Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Roubíček, Tomáš; Valdman, Jan
2016-01-01
Roč. 76, č. 1 (2016), s. 314-340 ISSN 0036-1399 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S; GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : Prandtl-Reuss perfect plasticity * bounded-deformation space * incomplete damage Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/valdman-0458557.pdf
Residual stresses in plastic random systems
Alava, M.J.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Niskanen, K.J.
1995-01-01
We show that yielding in elastic plastic materials creates residual stresses when local disorder is present. The intensity of these stresses grows with the external stress and degree of initial disorder. The one-dimensional model we employ also yields a discontinuous transition to perfect plasticity
Development of a perfect prognosis probabilistic model for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A prediction model based on the perfect prognosis method was developed to predict the probability of lightning and probable time of its occurrence over the south-east Indian region. In the perfect prognosis method, statistical relationships are established using past observed data. For real time applications, the predictors ...
Numerical rigid plastic modelling of shear capacity of keyed joints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Hoang, Linh Cao
2015-01-01
Keyed shear joints are currently designed using simple and conservative design formulas, yet these formulas do not take the local mechanisms in the concrete core of the joint into account. To investigate this phenomenon a rigid, perfectly plastic finite element model of keyed joints is used....... The model is formulated for second-order conic optimisation as a lower bound problem, which yields a statically admissible stress field that satisfies the yield condition in every point. The dual solution to the problem can be interpreted as the collapse mode and will be used to analyse the properties...
Analytical modeling of tube-to-tubesheet joints subjected to plasticity and creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouzid, A.-H.; Laghzale, N-E.
2009-01-01
The mechanism of failure of heat exchanger and steam generator tube-to-tubesheet joints is related to the level of residual stresses produced in the tube expansion and transition zones during the expansion process and their variation during operation. The accurate prediction of these stresses based of the plastic and creep properties of the joint materials involved can help to design for better leak tightness and strength. Existing design calculations are based on an elastic perfectly plastic behavior of the expansion joint materials and do not account for creep. The proposed model is based on a linear strain hardening material behavior and considers the joint contact pressure relaxation with time. The interaction of the tube and the tubesheet is simulated during the process of the application of the expansion pressure and operation. The effects of the gap, material strain hardening and creep properties are to be emphasized. The developed model results are validated and confronted against the more accurate numerical FEA models. (author)
Spherically symmetric Einstein-aether perfect fluid models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coley, Alan A.; Latta, Joey [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Leon, Genly [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4950, Valparaíso (Chile); Sandin, Patrik, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.ca, E-mail: genly.leon@ucv.cl, E-mail: patrik.sandin@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: lattaj@mathstat.dal.ca [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2015-12-01
We investigate spherically symmetric cosmological models in Einstein-aether theory with a tilted (non-comoving) perfect fluid source. We use a 1+3 frame formalism and adopt the comoving aether gauge to derive the evolution equations, which form a well-posed system of first order partial differential equations in two variables. We then introduce normalized variables. The formalism is particularly well-suited for numerical computations and the study of the qualitative properties of the models, which are also solutions of Horava gravity. We study the local stability of the equilibrium points of the resulting dynamical system corresponding to physically realistic inhomogeneous cosmological models and astrophysical objects with values for the parameters which are consistent with current constraints. In particular, we consider dust models in (β−) normalized variables and derive a reduced (closed) evolution system and we obtain the general evolution equations for the spatially homogeneous Kantowski-Sachs models using appropriate bounded normalized variables. We then analyse these models, with special emphasis on the future asymptotic behaviour for different values of the parameters. Finally, we investigate static models for a mixture of a (necessarily non-tilted) perfect fluid with a barotropic equations of state and a scalar field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Claus Dencker; Byskov, Esben
2008-01-01
The postbuckling behavior and imperfection sensitivity of the Shanley-Hutchinson plastic model column introduced by Hutchinson in 1973 are examined. The study covers the initial, buckled state and the advanced postbuckling regime of the geometrically perfect realization as well as its sensitivity...... to geometric imperfections. In Section 1, which is concerned with the perfect structure, a new, simple explicit upper bound for all solutions to the problem is found when the tangent modulus at bifurcation vanishes compared to the linear elastic (unloading) modulus. The difference between the upper bound...... and the solution to an actual problem is determined by an asymptotic expansion involving hyperbolic trial functions (instead of polynomials) which fulfill general boundary conditions at bifurcation and infinity. The method provides an accurate estimate of the maximum load even if it occurs in an advanced...
The Perfect Eye A Novel Model for Teaching the Theory of Refraction.
Kurtz, Daniel
1999-01-01
The Perfect Eye model simplifies solutions to a wide variety of optometry instructional problems by facilitating student understanding of the interaction among lenses, objects, accommodation, and ametropia. The model is based on the premise that inside every eye is a perfect (emmetropic) eye, and that the physiological eye is a combination of the…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaaba, Ali; Aboussaleh, Mohamed; Bousshine, Lahbib; Boudaia, El Hassan
2011-01-01
Limit analysis approaches are widely used to deal with metalworking processes analysis; however, they are applied only for perfectly plastic materials and recently for isotropic hardening ones excluding any kind of kinematic hardening. In the present work, using Implicit Standard Materials concept, sequential limit analysis approach and the finite element method, our objective consists in extending the limit analysis application for including linear and non linear kinematic strain hardenings. Because this plastic flow rule is non associative, the Implicit Standard Materials concept is adopted as a framework of non standard plasticity modeling. The sequential limit analysis procedure which considers the plastic behavior with non linear kinematic strain hardening as a succession of perfectly plastic behavior with yielding surfaces updated after each sequence of limit analysis and geometry updating is applied. Standard kinematic finite element method together with a regularization approach is used for performing two large compression cases (cold forging) in plane strain and axisymmetric conditions
Plasticity dependent damage evolution in composites with strain-gradient effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Legarth, Brian Nyvang
2015-01-01
. (2013). In this study the reinforcement is assumed perfectly stiff and consequently only one new cohesive material parameter is introduced. Results are shown for both conventional isotropy as well as plastic anisotropy with higher-order material behavior. Due to fiber-matrix decohesion a sudden stress......A unit cell approach is adopted to numerically analyze the effect of reinforcement size on fracture evolution in metal matrix composites. The matrix material shows plastic size-effects and is modeled by an anisotropic version of the single parameter strain-gradient (higher-order) plasticity model...... by Fleck and Hutchinson (2001). The fracture process along the fiber-matrix interface is modeled using a recently proposed cohesive law extension, where plasticity affects the fracture process as both the average as well as the jump in plastic strain across the interface are accounted for Tvergaard et al...
Indentation of elastically soft and plastically compressible solids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Needleman, A.; Tvergaard, Viggo; Van der Giessen, E.
2015-01-01
rapidly for small deviations from plastic incompressibility and then decreases rather slowly for values of the plastic Poisson's ratio less than 0.25. For both soft elasticity and plastic compressibility, the main reason for the lower values of indentation hardness is related to the reduction......The effect of soft elasticity, i.e., a relatively small value of the ratio of Young's modulus to yield strength and plastic compressibility on the indentation of isotropically hardening elastic-viscoplastic solids is investigated. Calculations are carried out for indentation of a perfectly sticking...... rigid sharp indenter into a cylinder modeling indentation of a half space. The material is characterized by a finite strain elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation that allows for plastic as well as elastic compressibility. Both soft elasticity and plastic compressibility significantly reduce...
Numerical Approaches to Thermally Coupled Perfect Plasticity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bartels, S.; Roubíček, Tomáš
2013-01-01
Roč. 29, č. 6 (2013), s. 1837-1863 ISSN 0749-159X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : thermodynamics * Prandtl-Reuss plasticity * Kelvin-Voigt rheology Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/num.21779/full
Effective high-order solver with thermally perfect gas model for hypersonic heating prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Zhenhua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian; Qu, Feng; Ma, Libin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Design proper numerical flux for thermally perfect gas. • Line-implicit LUSGS enhances efficiency without extra memory consumption. • Develop unified framework for both second-order MUSCL and fifth-order WENO. • The designed gas model can be applied to much wider temperature range. - Abstract: Effective high-order solver based on the model of thermally perfect gas has been developed for hypersonic heat transfer computation. The technique of polynomial curve fit coupling to thermodynamics equation is suggested to establish the current model and particular attention has been paid to the design of proper numerical flux for thermally perfect gas. We present procedures that unify five-order WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) scheme in the existing second-order finite volume framework and a line-implicit method that improves the computational efficiency without increasing memory consumption. A variety of hypersonic viscous flows are performed to examine the capability of the resulted high order thermally perfect gas solver. Numerical results demonstrate its superior performance compared to low-order calorically perfect gas method and indicate its potential application to hypersonic heating predictions for real-life problem.
A hybrid of monopoly and perfect competition model for hi-tech products
Yang, P. C.; Wee, H. M.; Pai, S.; Yang, H. J.; Wee, P. K. P.
2010-11-01
For Hi-tech products, the demand rate, the component cost as well as the selling price usually decline significantly with time. In the case of perfect competition, shortages usually result in lost sales; while in a monopoly, shortages will be completely backordered. However, neither perfect competition nor monopoly exists. Therefore, there is a need to develop a replenishment model considering a hybrid of perfect competition and monopoly when the cost, price and demand are decreasing simultaneously. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis are carried out to illustrate this model. The results show that a higher decline-rate in the component cost leads to a smaller service level and a larger replenishment interval. When the component cost decline rate increases and the selling price decline rate decreases simultaneously, the replenishment interval decreases. In perfect competition it is better to have a high service level, while for the case with monopoly, keeping a low service level is better due to complete backordering.
Simulation of MILD combustion using Perfectly Stirred Reactor model
Chen, Z.; Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy; Ruan, S.; Doan, N. A K; Roberts, William L.; Swaminathan, N.
2016-01-01
A simple model based on a Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) is proposed for moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion. The PSR calculation is performed covering the entire flammability range and the tabulated chemistry approach is used
A general shakedown theorem for elastic/plastic bodies with work hardening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponter, A.R.S.
1975-01-01
In recent years the design of metallic structures under variable loading has been assisted by the application of Melan's lower bound theorem for the shakedown on an elastic/perfectly plastic structure. The design codes for both portal frames and pressure vessels have taken account of such calculations. The theory of shakedown suffers from two defects, geometry changes are ignored and the material behaviour is described by a perfectly plastic constitutive relationship which includes neither work hardening nor the Bauschinger effect. This paper is concerned with the latter problem. A very general lower bound shakedown theorem is derived for an arbitrary time-independent material in terms of functional properties of the constitutive relationship. The theorem is then applied to perfect, isotropic and kinematic hardening plasticity. (Auth.)
Elastic-plastic analysis of AS4/PEEK composite laminate using a one-parameter plasticity model
Sun, C. T.; Yoon, K. J.
1992-01-01
A one-parameter plasticity model was shown to adequately describe the plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK (APC-2) unidirectional thermoplastic composite. This model was verified further for unidirectional and laminated composite panels with and without a hole. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relations of coupon specimens were measured and compared with those predicted by the finite element analysis using the one-parameter plasticity model. The results show that the one-parameter plasticity model is suitable for the analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK composite laminates.
Plasticity: modeling & computation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Borja, Ronaldo Israel
2013-01-01
.... "Plasticity Modeling & Computation" is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids...
Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain
González, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.
2012-08-01
The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000.
Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
González, Juan C; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C
2012-01-01
The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000. (paper)
Three dimensional grain boundary modeling in polycrystalline plasticity
Yalçinkaya, Tuncay; Özdemir, Izzet; Fırat, Ali Osman
2018-05-01
At grain scale, polycrystalline materials develop heterogeneous plastic deformation fields, localizations and stress concentrations due to variation of grain orientations, geometries and defects. Development of inter-granular stresses due to misorientation are crucial for a range of grain boundary (GB) related failure mechanisms, such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fatigue cracking. Local crystal plasticity finite element modelling of polycrystalline metals at micron scale results in stress jumps at the grain boundaries. Moreover, the concepts such as the transmission of dislocations between grains and strength of the grain boundaries are not included in the modelling. The higher order strain gradient crystal plasticity modelling approaches offer the possibility of defining grain boundary conditions. However, these conditions are mostly not dependent on misorientation of grains and can define only extreme cases. For a proper definition of grain boundary behavior in plasticity, a model for grain boundary behavior should be incorporated into the plasticity framework. In this context, a particular grain boundary model ([l]) is incorporated into a strain gradient crystal plasticity framework ([2]). In a 3-D setting, both bulk and grain boundary models are implemented as user-defined elements in Abaqus. The strain gradient crystal plasticity model works in the bulk elements and considers displacements and plastic slips as degree of freedoms. Interface elements model the plastic slip behavior, yet they do not possess any kind of mechanical cohesive behavior. The physical aspects of grain boundaries and the performance of the model are addressed through numerical examples.
Plastic crystal phases of simple water models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aragones, J. L.; Vega, C.
2009-01-01
We report the appearance of two plastic crystal phases of water at high pressure and temperature using computer simulations. In one of them the oxygen atoms form a body centered cubic structure (bcc) and in the other they form a face centered cubic structure (fcc). In both cases the water molecules were able to rotate almost freely. We have found that the bcc plastic crystal transformed into a fcc plastic crystal via a Martensitic phase transition when heated at constant pressure. We have performed the characterization and localization in the phase diagram of these plastic crystal phases for the SPC/E, TIP4P, and TIP4P/2005 water potential models. For TIP4P/2005 model free energy calculations were carried out for the bcc plastic crystal and fcc plastic crystal using a new method (which is a slight variation of the Einstein crystal method) proposed for these types of solid. The initial coexistence points for the SPC/E and TIP4P models were obtained using Hamiltonian Gibbs–Duhem integration. For all of these models these two plastic crystal phases appear in the high pressure and temperature region of the phase diagram. It would be of interest to study if such plastic crystal phases do indeed exist for real water. This would shed some light on the question of whether these models can describe satisfactorily the high pressure part of the phase diagram of water, and if not, where and why they fail.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Chen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the triaxial test, the elasto-perfectly plastic strain-softening damage model (EPSDM is proposed as a new four-stage constitutive model. Compared with traditional models, such as the elasto-brittle-plastic model (EBM, elasto-strain-softening model (ESM, elasto-perfectly plastic model (EPM, and elasto-peak plastic-brittle plastic model (EPBM, this model incorporates both the plastic bearing capacity and strain-softening characteristics of rock mass. Moreover, a new closed-form solution of the circular tunnel is presented for the stress and displacement distribution, and a plastic shear strain increment is introduced to define the critical condition where the strain-softening zone begins to occur. The new analysis solution obtained in this paper is a series of results rather than one specific solution; hence, it is suitable for a wide range of rock masses and engineering structures. The numerical simulation has been used to verify the correctness of the EPSDM. The parametric studies are also conducted to investigate the effects of supporting resistance, residual cohesion, dilation angle, strain-softening coefficient, plastic shear strain increment, and yield parameter on the result. It is shown that when the supporting resistance is fully released, both the post-peak failure radii and surface displacement could be summarized as EBM > EPBM > ESM > EPSDM > EPM; the dilation angle in the damage zone had the highest influence on the surface displacement, whereas the dilation angle in the perfectly plastic zone had the lowest influence; the strain-softening coefficient had the most significant effect on the damage zone radii; the EPSDM is recommended as the optimum model for support design and stability evaluation of the circular tunnel excavated in the perfectly plastic strain-softening rock mass.
Perfect fluid Bianchi Type-I cosmological models with time varying G ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Bianchi Type-I cosmological models containing perfect fluid with time vary- ing G and Λ have been presented. The solutions obtained represent an expansion scalar θ bearing a constant ratio to the anisotropy in the direction of space-like unit vector λi. Of the two models obtained, one has negative vacuum energy ...
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1991-07-01
Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.
Modeling plasticity by non-continuous deformation
Ben-Shmuel, Yaron; Altus, Eli
2017-10-01
Plasticity and failure theories are still subjects of intense research. Engineering constitutive models on the macroscale which are based on micro characteristics are very much in need. This study is motivated by the observation that continuum assumptions in plasticity in which neighbour material elements are inseparable at all-time are physically impossible, since local detachments, slips and neighbour switching must operate, i.e. non-continuous deformation. Material microstructure is modelled herein by a set of point elements (particles) interacting with their neighbours. Each particle can detach from and/or attach with its neighbours during deformation. Simulations on two- dimensional configurations subjected to uniaxial compression cycle are conducted. Stochastic heterogeneity is controlled by a single "disorder" parameter. It was found that (a) macro response resembles typical elasto-plastic behaviour; (b) plastic energy is proportional to the number of detachments; (c) residual plastic strain is proportional to the number of attachments, and (d) volume is preserved, which is consistent with macro plastic deformation. Rigid body displacements of local groups of elements are also observed. Higher disorder decreases the macro elastic moduli and increases plastic energy. Evolution of anisotropic effects is obtained with no additional parameters.
Plasticity Detection and Quantification in Monopile Support Structures Due to Axial Impact Loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meijers P.C.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Recent developments in the construction of offshore wind turbines have created the need for a method to detect whether a monopile foundation is plastically deformed during the installation procedure. Since measurements at the pile head are difficult to perform, a method based on measurements at a certain distance below the pile head is proposed in this work for quantification of the amount of plasticity. By considering a onedimensional rod model with an elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive relation, it is shown that the occurrence of plastic deformation caused by an impact load can be detected from these measurements. Furthermore, this plastic deformation can be quantified by the same measurement with the help of an energy balance. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated via a numerical example.
Perfect fluid models in noncomoving observational spherical coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishak, Mustapha
2004-01-01
We use null spherical (observational) coordinates to describe a class of inhomogeneous cosmological models. The proposed cosmological construction is based on the observer past null cone. A known difficulty in using inhomogeneous models is that the null geodesic equation is not integrable in general. Our choice of null coordinates solves the radial ingoing null geodesic by construction. Furthermore, we use an approach where the velocity field is uniquely calculated from the metric rather than put in by hand. Conveniently, this allows us to explore models in a noncomoving frame of reference. In this frame, we find that the velocity field has shear, acceleration, and expansion rate in general. We show that a comoving frame is not compatible with expanding perfect fluid models in the coordinates proposed and dust models are simply not possible. We describe the models in a noncomoving frame. We use the dust models in a noncomoving frame to outline a fitting procedure
Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds
Hewitt, Ian
2016-11-01
Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.
Recurrent network models for perfect temporal integration of fluctuating correlated inputs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroshi Okamoto
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Temporal integration of input is essential to the accumulation of information in various cognitive and behavioral processes, and gradually increasing neuronal activity, typically occurring within a range of seconds, is considered to reflect such computation by the brain. Some psychological evidence suggests that temporal integration by the brain is nearly perfect, that is, the integration is non-leaky, and the output of a neural integrator is accurately proportional to the strength of input. Neural mechanisms of perfect temporal integration, however, remain largely unknown. Here, we propose a recurrent network model of cortical neurons that perfectly integrates partially correlated, irregular input spike trains. We demonstrate that the rate of this temporal integration changes proportionately to the probability of spike coincidences in synaptic inputs. We analytically prove that this highly accurate integration of synaptic inputs emerges from integration of the variance of the fluctuating synaptic inputs, when their mean component is kept constant. Highly irregular neuronal firing and spike coincidences are the major features of cortical activity, but they have been separately addressed so far. Our results suggest that the efficient protocol of information integration by cortical networks essentially requires both features and hence is heterotic.
Lee, Hwang; Byun, Da-Eun; Kim, Ju Min; Kwon, Jung-Hwan
2018-01-01
To evaluate rate of migration from plastic debris, desorption of model hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) from polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) films to water was measured using PE/PP films homogeneously loaded with the HOCs. The HOCs fractions remaining in the PE/PP films were compared with those predicted using a model characterized by the mass transfer Biot number. The experimental data agreed with the model simulation, indicating that HOCs desorption from plastic particles can generally be described by the model. For hexachlorocyclohexanes with lower plastic-water partition coefficients, desorption was dominated by diffusion in the plastic film, whereas desorption of chlorinated benzenes with higher partition coefficients was determined by diffusion in the aqueous boundary layer. Evaluation of the fraction of HOCs remaining in plastic films with respect to film thickness and desorption time showed that the partition coefficient between plastic and water is the most important parameter influencing the desorption half-life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A compact cyclic plasticity model with parameter evolution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen; Tidemann, L.
2017-01-01
The paper presents a compact model for cyclic plasticity based on energy in terms of external and internal variables, and plastic yielding described by kinematic hardening and a flow potential with an additive term controlling the nonlinear cyclic hardening. The model is basically described by five...... parameters: external and internal stiffness, a yield stress and a limiting ultimate stress, and finally a parameter controlling the gradual development of plastic deformation. Calibration against numerous experimental results indicates that typically larger plastic strains develop than predicted...
