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Sample records for perfluorobutanesulfonate pfbs perfluorohexanoate

  1. Genotoxic potential of the perfluorinated chemicals PFOA, PFOS, PFBS, PFNA and PFHxA in human HepG2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2010-01-01

    , the increase in ROS production was not concentration-dependent and the compounds did not generate DNA damage that could be detected by the alkaline comet assay as strand breakage and alkali-labile sites or formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glycosylase (FPG) sites. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorohexanoic...

  2. 1,2,4-Triazolium perfluorobutanesulfonate as an archetypal pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal electrolyte for all-solid-state fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jiangshui; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Brooks, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    1,2,4-Triazolium perfluorobutanesulfonate (1), a novel, pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal (POIPC) with a wide plastic crystalline phase, has been explored as a proof-of-principle anhydrous proton conductor for all-solid-state high temperature hydrogen/air fuel cells. Its physicochemical p...

  3. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Casas, Josefina [Department of Biomedicinal Chemistry, IQAC–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Lacorte, Sílvia, E-mail: slbqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Porte, Cinta, E-mail: cinta.porte@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  4. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Casas, Josefina; Lacorte, Sílvia; Porte, Cinta

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  5. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  6. 77 FR 26071 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... acid (PFNA) perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). Chromium-6 using EPA Method 218.7 (IC/UV-VIS): \\10... (ASTM, 2008). \\9\\ EPA Method 537 (LC/MS/MS) (USEPA, 2009b). \\10\\ EPA Method 218.7 (IC/UV-VIS) (USEPA... chromatography with UV detection (HPLC/UV) methods have been published (Howard and Boyer, 2007), they do not...

  7. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect neither estrogen and androgen receptor activity nor steroidogenesis in human cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Anne-Cathrin; Lichtenstein, Dajana; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso; Buhrke, Thorsten

    2018-07-01

    The perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are used for the fabrication of water- and dirt-repellent surfaces. The use of PFOS and PFOA was restricted due to their reprotoxic properties and their environmental persistence. Therefore, industry switches to alternative PFAS, however, in contrast to PFOA and PFOS only few toxicological data are available for their substitutes. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying reproductive toxicity of PFOA and PFOS are largely unknown. Here, the endocrine properties of PFOA, PFOS, and of six substitutes including perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), ammonium perfluoro(2-methyl-3-oxahexanoate) (PMOH), and 3H-perfluoro-3-[(3-methoxypropoxy) propanoic acid] (PMPP) were examined in vitro by using human cell lines such as MCF-7, H295R, LNCaP and MDA-kb2. PFOA, PFOS and PMOH enhanced 17β-estradiol-stimulated estrogen receptor β activity, and PFOS, PMOH, PFHxA and PFBA enhanced dihydrotestosterone-stimulated androgen receptor activity. In the H295R steroidogenesis assay, PFOA and PFOS slightly enhanced estrone secretion, and progesterone secretion was marginally increased by PFOA. All these effects were only observed at concentrations above 10 μM, and none of the PFAS displayed any effect on any of the molecular endocrine endpoints at concentrations of 10 μM or below. Thus, as the blood serum concentrations of the different PFAS in the general Western population are in the range of 10 nM or below, the results suggest that PFAS might not exert endocrine effects in humans at exposure-relevant concentrations according to the molecular endpoints examined in this study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Geary W; Mair, David C; Lange, Cleston C; Harrington, Laura M; Church, Timothy R; Goldberg, Corinne L; Herron, Ross M; Hanna, Hank; Nobiletti, John B; Rios, Jorge A; Reagen, William K; Ley, Carol A

    2017-08-01

    In 2015, thirteen per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) were analyzed in human plasma that were collected from a total of 616 American Red Cross male and female blood donors (ages 20-69) at 6 regional blood collection centers. Plasma samples were analyzed using a validated solvent precipitation-isotope dilution direction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. The data were analyzed in conjunction with prior cross-sectional investigations [2000-2001 (n =645), 2006 (n =600), and 2010 (n =600)] to determine PFAS trends. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean serum (2000-2001) and plasma (2006, 2010, 2015) concentrations (ng/mL) were, respectively: PFHxS (2.3, 1.5, 1.3, 0.9); PFOS (35.1, 14.5, 8.4, 4.3); PFOA (4.7, 3.4, 2.4, 1.1); PFNA (0.6, 1.0, 0.8, 0.4); and PFDA (0.2, 0.3, 0.3, 0.1). The percentage decline in these geometric mean concentrations from 2000-2001 to 2015 were: PFHxS (61%); PFOS (88%); PFOA (77%); PFNA (33%); and PFDA (50%). The results indicate a continued decline of PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA concentrations in American Red Cross blood donors. For the remaining PFAS measured in 2015, including the shorter chain perfluoroalkyls perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), the majority of samples were below the lower limit of quantitation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Perfluoroalkylsulfonic and carboxylic acids in earthworms (Eisenia fetida): Accumulation and effects results from spiked soils at PFAS concentrations bracketing environmental relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Deb, Sanjit K; Subbiah, Seenivasan; Wang, Degeng; Anderson, Todd A

    2018-05-01

    Effects of perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soils contaminated with these compounds at 0.1, 1, 10, 1,000, and 100,000 μg kg -1 dry weight, covering concentration levels found in background, biosolid-amended, and facility-surrounding soils, were investigated. Earthworms were exposed to spiked soil for 21 days. Concentrations of these compounds in earthworms after 21-d exposure ranged from below detection to 127 mg kg -1 wet weight with the rank order of PFNA > PFHxS > PFHpA > PFBS; no mortality of earthworms was observed in all treatments including controls, except PFBS at 1,000 μg kg -1 and all PFASs at 100,000 μg kg -1 . The highest weight loss (29%) was observed for earthworms exposed to PFNA at 100,000 μg kg -1 , which was significantly different from all other treatments except PFHpA at 100,000 μg kg -1 . These results are expected to fill some data gaps in toxicity of PFASs in terrestrial environments and provide helpful information on the potential for trophic transport of PFASs from soil to higher organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehresman, David J.; Froehlich, John W.; Olsen, Geary W.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells

  11. Spatiotemporal distribution and mass loadings of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Yangtze River of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Qian-Qian

    2014-09-15

    A systematic investigation into contamination profiles of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in both surface water and sediments of Yangtze River was carried out by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in summer and winter of 2013. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the water and sediment of Yangtze River ranged from 2.2 to 74.56 ng/L and 0.05 to 1.44 ng/g dry weights (dw), respectively. The PFAS concentrations were correlated to some selected water quality parameters such as pH, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and conductivity in water, and some sediment properties, such as total organic carbon (TOC), TP, and TN in sediment. The monitoring results for the water and sediment samples showed no obvious seasonal variations. Among the selected 18 PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFAS compound found both in water and sediment for the two seasons with its maximum concentration of 18.03 ng/L in water and 0.72 ng/g in sediment, followed by perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) with its maximum concentration of 41.9 ng/L in water in Wuhan, whereas the lowest concentrations of PFASs were observed at Poyang lake. The annual loadings of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), PFBS, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and the total PFASs in the Yangtze River were 6.8 tons, 2.2 tons, 8.2 tons, 0.88 tons, and 20.7 tons, respectively. Wuhan and Er'zhou of Hubei contributed the most amounts of PFASs into the Yangtze River. A correlation was found between some PFASs, for example PFBS and PFOS, which suggests that both of these PFASs originate from common sources in the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution profiles of per- and poly fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and their re-regulation by ocean currents in the East and South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongyuan; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Zhen; Ma, Yuxin; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Cai, Minggang; Cai, Minghong

    2017-12-15

    We investigated the distribution of 17 individual per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 42 surface water samples collected from the East and South China Seas (7.0-36.0°N, 110.0°N-123.0°E). Concentrations of 7 individual PFASs, including perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), were quantified in the East China Sea, but only concentrations of PFOA and FOSA were quantified in the South China Sea. The total concentrations of the 17 PFASs ranged from 181 to 2658pg/L in the East China Sea and from 62 to 494pg/L in the South China Sea. We also show that river fluxes and ocean currents had a strong influence on the distribution of PFASs in the East China Sea. Using ArcGIS 10.1, we show how ocean currents control the spatial distribution of PFOA in the central South China Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Arctic, Atlantic Ocean and Antarctic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    The global distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated using seawater samples collected from the Greenland Sea, East Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean in 2009-2010. Elevated levels of ΣPFASs were detected in the North Atlantic Ocean with the concentrations ranging from 130 to 650 pg/L. In the Greenland Sea, the ΣPFASs concentrations ranged from 45 to 280 pg/L, and five most frequently detected compounds were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). PFOA (15 pg/L) and PFOS (25-45 pg/L) were occasionally found in the Southern Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, the ΣPFASs concentration decreased from 2007 to 2010. The elevated PFOA level that resulted from melting snow and ice in Greenland Sea implies that the Arctic may have been driven by climate change and turned to be a source of PFASs for the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Arctic, Atlantic Ocean and Antarctic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhen; Xie Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang Jianhui; Zhang Gan; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The global distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated using seawater samples collected from the Greenland Sea, East Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean in 2009–2010. Elevated levels of ΣPFASs were detected in the North Atlantic Ocean with the concentrations ranging from 130 to 650 pg/L. In the Greenland Sea, the ΣPFASs concentrations ranged from 45 to 280 pg/L, and five most frequently detected compounds were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). PFOA (15 pg/L) and PFOS (25–45 pg/L) were occasionally found in the Southern Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, the ΣPFASs concentration decreased from 2007 to 2010. The elevated PFOA level that resulted from melting snow and ice in Greenland Sea implies that the Arctic may have been driven by climate change and turned to be a source of PFASs for the marine ecosystem. - Highlights: ► PFOA is released from the Arctic snow and ice and might be transport southwards to the Atlantic. ► Decline temporal trends of PFASs are present in the Northern Hemisphere in the Atlantic. ► PFOS has elevate concentration in comparison to PFOA in the Southern Ocean. - Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been reported for the Arctic, Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, which improves understanding the fate of PFASs in the global oceans.

  15. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between Netherlands. This seems attributable to the source, which is purified surface water in this area. Short-chain PFASs and especially perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were detected most frequently, whereas long-chain PFASs (C > 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ.

