and number) and engine operating parameters, as well as their new findings obtained through road tests performed on various types of vehicles, including those using diesel particulate filter regeneration. The book, which addresses the needs of academics and professionals alike, also discusses relevant European regulations on particulate emissions and highlights selected metho...

  7. Model for traffic emissions estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, A.; Assimacopoulos, D.; Mitsoulis, E.

    A model is developed for the spatial and temporal evaluation of traffic emissions in metropolitan areas based on sparse measurements. All traffic data available are fully employed and the pollutant emissions are determined with the highest precision possible. The main roads are regarded as line sources of constant traffic parameters in the time interval considered. The method is flexible and allows for the estimation of distributed small traffic sources (non-line/area sources). The emissions from the latter are assumed to be proportional to the local population density as well as to the traffic density leading to local main arteries. The contribution of moving vehicles to air pollution in the Greater Athens Area for the period 1986-1988 is analyzed using the proposed model. Emissions and other related parameters are evaluated. Emissions from area sources were found to have a noticeable share of the overall air pollution.

  8. COAL DUST EMISSION PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to develop 2D numerical models for the prediction of atmospheric pollution during transportation of coal in the railway car, as well as the ways to protect the environment and the areas near to the mainline from the dust emission due to the air injection installation. Methodology. To solve this problem there were developed numerical models based on the use of the equations of motion of an inviscid incompressible fluid and mass transfer. For the numerical integration of the transport equation of the pollutant the implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme was used. For numerical integration of the 2D equation for the velocity potential the method of total approximation was used. The developed numerical models are the basis of established software package. On the basis of the constructed numerical models it was carried out a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution when transporting bulk cargo by rail when the railway car has the air injection. Findings. 2D numerical models that belong to the class «diagnostic models» were developed. These models take into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of dust pollution in the atmosphere during transportation of bulk cargo. The developed numerical models make it possible to calculate the dust loss process, taking into account the use of the air injection of the car. They require a small cost of the computer time during practical realization at the low and medium power machines. There were submitted computational calculations to determine pollutant concentrations and the formation of the zone of pollution near the train with bulk cargo in «microscale» scale taking into account the air curtains. Originality. 2D numerical models taking into account the relevant factors influencing the process of dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, and the formation of the zone of pollution during transportation of bulk cargo by

  9. Photophysics of fullerenes: Thermionic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Tuinman, A.A.; Huang, J.

    1996-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization of fullerenes using long-pulse length lasers occurs mainly through vibrational autoionization. In many cases the laser ionization can be described as thermionic in analogy to the boiling off of electrons from a filament. Thermionic emission manifests itself as a delayed emission of electrons following pulsed laser excitation. Klots has employed quasiequilibrium theory to calculate rate constants for thermionic emission from fullerenes which seem to quantitatively account for the observed delayed emission times and the measured electron energy distributions. The theory of Klots also accounts for the thermionic emission of C 60 excited by a low power CW Argon Ion laser. Recently Klots and Compton have reviewed the evidence for thermionic emission from small aggregates where mention was also made of experiments designed to determine the effects of externally applied electric fields on thermionic emission rates. The authors have measured the fullerene ion intensity as a function of the applied electric field and normalized this signal to that produced by single photon ionization of an atom in order to correct for all collection efficiency artifacts. The increase in fullerene ion signal relative to that of Cs + is attributed to field enhanced thermionic emission. From the slope of the Schottky plot they obtain a temperature of approximately 1,000 K. This temperature is comparable to but smaller than that estimated from measurements of the electron kinetic energies. This result for field enhanced thermionic emission is discussed further by Klots and Compton. Thermionic emission from neutral clusters has long been known for autodetachment from highly excited negative ions. Similarly, electron attachment to C 60 in the energy range from 8 to 12 eV results in C 60 anions with lifetimes in the range of microseconds. Quasiequilibrium theory (QET) calculations are in reasonable accord with these measurements

  10. Photophysics of fullerenes: Thermionic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, R.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tuinman, A.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Huang, J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Multiphoton ionization of fullerenes using long-pulse length lasers occurs mainly through vibrational autoionization. In many cases the laser ionization can be described as thermionic in analogy to the boiling off of electrons from a filament. Thermionic emission manifests itself as a delayed emission of electrons following pulsed laser excitation. Klots has employed quasiequilibrium theory to calculate rate constants for thermionic emission from fullerenes which seem to quantitatively account for the observed delayed emission times and the measured electron energy distributions. The theory of Klots also accounts for the thermionic emission of C{sub 60} excited by a low power CW Argon Ion laser. Recently Klots and Compton have reviewed the evidence for thermionic emission from small aggregates where mention was also made of experiments designed to determine the effects of externally applied electric fields on thermionic emission rates. The authors have measured the fullerene ion intensity as a function of the applied electric field and normalized this signal to that produced by single photon ionization of an atom in order to correct for all collection efficiency artifacts. The increase in fullerene ion signal relative to that of Cs{sup +} is attributed to field enhanced thermionic emission. From the slope of the Schottky plot they obtain a temperature of approximately 1,000 K. This temperature is comparable to but smaller than that estimated from measurements of the electron kinetic energies. This result for field enhanced thermionic emission is discussed further by Klots and Compton. Thermionic emission from neutral clusters has long been known for autodetachment from highly excited negative ions. Similarly, electron attachment to C{sub 60} in the energy range from 8 to 12 eV results in C{sub 60} anions with lifetimes in the range of microseconds. Quasiequilibrium theory (QET) calculations are in reasonable accord with these measurements.

  11. Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions with fluorescent, colloidal and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjic, Jelena M; Shao, Pin; Zhang, Shaojuan; Yang, Xun; Patel, Sravan K; Bai, Mingfeng

    2014-06-01

    Bimodal imaging agents that combine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nearinfrared (NIR) imaging formulated as nanoemulsions became increasingly popular for imaging inflammation in vivo. Quality of in vivo imaging using nanoemulsions is directly dependent on their integrity and stability. Here we report the design of nanoemulsions for bimodal imaging, where both photostability and colloidal stability are equally addressed. A highly chemically and photo stable quaterrylenediimide dye was introduced into perfluoro-15-crown-5 ether (PCE) nanoemulsions. The nanoemulsions were prepared with PCE and Miglyol 812N mixed at 1:1 v/v ratio as internal phase stabilized by non-ionic surfactants. Data shows exceptional colloidal stability demonstrated as unchanged droplet size (~130 nm) and polydispersity (<0.15) after 182 days follow up at both 4 and 25 °C. Nanoemulsions also sustained the exposure to mechanical and temperature stress, and prolonged exposure to light without changes in droplet size, (19)F signal or fluorescence signal. No toxicity was observed in vitro in model inflammatory cells upon 24 h exposure while confocal microscopy showed that nanoemulsions droplets accumulated in the cytoplasm. Overall, our data demonstrates that design of bimodal imaging agents requires consideration of stability of each imaging component and that of the nanosystem as a whole to achieve excellent imaging performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

  13. 47 CFR 74.794 - Digital emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital emissions. 74.794 Section 74.794... Booster Stations § 74.794 Digital emissions. (a)(1) An applicant for a digital LPTV or TV translator... emissions within one of the following emission masks: simple or stringent. (2) The power level of emissions...

  14. Positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindback, Stig [GEMS PET Systems AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-07-15

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an advanced nuclear medicine technique used for research at major centres. Unique diagnostic information is obtained from tomographic measurements of the biochemistry and physiology of tissues and organs. In theory, diseases are related to biochemical changes and these can be observed with PET long before any anatomical changes are detectable. In PET the radioactive component is a positron-emitting isotope or 'tracer'. The positrons annihilate with electrons in the body to produce two gamma rays 180° apart; coincidence detection of these gammas provides a very efficient method of determining the spatial distribution of the radioisotope tracer. Because physiological measurements are usually required in a single imaging session, very short-lived isotopes are used to label the tracer molecules; isotope production and labelling is usually carried out in situ. The most commonly used radionuclides are carbon- 11 (half-life 20 minutes), nitrogen-13 (10 minutes), oxygen-15 (2 minutes), and fluorine-18 (110 minutes). A PET system has three major components: - a particle accelerator with targets for production of the positron-emitting isotopes; - chemistry modules for synthesis and labelling of the desired tracers; - and a PET camera for in-vivo measurements of the distribution of the tracer in the body.

  15. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindback, Stig

    1995-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an advanced nuclear medicine technique used for research at major centres. Unique diagnostic information is obtained from tomographic measurements of the biochemistry and physiology of tissues and organs. In theory, diseases are related to biochemical changes and these can be observed with PET long before any anatomical changes are detectable. In PET the radioactive component is a positron-emitting isotope or 'tracer'. The positrons annihilate with electrons in the body to produce two gamma rays 180° apart; coincidence detection of these gammas provides a very efficient method of determining the spatial distribution of the radioisotope tracer. Because physiological measurements are usually required in a single imaging session, very short-lived isotopes are used to label the tracer molecules; isotope production and labelling is usually carried out in situ. The most commonly used radionuclides are carbon- 11 (half-life 20 minutes), nitrogen-13 (10 minutes), oxygen-15 (2 minutes), and fluorine-18 (110 minutes). A PET system has three major components: - a particle accelerator with targets for production of the positron-emitting isotopes; - chemistry modules for synthesis and labelling of the desired tracers; - and a PET camera for in-vivo measurements of the distribution of the tracer in the body

  17. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Neutrino Emission from Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Hans-Thomas

    Supernovae are the most powerful cosmic sources of MeV neutrinos. These elementary particles play a crucial role when the evolution of a massive star is terminated by the collapse of its core to a neutron star or a black hole and the star explodes as supernova. The release of electron neutrinos, which are abundantly produced by electron captures, accelerates the catastrophic infall and causes a gradual neutronization of the stellar plasma by converting protons to neutrons as dominant constituents of neutron star matter. The emission of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors carries away the gravitational binding energy of the compact remnant and drives its evolution from the hot initial to the cold final state. The absorption of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos in the surroundings of the newly formed neutron star can power the supernova explosion and determines the conditions in the innermost supernova ejecta, making them an interesting site for the nucleosynthesis of iron-group elements and trans-iron nuclei.