Williams, James; Tremblay, L. Bruno; Lemieux, Jean-François
2017-07-01
The plastic wave speed is derived from the linearized 1-D version of the widely used viscous-plastic (VP) and elastic-viscous-plastic (EVP) sea-ice models. Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) conditions are derived using the propagation speed of the wave. 1-D numerical experiments of the VP, EVP and EVP* models successfully recreate a reference solution when the CFL conditions are satisfied, in agreement with the theory presented. The IMplicit-EXplicit (IMEX) method is shown to effectively alleviate the plastic wave CFL constraint on the timestep in the implicitly solved VP model in both 1-D and 2-D. In 2-D, the EVP and EVP* models show first order error in the simulated velocity field when the plastic wave is not resolved. EVP simulations are performed with various advective timestep, number of subcycles, and elastic-wave damping timescales. It is found that increasing the number of subcycles beyond that needed to resolve the elastic wave does not improve the quality of the solution. It is found that reducing the elastic wave damping timescale reduces the spatial extent of first order errors cause by the unresolved plastic wave. Reducing the advective timestep so that the plastic wave is resolved also reduces the velocity error in terms of magnitude and spatial extent. However, the parameter set required for convergence to within the error bars of satellite (RGPS) deformation fields is impractical for use in climate model simulations. The behavior of the EVP* method is analogous to that of the EVP method except that it is not possible to reduce the damping timescale with α = β.
Homeostatic role of heterosynaptic plasticity: Models and experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina eChistiakova
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Homosynaptic Hebbian-type plasticity provides a cellular mechanism of learning and refinement of connectivity during development in a variety of biological systems. In this review we argue that a complimentary form of plasticity - heterosynaptic plasticity - represents a necessary cellular component for homeostatic regulation of synaptic weights and neuronal activity. The required properties of a homeostatic mechanism which acutely constrains the runaway dynamics imposed by Hebbian associative plasticity have been well-articulated by theoretical and modeling studies. Such mechanism(s should robustly support the stability of operation of neuronal networks and synaptic competition, include changes at non-active synapses, and operate on a similar time scale to Hebbian-type plasticity. The experimentally observed properties of heterosynaptic plasticity have introduced it as a strong candidate to fulfill this homeostatic role. Subsequent modeling studies which incorporate heterosynaptic plasticity into model neurons with Hebbian synapses (utilizing an STDP learning rule have confirmed its ability to robustly provide stability and competition. In contrast, properties of homeostatic synaptic scaling, which is triggered by extreme and long lasting (hours and days changes of neuronal activity, do not fit two crucial requirements for a hypothetical homeostatic mechanism needed to provide stability of operation in the face of on-going synaptic changes driven by Hebbian-type learning rules. Both the trigger and the time scale of homeostatic synaptic scaling are fundamentally different from those of the Hebbian-type plasticity. We conclude that heterosynaptic plasticity, which is triggered by the same episodes of strong postsynaptic activity and operates on the same time scale as Hebbian-type associative plasticity, is ideally suited to serve homeostatic role during on-going synaptic plasticity.
Effects of Perfectly Correlated and Anti-Correlated Noise in a Logistic Growth Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Li; Cao Li
2011-01-01
The logistic growth model with correlated additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noise is used to analyze tumor cell population. The effects of perfectly correlated and anti-correlated noise on the stationary properties of tumor cell population are studied. As in both cases the diffusion coefficient has zero point in real number field, some special features of the system are arisen. It is found that in both cases, the increase of the multiplicative noise intensity cause tumor cell extinction. In the perfectly anti-correlated case, the stationary probability distribution as a function of tumor cell population exhibit two extrema. (general)
A note on perfect scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sriramkumar, L.
2010-01-01
We derive a condition on the Lagrangian density describing a generic, single, noncanonical scalar field, by demanding that the intrinsic, nonadiabatic pressure perturbation associated with the scalar field vanishes identically. Based on the analogy with perfect fluids, we refer to such fields as perfect scalar fields. It is common knowledge that models that depend only on the kinetic energy of the scalar field (often referred to as pure kinetic models) possess no nonadiabatic pressure perturbation. While we are able to construct models that seemingly depend on the scalar field and also do not contain any nonadiabatic pressure perturbation, we find that all such models that we construct allow a redefinition of the field under which they reduce to pure kinetic models. We show that, if a perfect scalar field drives inflation, then, in such situations, the first slow roll parameter will always be a monotonically decreasing function of time. We point out that this behavior implies that these scalar fields cannot lead to features in the inflationary, scalar perturbation spectrum.
Modelling of elasto-plastic material behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halleux, J.P.
1981-01-01
The present report describes time-independent elasto-plastic material behaviour modelling techniques useful for implementation in fast structural dynamics computer programs. Elasto-plastic behaviour is characteristic for metallic materials such as steel and is thus of particular importance in the study of reactor safety-related problems. The classical time-independent elasto-plastic flow theory is recalled and the fundamental incremental stress-strain relationships are established for strain rate independent material behaviour. Some particular expressions useful in practice and including reversed loading are derived and suitable computational schemes are shwon. Modelling of strain rate effects is then taken into account, according to experimental data obtained from uniaxial tension tests. Finally qualitative strain rate history effects are considered. Applications are presented and illustrate both static and dynamic material behaviour
A plastic damage model with stress triaxiality-dependent hardening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Xinpu; Shen Guoxiao; Zhou Lin
2005-01-01
Emphases of this study were placed on the modelling of plastic damage behaviour of prestressed structural concrete, with special attention being paid to the stress-triaxiality dependent plastic hardening law and the corresponding damage evolution law. A definition of stress triaxiality was proposed and introduced in the model presented here. Drucker-Prager -type plasticity was adopted in the formulation of the plastic damage constitutive equations. Numerical validations were performed for the proposed plasticity-based damage model with a driver subroutine developed in this study. The predicted stress-strain behaviour seems reasonably accurate for the uniaxial tension and uniaxial compression compared with the experimental data reported in references. Numerical calculations of compressions under various hydrostatic stress confinements were carried out in order to validate the stress triaxiality dependent properties of the model. (authors)
Simulation of MILD combustion using Perfectly Stirred Reactor model
Chen, Z.
2016-07-06
A simple model based on a Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) is proposed for moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion. The PSR calculation is performed covering the entire flammability range and the tabulated chemistry approach is used with a presumed joint probability density function (PDF). The jet, in hot and diluted coflow experimental set-up under MILD conditions, is simulated using this reactor model for two oxygen dilution levels. The computed results for mean temperature, major and minor species mass fractions are compared with the experimental data and simulation results obtained recently using a multi-environment transported PDF approach. Overall, a good agreement is observed at three different axial locations for these comparisons despite the over-predicted peak value of CO formation. This suggests that MILD combustion can be effectively modelled by the proposed PSR model with lower computational cost.
Variational methods for problems from plasticity theory and for generalized Newtonian fluids
Fuchs, Martin
2000-01-01
Variational methods are applied to prove the existence of weak solutions for boundary value problems from the deformation theory of plasticity as well as for the slow, steady state flow of generalized Newtonian fluids including the Bingham and Prandtl-Eyring model. For perfect plasticity the role of the stress tensor is emphasized by studying the dual variational problem in appropriate function spaces. The main results describe the analytic properties of weak solutions, e.g. differentiability of velocity fields and continuity of stresses. The monograph addresses researchers and graduate students interested in applications of variational and PDE methods in the mechanics of solids and fluids.
A linear model of ductile plastic damage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemaitre, J.
1983-01-01
A three-dimensional model of isotropic ductile plastic damage based on a continuum damage variable on the effective stress concept and on thermodynamics is derived. As shown by experiments on several metals and alloys, the model, integrated in the case of proportional loading, is linear with respect to the accumulated plastic strain and shows a large influence of stress triaxiality [fr
A Coupled Plastic Damage Model for Concrete considering the Effect of Damage on Plastic Flow
Zhou, Feng; Cheng, Guangxu
2015-01-01
A coupled plastic damage model with two damage scalars is proposed to describe the nonlinear features of concrete. The constitutive formulations are developed by assuming that damage can be represented effectively in the material compliance tensor. Damage evolution law and plastic damage coupling are described using the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. The plasticity part is developed without using the effective stress concept. A plastic yield function based on the true stress is ado...
A mathematical model of cancer cells with phenotypic plasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Da Zhou
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The phenotypic plasticity of cancer cells is recently becoming a cutting-edge research area in cancer, which challenges the cellular hierarchy proposed by the conventional cancer stem cell theory. In this study, we establish a mathematical model for describing the phenotypic plasticity of cancer cells, based on which we try to find some salient features that can characterize the dynamic behavior of the phenotypic plasticity especially in comparison to the hierarchical model of cancer cells. Methods: We model cancer as population dynamics composed of different phenotypes of cancer cells. In this model, not only can cancer cells divide (symmetrically and asymmetrically and die, but they can also convert into other cellular phenotypes. According to the Law of Mass Action, the cellular processes can be captured by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs. On one hand, we can analyze the long-term stability of the model by applying qualitative method of ODEs. On the other hand, we are also concerned about the short-term behavior of the model by studying its transient dynamics. Meanwhile, we validate our model to the cell-state dynamics in published experimental data.Results: Our results show that the phenotypic plasticity plays important roles in both stabilizing the distribution of different phenotypic mixture and maintaining the cancer stem cells proportion. In particular, the phenotypic plasticity model shows decided advantages over the hierarchical model in predicting the phenotypic equilibrium and cancer stem cells’ overshoot reported in previous biological experiments in cancer cell lines.Conclusion: Since the validity of the phenotypic plasticity paradigm and the conventional cancer stem cell theory is still debated in experimental biology, it is worthy of theoretically searching for good indicators to distinguish the two models through quantitative methods. According to our study, the phenotypic equilibrium and overshoot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mair, R.J.; Taylor, R.N.; Higgins, K.G.; Potts, D.M.
1989-01-01
Analyses have been undertaken on an advancing tunnel heading at great depth in a clay formation corresponding to the test drift construction at Mol. Belgium. Simplifying assumptions enable plasticity solutions to be used to model the behaviour of a tunnel heading in a linear elastic-perfectly plastic soil. Finite element analysis with the same soil model has been undertaken of the test drift construction, assuming axisymmetric conditions. The results are compared with the plasticity solutions and with the measurements of lining stresses, soil movements and pore pressures by SCK/CEN. Good agreement is obtained between the plasticity solutions and finite element analysis. The measured immediate build-up of stress on the linings is well-predicted and reasonable agreement is obtained between predicted and measured soil movements. The measured pore-pressure changes are poorly predicted by the analyses
Excised Abdominoplasty Material as a Systematic Plastic Surgical Training Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Erol Demirseren
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Achieving a level of technical skill and confidence in surgical operations is the main goal of plastic surgical training. Operating rooms were accepted as the practical teaching venues of the traditional apprenticeship model. However, increased patient population, time, and ethical and legal considerations made preoperation room practical work a must for plastic surgical training. There are several plastic surgical teaching models and simulators which are very useful in preoperation room practical training and the evaluation of plastic surgery residents. The full thickness skin with its vascular network excised in abdominoplasty procedures is an easily obtainable real human tissue which could be used as a training model in plastic surgery.
Robust Return Algorithm for Anisotropic Plasticity Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tidemann, L.; Krenk, Steen
2017-01-01
Plasticity models can be defined by an energy potential, a plastic flow potential and a yield surface. The energy potential defines the relation between the observable elastic strains ϒe and the energy conjugate stresses Τe and between the non-observable internal strains i and the energy conjugat...
A NOVEL NUMERICAL MODEL APPROACH FOR EXAMINING SHIP BERTHING IMPACT ON FLOATING PIERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AMIN CHEGENIZADEH
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation into the impact of ship berthing upon floating piers using highly advanced numerical software Abaqus. The ship and floating piers were modeled as solid bodies. For the first time, the effect of soil on the total energy absorption of the system was considered using both elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic soil models. First the results for the elastic soil model were compared to and verified by the existing literature using a spring soil model.Then a continuum soil model was utilized instead of a spring soil model, with the results showing 27% higher energy absorption compared to the spring model. The investigation also considered a model with soil as an elastic-perfectly plastic material, being more aligned with the soil material’s real behavior. With this model the results produced 1% more energy absorption as the soil did not reach plastic failure.
Plasticity modeling & computation
Borja, Ronaldo I
2013-01-01
There have been many excellent books written on the subject of plastic deformation in solids, but rarely can one find a textbook on this subject. “Plasticity Modeling & Computation” is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids. It adopts a simple narrative style that is not mathematically overbearing, and has been written to emulate a professor giving a lecture on this subject inside a classroom. Each section is written to provide a balance between the relevant equations and the explanations behind them. Where relevant, sections end with one or more exercises designed to reinforce the understanding of the “lecture.” Color figures enhance the presentation and make the book very pleasant to read. For professors planning to use this textbook for their classes, the contents are sufficient for Parts A and B that can be taught in sequence over a period of two semesters or quarters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hollinger, Greg L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2014-06-01
Background: The current rules in the nuclear section of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code , Section III, Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 1200F (650C)1. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (E-PP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. The proposed rules for strain limits and creep-fatigue evaluation were initially documented in the technical literature 2, 3, and have been recently revised to incorporate comments and simplify their application. The revised code cases have been developed. Task Objectives: The goal of the Sample Problem task is to exercise these code cases through example problems to demonstrate their feasibility and, also, to identify potential corrections and improvements should problems be encountered. This will provide input to the development of technical background documents for consideration by the applicable B&PV committees considering these code cases for approval. This task has been performed by Hollinger and Pease of Becht Engineering Co., Inc., Nuclear Services Division and a report detailing the results of the E-PP analyses conducted on example problems per the procedures of the E-PP strain limits and creep-fatigue draft code cases is enclosed as Enclosure 1. Conclusions: The feasibility of the application of the E-PP code cases has been demonstrated through example problems that consist of realistic geometry (a nozzle attached to a semi-hemispheric shell with a circumferential weld) and load (pressure; pipe reaction load applied at the end of the nozzle, including axial and shear forces, bending and torsional moments; through-wall transient temperature gradient) and design and operating conditions (Levels A, B and C).
Internal Stress in a Model Elasto-Plastic Fluid
Ooshida, Takeshi; Sekimoto, Ken
2004-01-01
Plastic materials can carry memory of past mechanical treatment in the form of internal stress. We introduce a natural definition of the vorticity of internal stress in a simple two-dimensional model of elasto-plastic fluids, which generates the internal stress. We demonstrate how the internal stress is induced under external loading, and how the presence of the internal stress modifies the plastic behavior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozawa, Masanao
2006-01-01
The notion of perfect correlations between arbitrary observables, or more generally arbitrary POVMs, is introduced in the standard formulation of quantum mechanics, and characterized by several well-established statistical conditions. The transitivity of perfect correlations is proved to generally hold, and applied to a simple articulation for the failure of Hardy's nonlocality proof for maximally entangled states. The notion of perfect correlations between observables and POVMs is used for defining the notion of a precise measurement of a given observable in a given state. A longstanding misconception on the correlation made by the measuring interaction is resolved in the light of the new theory of quantum perfect correlations
River Export of Plastic from Land to Sea: A Global Modeling Approach
Siegfried, Max; Gabbert, Silke; Koelmans, Albert A.; Kroeze, Carolien; Löhr, Ansje; Verburg, Charlotte
2016-04-01
Plastic is increasingly considered a serious cause of water pollution. It is a threat to aquatic ecosystems, including rivers, coastal waters and oceans. Rivers transport considerable amounts of plastic from land to sea. The quantity and its main sources, however, are not well known. Assessing the amount of macro- and microplastic transport from river to sea is, therefore, important for understanding the dimension and the patterns of plastic pollution of aquatic ecosystems. In addition, it is crucial for assessing short- and long-term impacts caused by plastic pollution. Here we present a global modelling approach to quantify river export of plastic from land to sea. Our approach accounts for different types of plastic, including both macro- and micro-plastics. Moreover, we distinguish point sources and diffuse sources of plastic in rivers. Our modelling approach is inspired by global nutrient models, which include more than 6000 river basins. In this paper, we will present our modelling approach, as well as first model results for micro-plastic pollution in European rivers. Important sources of micro-plastics include personal care products, laundry, household dust and car tyre wear. We combine information on these sources with information on sewage management, and plastic retention during river transport for the largest European rivers. Our modelling approach may help to better understand and prevent water pollution by plastic , and at the same time serves as 'proof of concept' for future application on global scale.
Unified creep-plasticity model for halite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krieg, R.D.
1980-11-01
There are two national energy programs which are considering caverns in geological salt (NaCl) as a storage repository. One is the disposal of nuclear wastes and the other is the storage of oil. Both short-time and long-time structural deformations and stresses must be predictable for these applications. At 300K, the nominal initial temperature for both applications, the salt is at 0.28 of the melting temperature and exhibits a significant time dependent behavior. A constitutive model has been developed which describes the behavior observed in an extensive set of triaxial creep tests. Analysis of these tests showed that a single deformation mechanism seems to be operative over the stress and temperature range of interest so that the secondary creep data can be represented by a power of the stress over the entire test range. This simple behavior allowed a new unified creep-plasticity model to be applied with some confidence. The resulting model recognizes no inherent difference between plastic and creep strains yet models the total inelastic strain reasonably well including primary and secondary creep and reverse loadings. A multiaxial formulation is applied with a back stress. A Bauschinger effect is exhibited as a consequence and is present regardless of the time scale over which the loading is applied. The model would be interpreted as kinematic hardening in the sense of classical plasticity. Comparisons are made between test data and model behavior
Indentation of elastically soft and plastically compressible solids
Needleman, A.; Tvergaard, V.; Van der Giessen, E.
The effect of soft elasticity, i.e., a relatively small value of the ratio of Young's modulus to yield strength and plastic compressibility on the indentation of isotropically hardening elastic-viscoplastic solids is investigated. Calculations are carried out for indentation of a perfectly sticking
A Modified Critical State Two-surface Plasticity Model for Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Hededal, O.; Ibsen, Lars Bo
This paper provides background information and documentation for the implementation of a robust plasticity model as a user-subroutine in the commercial finite difference code, FLAC3D by Itasca. The plasticity model presented is equal to the 3 dimensional critical state two-surface plasticity model...... volumetric and stress-strain behaviour under monotonic and cyclic loading and thereby related observations like accumulation of pore pressure, cyclic mobility and cyclic liquefaction. The plasticity model is implemented with an integration scheme based on the general return mapping algorithm. The integration...... scheme faces convergence difficulties, primarily at very low mean effective stresses. The convergence problems are addressed by suitable correction strategies designed to add robustness, stability and efficiency to the integration scheme. An outline of all model parameters is given with suggestions...
Multi-scale Modeling of Plasticity in Tantalum.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Hojun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Battaile, Corbett Chandler. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carroll, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boyce, Brad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weinberger, Christopher [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2015-12-01
In this report, we present a multi-scale computational model to simulate plastic deformation of tantalum and validating experiments. In atomistic/ dislocation level, dislocation kink- pair theory is used to formulate temperature and strain rate dependent constitutive equations. The kink-pair theory is calibrated to available data from single crystal experiments to produce accurate and convenient constitutive laws. The model is then implemented into a BCC crystal plasticity finite element method (CP-FEM) model to predict temperature and strain rate dependent yield stresses of single and polycrystalline tantalum and compared with existing experimental data from the literature. Furthermore, classical continuum constitutive models describing temperature and strain rate dependent flow behaviors are fit to the yield stresses obtained from the CP-FEM polycrystal predictions. The model is then used to conduct hydro- dynamic simulations of Taylor cylinder impact test and compared with experiments. In order to validate the proposed tantalum CP-FEM model with experiments, we introduce a method for quantitative comparison of CP-FEM models with various experimental techniques. To mitigate the effects of unknown subsurface microstructure, tantalum tensile specimens with a pseudo-two-dimensional grain structure and grain sizes on the order of millimeters are used. A technique combining an electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and high resolution digital image correlation (HR-DIC) is used to measure the texture and sub-grain strain fields upon uniaxial tensile loading at various applied strains. Deformed specimens are also analyzed with optical profilometry measurements to obtain out-of- plane strain fields. These high resolution measurements are directly compared with large-scale CP-FEM predictions. This computational method directly links fundamental dislocation physics to plastic deformations in the grain-scale and to the engineering-scale applications. Furthermore, direct
Modeling the drift of plastics in the Adriatic Basin
Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Lecci, Rita; Creti, Sergio
2016-04-01
Recently, plastic pollution at sea has become widely recognized as an acute environmental problem. Distribution of plastics in the marine environment is controlled by (1) locations and time-varying intensity of inputs; (2) the dynamics of the upper mixed layer of the ocean, where the majority of plastics float; and (3) the sinks of plastics. In the present work, we calculate the plastic concentrations at the sea surface and fluxes onto the coastline (2009-2015) that originated from terrestrial and maritime inputs. We construct a Markov chain model based on coupling the MEDSLIK-II model (De Dominicis et al., 2013) with the daily Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) ocean currents simulations (1/45° horizontal resolution) (Guarneri et al., 2010) and ECMWF surface wind analyses (0.25° horizontal and 6-h temporal resolutions). We assume that the coastline is the main sink of plastics in the Adriatic Sea (Liubartseva et al., 2015). Our calculations have shown that the mean particle half-life in the basin approximately equals 43.7 days, which allows us to define the Adriatic Sea as a highly dissipative system with respect to floating plastics. On long-term time-mean scales, the most polluted sea surface area (more than 10 g/km2 floating plastics) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. That corresponds to the spatial distributions of plastic inputs, and indicates a tight connection with patterns of the general Adriatic circulation, including the Western Adriatic Coastal Current and the South Adriatic gyre. On seasonal time-mean scales, we indicate the winter plastics' expansion into the basin's interior, spring trapping in the northern Adriatic, summer cleansing the middle and southern Adriatic and autumn spreading into the southeastern Adriatic. Distinctive coastal "hot spot" is found on the Po Delta coastline that receives a plastic flux of 70 kg/(kmṡday). Complex source-receptor relationships
A general shakedown theorem for elastic/plastic bodies with work hardening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponter, A.R.S.