  16. DFT-GIAO calculation of properties of {sup 19}F NMR and stability study of environmentally relevant perfluoroalkylsulfonamides (PFASAmide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia-Urueta, Rafael; Mestre-Quintero, Kleyber; Vivas-Reyes, Ricardo, E-mail: rvivasr@unicartagena.edu.co [Grupo de Quimica Cuantica y Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    Perfluorinated organic compounds (POCs), such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkylsulfonamide (PFASA) are compounds that have recently attracted considerable attention worldwide because of its high persistence and wide distribution in the environment. Among the spectroscopic methods used to study the PFASA, {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR {sup 19}F) is very effective, due to its ability to determine concentrations of PFASA in biological samples and measure pollution in water samples. For this reason, a theoretical study of the properties of {sup 19}F NMR was performed. In this study we have determined the shielding constant ({sigma}) for different fluorine nucleus of the 18 molecules under study, using density functional theory (DFT) and GIAO method with the B3PW91/6-31+G(d,p) level of calculation. The {sigma} calculations were made at vacuum and in presence of a solvent. The values of chemical shifts ({delta}), were also calculated in a different level of theory. The best results were obtained with the level of calculation DFT-GIAO/B3PW91/6-31+G(d,p) by considering the solvent such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}), acetone (CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}) and methanol (CH{sup 3}OH). The results were interpreted in terms of calculated hardness at DFT/B3PW91/6-31+G(d, p) level. The behaviour of the hardness was higher in the molecules of four carbons PFASA than eight carbons. This explain theoretically resistance of four carbons PFAS to be transformed into perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS). (author)

  17. DFT-GIAO calculation of properties of 19F NMR and stability study of environmentally relevant perfluoroalkylsulfonamides (PFASAmide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia-Urueta, Rafael; Mestre-Quintero, Kleyber; Vivas-Reyes, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorinated organic compounds (POCs), such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkylsulfonamide (PFASA) are compounds that have recently attracted considerable attention worldwide because of its high persistence and wide distribution in the environment. Among the spectroscopic methods used to study the PFASA, 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 19 F) is very effective, due to its ability to determine concentrations of PFASA in biological samples and measure pollution in water samples. For this reason, a theoretical study of the properties of 19 F NMR was performed. In this study we have determined the shielding constant (σ) for different fluorine nucleus of the 18 molecules under study, using density functional theory (DFT) and GIAO method with the B3PW91/6-31+G(d,p) level of calculation. The σ calculations were made at vacuum and in presence of a solvent. The values of chemical shifts (δ), were also calculated in a different level of theory. The best results were obtained with the level of calculation DFT-GIAO/B3PW91/6-31+G(d,p) by considering the solvent such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), chloroform (CHCl 3 ), acetone (CH 3 COCH 3 ) and methanol (CH 3 OH). The results were interpreted in terms of calculated hardness at DFT/B3PW91/6-31+G(d, p) level. The behaviour of the hardness was higher in the molecules of four carbons PFASA than eight carbons. This explain theoretically resistance of four carbons PFAS to be transformed into perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS). (author)

  18. Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in Mediterranean Spanish sewage treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Julian; Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylates, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in influent, effluent and sludge from 16 different sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the Ebro (6), Guadalquivir (5), Jucar (2) and Llobregat (3) Rivers, in two consecutive years (2010 and 2011). The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by Liquid Chromatography triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples, except two sludges from Guadalquivir River STPs, were contaminated with at least one PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS) were the most frequently detected. The highest concentration in water was determined in 2010 in a Guadalquivir River STP (perfluorohexanoate, PFHxA: 5.60 μg L −1 ) and, in 2011, in an Ebro River STP (perfluorobutane sulfonate, L-PFBS: 0.31 μg L −1 ). In sludge samples, the maximum concentration in 2010 was 1.79 μg g −1 dry weight (dw) (L-PFOS, in a Llobregat River STP), and in 2011, 1.88 μg g −1 dw (PFBA, in one Guadalquivir River STP). High PFAS values in sludge could be related to positive removal efficiencies, and can be attributed to their adsorption. Distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined ranging between 0.32 L kg −1 (perfluorohexane sulfonate, L-PFHxS) and 36.6 10 3 L kg −1 (PFBA). The total PFAS loads discharged into the basins showed high values for the Ebro River STPs (66.9 g day −1 ) while in the others, the loads were between 3.97 g day −1 , in the Jucar STPs, and 32.2 g day −1 , in the Guadalquivir STPs. - Highlights: • Twenty-one PFASs were quantified in wastewater and dehydrated sludge samples. • PFAS loads discharged to the Rivers were from 16 g day −1 (Llobregat) to 67 g day −1 (Ebro). • STPs could be a focal point of PFAS contamination to the Rivers. • Removal efficiencies in STPs confirm that PFASs are only

  19. Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in Mediterranean Spanish sewage treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: Julian.Campo@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute of Water Research, ICRA Catalan Institute for Water Research — ICRA, C/Emili Grahit, 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylates, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in influent, effluent and sludge from 16 different sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the Ebro (6), Guadalquivir (5), Jucar (2) and Llobregat (3) Rivers, in two consecutive years (2010 and 2011). The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by Liquid Chromatography triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples, except two sludges from Guadalquivir River STPs, were contaminated with at least one PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS) were the most frequently detected. The highest concentration in water was determined in 2010 in a Guadalquivir River STP (perfluorohexanoate, PFHxA: 5.60 μg L{sup −1}) and, in 2011, in an Ebro River STP (perfluorobutane sulfonate, L-PFBS: 0.31 μg L{sup −1}). In sludge samples, the maximum concentration in 2010 was 1.79 μg g{sup −1} dry weight (dw) (L-PFOS, in a Llobregat River STP), and in 2011, 1.88 μg g{sup −1} dw (PFBA, in one Guadalquivir River STP). High PFAS values in sludge could be related to positive removal efficiencies, and can be attributed to their adsorption. Distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined ranging between 0.32 L kg{sup −1} (perfluorohexane sulfonate, L-PFHxS) and 36.6 10{sup 3} L kg{sup −1} (PFBA). The total PFAS loads discharged into the basins showed high values for the Ebro River STPs (66.9 g day{sup −1}) while in the others, the loads were between 3.97 g day{sup −1}, in the Jucar STPs, and 32.2 g day{sup −1}, in the Guadalquivir STPs. - Highlights: • Twenty-one PFASs were quantified in wastewater and dehydrated sludge samples. • PFAS loads discharged to the Rivers were from 16 g day{sup −1} (Llobregat) to 67 g day{sup −1} (Ebro). • STPs could be a focal point of PFAS contamination to the Rivers.

  20. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cause alkyl chain length-dependent hepatic steatosis and hypolipidemia mainly by impairing lipoprotein production in APOE*3-leiden CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijland, S.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Pieterman, E.J.; Maas, A.C.E.; Hoorn, J.W. van der; Erk, M.J. van; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Chang, S.C.; Ehresman, D.J.; Butenhoff, J.L.; Princen, H.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are stable perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) surfactants, and PFHxS and PFOS are frequently detected in human biomonitoring studies. Some epidemiological studies have shown modest positive

  1. Discharge of perfluorinated compounds from rivers and their influence on the coastal seas of Hyogo prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemine, Shusuke; Matsumura, Chisato; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Suzuki, Motoharu; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takeshi; Kondo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates (C4–C12) and perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8) in river and seawater samples to determine contamination levels in the aquatic environment of Hyogo prefecture, Japan. High levels of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA; 2300–16,000 ng/L) were detected in the Samondogawa River at Tatsumi Bridge downstream of a PFC production facility; this location also had the highest mass flow rate of PFCs (3900–29,000 kg/y). Widespread contamination of coastal waters was confirmed with PFHxA as the dominant compound. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also prevalent in coastal waters. The concentration of PFHxA in coastal seawater and the distance from the mouth of the Samondogawa River were inversely related. This discharge of high concentrations of PFHxA from the Samondogawa River may have affected concentrations of PFCs in Osaka Bay. -- Highlights: • High perfluorohexanoic acid concentration was detected in the Samondogawa River. • The mass flow rate of PFCs in this river section was 3900–29,000 kg/y. • Perfluorohexanoic acid was the dominant compound at all seawater sampling sites. • Perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay. -- Discharge of perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay

  2. Mechanical splitting of microtubules into protofilament bundles by surface-bound kinesin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDelinder, Virginia; Adams, Peter G; Bachand, George D

    2016-12-21

    The fundamental biophysics of gliding microtubule (MT) motility by surface-tethered kinesin-1 motor proteins has been widely studied, as well as applied to capture and transport analytes in bioanalytical microdevices. In these systems, phenomena such as molecular wear and fracture into shorter MTs have been reported due the mechanical forces applied on the MT during transport. In the present work, we show that MTs can be split longitudinally into protofilament bundles (PFBs) by the work performed by surface-bound kinesin motors. We examine the properties of these PFBs using several techniques (e.g., fluorescence microscopy, SEM, AFM), and show that the PFBs continue to be mobile on the surface and display very high curvature compared to MT. Further, higher surface density of kinesin motors and shorter kinesin-surface tethers promote PFB formation, whereas modifying MT with GMPCPP or higher paclitaxel concentrations did not affect PFB formation.

  3. Determinants of Choice of Institutional Marketing Arrangements by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Choice of Institutional Marketing Arrangements by Small Poultry Businesses in Tanzania: Application of Transaction Cost Theory. ... It indicates in addition that, probability of PFBs to enter into contractual businesses falls with increase in Transaction Costs (TCs). Linear regression analysis shows, in addition ...

  4. Screening av PFAS og Dekloran forbindelser i utvalgte arktiske toppredatorer

    OpenAIRE

    Schlabach, Martin; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Herzke, Dorte; Hanssen, Linda; Routti, Heli; Borgen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a screening study into the occurrence of selected perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and dechloranes in Arctic top predators. The emerging PFCs F53 F53B, and PFBS were not detected neither in bird eggs nor in mammals. However, different dechloranes were detected in all samples. Screening av PFAS og Dekloran forbindelser i utvalgte arktiske toppredatorer

  5. Pharmacokinetic profiles of perfluorobutane sulfonate and activation of hepatic genes in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are organic chemicals with wide industrial and consumer uses. They are found ubiquitously at low levels in the environment and detectable in humans and wildlife. Perfluorobutane Sulfonate (PFBS) is a short-chained PFAS used to replace perfluorooc...

  6. Sorption behaviour of perfluoroalkyl substances in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovic, Jelena; Lacorte, Silvia; Vidal, Miquel; Rigol, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The sorption behaviour of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), was studied in six soils with contrasting characteristics, especially in the organic carbon content. Sorption isotherms were obtained by equilibrating the soil samples with 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl2 solutions spiked with increasing concentrations of the target PFAS. The sorption reversibility of PFASs was also tested for some of the samples. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify the target PFASs in the solutions. Both the Freundlich and linear models were appropriate to describe the sorption behaviour of PFASs in soils, and enabled us to derive solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd) for each compound in each soil. Kd values increased from 19 to 295 mL g(-1) for PFOS, from 2.2 to 38 mL g(-1) for PFOA and from 0.4 to 6.8 mL g(-1) for PFBS, and were positively correlated with the organic carbon content of the soil. KOC values obtained from the correlations were 710, 96 and 17 mL g(-1) for PFOS, PFOA and PFBS, respectively. Whereas Kd values decreased in the sequence PFOS>PFOA>PFBS, desorption yields were lower than 13% for PFOS, from 24 to 58% for PFOA, and from 32 to 60% for PFBS. This shows that the physicochemical characteristics of PFASs, basically their hydrophobicity, controlled their sorption behaviour in soils, with PFOS being the most irreversibly sorbed PFAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro characterization of the immunotoxic potential of several perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsini, Emanuela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Avogadro, Anna; Galbiati, Valentina; Viviani, Barbara; Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L.; Dell'Agli, Mario; Germolec, Dori R.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that PFOA and PFOS directly suppress cytokine secretion in immune cells, with different mechanisms of action. In particular, we have demonstrated a role for PPAR-α in PFOA-induced immunotoxicity, and that PFOS has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced I-κB degradation. These studies investigate the immunomodulatory effects of four other PFCs, namely PFBS, PFOSA, PFDA, and fluorotelomer using in vitro assays. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was evaluated in lipolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood leukocytes (hPBL) and in the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1, while the release of IL-10 and IFN-γ was evaluated in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated hPBL. All PFCs suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α production in hPBL and THP-1 cells, while IL-6 production was suppressed by PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer. PFBS, PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer inhibited PHA-induced IL-10 release, while IFN-γ secretion was affected by PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer. Leukocytes obtained from female donors appear to be more sensitive to the in vitro immunotoxic effects of PFCs when their responses are compared to the results obtained using leukocytes from male donors. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that inhibition of TNF-α release in THP-1 cells occurred at the transcriptional level. All PFCs, including PFOA and PFOS, decreased LPS-induced NF-κB activation. With the exception of PFOA, none of the PFCs tested was able to activate PPARα driven transcription in transiently transfected THP-1 cells, excluding a role for PPARα in the immunomodulation observed. PFBS and PFDA prevented LPS-induced I-κB degradation. Overall, these studies suggest that PFCs affect NF-κB activation, which directly suppresses cytokine secretion by immune cells. Our results indicate that PFOA is the least active of the PFCs examined followed by PFBS, PFDA, PFOS, PFOSA and fluorotelomer. -- Research Highlights: ► PFCs