  19. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  20. Radioactive air emissions 1992 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes, by radionuclide or product and by emitting facility, the Laboratory's 1992 radioactive air emissions. In 1992, the total activity of radionuclides emitted into the air from Laboratory stacks was approximately 73,500 Ci. This was an increase over the activity of the total 1991 radioactive air emissions, which was approximately 62,400 Ci. Total 1992 Laboratory emissions of each radionuclide or product are summarized by tables and graphs in the first section of this report. Compared to 1991 radioactive air emissions, total tritium activity was decreased, total plutonium activity was decreased, total uranium activity was decreased, total mixed fission product activity was increased, total 41 Ar activity was decreased, total gaseous/mixed activation product (except 41 Ar) activity was increased, total particulate/vapor activation product activity was increased, and total 32 P activity was decreased. Radioactive emissions from specific facilities are detailed in this report. Each section provides 1992 data on a single radionuclide or product and is further divided by emitting facility. For each facility from which a particular radionuclide or product was emitted, a bar chart displays the air emissions of each radionuclide or product from each facility over the 12 reporting periods of 1992, a line chart shows the trend in total emissions of that radionuclide or product from that facility for the past three years, the greatest activity during the 1990--1992 period is discussed, and unexpected or unusual results are noted

  1. Biomass burning: Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R III; Rhinehart, R.P.; Cahoon, D.R. J.; Winstead, E.L.; Sebacher, S.; Sebacher, D.I.; Stocks, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter deals with two different, but related, aspects of biomass burning. The first part of the chapter deals with a technique to estimate the instantaneous emissions of trace gases produced by biomass burning using satellite imagery. The second part of the chapter concerns the recent discovery that burning results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of N 2 O, NO, and CH 4 . Hence, biomass burning has both an immediate and long-term impact on the production of trace gases to the atmosphere. The objective of this research is to better assess and quantify the role of this research is to better assess and quantify the role and impact of biomass as a driver for global change. It will be demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions and may in the future be used to estimate the long-term postburn biogenic emissions of trace gases to the atmosphere

  2. Fighting against VOC emissions; Lutter contre les emissions de COV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanlo, J.L. [Ecole des Mines d' Ales, 30 (France); Puech, G. [APAVE, 75 - Paris (France); Patoux, R. [Rhodia Rhoditech (France)] [and others

    2001-12-01

    This document brings together 15 testimonies of experts about the processes used in the industry for the abatement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The different points approached concern: the first industrial experiments of fight against VOC emissions, how to audit the facilities, how to make a diagnosis, to hierarchized and to measure continuously VOC emissions, how to anticipate the explosion risks linked with VOC treatment processes, the techniques of VOC abatement at the source implemented by industrialists, the implementation of an emission mastery scheme by Crow Cork and Seal company, the implementation of a solvent management plan by Turbomeca company and of a paints strategy by Renault car-making company, the combination of VOC abatement techniques implemented by industrialists, the classification of destruction and recovery processes: the experience feedback of Sanofi Synthelabo and of Air Liquide companies, the combination of upstream and downstream techniques implemented by Pechiney Rhenalu, Ashland Polyester and Quebecor companies. (J.S.)

  3. Neutron emission from TFTR supershots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Budny, R.; Hawryluk, R.; Hill, K.W.; Hsuan, H.; Jassby, D.L.; Johnson, L.C.; LeBlanc, B.; Mansfield, D.; Meade, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Mueller, D.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.; Scott, S.; Synakowski, E.; Taylor, G.; Marmer, E.; Snipes, J.; Terry, J.

    1992-10-01

    Empirical scaling relations are deduced describing the neutron emission from TFTR supershots using a data base that includes all of the supershot plasmas (525) from the 1990 campaign. A physics-based scaling for the neutron emission is derived from the dependence of the central plasma parameters on machine settings and the energy confinement time. This scaling has been used to project the fusion rate for equivalent DT plasmas in TFTR, and to explore machine operation space which optimizes the fusion rate. Increases in neutron emission are possible by either increasing the toroidal magnetic field or further improving the limiter conditioning

  4. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, M; Gerber, P; Vellinga, T

    2011-01-01

    emissions. In reality, estimates of international scientific organizations such as the International Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are in close agreement, with variation mainly arising on how GHG emissions are allocated to land use and land use...... change. Other estimates involve major deviations from international protocols, such as estimated global warming potential of CH4 or including respired CO2 in GHG emissions. These approaches also fail to differentiate short-term CO2 arising from oxidation of plant C by ruminants from CO2 released from...

  5. Methane emissions from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, C.M.; Kelafant, J.R.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Manger, K.C.; Kruger, D.

    1990-09-01

    The report estimates global methane emissions from coal mining on a country specific basis, evaluates the technologies available to degasify coal seams and assesses the economics of recovering methane liberated during mining. 33 to 64 million tonnes were liberated in 1987 from coal mining, 75 per cent of which came from China, the USSR, Poland and the USA. Methane emissions from coal mining are likely to increase. Emission levels vary between surface and underground mines. The methane currently removed from underground mines for safety reasons could be used in a number of ways, which may be economically attractive. 55 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs

  6. Infrared emission from supernova condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, E.; Werner, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    We examine the possibility of detecting grains formed in supernovae by observations of their emission in the infrared. The basic processes determining the temperature and infrared radiation of grains in supernovae environments are analyzed, and the results are used to estimate the infrared emission from the highly metal enriched ''fast moving knots'' in Cas A. The predicted fluxes lie within the reach of current ground-based facilities at 10 μm, and their emission should be detectable throughout the infrared band with cryogenic space telescopes

  7. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards for Hazardous... proposed rule titled, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers...

  8. Zero emission city. Preliminary study; Null-Emissions-Stadt. Sondierungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, N; Enseling, A; Werner, P; Flade, A; Greiff, R; Hennings, D; Muehlich, E; Wullkopf, U; Sturm, P; Kieslich, W; Born, R; Grossklos, M; Hatteh, R; Mueller, K; Ratschow, A; Valouch-Fornoff, C

    2002-10-01

    The idea of a 'zero emission city' is investigated by the Institut Wohnen und Umwelt on behalf of the Federal Minister of Education and Research. After describing the current situation and defining the key parameters of a 'zero emission city', settlement structures, power supply, production processes and transportation are analyzed and linked with the communal action level to obtain a framework for research, activities and actions. The study ends with recommendations for a research programme 'zero emission city'. (orig.) [German] Die von den Staedten der Industrielaender ausgehenden Emissionen stellen im Hinblick auf die globalen Belastungen wie z.B. Treibhauseffekt, Ozonabbau und Versauerung das Hauptproblem dar. Aus diesem Grunde bietet es sich an, den Gedanken der 'Null-Emissions-Stadt', der Vision einer moeglichst emissionsfreien Stadt, aufzugreifen und auf seine Tragfaehigkeit fuer innovative Handlungsmodelle forschungsstrategisch zu ueberpruefen. Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung hat das Institut Wohnen und Umwelt beauftragt, in einer Sondierungsstudie dieser Fragestellung nachzugehen. Nach der Festlegung der Ausgangsbedingungen und Eckpunkte der Vision 'Null-Emissions-Stadt' und der Analyse der vier Handlungsfelder Siedlungsstrukturen, Energieversorgung, Produktionsprozesse (Kreislaufwirtschaft) und Verkehr werden diese aufgegriffen und mit der kommunalen Handlungsebene verknuepft und zu einem Forschungs-, Handlungs- und moeglichen Aktionsrahmen zusammengefuegt. Die Studie schliesst mit Hinweisen fuer die Gestaltung eines Forschungsprogramms 'Null-Emissions-Stadt'. (orig.)

  9. Zero emission city. Preliminary study; Null-Emissions-Stadt. Sondierungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, N.; Enseling, A.; Werner, P.; Flade, A.; Greiff, R.; Hennings, D.; Muehlich, E.; Wullkopf, U.; Sturm, P.; Kieslich, W.; Born, R.; Grossklos, M.; Hatteh, R.; Mueller, K.; Ratschow, A.; Valouch-Fornoff, C.

    2002-10-01

    The idea of a 'zero emission city' is investigated by the Institut Wohnen und Umwelt on behalf of the Federal Minister of Education and Research. After describing the current situation and defining the key parameters of a 'zero emission city', settlement structures, power supply, production processes and transportation are analyzed and linked with the communal action level to obtain a framework for research, activities and actions. The study ends with recommendations for a research programme 'zero emission city'. (orig.) [German] Die von den Staedten der Industrielaender ausgehenden Emissionen stellen im Hinblick auf die globalen Belastungen wie z.B. Treibhauseffekt, Ozonabbau und Versauerung das Hauptproblem dar. Aus diesem Grunde bietet es sich an, den Gedanken der 'Null-Emissions-Stadt', der Vision einer moeglichst emissionsfreien Stadt, aufzugreifen und auf seine Tragfaehigkeit fuer innovative Handlungsmodelle forschungsstrategisch zu ueberpruefen. Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung hat das Institut Wohnen und Umwelt beauftragt, in einer Sondierungsstudie dieser Fragestellung nachzugehen. Nach der Festlegung der Ausgangsbedingungen und Eckpunkte der Vision 'Null-Emissions-Stadt' und der Analyse der vier Handlungsfelder Siedlungsstrukturen, Energieversorgung, Produktionsprozesse (Kreislaufwirtschaft) und Verkehr werden diese aufgegriffen und mit der kommunalen Handlungsebene verknuepft und zu einem Forschungs-, Handlungs- und moeglichen Aktionsrahmen zusammengefuegt. Die Studie schliesst mit Hinweisen fuer die Gestaltung eines Forschungsprogramms 'Null-Emissions-Stadt'. (orig.)