1975-01-01
In recent years the design of metallic structures under variable loading has been assisted by the application of Melan's lower bound theorem for the shakedown of an elastic/perfectly plastic structure. The design codes for both portal frames and pressure vessels have taken account of such calculations. The theory of shakedown suffers from two defects, geometry changes are ignored and the material behavior is described by a perfectly plastic constitutive relationship which includes neither work hardening nor the Bauschinger effect. This paper is concerned with the latter problem. A very general lower bound shakedown theorem for an arbitrary time-independent material in terms of functional properties of the constitutive relationship is derived. The theorem is then applied to perfect, isotropic and kinematic hardening plasticity. It is shown that the result for all three constitutive relationships may be related to each other through certain extremal stress histories. As well as providing a sufficient condition for shakedown, the theory also provides bounds of the deflection of the structure in the process of reaching the shakedown state. The bounds are discussed and derived for two simple beam problems. Both static and dynamic problems are considered. The theory derived in this paper demonstrates that shakedown analysis may be extended to a wide range of material behavior without increasing the complexity of the resulting calculation
Plastic loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kuk Hee; Kim, Yun Jae; Park, Chi Yong; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong
2007-01-01
Based on three-Dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit and TES(Twice- Elastic-Slope) loads for pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic.perfectly-plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide TES plastic loads. A wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and TES plastic load solutions for pipe bends under out-of-plane bending are proposed
Elastic-plastic analysis of high speed rotors with no plane of symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anantha Ramu, S.
1981-01-01
A general method of analysis of elastic plastic shells has been developed. The material of the shell is assumed to obey von Mises yield condition and a stress strain law on the basis of deformation theory of plasticity. The method permits an easy iterative solution of the complete set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. The iterative procedure is essentially the solution of the elastic problem several times with different sets of loads. The solution finally yields among other things, the location of the elastic-plastic boundary in the shell wall. The second approach suggested is a three-dimensional hexahedral isoparametric solid element. The computer program developed is capable of modelling perfectly plastic, bilinear as well as nonlinear strain hardening behaviour of materials. As an example, a radial impeller is analysed by both the approaches by idealizing it as a rotating conical shell. The complete history of plastification of the shell wall as the speed increases is determined. The results of both approaches are found to be in good agreement with each other. (orig./HP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaikwad, N. P.; Borkar, M. S.; Charjan, S. S.
2011-01-01
We investigate the Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect fluid cosmological model in Rosen's bimetric theory of gravitation with and without a magnetic field by applying the techniques used by Latelier (1979, 1980) and Stachel (1983). To obtain a deterministic model of the universe, it is assumed that the universe is filled with barotropic perfect fluid distribution. The physical and geometrical significance of the model are discussed. By comparing our model with the model of Bali et al. (2007), it is realized that there are no big-bang and big-crunch singularities in our model and T = 0 is not the time of the big bang, whereas the model of Bali et al. starts with a big bang at T = 0. Further, our model is in agreement with Bali et al. (2007) as time increases in the presence, as well as in the absence, of a magnetic field. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
Explaining evolution via constrained persistent perfect phylogeny
2014-01-01
Background The perfect phylogeny is an often used model in phylogenetics since it provides an efficient basic procedure for representing the evolution of genomic binary characters in several frameworks, such as for example in haplotype inference. The model, which is conceptually the simplest, is based on the infinite sites assumption, that is no character can mutate more than once in the whole tree. A main open problem regarding the model is finding generalizations that retain the computational tractability of the original model but are more flexible in modeling biological data when the infinite site assumption is violated because of e.g. back mutations. A special case of back mutations that has been considered in the study of the evolution of protein domains (where a domain is acquired and then lost) is persistency, that is the fact that a character is allowed to return back to the ancestral state. In this model characters can be gained and lost at most once. In this paper we consider the computational problem of explaining binary data by the Persistent Perfect Phylogeny model (referred as PPP) and for this purpose we investigate the problem of reconstructing an evolution where some constraints are imposed on the paths of the tree. Results We define a natural generalization of the PPP problem obtained by requiring that for some pairs (character, species), neither the species nor any of its ancestors can have the character. In other words, some characters cannot be persistent for some species. This new problem is called Constrained PPP (CPPP). Based on a graph formulation of the CPPP problem, we are able to provide a polynomial time solution for the CPPP problem for matrices whose conflict graph has no edges. Using this result, we develop a parameterized algorithm for solving the CPPP problem where the parameter is the number of characters. Conclusions A preliminary experimental analysis shows that the constrained persistent perfect phylogeny model allows to
Numerical modelling of ductile damage mechanics coupled with an unconventional plasticity model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Fincato
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Ductility in metals includes the material’s capability to tolerate plastic deformations before partial or total degradation of its mechanical properties. Modelling this parameter is important in structure and component design because it can be used to estimate material failure under a generic multi-axial stress state. Previous work has attempted to provide accurate descriptions of the mechanical property degradation resulting from the formation, growth, and coalescence of microvoids in the medium. Experimentally, ductile damage is inherently linked with the accumulation of plastic strain; therefore, coupling damage and elastoplasticity is necessary for describing this phenomenon accurately. In this paper, we combine the approach proposed by Lemaitre with the features of an unconventional plasticity model, the extended subloading surface model, to predict material fatigue even for loading conditions below the yield stress
Poh, Leong Hien; Peerlings, R.H.J.
2016-01-01
Although formulated to represent a large system of polycrystals at the macroscopic level, isotropic gradient plasticity models have routinely been adopted at the meso scale. For such purposes, it is crucial to incorporate the plastic rotation effect in order to obtain a reasonable approximation of
Perfect imaging without negative refraction
Leonhardt, Ulf
2009-01-01
Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing ma...
An elastic-plastic contact model for line contact structures
Zhu, Haibin; Zhao, Yingtao; He, Zhifeng; Zhang, Ruinan; Ma, Shaopeng
2018-06-01
Although numerical simulation tools are now very powerful, the development of analytical models is very important for the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of line contact structures for deeply understanding contact problems and engineering applications. For the line contact structures widely used in the engineering field, few analytical models are available for predicting the mechanical behaviour when the structures deform plastically, as the classic Hertz's theory would be invalid. Thus, the present study proposed an elastic-plastic model for line contact structures based on the understanding of the yield mechanism. A mathematical expression describing the global relationship between load history and contact width evolution of line contact structures was obtained. The proposed model was verified through an actual line contact test and a corresponding numerical simulation. The results confirmed that this model can be used to accurately predict the elastic-plastic mechanical behaviour of a line contact structure.
Project Muskan : Social responsibility of the plastic surgeon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhatt Yogesh
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Although exact statistics are not available, Indian plastic surgeons see around 7,00,000-8,00,000 burn admissions annually with around 10,00,000 cleft patients yet to be operated. In spite of this voluminous load, India does not have national health programs for the various deformities Indian plastic surgeons typically treat. As Plastic Surgeons, it is our social responsibility to treat these patients and bring ′ muskan ′ (smile in Hindi back into their lives. Project Muskan was initiated as an innovative model for targeting these patients and is probably one of its kind in the field of plastic surgery in our country. It is unique because it is a perfect collaboration of government institutions, a Non Government Organization (NGO, and cooperative sectors providing free health care at the doorstep. Identification of the patients was done with the help of the extensive milk dairy network in the state of Gujarat. Provision of transport and other facilities was done by the NGOs and quality health care provision was taken care of by the government hospital. Project Muskan started from a single village but now covers around 3000 villages and tribal areas of Gujarat. It is a system that can be easily reproducible in all hospitals and has reestablished the faith of the common man in government institutes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Yu. Sulimov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The deﬁnition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the deﬁnition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».
Laminated materials with plastic interfaces: modeling and calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandino Aquino de los Ríos, Gilberto; Castañeda Balderas, Rubén; Diaz Diaz, Alberto; Duong, Van Anh; Chataigner, Sylvain; Caron, Jean-François; Ehrlacher, Alain; Foret, Gilles
2009-01-01
In this paper, a model of laminated plates called M4-5N and validated in a previous paper is modified in order to take into account interlaminar plasticity by means of displacement discontinuities at the interfaces. These discontinuities are calculated by adapting a 3D plasticity model. In order to compute the model, a Newton–Raphson-like method is employed. In this method, two sub-problems are considered: one is linear and the other is non-linear. In the linear problem the non-linear equations of the model are linearized and the calculations are performed by making use of a finite element software. By iterating the resolution of each sub-problem, one obtains after convergence the solution of the global problem. The model is then applied to the problem of a double lap, adhesively bonded joint subjected to a tensile load. The adhesive layer is modeled by an elastic–plastic interface. The results of the M4-5N model are compared with those of a commercial finite element software. A good agreement between the two computation techniques is obtained and validates the non-linear calculations proposed in this paper. Finally, the numerical tool and a delamination criterion are applied to predict delamination onset in composite laminates
On kinematical minimum principles for rates and increments in plasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zouain, N.
1984-01-01
The optimization approach for elastoplastic analysis is discussed showing that some minimum principles related to numerical methods can be derived by means of duality and penalization procedures. Three minimum principles for velocity and plastic multiplier rate fields are presented in the framework of perfect plasticity. The first one is the classical Greenberg formulation. The second one, due to Capurso, is developed here with different motivation, and modified by penalization of constraints so as to arrive at a third principle for rates. The counterparts of these optimization formulations in terms of discrete increments of displacements of displacements and plastic multipliers are discussed. The third one of these minimum principles for finite increments is recognized to be closely related to Maier's formulation of holonomic plasticity. (Author) [pt
A discrimination model in waste plastics sorting using NIR hyperspectral imaging system.
Zheng, Yan; Bai, Jiarui; Xu, Jingna; Li, Xiayang; Zhang, Yimin
2018-02-01
Classification of plastics is important in the recycling industry. A plastic identification model in the near infrared spectroscopy wavelength range 1000-2500 nm is proposed for the characterization and sorting of waste plastics using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The model is built by the feature wavelengths of standard samples applying the principle component analysis (PCA), and the accuracy, property and cross-validation of the model were analyzed. The model just contains a simple equation, center of mass coordinates, and radial distance, with which it is easy to develop classification and sorting software. A hyperspectral imaging system (HIS) with the identification model verified its practical application by using the unknown plastics. Results showed that the identification accuracy of unknown samples is 100%. All results suggested that the discrimination model was potential to an on-line characterization and sorting platform of waste plastics based on HIS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Streit, R.D.
1981-01-01
The failure evaluation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary coolant loop pipe is often based on a plastic limit load criterion; i.e., failure occurs when the stress on the pipe section exceeds the material flow stress. However, in addition the piping system must be safe against crack propagation at stresses less than those leading to plastic instability. In this paper, elastic, elastic-plastic, and fully-plastic failure models are evaluated, and the requirements for piping integrity based on these models are compared. The model yielding the 'more' critical criteria for the given geometry and loading conditions defines the appropriate failure criterion. The pipe geometry and loading used in this study was choosen based on an evaluation of a guillotine break in a PWR primary coolant loop. It is assumed that the piping may contain cracks. Since a deep circumferential crack, can lead to a guillotine pipe break without prior leaking and thus without warning it is the focus of the failure model comparison study. The hot leg pipe, a 29 in. I.D. by 2.5 in. wall thickness stainless pipe, was modeled in this investigation. Cracks up to 90% through the wall were considered. The loads considered in this evaluation result from the internal pressure, dead weight, and seismic stresses. For the case considered, the internal pressure contributes the most to the failure loading. The maximum moment stress due to the dead weight and seismic moments are simply added to the pressure stress. Thus, with the circumferential crack geometry and uniform pressure stress, the problem is axisymmetric. It is analyzed using NIKE2D--an implicit, finite deformation, finite element code for analyzing two-dimensional elastic-plastic problems. (orig./GL)
Complementary responses to mean and variance modulations in the perfect integrate-and-fire model.
Pressley, Joanna; Troyer, Todd W
2009-07-01
In the perfect integrate-and-fire model (PIF), the membrane voltage is proportional to the integral of the input current since the time of the previous spike. It has been shown that the firing rate within a noise free ensemble of PIF neurons responds instantaneously to dynamic changes in the input current, whereas in the presence of white noise, model neurons preferentially pass low frequency modulations of the mean current. Here, we prove that when the input variance is perturbed while holding the mean current constant, the PIF responds preferentially to high frequency modulations. Moreover, the linear filters for mean and variance modulations are complementary, adding exactly to one. Since changes in the rate of Poisson distributed inputs lead to proportional changes in the mean and variance, these results imply that an ensemble of PIF neurons transmits a perfect replica of the time-varying input rate for Poisson distributed input. A more general argument shows that this property holds for any signal leading to proportional changes in the mean and variance of the input current.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hunke, E.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Zhang, Y. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)
1997-12-31
A nonlinear viscous-plastic (VP) rheology proposed by Hibler (1979) has been demonstrated to be the most suitable of the rheologies commonly used for modeling sea ice dynamics. However, the presence of a huge range of effective viscosities hinders numerical implementations of this model, particularly on high resolution grids or when the ice model is coupled to an ocean or atmosphere model. Hunke and Dukowicz (1997) have modified the VP model by including elastic waves as a numerical regularization in the case of zero strain rate. This modification (EVP) allows an efficient, fully explicit discretization that adapts well to parallel architectures. The authors present a comparison of EVP and VP dynamics model results from two 5-year simulations of Arctic sea ice, obtained with a high resolution sea ice model. The purpose of the comparison is to determine how differently the two dynamics models behave, and to decide whether the elastic-viscous-plastic model is preferable for high resolution climate simulations, considering its high efficiency in parallel computation. Results from the first year of this experiment (1990) are discussed in detail in Hunke and Zhang (1997).
Kantowski-Sachs Einstein-æther perfect fluid models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latta, Joey [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Leon, Genly [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad de Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4950, Valparaíso (Chile); Paliathanasis, Andronikos, E-mail: lattaj@mathstat.dal.ca, E-mail: genly.leon@pucv.cl, E-mail: anpaliat@phys.uoa.gr [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)
2016-11-01
We investigate Kantowski-Sachs models in Einstein-æ ther theory with a perfect fluid source using the singularity analysis to prove the integrability of the field equations and dynamical system tools to study the evolution. We find an inflationary source at early times, and an inflationary sink at late times, for a wide region in the parameter space. The results by A.A. Coley, G. Leon, P. Sandin and J. Latta ( JCAP 12 (2015) 010), are then re-obtained as particular cases. Additionally, we select other values for the non-GR parameters which are consistent with current constraints, getting a very rich phenomenology. In particular, we find solutions with infinite shear, zero curvature, and infinite matter energy density in comparison with the Hubble scalar. We also have stiff-like future attractors, anisotropic late-time attractors, or both, in some special cases. Such results are developed analytically, and then verified by numerics. Finally, the physical interpretation of the new critical points is discussed.
ELASTIC-PLASTIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF AN ALUMINUM DISC UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Numan Behlül BEKTAŞ
2004-02-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with elastic-plastic stress analysis of a thin aluminum disc under internal pressures. An analytical solution is performed for satisfying elastic-plastic stress-strain relations and boundary conditions for small plastic deformations. The Von-Mises Criterion is used as a yield criterion, and elastic perfectly plastic material is assumed. Elastic-plastic and residual stress distributions are obtained from inner radius to outer radius, and they are presented in tables and figures. All radial stress components, ?r, are compressive, and they are highest at the inner radius. All tangential stress components, ??, are tensile, and they are highest where the plastic deformation begins. Magnitude of the tangential residual stresses is higher than those the radial residual stresses.
Perfect imaging without negative refraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk
2009-09-15
Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional (2D) integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing may also find applications outside of optics, in acoustics, fluid mechanics or quantum physics, wherever waves obey the 2D Helmholtz equation.
Perfect commuting-operator strategies for linear system games
Cleve, Richard; Liu, Li; Slofstra, William
2017-01-01
Linear system games are a generalization of Mermin's magic square game introduced by Cleve and Mittal. They show that perfect strategies for linear system games in the tensor-product model of entanglement correspond to finite-dimensional operator solutions of a certain set of non-commutative equations. We investigate linear system games in the commuting-operator model of entanglement, where Alice and Bob's measurement operators act on a joint Hilbert space, and Alice's operators must commute with Bob's operators. We show that perfect strategies in this model correspond to possibly infinite-dimensional operator solutions of the non-commutative equations. The proof is based around a finitely presented group associated with the linear system which arises from the non-commutative equations.
Animal models in plastic and reconstructive surgery simulation-a review.
Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Wang, Aline Yen Ling; Tiong, Vincent Tze Yang; Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Meiling; Lim, Philip; Kao, Huang-Kai
2018-01-01
The use of live and cadaveric animal models in surgical training is well established as a means of teaching and improving surgical skill in a controlled setting. We aim to review, evaluate, and summarize the models published in the literature that are applicable to Plastic Surgery training. A PubMed search for keywords relating to animal models in Plastic Surgery and the associated procedures was conducted. Animal models that had cross over between specialties such as microsurgery with Neurosurgery and pinnaplasty with ear, nose, and throat surgery were included as they were deemed to be relevant to our training curriculum. A level of evidence and recommendation assessment was then given to each surgical model. Our review found animal models applicable to plastic surgery training in four major categories namely-microsurgery training, flap raising, facial surgery, and hand surgery. Twenty-four separate articles described various methods of practicing microsurgical techniques on different types of animals. Fourteen different articles each described various methods of conducting flap-based procedures which consisted of either local or perforator flap dissection. Eight articles described different models for practicing hand surgery techniques. Finally, eight articles described animal models that were used for head and neck procedures. A comprehensive summary of animal models related to plastic surgery training has been compiled. Cadaveric animal models provide a readily available introduction to many procedures and ought to be used instead of live models when feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tracking plastics in the Mediterranean: 2D Lagrangian model.
Liubartseva, S; Coppini, G; Lecci, R; Clementi, E
2018-04-01
Drift of floating debris is studied with a 2D Lagrangian model with stochastic beaching and sedimentation of plastics. An ensemble of >10 10 virtual particles is tracked from anthropogenic sources (coastal human populations, rivers, shipping lanes) to environmental destinations (sea surface, coastlines, seabed). Daily analyses of ocean currents and waves provided by CMEMS at a horizontal resolution of 1/16° are used to force the plastics. High spatio-temporal variability in sea-surface plastic concentrations without any stable long-term accumulations is found. Substantial accumulation of plastics is detected on coastlines and the sea bottom. The most contaminated areas are in the Cilician subbasin, Catalan Sea, and near the Po River Delta. Also, highly polluted local patches in the vicinity of sources with limited circulation are identified. An inverse problem solution, used to quantify the origins of plastics, shows that plastic pollution of every Mediterranean country is caused primarily by its own terrestrial sources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Perfect sequences over the real quaternions
Kuznetsov, Oleg
2017-01-01
In this Thesis, perfect sequences over the real quaternions are first considered. Definitions for the right and left periodic autocorrelation functions are given, and right and left perfect sequences introduced. It is shown that the right (left) perfection of any sequence implies the left (right) perfection, so concepts of right and left perfect sequences over the real quaternions are equivalent. Unitary transformations of the quaternion space ℍ are then considered. Using the equivalence of t...
A Propagative Model of Simultaneous Impact: Existence, Uniqueness, and Design Consequences
Seghete, Vlad; Murphey, Todd
2017-01-01
This paper presents existence and uniqueness results for a propagative model of simultaneous impacts that is guaranteed to conserve energy and momentum in the case of elastic impacts with extensions to perfectly plastic and inelastic impacts. A corresponding time-stepping algorithm that guarantees conservation of continuous energy and discrete momentum is developed, also with extensions to plastic and inelastic impacts. The model is illustrated in simulation using billiard balls and a two-dim...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Polat, Burak; Meincke, Peter
2004-01-01
A forward model for ground penetrating radar imaging of buried 3-D perfect electric conductors is addressed within the framework of diffraction tomography. The similarity of the present forward model derived within the physical optics approximation with that derived within the first Born...