  8. In vitro characterization of the immunotoxic potential of several perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsini, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuela.corsini@unimi.it [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sangiovanni, Enrico [Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano (Italy); Avogadro, Anna; Galbiati, Valentina; Viviani, Barbara; Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L. [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dell' Agli, Mario [Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano (Italy); Germolec, Dori R. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, RTP, NC (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We have previously shown that PFOA and PFOS directly suppress cytokine secretion in immune cells, with different mechanisms of action. In particular, we have demonstrated a role for PPAR-α in PFOA-induced immunotoxicity, and that PFOS has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced I-κB degradation. These studies investigate the immunomodulatory effects of four other PFCs, namely PFBS, PFOSA, PFDA, and fluorotelomer using in vitro assays. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was evaluated in lipolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood leukocytes (hPBL) and in the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1, while the release of IL-10 and IFN-γ was evaluated in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated hPBL. All PFCs suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α production in hPBL and THP-1 cells, while IL-6 production was suppressed by PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer. PFBS, PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer inhibited PHA-induced IL-10 release, while IFN-γ secretion was affected by PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer. Leukocytes obtained from female donors appear to be more sensitive to the in vitro immunotoxic effects of PFCs when their responses are compared to the results obtained using leukocytes from male donors. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that inhibition of TNF-α release in THP-1 cells occurred at the transcriptional level. All PFCs, including PFOA and PFOS, decreased LPS-induced NF-κB activation. With the exception of PFOA, none of the PFCs tested was able to activate PPARα driven transcription in transiently transfected THP-1 cells, excluding a role for PPARα in the immunomodulation observed. PFBS and PFDA prevented LPS-induced I-κB degradation. Overall, these studies suggest that PFCs affect NF-κB activation, which directly suppresses cytokine secretion by immune cells. Our results indicate that PFOA is the least active of the PFCs examined followed by PFBS, PFDA, PFOS, PFOSA and fluorotelomer. -- Research Highlights: ► PFCs

  9. Spatial distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds in coastal waters from the East to South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Minghong; Zhao Zhen; Yang Haizhen; Yin Zhigao; Hong Qingquan; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Ahrens, Lutz; Cai Minggang; He, Jianfeng; Xie Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were investigated in coastal waters collected onboard research vessel Snow Dragon from the East to South China Sea in 2010. All samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography/negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(−)ESI-MS/MS). Concentrations of 9 PFCs, including C 4 and C 8 (PFBS, PFOS) perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFSAs), C 5 –C 9 and C 13 (PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFTriDA) perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA) were quantified. The ΣPFC concentrations ranged from 133 pg/L to 3320 pg/L, with PFOA (37.5–1541 pg/L), PFBS (23.0–941 pg/L) and PFHpA (0–422 pg/L) as dominant compounds. Concentrations of PFCs were greater in coastal waters along Shanghai, Ningbo, Taizhou, Xiamen and along coastal cities of the Guangdong province compared to less populated areas along the east Chinese coast. Additionally, the comparison with other seawater PFC measurements showed lower levels in this study. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of various ionic PFCs were firstly quantified in coastal waters of China Sea for the first time. ► PFOA and PFBS, PFHxA, PFNA, PFOS, PFHpA were positively correlated which indicates that the same sources. ► The result of this study is useful for global transport models of PFCs. - Concentrations of 9 PFCs were quantified in coastal waters from the East to South China Sea for the first time.

  10. MO-DE-207A-07: Filtered Iterative Reconstruction (FIR) Via Proximal Forward-Backward Splitting: A Synergy of Analytical and Iterative Reconstruction Method for CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work is to develop a general framework, namely filtered iterative reconstruction (FIR) method, to incorporate analytical reconstruction (AR) method into iterative reconstruction (IR) method, for enhanced CT image quality. Methods: FIR is formulated as a combination of filtered data fidelity and sparsity regularization, and then solved by proximal forward-backward splitting (PFBS) algorithm. As a result, the image reconstruction decouples data fidelity and image regularization with a two-step iterative scheme, during which an AR-projection step updates the filtered data fidelity term, while a denoising solver updates the sparsity regularization term. During the AR-projection step, the image is projected to the data domain to form the data residual, and then reconstructed by certain AR to a residual image which is in turn weighted together with previous image iterate to form next image iterate. Since the eigenvalues of AR-projection operator are close to the unity, PFBS based FIR has a fast convergence. Results: The proposed FIR method is validated in the setting of circular cone-beam CT with AR being FDK and total-variation sparsity regularization, and has improved image quality from both AR and IR. For example, AIR has improved visual assessment and quantitative measurement in terms of both contrast and resolution, and reduced axial and half-fan artifacts. Conclusion: FIR is proposed to incorporate AR into IR, with an efficient image reconstruction algorithm based on PFBS. The CBCT results suggest that FIR synergizes AR and IR with improved image quality and reduced axial and half-fan artifacts. The authors was partially supported by the NSFC (#11405105), the 973 Program (#2015CB856000), and the Shanghai Pujiang Talent Program (#14PJ1404500).

  11. Characterization of occurrence, sources and sinks of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a tropical urban catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huiting; Reinhard, Martin; Nguyen, Tung Viet; You, Luhua; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the sources, occurrence and sinks of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the urban water cycle is important to protect and utilize local water resources. Concentrations of 22 target PFASs and general water quality parameters were determined monthly for a year in filtered water samples from five tributaries and three sampling stations of an urban water body. Of the 22 target PFASs, 17 PFASs were detected with a frequency >93% including PFCAs: C4-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, C4, C6, C8, and C10 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, perfluorooctane sulfonamides and perfluorooctane sulfonamide substances (FOSAMs), C10 perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acid (C10 PFPA), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) and C8/C8 perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acid (C8/C8-PFPIA). The most abundant PFASs in water were PFBS (1.4–55 ng/L), PFBA (1.0–23 ng/L), PFOS (1.5–24 ng/L) and PFOA (2.0–21 ng/L). In the tributaries, PFNA concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 87.1 ng/L except in the May 2013 samples of two tributaries, which reached 520 and 260 ng/L. Total PFAS concentrations in the sediment samples ranged from 1.6 to 15 ng/g d.w. with EtFOSAA, PFDoA, PFOS and PFDA being the dominant species. Based on water and sediment data, two types of sources were inferred: one-time or intermittent point sources and continuous non-point sources. FOSAMs and PFOS released continually from non-point sources, C8/C8 PFPIA, PFDoA and PFUnA was released from point sources. The highly water soluble short-chain PFASs including PFBA, PFPeA and PFBS remained predominantly in the water column. The factors governing solution phase concentrations appear to be compound hydrophobicity and sorption to suspended particles. Correlation of the dissolved phase concentrations with precipitation data suggested stormwater was a significant source of PFBA, PFBS, PFUnA and PFDoA. Negative correlations with precipitation indicated sources feeding FOSAA and FOSA directly into the tributaries

  12. Perfluorocarbons and Gilbert syndrome (phenotype) in the C8 Health Study Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongmin [Cancer Center, School of Public Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 265050-9190 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Hebei United University, Hebei 063000 (China); Ducatman, Alan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, West Virginia University (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, West Virginia University (United States); Clinical Translational Science Institute, West Virginia University (United States); Zhang, Jianjun [Department of Biostatistics, School Public Health, West Virginia University (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Background: Gilbert syndrome (GS) is an inherited defect of bilirubin conjugation, most commonly caused by a gene mutation for the enzyme UGT1A. GS is known to affect the metabolism and excretion of drugs and xenobiotics. Perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) are bio-persistent environmental contaminants that affect metabolic regulation. In this study, we examined the associations of GS phenotype and serum PFCs in the C8 Health Study Population. Materials and methods: Using 2005–2006 data from a large PFC-exposure population survey, we compared serum PFCs concentrations between GS and non GS clinical phenotypes, in a cross sectional design, adjusting for standard risk factors, including age, BMI, smoking status, socioeconomic status and gender. Results: Among 10 PFC compounds considered, only perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was seen at a significantly higher concentration in GS men and women. Conclusion: PFHxA exposure may be associated with GS. Our findings do not support increased exposure in GS for other PFCs. - Highlights: • Most serum PFCs are not associated with clinically evident Gilbert syndrome. • However, serum perfluorohexanoic acid is positively associated. • The investigation addresses the clinical presentation, not the genetic mutation.

  13. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in sediments from South Bohai coastal watersheds, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Relatively high concentrations of PFAS, especially PFOA, were found in the Xiaoqing River sediment. • PFOA and PFBS were the dominant PFAS in the sediments from coastal and riverine area, respectively. • Concentrations of PFNA, PFDA and PFHxS in sediment were significantly correlated with concentrations of organic carbon. • Risks posed by PFOA and PFOS to benthic organisms from concentrations of PFAS in sediments were small. - Abstract: This study investigated the concentrations and distribution of Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in sediments of 12 rivers from South Bohai coastal watersheds. The highest concentrations of ΣPFAS (31.920 ng g −1 dw) and PFOA (29.021 ng g −1 dw) were found in sediments from the Xiaoqing River, which was indicative of local point sources in this region. As for other rivers, concentrations of ΣPFAS ranged from 0.218 to 1.583 ng g −1 dw were found in the coastal sediments and from 0.167 to 1.953 ng g −1 dw in the riverine sediments. Predominant PFAS from coastal and riverine areas were PFOA and PFBS, with percentages of 30% and 35%, respectively. Partitioning analysis showed the concentrations of PFNA, PFDA and PFHxS were significantly correlated with organic carbon. The results of a preliminary environmental hazard assessment showed that PFOS posed the highest hazard in the Mi River, while PFOA posed a relative higher hazard in the Xiaoqing River

  14. Uptake, translocation and biotransformation of N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) by hydroponically grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Zhou, Tao; Zhu, Lingyan; Wang, Bohui; Li, Ze; Yang, Liping; Liu, Lifen

    2018-04-01

    N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) is an important perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) precursor (PreFOS) which is used in sulfluramid. The present work studied the uptake, translocation and metabolism of N-EtFOSA in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) by hydroponic exposure. Except for parent N-EtFOSA, its metabolites of perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were detected in the roots and shoots of all the three plant species examined. This suggested that plant roots could take up N-EtFOSA from solutions efficiently, and translocate to shoots. A positive correlation was found between root concentration factors (RCFs) of N-EtFOSA and root lipid content. Much higher proportion of N-EtFOSA transformation products in plant tissues than in the solutions suggested that N-EtFOSA could be in vivo metabolized in plant roots and shoots to FOSAA, PFOSA and PFOS, and other additional shorter-chain perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs), including PFHxS and PFBS. The results suggested that plants had biotransformation pathways to N-EtFOSA that were different than those from microorganisms and animals. This study provides important information about the uptake and metabolism of PreFOSs in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [The perceived burden of care and its correlates in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülseren, Leyla; Cam, Birmay; Karakoç, Berna; Yiğit, Tamer; Danacı, Ayşen Esen; Cubukçuoğlu, Zeynep; Taş, Cumhur; Gülseren, Seref; Mete, Levent

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the perceived level of burden of care and its correlates in family members of schizophrenia patients. The study included 239 schizophrenic patients that were followed-up at the psychiatric outpatient clinics of Izmir Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, and Celal Bayar University Medical School, and 239 of their primary caregivers. Patients were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANNS), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), Social Functioning Scale (SFS), Brief Cognitive State Examination (BCE), and UKU Side Effect Rating Scale. Their primary caregivers were assessed using the Perceived Family Burden Scale (PFBS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Caregiver PFBS scores ere correlated with male patients, female caregivers, inadequate social support, economic difficulty, the presence of chronic physical disorder in the caregivers, patient violence toward the caregivers, total duration of illness, the number of patient hospitalizations, PANNS total and subscale scores, and SFS, BDI, and BAI scores. Perceived burden of care was predicted by the severity of the patients' positive symptoms, SFS independence/competence and interpersonal functioning subscale scores, and caregivers' anxiety and depression levels. In order to decrease the burden of care in schizophrenia we recommend effective management of patient symptoms, enhancement of patient social functioning, interventions that target caregivers with high levels anxiety and depression, and social support provided by healthcare professionals.