  10. Prompt neutron emission; Emission des neutrons prompts de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    It is shown that Ramanna and Rao's tentative conclusion that prompt fission neutrons are emitted (in the fragment system) preferentially in the direction of fragment motion is not necessitated by their angular distribution measurements, which are well explained by the usual assumptions of isotropic emission with a Maxwell (or Maxwell-like) emission spectrum. The energy distribution (Watt spectrum) and the angular distribution, both including the effects of anisotropic emission, are given. (author) [French] On montre que la conclusion experimentale de Ramanna et Rao selon laquelle les neutrons prompts de fission sont emis (dans le systeme de reference des fragments) preferentiellement dans la direction du mouvement du fragment, ne decoule pas necessairement de leurs mesures de distribution angulaire. Celles-ci sont bien expliquees par l'hypothese classique de l'emission isotrope et d'un spectre d'emission maxwellien (ou quasi-maxwellien). On donne la distribution en energie (ou spectre de Watt) et la distribution angulaire, comprenant toutes les deux les effets d'emission anisotrope. (auteur)

  11. Danish emission inventory for particular matter (PM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M; Winther, M; Illerup, J B; Hjort Mikkelsen, M

    2003-11-01

    The first Danish emission inventory that was reported in 2002 was a provisional-estimate based on data presently available. This report documents methodology, emission factors and references used for an improved Danish emission inventory for particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes TSP, PM,, and PM, The report covers emission inventories for transport and stationary combustion. An appendix covering emissions from agriculture is also included. For the transport sector, both exhaust and non-exhaust emission such as tyre and break wear and road abrasion are included. (au)

  12. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  13. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  14. Dataset of NRDA emission data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Emissions data from open air oil burns. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gullett, B., J. Aurell, A. Holder, B. Mitchell, D. Greenwell, M....

  15. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  16. CONSTRAINING RADIO EMISSION FROM MAGNETARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, P.; Kaspi, V. M.; Dib, R. [Department of Physics, Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Champion, D. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Hessels, J. W. T., E-mail: plazar@physics.mcgill.ca [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2012-01-10

    We report on radio observations of five magnetars and two magnetar candidates carried out at 1950 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope in 2006-2007. The data from these observations were searched for periodic emission and bright single pulses. Also, monitoring observations of magnetar 4U 0142+61 following its 2006 X-ray bursts were obtained. No radio emission was detected for any of our targets. The non-detections allow us to place luminosity upper limits of L{sub 1950} {approx}< 1.60 mJy kpc{sup 2} for periodic emission and L{sub 1950,single} {approx}< 7.6 Jy kpc{sup 2} for single pulse emission. These are the most stringent limits yet for the magnetars observed. The resulting luminosity upper limits together with previous results are discussed, as is the importance of further radio observations of radio-loud and radio-quiet magnetars.

  17. Field emission for cantilever sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.K.; le Fèbre, A.J.; Pandraud, G.; van der Drift, E.; French, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Field emission provides an alternative sensing solution in scaled electromechanical systems and devices, when typical displacement detection techniques fail in submicron and nanodimenions. Apart from its independency from device dimension, it has also a high response, integration and high

  18. Emissivity measurements on aeronautical alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, L. del; Perez-Saez, R.B.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, L.; Esquisabel, X.; Fernandez, I.; Gonzalez-Martin, P.; Tello, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The emissivity of three Ni and Co based aeronautical alloys is analyzed in this paper. These alloys are employed in high temperature environments whenever good corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance and high strength are essential. Thus, apart from the aeronautical industry, these alloys are also used in other technological applications, as for example, aerospace, nuclear reactors, and tooling. The results in this paper extend the emissivity data for these alloys available in the literature. Emissivity dependence on the radiation wavelength (2-22 μm), sample temperature (200-650 o C) and emission angle (0-85 o ) has been investigated. In addition, the effect of surface finish and oxidation has also been taken into consideration. The data in this paper have several applications, as temperature measurement of a target by pyrometry, low observability of airplanes and thermal radiation heat transfer simulation in airplane nozzles or furnaces.

  19. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  20. SPECIFIC EMISSIONS FROM BIOMASS COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skopec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with determining the specific emissions from the combustion of two kinds of biomass fuels in a small-scale boiler. The tested fuels were pellets made of wood and pellets made of rape plant straw. In order to evaluate the specific emissions, several combustion experiments were carried out using a commercial 25 kW pellet-fired boiler. The specific emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx were evaluated in relation to a unit of burned fuel, a unit of calorific value and a unit of produced heat. The specific emissions were compared with some data acquired from the reference literature, with relatively different results. The differences depend mainly on the procedure used for determining the values, and references provide no information about this. Although some of our experimental results may fit with one of the reference sources, they do not fit with the other. The reliability of the references is therefore disputable.

  1. Emissivity measurements on aeronautical alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, L. del, E-mail: leire.del-campo@cnrs-orleans.f [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.e [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Esquisabel, X.; Fernandez, I. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, P. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Parque empresarial San Fernando, Avda. Castilla 2, 28830 San Fernando de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-01-21

    The emissivity of three Ni and Co based aeronautical alloys is analyzed in this paper. These alloys are employed in high temperature environments whenever good corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance and high strength are essential. Thus, apart from the aeronautical industry, these alloys are also used in other technological applications, as for example, aerospace, nuclear reactors, and tooling. The results in this paper extend the emissivity data for these alloys available in the literature. Emissivity dependence on the radiation wavelength (2-22 {mu}m), sample temperature (200-650 {sup o}C) and emission angle (0-85{sup o}) has been investigated. In addition, the effect of surface finish and oxidation has also been taken into consideration. The data in this paper have several applications, as temperature measurement of a target by pyrometry, low observability of airplanes and thermal radiation heat transfer simulation in airplane nozzles or furnaces.

  2. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  3. Understanding Emissions in East Asia - The KORUS 2015 Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Park, R.; Choi, Y.; Simpson, I. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Streets, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    The air quality over Northeast Asia have been deteriorated for decades due to high population and energy use in the region. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse sometimes. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are much higher to effectively protect public health and ecosystems. Two aircraft filed campaigns targeting year 2016, MAPS-Seoul and KORUS-AQ, have been organized to study the air quality of over Korea and East Asia relating to chemical evolution, emission inventories, trans-boundary contribution, and satellite application. We developed a new East-Asia emissions inventory, named KORUS2015, based on NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment), in support of the filed campaigns. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, and PM2.5. Since the KORUS2015 emissions framework was developed using the integrated climate and air quality assessment modeling framework (i.e. GAINS) and is fully connected with the comprehensive emission processing/modeling systems (i.e. SMOKE, KU-EPS, and MEGAN), it can be effectively used to support atmospheric field campaigns for science and policy. During the field campaigns, we are providing modeling emissions inventory to participating air quality models, such as CMAQ, WRF-Chem, CAMx, GEOS-Chem, MOZART, for forecasting and post-analysis modes. Based on initial assessment of those results, we are improving our emissions, such as VOC speciation, biogenic VOCs modeling. From the 2nditeration between emissions and modeling/measurement, further analysis results will be presented at the conference. Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change

  4. Trace emissions from gaseous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA) was amended in 1990 to include the development of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) for certain stationary sources by November 2000. MACT emissions standards would affect process heaters and industrial boilers since combustion processes are a potential source for many air toxins. The author noted that one of the problems with MACT is the lack of a clear solid scientific footing which is needed to develop environmentally responsible regulations. In order to amend some of these deficiencies, a 4-year, $7 million research project on the origin and fate of trace emissions in the external combustion of gaseous hydrocarbons was undertaken in a collaborative effort between government, universities and industry. This collaborative project entitled the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) Project 92-19 produced basic information and phenomenological understanding in two important areas, one basic and one applied. The specific objectives of the project were to measure emissions while operating different full-scale burners under various operating conditions and then to analyze the emission data to identify which operating conditions lead to low air toxic emissions. Another objective was to develop new chemical kinetic mechanisms and predictive models for the formation of air toxic species which would explain the origin and fate of these species in process heaters and industrial boilers. It was determined that a flame is a very effective reactor and that trace emissions from a typical gas-fired industry burner are very small. An unexpected finding was that trace emissions are not affected by hydrocarbon gaseous fuel composition, nor by the use of ultra low nitrous oxide burners. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  6. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  7. New technologies for low emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, G. [Kansas City Power & Light (USA)

    2001-05-01

    This paper examines new technology for coal-fired power stations, designed to achieve very low emissions with focus on the post-combustion emissions control systems installed at Howthorn. The first post-combustion system through which the flue gas passes is a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, consisting of two catalyst-equipped casing and various support equipment designed to provide continuous control of NOx emissions. The second system is a dry flue gas desulphurisation (dry FGD) system consisting of two spray dry absorber (SDA) vessels and supporting equipment to provide control of SO{sub 2} emissions. The third system consists of a pulse-jet bag house (PJBH) and supporting equipment to control particulate emissions. Finally, the fourth system is a material handling system (ash handling system), consisting of equipment provided to remove, recycle, and dispose of solid wastes associated with the combustion process and the three other pollution control systems. These systems bring the operation of Hawthorn 5 into compliance with federal, state, and local emission standards and enhance the positive relationship KCP & L has with its neighbours. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Electron emission from pseudospark cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Gundersen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The pseudospark cathode has the remarkable property of macroscopically homogeneous electron emission at very high current density (>1 kA/cm 2 ) over a large area (some cm 2 ). The model of electron emission presented here is based on the assumption that the pseudospark microscopically utilizes explosive arc processes, as distinct from earlier models of ''anomalous emission in superdense glow discharges.'' Explosive emission similar to vacuum are cathode spots occurs rapidly when the field strength is sufficiently high. The plasma remains macroscopically homogeneous since the virtual plasma anode adapts to the cathode morphology so that the current is carried by a large number of homogeneously distributed cathode spots which are similar to ''type 1'' and ''type 2'' spots of vacuum arc discharges. The net cathode erosion is greatly reduced relative to ''spark gap-type'' emission. At very high current levels, a transition to highly erosive spot types occurs, and this ''arcing'' leads to a significant reduction in device lifetime. Assuming vacuum-arc-like cathode spots, the observed current density and time constants can be easily explained. The observed cathode erosion rate and pattern, recent fast-camera data, laser-induced fluorescence, and spectroscopic measurements support this approach. A new hypothesis is presented explaining current quenching at relatively low currents. From the point of view of electron emission, the ''superdense glow'' or ''superemissive phase'' of pseudosparks represents an arc and not a glow discharge even if no filamentation or ''arcing'' is observed

  9. Emissions trading under market imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, P.

    2013-08-15

    In this thesis we consider emissions trading under various market imperfections such as uncertainty over permit price, imperfect competition and noncompliance. First, we study the effects of uncertain permit price on the firms choice of emission intensive and clean inputs in an multi-input production process. We also assess the risk aversion factors of some Finnish heat and power producers. Second, we study imperfect competition in output and permit markets with a two-stage model, where output decision is made before permit trades. The emphasis is on the strategic interaction between firms and on the efficiency increasing regulation. Third, we turn back to uncertainty and analyse the welfare difference between emissions trading and emission tax, when some of the firms may be noncompliant. The main finding is that welfare is greater with emission tax than with emissions trading, when at least one firm is noncompliant. Finally, we extend some existing models of permit banking and borrowing to encompass also noncompliant behavior of firms. Here, we analyse the incentives of compliant firms to become noncompliant at some point in time and also the time paths of the choice variables. (orig.)