Elastic–plastic adhesive impacts of tungsten dust with metal surfaces in plasma environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ratynskaia, S., E-mail: svetlana.ratynskaia@ee.kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Association EUROfusion-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Tolias, P. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Association EUROfusion-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Shalpegin, A. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Vignitchouk, L. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Association EUROfusion-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); De Angeli, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Bykov, I. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Association EUROfusion-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Brochard, F. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Ripamonti, D. [Istituto per l’Energetica e le Interfasi – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Harder, N. den; De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands)
2015-08-15
Dust-surface collisions impose size selectivity on the ability of dust grains to migrate in scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas and to adhere to plasma-facing components. Here, we report first experimental evidence of dust impact phenomena in plasma environments concerning low-speed collisions of tungsten dust with tungsten surfaces: re-bouncing, adhesion, sliding and rolling. The results comply with the predictions of the model of elastic-perfectly plastic adhesive spheres employed in the dust dynamics code MIGRAINe for sub- to several meters per second impacts of micrometer-range metal dust.
Effect of reinforcement on plastic limit loads of branch junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yun-Jae; Myeong, Man-Sik; Yoon, Kee-Bong
2009-01-01
This paper provides effects of reinforcement shape and area on plastic limit loads of branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane/out-of-plane bending, via detailed three-dimensional finite element limit analysis assuming elastic-perfectly plastic material behaviour. It is found that reinforcement is most effective when (in-plane/out-of-plane) bending is applied to the branch pipe. When bending is applied to the run pipe, reinforcement is less effective when bending is applied to the branch pipe. The reinforcement effect is the least effective for internal pressure.
A fiber bundle-plastic chain model for quasi-brittle materials under uniaxial loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shan, Zhi; Yu, Zhiwu
2015-01-01
A fiber bundle-plastic chain model for quasi-brittle materials under both uniaxial compression and tension conditions is developed. By introducing a plastic chain model into the fiber bundle model, a bundle-chain model for quasi-brittle materials is proposed with physical considerations. The model achieves a novel and convenient approach to describe the stochastic effective stress-driven plasticity. It is found that the numerical solutions obtained with this model agree with experimental results when subjected to both monotonic and cyclic uniaxial loading. The model generates a numerical solution with higher accuracy than the present models, when compared with the experimental results on certain problems. An example is shown which utilizes this model to describe the stochastic properties of a constitutive model given as standard. Furthermore, the difference between the existing plastic fiber bundle models in the literature and this model is also obtained in this work. (paper)
Plasticity - a limiting case of creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cords, H.; Kleist, G.; Zimmermann, R.
1986-11-01
The present work is an attempt to develop further the so-called unified theory for viscoplastic constitutive equations as used for metals or metal alloys. Typically, in similar approaches creep strains and plastic strains are derived from one common stress-strain relationship for inelastic strain rates employing an internal stress function as a back stress. Some novel concepts concerning the definition of the internal stress, plastic yielding and material hardening have been introduced, formulated mathematically and tested for correspondence with a standard type of materials behaviour. As a result of the investigations a system of simultaneous differential equations is defined which has been used to elaborate a common view on a number of different material effects observed in creep and plasticity i.e. normal and inverted primary creep, recoverable creep, incubation time and anelasticity in stress reduction, negative stress relaxation, plastic yielding, perfect plasticity, negative strain rate sensitivity, serrated flow, strain hardening in monotonic and cyclic loading. The theoretical approach is mainly based on a lateral contraction movement not following rigidly the longitudinal extension of the material specimen by a prescribed constant value of Poisson's ratio as usual, but following the axial extension in a process of drag which allows for retardation and which simultaneously impedes the longitudinal straining. (orig.) [de
Calibration of a Plastic Classification System with the Ccw Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.
2003-01-01
This document describes the calibration of a plastic Classification system with the Ccw model (Classification by Quantum's built with Wavelet Coefficients). The method is applied to spectra of plastics usually present in domestic wastes. Obtained results are showed. (Author) 16 refs
A cohesive plastic/damage-zone model for ductile crack analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, C.; Gross, D.
1995-01-01
A cohesive plastic/damage-zone model of the Dugdale-Barenblatt type (G.I. Barenblatt, Adv. Appl. Mech. 7 (1962) 55-129; D.S. Dugdale, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 8 (1960) 100-104) is presented for analyzing crack growth in ductile materials with damage evolution. A semi-infinite Mode I crack in plane stress or plane stress is considered. The damage is assumed to be present in form of dispersed microvoids which are localized into a narrow strip ahead of the crack-tip. A simple damage model of the Gurson model type (A.L. Gurson, J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 99 (1977) 2-15; V. Tvergaard, Advances in Applied Mechanics, Vol. 27, Academic Press, 1990, pp. 83-151) is developed for uniaxial tension to describe the macroscopic properties of the cohesive plastic/damage-zone. Under small-scale yielding and small-scale damage conditions, a system of nonlinear integral equations for the plastic strain and the length of the cohesive plastic/damage-zone is derived. Numerical results are presented and discussed to reveal the effect of damage evolution on the ductile crack growth. (orig.)
Hamiltonian formalism for perfect fluids in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demaret, J.; Moncrief, V.
1980-01-01
Schutz's Hamiltonian theory of a relativistic perfect fluid, based on the velocity-potential version of classical perfect fluid hydrodynamics as formulated by Seliger and Whitham, is used to derive, in the framework of the Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner (ADM) method, a general partially reduced Hamiltonian for relativistic systems filled with a perfect fluid. The time coordinate is chosen, as in Lund's treatment of collapsing balls of dust, as minus the only velocity potential different from zero in the case of an irrotational and isentropic fluid. A ''semi-Dirac'' method can be applied to quantize astrophysical and cosmological models in the framework of this partially reduced formalism. If one chooses Taub's adapted comoving coordinate system, it is possible to derive a fully reduced ADM Hamiltonian, which is equal to minus the total baryon number of the fluid, generalizing a result previously obtained by Moncrief in the more particular framework of Taub's variational principle, valid for self-gravitating barotropic relativistic perfect fluids. An unconstrained Hamiltonian density is then explicitly derived for a fluid obeying the equation of state p=(gamma-1)rho (1 < or = γ < or = 2), which can adequately describe the phases of very high density attained in a catastrophic collapse or during the early stages of the Universe. This Hamiltonian density, shown to be equivalent to Moncrief's in the particular case of an isentropic fluid, can be simplified for fluid-filled class-A diagonal Bianchi-type cosmological models and appears as a suitable starting point for the study of the canonical quantization of these models
Perfect simulation of Hawkes processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl
2005-01-01
Our objective is to construct a perfect simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes. The usual straightforward simulation algorithm suffers from edge effects, whereas our perfect simulation algorithm does not. By viewing Hawkes processes as Poisson cluster processes and using...... their branching and conditional independence structures, useful approximations of the distribution function for the length of a cluster are derived. This is used to construct upper and lower processes for the perfect simulation algorithm. A tail-lightness condition turns out to be of importance...... for the applicability of the perfect simulation algorithm. Examples of applications and empirical results are presented....
Characterization of two-qubit perfect entanglers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezakhani, A.T.
2004-01-01
Here we consider perfect entanglers from another perspective. It is shown that there are some special perfect entanglers which can maximally entangle a full product basis. We explicitly construct a one-parameter family of such entanglers together with the proper product basis that they maximally entangle. This special family of perfect entanglers contains some well-known operators such as controlled-NOT (CNOT) and double-CNOT, but not √(SWAP). In addition, it is shown that all perfect entanglers with entangling power equal to the maximal value (2/9) are also special perfect entanglers. It is proved that the one-parameter family is the only possible set of special perfect entanglers. Also we provide an analytic way to implement any arbitrary two-qubit gate, given a proper special perfect entangler supplemented with single-qubit gates. Such gates are shown to provide a minimum universal gate construction in that just two of them are necessary and sufficient in implementation of a generic two-qubit gate
Sun, C. T.; Yoon, K. J.
1990-01-01
A one-parameter plasticity model was shown to adequately describe the orthotropic plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK (APC-2) unidirectional thermoplastic composite. This model was verified further for unidirectional and laminated composite panels with and without a hole. The nonlinear stress-strain relations were measured and compared with those predicted by the finite element analysis using the one-parameter elastic-plastic constitutive model. The results show that the one-parameter orthotropic plasticity model is suitable for the analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK composite laminates.
Modelling irradiation-induced softening in BCC iron by crystal plasticity approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, Xiazi; Terentyev, Dmitry; Yu, Long; Song, Dingkun; Bakaev, A.; Duan, Huiling
2015-01-01
Crystal plasticity model (CPM) for BCC iron to account for radiation-induced strain softening is proposed. CPM is based on the plastically-driven and thermally-activated removal of dislocation loops. Atomistic simulations are applied to parameterize dislocation-defect interactions. Combining experimental microstructures, defect-hardening/absorption rules from atomistic simulations, and CPM fitted to properties of non-irradiated iron, the model achieves a good agreement with experimental data regarding radiation-induced strain softening and flow stress increase under neutron irradiation. - Highlights: • A stress- and thermal-activated defect absorption model is proposed for the dislocation-loop interaction. • A temperature-dependent plasticity theory is proposed for the irradiation-induced strain softening of irradiated BCC metals. • The numerical results of the model match with the corresponding experimental data.
Modelling irradiation-induced softening in BCC iron by crystal plasticity approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, Xiazi [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); CAPT, HEDPS and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Terentyev, Dmitry, E-mail: dterenty@SCKCEN.BE [Structural Material Group, Institute of Nuclear Materials Science, SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Yu, Long; Song, Dingkun [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bakaev, A. [Structural Material Group, Institute of Nuclear Materials Science, SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Duan, Huiling, E-mail: hlduan@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); CAPT, HEDPS and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2015-11-15
Crystal plasticity model (CPM) for BCC iron to account for radiation-induced strain softening is proposed. CPM is based on the plastically-driven and thermally-activated removal of dislocation loops. Atomistic simulations are applied to parameterize dislocation-defect interactions. Combining experimental microstructures, defect-hardening/absorption rules from atomistic simulations, and CPM fitted to properties of non-irradiated iron, the model achieves a good agreement with experimental data regarding radiation-induced strain softening and flow stress increase under neutron irradiation. - Highlights: • A stress- and thermal-activated defect absorption model is proposed for the dislocation-loop interaction. • A temperature-dependent plasticity theory is proposed for the irradiation-induced strain softening of irradiated BCC metals. • The numerical results of the model match with the corresponding experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portugal, R.
1984-01-01
Three processes of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for Bianchi - I, II, VIII, IX and Kantowski-Sachs-like cosmological models with perfect fluid in magnetohydrolodynamical regimem are presented. Diagonal Bianchi-like models are considered with two anisotropy direction in the maximum. Solutions are found for Bianchi-II and IX-like models with energy conditions to be analyzed. Solutions are found for Bianchi-IX and Kantowski-Sachs-Like models with positive electric conductivity and satisfering to the predominant energy conditions. Solutions are formed for isotropic Kantowski-Sachs-Like models satisfering to the equation of state p=λρ, 0 0, admiting, in addition to the perfect fluid, electric field only. It is shown that a class of Bertotti-Robinson-like solutions is unstable by perturbations and it is carried in Kantowski-Sachs-like models with non-null electric conductivity. (L.C.) [pt
Poh, L.H.; Peerlings, R.H.J.; Geers, M.G.D.; Swaddiwudhipong, S.
2011-01-01
Many rate-independent models for metals utilize the gradient of effective plastic strain to capture size-dependent behavior. This enhancement, sometimes termed as "explicit" gradient formulation, requires higher-order tractions to be imposed on the evolving elasto-plastic boundary and the resulting
The perfect family: decision making in biparental care.
Akçay, Erol; Roughgarden, Joan
2009-10-13
Previous theoretical work on parental decisions in biparental care has emphasized the role of the conflict between evolutionary interests of parents in these decisions. A prominent prediction from this work is that parents should compensate for decreases in each other's effort, but only partially so. However, experimental tests that manipulate parents and measure their responses fail to confirm this prediction. At the same time, the process of parental decision making has remained unexplored theoretically. We develop a model to address the discrepancy between experiments and the theoretical prediction, and explore how assuming different decision making processes changes the prediction from the theory. We assume that parents make decisions in behavioral time. They have a fixed time budget, and allocate it between two parental tasks: provisioning the offspring and defending the nest. The proximate determinant of the allocation decisions are parents' behavioral objectives. We assume both parents aim to maximize the offspring production from the nest. Experimental manipulations change the shape of the nest production function. We consider two different scenarios for how parents make decisions: one where parents communicate with each other and act together (the perfect family), and one where they do not communicate, and act independently (the almost perfect family). The perfect family model is able to generate all the types of responses seen in experimental studies. The kind of response predicted depends on the nest production function, i.e. how parents' allocations affect offspring production, and the type of experimental manipulation. In particular, we find that complementarity of parents' allocations promotes matching responses. In contrast, the relative responses do not depend on the type of manipulation in the almost perfect family model. These results highlight the importance of the interaction between nest production function and how parents make decisions
The perfect family: decision making in biparental care.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erol Akçay
Full Text Available Previous theoretical work on parental decisions in biparental care has emphasized the role of the conflict between evolutionary interests of parents in these decisions. A prominent prediction from this work is that parents should compensate for decreases in each other's effort, but only partially so. However, experimental tests that manipulate parents and measure their responses fail to confirm this prediction. At the same time, the process of parental decision making has remained unexplored theoretically. We develop a model to address the discrepancy between experiments and the theoretical prediction, and explore how assuming different decision making processes changes the prediction from the theory.We assume that parents make decisions in behavioral time. They have a fixed time budget, and allocate it between two parental tasks: provisioning the offspring and defending the nest. The proximate determinant of the allocation decisions are parents' behavioral objectives. We assume both parents aim to maximize the offspring production from the nest. Experimental manipulations change the shape of the nest production function. We consider two different scenarios for how parents make decisions: one where parents communicate with each other and act together (the perfect family, and one where they do not communicate, and act independently (the almost perfect family.The perfect family model is able to generate all the types of responses seen in experimental studies. The kind of response predicted depends on the nest production function, i.e. how parents' allocations affect offspring production, and the type of experimental manipulation. In particular, we find that complementarity of parents' allocations promotes matching responses. In contrast, the relative responses do not depend on the type of manipulation in the almost perfect family model. These results highlight the importance of the interaction between nest production function and how parents make
Robust Secure Authentication and Data Storage with Perfect Secrecy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastian Baur
2018-04-01
Full Text Available We consider an authentication process that makes use of biometric data or the output of a physical unclonable function (PUF, respectively, from an information theoretical point of view. We analyse different definitions of achievability for the authentication model. For the secrecy of the key generated for authentication, these definitions differ in their requirements. In the first work on PUF based authentication, weak secrecy has been used and the corresponding capacity regions have been characterized. The disadvantages of weak secrecy are well known. The ultimate performance criteria for the key are perfect secrecy together with uniform distribution of the key. We derive the corresponding capacity region. We show that, for perfect secrecy and uniform distribution of the key, we can achieve the same rates as for weak secrecy together with a weaker requirement on the distribution of the key. In the classical works on PUF based authentication, it is assumed that the source statistics are known perfectly. This requirement is rarely met in applications. That is why the model is generalized to a compound model, taking into account source uncertainty. We also derive the capacity region for the compound model requiring perfect secrecy. Additionally, we consider results for secure storage using a biometric or PUF source that follow directly from the results for authentication. We also generalize known results for this problem by weakening the assumption concerning the distribution of the data that shall be stored. This allows us to combine source compression and secure storage.
Elastic-plastic adhesive contact of rough surfaces using n-point asperity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahoo, Prasanta; Mitra, Anirban; Saha, Kashinath
2009-01-01
This study considers an analysis of the elastic-plastic contact of rough surfaces in the presence of adhesion using an n-point asperity model. The multiple-point asperity model, developed by Hariri et al (2006 Trans ASME: J. Tribol. 128 505-14) is integrated into the elastic-plastic adhesive contact model developed by Roy Chowdhury and Ghosh (1994 Wear 174 9-19). This n-point asperity model differs from the conventional Greenwood and Williamson model (1966 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 295 300-19) in considering the asperities not as fixed entities but as those that change through the contact process, and hence it represents the asperities in a more realistic manner. The newly defined adhesion index and plasticity index defined for the n-point asperity model are used to consider the different conditions that arise because of varying load, surface and material parameters. A comparison between the load-separation behaviour of the new model and the conventional one shows a significant difference between the two depending on combinations of mean separation, adhesion index and plasticity index.
Strain gradient effects on cyclic plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang
2010-01-01
Size effects on the cyclic shear response are studied numerically using a recent higher order strain gradient visco-plasticity theory accounting for both dissipative and energetic gradient hardening. Numerical investigations of the response under cyclic pure shear and shear of a finite slab between...... rigid platens have been carried out, using the finite element method. It is shown for elastic–perfectly plastic solids how dissipative gradient effects lead to increased yield strength, whereas energetic gradient contributions lead to increased hardening as well as a Bauschinger effect. For linearly...... hardening materials it is quantified how dissipative and energetic gradient effects promote hardening above that of conventional predictions. Usually, increased hardening is attributed to energetic gradient effects, but here it is found that also dissipative gradient effects lead to additional hardening...
Simulated small-angle scattering patterns for a plastically deformed model composite material
Shenoy, V.B.; Cleveringa, H.H.M.; Phillips, R.; Giessen, E. van der; Needleman, A.
2000-01-01
The small-angle scattering patterns predicted by discrete dislocation plasticity versus local and non-local continuum plasticity theory are compared in a model problem. The problem considered is a two-dimensional model composite with elastic reinforcements in a crystalline matrix subject to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tonkovic, Zdenko; Skozrit, Ivica; Alfirevic, Ivo
2008-01-01
The influence of the choice of flow stress on the plastic collapse estimation of axially cracked steam generator (SG) tubes is considered. The plastic limit and collapse loads of thick-walled tubes with external axial semi-elliptical surface cracks are investigated by three-dimensional non-linear finite element (FE) analyses. The limit pressure solution as a function of the crack depth, length and tube geometry has been developed on the basis of extensive FE limit load analyses employing the elastic-perfectly plastic material behaviour and small strain theory. Unlike the existing solutions, the newly developed analytical approximation of the plastic limit pressure for thick-walled tubes is applicable to a wide range of crack dimensions. Further, the plastic collapse analysis with a real strain-hardening material model and a large deformation theory is performed and an analytical approximation for the estimation of the flow stress is proposed. Numerical results show that the flow stress, defined by some failure assessment diagram (FAD) methods, depends not only on the tube material, but also on the crack geometry. It is shown that the plastic collapse pressure results, in the case of deeper cracks obtained by using the flow stress as the average of the yield stress and the ultimate tensile strength, can become unsafe
Mesoscopic approach to modeling elastic-plastic polycrystalline material behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovac, M.; Cizelj, L.
2001-01-01
Extreme loadings during severe accident conditions might cause failure or rupture of the pressure boundary of a reactor coolant system. Reliable estimation of the extreme deformations can be crucial to determine the consequences of such an accident. One of important drawbacks of classical continuum mechanics is idealization of inhomogenous microstructure of materials. This paper discusses the mesoscopic approach to modeling the elastic-plastic behavior of a polycrystalline material. The main idea is to divide the continuum (e.g., polycrystalline aggregate) into a set of sub-continua (grains). The overall properties of the polycrystalline aggregate are therefore determined by the number of grains in the aggregate and properties of randomly shaped and oriented grains. The random grain structure is modeled with Voronoi tessellation and random orientations of crystal lattices are assumed. The elastic behavior of monocrystal grains is assumed to be anisotropic. Crystal plasticity is used to describe plastic response of monocrystal grains. Finite element method is used to obtain numerical solutions of strain and stress fields. The analysis is limited to two-dimensional models.(author)
Computational neurorehabilitation: modeling plasticity and learning to predict recovery.
Reinkensmeyer, David J; Burdet, Etienne; Casadio, Maura; Krakauer, John W; Kwakkel, Gert; Lang, Catherine E; Swinnen, Stephan P; Ward, Nick S; Schweighofer, Nicolas
2016-04-30
Despite progress in using computational approaches to inform medicine and neuroscience in the last 30 years, there have been few attempts to model the mechanisms underlying sensorimotor rehabilitation. We argue that a fundamental understanding of neurologic recovery, and as a result accurate predictions at the individual level, will be facilitated by developing computational models of the salient neural processes, including plasticity and learning systems of the brain, and integrating them into a context specific to rehabilitation. Here, we therefore discuss Computational Neurorehabilitation, a newly emerging field aimed at modeling plasticity and motor learning to understand and improve movement recovery of individuals with neurologic impairment. We first explain how the emergence of robotics and wearable sensors for rehabilitation is providing data that make development and testing of such models increasingly feasible. We then review key aspects of plasticity and motor learning that such models will incorporate. We proceed by discussing how computational neurorehabilitation models relate to the current benchmark in rehabilitation modeling - regression-based, prognostic modeling. We then critically discuss the first computational neurorehabilitation models, which have primarily focused on modeling rehabilitation of the upper extremity after stroke, and show how even simple models have produced novel ideas for future investigation. Finally, we conclude with key directions for future research, anticipating that soon we will see the emergence of mechanistic models of motor recovery that are informed by clinical imaging results and driven by the actual movement content of rehabilitation therapy as well as wearable sensor-based records of daily activity.