  16. Transfer of perfluoroalkyl substances from mother to fetus in a Spanish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Basterrechea, Mikel; Grimalt, Joan O; Jiménez, Ana-María; Kraus, Thomas; Schettgen, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) might affect child health; thus estimating PFAS fetal burden is relevant. PFAS fetal burden is best estimated in cord samples; previous studies have used either maternal plasma or serum during pregnancy as proxy, but their validity is not clear. We aimed to evaluate PFAS transfer between mother and fetus and determine its predictors in a Spanish birth cohort. We measured perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) in maternal blood and cord serum from 66 mother-child pairs. We used Spearman's rank coefficients to correlate PFAS concentrations in first trimester maternal plasma and serum, with cord serum samples. We assessed PFAS placental transfer by calculating maternal to cord ratios and examined their association with maternal socio-demographic characteristics and child sex using linear regression models. Median concentrations of PFAS (ng/mL) of PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA in maternal plasma (0.79, 6.18, 2.85 and 0.84, respectively) and serum (0.84, 6.99, 2.97 and 0.85) were higher than in cord serum (0.40, 1.86, 1.90 and 0.32). PFBS was not detected. Positive Spearman's correlations (p-valuesPFAS fetal body burden can be assessed using as proxy maternal plasma or serum collected early in pregnancy. Maternal age might influence PFAS placental transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence and inputs of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from rivers and drain outlets to the Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Can; Sun, Ruijun; Han, Jianbo; Han, Gengchen; Yang, Wenchao; He, Xin

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of 19 PFASs in riverwater, coastal wastewater and effluents from WWTPs which were directly discharged into the Bohai Sea of China were measured and their inputs to this sea area were calculated accordingly. For riverwater samples, the total PFAS concentrations ranged from 13.1 to 69 238 ng/L. PFAS levels in riverwater collected from Liaoning Province were comparable to those from Shandong Province, while they were two orders of magnitude greater than those from Hebei Province and the city of Tianjin. The dominant PFAS patterns were spatially different. PFBS and PFOA were the predominant PFASs in riverwater samples at sites where fluorochemical industry parks are located in Liaoning Province and Shandong Province, respectively. For other sites, PFOA and PFOS were the most abundant PFASs. In contrast, the total PFAS concentrations in coastal wastewater and effluent samples ranged from 16.7 to 7 522 ng/L and from 13.1 to 319 ng/L, respectively. PFOA was dominant in these samples. Inputs of PFASs to the Bohai Sea via riverine flow, discharge of coastal wastewater and effluents were estimated to be 87.3 tons per year. As compared with coastal wastewater and effluent discharge, riverine input was a major source for the PFAS pollution in the Bohai Sea except for PFBS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution and sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the River Rhine watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Axel; Ahrens, Lutz; Surm, Renate; Westerveld, Joke; Wielen, Frans van der; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Voogt, Pim de

    2010-01-01

    The concentration profile of 40 polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface water along the River Rhine watershed from the Lake Constance to the North Sea was investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of point as well as diffuse sources, to estimate fluxes of PFAS into the North Sea and to identify replacement compounds of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the method performance was conducted. The PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) with concentrations up to 181 ng/L and 335 ng/L, respectively, which originated from industrial point sources. Fluxes of ΣPFAS were estimated to be ∼6 tonnes/year which is much higher than previous estimations. Both, the River Rhine and the River Scheldt, seem to act as important sources of PFAS into the North Sea. - The short-chained polyfluoroalkyl substances PFBA and PFBS replace PFOA and PFOA as dominating PFAS in surface waters in the River Rhine watershed.

  19. Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances to two types of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsing, Maja S; Josefsson, Sarah; Hughes, Arwel V; Ahrens, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    The sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was investigated for two model soil mineral surfaces, alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2), on molecular level using neutron scattering. The PFASs were selected (i.e. perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)) to examine the role of hydrophobic chain length and hydrophilic functional group on their sorption behaviour. All four PFASs were found to sorb to alumina surface (positively charged) forming a hydrated layer consisting of 50% PFASs. The PFAS solubility limit, which decrease with chain length, was found to strongly influence the sorption behaviour. The sorbed PFAS layer could easily be removed by gentle rinsing with water, indicating release upon rainfall in the environment. No sorption was observed for PFOA and PFOS at silica surface (negatively charged), showing electrostatic interaction being the driving force in the sorption process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of occurrence, sources and sinks of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a tropical urban catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiting; Reinhard, Martin; Nguyen, Tung Viet; You, Luhua; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the sources, occurrence and sinks of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the urban water cycle is important to protect and utilize local water resources. Concentrations of 22 target PFASs and general water quality parameters were determined monthly for a year in filtered water samples from five tributaries and three sampling stations of an urban water body. Of the 22 target PFASs, 17 PFASs were detected with a frequency >93% including PFCAs: C4-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, C4, C6, C8, and C10 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, perfluorooctane sulfonamides and perfluorooctane sulfonamide substances (FOSAMs), C10 perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acid (C10 PFPA), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) and C8/C8 perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acid (C8/C8-PFPIA). The most abundant PFASs in water were PFBS (1.4-55 ng/L), PFBA (1.0-23 ng/L), PFOS (1.5-24 ng/L) and PFOA (2.0-21 ng/L). In the tributaries, PFNA concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 87.1 ng/L except in the May 2013 samples of two tributaries, which reached 520 and 260 ng/L. Total PFAS concentrations in the sediment samples ranged from 1.6 to 15 ng/g d.w. with EtFOSAA, PFDoA, PFOS and PFDA being the dominant species. Based on water and sediment data, two types of sources were inferred: one-time or intermittent point sources and continuous non-point sources. FOSAMs and PFOS released continually from non-point sources, C8/C8 PFPIA, PFDoA and PFUnA was released from point sources. The highly water soluble short-chain PFASs including PFBA, PFPeA and PFBS remained predominantly in the water column. The factors governing solution phase concentrations appear to be compound hydrophobicity and sorption to suspended particles. Correlation of the dissolved phase concentrations with precipitation data suggested stormwater was a significant source of PFBA, PFBS, PFUnA and PFDoA. Negative correlations with precipitation indicated sources feeding FOSAA and FOSA directly into the tributaries

  1. Safety features of a power unit with the BREST-OD-300 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    • Two classes of the most severe accidents have been considered: with positive reactivity introduction and with loss of forced heat removal from the core. • It has been demonstrated that no full reactivity margin introduction during reactor power operations leads to the temperature limits of the fuel element safe operation being exceeded when the EP system or only the Passive EP-T system operates. • It has been shown that no loss of forced heat removal during blackout results in the temperature limits of safe operation being exceeded when at least only passive protections (Passive EP-T and PFBS) operate. • It has been shown that no even most severe accidents involving full reactivity margin introduction (UTOP) and full loss of power for all reactor facility systems (ULOF) lead to fuel melting and coolant boiling

  2. Distribution and sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the River Rhine watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Axel; Ahrens, Lutz; Surm, Renate; Westerveld, Joke; van der Wielen, Frans; Ebinghaus, Ralf; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    The concentration profile of 40 polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface water along the River Rhine watershed from the Lake Constance to the North Sea was investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of point as well as diffuse sources, to estimate fluxes of PFAS into the North Sea and to identify replacement compounds of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the method performance was conducted. The PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) with concentrations up to 181 ng/L and 335 ng/L, respectively, which originated from industrial point sources. Fluxes of SigmaPFAS were estimated to be approximately 6 tonnes/year which is much higher than previous estimations. Both, the River Rhine and the River Scheldt, seem to act as important sources of PFAS into the North Sea. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomagnification and tissue distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market-size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeritz, Ina; Falk, Sandy; Stahl, Thorsten; Schäfers, Christoph; Schlechtriem, Christian

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated the biomagnification potential as well as the substance and tissue-specific distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market-size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Rainbow trout with an average body weight of 314 ± 21 g were exposed to perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in the diet for 28 d. The accumulation phase was followed by a 28-d depuration phase, in which the test animals were fed with nonspiked trout feed. On days 0, 7, 14, 28, 31, 35, 42, and 56 of the present study, fish were sampled from the test basin for PFAS analysis. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) for all test compounds were determined based on a kinetic approach. Distribution factors were calculated for each test compound to illustrate the disposition of PFASs in rainbow trout after 28 d of exposure. Dietary exposure of market-size rainbow trout to PFASs did not result in biomagnification; BMF values were calculated as 0.42 for PFOS, >0.23 for PFNA, >0.18 for PFHxS, >0.04 for PFOA, and >0.02 for PFBS, which are below the biomagnification threshold of 1. Liver, blood, kidney, and skin were identified as the main target tissues for PFASs in market-size rainbow trout. Evidence was shown that despite relative low PFAS contamination, the edible parts of the fish (the fillet and skin) can significantly contribute to the whole-body burden. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K.; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G.; Futter, Martyn N.; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4–4.7 ng L"−"1) and PFBS (< MQL – 10.2 ng L"−"1) among PFCAs and PFSAs, respectively. Prevalence of short-chain PFAS indicates that the effects of PFOA and PFOS substitution are visible in environmental samples from India. The spatial pattern of C_5–C_7 PFCAs co-varied with that of PFOS suggesting similar emission drivers. PFDA and PFNA had much lower concentrations and covaried with PFOA especially in two hotspots downstream of Kanpur and Patna. PFOS and PFOA emissions to the river varied dramatically along the transect (0.20–190 and 0.03–150 g d"−"1, respectively). PFOS emission pattern could be explained by the number of urban residents in the subcatchment (rather than total population). Per-capita emissions were lower than in many developed countries. In groundwater, PFBA (< MQL – 9.2 ng L"−"1) and PFBS (< MQL – 4.9 ng L"−"1) had the highest concentrations among PFCAs and PFSAs, respectively. Concentrations and trends in groundwater were generally similar to those observed in surface water suggesting the aquifer was contaminated by wastewater receiving river water. Daily PFAS exposure intakes through drinking water were below safety

  5. Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in Swedish food: The relative importance of direct and indirect dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Glynn, Anders; Darnerud, Per Ola; Berger, Urs

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed food market basket samples obtained in Sweden from 1999, 2005, and 2010 for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and a range of precursor compounds. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors were detected in all food year pools with the highest concentrations in 1999. Six polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs, 4:2/6:2, 6:2/6:2, 6:2/8:2, 8:2/8:2, 6:2/10:2, and 10:2/10:2) were detected in the year pools with the highest ∑diPAP concentrations in 1999 and 2005. All precursors were predominantly found in meat, fish, and/or eggs based on analysis of individual food groups from 1999. Based on year pools, PFOS precursors contributed between 4 and 1% as an indirect source to total dietary PFOS intakes between 1999 and 2010. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) exposure originated entirely from diPAPs, whereas for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), diPAPs contributed between 1 and 19% to total exposure. The lowest precursor contributions were generally seen in food samples from 2010. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio A Rodriguez-Jorquera

    Full Text Available Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA. Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas.