  10. Flaw identification using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, B.; McDonald, N.R.

    1975-01-01

    Acoustic emission 'signatures' contain information about the fine structure of metallurgical source events and their interpretation may provide a means of assessing the severity of internal flaws as well as surface flaws. The ultimate aim of this research on signature analysis is to develop a real time non-destructive testing technique having the capability of flaw recognition as well as flaw location in nuclear reactor components and structures under stress. Thus the requisite, unlike that in most acoustic emission work to date, is for a technique which affords discrimination between acoustic emission from different types of flaws propagating simultaneously. The approach described here requires detailed analysis of the emission signatures in terms of a specific statistical parameter, energy spectral density. In order to realise the full inspection potential of acoustic emission monitoring data obtained from zirconium and steel testpieces have been correlated with metallurgical condition and mechanical behaviour, since the nature of emission signatures is strongly affected by the physical characteristics and internal structure of the material. (Auth.)

  11. Price floors for emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Peter John; Jotzo, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Price floors in greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes can guarantee minimum abatement efforts if prices are lower than expected, and they can help manage cost uncertainty, possibly as complements to price ceilings. Provisions for price floors are found in several recent legislative proposals for emissions trading. Implementation however has potential pitfalls. Possible mechanisms are government commitments to buy back permits, a reserve price at auction, or an extra fee or tax on acquittal of emissions permits. Our analysis of these alternatives shows that the fee approach has budgetary advantages and is more compatible with international permit trading than the alternatives. It can also be used to implement more general hybrid approaches to emissions pricing. - Research highlights: → Price floors for emissions trading schemes guarantee a minimum carbon price. → Price floors mean that emissions can be less than specified by the ETS cap. → We examine how price floors can relate to different policy objectives. → We compare different mechanisms for implementing a price floor. → We find that a mechanism where there is an extra tax or fee has advantages.

  12. ECO2, Emissions Trading Services, development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruokonen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Emissions Trading started within EU at the beginning of 2005. It caused substantial changes to the business environment of energy companies and energy intensive industry. The planning of Emissions Trading is a complicated process and companies will need consulting, IT systems and other services. Emissions Trading introduces a new factor of production emission allowances, which are tradable commodities. In future, Emissions Trading emissions, emission allowances and the prices of emission allowances have to be considered during the fuel purchasing and the energy production planning. And the best possible knowledge of the own emissions balance and market situation has a monetary value when trading emission allowances. Allocation of emission allowances has done in each country according to National Allocation Plan (NAP), accepted by EU. Finland itself and thus also the Finnish companies will be net buyers of emission allowances in long run. That means commonly that the Finnish companies have to buy more allowances meaning some extra costs to the companies. That's why it is very important to develop and provide to the companies an innovatory emissions planning, follow-up, management and reporting systems. With good emission balance management the extra costs of Emissions Trading will be as low as possible. In ECO2 project, Empower together with Power-Deriva, developed Expert services, Emissions Balance Management and Reporting services and Risk Management services for Emissions Trading and needed software and tools for these services. (orig.)

  13. Emission from power plants 1989-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Emissions from power plants consist of several substances with different environmental effects. Most important is emission of CO 2 ,SO 2 and NO x . The actual emission of CO 2 declined from 33 million ton in 1997 to 29 million ton in 1998, while the corrected emission of CO 2 declined from 27 million ton to 26 million ton. The primary cause to the decline in the actual emission of CO 2 is the constant changing of the energy consumption from coal towards natural gas. The corrected emission of CO 2 increased a little from 1989 to 1991, but has declined since 1991. The actual emission of CO 2 has been more variable, which especially reflects the fluctuating import and export of electricity. The actual emission of SO 2 has in the period varied, but the tendency is declining emission of SO 2 . In the years 1991 and 1996 the actual emission of SO 2 increased, these being the years where the net export of electricity increased. The corrected emission of SO 2 has generally declined during the period. The actual emission of NO x has varied during the period, but the tendency is declining emission. Emission of NO x has been large this year with large electricity export. Correction the emission for net import and export of electricity the NO x emission has declined during 1989-1998. The corrected emission of NO x has declined 54 % during the period 1989-1998. The reason is primary the usage of low NO x burners. (EHS)

  14. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Trenker, C.; Hoeflinger, W.

    2001-09-01

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM 10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM 10 and PM 2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non

  15. Methane emissions form terrestrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, P.; Dentener, F.; Grassi, G.; Leip, A.; Somogyi, Z.; Federici, S.; Seufert, G.; Raes, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In a recent issue of Nature Keppler et al. (2006) report the discovery that terrestrial plants emit CH4 under aerobic conditions. Until now it was thought that bacterial decomposition of plant material under anaerobic conditions, such as in wetlands and water flooded rice paddies, is the main process leading to emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. In a first attempt to upscale these measurements, the authors estimate that global total emissions may be 149 Tg CH4/yr (62-236 Tg CH4/yr), with the main contribution estimated from tropical forests and grasslands (107 Tg CH4/yr with a range of 46-169 Tg CH4/yr). If confirmed, this new source of emission would constitute a significant fraction of the total global methane sources (estimated 500-600 Tg CH4/yr for present day total natural and anthropogenic sources) and have important implications for the global CH4 budget. To accommodate it within the present budget some sources would need to be re-assessed downwards and/or some sinks re-assessed upwards. Furthermore, also considering that methane is a {approx}23 times more powerful greenhouse gas than CO2, the possible feedbacks of these hitherto unknown CH4 emissions on global warming and their impacts on greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation strategies need to be carefully evaluated. The merit of the paper is without doubt related to the remarkable discovery of a new process of methane emissions active under aerobic conditions. However, we think that the applied approach of scaling up emissions from the leaf level to global totals by using only few measured data (mainly from herbaceous species) and the Net Primary Productivity of the main biomes is scientifically questionable and tends to overestimate considerably the global estimates, especially for forest biomes. Furthermore, some significant constraints on the upper limit of the global natural CH4 emissions arise from the pre-industrial CH4 budget. Pre-industrial atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios have been measured

  16. 40 CFR 61.67 - Emission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.67... hours, but in no case in excess of 72 hours of sample collection. Vinyl chloride emissions are to be... request, for inspection by the Administrator, for a minimum of 3 years, records of emission test results...

  17. Synchronization of cubic distortion spontaneous otoacoustic emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, P; Wit, HP

    A spontaneous otoacoustic emission spectrum may contain equally spaced emission peaks. Then, two peaks, at frequencies, f(1) and f(2), respectively, apparently generate a distortion product at f(d)=2f(1)-f(2) [or 2f(2)-f(1)]. For the three emission peaks of nine of such triplets tin six emission

  18. Emissions trading: saviour or destroyer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougas, P.; Kearney, B.

    2007-01-01

    Australia is almost certain to get a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in the next five years. Trading is now embraced by both political parties at the federal level and by all the states, as a key policy to address greenhouse gas emissions. But the story does not end there - there are crucial design and implementation decisions that will affect the efficiency and effectiveness of an emissions trading scheme and it is vital for the Australian economy that we get this right. Addressing greenhouse gas emissions will be a massive and costly effort and we need to make sure this happens, but at the lowest possible cost. Populist solutions and silver bullets abound, but there are no simple solutions and we need to start taking action on a broad front to minimise the cost. Emissions trading will have significant and lasting effects of the broader Australian economy, but is likely to be felt most in the energy sector. We need informed and rational discussion and policy development to get it right

  19. Flaw identification using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, B.; McDonald, N.R.

    1975-01-01

    In order to realise the full inspection potential of acoustic emission monitoring, data obtained from zirconium and steel testpieces have been correlated with metallurgical condition and mechanical behaviour, since the nature of emission signatures is strongly affected by the physical characteristics and internal structure of the material. During experiments, signals were tape recorded and the surface of each testpiece was recorded on movie film or videotape so that acoustic and visual information could be correlated. Large numbers of tape-recorded bursts have been analysed with a real time spectrum analyser, and statistical parameters (such as mean energy density, mean frequency and variance) derived from the spectra were calculated by an IBM 360/50 computer and selectively displayed on a line plotter. In the case of zirconium, observed differences in these parameters were an indication that the emission signals were generated by three different metallurgical mechanisms. A movie film of testpiece surface deformation revealed the occurrence of twin initiation, twin broadening and slip. Fracture events either in the zirconium matrix or in second phase particles are also possible although not observed directly. A direct correlation was confirmed between twin initiations and emission signals. Work is proceeding on establishing a different correlation between emission signals and stress corrosion cracks

  20. Acoustic emission from polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, I.; Yoda, S.; Oku, T.; Miyamoto, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic emission was monitored from polycrystalline graphites with different microstructure (pore size and pore volume) subjected to compressive loading. The graphites used in this study comprised five brands, that is, PGX, ISEM-1, IG-11, IG-15, and ISO-88. A root mean square (RMS) voltage and event counts of acoustic emission for graphites were measured during compressive loading. The acoustic emission was measured using a computed-based data acquisition and analysis system. The graphites were first deformed up to 80 % of the average fracture stress, then unloaded and reloaded again until the fracture occured. During the first loading, the change in RMS voltage for acoustic emission was detected from the initial stage. During the unloading, the RMS voltage became zero level as soon as the applied stress was released and then gradually rose to a peak and declined. The behavior indicated that the reversed plastic deformation occured in graphites. During the second loading, the RMS voltage gently increased until the applied stress exceeded the maximum stress of the first loading; there is no Kaiser effect in the graphites. A bicrystal model could give a reasonable explanation of this results. The empirical equation between the ratio of σ AE to σ f and σ f was obtained. It is considered that the detection of microfracture by the acoustic emission technique is effective in macrofracture prediction of polycrystalline graphites. (author)

  1. Isoprene emission from Indian trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, C. K.; Singh, Abhai Pratap

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is the most dominant non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emitted by plants. NMVOCs play an important role in regulating the composition of atmospheric trace gases including global concentration of tropospheric ozone. Our present knowledge about NMVOCs emission is mainly from studies on temperate tree species. So far information on biogenic NMVOCs emission from tropical tree species is limited. In this study, isoprene emission rates from 40 tropical Indian tree species belonging to 33 genera and 17 families were measured for the first time using a dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. The isoprene emission rate from plants (30°C and PAR 1000 μmolm-2s-1) ranged from undetectable to 81.5 μg g-1 h-1 and values were found to be comparable with other studies on tropical tree species. Tree species screened for isoprene emission in the present study may be grouped into the four categories, proposed by [2001], namely, 18 species were negligible or BDL isoprene emitting (Morus alba Linn., which were earlier reported as BDL or non isoprene emitters in US [, 1998; , 2001] were found to be appreciably high isoprene emitters (0.61-21.60 μg g-1 h-1) in the present study.