Rupture model based on non-associated plasticity
Pradeau, Adrien; Yoon, Jeong Whan; Thuillier, Sandrine; Lou, Yanshan; Zhang, Shunying
2018-05-01
This research work is about modeling the mechanical behavior of metallic sheets of AA6016 up to rupture using non-associated flow rule. Experiments were performed at room temperature in uniaxial tension and simple shear in different directions according to the rolling direction and an additional hydraulic bulge test. The anisotropy of the material is described by a Yld2000-2d yield surface [1], calibrated by stress ratios, and a plastic potential represented by Hill1948 [2], calibrated using Lankford coefficients. That way, the former is able to reproduce the yield stresses in different directions and the latter is able to reproduce the deformations in different directions as well [3], [4]. Indeed, the non-associated flow rule allows for the direction of the plastic flow not to be necessarily normal to the yield surface. Concerning the rupture, the macroscopic ductile fracture criterion DF2014 was used [5]. It indirectly uses the three invariants of the stress tensor by using the three following parameters: the stress triaxiality η, the Lode parameter L and the equivalent plastic strain to fracture ∈f-p . In order to be consistent with the plastic model and to add more flexibility to the p criterion, the equivalent stress σ ¯ and the equivalent strain to fracture ∈f-p have been substituted respectively as Yld2000-2d and Hill1948 in the DF2014 fracture criterion. The parameters for the fracture criterion were obtained by optimization and the fracture locus can be plotted in the (η ,L ,∈-p) space. The damage indicator D is then numerically predicted with respect of average strain values. A good correlation with the experimental results is obtained.
A Plastic Damage Mechanics Model for Engineered Cementitious Composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe
2007-01-01
This paper discusses the establishment of a plasticity-based damage mechanics model for Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). The present model differs from existing models by combining a matrix and fiber description in order to describe the behavior of the ECC material. The model provides...
Modeling of plastic localization in aluminum and Al–Cu alloys under shock loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnikov, V.S.; Mayer, A.E.
2014-01-01
This paper focuses on the modeling of plastic deformation localization in pure aluminum and aluminum–copper alloys during the propagation of a plane shock wave. Modeling is carried out with the use of continual dislocation plasticity model in 2-D geometry. It is shown that the formation of localization bands occurs at an angle of 45° to the direction of propagation of the shock front. Effective initiators for plastic localization in pure aluminum are the perturbations of the initial dislocation density, in the alloys – perturbations of the dislocation density and the concentration of copper atoms. Perturbations of temperature field in a range of tens of kelvins are not so effective for plastic localization. In the alloy plastic localization intensity decreases with an increase of strain rate due to the thermally activated nature of the dislocation motion
Darisi, Tanya; Thorne, Sarah; Iacobelli, Carolyn
2005-09-01
Research was conducted to gain insight into potential clients' decisions to undergo plastic surgery, their perception of benefits and risks, their judgment of outcomes, and their selection of a plastic surgeon. Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 60 people who expressed interest in plastic surgery. Qualitative analysis revealed their "mental models" regarding influences on their decision to undergo plastic surgery and their choice of a surgeon. Interview results were used to design a Web-based survey in which 644 individuals considering plastic surgery responded. The desire for change was the most direct motivator to undergo plastic surgery. Improvements to physical well-being were related to emotional and social benefits. When prompted about risks, participants mentioned physical, emotional, and social risks. Surgeon selection was a critical influence on decisions to undergo plastic surgery. Participants gave considerable weight to personal consultation and believed that finding the "right" plastic surgeon would minimize potential risks. Findings from the Web-based survey were similar to the mental models interviews in terms of benefit ratings but differed in risk ratings and surgeon selection criteria. The mental models interviews revealed that interview participants were thoughtful about their decision to undergo plastic surgery and focused on finding the right plastic surgeon.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Smed; Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars
2015-01-01
A numerical implementation of the Hoek–Brown criterion is presented, which is capable of modeling different post-failure behaviors observed in jointed rock mass. This is done by making the material parameters a function of the accumulated plastic strain. The implementation is for use in finite...... for perfectly-plastic, brittle and strain softening material behavior and the results are compared with known solutions....
A 3D elasto-plastic soil model for lateral buckling analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hededal, Ole; Strandgaard, Torsten
2008-01-01
Modeling the lay-down of pipelines and subsequently the in- service conditions for a pipeline involves definition of a pipe-soil interaction model. A generalized true 3D elasto-plastic spring element based on an anisotropic hardening/degradation model for sliding is presented. The basis...... for the model is the elasto-plastic framework. A generic format is selected, allowing different yield criteria and flow rules to be implemented in a simple way. The model complies to a finite element format allowing it to be directly implemented into a standard finite element code. Examples demonstrating...
Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Pettermann, Heinz E.
2008-01-01
The present work is concerned with modeling the non-linear response of fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Recent experimental data suggests that the non-linearity is not only caused by matrix cracking but also by matrix plasticity due to shear stresses. To capture the effects of those two mechanisms, a model combining a plasticity formulation with continuum damage has been developed to simulate the non-linear response of laminates under plane stress states. The model is used to compare the predicted behavior of various laminate lay-ups to experimental data from the literature by looking at the degradation of axial modulus and Poisson s ratio of the laminates. The influence of residual curing stresses and in-situ effect on the predicted response is also investigated. It is shown that predictions of the combined damage/plasticity model, in general, correlate well with the experimental data. The test data shows that there are two different mechanisms that can have opposite effects on the degradation of the laminate Poisson s ratio which is captured correctly by the damage/plasticity model. Residual curing stresses are found to have a minor influence on the predicted response for the cases considered here. Some open questions remain regarding the prediction of damage onset.
A comparison of plastic collapse and limit loads for single mitred pipe bends under in-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neilson, R.; Wood, J.; Hamilton, R.; Li, H.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a comparison of the plastic collapse loads from experimental in-plane bending tests on three 90 o single un-reinforced mitred pipe bends, with the results from various 3D solid finite element models. The bending load applied reduced the bend angle and in turn, the resulting cross-sectional ovalisation led to a recognised weakening mechanism. In addition, at maximum load there was a reversal in stiffness, characteristic of buckling. This reversal in stiffness was accompanied by significant ovalisation and plasticity at the mitre intersection. Both the weakening mechanism and the post-buckling behaviour are only observable by testing or by including large displacement effects in the plastic finite element solution. A small displacement limit solution with an elastic-perfectly plastic material model overestimated the collapse load by more than 40% and could not reproduce the buckling behaviour. The plastic collapse finite element solution, with large displacements, produced excellent agreement with the experiment. Sufficient experimental detail is presented for these results to be used as a benchmark for analysts in this area. Given the robustness of non-linear solutions in commercial finite element codes and the ready availability of computing resources, it is argued that pressure vessel code developers should now be recommending large displacement analysis as the default position for limit and plastic collapse analyses, rather than expecting engineers to anticipate weakening mechanisms and related non-linear phenomena.
The Perfect Glass Paradigm: Disordered Hyperuniform Glasses Down to Absolute Zero
Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.
2016-11-01
Rapid cooling of liquids below a certain temperature range can result in a transition to glassy states. The traditional understanding of glasses includes their thermodynamic metastability with respect to crystals. However, here we present specific examples of interactions that eliminate the possibilities of crystalline and quasicrystalline phases, while creating mechanically stable amorphous glasses down to absolute zero temperature. We show that this can be accomplished by introducing a new ideal state of matter called a “perfect glass”. A perfect glass represents a soft-interaction analog of the maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings of hard particles. These latter states can be regarded as the epitome of a glass since they are out of equilibrium, maximally disordered, hyperuniform, mechanically rigid with infinite bulk and shear moduli, and can never crystallize due to configuration-space trapping. Our model perfect glass utilizes two-, three-, and four-body soft interactions while simultaneously retaining the salient attributes of the MRJ state. These models constitute a theoretical proof of concept for perfect glasses and broaden our fundamental understanding of glass physics. A novel feature of equilibrium systems of identical particles interacting with the perfect-glass potential at positive temperature is that they have a non-relativistic speed of sound that is infinite.
Closed-form plastic collapse loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae
2006-01-01
Based on three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit, collapse and instability load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide plastic collapse loads (using the twice-elastic-slope method) and instability loads. For the bending mode, both closing bending and opening bending are considered, and a wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and collapse load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and bending are proposed
Non-local crystal plasticity model with intrinsic SSD and GND effects
Evers, L.P.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.
2004-01-01
A strain gradient-dependent crystal plasticity approach is presented to model the constitutive behaviour of polycrystal FCC metals under large plastic deformation. In order to be capable of predicting scale dependence, the heterogeneous deformation-induced evolution and distribution of geometrically
Metamodel-based inverse method for parameter identification: elastic-plastic damage model
Huang, Changwu; El Hami, Abdelkhalak; Radi, Bouchaïb
2017-04-01
This article proposed a metamodel-based inverse method for material parameter identification and applies it to elastic-plastic damage model parameter identification. An elastic-plastic damage model is presented and implemented in numerical simulation. The metamodel-based inverse method is proposed in order to overcome the disadvantage in computational cost of the inverse method. In the metamodel-based inverse method, a Kriging metamodel is constructed based on the experimental design in order to model the relationship between material parameters and the objective function values in the inverse problem, and then the optimization procedure is executed by the use of a metamodel. The applications of the presented material model and proposed parameter identification method in the standard A 2017-T4 tensile test prove that the presented elastic-plastic damage model is adequate to describe the material's mechanical behaviour and that the proposed metamodel-based inverse method not only enhances the efficiency of parameter identification but also gives reliable results.
Perfect simulation of Hawkes processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl
This article concerns a perfect simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes. The usual stratihtforward simulation algorithm suffers from edge effects, whereas our perfect simulation algorithm does not. By viewing Hawkes processes as Poisson cluster processes and using...... their branching and conditional independence structure, useful approximations of the distribution function for the length of a cluster are derived. This is used to construct upper and lower processes for the perfect simulation algorithm. Examples of applications and empirical results are presented....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gol'dshtejn, M.I.; Popov, V.V.; Cheremnykh, V.G.
1980-01-01
Using the Fe-Nb-V-C-N and Fe-Ti-V-C-N systems' low carbon steels, the earlier suggested model of perfect solid solutions has been experimentally researched. Also studied has been the feasibility to calculate the composition of carbonitrides in steels by the derived equations, that comprise, as parameters, products of respective compounds' solubility and coefficients of components interaction in iron-based solid solutions. A conclusion is drawn that perfect solutions models may be used adequately for complex carbonitrides like Nbsub(p)Vsub(1-p)Csub(q)Nsub(1-q) and Tisub(p)Vsub(1-p)Csub(q)Nsub(1-q) during the calculations of their equilibrium composition and solubility in steels
A multi scale model for small scale plasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zbib, Hussein M.
2002-01-01
Full text.A framework for investigating size-dependent small-scale plasticity phenomena and related material instabilities at various length scales ranging from the nano-microscale to the mesoscale is presented. The model is based on fundamental physical laws that govern dislocation motion and their interaction with various defects and interfaces. Particularly, a multi-scale model is developed merging two scales, the nano-microscale where plasticity is determined by explicit three-dimensional dislocation dynamics analysis providing the material length-scale, and the continuum scale where energy transport is based on basic continuum mechanics laws. The result is a hybrid simulation model coupling discrete dislocation dynamics with finite element analyses. With this hybrid approach, one can address complex size-dependent problems, including dislocation boundaries, dislocations in heterogeneous structures, dislocation interaction with interfaces and associated shape changes and lattice rotations, as well as deformation in nano-structured materials, localized deformation and shear band
Perfect Liberty or Natural Liberty?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Stefan Gaarsmand
2012-01-01
The article investigates the concept of natural order as it is used by François Quesnay and Adam Smith in their respective economic writings. While Smith used the concept only after having visited Quesnay and the Physiocrats in France in the 1760s, in The Wealth of Nations he sought to negotiate...... the meaning of what was “natural” about economic life. The Physiocrats believed it possible to identify a model or a perfect regime of natural order – an order that they in fact thought to exist and function in China due to a rigorous system of economic laws. Smith sided with contemporary critics...... of this metaphysical vision of economic perfection (and of Chinese governance), but he suggested that the economic mechanisms of the physiocratic theories would remain intact even with a minimum of control by state laws. However, Smith’s balancing act on these questions remained disputed even by his Scottish...
Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity
Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke
2005-06-01
Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.
Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke
2005-01-01
Ever since Karl Schwarzschild's 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star--a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density--the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coste, Ph.; Aubert, J.; Lejeune, C.
1991-01-01
The extensive development of ion beam technologies in the last years, in particular for thin film deposition and etching, poses the problem of predicting the behaviour of the ion beam from convenient models. One of the existing models, the 'perfect linear model', is easy to use and provides information about the geometrical parameters of the ion beam envelope. In this model, however, the plasma potential must be close to the plasma electrode potential. Now, ion sources with electrostatic containment of the ionizing electrons -very attractive because of their improved ionization efficiency - have a plasma potential higher than the plasma electrode potential. Thus, a space-charge sheath with a non-negligible thickness exists, which modifies the equilibrium conditions of the plasma meniscus and, therefore, the initial divergence of the ion beam. In this paper an adaptation of the perfect linear model for ion beam formation to the case of plasma sources with electron electrostatic containment is presented. (author)
Modification of Concrete Damaged Plasticity model. Part II: Formulation and numerical tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamińska Inez
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A refined model for elastoplastic damaged material is formulated based on the plastic potential introduced in Part I [1]. Considered model is an extension of Concrete Damaged Plasticity material implemented in Abaqus [2]. In the paper the stiffness tensor for elastoplastic damaged behaviour is derived. In order to validate the model, computations for the uniaxial tests are performed. Response of the model for various cases of parameter’s choice is shown and compared to the response of the CDP model.
Adaptive plasticity model for bucket foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin; Larsen, Kim A.
2014-01-01
Based on experimental investigations, the literature proposes different methods for modeling the behavior and capacity of foundations subjected to combined loading. Generally, two methods are used to predict the behavior of foundations: traditional approaches and hardening plasticity solutions......, potential, and failure surfaces are found to be dependent on the embedment ratio (i.e., ratio of skirt length to the diameter) and load path. For the models tested, associated flow is observed to be plausible in the radial planes, whereas nonassociated flow is observed in the planes along the V-axis....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Shmeliov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article describes the models of metallic materials used in the calculation of deformation and destruction of engineering structures. The reliability of material models can adequately assess the strength characteristics of the designs of new technology in its designing and certification.The article deals with contingencies and true mechanical properties of materials and presents equations of their relationship. It notes that in the software systems mechanical characteristics of materials are given in the true sense.The paper considers the linear and exponential models of materials, their characteristics, and methods to implement them. It considers the models of Johnson-Cook Steinberg-Guinan, Zerilli-Armstrong, Cowper-Symonds, Gurson-Tvergaard that take into account the strain rate and temperature of the material. Describes their applications, advantages and disadvantages. Considers single- and multi-parameter criteria of materials fracture, the prospects for their use. Gives a rational justification for using a piecewise linear plasticity material model *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY (024, LS-DYNA software package for the engineering industry, and presents its main parameters.A technique to identify parameters of piecewise linear plasticity metal material models has been developed. The technique consists of the stages, based on the equations of transition from the conventional stress and strain values to the true ones. Taking into consideration the stressstrain state in the neck of the sample is a distinctive feature of the technique.Tensile tests of the round material samples have been conducted. To test the developed technique in the software package ANSYS LS-DYNA PC have been made tensile sample modeling and results comparison to show high convergence.Further improvement of the technique can be achieved through the development of a statistical approach to the analysis of the results of a series of tests. This will allow a kind of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. I. Uvarov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An analytical model of plastic deformation of a conical shell with the transformation of internal surface into outer one was developed with a use of the kinematic method. The shell material was assumed to be perfectly plastic. The theory of thin shells and the kinematic theorem of limit equilibrium were utilized in this work. Both geometric and physical nonlinearities were taken into account. Dependences for calculating radius of curvature of the intensive deformation zones, value of chain ring deformation and values of the deforming force as a function of axial displacement were determined. Analysis showed the possibility of using a conical shell to absorb energy with high efficiency. Obtained results could be used for calculation and selection of optimal parameters of the energy-absorbing elements in shock absorbers.
Computational modeling of neural plasticity for self-organization of neural networks.
Chrol-Cannon, Joseph; Jin, Yaochu
2014-11-01
Self-organization in biological nervous systems during the lifetime is known to largely occur through a process of plasticity that is dependent upon the spike-timing activity in connected neurons. In the field of computational neuroscience, much effort has been dedicated to building up computational models of neural plasticity to replicate experimental data. Most recently, increasing attention has been paid to understanding the role of neural plasticity in functional and structural neural self-organization, as well as its influence on the learning performance of neural networks for accomplishing machine learning tasks such as classification and regression. Although many ideas and hypothesis have been suggested, the relationship between the structure, dynamics and learning performance of neural networks remains elusive. The purpose of this article is to review the most important computational models for neural plasticity and discuss various ideas about neural plasticity's role. Finally, we suggest a few promising research directions, in particular those along the line that combines findings in computational neuroscience and systems biology, and their synergetic roles in understanding learning, memory and cognition, thereby bridging the gap between computational neuroscience, systems biology and computational intelligence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Alan S.; Wang, Hailong; Copeland, Craig R.; Chen, Christopher S.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Reich, Daniel H.
2016-01-01
The biomechanical behavior of tissues under mechanical stimulation is critically important to physiological function. We report a combined experimental and modeling study of bioengineered 3D smooth muscle microtissues that reveals a previously unappreciated interaction between active cell mechanics and the viscoplastic properties of the extracellular matrix. The microtissues’ response to stretch/unstretch actuations, as probed by microcantilever force sensors, was dominated by cellular actomyosin dynamics. However, cell lysis revealed a viscoplastic response of the underlying model collagen/fibrin matrix. A model coupling Hill-type actomyosin dynamics with a plastic perfectly viscoplastic description of the matrix quantitatively accounts for the microtissue dynamics, including notably the cells’ shielding of the matrix plasticity. Stretch measurements of single cells confirmed the active cell dynamics, and were well described by a single-cell version of our model. These results reveal the need for new focus on matrix plasticity and its interactions with active cell mechanics in describing tissue dynamics. PMID:27671239
Uncertainty propagation in a multiscale model of nanocrystalline plasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koslowski, M.; Strachan, Alejandro
2011-01-01
We characterize how uncertainties propagate across spatial and temporal scales in a physics-based model of nanocrystalline plasticity of fcc metals. Our model combines molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize atomic-level processes that govern dislocation-based-plastic deformation with a phase field approach to dislocation dynamics (PFDD) that describes how an ensemble of dislocations evolve and interact to determine the mechanical response of the material. We apply this approach to a nanocrystalline Ni specimen of interest in micro-electromechanical (MEMS) switches. Our approach enables us to quantify how internal stresses that result from the fabrication process affect the properties of dislocations (using MD) and how these properties, in turn, affect the yield stress of the metallic membrane (using the PFMM model). Our predictions show that, for a nanocrystalline sample with small grain size (4 nm), a variation in residual stress of 20 MPa (typical in today's microfabrication techniques) would result in a variation on the critical resolved shear yield stress of approximately 15 MPa, a very small fraction of the nominal value of approximately 9 GPa. - Highlights: → Quantify how fabrication uncertainties affect yield stress in a microswitch component. → Propagate uncertainties in a multiscale model of single crystal plasticity. → Molecular dynamics quantifies how fabrication variations affect dislocations. → Dislocation dynamics relate variations in dislocation properties to yield stress.
Micromechanical models to guide the development of synthetic 'brick and mortar' composites
Begley, M.R.; Philips, N.R.; Compton, B.G.; Wilbrink, D.V.; Ritchie, R.O.; Utz, M.