  7. Fate of a broad spectrum of perfluorinated compounds in soils and biota from Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Tavano, Máximo Sebastián; Alonso, Bruno; Koremblit, Gabriel; Barceló, Damià

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the presence of 18 perfluorinated compounds was investigated in biota and environmental samples from the Antarctica and Tierra de Fuego, which were collected during a sampling campaign carried out along February and March 2010. 61 samples were analysed including fish, superficial soils, guano, algae, dung and tissues of Papua penguin by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of PFCs were ranging from 0.10 to 240 ng/g for most of the samples except for penguin dung, which presented levels between 95 and 603 ng/g for perfluorooctane sulfonate, and guano samples from Ushuaia, with concentration levels of 1190–2480 ng/g of perfluorohexanoic acid. PFCs acids presented, in general, the highest levels of concentration and perfluorooctanesulfonate was the most frequently found compound. The present study provides a significant amount of results, which globally supports the previous studies, related to the transport, deposition, biodegradation and bioaccumulation patterns of PFCs. - Highlights: ► 61 samples from the Antarctica and Tierra de Fuego analysed for the presence of 18 perfluorinated compounds. ► Acid compounds presented the highest levels of concentration and perfluorooctane sulfonate was the most frequently found. ► Concentrations in algae much higher than those in soils. ► Data supporting existing models for the transport, deposition, biodegradation and bioaccumulation patterns are presented. - 18 perfluorinated compounds assessed in biota and environmental samples from Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctica. Concentrations related to Compounds properties.

  8. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination.

  9. Research Article. Perfluoroalkylated substances in human urine: results of a biomonitoring pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Christina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs are a class of synthetic chemicals used in a wide range of processes and products due to their unique physicalchemical properties. Through intake of PFASs via food or several consumer products, humans can be exposed. Long-chain PFASs have been associated with adverse effects in laboratory animals, and there is also evidence for adverse health effects in humans. Although investigations of human exposure are mainly conducted in blood samples, some studies have shown that especially short-chain PFASs can be detected in human urine. In the present study, a sensitive analytical method was adapted for the measurement of 12 PFASs in human urine samples by HPLC-MS/MS. For verifying this method, concentrations in 11 male and female participants aged 25-46 years were analysed. In the study population, ranges of urinary PFASs concentrations were n.d.- 8.5 ng/l for perfluoropentanoic acid, perfluorohexanoic acid, n.d.-1.8 ng/l for perfluorohexane sulphonate, n.d.-0.99 ng/l for perfluoroheptanoic acid, 0.79-5.1 ng/l for perfluorooctanoic acid,

  10. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acids in corn, popcorn and popcorn bags before and after cooking by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction, liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María Teresa

    2014-08-15

    An analytical method is proposed to determine ten perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) [nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] in corn, popcorn and microwave popcorn packaging by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS). Selected PFAAs were extracted efficiently in only one 10-s cycle by FUSLE, a simple, safe and inexpensive technique. The developed method was validated for microwave popcorn bags matrix as well as corn and popcorn matrices in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and recovery values. The method showed good accuracy with recovery values around 100% except for the lowest chain length PFAAs, satisfactory reproducibility with RSDs under 16%, and sensitivity with limits of detection in the order of hundreds picograms per gram of sample (between 0.2 and 0.7ng/g). This method was also applied to the analysis of six microwave popcorn bags and the popcorn inside before and after cooking. PFCAs contents between 3.50ng/g and 750ng/g were found in bags, being PFHxA (perfluorohexanoic acid) the most abundant of them. However, no PFAAs were detected either corn or popcorn, therefore no migration was assumed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence, fluxes and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances with isomer analysis in the snow of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guoqiang; Chen, Xinwei; Zhu, Lingyan

    2015-12-15

    In this study, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed in fresh snow samples collected from 19 cities in northern China, 2013. The levels of total PFASs in the snow samples were 33.5-229 ng/L, suggesting heavy atmospheric pollution of PFASs in northern China. PFOA (9.08-107 ng/L), PFOS (3.52-54.3 ng/L), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) (3.66-44.8 ng/L), and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (3.21-23.6 ng/L) were predominant with a summed contribution of 82% to the total PFASs. The particulate matters (PMs) associated PFASs contributed 21.5-56.2% to the total PFASs in the snow, suggesting PMs are vital for the transport and deposition of airborne PFASs. Partitioning of PFASs between PM and dissolved phases was dependent on the carbon chain length and end functional groups. Isomer profiles of PFOA and PFOS in the snow were in agreement with the signature of the historical 3M electrochemical fluorination (ECF) products, suggesting that the ECF products were still produced and used in China. Further source analysis showed that the airborne PFASs in urban area were mainly due to direct release rather than degradation of their precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Okamura, Hideo; Hayashi, Mitsuru; Nakano, Takeshi; Matsumura, Chisato; Fukushi, Keiichi; Wada, Shinpei; Inui, Hideyuki

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analyzed in sediment samples taken from Ajifu Waterway in Osaka city, from Osaka Bay, and from Kagoshima Bay, as well as in fifteen seawater samples collected from Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan. In all sediment samples, only PFCAs were detected, and the highest concentration was determined in Ajifu Waterway, where ΣPFAA was 58990 ng kg -1 dry weight. The total concentrations of PFAAs in sea water samples ranged between the limit of quantification and 53.4 ng L -1 , and perfluorohexanoic acid was the most prevalent and had the highest concentration of 37 ng L -1 . The changes in the patterns and concentrations of PFAAs in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan indicate that the PFAAs in surface waters are influenced by sources from Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, mainly the Yodo River basin, and the dilution effect which naturally occurs during their transport to the Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Caregiving consequences in mental disorders--definitions and instruments of assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciałkowska-Kuźmińska, Magdalena; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Severe mental illnesses have far-reaching consequences for both patients and their relatives. This paper reviews literature on the measures of caregiving consequences. Authors provide a condensed knowledge and research results in the area of caregiving consequences, especially both subjective and objective caregivers' burden. The consequences of care apply to carers' social and leisure activities, financial status, health condition. The burden of care has three fundamental causes: the reorganisation of mental health services, a social isolation of patients and their families and the lack of systemic support for caregivers. The problem of caregiving consequences has been investigated in several studies. In order to identify factors, which have impact on caregiver distress, a variety instruments have been developed. This paper focuses on questionnaires useful for the systematic assessment of both objective and subjective burden: Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ), Perceived Family Burden Scale (PFBS), Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale (ZCBS), Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI), Family Problems Questionnaire (FPQ). The mentioned instruments proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring caregiver consequences in mental healthcare.

  14. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 μg/L). - The semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries are the primary source of PFC contamination in downstream aqueous environments

  15. Review: Micro-organic contaminants in groundwater in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihong; Xie, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Wen, Chuanlei; Cao, Zhipeng; Wan, Yuyu

    2018-03-01

    Micro-organic contaminants (MOs) in groundwater, which may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems worldwide, are gaining increased attention in China. A great deal of research has been conducted to investigate their sources, occurrences and behavior in aquifers. This paper reviews the main sources, distribution, concentrations and behavior of a wide range of MOs in groundwater in China. These MOs include well-established persistent organic pollutants—polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), bisphenol A (BPA)—and some contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (antibiotics, caffeine, shampoos) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The results reveal that the main MOs in groundwater are PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PBDEs, PAEs, and antibiotics. Moreover, some PFCs such as perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have only recently been observed in groundwater as emerging organic contaminants. Additionally, most MOs are distributed in populated and industrialized areas such as the southeast coast of China. Finally, industrial emissions, wastewater treatment plant effluents and agricultural wastewater are found to be dominant sources of MOs in groundwater. Based on the existing pollution levels, regulation and amelioration of MOs are warranted.

  16. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in landfill leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jan; Ahrens, Lutz; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are widely used in industry and consumer products. These products could end up finally in landfills where their leachates are a potential source for PFCs into the aqueous environment. In this study, samples of untreated and treated leachate from 22 landfill sites in Germany were analysed for 43 PFCs. ΣPFC concentrations ranged from 31 to 12,819 ng/L in untreated leachate and 4-8060 ng/L in treated leachate. The dominating compounds in untreated leachate were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (mean contribution 27%) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (24%). The discharge of PFCs into the aqueous environment depended on the cleaning treatment systems. Membrane treatments (reverse osmosis and nanofiltrations) and activated carbon released lower concentrations of PFCs into the environment than cleaning systems using wet air oxidation or only biological treatment. The mass flows of ΣPFCs into the aqueous environment ranged between 0.08 and 956 mg/day. - The first comprehensive survey of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in landfill leachates.

  17. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  18. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-04-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 microg/L).

  19. First-flush loads of perfluorinated compounds in stormwater runoff from Hayabuchi River basin, Japan served by separated sewerage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-08-01

    Worldwide environmental pollution by perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) has been reported. PFCs have also been reported to have nonpoint sources (NPSs). A fixed-point hourly monitoring in the river was conducted during a storm event using an automatic sampler to estimate the impact of the first-flush of PFCs from NPS in this study. Perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) with different chain lengths were monitored. The concentrations of short- to medium-chain-length PFCAs such as PFHpA, PFOA and PFNA, and PFASs such as PFBS, PFPeS, PFHxS, PFHpS and PFOS showed no marked increase with the storm-runoff event. However, in contrast to this, concentrations of long-chain-length PFCAs such as PFDA and PFUnA increased markedly. The concentrations of PFDA and PFUnA increased 3.4 (1.5-5.0 ng L(-1))- and 2.0 (3.3-6.7 ng L(-1))-fold, respectively. This study demonstrates that large loads of long-chain-length PFCAs are discharged to the Hayabuchi River during the first-flush after the rain event.

  20. Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in Swedish food: The relative importance of direct and indirect dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbink, Wouter A.; Glynn, Anders; Darnerud, Per Ola; Berger, Urs

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed food market basket samples obtained in Sweden from 1999, 2005, and 2010 for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and a range of precursor compounds. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors were detected in all food year pools with the highest concentrations in 1999. Six polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs, 4:2/6:2, 6:2/6:2, 6:2/8:2, 8:2/8:2, 6:2/10:2, and 10:2/10:2) were detected in the year pools with the highest ∑diPAP concentrations in 1999 and 2005. All precursors were predominantly found in meat, fish, and/or eggs based on analysis of individual food groups from 1999. Based on year pools, PFOS precursors contributed between 4 and 1% as an indirect source to total dietary PFOS intakes between 1999 and 2010. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) exposure originated entirely from diPAPs, whereas for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), diPAPs contributed between 1 and 19% to total exposure. The lowest precursor contributions were generally seen in food samples from 2010. - Highlights: • Three PFOS precursors and six diPAPs were detected in food pools. • Precursor concentrations were highest in 1999 and 2005 food pools, and lowest in 2010. • The relative importance of precursors to total PFOS dietary intake was <4%. • The relative importance of diPAPs as an indirect dietary source of PFCAs was chain length dependent. - The relative contribution of precursors to PFOS dietary intakes is small, whereas the contribution of diPAPs to PFCA dietary intakes varies with the PFCA chain length

  1. Thermal mineralization behavior of PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS during reactivation of granular activated carbon (GAC) in nitrogen atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Takata, Mitsuyasu; Takemine, Shusuke; Yamamoto, Katsuya

    2018-03-01

    Waste disposal site is one of the important sinks of chemicals. A significant amount of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) have been brought into it. Because of their aqueous solubility, PFASs are released to landfill effluent waters, from which PFASs are efficiently collected by adsorption technique using granular activated carbon (GAC). The exhausted GAC is reactivated by heating processes. The mineralization of PFASs during the reactivation process was studied. Being thermally treated in N 2 atmosphere, the recovery rate of mineralized fluorine and PFC homologues including short-chained perfluorocarboxylic acids was determined. If the reagent form of PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS were treated at 700 °C, the recovery of mineralized fluorine was less than 30, 46, and 72 %, respectively. The rate increased to 51, 74, and 70 %, if PFASs were adsorbed onto GAC in advance; moreover, addition of excess sodium hydroxide (NaOH) improved the recovery to 74, 91, and 90 %. Residual PFAS homologue was less than 1 % of the original amount. Steamed condition did not affect destruction. The significant role of GAC was to suppress volatile release of PFASs from thermal ambient, whereas NaOH enhanced destruction and retained mineralized fluorine on the GAC surface. Comparing the recovery of mineralized fluorine, the degradability of PFOS was considered to be higher than PFOA and PFHxA. Whole mass balance missing 9~26 % of initial amount suggested formation of some volatile organofluoro compounds beyond analytical coverage.