  2. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lents, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  3. Embodied greenhouse gas emission by Macao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.S.; Chen, G.Q.; Lai, T.M.; Ahmad, B.; Chen, Z.M.; Shao, L.; Ji, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive inventory of cities' greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is the basis for cities to make appropriate mitigation plans. However, previous studies on cities' GHG emissions consider emissions occurring within the city boundary (Scope 1) and out of boundary electricity emissions (Scope 2), but neglect indirect emissions associated with commodities consumed by cities (Scope 3), resulting in emission leakage. To cope with this problem, a systematic accounting covering all 3 scopes is presented in a case study of Macao for the years 2005–2009, based on the latest embodied emission intensity databases for China and for the world. The results show that total emissions are dominated by indirect emissions mainly embodied in imports, which is 3–4 times direct emissions during the period concerned. It is verified that accounting under Scopes 1 and 2 cannot capture the full picture of cities' emissions, especially cities like Macao which are dominated by service industry and inevitably sustained by massive materials and services from other regions. Our study suggests that Macao should adjust its current GHG mitigation policies which consider only its emissions occurring within its border, as Macao is a net GHG emissions importer. This work is the first assessment of Macao's embodied GHG emissions. - Highlights: • A systematic accounting procedure is presented to inventory a city's GHG emissions. • A comprehensive review of GHG emissions is performed for Macao. • Indirect GHG emissions dominate Macao's embodied GHG emissions. • Macao induced large amount of GHG emissions in other regions through trade. • The variation in GHG emission structure against socio-economic changes is revealed

  4. Emissivity of discretized diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densmore, Jeffery D.; Davidson, Gregory; Carrington, David B.

    2006-01-01

    The numerical modeling of radiative transfer by the diffusion approximation can produce artificially damped radiation propagation if spatial cells are too optically thick. In this paper, we investigate this nonphysical behavior at external problem boundaries by examining the emissivity of the discretized diffusion approximation. We demonstrate that the standard cell-centered discretization produces an emissivity that is too low for optically thick cells, a situation that leads to the lack of radiation propagation. We then present a modified boundary condition that yields an accurate emissivity regardless of cell size. This modified boundary condition can be used with a deterministic calculation or as part of a hybrid transport-diffusion method for increasing the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations. We also discuss the range of applicability, as a function of cell size and material properties, when this modified boundary condition is employed in a hybrid technique. With a set of numerical calculations, we demonstrate the accuracy and usefulness of this modified boundary condition

  5. Instrumentation for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with a spatial resolution of 2 mm full width at half maximum for quantitation in regions of interest 4 mm in diameter will become possible with the development of detectors that achieve ultrahigh resolution. Improved resolution will be possible using solid-state photodetectors for crystal identification or photomultiplier tubes with many small electron multipliers. Temporal resolution of 2 seconds and gating of cyclic events can be accomplished if statistical requirements are met. The major physical considerations in achieving high-resolution positron emission tomography are the degradation in resolution resulting from positron range, emission angle, parallax error, detector sampling density, the sensitivity of various detector materials and packing schemes, and the tradeoff between temporal resolution and statistical accuracy. The accuracy of data required for physiological models depends primarily on the fidelity of spatial sampling independent of statistical constraints

  6. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm2 V−1 s−1. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m−2 and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics. PMID:26620323

  7. Neutron star evolution and emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R. I.; Edwards, B. C.; Haines, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors investigated the evolution and radiation characteristics of individual neutron stars and stellar systems. The work concentrated on phenomena where new techniques and observations are dramatically enlarging the understanding of stellar phenomena. Part of this project was a study of x-ray and gamma-ray emission from neutron stars and other compact objects. This effort included calculating the thermal x-ray emission from young neutron stars, deriving the radio and gamma-ray emission from active pulsars and modeling intense gamma-ray bursts in distant galaxies. They also measured periodic optical and infrared fluctuations from rotating neutron stars and search for high-energy TeV gamma rays from discrete celestial sources.

  8. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  9. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources

  10. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  11. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  12. Greenhouse effects of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortuin, J.P.F.; Wauben, W.M.F.; Dorland, R. van; Kelder, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ranges for direct and indirect greenhouse effects due to present day aircraft emissions are quantified for northern midlatitudes, using the concept of fixed temperature (FT) radiative forcing as calculated with a radiative transfer model. The direct greenhouse effects considered here are from emissions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide. To calculate the concentration increases of carbon dioxide and stratospheric water vapor, an analytical expression is developed based on a linear approximation of global fuel burn versus time. Unlike the expressions currently used in the literature, the authors' expression does not account for emission rates only, but also for a loss term--hence making it more suitable for shorter lived emittants. For midlatitude summer conditions, a total radiative forcing ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 Wm -2 is calculated for the direct greenhouse effects, whereas for midlatitude winter the range is 0.07 to 0.26 Wm -2 . The indirect greenhouse effects considered here are sulfate aerosol formation from sulfur dioxide emissions, contrail formation from emitted water vapor and condensation nuclei, and ozone formation from NO x emissions. The total radiative forcing coming from these indirect effects range from -0.67 to 0.25 Wm -2 in summer a/nd from -0.36 to 0.21 Wm -2 in winter. Further, the global distribution of NO x and ozone increases from aircraft emissions world-wide are simulated with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model for January and July. The geographical distribution of the radiative forcing associated with the simulated ozone increases is also calculated for these months

  13. OVOC Emissions and Atmospheric Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Christian, T. J.; Bertschi, I. T.; Ward, D. E.; Field, R. J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Goode, J.; Mason, S.; Susott, R.; Babbitt, R.; Hao, W. M.

    2002-12-01

    We quantified the main emissions from a few vegetation samples and many biomass fires using ground-based, open-path FTIR and airborne, closed-cell FTIR. The two instruments have been rigorously compared to each other and to PTR-MS and canister sampling. OVOC are major emissions from plants. OVOC account for about 70 percent of NMOC from savanna fires (the largest type of biomass burning) and 70-80 percent of NMOC from production and use of domestic biofuels (the second largest type of biomass burning). A table of average biofuel emissions is presented. Data from laboratory and free-burning fires, obtained from Alaska to South Africa, is used to develop equations that predict OVOC emissions from a wide variety of global fires. The impact of OVOC on smoke plume chemistry and the post-emission transformations of OVOC were investigated with two models. Addition of HCHO alone to the simple chemistry used in some global models dramatically reduces NOx lifetime and speeds up O3 formation rates in plumes. A detailed model verifies these effects and shows that OVOC profoundly affect formation of HOx, peroxide, and nitrogen reservoir species. The modeled photochemical transformations of OVOC are diverse, but some key pathways are unknown. We observed rapid production of both O3 and additional OVOC and OH of 1.7E7 in smoke plumes in Alaska and Africa; all reasonably consistent with model predictions. In addition, we found that cloud processing caused large post-emission changes in smoke trace gases including removal of nearly all methanol, a decrease in acetic acid, and a large increase in HCHO. These observations suggest that OVOC could react in cloud droplets and lead to production of modified aerosol. In addition, transport of OVOC by deep convection may be associated with large effects not explained by solubility alone.

  14. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  15. 47 CFR 74.637 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section, the resolution bandwidth (BRES) of the measuring equipment used for... the nearest greater resolution bandwidth available on the measuring equipment. In all cases, if BRES... to other stations is caused by emissions outside the authorized channel, the FCC may require greater...

  16. The downside of emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viialainen, M.

    2004-01-01

    High unemployment and redundancies are a major problem in Finland today, and the economic downturn has only intensified as a result of the weak dollar and low investments. The growth of the global economy and the expansion of the EU are likely to see the shift in production and jobs away from Finland to low- cost countries, such as China or the countries of Eastern Central Europe, only intensily. The cost burden imposed by emissions trading will be an added problem. The disproportionally high emission reduction demands placed on Finland within the EU could lead to the loss of as many as 15,000 jobs, according to some estimates

  17. Nanoscale Laser Terahertz Emission Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Pernille; Kim, Hyewon; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2017-01-01

    Laser terahertz emission microscopy (LTEM) has become a powerful tool for studying ultrafast dynamics and local fields in many different types of materials. This technique, which relies on acceleration of charge carriers in a material upon femtosecond excitation, can provide insight into the phys......Laser terahertz emission microscopy (LTEM) has become a powerful tool for studying ultrafast dynamics and local fields in many different types of materials. This technique, which relies on acceleration of charge carriers in a material upon femtosecond excitation, can provide insight...

  18. Power station stack gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunwick, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing awareness and pressure to reduce emissions of acid rain and photochemical smog. There is a need to produce new control system and equipment to capture those emissions. The most visible form of pollutions are the chimney smoke, dust and particles of fly ash from mineral matter in the fuel. Acid gases are hard on structures and objects containing limestone. Coal fired power generation is likely to be able to sustain its competitive advantage as a clean source of electricity in comparison with nuclear power and natural gas

  19. Positron emission tomography in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the current and potential uses of positron emission tomography in clinical medicine and research related to oncology. Assessment will be possible of metabolism and physiology of tumors and their effects on adjacent tissues. Specific probes are likely to be developed for target sites on tumors, including monoclonal antibodies and specific growth factors that recognize tumors. To date, most oncological applications of positron emission tomography tracers have been qualitative; in the future, quantitative metabolic measurements should aid in the evaluation of tumor biology and response to treatment

  20. NMF on positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bödvarsson, Bjarni; Hansen, Lars Kai; Svarer, Claus

    2007-01-01

    In positron emission tomography, kinetic modelling of brain tracer uptake, metabolism or binding requires knowledge of the cerebral input function. Traditionally, this is achieved with arterial blood sampling in the arm or as shown in (Liptrot, M, et al., 2004) by non-invasive K-means clustering....... We propose another method to estimate time-activity curves (TAC) extracted directly from dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Since the scaling of the basis curves is lost in the NMF the estimated TAC is scaled by a vector alpha which...