2012-01-01
This paper describes a micromechanical analysis of the uniaxial response of composites comprising elastic platelets (bricks) bonded together with thin elastic perfectly plastic layers (mortar). The model yields closed-form results for the spatial variation of displacements in the bricks as a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rachel N. Cable
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Most plastic pollution originates on land. As such, freshwater bodies serve as conduits for the transport of plastic litter to the ocean. Understanding the concentrations and fluxes of plastic litter in freshwater ecosystems is critical to our understanding of the global plastic litter budget and underpins the success of future management strategies. We conducted a replicated field survey of surface plastic concentrations in four lakes in the North American Great Lakes system, the largest contiguous freshwater system on the planet. We then modeled plastic transport to resolve spatial and temporal variability of plastic distribution in one of the Great Lakes, Lake Erie. Triplicate surface samples were collected at 38 stations in mid-summer of 2014. Plastic particles >106 μm in size were quantified. Concentrations were highest near populated urban areas and their water infrastructure. In the highest concentration trawl, nearly 2 million fragments km−2 were found in the Detroit River—dwarfing previous reports of Great Lakes plastic abundances by over 4-fold. Yet, the accuracy of single trawl counts was challenged: within-station plastic abundances varied 0- to 3-fold between replicate trawls. In the smallest size class (106–1,000 μm, false positive rates of 12–24% were determined analytically for plastic vs. non-plastic, while false negative rates averaged ~18%. Though predicted to form in summer by the existing Lake Erie circulation model, our transport model did not predict a permanent surface “Lake Erie Garbage Patch” in its central basin—a trend supported by field survey data. Rather, general eastward transport with recirculation in the major basins was predicted. Further, modeled plastic residence times were drastically influenced by plastic buoyancy. Neutrally buoyant plastics—those with the same density as the ambient water—were flushed several times slower than plastics floating at the water's surface and exceeded the
Hu, Shuai; Gao, Taichang; Li, Hao; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Zidong; Liu, Lei; Chen, Ming
2017-10-01
The performance of absorbing boundary condition (ABC) is an important factor influencing the simulation accuracy of MRTD (Multi-Resolution Time-Domain) scattering model for non-spherical aerosol particles. To this end, the Convolution Perfectly Matched Layer (CPML), an excellent ABC in FDTD scheme, is generalized and applied to the MRTD scattering model developed by our team. In this model, the time domain is discretized by exponential differential scheme, and the discretization of space domain is implemented by Galerkin principle. To evaluate the performance of CPML, its simulation results are compared with those of BPML (Berenger's Perfectly Matched Layer) and ADE-PML (Perfectly Matched Layer with Auxiliary Differential Equation) for spherical and non-spherical particles, and their simulation errors are analyzed as well. The simulation results show that, for scattering phase matrices, the performance of CPML is better than that of BPML; the computational accuracy of CPML is comparable to that of ADE-PML on the whole, but at scattering angles where phase matrix elements fluctuate sharply, the performance of CPML is slightly better than that of ADE-PML. After orientation averaging process, the differences among the results of different ABCs are reduced to some extent. It also can be found that ABCs have a much weaker influence on integral scattering parameters (such as extinction and absorption efficiencies) than scattering phase matrices, this phenomenon can be explained by the error averaging process in the numerical volume integration.
Dynamic rupture models of subduction zone earthquakes with off-fault plasticity
Wollherr, S.; van Zelst, I.; Gabriel, A. A.; van Dinther, Y.; Madden, E. H.; Ulrich, T.
2017-12-01
Modeling tsunami-genesis based on purely elastic seafloor displacement typically underpredicts tsunami sizes. Dynamic rupture simulations allow to analyse whether plastic energy dissipation is a missing rheological component by capturing the complex interplay of the rupture front, emitted seismic waves and the free surface in the accretionary prism. Strike-slip models with off-fault plasticity suggest decreasing rupture speed and extensive plastic yielding mainly at shallow depths. For simplified subduction geometries inelastic deformation on the verge of Coulomb failure may enhance vertical displacement, which in turn favors the generation of large tsunamis (Ma, 2012). However, constraining appropriate initial conditions in terms of fault geometry, initial fault stress and strength remains challenging. Here, we present dynamic rupture models of subduction zones constrained by long-term seismo-thermo-mechanical modeling (STM) without any a priori assumption of regions of failure. The STM model provides self-consistent slab geometries, as well as stress and strength initial conditions which evolve in response to tectonic stresses, temperature, gravity, plasticity and pressure (van Dinther et al. 2013). Coseismic slip and coupled seismic wave propagation is modelled using the software package SeisSol (www.seissol.org), suited for complex fault zone structures and topography/bathymetry. SeisSol allows for local time-stepping, which drastically reduces the time-to-solution (Uphoff et al., 2017). This is particularly important in large-scale scenarios resolving small-scale features, such as the shallow angle between the megathrust fault and the free surface. Our dynamic rupture model uses a Drucker-Prager plastic yield criterion and accounts for thermal pressurization around the fault mimicking the effect of pore pressure changes due to frictional heating. We first analyze the influence of this rheology on rupture dynamics and tsunamigenic properties, i.e. seafloor
Plasticity models of material variability based on uncertainty quantification techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, Reese E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Rizzi, Francesco [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Boyce, Brad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Templeton, Jeremy Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ostien, Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-11-01
The advent of fabrication techniques like additive manufacturing has focused attention on the considerable variability of material response due to defects and other micro-structural aspects. This variability motivates the development of an enhanced design methodology that incorporates inherent material variability to provide robust predictions of performance. In this work, we develop plasticity models capable of representing the distribution of mechanical responses observed in experiments using traditional plasticity models of the mean response and recently developed uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques. Lastly, we demonstrate that the new method provides predictive realizations that are superior to more traditional ones, and how these UQ techniques can be used in model selection and assessing the quality of calibrated physical parameters.
Numerical modelling of reinforced concrete beams with fracture-plastic material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Sucharda
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the use of models of fracture-plastic materials for reinforced concrete in numerical modelling of beams made from reinforced concrete. The purpose of the paper is to use of a model of concrete for modelling of a behaviour of reinforced concrete beams which have been tested at the University of Toronto within re-examination of classic concrete beam tests. The original tests were performed by Bresler- Scordelis. A stochastic modelling based on LHS (Latin Hypercube Sampling has been performed for the reinforced concrete beam. An objective of the modelling is to evaluate the total bearing capacity of the reinforced concrete beams depending on distribution of input data. The beams from the studied set have longitudinal reinforcement only. The beams do not have any shear reinforcement. The software used for the fracture-plastic model of the reinforced concrete is the ATENA.
Li, Xiumin; Wang, Wei; Xue, Fangzheng; Song, Yongduan
2018-02-01
Recently there has been continuously increasing interest in building up computational models of spiking neural networks (SNN), such as the Liquid State Machine (LSM). The biologically inspired self-organized neural networks with neural plasticity can enhance the capability of computational performance, with the characteristic features of dynamical memory and recurrent connection cycles which distinguish them from the more widely used feedforward neural networks. Despite a variety of computational models for brain-like learning and information processing have been proposed, the modeling of self-organized neural networks with multi-neural plasticity is still an important open challenge. The main difficulties lie in the interplay among different forms of neural plasticity rules and understanding how structures and dynamics of neural networks shape the computational performance. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to develop the models of LSM with a biologically inspired self-organizing network based on two neural plasticity learning rules. The connectivity among excitatory neurons is adapted by spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) learning; meanwhile, the degrees of neuronal excitability are regulated to maintain a moderate average activity level by another learning rule: intrinsic plasticity (IP). Our study shows that LSM with STDP+IP performs better than LSM with a random SNN or SNN obtained by STDP alone. The noticeable improvement with the proposed method is due to the better reflected competition among different neurons in the developed SNN model, as well as the more effectively encoded and processed relevant dynamic information with its learning and self-organizing mechanism. This result gives insights to the optimization of computational models of spiking neural networks with neural plasticity.
A kinetic model of dopamine- and calcium-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takashi Nakano
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Corticostriatal synapse plasticity of medium spiny neurons is regulated by glutamate input from the cortex and dopamine input from the substantia nigra. While cortical stimulation alone results in long-term depression (LTD, the combination with dopamine switches LTD to long-term potentiation (LTP, which is known as dopamine-dependent plasticity. LTP is also induced by cortical stimulation in magnesium-free solution, which leads to massive calcium influx through NMDA-type receptors and is regarded as calcium-dependent plasticity. Signaling cascades in the corticostriatal spines are currently under investigation. However, because of the existence of multiple excitatory and inhibitory pathways with loops, the mechanisms regulating the two types of plasticity remain poorly understood. A signaling pathway model of spines that express D1-type dopamine receptors was constructed to analyze the dynamic mechanisms of dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. The model incorporated all major signaling molecules, including dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa (DARPP32, as well as AMPA receptor trafficking in the post-synaptic membrane. Simulations with dopamine and calcium inputs reproduced dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. Further in silico experiments revealed that the positive feedback loop consisted of protein kinase A (PKA, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, and the phosphorylation site at threonine 75 of DARPP-32 (Thr75 served as the major switch for inducing LTD and LTP. Calcium input modulated this loop through the PP2B (phosphatase 2B-CK1 (casein kinase 1-Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5-Thr75 pathway and PP2A, whereas calcium and dopamine input activated the loop via PKA activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP. The positive feedback loop displayed robust bi-stable responses following changes in the reaction parameters. Increased basal dopamine levels disrupted this dopamine-dependent plasticity. The
Cyclic plasticity models and application in fatigue analysis
Kalev, I.
1981-01-01
An analytical procedure for prediction of the cyclic plasticity effects on both the structural fatigue life to crack initiation and the rate of crack growth is presented. The crack initiation criterion is based on the Coffin-Manson formulae extended for multiaxial stress state and for inclusion of the mean stress effect. This criterion is also applied for the accumulated damage ahead of the existing crack tip which is assumed to be related to the crack growth rate. Three cyclic plasticity models, based on the concept of combination of several yield surfaces, are employed for computing the crack growth rate of a crack plane stress panel under several cyclic loading conditions.
Damage-plasticity model of the host rock in a nuclear waste repository
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koudelka, Tomáš; Kruis, Jaroslav, E-mail: kruis@fsv.cvut.cz [Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague (Czech Republic)
2016-06-08
The paper describes damage-plasticity model for the modelling of the host rock environment of a nuclear waste repository. Radioactive Waste Repository Authority in Czech Republic assumes the repository to be in a granite rock mass which exhibit anisotropic behaviour where the strength in tension is lower than in compression. In order to describe this phenomenon, the damage-plasticity model is formulated with the help of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion which can be set to capture the compression behaviour while the tensile stress states is described with the help of scalar isotropic damage model. The concept of damage-plasticity model was implemented in the SIFEL finite element code and consequently, the code was used for the simulation of the Äspö Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE) which was performed in order to determine yielding strength under various conditions in similar granite rocks as in Czech Republic. The results from the performed analysis are presented and discussed in the paper.
Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers
Bai, Ping
2016-05-18
The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.
Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers
Bai, Ping; Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun
2016-01-01
The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.
A gradient enhanced plasticity-damage microplane model for concrete
Zreid, Imadeddin; Kaliske, Michael
2018-03-01
Computational modeling of concrete poses two main types of challenges. The first is the mathematical description of local response for such a heterogeneous material under all stress states, and the second is the stability and efficiency of the numerical implementation in finite element codes. The paper at hand presents a comprehensive approach addressing both issues. Adopting the microplane theory, a combined plasticity-damage model is formulated and regularized by an implicit gradient enhancement. The plasticity part introduces a new microplane smooth 3-surface cap yield function, which provides a stable numerical solution within an implicit finite element algorithm. The damage part utilizes a split, which can describe the transition of loading between tension and compression. Regularization of the model by the implicit gradient approach eliminates the mesh sensitivity and numerical instabilities. Identification methods for model parameters are proposed and several numerical examples of plain and reinforced concrete are carried out for illustration.
The concept of a model of plastic bodily image in architecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malakhov Sergey
2017-01-01
Full Text Available One of the key problems of architectural mastery is lack of acute feeling of the plastic image and bodily self-determination of an architectural object at the initial (and the subsequent stage when the design model author is trying to see and understand the context where the future object should appear, literally be born out of thin air. This sensuous amnesia is caused, among other reasons, by the lack of experience in “sculptural modeling”, “hand molding” and today’s common practice of facilitated transfer to analytical computer design. The loss of intense bodily experience, mental connection of one’s own body with an imaginary object, has an effect as well. In its turn, it deprives the object of sensuous corporeal nature, transforms it into a mechanistic conglomerate. The article deals with the body concept, bodily and plastic categories in relation to the architectural shaping and suggests the concept of mediator models linking reality and the designer’s imagination integrated into a new typology of “models of plastic bodily images” (MPBI. The principal medium of these models and the procedures for their creation are based on synthesis of form, interpretation of the “bodily experience”, tactile contact with model material, sculptural forming techniques and sensory evaluations of subject-environment interaction. The proposed typology of models has been piloted by the author in numerous educational and conceptual projects. The results of experiments and developed theoretical principles related to models of plastic bodily images will help achieve better results in the course of basic design and special composition training of architects.
Semantic modeling of plastic deformation of polycrystalline rock
Babaie, Hassan A.; Davarpanah, Armita
2018-02-01
We have developed the first iteration of the Plastic Rock Deformation (PRD) ontology by modeling the semantics of a selected set of deformational processes and mechanisms that produce, reconfigure, displace, and/or consume the material components of inhomogeneous polycrystalline rocks. The PRD knowledge model also classifies and formalizes the properties (relations) that hold between instances of the dynamic physical and chemical processes and the rock components, the complex physio-chemical, mathematical, and informational concepts of the plastic rock deformation system, the measured or calculated laboratory testing conditions, experimental procedures and protocols, the state and system variables, and the empirical flow laws that define the inter-relationships among the variables. The ontology reuses classes and properties from several existing ontologies that are built for physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics. With its flexible design, the PRD ontology is well positioned to incrementally develop into a model that more fully represents the knowledge of plastic deformation of polycrystalline rocks in the future. The domain ontology will be used to consistently annotate varied data and information related to the microstructures and the physical and chemical processes that produce them at different spatial and temporal scales in the laboratory and in the solid Earth. The PRDKB knowledge base, when built based on the ontology, will help the community of experimental structural geologists and metamorphic petrologists to coherently and uniformly distribute, discover, access, share, and use their data through automated reasoning and integration and query of heterogeneous experimental deformation data that originate from autonomous rock testing laboratories.
Overemphasis on Perfectly Competitive Markets in Microeconomics Principles Textbooks
Hill, Roderick; Myatt, Anthony
2007-01-01
Microeconomic principles courses focus on perfectly competitive markets far more than other market structures. The authors examine five possible reasons for this but find none of them sufficiently compelling. They conclude that textbook authors should place more emphasis on how economists select appropriate models and test models' predictions…
A Modeling Approach for Plastic-Metal Laser Direct Joining
Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fortunato, Alessandro; Ascari, Alessandro; Romoli, Luca
2017-09-01
Laser processing has been identified as a feasible approach to direct joining of metal and plastic components without the need for adhesives or mechanical fasteners. The present work sees development of a modeling approach for conduction and transmission laser direct joining of these materials based on multi-layer optical propagation theory and numerical heat flow simulation. The scope of this methodology is to predict process outcomes based on the calculated joint interface and upper surface temperatures. Three representative cases are considered for model verification, including conduction joining of PBT and aluminum alloy, transmission joining of optically transparent PET and stainless steel, and transmission joining of semi-transparent PA 66 and stainless steel. Conduction direct laser joining experiments are performed on black PBT and 6082 anticorodal aluminum alloy, achieving shear loads of over 2000 N with specimens of 2 mm thickness and 25 mm width. Comparison with simulation results shows that consistently high strength is achieved where the peak interface temperature is above the plastic degradation temperature. Comparison of transmission joining simulations and published experimental results confirms these findings and highlights the influence of plastic layer optical absorption on process feasibility.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vu-Quoc, L.; Lesburg, L.; Zhang, X.
2004-01-01
An elasto-plastic frictional tangential force-displacement (TFD) model for spheres in contact for accurate and efficient granular-flow simulations is presented in this paper; the present TFD is consistent with the elasto-plastic normal force-displacement (NFD) model presented in [ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 67 (2) (2000) 363; Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 455 (1991) (1999) 4013]. The proposed elasto-plastic frictional TFD model is accurate, and is validated against non-linear finite-element analyses involving plastic flows under both loading and unloading conditions. The novelty of the present TFD model lies in (i) the additive decomposition of the elasto-plastic contact area radius into an elastic part and a plastic part, (ii) the correction of the particles' radii at the contact point, and (iii) the correction of the particles' elastic moduli. The correction of the contact-area radius represents an effect of plastic deformation in colliding particles; the correction of the radius of curvature represents a permanent indentation after impact; the correction of the elastic moduli represents a softening of the material due to plastic flow. The construction of both the present elasto-plastic frictional TFD model and its consistent companion, the elasto-plastic NFD model, parallels the formalism of the continuum theory of elasto-plasticity. Both NFD and TFD models form a coherent set of force-displacement (FD) models not available hitherto for granular-flow simulations, and are consistent with the Hertz, Cattaneo, Mindlin, Deresiewicz contact mechanics theory. Together, these FD models will allow for efficient simulations of granular flows (or granular gases) involving a large number of particles
Bianchi Type-V model with a perfect fluid and Λ-term
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A self-consistent system of gravitational field with a binary mixture of perfect ... a form of quintessence, may explain the coincidence, adding a new motivation for .... hand, with the expansion of the universe, i.e., with the increase of V , the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Wen; Hou, Yong; Zhu, Wenjun
2013-01-01
Shock compressions of nanocrystalline (nc) metals Al and Cu with the same grain size and texture are studied by using molecular dynamics simulations. Results have revealed that the shock front of both Al and Cu can be divided into three stages: elastic, grain-boundary-mediated, and dislocation-mediated plastic deformation. The transition planes among these three stages are proven to be non-planar by two-dimensional shock response analysis, including local stress, shear, temperature, and atom configuration. The difference between shocked Al and Cu is that the rise rate of the elastic stage of Cu is slightly higher than that of Al, and that the shock-front width of Al is wider than Cu at the same loading conditions. For the plastic stage, the dislocation density of shocked Al is lower than Cu, and the contribution of grain-boundary-mediated plasticity to shock front and strain for nc Al is more pronounced than for nc Cu. These results are explained through intrinsic material properties and atomistic analysis of the plastic process. In the case of the shocked Al sample, partial dislocations, perfect dislocations, and twins are observed, but few evidence of perfect dislocations and twins are observed in the shocked Cu
A Conservative Formulation for Plasticity
1992-01-01
concepts that apply to a broad class of macroscopic models: plastic deformation and plastic flow rule. CONSERVATIVE PLASTICITY 469 3a. Plastic Defrrnation...temperature. We illustrate these concepts with a model that has been used to describe high strain-rate plastic flow in metals [11, 31, 32]. In the case...JOURDREN, AND P. VEYSSEYRE. Un Modele ttyperelastique- Plastique Euldrien Applicable aux Grandes Dtformations: Que/ques R~sultats 1-D. preprint, 1991. 2. P
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čermák, M.; Haslinger, Jaroslav; Kozubek, T.; Sysala, Stanislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 95, č. 12 (2015), s. 1348-1371 ISSN 0044-2267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : frictionless contact * alternating direction method of multipliers * limit load analysis * elastic-perfect analplasticity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/zamm.201400069/epdf
Crystal plasticity modeling of irradiation growth in Zircaloy-2
Patra, Anirban; Tomé, Carlos N.; Golubov, Stanislav I.
2017-08-01
A physically based reaction-diffusion model is implemented in the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) crystal plasticity framework to simulate irradiation growth in hcp Zr and its alloys. The reaction-diffusion model accounts for the defects produced by the cascade of displaced atoms, their diffusion to lattice sinks and the contribution to crystallographic strain at the level of single crystals. The VPSC framework accounts for intergranular interactions and irradiation creep, and calculates the strain in the polycrystalline ensemble. A novel scheme is proposed to model the simultaneous evolution of both, number density and radius, of irradiation-induced dislocation loops directly from experimental data of dislocation density evolution during irradiation. This framework is used to predict the irradiation growth behaviour of cold-worked Zircaloy-2 and trends compared to available experimental data. The role of internal stresses in inducing irradiation creep is discussed. Effects of grain size, texture and external stress on the coupled irradiation growth and creep behaviour are also studied and compared with available experimental data.
On 4-critical t-perfect graphs
Benchetrit, Yohann
2016-01-01
It is an open question whether the chromatic number of $t$-perfect graphs is bounded by a constant. The largest known value for this parameter is 4, and the only example of a 4-critical $t$-perfect graph, due to Laurent and Seymour, is the complement of the line graph of the prism $\\Pi$ (a graph is 4-critical if it has chromatic number 4 and all its proper induced subgraphs are 3-colorable). In this paper, we show a new example of a 4-critical $t$-perfect graph: the complement of the line gra...
Constitutive model of discontinuous plastic flow at cryogenic temperatures
Skoczen, B; Bielski, J; Marcinek, D
2010-01-01
FCC metals and alloys are frequently used in cryogenic applications, nearly down to the temperature of absolute zero, because of their excellent physical and mechanical properties including ductility. Some of these materials, often characterized by the low stacking fault energy (LSFE), undergo at low temperatures three distinct phenomena: dynamic strain ageing (DSA), plastic strain induced transformation from the parent phase (gamma) to the secondary phase (alpha) and evolution of micro-damage. The constitutive model presented in the paper is focused on the discontinuous plastic flow (serrated yielding) and takes into account the relevant thermodynamic background. The discontinuous plastic flow reflecting the DSA effect is described by the mechanism of local catastrophic failure of Lomer-Cottrell (LC) locks under the stress fields related to the accumulating edge dislocations (below the transition temperature from the screw dislocations to the edge dislocations mode T-1). The failure of LC locks leads to mass...