  2. Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Timothy D; Higgins, Christopher P; Quiñones, Oscar; Vanderford, Brett J; Kolstad, Chad; Zeigler-Holady, Janie C; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2014-03-15

    The near ubiquitous presence of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in humans has raised concerns about potential human health effects from these chemicals, some of which are both extremely persistent and bioaccumulative. Because some of these chemicals are highly water soluble, one major pathway for human exposure is the consumption of contaminated drinking water. This study measured concentrations of PFASs in 18 raw drinking water sources and 2 treated wastewater effluents and evaluated 15 full-scale treatment systems for the attenuation of PFASs in water treatment utilities throughout the U.S. A liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method was used to enable measurement of a suite of 23 PFASs, including perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Despite the differences in reporting levels, the PFASs that were detected in >70% of the source water samples (n = 39) included PFSAs, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (74%), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (79%), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (84%), and PFCAs, perfluoropentanoic acid (74%), perfluorohexanoic acid (79%), perfluoroheptanoic acid (74%), and perfluorooctanoic acid (74%). More importantly, water treatment techniques such as ferric or alum coagulation, granular/micro-/ultra- filtration, aeration, oxidation (i.e., permanganate, ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide), and disinfection (i.e., ozonation, chlorine dioxide, chlorination, and chloramination) were mostly ineffective in removing PFASs. However, anion exchange and granular activated carbon treatment preferably removed longer-chain PFASs and the PFSAs compared to the PFCAs, and reverse osmosis demonstrated significant removal for all the PFASs, including the smallest PFAS, perfluorobutanoic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perfluoroalkylated substances in the global tropical and subtropical surface oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaya, Belén; Dachs, Jordi; Roscales, Jose L; Caballero, Gemma; Jiménez, Begoña

    2014-11-18

    In this study, perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analyzed in 92 surface seawater samples taken during the Malaspina 2010 expedition which covered all the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Nine ionic PFASs including C6-C10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C4 and C6-C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and two neutral precursors perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASAs), were identified and quantified. The Atlantic Ocean presented the broader range in concentrations of total PFASs (131-10900 pg/L, median 645 pg/L, n = 45) compared to the other oceanic basins, probably due to a better spatial coverage. Total concentrations in the Pacific ranged from 344 to 2500 pg/L (median = 527 pg/L, n = 27) and in the Indian Ocean from 176 to 1976 pg/L (median = 329, n = 18). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound, accounting for 33% of the total PFASs globally, followed by perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA, 22%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 12%), being the rest of the individual congeners under 10% of total PFASs, even for perfluorooctane carboxylic acid (PFOA, 6%). PFASAs accounted for less than 1% of the total PFASs concentration. This study reports the ubiquitous occurrence of PFCAs, PFSAs, and PFASAs in the global ocean, being the first attempt, to our knowledge, to show a comprehensive assessment in surface water samples collected in a single oceanic expedition covering tropical and subtropical oceans. The potential factors affecting their distribution patterns were assessed including the distance to coastal regions, oceanic subtropical gyres, currents and biogeochemical processes. Field evidence of biogeochemical controls on the occurrence of PFASs was tentatively assessed considering environmental variables (solar radiation, temperature, chlorophyll a concentrations among others), and these showed significant correlations with some PFASs, but explaining small to moderate percentages of variability

  4. Elevated levels of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk among Korean women: Current status and potential challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Habyeong; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Do-Hee; Park, Na-Youn; Kim, Sunmi; Kho, Younglim

    2016-07-01

    Breast milks can be contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Exposure to PFASs during early stages of life may lead to adverse health effects among breastfed infants. To date, perfluorootanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been most frequently measured PFASs in breast milks worldwide. Information on shorter carbon-chain PFASs in breast milk is scarce. In this study, breast milks were sampled from 264 Korean lactating women, and measured for seventeen PFASs, including ten perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), four perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides. PFOA and PFOS were detected in 98.5% of the breast milk samples, with median concentrations of 0.072 and 0.050ng/mL, respectively. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were detected in higher frequencies, ranging between 67.4% and 81.8%. The concentrations of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk such as PFPeA and PFHxA were the highest ever reported to date, and were comparable to that of PFOS. Concentrations of shorter chain PFCA in breast milk tended to be higher among the women with longer lactation period, while those of PFOA showed the opposite trend, suggesting a possibility that breastfeeding might be an important route of excretion for PFOA among lactating women. Fish consumption and the use of consumer products, e.g., skin care products, cosmetics and non-stick coated cooking utensils, were identified as significant predictors of PFAS concentrations in breast milk. Health risks associated with PFOA and PFOS exposure through breastfeeding were estimated negligible, however, risks of the short carbon-chain PFCAs could not be assessed because of lack of relevant toxicological information. Further efforts for source identification and exposure management measures for shorter chain PFCAs are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative in vitro toxicity assessment of perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Cecon T; Damayanti, Nur P; Guffey, Samuel C; Serafin, Jennifer S; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2017-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic fluorinated compounds that are highly bioaccumulative and persistent organic pollutants. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an eight-carbon chain perfluorinated carboxylic acid, was used heavily for the production of fluoropolymers, but concerns have led to its replacement by shorter carbon chain homologues such as perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). However, limited toxicity data exist for these substitutes. We evaluated the toxicity of PFOA, PFHxA and PFBA on a zebrafish liver cell line and investigated the effects of exposure on cell metabolism. Gross toxicity after 96 h of exposure was highest for PFOA and PFO - , while PFHxA and PFBA exhibited lower toxicity. Although the structural similarity of these compounds to fatty acids suggests the possibility of interference with the transport and metabolism of lipids, we could not detect any differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (ppar-α, -β and -γ), fabp3 and crot genes after 96 h exposure to up to 10 ppm of the test compounds. However, we observed localized lipid droplet accumulation only in PFBA-exposed cells. To study the effects of these compounds on cell metabolism, we conducted fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using naturally fluorescent biomarkers, NADH and FAD. The fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and FAD and the bound/free ratio of each of these coenzymes decreased in a dose- and carbon length-dependent manner, suggesting disruption of cell metabolism. In sum, our study revealed that PFASs with shorter carbon chains are less toxic than PFOA, and that exposure to sublethal dosage of PFOA, PFHxA or PFBA affects cell metabolism. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Occurrence, fluxes and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances with isomer analysis in the snow of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Guoqiang; Chen, Xinwei; Zhu, Lingyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Relatively high levels of PFASs were present in the snow in northern China in 2013. • Particulate bound PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in snow. • Particulate matters are vital for PFASs transport and deposition in urban atmosphere. • Partitioning of PFASs between particulate and dissolved phase was related to carbon chain length. • Isomer profiles in snow suggested that airborne PFASs were mainly from direct release. - Abstract: In this study, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed in fresh snow samples collected from 19 cities in northern China, 2013. The levels of total PFASs in the snow samples were 33.5–229 ng/L, suggesting heavy atmospheric pollution of PFASs in northern China. PFOA (9.08–107 ng/L), PFOS (3.52–54.3 ng/L), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) (3.66–44.8 ng/L), and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (3.21–23.6 ng/L) were predominant with a summed contribution of 82% to the total PFASs. The particulate matters (PMs) associated PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in the snow, suggesting PMs are vital for the transport and deposition of airborne PFASs. Partitioning of PFASs between PM and dissolved phases was dependent on the carbon chain length and end functional groups. Isomer profiles of PFOA and PFOS in the snow were in agreement with the signature of the historical 3 M electrochemical fluorination (ECF) products, suggesting that the ECF products were still produced and used in China. Further source analysis showed that the airborne PFASs in urban area were mainly due to direct release rather than degradation of their precursors.

  7. The use of carbon adsorbents for the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from potable reuse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2017-10-01

    Bench- and pilot-scale sorption tests were used to probe the performance of several biochars at removing perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) from field waters, compared to granular activated carbon (GAC). Screening tests using organic matter-free water resulted in hardwood (HWC) (K d  = 41 L g -1 ) and pinewood (PWC) (K d  = 49 L g -1 ) biochars having the highest perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) removal performance that was comparable to bituminous coal GAC (K d  = 41 L g -1 ). PWC and HWC had a stronger affinity for PFOA sorbed in Lake Mead surface water (K F  = 11 mg (1-n) L n g -1 ) containing a lower (2 mg L -1 ) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration than in a tertiary-filtered wastewater (K F  = 8 mg (1-n) L n g -1 ) with DOC of 4.9 mg L -1 . A pilot-scale study was performed using three parallel adsorbers (GAC, anthracite, and HWC biochar) treating the same tertiary-filtered wastewater. Compared to HWC, and anthracite, GAC was the most effective in mitigating perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPnA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PHxA), PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and DOC (45-67% removed at 4354 bed volumes) followed by HWC, and then anthracite. Based on bench- and pilot-scale results, shorter-chain PFAA [perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), PFPnA, or PFHxA] were more difficult to remove with both biochar and GAC than the longer-chain, PFOS and PFOA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Haglund, Peter; Kärrman, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants, as a result of their incorporation in everyday products and industrial processes. In this study, we measured several classes of persistent PFASs, precursors, transformation intermediates, and newly identified PFASs in influent and effluent sewage water and sludge from three municipal waste water treatment plants in Sweden, sampled in 2015. For sludge, samples from 2012 and 2014 were analyzed as well. Levels of precursors in sludge exceeded those of perfluoroalkyl acids and sulfonic acids (PFCAs and PFSAs), in 2015 the sum of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) were 15-20ng/g dry weight, the sum of fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) was 0.8-1.3ng/g, and the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonamides and ethanols ranged from non-detected to 3.2ng/g. Persistent PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at 1.9-3.9ng/g and 2.4-7.3ng/g dry weight, respectively. The influence of precursor compounds was further demonstrated by an observed substantial increase for a majority of the persistent PFCAs and PFSAs in water after waste water treatment. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had a net mass increase in all WWTPs, with mean values of 83%, 28%, 37% and 58%, respectively. The load of precursors and intermediates in influent water and sludge combined with net mass increase support the hypothesis that degradation of precursor compounds is a significant contributor to PFAS contamination in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Occurrence, fluxes and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances with isomer analysis in the snow of northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Guoqiang; Chen, Xinwei; Zhu, Lingyan, E-mail: zhuly@nankai.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Relatively high levels of PFASs were present in the snow in northern China in 2013. • Particulate bound PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in snow. • Particulate matters are vital for PFASs transport and deposition in urban atmosphere. • Partitioning of PFASs between particulate and dissolved phase was related to carbon chain length. • Isomer profiles in snow suggested that airborne PFASs were mainly from direct release. - Abstract: In this study, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed in fresh snow samples collected from 19 cities in northern China, 2013. The levels of total PFASs in the snow samples were 33.5–229 ng/L, suggesting heavy atmospheric pollution of PFASs in northern China. PFOA (9.08–107 ng/L), PFOS (3.52–54.3 ng/L), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) (3.66–44.8 ng/L), and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (3.21–23.6 ng/L) were predominant with a summed contribution of 82% to the total PFASs. The particulate matters (PMs) associated PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in the snow, suggesting PMs are vital for the transport and deposition of airborne PFASs. Partitioning of PFASs between PM and dissolved phases was dependent on the carbon chain length and end functional groups. Isomer profiles of PFOA and PFOS in the snow were in agreement with the signature of the historical 3 M electrochemical fluorination (ECF) products, suggesting that the ECF products were still produced and used in China. Further source analysis showed that the airborne PFASs in urban area were mainly due to direct release rather than degradation of their precursors.