  1. Study of field emission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, Devaki; Vijendran, P.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of field emission has been explained, using Fowler-Nordheim equation and the Fowler-Nordheim plot. The imaging theory is also described in brief. The fabrication details of a field emission microscope (FEM) are mentioned. The design of the tube and the emitter assemblies are explained in detail. Simple experiments that can be demonstrated on the FEM such as indexing, detetermination of work function and surface diffusion constants, etc. are also mentioned. The use of FEM as a simple teaching aid has been brought out. (K.B.)

  2. Field Emission from Carbon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giubileo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Field emission electron sources in vacuum electronics are largely considered to achieve faster response, higher efficiency and lower energy consumption in comparison with conventional thermionic emitters. Carbon nanotubes had a leading role in renewing attention to field emission technologies in the early 1990s, due to their exceptional electron emitting properties enabled by their large aspect ratio, high electrical conductivity, and thermal and chemical stability. In the last decade, the search for improved emitters has been extended to several carbon nanostructures, comprising carbon nanotubes, either individual or films, diamond structures, graphitic materials, graphene, etc. Here, we review the main results in the development of carbon-based field emitters.

  3. NEC-2020 emission reduction scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slentø, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    The upcoming NEC-2020 EU directive sets up emission ceilings for NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOC and PM in order to meet the environmental exposure targets of the Thematic Strategy. This report contains an assessment of intermediary emission reduction scenarios for Denmark, computed by the GAINS model 2007,......, which serves as the basis for the pending negotiations in EU. The assessment is brought up to date by including a brief evaluation of the new reduction scenarios published in 2008, founding the European Commission NEC-2020 directive proposal....

  4. Reducing emissions from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains information dealing with engine design to reduce emissions and improve or maintain fuel economy. Topics include: Observation of High Pressure Fuel Spray with Laser Light Sheet Method; Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations; Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results; Prediction of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission During Transient Cycles; Characteristics and Combustibility of Particulate Matter; Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane; Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection: and Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

  5. Low emission internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  6. Dust emission from wet, low-emission coke quenching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosiński, Bogusław; Bobik, Bartłomiej; Konieczny, Tomasz; Cieślik, Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Coke plants, which produce various types of coke (metallurgical, foundry or heating), at temperatures between 600 and 1200°C, with limited access to oxygen, are major emitters of particulates and gaseous pollutants to air, water and soils. Primarily, the process of wet quenching should be mentioned, as one of the most cumbersome. Atmospheric pollutants include particulates, tar substances, organic pollutants including B(a)P and many others. Pollutants are also formed from the decomposition of water used to quench coke (CO, phenol, HCN, H2S, NH3, cresol) and decomposition of hot coke in the first phase of quenching (CO, H2S, SO2) [1]. The development of the coke oven technology has resulted in the changes made to different types of technological installations, such as the use of baffles in quench towers, the removal of nitrogen oxides by selective NOx reduction, and the introduction of fabric filters for particulates removal. The BAT conclusions for coke plants [2] provide a methodology for the measurement of particulate emission from a wet, low-emission technology using Mohrhauer probes. The conclusions define the emission level for wet quenching process as 25 g/Mgcoke. The conducted research was aimed at verification of the presented method. For two of three quench towers (A and C) the requirements included in the BAT conclusions are not met and emissions amount to 87.34 and 61.35 g/Mgcoke respectively. The lowest particulates emission was recorded on the quench tower B and amounted to 22.5 g/Mgcoke, therefore not exceeding the requirements.

  7. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Weiss

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.17 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012 for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m−2, which is 6% of the total anthropogenic PFC radiative forcing (Montzka and Reimann, 2011; Oram et al., 2012. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the late 1990s peaking at 6.2 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015 per year (yr for C4F10, at 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C5F12 and 16.6 ppq yr−1 for C6F14 and in the early 1990s for C7F16 at 4.7 ppq yr−1 and in the mid 1990s for C8F18 at 4.8 ppq yr−1. The 2011 globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs are subsequently lower at 2.2 ppq yr−1 for C4F10, 1.4 ppq yr−1 for C5F12, 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C6F14, 3.4 ppq yr−1 for C7F16 and 0.9 ppq yr−1 for C8F18. The more recent slowdown in the growth rates suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s.

  8. Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Simões Amaral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission factor is a relative measure and can be used to estimate emissions from multiple sources of air pollution. For this reason, data from literature on particulate matter emission factors from different types of biomass were evaluated in this paper. Initially, the main sources of particles were described, as well as relevant concepts associated with particle measurements. In addition, articles about particle emissions were classified and described in relation to the sampling environment (open or closed and type of burned biomass (agricultural, garden, forest, and dung. Based on this analysis, a set of emission factors was presented and discussed. Important observations were made about the main emission sources of particulate matter. Combustion of compacted biomass resulted in lower particulate emission factors. PM2.5 emissions were predominant in the burning of forest biomass. Emission factors were more elevated in laboratory burning, followed by burns in the field, residences and combustors.

  9. Emission Trading under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

    1998-12-01

    This report discusses the potential gains from emission trading and raises some crucial questions. It shows that the total costs of the Kyoto Protocol could be reduced by about 95% through emission trading. Emission trading is an option also in the domestic arenas. The governments of the Annex B countries may allocate emission quotas to local enterprises as emission permits. Thus new markets for greenhouse gas emission quotas may emerge, domestically and internationally. It is emphasized that emission trading at the national and international levels must be discussed separately. The Nordic governments, for example, will find several good reasons for supporting emission trading at the international level if not necessarily domestically. The Nordic countries have already implemented domestic taxes on CO{sub 2} emissions and this tax policy could be sustained while these governments support and take part in emission trading at the international level.The report also considers a possible side effect of emission trading: free emission trading among Annex B countries could reduce the total abatement compared to a non-tradable policy as a consequence of the fact that some of the countries that are in transition to a market economy may be given emission limitations above their business-as-usual emissions. 40 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Emissions Trading: Trends and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides the latest developments of announced, proposed and existing greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes (ETS) around the world since 2006. It also examines different potential design options for ETS (e.g. coverage, allocation mode, provision for offsets), and how these options are treated in the existing, announced or proposed schemes.

  11. Holland bought Slovakian's emission quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TREND

    2003-01-01

    It is not a direct trade but more an environmental investment. Dutch government decided to buy over 5 million tons of carbon dioxide emission quotas of Rumania, Hungary and Slovakia. But this is not a direct purchase; it is related to investments into major projects that would decrease emission of greenhouse gases in the mentioned countries. Holland will improve its emission balance set by Kyoto Protocol and 'on the other hand we will offer eastern European countries technologies they are missing,' explained the main objectives of Dutch environmental projects Erik Saat from Senter agency at Dutch Ministry of Economy. The Dutch agency has so far selected one project in Slovakia - absorption of methane gas on waste dumps of eight Slovak towns. This project in value of 5 million Euro will decrease the emission by an equivalent of 500 thousand tons of CO 2 . Slovak Ministry of Environment that has to approve these projects welcomes any activity that would lead to decreasing greenhouse gas pollution. Every three months Senter agency select the best projects submitted in order to fulfil the commitments resulting from Kyoto Protocol. (Author)

  12. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Olsen, Khris B.

    1992-01-01

    A method of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis and optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis.

  13. Acoustic emission on stressed concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, P.; Birac, C.; Prunelle, D. de; Contre, M.; Astruc, M.; Kavyrchine, M.

    1983-08-01

    In a first part of this study, a comparison is made between the mechanical behaviour and the acoustic emission measurements on laboratory specimen during four points bending tests. The specimen were made of plain or/and reinforced concrete. The second part confirms, on real reinforced beams, the laboratory study results

  14. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  15. The Emissions Gap Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Following the historic signing of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, this sixth edition of the UNEP Emissions Gap Report comes as world leaders start gathering in Paris to establish a new agreement on climate change. The report offers an independent assessment of the mitigation...

  16. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  17. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near source concentrations of air pollutants. They also support integrated Agency research programs (e.g., source to health outcomes) and the development of databases and inventories that assist Federal, state, and local air quality managers and industry implement and comply with air pollution standards. EM research underway in NRMRL supports the Agency's efforts to accurately characterize, analyze, measure and manage sources of air pollution. This pamphlet focuses on the EM research that NRMRL researchers conduct related to black carbon (BC). Black Carbon is a pollutant of concern to EPA due to its potential impact on human health and climate change. There are extensive uncertainties in emissions of BC from stationary and mobile sources. Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD)

  18. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  19. Emission and absorption of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, S.

    1992-01-01

    A full understanding of fissile-material detection requires a solid knowledge of nuclear physics, especially the emission and absorption of radiation. The purpose of this paper is therefore to give a brief explanation of these processes so that the reader can better understand the assumptions leading to the results in the main text

  20. Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-10-15

    Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (± 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (± 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis.