Theoretical Development of an Orthotropic Elasto-Plastic Generalized Composite Material Model
Goldberg, Robert; Carney, Kelly; DuBois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Harrington, Joseph; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther
2014-01-01
The need for accurate material models to simulate the deformation, damage and failure of polymer matrix composites is becoming critical as these materials are gaining increased usage in the aerospace and automotive industries. While there are several composite material models currently available within LSDYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corporation), there are several features that have been identified that could improve the predictive capability of a composite model. To address these needs, a combined plasticity and damage model suitable for use with both solid and shell elements is being developed and is being implemented into LS-DYNA as MAT_213. A key feature of the improved material model is the use of tabulated stress-strain data in a variety of coordinate directions to fully define the stress-strain response of the material. To date, the model development efforts have focused on creating the plasticity portion of the model. The Tsai-Wu composite failure model has been generalized and extended to a strain-hardening based orthotropic yield function with a nonassociative flow rule. The coefficients of the yield function, and the stresses to be used in both the yield function and the flow rule, are computed based on the input stress-strain curves using the effective plastic strain as the tracking variable. The coefficients in the flow rule are computed based on the obtained stress-strain data. The developed material model is suitable for implementation within LS-DYNA for use in analyzing the nonlinear response of polymer composites.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. De la Poza
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Plastic surgery practice grows continuously among the women in Western countries due to their body image dissatisfaction, aging anxiety, and an ideal body image propagated by the media. The consumption growth is so important that plastic surgery is becoming a normal practice among women, like any other cosmetic product, with the risk of suffering psychopathology disorders in the sense that plastic surgery could be employed as an instrument to recover personal self-esteem or even happiness. Plastic surgery practice depends on economic, demographic, and social contagion factors. In this paper, a mathematical epidemiological model to forecast female plastic surgery consumption in Spain is fully constructed. Overconsumer subpopulation is predicted and simulated. Robustness of the model versus uncertain parameters is studied throughout a sensitivity analysis.
Intermittent dislocation density fluctuations in crystal plasticity from a phase-field crystal model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarp, Jens M.; Angheluta, Luiza; Mathiesen, Joachim
2014-01-01
Plastic deformation mediated by collective dislocation dynamics is investigated in the two-dimensional phase-field crystal model of sheared single crystals. We find that intermittent fluctuations in the dislocation population number accompany bursts in the plastic strain-rate fluctuations...... propose a simple stochastic model of dislocation reaction kinetics that is able to capture these statistical properties of the dislocation density fluctuations as a function of shear rate....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pless, Mette; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik
’Picture perfect’ – when perfection becomes the new normal This paper draws on perspectives from three different studies. One study, which focuses on youth life and lack of well-being (Sørensen et al 2011), one study on youth life on the margins of society (Katznelson et al 2015) and one study...
Inter-Faith Reading of Perfect Man With Mystical Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatemeh Musavi
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The expression Insan –e kamil (perfect man is often said to have first been used by Muhyiddin ibn 'Arabi (1165 -1240AD, though the concept of the term is much older. In his theosophical teaching, the doctrine of insan e- kamil, is held a prominent place. After him two other great Sufis, Aziz Nasafi (1300AD and 'Abd al- karim ibn Ibrahim al- Jili (1366 – 1424 AD, each wrote a work on this very issue. These works are regarded as explanations of Ibn Arabi’s teachings on human perfection. In Islamic mysticism, Perfect man is the one who within their soul possesses all God's names and attributes. Thus the perfect man’s existence, reality and inner might become a clear mirror and a complete reflection of the Perfection, Beauty and Glory of the Essence of the One, so that he becomes Godlike. However, the idea of human perfectibility going back to other religions and human schools even before Islam. In Abrahimic religions there are some joint teachings that could be considered as main statements for the doctrine of Perfect Man In Jewish scriptures the notion of human creation in God's image suggests that the human being is able to be God's like and the perfection is available to him. However, Jews do not believe a perfect man. They hold that even Moses is not a perfect man. In Christianity, Although Jesus encourages his followers to be perfect like their heavenly fathers, the doctrine of original sin to be considered as an obstacle for human perfectibility.This essay examines some significant element in human perfectibility from the view points of some scholars of Judaism, Christianity and Islam and presents some similarities and differences of their view points.
Inter-Faith Reading of Perfect Man With Mystical Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammadkazem Shaker
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The expression Insan –e kamil (perfect man is often said to have first been used by Muhyiddin ibn 'Arabi (1165 -1240AD, though the concept of the term is much older. In his theosophical teaching, the doctrine of insan e- kamil, is held a prominent place. After him two other great Sufis, Aziz Nasafi (1300AD and 'Abd al- karim ibn Ibrahim al- Jili (1366 – 1424 AD, each wrote a work on this very issue. These works are regarded as explanations of Ibn Arabi’s teachings on human perfection. In Islamic mysticism, Perfect man is the one who within their soul possesses all God's names and attributes. Thus the perfect man’s existence, reality and inner might become a clear mirror and a complete reflection of the Perfection, Beauty and Glory of the Essence of the One, so that he becomes Godlike. However, the idea of human perfectibility going back to other religions and human schools even before Islam. In Abrahimic religions there are some joint teachings that could be considered as main statements for the doctrine of Perfect Man In Jewish scriptures the notion of human creation in God's image suggests that the human being is able to be God's like and the perfection is available to him. However, Jews do not believe a perfect man. They hold that even Moses is not a perfect man. In Christianity, Although Jesus encourages his followers to be perfect like their heavenly fathers, the doctrine of original sin to be considered as an obstacle for human perfectibility.This essay examines some significant element in human perfectibility from the view points of some scholars of Judaism, Christianity and Islam and presents some similarities and differences of their view points.
Inter-Faith Reading of Perfect Man With Mystical Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaker, M.K
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The expression Insan –e kamil (perfect man is often said to have first been used by Muhyiddin ibn 'Arabi (1165 -1240AD, though the concept of the term is much older. In his theosophical teaching, the doctrine of insan e- kamil, is held a prominent place. After him two other great Sufis, Aziz Nasafi (1300AD and 'Abd al- karim ibn Ibrahim al- Jili (1366 – 1424 AD, each wrote a work on this very issue. These works are regarded as explanations of Ibn Arabi’s teachings on human perfection. In Islamic mysticism, Perfect man is the one who within their soul possesses all God's names and attributes. Thus the perfect man’s existence, reality and inner might become a clear mirror and a complete reflection of the Perfection, Beauty and Glory of the Essence of the One, so that he becomes Godlike. However, the idea of human perfectibility going back to other religions and human schools even before Islam. In Abrahimic religions there are some joint teachings that could be considered as main statements for the doctrine of Perfect Man In Jewish scriptures the notion of human creation in God's image suggests that the human being is able to be God's like and the perfection is available to him. However, Jews do not believe a perfect man. They hold that even Moses is not a perfect man. In Christianity, Although Jesus encourages his followers to be perfect like their heavenly fathers, the doctrine of original sin to be considered as an obstacle for human perfectibility.This essay examines some significant element in human perfectibility from the view points of some scholars of Judaism, Christianity and Islam and presents some similarities and differences of their view points.
Perfect secure domination in graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.V. Divya Rashmi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Let $G=(V,E$ be a graph. A subset $S$ of $V$ is a dominating set of $G$ if every vertex in $Vsetminus S$ is adjacent to a vertex in $S.$ A dominating set $S$ is called a secure dominating set if for each $vin Vsetminus S$ there exists $uin S$ such that $v$ is adjacent to $u$ and $S_1=(Ssetminus{u}cup {v}$ is a dominating set. If further the vertex $uin S$ is unique, then $S$ is called a perfect secure dominating set. The minimum cardinality of a perfect secure dominating set of $G$ is called the perfect secure domination number of $G$ and is denoted by $gamma_{ps}(G.$ In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter and present several basic results.
A Nonlocal Peridynamic Plasticity Model for the Dynamic Flow and Fracture of Concrete.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogler, Tracy; Lammi, Christopher James
2014-10-01
A nonlocal, ordinary peridynamic constitutive model is formulated to numerically simulate the pressure-dependent flow and fracture of heterogeneous, quasi-brittle ma- terials, such as concrete. Classical mechanics and traditional computational modeling methods do not accurately model the distributed fracture observed within this family of materials. The peridynamic horizon, or range of influence, provides a characteristic length to the continuum and limits localization of fracture. Scaling laws are derived to relate the parameters of peridynamic constitutive model to the parameters of the classical Drucker-Prager plasticity model. Thermodynamic analysis of associated and non-associated plastic flow is performed. An implicit integration algorithm is formu- lated to calculate the accumulated plastic bond extension and force state. The gov- erning equations are linearized and the simulation of the quasi-static compression of a cylinder is compared to the classical theory. A dissipation-based peridynamic bond failure criteria is implemented to model fracture and the splitting of a concrete cylinder is numerically simulated. Finally, calculation of the impact and spallation of a con- crete structure is performed to assess the suitability of the material and failure models for simulating concrete during dynamic loadings. The peridynamic model is found to accurately simulate the inelastic deformation and fracture behavior of concrete during compression, splitting, and dynamically induced spall. The work expands the types of materials that can be modeled using peridynamics. A multi-scale methodology for simulating concrete to be used in conjunction with the plasticity model is presented. The work was funded by LDRD 158806.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikitović Aleksandar
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Early Greek ethics embodied in Cretan and Spartan mores, served as a model for Plato`s political theory. Plato theorized the contents of early Greek ethics, aspiring to justify and revitalize the fundamental principles of a traditional view of the world. However, according to Plato`s new insight, deed is further from the truth than a thought i.e. theory. The dorian model had to renounce its position to the perfect prototype of a righteous state, which is a result of the inner logic of philosophical theorizing in early Greek ethics. Prototype and model of philosophical reflection, in comparison to philosophical theory, becomes minor and deficient. Philosophical theorizing of early Greek ethics philosophically formatted Greek heritage, initiating substantial changes to the content of traditional ethics. Replacement of the myth with ontology, as a new foundation of politics, transformed early Greek ethics in various relevant ways. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179049
Critical phenomena at perfect and non-perfect surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pleimling, M
2004-01-01
In the past, perfect surfaces have been shown to yield local critical behaviour that differs from bulk critical behaviour. On the other hand, surface defects, whether they are of natural origin or created artificially, are known to modify local quantities. It is therefore important to clarify whether these defects are relevant or irrelevant for the surface critical behaviour. The purpose of this review is two-fold. In the first part we summarize some of the important results on surface criticality at perfect surfaces. Special attention is thereby paid to new developments such as for example the study of the surface critical behaviour in systems with competing interactions or of surface critical dynamics. In the second part the effect of surface defects (presence of edges, steps, quenched randomness, lines of adatoms, regular geometric patterns) on local critical behaviour in semi-infinite systems and in thin films is discussed in detail. Whereas most of the defects commonly encountered are shown to be irrelevant, some notable exceptions are highlighted. It is shown furthermore that under certain circumstances non-universal local critical behaviour may be observed at surfaces. (topical review)
A Numerical Framework for Self-Similar Problems in Plasticity: Indentation in Single Crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Nielsen, Kim Lau
A new numerical framework specialized for analyzing self-similar problems in plasticity is developed. Self-similarity in plasticity is encountered in a number of different problems such as stationary cracks, void growth, indentation etc. To date, such problems are handled by traditional Lagrangian...... procedures that may be associated with severe numerical difficulties relating to sufficient discretization, moving contact points, etc. In the present work, self-similarity is exploited to construct the numerical framework that offers a simple and efficient method to handle self-similar problems in history...... numerical simulations [3] when possible. To mimic the condition for the analytical predictions, the wedge indenter is considered nearly flat and the material is perfectly plastic with a very low yield strain. Under these conditions, [1][2] proved analytically the existence of discontinuities in the slip...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spitzig, W.A.; Sober, R.J.; Richmond, O.
1976-01-01
Earlier results showed that the difference between the tensile and compressive strengths of tempered martensites is primarily a manifestation of the general pressure dependence of flow stress in these materials. However, the same results also showed that the volume expansion after deformation was much smaller than that predicted by the normality flow rule of plasticity theory for materials with such pressure dependence. Additional results now obtained on maraging and HY-80 steels support these conclusions. The results for all these materials exhibit a strong, but not perfect, correlation between pressure dependence, yield stress, and volume expansion. The volume expansion, however, which is believed to result primarily from the generation of new dislocations, is very small and does not appear to be essential to the pressure dependence. Most of the pressure dependence, the portion responsible for the discrepancy with the normality flow rule, may be an effect on dislocation motion. The results suggest that an appropriate plasticity model would be one in which the octahedral shear yield stress is linearly dependent on the mean pressure, but the volume change is negligible in violation of the normality flow rule. Such a model has been proposed previously for the plastic deformation of soils. However, unlike that model, the present theory includes strain hardening. 17 fig
Edmiston, John Kearney
This work explores the field of continuum plasticity from two fronts. On the theory side, we establish a complete specification of a phenomenological theory of plasticity for single crystals. The model serves as an alternative to the popular crystal plasticity formulation. Such a model has been previously proposed in the literature; the new contribution made here is the constitutive framework and resulting simulations. We calibrate the model to available data and use a simple numerical method to explore resulting predictions in plane strain boundary value problems. Results show promise for further investigation of the plasticity model. Conveniently, this theory comes with a corresponding experimental tool in X-ray diffraction. Recent advances in hardware technology at synchrotron sources have led to an increased use of the technique for studies of plasticity in the bulk of materials. The method has been successful in qualitative observations of material behavior, but its use in quantitative studies seeking to extract material properties is open for investigation. Therefore in the second component of the thesis several contributions are made to synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments, in terms of method development as well as the quantitative reporting of constitutive parameters. In the area of method development, analytical tools are developed to determine the available precision of this type of experiment—a crucial aspect to determine if the method is to be used for quantitative studies. We also extract kinematic information relating to intragranular inhomogeneity which is not accessible with traditional methods of data analysis. In the area of constitutive parameter identification, we use the method to extract parameters corresponding to the proposed formulation of plasticity for a titanium alloy (HCP) which is continuously sampled by X-ray diffraction during uniaxial extension. These results and the lessons learned from the efforts constitute early reporting
Memory and Perfection in Ferroelastic Inclusion Compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollingsworth, M.; Peterson, M.; Rush, J.; Brown, M.; Abel, M.; Black, A.; Dudley, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Werner-Zwanziger, U.
2005-01-01
In a series of ferroelastic urea inclusion compounds (UICs), in which domain reorientation occurs upon application of an external anisotropic force, introduction of a relaxive impurity that disrupts a specific hydrogen-bonding network transforms a plastic (irreversible) domain-switching process into one that exhibits a striking memory effect and 'rubber-like behavior', a form of pseudoelasticity. As expected for a highly cooperative process, the ferroelastic response to the impurity concentration exhibits a critical threshold. Through synchrotron white-beam X-ray topography (SWBXT) of crystals under stress, videomicroscopy of spontaneous repair during crystal growth, acoustomechanical relaxation of daughter domains, kinetic measurements of spontaneous domain reversion, and solid-state 2 H NMR of labeled guests, this work shows how relaxive impurities lower the barrier to domain switching and how differences in perfection between mother and daughter domains provide the driving force for the memory effects. Although the interfacial effects implicated here are different from the volume effects that operate in certain shape memory materials, the twinning and defect phenomena responsible for the rubber-like behavior and memory effects should be generally applicable to domain switching in ferroelastic and ferroelectric crystals and to other solid-state processes
A tissue in the tissue: models of microvascular plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Hornbech, Morten Sonne; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik
2009-01-01
network. The pronounced plasticity and the inherently complex nature of vascular networks have spurred an enduring interest in mathematical modeling of the microcirculation. This has been advanced by the continuous increase in computing power over recent decades enabling simulation of increasingly...
Modern problems of perfection of elite light athletic sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.V. Kolot
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose: perfection of elite sportsmen’s technical skillfulness in competition kinds of light athletic. Material: the data of more than 60 literature sources were systemized. Expert questioning of 36 coaches, having experience of work with elite sportsmen, was carried out; documents of training process planning were analyzed as well as sportsmen’s diaries (n=244. Results: we have presented main principles of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection and elucidated characteristics of technical training methodic. We have determined main priorities of technical training building for light athletes at every stage of many years’ perfection. Dynamic of competition practice volume has been found as well as main requirements to selection of training means of technical orientation. The data of bio-mechanical criteria of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness assessment have been supplemented. Conclusions: effectiveness of sportsmen’s training methodic is determined by realization of previous stages’ technical potential in final competition results. It can be achieved by determination of means of and methods of different orientation rational correlation.
Modern problems of perfection of elite light athletic sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kolot A.V.
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose: perfection of elite sportsmen’s technical skillfulness in competition kinds of light athletic. Material: the data of more than 60 literature sources were systemized. Expert questioning of 36 coaches, having experience of work with elite sportsmen, was carried out; documents of training process planning were analyzed as well as sportsmen’s diaries (n=244. Results: we have presented main principles of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection and elucidated characteristics of technical training methodic. We have determined main priorities of technical training building for light athletes at every stage of many years’ perfection. Dynamic of competition practice volume has been found as well as main requirements to selection of training means of technical orientation. The data of bio-mechanical criteria of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness assessment have been supplemented. Conclusions: effectiveness of sportsmen’s training methodic is determined by realization of previous stages’ technical potential in final competition results. It can be achieved by determination of means of and methods of different orientation rational correlation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah
the macroscopic effects related to strain gradients, most predict smooth micro-structures. The evolution of dislocation micro-structures, during plastic straining of ductile crystalline materials, is highly complex and nonuniform. Published experimental measurements on deformed metal crystals show distinct......An extensive amount of research has been devoted to the development of micro-mechanics based gradient plasticity continuum theories, which are necessary for modeling micron-scale plasticity when large spatial gradients of plastic strain appear. While many models have proven successful in capturing...... strain. It is clear that many challenges are associated with modeling dislocation structures, within a framework based on continuum ﬁelds, however, since the strain gradient effects are attributed to the dislocation micro-structure, it is a natural step, in the further development of gradient theories...
Substructure based modeling of nickel single crystals cycled at low plastic strain amplitudes
Zhou, Dong
In this dissertation a meso-scale, substructure-based, composite single crystal model is fully developed from the simple uniaxial model to the 3-D finite element method (FEM) model with explicit substructures and further with substructure evolution parameters, to simulate the completely reversed, strain controlled, low plastic strain amplitude cyclic deformation of nickel single crystals. Rate-dependent viscoplasticity and Armstrong-Frederick type kinematic hardening rules are applied to substructures on slip systems in the model to describe the kinematic hardening behavior of crystals. Three explicit substructure components are assumed in the composite single crystal model, namely "loop patches" and "channels" which are aligned in parallel in a "vein matrix," and persistent slip bands (PSBs) connected in series with the vein matrix. A magnetic domain rotation model is presented to describe the reverse magnetostriction of single crystal nickel. Kinematic hardening parameters are obtained by fitting responses to experimental data in the uniaxial model, and the validity of uniaxial assumption is verified in the 3-D FEM model with explicit substructures. With information gathered from experiments, all control parameters in the model including hardening parameters, volume fraction of loop patches and PSBs, and variation of Young's modulus etc. are correlated to cumulative plastic strain and/or plastic strain amplitude; and the whole cyclic deformation history of single crystal nickel at low plastic strain amplitudes is simulated in the uniaxial model. Then these parameters are implanted in the 3-D FEM model to simulate the formation of PSB bands. A resolved shear stress criterion is set to trigger the formation of PSBs, and stress perturbation in the specimen is obtained by several elements assigned with PSB material properties a priori. Displacement increment, plastic strain amplitude control and overall stress-strain monitor and output are carried out in the user
Dudebout, Nicolas; Shamma, Jeff S.
2014-01-01
This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.
Dudebout, Nicolas
2014-12-15
This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents\\' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.
Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael
2016-03-22
The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field.
Plasticity and beyond microstructures, crystal-plasticity and phase transitions
Hackl, Klaus
2014-01-01
The book presents the latest findings in experimental plasticity, crystal plasticity, phase transitions, advanced mathematical modeling of finite plasticity and multi-scale modeling. The associated algorithmic treatment is mainly based on finite element formulations for standard (local approach) as well as for non-standard (non-local approach) continua and for pure macroscopic as well as for directly coupled two-scale boundary value problems. Applications in the area of material design/processing are covered, ranging from grain boundary effects in polycrystals and phase transitions to deep-drawing of multiphase steels by directly taking into account random microstructures.
A plane stress softening plasticity model for orthotropic materials
Lourenço, P.B.; Borst, R. de; Rots, J.G.
1997-01-01
A plane stress model has been developed for quasi-brittle orthotropic materials. The theory of plasticity, which is adopted to describe the inelastic behaviour, utilizes modern algorithmic concepts, including an implicit Euler backward return mapping scheme, a local Newton-Raphson method and a
Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Safadi, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Zeaiter, J. [Chemical Engineering Program, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon)
2013-07-01
The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.
Modeling cutinase enzyme regulation in polyethylene terepthalate plastic biodegradation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apri, M.; Silmi, M.; Heryanto, T. E.; Moeis, M. R.
2016-01-01
PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) is a plastic material that is commonly used in our daily life. The high production of PET and others plastics that can be up to three hundred million tons per year, is not matched by its degradation rate and hence leads to environmental pollution. To overcome this problem, we develop a biodegradation system. This system utilizes LC Cutinase enzyme produced by engineered escherichia coli bacteria to degrade PET. To make the system works efficaciously, it is important to understand the mechanism underlying its enzyme regulation. Therefore, we construct a mathematical model to describe the regulation of LC Cutinase production. The stability of the model is analyzed. We show that the designated biodegradation system can give an oscillatory behavior that is very important to control the amount of inclusion body (the miss-folded proteins that reduce the efficiency of the biodegradation system).