  10. Emissions of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) from point sources--identification of relevant branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, M; Scheffknecht, C; Scharf, S; Weiss, S; Gans, O

    2008-01-01

    Effluents of wastewater treatment plants are relevant point sources for the emission of hazardous xenobiotic substances to the aquatic environment. One group of substances, which recently entered scientific and political discussions, is the group of the perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS). The most studied compounds from this group are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), which are the most important degradation products of PFAS. These two substances are known to be persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT). In the present study, eleven PFAS were investigated in effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and in industrial wastewaters. PFOS and PFOA proved to be the dominant compounds in all sampled wastewaters. Concentrations of up to 340 ng/L of PFOS and up to 220 ng/L of PFOA were observed. Besides these two compounds, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was also present in nearly all effluents and maximum concentrations of up to 280 ng/L were measured. Only N-ethylperfluorooctane sulphonamide (N-EtPFOSA) and its degradation/metabolisation product perfluorooctane sulphonamide (PFOSA) were either detected below the limit of quantification or were not even detected at all. Beside the effluents of the municipal WWTPs, nine industrial wastewaters from six different industrial branches were also investigated. Significantly, the highest emissions or PFOS were observed from metal industry whereas paper industry showed the highest PFOA emission. Several PFAS, especially perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and PFOS are predominantly emitted from industrial sources, with concentrations being a factor of 10 higher than those observed in the municipal WWTP effluents. Perfluorodecane sulphonate (PFDS), N-Et-PFOSA and PFOSA were not detected in any of the sampled industrial point sources. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. Mass flows of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in central wastewater treatment plants of industrial zones in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Tanaka, Shuhei; Fujii, Shigeo; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Musirat, Chanatip; Wongwattana, Thana; Shivakoti, Binaya Raj

    2011-04-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are fully fluorinated organic compounds, which have been used in many industrial processes and have been detected in wastewater and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) around the world. This study focused on the occurrences of PFCs and PFCs mass flows in the industrial wastewater treatment plants, which reported to be the important sources of PFCs. Surveys were conducted in central wastewater treatment plant in two industrial zones in Thailand. Samples were collected from influent, aeration tank, secondary clarifier effluent, effluent and sludge. The major purpose of this field study was to identify PFCs occurrences and mass flow during industrial WWTP. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS were used for the analysis. Total 10 PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA), perfluordecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) were measured to identify their occurrences. PFCs were detected in both liquid and solid phase in most samples. The exceptionally high level of PFCs was detected in the treatment plant of IZ1 and IZ2 ranging between 662-847ngL(-1) and 674-1383ngL(-1), respectively, which greater than PFCs found in most domestic wastewater. Due to PFCs non-biodegradable property, both WWTPs were found ineffective in removing PFCs using activated sludge processes. Bio-accumulation in sludge could be the major removal mechanism of PFCs in the process. The increasing amount of PFCs after activated sludge processes were identified which could be due to the degradation of PFCs precursors. PFCs concentration found in the effluent were very high comparing to those in river water of the area. Industrial activity could be the one of major sources of PFCs

  12. Relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity and cellular concentration of 14 perfluoroalkyl substances in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Ahrens, Lutz; le Godec, Théo; Lundqvist, Johan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2018-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a molecular target for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Little is known about the cellular uptake of PFASs and how it affects the PPARα activity. We investigated the relationship between PPARα activity and cellular concentration in HepG2 cells of 14 PFASs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Cellular concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and PPARα activity was determined in transiently transfected cells by reporter gene assay. Cellular uptake of the PFASs was low (0.04-4.1%) with absolute cellular concentrations in the range 4-2500 ng mg -1 protein. Cellular concentration of PFCAs increased with perfluorocarbon chain length up to perfluorododecanoate. PPARα activity of PFCAs increased with chain length up to perfluorooctanoate. The maximum induction of PPARα activity was similar for short-chain (perfluorobutanoate and perfluoropentanoate) and long-chain PFCAs (perfluorododecanoate and perfluorotetradecanoate) (approximately twofold). However, PPARα activities were induced at lower cellular concentrations for the short-chain homologs compared to the long-chain homologs. Perfluorohexanoate, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate induced PPARα activities >2.5-fold compared to controls. The concentration-response relationships were positive for all the tested compounds, except perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOS and FOSA, and were compound-specific, as demonstrated by differences in the estimated slopes. The relationships were steeper for PFCAs with chain lengths up to and including PFNA than for the other studied PFASs. To our knowledge, this is the first report establishing relationships between PPARα activity and cellular concentration of a broad range of PFASs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. MCPIP1 Regulates Alveolar Macrophage Apoptosis and Pulmonary Fibroblast Activation After in vitro Exposure to Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuxia; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Haijun; Zhou, Zewei; Dai, Xiaoniu; Cheng, Yusi; Fang, Shencun; Zhang, Yingming; Yao, Honghong; Chao, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Silicosis is a fatal and fibrotic pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of silica. After arriving at the alveoli, silica is ingested by alveolar macrophages (AMOs), in which monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) plays an essential role in controlling macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. However, the mechanism of action of MCPIP1 in silicosis is poorly understood. Primary rat AMOs were isolated and treated with SiO2 (50 µg/cm(2)). MCPIP1 and AMO activation/apoptosis markers were detected by immunoblotting. MCPIP1 was down-regulated using siRNA in AMOs. The effects of AMOs on fibroblast activation and migration were evaluated using a gel contraction assay, a scratch assay, and a nested collagen matrix migration model. After exposure to SiO2, MCPIP1 was significantly increased in rat AMOs. Activation and apoptosis markers in AMOs were up-regulated after exposure to SiO2 Following siRNA-mediated silencing of MCPIP1 mRNA, the markers of AMO activation and apoptosis were significantly decreased. Rat pulmonary fibroblasts (PFBs) cultured in conditional medium from AMOs treated with MCPIP1 siRNA and SiO2 showed significantly less activation and migration compared with those cultured in conditional medium from AMOs treated with control siRNA and SiO2 CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a vital role for MCPIP1 in AMO apoptosis and PFB activation/migration induced by SiO2. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Uptake and elimination kinetics of perfluoroalkyl substances in submerged and free-floating aquatic macrophytes: Results of mesocosm experiments with Echinodorus horemanii and Eichhornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, N; Ng, J Z; Kelly, B C

    2017-06-15

    Studies investigating the bioaccumulation behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic macrophytes are limited. The present study involved controlled mesocosm experiments to assess uptake and elimination rate constants (k u, k e ), bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in two aquatic plant species, including one submerged species (Echinodorus horemanii) and one free-floating species (Eichhornia crassipes). The results indicated all PFASs were readily accumulated in these aquatic macrophytes. k u and BCFs increased with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length. For PFCAs and PFSAs with identical perfluoroalkyl chain length, the corresponding PFSA exhibited higher bioaccumulation potential. On a whole-plant basis, the bioaccumulation potential of PFASs in submerged and free-floating macrophytes were comparable, indicating sorption to plant biomass is similar in the different species. Conversely, when considering accumulation in foliage, BCFs in the free-floating macrophyte were substantially lower compared to submerged species, especially for longer-chain PFASs. Compounds with shorter perfluoroalkyl chain length (PFBS, PFPeA and PFHxA) exhibited preferential translocation to leaf tissue (TFs >1). BCFs exhibited a sigmoidal relationship with pefluoroalkyl chain length, membrane-water distribution coefficients (D mw ), protein-water distribution coefficients (D pw ) and organic-water partition coefficients (K oc ). For these trends, maximum BCF values were exhibited by long-chain PFCAs, with a log D mw , log D pw and log K oc of 6.47, 5.72 and 5.04, respectively. These findings are useful for future design and implementation of phytoremediation systems, as well for future develop of mechanistic models for predicting the environmental fate and distribution of these contaminants of concern. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in the aquatic environment as found in science park effluent, river water, rainwater, sediments, and biotissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Tsai, Yu-Ting; Yu, Tsung-Hsien

    2014-05-01

    The current article maps perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) contamination in the largest Science Park of Taiwan. The occurrence of ten target PFAAs in the effluent of an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP), its receiving rivers, rainwater, sediment, and the muscles and livers of fish was investigated. All target PFAAs were found in effluent of IWWTP, in which perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (6,930 ng/L), perfluorohexyl sulfonate (PFHxS) (2,662 ng/L) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (3,298 ng/L) were the major constituents. Concentrations of PFBS and PFOS in the IWWTP downstream areas have exceeded safe concentration levels of avian and aquatic life, indicating a potential risk to wildlife in those areas. In sediment samples, predominant contaminants were PFOS (1.5-78 ng/g), PFOA (0.5-5.6 ng/g), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) (nd-5.4 ng/g). In biological tissue samples, concentrations as high as 28,933 ng/g of PFOS were detected in tilapia and catfish liver samples. A positive correlation for log (C sediment/C water) and log (C tissue/C water) was found. The concentration and proportion (percentage of all PFAAs) of PFOS found in biotissue samples from the Keya River (which receives industrial wastewater) were found to be much greater (200 times) than those of samples from the Keelung River (which receives mainly domestic wastewater). These findings suggest that the receiving aquatic environments and, in turn, the human food chain can be significantly influenced by industrial discharges.

  16. Use of strong anion exchange resins for the removal of perfluoroalkylated substances from contaminated drinking water in batch and continuous pilot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaggia, Alessandro; Conte, Lino; Falletti, Luigi; Fant, Massimo; Chiorboli, Andrea

    2016-03-15

    In recent years abnormally high levels of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been detected both in surface and underground water sampled in an area covering approximately 150 square kilometers in the Veneto region (Italy) indicating the presence of a pollution point source (fluorochemicals production plant). Adsorption on granular activated carbon is an emergency measure which is poorly effective requiring frequent replacement. This work focuses on the application of three strong anion exchange resins (Purolite® A520E, A600E and A532E) for the removal of traces of PFOA, PFOS, PFBA and PFBS (concentration of hundreds of ng L(-1)) from drinking water. This technology is attractive for the possibility of reusing resins after an in-situ regeneration step. A strong relationship between the hydrophobicity of the exchange functional group of the resin and its capacity in removing PFAS exists. A600E (non hydrophobic) and A520E (fairly hydrophobic) show a reduced sorption capacity compared to A532E (highly hydrophobic). While A600E and A520E can be regenerated with solvent-less dilute solutions of non-toxic NH4Cl and NH4OH, A532E requires concentrated solutions of methanol or ethanol and 1% NH4Cl and for the sake of this work it was regarded as non-regenerable. The volume of regeneration effluents requiring incineration can be efficiently reduced by more than 96.5% by using reverse osmosis coupled with under-vacuum evaporation. Transmission electron analysis on saturated resins showed that large molecular macro-aggregates of PFAS can form in the intraparticle pores of resin indicating that ion exchange is not the only mechanism involved in PFAS removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4-4.7 ng L(-1)) and PFBS (PFAS indicates that the effects of PFOA and PFOS substitution are visible in environmental samples from India. The spatial pattern of C5-C7 PFCAs co-varied with that of PFOS suggesting similar emission drivers. PFDA and PFNA had much lower concentrations and covaried with PFOA especially in two hotspots downstream of Kanpur and Patna. PFOS and PFOA emissions to the river varied dramatically along the transect (0.20-190 and 0.03-150 g d(-1), respectively). PFOS emission pattern could be explained by the number of urban residents in the subcatchment (rather than total population). Per-capita emissions were lower than in many developed countries. In groundwater, PFBA (PFAS exposure intakes through drinking water were below safety thresholds for oral non-cancer risk in all age groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-05-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of polar organic contaminants in surface water of the northern Adriatic Sea by solid-phase extraction followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-QTRAP® MS using a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Canuti, Elisabetta; Weissteiner, Christof