  1. Pulsar kicks from majoron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzan, Yasaman; Gelmini, Graciela; Kusenko, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    We show that majoron emission from a hot nascent neutron star can be anisotropic in the presence of a strong magnetic field. If majorons carry a non-negligible fraction of the supernova energy, the resulting recoil velocity of a neutron star can explain the observed velocities of pulsars

  2. Emissions allocation in transportation routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, B.P.J.; Velázquez Martínez, J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the allocation of CO2 emissions to a specific shipment in routing transportation. The authors show that this problem differs from a cost allocation problem specifically because the concavity condition does not hold necessarily in the CO2 allocation problem. This implies that a

  3. Keep the focus on emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; Benson, S. M.; Peterson, P.; Long, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Most think that the major battle over climate is between those that want to solve the climate problem and the climate deniers. But there is another conflict, perhaps equally significant between people who all agree climate is a problem but who disagree radically about what they think the solution is. The imperative for stopping further climate change is to stop GHG emissions and the first energy sector of importance is electricity. Every major plan to eliminate emmissions from energy requires a carbon-free electricity system. The most popular idea about how to do this is to use all renewable energy, i.e. solar and wind power. But no one has ever built a large scale 100% renewable energy system and the few examples we have about regions that have tried are not encouraging. As the percentage of renewable energy goes up, ensuring a reliable supply often requires a fossil-based back-up system, so emissions can actually increase. Also, 100% renewable systems rely on massive deployment rates, far beyond any historical precident and often assume that adequate energy storage will "happen" through a combination of currently unavailable technologies. This approach is about adding renewable capacity, not about reducing emissions. Sweden provides a counter example that relies entirely on nuclear power and hydro and has an emission-free, reliable energy system. Likewise, biofuel is often cited as a climate-friendly substitute for petroleum-based fuels. Life-cycle analsyis indicates biofuels are often worse than petroleum-based fuels. We focus efficiency measures on buildings, but efficiency in transportation is even more important because we don't really have the fuel that is carbon neutral. Vehicle efficiency and reductions in vehicle miles traveled does better to address emissions. As mitigation is so important, climate advocates used to think discussion of adaptation was a distraction that should be avoided. But losing track of the need to eliminate emissions is the real

  4. Carbon emission from farm operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, R

    2004-09-01

    This manuscript is a synthesis of the available information on energy use in farm operations, and its conversion into carbon equivalent (CE). A principal advantage of expressing energy use in terms of carbon (C) emission as kg CE lies in its direct relation to the rate of enrichment of atmospheric concentration of CO2. Synthesis of the data shows that estimates of emissions in kg CE/ha are 2-20 for different tillage operations, 1-1.4 for spraying chemicals, 2-4 for drilling or seeding and 6-12 for combine harvesting. Similarly, estimates of C emissions in kg CE/kg for different fertilizer nutrients are 0.9-1.8 for N, 0.1-0.3 for P2O5, 0.1-0.2 for K20 and 0.03-0.23 for lime. Estimates of C emission in kg CE/kg of active ingredient (a.i.) of different pesticides are 6.3 for herbicides, 5.1 for insecticides and 3.9 for fungicides. Irrigation, lifting water from deep wells and using sprinkling systems, emits 129+/-98 kg CE for applying 25 cm of water and 258+/-195 for 50 cm of water. Emission for different tillage methods are 35.3 kg CE/ha for conventional till, 7.9 kg CE/ha for chisel till or minimum till, and 5.8 kg CE/ha for no-till method of seedbed preparation. In view of the high C costs of major inputs, sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems implies that an output/input ratio, expressed either as gross or net output of C, must be >1 and has an increasing trend over time.

  5. AIRFORCE. Aircraft emissions and radiative forcing from emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, E W; Kelder, H; Velthoven, P F.J. van; Wauben, W M.F. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands); Beck, J P; Velders, G J.M. [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Lelieveld, J; Scheeren, B A [Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The Dutch AIRFORCE project focuses on the effects of subsonic aircraft emissions on the chemical composition of the atmosphere and subsequent radiative forcing. It includes measurements in the tropopause region and the modelling of exhaust plumes and large-scale effects. An aircraft exhaust plume model has been developed to study plume processes. The results of the plume model are used in the global transport chemistry model CTMK to determine large-scale effects of plume processes. Due to the efficient conversion of NO{sub x} into HNO{sub 3} inside aircraft exhaust plumes, a decrease of about 25% of the O{sub 3} perturbation was found in the NAFC at 200 hPa in July. Measurements of hydrocarbons revealed a dominant role of the anthropogenic continental emissions of light hydrocarbons in the tropopause region. (author) 20 refs.

  6. AIRFORCE. Aircraft emissions and radiative forcing from emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, E.W.; Kelder, H.; Velthoven, P.F.J. van; Wauben, W.M.F. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands); Beck, J.P.; Velders, G.J.M. [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Lelieveld, J.; Scheeren, B.A. [Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The Dutch AIRFORCE project focuses on the effects of subsonic aircraft emissions on the chemical composition of the atmosphere and subsequent radiative forcing. It includes measurements in the tropopause region and the modelling of exhaust plumes and large-scale effects. An aircraft exhaust plume model has been developed to study plume processes. The results of the plume model are used in the global transport chemistry model CTMK to determine large-scale effects of plume processes. Due to the efficient conversion of NO{sub x} into HNO{sub 3} inside aircraft exhaust plumes, a decrease of about 25% of the O{sub 3} perturbation was found in the NAFC at 200 hPa in July. Measurements of hydrocarbons revealed a dominant role of the anthropogenic continental emissions of light hydrocarbons in the tropopause region. (author) 20 refs.

  7. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces; determination of emissions and emission reducing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Angerer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 382.000 t of wood waste from production processes are fired in Baden-Wuerttemberg per year in 4345 furnaces with capacities of less than 1 MW (field of application of the ''1 BImSchV''). This corresponds to an energy consumption of 5600 TJ. The firings with a totally installed capacity of 594 MW are operated mainly by joiners, carpenters, in sawmills and furniture factories. Certainly there are typical differences between the diverse branches concerning the characteristics of the firings such as capacity, kind of firing, of fuel supply and heat generation. Because of lacking established emission factors, at present time the emissions of these furnaces cannot be calculated. Therefore field measurements are carried out at a representative selection of the registered installations. The emissions are measured in consideration of the usual ways of operation and the commonly used fuels. Supplementarily the compound of the emitted hydrocarbons and their dependence on completeness of the combustion as well as the compound and the grain size distribution of the particle emissions are investigated. (orig.) [de

  8. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Urbanski

    2014-01-01

    While the vast majority of carbon emitted by wildland fires is released as CO2, CO, and CH4, wildland fire smoke is nonetheless a rich and complex mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include significant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic aerosol and black carbon), which are short-lived climate forcers. In addition to CO2 and short-lived climate forcers,...

  9. Simultaneous emission and transmission scanning in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Kazumi; Kitamura, Keishi; Amano, Masaharu; Miura, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Examination by PET (positron emission tomography) scanning, following the dosage of 2-deoxy- 18 F fluoro-D-glucose (FDG), is positively utilized for the diagnosis of cancers, rather than for the purpose of studies. This is because the examination by FDG-PET (PET scanning following the dosage of FDG) ensures higher efficiency in discrimination of cancers, than conventional CT and PET. The method of whole body scanning by PET scanning following the dosage of FDG is effectively utilized not only for discrimination cancers, but also for determining the degree of malignancy of tumors and evaluating the methods of treatment of cancers. In conventional methods for examining the degree of malignancy of tumors and evaluating the methods of cancer treatment, it is necessary to correct for the gamma-ray attenuation, which requires a longer time for examination, increasing the physical and psychological pains of the patients. We have installed the simultaneous emission and transmission scanning capability into the HEADTOME-V of the Shimadzu SET-2000W Series positron emission tomographic scanning instruments, to establish an instrument that permits FDG-PET whole body scanning in actual clinical fields, with minimized physical and psychological pains of patients concerned, yet ensuring an outstandingly high examination efficiency. This report also presents some data obtained by this newly developed instrument and those obtained in practical applications. (author)

  10. Assessment of real driving emissions via portable emission measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clenci, A.; Sălan, V.; Niculescu, R.; Iorga-Simăn, V.; Zaharia, C.

    2017-10-01

    The European Commission approved a so-called Real Driving Emission (RDE) test in response to the criticisms to the current driving cycle used at chassis dyno for homologation purpose (NEDC): it is considered outdated and misleading since air pollutants in real driving conditions are considerably higher than the certification thresholds. So, what’s at stake is the air quality which degraded continuously despite the ever-increasing severity of the regulations during the last almost three decades. Thus, from September 2017, the RDE test will become part of the type approval process for all cars sold in Europe. As its name points out, it will include “real world driving” using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). The paper presents the RDE features (PEMS mounting, testing environment, boundary conditions, driving dynamics) and presents a case study on the influence of the driving style upon the tail-pipe emissions under the RDE testing. The results presented in the paper issued from the existing cooperation on this topic between University of Pitesti and Renault Technologie Roumanie

  11. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, K.-U., E-mail: heyer@ifas-hamburg.de; Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  12. Isoprene emission from wetland sedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ekberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High latitude wetlands play an important role for the surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4, but fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC in these ecosystems have to date not been extensively studied. This is despite BVOC representing a measurable proportion of the total gaseous C fluxes at northern locations and in the face of the high temperature sensitivity of these systems that requires a much improved process understanding to interpret and project possible changes in response to climate warming. We measured emission of isoprene and photosynthetic gas exchange over two growing seasons (2005–2006 in a subarctic wetland in northern Sweden with the objective to identify the physiological and environmental controls of these fluxes on the leaf scale. The sedge species Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex rostrata were both emitters of isoprene. Springtime emissions were first detected after an accumulated diurnal mean temperature above 0°C of about 100 degree days. Maximum measured growing season standardized (basal emission rates (20°C, 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 were 1075 (2005 and 1118 (2006 μg C m−2 (leaf area h−1 in E. angustifolium, and 489 (2005 and 396 (2006 μg C m−2 h−1 in C. rostrata. Over the growing season, basal isoprene emission varied in response to the temperature history of the last 48 h. Seasonal basal isoprene emission rates decreased with leaf nitrogen (N, which may be explained by the typical growth and resource allocation pattern of clonal sedges as the leaves age. The observations were used to model emissions over the growing season, accounting for effects of temperature history, links to leaf assimilation rate and the light and temperature dependencies of the cold-adapted sedges.

  13. Air Emissions Sources, Charts and Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Air Emissions provides (1) interactive charts supporting national, state, or county charts, (2) county maps of criteria air pollutant emissions for a state, and (3)...

  14. AP-42 Emissions Factors (WebFIRE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Emissions factors have long been the fundamental tool in developing national, regional, state, and local emissions inventories for air quality management decisions...

  15. Laboratory technique for quantitative thermal emissivity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emission of radiation from a sample occurs due to thermal vibration of its .... Quantitative thermal emissivity measurements of geological samples. 393. Figure 1. ...... tral mixture modeling: A new analysis of rock and soil types at the Viking ...

  16. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  17. Evaluation of green house gas emissions models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the project is to evaluate the GHG emissions models used by transportation agencies and industry leaders. Factors in the vehicle : operating environment that may affect modal emissions, such as, external conditions, : vehicle fleet c...

  18. Compliance and Emissions Data Reporting Interface (CEDRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA regulations codified in 40 CFR Part 60 and 63 require affected sources to perform emissions source tests, conduct continuous emissions monitoring, and submit...

  19. Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2007-01-01

    Using the COPERT III program, an inventory of Turkish road transport emissions was calculated and the contributions of road transport to global and local air pollutant emissions were examined for the year 2004. It was observed that passenger cars are the main source of CO, HC, and Pb emissions while heavy duty vehicles are mainly responsible for NO x , particulate matter (PM), and SO 2 emissions. Taking the emissions for the year 2004 as the baseline, a parametric study was conducted to determine the emission reduction potentials of different road transport strategies. The results indicated that the following road transport strategies; fleet renewal, promotion of public transportation, and faster urban traffic speed are very effective strategies for reducing regulated emissions and fuel consumption (FC) from a technical point of view. It was also noted that replacement of two-stroke motorcycles with four-stroke motorcycles is as effective as fleet renewal in reducing HC emissions

  20. Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....

  1. Field emission studies at Saclay and Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, J.

    1996-01-01

    During the last five years, DC and RF equipment for field emission studies have been developed at Saclay and Orsay laboratories. Combining these devices, straight comparison has been carried out between DC and RF field emission from artificial emission sites on the same sample. Other topics are also reviewed: high field cleaning, plausible origins of thermal effects that occurred on emission sites in RF, behaviour of alumina particles under RF field, and optical observations and measurements. (author)

  2. Electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.; Arunasalam, V.; Cano, R.

    1977-07-01

    Experimental measurements of electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak plasma reveal that black-body emission occurs at the fundamental frequency. Such emission, not possible by direct thermal excitation of electromagnetic waves, is herein attributed to thermal excitation of electrostatic (Bernstein) waves which then mode convert into electromagnetic waves. The local feature of the electrostatic wave generation permits spatially and time resolved measurements of electron temperature as for the second harmonic emission

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

  4. MOVES (MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION SIMULATOR) MODEL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A computer model, intended to eventually replace the MOBILE model and to incorporate the NONROAD model, that will provide the ability to estimate criteria and toxic air pollutant emission factors and emission inventories that are specific to the areas and time periods of interest, at scales ranging from local to national. Development of a new emission factor and inventory model for mobile source emissions. The model will be used by air pollution modelers within EPA, and at the State and local levels.

  5. Developing emission reduction credit trading in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Texas Air Control Board has begun to develop a system of emission reduction credit training. The system will be developed incrementally over time. The first step, banking of VOC and NO x Emission Reduction Credits, began March 15, 1993. Additional programs under study and development include NO x RACT trading, emission credits for motor vehicle scrappage and alternative fuel conversion, and establishment of community organizations to generate and acquire emission reduction credits for economic development purposes

  6. Pollutants emission in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen, are the primary source of heat and electrical energy production and are responsible for emitting a large number and amount of pollutants into the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry, power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. During the combustion process, different pollutants such as CO 2 , SO X (including SO 2 and SO 3 ), NO X (including NO 2 , NO and N 2 O), fly ash, VOCs and mercury are emitted. These emissions cause big environmental and human health hazard. CO 2 , N 2 O, some VOCs, CH 4 contribute to the global greenhouse effect, adding a new dimension to the environmental degradation resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These problems regarding emissions inventory, their impact on the environment and human health, air pollution control technologies and costs, periods of fossil fuels depletion, role of renewable and nuclear energy in the further civilization development are briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs

  8. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J J; Dorronsoro Arenal, J L; Rojas Garcia, E; Perez Pastor, R; Garcia Alonso, S

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. Aerosol emission during human speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Sima; Wexler, Anthony S.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Bouvier, Nicole M.; Barreda-Castanon, Santiago; Ristenpart, William D.

    2017-11-01

    We show that the rate of aerosol particle emission during healthy human speech is strongly correlated with the loudness (amplitude) of vocalization. Emission rates range from approximately 1 to 50 particles per second for quiet to loud amplitudes, regardless of language spoken (English, Spanish, Mandarin, or Arabic). Intriguingly, a small fraction of individuals behave as ``super emitters,'' consistently emitting an order of magnitude more aerosol particles than their peers. We interpret the results in terms of the eggressive flowrate during vocalization, which is known to vary significantly for different types of vocalization and for different individuals. The results suggest that individual speech patterns could affect the probability of airborne disease transmission. The results also provide a possible explanation for the existence of ``super spreaders'' who transmit pathogens much more readily than average and who play a key role in the spread of epidemics.

  10. Climate, energy and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.; Philibert, C.

    2007-01-01

    The authors question the 4 main concerns that have arisen since the implementation of emission trade markets 3 years ago. First, the allowance policy was not accurate enough and has led to a surplus offer of CO 2 allowances. Secondly, the impact on electricity prices of carbon emission costs was all the higher as it happened at the moment of the deregulation of electricity markets. Thirdly, the CO 2 allowances whose price will near 14 euros a ton for the 2008-2012 period are accused of hindering the competitiveness of the European industrial sector. Fourth, the present allowance system that gives to new comers free CO 2 allowances is not very conducive to the adoption by these new comers of technologies that are less CO 2 emitting. Some ways of improvement are given. (A.C.)

  11. Mechanisms of fission neutron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerten, H.

    1991-01-01

    The time evolution in fission is the starting point for discussing not only the main mechanism of fission neutron emission, the evaporation from fully accelerated fragments, but also possible secondary ones connected with dynamical features of nuclear fission. ''Asymptotic'' conditions as relevant for describing the particle release from highly excited, rapidly moving fragments are defined. Corresponding statistical model approaches to fission neutron emission, based on the adequate consideration of the intricate fragment occurrence probability, reproduce most of the experimental data. The remarkable influence of fission modes on neutron observables is analyzed in the framework of a macroscopic-microscopic scission point model consistent with energy conservation. Finally, chances and deficiencies for solving the mechanism puzzle are summarized. (author). 87 refs, 21 figs

  12. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the emission linear pulse holography which produces a chronological linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. A thirty two point sampling array is used to construct phase-only linear holograms of simulated acoustic emission sources on large metal plates. The concept behind the AE linear pulse holography is illustrated, and a block diagram of a data acquisition system to implement the concept is given. Array element spacing, synthetic frequency criteria, and lateral depth resolution are specified. A reference timing transducer positioned between the array and the inspection zone and which inititates the time-of-flight measurements is described. The results graphically illustrate the technique using a one-dimensional FFT computer algorithm (ie. linear backward wave) for an AE image reconstruction

  13. Emissions from the Bena Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, C.; Blake, D. R.; Hughes, S.

    2016-12-01

    In 2013, Americans generated 254 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW). The gas generated from the decomposition of MSW is composed of approximately 50% methane, 50% carbon dioxide, and a small proportion of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs). NMOCs constitute less than 1% of landfill emissions, but they can have a disproportionate environmental impact as they are highly reactive ozone precursors. During the 2016 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), whole air samples were collected at the Bena landfill outside of Bakersfield, CA and throughout Bakersfield and analyzed using gas chromatography in order to quantify NMOC emissions. This area was determined to have elevated concentrations of benzene, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which are categorized by the EPA as hazardous to human health. Benzene was found to have a concentration of 145 ± 4 pptv, four times higher than the background levels in Bakersfield (36 ± 1 pptv). Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene had concentrations of 18 ± 1 pptv and 31 ± 1 pptv which were 18 and 10 times greater than background concentrations, respectively. In addition, hydroxyl radical reactivity (ROH) was calculated to determine the potential for tropospheric ozone formation. The total ROH of the landfill was 7.5 ± 0.2 s-1 compared to total background ROH of 1.0 ± 0.1 s-1 . NMOCs only made up 0.6% of total emissions, but accounted for 67% of total ROH.These results can help to shape future landfill emission policies by highlighting the importance of NMOCs in addition to methane. More research is needed to investigate the ozone forming potential of these compounds at landfills across the country.

  14. Positron emission tomography. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Massardo, Teresa; Gonzalez, Patricio

    2001-01-01

    The basic principles of positron emission tomography (PET) technique are reviewed. lt allows to obtain functional images from gamma rays produced by annihilation of a positron, a positive beta particle. This paper analyzes positron emitters production in a cyclotron, its general mechanisms, and the various detection systems. The most important clinical applications are also mentioned, related to oncological uses of fluor-l8-deoxyglucose

  15. Competitiveness and linking of emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausotter, Tobias; Steuwer, Sibyl; Taenzler, Dennis [adelphi, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The establishment of emission trading systems raises concerns among industries regarding international competitive disadvantages for the industries under an emissions cap. This study aims to assess competitiveness exposure of industrial sectors and presents policy measures to address these concerns. Moreover, the study provides a comparison of different existing approaches to competitiveness concerns proposed by regional emission trading systems. (orig.)

  16. Judicial aspects of emission trade. Disputes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Emission trade will start in Europe in 2005. In a series of articles an overview will be given of several juridical aspects with respect to the international and national trade of emission. In this last part attention will be paid to settlement of disputes in emissions trade [nl

  17. Bioluminescence emissions of the firefly Luciola praeusta ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    The emission of light by fireflies has been of considerable ... vivo emission spectrum of a firefly Luciola praeusta, where the full width at ... In vivo emission spectra of fifty specimens, both male .... oxidation in a liquid phase; Biofizika 9 306–311.

  18. Multifragment emission times in Xe induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bowman, D.R. [AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont. (Canada); Bruno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Buttazzo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Celano, L. [INFN, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Colonna, N. [INFN, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); D`Agostino, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Dinius, J.D. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Ferrero, A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Fiandri, M.L. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Gelbke, K. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Glasmacher, T. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Gramegna, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea 4, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Handzy, D.O. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Horn, D. [AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont. (Canada); Hsi Wenchien [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Huang, M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Iori, I. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lisa, M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Lynch, W.G. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Margagliotti, G.V. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Mastinu, P.F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Milazzo, P.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Montoya, C.

    1995-02-06

    Multifragment emission is studied in {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Cu reactions. The emission process for central collisions occurs on a time scale of similar 200fm/c at 30MeV/n. Intermediate-mass-fragment yields, velocity correlation functions and emission velocities of Z=6 fragments are compared with predictions of statistical decay models. ((orig.)).

  19. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61... Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.163 Emission monitoring. (a) An owner or operator of a glass..., calibrate, maintain, and operate a continuous monitoring system for the measurement of the opacity of...

  20. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.183 Section 61... Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a..., calibrate, maintain, and operate a continuous monitoring system for the measurement of the opacity of each...