    2013-07-01

    Water-soluble polar organic contaminants are discharged by rivers, cities, and ships into the oceans. Little is known on the fate, pollution effects, and thresholds of toxic chemical mixtures in the marine environment. A new trace analytical method was developed for the multi-compound analysis of polar organic chemical contaminants in marine waters. The method is based on automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) of one-liter water samples followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTRAP(®) MS). Marine water samples from the open Adriatic Sea taken 16 km offshore from Venice (Italy) were analyzed. Method limits of quantification (LOQs) in the low picogram per liter (pg/l) concentration range were achieved. Among the 67 target chemicals analyzed, 45 substances could be detected above the LOQ. The chemicals detected at the highest concentrations were caffeine (up to 367 ng/l), nitrophenol (36 ng/l), 2,4-dinitrophenol (34 ng/l), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (18.5 ng/l), sucralose (11 ng/l), 1H-benzotriazole (9.2 ng/l), terbuthylazine (9 ng/l), alachlor (7.7 ng/l), atrazine-desisopropyl (6.6 ng/l), diethyltoluamide (DEET) (5.0 ng/l), terbuthylazine-desethyl (4.3 ng/l), metolachlor (2.8 ng/l), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (2.5 ng/l), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) (2.3 ng/l), linuron (2.3 ng/l), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (2.2 ng/l), diuron (2.0 ng/l), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (1.6 ng/l), simazine (1.6 ng/l), atrazine (1.5 ng/l), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (1.3 ng/l). Higher concentrations were detected during summer due to increased levels of tourist activity during this period.

  20. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in raw water from New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Lippincott, R Lee; Procopio, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were previously detected (≥ 4 ng/L) in 65% and 30%, respectively, of 23 New Jersey (NJ) public drinking water systems (PWS) sampled in 2006. We now report on a 2009 study of the occurrence of PFOA, PFOS, and eight other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in raw water samples from 30 intakes (18 groundwater and 12 surface water) from 29 additional NJ PWS. Between 1 and 8 PFCs were detected (≥ 5 ng/L) in 21 (70%) of 30 PWS samples at total PFC concentrations of 5-174 ng/L. Although PFOA was the most commonly detected PFC (57% of samples) and was found at the highest maximum concentration (100 ng/L), some of the higher levels of other PFCs were at sites with little or no PFOA. Perfluorononanoic acid was detected more frequently (30%) and at higher concentrations (up to 96 ng/L) than in raw or finished drinking water elsewhere, and it was found at several sites as the sole or predominant PFC, a pattern not reported in other drinking water studies. PFOS, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorohexanoic acid were each detected in more than 20% of samples, while perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were detected less frequently. Perfluorobutanoic acid was found only once (6 ng/L), and perfluorodecanoic acid was not detected. Total PFCs were highest in two reservoirs near an airfield; these were also the only sites with total perfluorosulfonic acids higher than total perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFC levels in raw and finished water from the same source were similar at those sites where both were tested. Five wells of two additional NJ PWS known to be contaminated with PFOA were also each sampled 4-9 times in 2010-13 for nine of the same PFCs. Total PFCs (almost completely PFCAs) at one of these PWS located near an industrial source of PFCs were higher than in any other PWS tested (up to 330 ng/L). These results show that multiple PFCs are

  1. Removal efficiency of multiple poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anion exchange (AE) column tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleaf, Philip; Englund, Sophie; Östlund, Anna; Lindegren, Klara; Wiberg, Karin; Ahrens, Lutz

    2017-09-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high concentrations throughout the world which has led to implementation of regulatory guidelines for specific PFASs in drinking water in several European countries and in the U.S. The Swedish National Food Agency has determined that the drinking water of over one third of the country's municipal consumers is at risk or already affected by PFAS contamination. The present study investigated the effects of perfluorocarbon chain length, functional group and isomer structure (branched or linear) on removal of multiple PFASs using granular activated carbon (GAC, Filtrasorb ® 400) and anion exchange (AE, Purolite ® A600) column experiments. The removal of 14 different PFASs, i.e. the C 3 C 11 , C 14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTeDA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and the C 4 , C 6 , C 8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS), was monitored for a 217 day period. The results indicate the selective nature of PFAS removal as the absorbents are loaded with PFASs and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A clear relationship between perfluorocarbon chain length and removal efficiency of PFASs using GAC and AE was found while PFASs with sulfonate functional groups displayed greater removal efficiency than those with carboxylate groups. Similarly, time to column breakthrough increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length and was greater for the PFSAs than the PFCAs for both GAC and AE. Shorter carbon chained PFASs such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA showed desorption behavior and long-chained PFASs showed increased removal towards the end of the experiment indicating agglomeration or micelle development. Linear isomers of PFOS, PFHxS, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) had greater column removal efficiencies using GAC (and also for AE at greater bed volume throughput) than the branched

  2. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, A.; Bemrah, N.; Veyrand, B.; Pollono, C.; Merlo, M.; Desvignes, V.; Sirot, V.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis

  3. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, A., E-mail: ami.s.yamada@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Bemrah, N., E-mail: nawel.bemrah@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Veyrand, B., E-mail: bruno.veyrand@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Pollono, C., E-mail: charles.pollono@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Merlo, M., E-mail: mathilde.merlo@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Desvignes, V., E-mail: virginie.desvignes@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Sirot, V., E-mail: sirotv@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); and others

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis.

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in wastewater treatment plants and drinking water treatment plants: Removal efficiency and exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs. The average total PFASs concentrations in the three selected WWTPs were 19.6-232 ng/L in influents, 15.5-234 ng/L in effluents, and 31.5-49.1 ng/g dry weight in sludge. The distribution pattern of PFASs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples, indicating strong partition of PFASs with long carbon chains to sludge. In the WWTPs, most PFASs were not eliminated efficiently in conventional activated sludge treatment, while the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) and Unitank removed approximately 50% of long chain (C ≥ 8) perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). The daily mass loads of total PFASs in WWTPs were in the range of 1956-24773 mg in influent and 1548-25085 mg in effluent. PFASs were found at higher concentrations in the wastewater from plant A with some industrial wastewater input than from the other two plants (plant B and plant C) with mainly domestic wastewater sources. Meanwhile, the average total PFASs concentrations in the two selected DWTPs were detected at 4.74-14.3 ng/L in the influent and 3.34-13.9 ng/L in the effluent. In DWTPs, only granular activated carbon (GAC) and powder activated carbon (PAC) showed significant removal of PFASs. The PFASs detected in the tap water would not pose immediate health risks in the short term exposure. The findings from this

  5. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water, soil and plants in wetlands and agricultural areas in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalahmeh, Sahar; Tirgani, Sana; Komakech, Allan John; Niwagaba, Charles B; Ahrens, Lutz

    2018-08-01

    Occurrence and concentrations of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were evaluated in wastewater, surface water, soil and crop plants (yam (Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)) in Nakivubo wetland and Lake Victoria at Kampala, Uganda. ∑PFAS concentrations in effluent from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were higher (5.6-9.1ngL -1 ) than in the corresponding influent (3.4-5.1ngL -1 ), indicating poor removal of PFASs within the WWTP. ∑PFAS concentrations decreased by a factor of approximately five between Nakivubo channel (8.5-12ngL -1 ) and Lake Victoria (1.0-2.5ngL -1 ), due to dilution, sorption to sediment and uptake by plants in the wetland. ∑PFAS concentrations were within the range 1700-7900pgg -1 dry weight (dw) in soil and 160pgg -1 dw (maize cobs) to 380pgg -1 dw (sugarcane stems) in plants. The dominant PFASs were perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in wastewater, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in surface water, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in soil and perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) and PFOA in different plant tissues, reflecting PFAS-specific partitioning behaviour in different matrices. Soil-water partitioning coefficient (log K d ) in wetland soil under yam was lowest for short-chain PFHxA (1.9-2.3Lkg -1 ) and increased with increasing chain length to 2.8-3.1Lkg -1 for perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and 2.8-3.1Lkg -1 for perfluoroctanesulfonate (PFOS). The log K oc values ranged between 2.2 and 3.6Lkg -1 , with the highest log K oc estimated for long-chain perfluorocarbon PFASs (i.e. PFUnDA 3.2-3.5Lkg -1 and PFOS 3.2-3.6Lkg -1 ). The concentration ratio (CR) between plants and soil was <1 for all PFASs and plant species, with the highest CR estimated for PFHpA (0.65-0.67) in sugarcane stem and PFBS (0.53-0.59) in yam root. Overall, this investigation demonstrated PFASs entry into the terrestrial food chain and drinking water resources in Kampala, Uganda. Source identification, assessment of

  6. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    Relevant concentrations of a broad range of pollutants have been found in Spanish Mediterranean River basins, as consequence of anthropogenic pressures and overexploitation (Campo et al., 2014). In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water and sediment of the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain). PFASs are persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic, which make them a hazard to human health and wildlife. The Ebro and Guadalquivir Rivers are the two most important rivers of Spain. They are representative examples of Mediterranean rivers heavily managed, and previous researches have reported their high pesticide contamination (Masiá et al., 2013). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). In water samples, from 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro samples and 9 in Guadalquivir ones. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxS and PFOS. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, with 251.3 ng L-1 in Ebro and 742.9 ng L-1 in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediment samples, 8 PFASs were detected in those coming from Ebro basin and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOS and PFBS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was detected for PFOA, with 32.4 ng g-1 dw, and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA with 63.8 ng g-1 dw. Ubiquity of these compounds in the environment was proved with high PFAS concentration values detected in upper parts of the rivers. Results confirm that most of the PFASs are only partially eliminated during the secondary treatment suggesting that they can be a focal point of contamination to the rivers where they can bio-accumulate and produce adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Acknowledgment The Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness has supported this work through the projects SCARCE-CSD2009-00065, CGL2011

  7. Screening of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Perez, Francisca; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia; Andreu, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    compounds, 13 were identified in water samples (PFBA, PFDA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFHxDA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS and L-PFOS), and their concentrations ranged between 0. 1 ng L-1 (PFNA) and 2709 ng L-1 (L-PFOS). Similarly, PFBA, PFDA, PFDoA, PFHpA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS, L-PFOS and PFOSA were identified in sediments samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.147 ng g-1 dw (L-PFOS) to 13 ng g-1 dw (PFBA). In biota similar PFC were detected, with values between 0.03 and 1738.06 ng g-1. According to this study, PFCs were detected in different compartments of the ecosystem where they are bio-accumulating and, potentially, would produce adverse effects on humans. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the projects Consolider-Ingenio 2010 CSD2009-00065 and CGL2011-29703-C02-02. We also thank the persons of IDAEA for taking the samples. References Llorca, M., Farre, M., Pico, Y., Muller, J., Knepper, T. P., Barcelo, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in waters from Germany and Spain. Sci. Total Environ. 431, 139-150. Llorca, M., Pérez, F., Farre, M., Agramunt, S., Kogevinas, M., Barceló, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood by turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Sci. Total Environ. 433, 151-160. Pico, Y., Blasco, C., Farre, M., Barcelo, D., 2012. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in water and sediment of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain). Environ.Sci.Pollut.Res. 19, 946-957. Sundstrom, M., Ehresman, D. J., Bignert, A., Butenhoff, J. L., Olsen, G. W., Chang, S. C., Bergman, A., 2011. A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden. Environ. Inter. 37, 178-183.

  8. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-01-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT_5_0 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. - Highlights: • Biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs in an aerobic soil was investigated.