Modeling cutinase enzyme regulation in polyethylene terepthalate plastic biodegradation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Apri, M., E-mail: m.apri@math.itb.ac.id; Silmi, M. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganeca 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Heryanto, T. E.; Moeis, M. R. [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganeca 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)
2016-04-06
PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) is a plastic material that is commonly used in our daily life. The high production of PET and others plastics that can be up to three hundred million tons per year, is not matched by its degradation rate and hence leads to environmental pollution. To overcome this problem, we develop a biodegradation system. This system utilizes LC Cutinase enzyme produced by engineered escherichia coli bacteria to degrade PET. To make the system works efficaciously, it is important to understand the mechanism underlying its enzyme regulation. Therefore, we construct a mathematical model to describe the regulation of LC Cutinase production. The stability of the model is analyzed. We show that the designated biodegradation system can give an oscillatory behavior that is very important to control the amount of inclusion body (the miss-folded proteins that reduce the efficiency of the biodegradation system).
Modeling cutinase enzyme regulation in polyethylene terepthalate plastic biodegradation
Apri, M.; Silmi, M.; Heryanto, T. E.; Moeis, M. R.
2016-04-01
PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) is a plastic material that is commonly used in our daily life. The high production of PET and others plastics that can be up to three hundred million tons per year, is not matched by its degradation rate and hence leads to environmental pollution. To overcome this problem, we develop a biodegradation system. This system utilizes LC Cutinase enzyme produced by engineered escherichia coli bacteria to degrade PET. To make the system works efficaciously, it is important to understand the mechanism underlying its enzyme regulation. Therefore, we construct a mathematical model to describe the regulation of LC Cutinase production. The stability of the model is analyzed. We show that the designated biodegradation system can give an oscillatory behavior that is very important to control the amount of inclusion body (the miss-folded proteins that reduce the efficiency of the biodegradation system).
Nunney, Leonard
2016-01-01
Human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation constrains the range of many species, making them unable to respond to climate change by moving. For such species to avoid extinction, they must respond with some combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation. Haldane's "cost of natural selection" limits the rate of adaptation, but, although modeling has shown that in very large populations long-term adaptation can be maintained at rates substantially faster than Haldane's suggested limit, maintaining large populations is often an impossibility, so phenotypic plasticity may be crucial in enhancing the long-term survival of small populations. The potential importance of plasticity is in "buying time" for populations subject to directional environmental change: if genotypes can encompass a greater environmental range, then populations can maintain high fitness for a longer period of time. Alternatively, plasticity could be detrimental by lessening the effectiveness of natural selection in promoting genetic adaptation. Here, I modeled a directionally changing environment in which a genotype's adaptive phenotypic plasticity is centered around the environment where its fitness is highest. Plasticity broadens environmental tolerance and, provided it is not too costly, is favored by natural selection. However, a paradoxical result of the individually advantageous spread of plasticity is that, unless the adaptive trait is determined by very few loci, the long-term extinction risk of a population increases. This effect reflects a conflict between the short-term individual benefit of plasticity and a long-term detriment to population persistence, adding to the multiple threats facing small populations under conditions of climate change. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Xu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Zipingpu concrete faced rockfill dam (CFRD was found slabs dislocation between different stages slabs and the maximum value reached 17 cm. This is a new damage pattern and did not occur in previous seismic damage investigation. Slabs dislocation will affect the seepage control system of the CFRD gravely and even the safety of the dam. Therefore, investigations of the slabs dislocation’s mechanism and development might be meaningful to the engineering design of the CFRD. In this study, based on the previous studies by the authors, the slabs dislocation phenomenon of the Zipingpu CFRD was investigated. The procedure and constitutive model of materials used for finite element analysis are consistent. The water elevation, the angel, and the strength of the construction joints were among major variables of investigation. The results indicated that the finite element procedure based on a modified generalized plasticity model and a perfect elastoplastic interface model can be used to evaluate the dislocation damage of face slabs of concrete faced rockfill dam during earthquake. The effects of the water elevation, the angel, and the strength of the construction joints are issues of major design concern under seismic loading.
Hartl, D. J.; Lagoudas, D. C.
2009-10-01
The new developments summarized in this work represent both theoretical and experimental investigations of the effects of plastic strain generation in shape memory alloys (SMAs). Based on the results of SMA experimental characterization described in the literature and additional testing described in this work, a new 3D constitutive model is proposed. This phenomenological model captures both the conventional shape memory effects of pseudoelasticity and thermal strain recovery, and additionally considers the initiation and evolution of plastic strains. The model is numerically implemented in a finite element framework using a return mapping algorithm to solve the constitutive equations at each material point. This combination of theory and implementation is unique in its ability to capture the simultaneous evolution of recoverable transformation strains and irrecoverable plastic strains. The consideration of isotropic and kinematic plastic hardening allows the derivation of a theoretical framework capturing the interactions between irrecoverable plastic strain and recoverable strain due to martensitic transformation. Further, the numerical integration of the constitutive equations is formulated such that objectivity is maintained for SMA structures undergoing moderate strains and large displacements. The implemented model has been used to perform 3D analysis of SMA structural components under uniaxial and bending loads, including a case of local buckling behavior. Experimentally validated results considering simultaneous transformation and plasticity in a bending member are provided, illustrating the predictive accuracy of the model and its implementation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartl, D J; Lagoudas, D C
2009-01-01
The new developments summarized in this work represent both theoretical and experimental investigations of the effects of plastic strain generation in shape memory alloys (SMAs). Based on the results of SMA experimental characterization described in the literature and additional testing described in this work, a new 3D constitutive model is proposed. This phenomenological model captures both the conventional shape memory effects of pseudoelasticity and thermal strain recovery, and additionally considers the initiation and evolution of plastic strains. The model is numerically implemented in a finite element framework using a return mapping algorithm to solve the constitutive equations at each material point. This combination of theory and implementation is unique in its ability to capture the simultaneous evolution of recoverable transformation strains and irrecoverable plastic strains. The consideration of isotropic and kinematic plastic hardening allows the derivation of a theoretical framework capturing the interactions between irrecoverable plastic strain and recoverable strain due to martensitic transformation. Further, the numerical integration of the constitutive equations is formulated such that objectivity is maintained for SMA structures undergoing moderate strains and large displacements. The implemented model has been used to perform 3D analysis of SMA structural components under uniaxial and bending loads, including a case of local buckling behavior. Experimentally validated results considering simultaneous transformation and plasticity in a bending member are provided, illustrating the predictive accuracy of the model and its implementation
Denervation-induced homeostatic dendritic plasticity in morphological granule cell models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hermann Cuntz
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Neuronal death and subsequent denervation of target areas are major consequences of several neurological conditions such asischemia or neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease. The denervation-induced axonal loss results in reorganization of the dendritic tree of denervated neurons. The dendritic reorganization has been previously studied using entorhinal cortex lesion (ECL. ECL leads to shortening and loss of dendritic segments in the denervated outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. However, the functional importance of these long-term dendritic alterations is not yet understood and their impact on neuronal electrical properties remains unclear. Here we analyzed what happens to the electrotonic structure and excitability of dentate granule cells after lesion-induced alterations of their dendritic morphology, assuming all other parameters remain equal. We performed comparative electrotonic analysis in anatomically and biophysically realistic compartmental models of 3D-reconstructed healthy and denervated granule cells. Using the method of morphological modeling based on optimization principles minimizing the amount of wiring and maximizing synaptic democracy, we built artificial granule cells which replicate morphological features of their real counterparts. Our results show that somatofugal and somatopetal voltage attenuation in the passive cable model are strongly reduced in denervated granule cells. In line with these predictions, the attenuation both of simulated backpropagating action potentials and forward propagating EPSPs was significantly reduced in dendrites of denervated neurons. Intriguingly, the enhancement of action potential backpropagation occurred specifically in the denervated dendritic layers. Furthermore, simulations of synaptic f-I curves revealed a homeostatic increase of excitability in denervated granule cells. In summary, our morphological and compartmental modeling indicates that unless modified by changes of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang J.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available By combining the nonlinear finite element analysis techniques and crystal plasticity theory, the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of crystalline material, the texture evolution and earing-type characteristics are simulated accurately. In this work, a crystal plasticity model exhibiting deformation twinning is introduced based on crystal plasticity theory and saturation-type hardening laws for FCC metal Fe-22Mn-0.6C TWIP steel. Based on the CPFE model and parameters which have been determined for TWIP steel, a simplified finite element model for deep drawing is promoted by using crystal plasticity constitutive model. The earing characteristics in typical deep-drawing process are simulated well. Further, the drawing forces are calculated and compared to the experimental results from reference. Meanwhile, the impacts of drawing coefficient and initial texture on the earing characteristics are investigated for controlling the earing.
Two Back Stress Hardening Models in Rate Independent Rigid Plastic Deformation
Yun, Su-Jin
In the present work, the constitutive relations based on the combination of two back stresses are developed using the Armstrong-Frederick, Phillips and Ziegler’s type hardening rules. Various evolutions of the kinematic hardening parameter can be obtained by means of a simple combination of back stress rate using the rule of mixtures. Thus, a wide range of plastic deformation behavior can be depicted depending on the dominant back stress evolution. The ultimate back stress is also determined for the present combined kinematic hardening models. Since a kinematic hardening rule is assumed in the finite deformation regime, the stress rate is co-rotated with respect to the spin of substructure obtained by incorporating the plastic spin concept. A comparison of the various co-rotational rates is also included. Assuming rigid plasticity, the continuum body consists of the elastic deformation zone and the plastic deformation zone to form a hybrid finite element formulation. Then, the plastic deformation behavior is investigated under various loading conditions with an assumption of the J2 deformation theory. The plastic deformation localization turns out to be strongly dependent on the description of back stress evolution and its associated hardening parameters. The analysis for the shear deformation with fixed boundaries is carried out to examine the deformation localization behavior and the evolution of state variables.
Hypersurface-homogeneous Universe filled with perfect fluid in f ( R ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
homogeneous Universe filled with perfect fluid in the framework of f ( R , T ) theory of gravity (Harko et al, \\emph{Phys. Rev.} D 84, 024020 (2011)) is derived. The physical behaviour of the cosmological model is studied.
Lattice-Like Total Perfect Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Araujo Carlos
2014-02-01
Full Text Available A contribution is made to the classification of lattice-like total perfect codes in integer lattices Λn via pairs (G, Φ formed by abelian groups G and homomorphisms Φ: Zn → G. A conjecture is posed that the cited contribution covers all possible cases. A related conjecture on the unfinished work on open problems on lattice-like perfect dominating sets in Λn with induced components that are parallel paths of length > 1 is posed as well.
Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sulaiman, F; Ahmad, A [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Ahmed, A Z [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Bureau of Reseaarch and Consultancy
2006-12-15
of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings.
Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sulaiman, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, A.Z.
2006-01-01
One of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings
Elastic-Plastic Endochronic Constitutive Model of 0Crl7Ni4Cu4Nb Stainless Steels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinquan Guo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We presented an elastic-plastic endochronic constitutive model of 0Crl7Ni4Cu4Nb stainless steel based on the plastic endochronic theory (which does not need the yield surface and experimental stress-strain curves. The key feature of the model is that it can precisely describe the relation of stress and strain under various loading histories, including uniaxial tension, cyclic loading-unloading, cyclic asymmetric-stress axial tension and compression, and cyclic asymmetric-stress axial tension and compression. The effects of both mean stress and amplitude of stress on hysteresis loop based on the elastic-plastic endochronic constitutive model were investigated. Compared with the experimental and calculated results, it is demonstrated that there was a good agreement between the model and the experiments. Therefore, the elastic-plastic endochronic constitutive model provides a method for the accurate prediction of mechanical behaviors of 0Crl7Ni4Cu4Nb stainless steel subjected to various loadings.
Soil Plasticity Model for Analysis of Collapse Load on Layers Soil
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Md Nujid Masyitah
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Natural soil consist of soil deposits which is a soil layer overlying a thick stratum of another soil. The bearing capacity of layered soil studies have been conducted using different approach whether theoretical, experimental and combination of both. Numerical method in computer programme has become a powerful tool in solving complex geotechnical problems. Thus in numerical modelling, stress-strain soil behaviour is well predicted, design and interpreted using appropriate soil model. It is also important to identify parameters and soil model involve in prediction real soil problem. The sand layer overlaid clay layer soil is modelled with Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager criterion. The bearing capacity in loaddisplacement analysis from COMSOL Multiphysics is obtained and presented. In addition the stress distribution and evolution of plastic strain for each thickness ratio below centre of footing are investigated. The results indicate the linear relation on load-displacement which have similar trend for both soil models while stress and plastic strain increase as thickness ratio increase.
Determination of parameters in elasto-plastic models of aluminium.
Meuwissen, M.H.H.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Petterson, R.; Janssen, J.D.; Sol, H.; Oomens, C.W.J.
1997-01-01
A mixed numerical-experimental method is used to determine parameters in elasto-plastic constitutive models. An aluminium plate of non-standard geometry is mounted in a uniaxial tensile testing machine at which some adjustments are made to carry out shear tests. The sample is loaded and the total
Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael
2016-01-01
Background The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Material/Methods Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. Results The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Conclusions Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field. PMID:27003456
Global plastic models for computerized structural analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roche, R.L.; Hoffmann, A.
1977-01-01
In many types of structures, it is possible to use generalized stresses (like membrane forces, bending moment, torsion moment...) to define a yield surface for a part of the structure. Analysis can be achieved by using the HILL's principle and a hardening rule. The whole formulation is said 'Global Plastic Model'. Two different global models are used in the CEASEMT system for structural analysis, one for shell analysis and the other for piping analysis (in plastic or creep field). In shell analysis the generalized stresses chosen are the membrane forces and bending (including torsion) moments. There is only one yield condition for a normal to the middle surface and no integration along the thickness is required. In piping analysis, the choice of generalized stresses is bending moments, torsional moment, hoop stress and tension stress. There is only a set of stresses for a cross section and no integration over the cross section area is needed. Connected strains are axis curvature, torsion, uniform strains. The definition of the yield surface is the most important item. A practical way is to use a diagonal quadratic function of the stress components. But the coefficients are depending of the shape of the pipe element, especially for curved segments. Indications will be given on the yield functions used. Some examples of applications in structural analysis are added to the text
Modeling Shock Induced Plasticity in Copper Single Crystal: Numerical and Strain Localization Issues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shehadeh, M
2011-01-01
Multiscale dislocation dynamics plasticity (MDDP) simulations are carried out to address the following issues in modeling shock-induced plasticity: 1- the effect of finite element (FE) boundary conditions on shock wave characteristics and wave-dislocation interaction, 2- the effect of the evolution of the dislocation microstructure on lattice rotation and strain localization. While uniaxial strain is achieved with high accuracy using confined boundary condition, periodic boundary condition yields a disturbed wave profile due the edge effect. Including lattice rotation in the analysis leads to higher dislocation density and more localized plastic strain. (author)
Elastic-plastic and creep analyses by assumed stress finite elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pian, T.H.H.; Spilker, R.L.; Lee, S.W.
1975-01-01
A formulation is presented of incremental finite element solutions for both initial stress and initial strain problems based on modified complementary energy principle with relaxed inter-element continuity requirement. The corresponding finite element model is the assumed stress hybrid model which has stress parameters in the interior of each element and displacements at the individual nodes as unknowns. The formulation includes an important consideration that the states of stress and strain and the beginning of each increment may not satisfy the equilibrium and compatibility equations. These imbalance and mismatch conditions all lead to correction terms for the equivalent nodal forces of the matrix equations. The initial stress method is applied to elastic-plastic analysis of structures. In this case the stress parameters for the individual elements can be eliminated resulting to a system of equations with only nodal displacements as unknowns. Two different complementary energy principles can be formulated, in one of which the equilibrium of the final state of stress is maintained while in the other the equilibrium of the stress increments is maintained. Each of these two different formulations can be combined with different iterative schemes to be used at each incremental steps of the elastic-plastic analysis. It is also indicated clearly that for the initial stress method the state of stress at the beginning of each increments is in general, not in equilibrium and an imbalance correction is needed. Results of a comprehensive evaluation of various solution procedures by the initial stress method using the assumed stress hybrid elements are presented. The example used is the static response of a thick wall cylinder of elastic-perfectly plastic material under internal pressure. Solid of revolution elements with rectangular cross sections are used
Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.
2010-01-01
In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Matérn III process within a bounded window in , fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound on the m......In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Matérn III process within a bounded window in , fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...
Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect ﬂuid
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bianchi type-I massive string cosmological model for perfect ﬂuid distribution in the presence of magnetic ﬁeld is investigated in Rosen's [Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 4, 435 (1973)] bimetric theory of gravitation. To obtain the deterministic model in terms of cosmic time, we have used the condition A = ( B C ) n , where n is a constant, ...
Zhang, Honghui; Su, Jianzhong; Wang, Qingyun; Liu, Yueming; Good, Levi; Pascual, Juan M.
2018-03-01
This paper explores the internal dynamical mechanisms of epileptic seizures through quantitative modeling based on full brain electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Our goal is to provide seizure prediction and facilitate treatment for epileptic patients. Motivated by an earlier mathematical model with incorporated synaptic plasticity, we studied the nonlinear dynamics of inherited seizures through a differential equation model. First, driven by a set of clinical inherited electroencephalogram data recorded from a patient with diagnosed Glucose Transporter Deficiency, we developed a dynamic seizure model on a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was reduced in complexity after considering and removing redundancy of each EEG channel. Then we verified that the proposed model produces qualitatively relevant behavior which matches the basic experimental observations of inherited seizure, including synchronization index and frequency. Meanwhile, the rationality of the connectivity structure hypothesis in the modeling process was verified. Further, through varying the threshold condition and excitation strength of synaptic plasticity, we elucidated the effect of synaptic plasticity to our seizure model. Results suggest that synaptic plasticity has great effect on the duration of seizure activities, which support the plausibility of therapeutic interventions for seizure control.
Cap plasticity models and compactive and dilatant pre-failure deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fossum, Arlo F.; Fredrich, Joanne T.
2000-01-01
At low mean stresses, porous geomaterials fail by shear localization, and at higher mean stresses, they undergo strain-hardening behavior. Cap plasticity models attempt to model this behavior using a pressure-dependent shear yield and/or shear limit-state envelope with a hardening or hardening/softening elliptical end cap to define pore collapse. While these traditional models describe compactive yield and ultimate shear failure, difficulties arise when the behavior involves a transition from compactive to dilatant deformation that occurs before the shear failure or limit-state shear stress is reached. In this work, a continuous surface cap plasticity model is used to predict compactive and dilatant pre-failure deformation. During loading the stress point can pass freely through the critical state point separating compactive from dilatant deformation. The predicted volumetric strain goes from compactive to dilatant without the use of a non-associated flow rule. The new model is stable in that Drucker's stability postulates are satisfied. The study has applications to several geosystems of current engineering interest (oil and gas reservoirs, nuclear waste repositories, buried targets, and depleted reservoirs for possible use for subsurface sequestration of greenhouse gases)
Polytropic solutions of a perfect fluid in spatial n-dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luiz, Fabricio Casarejos Lopes; Rocha, Jaime F. Villas da
2005-01-01
We found all the solutions of a polytropic state equation for a n-dimensional metric associated to a perfect fluid. Some of them represent gravitational collapse with black hole or naked singularity formation. We found also an accelerating cosmological model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Tae Kwang; Oh, Chang Kyun; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun
2007-01-01
This paper presents plastic limit loads and approximate J-integral estimates for circumferential part-through surface crack at the interface between elbows and pipes. Based on finite element limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials, plastic limit moments under in-plane bending are obtained and it is found that they are similar those for circumferential part-through surface cracks in the center of elbow. Based on present FE results, closed-form limit load solutions are proposed. Welds are not explicitly considered and all materials are assumed to be homogeneous. And the method to estimate the elastic-plastic J-integral for circumferential part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and straight pipes is proposed based on the reference stress approach, which was compared with corresponding solutions for straight pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Oh, Chang Kyun; Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun
2007-01-01
This paper presents plastic limit loads and approximate J-integral estimates for circumferential part-through surface crack at the interface between elbows and pipes. Based on finite element limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials, plastic limit moments under in-plane bending are obtained and it is found that they are similar those for circumferential part-through surface cracks in the center of elbow. Based on present FE results, closed-form limit load solutions are proposed. Welds are not explicitly considered and all materials are assumed to be homogeneous. And the method to estimate the elastic-plastic J-integral for circumferential part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and straight pipes is proposed based on the reference stress approach, which was compared with corresponding solutions for straight pipes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patra, Anirban [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wen, Wei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez Saez, Enrique [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-05-31
This report describes the implementation of a crystal plasticity framework (VPSC) for irradiation hardening and plastic deformation in the finite element code, MOOSE. Constitutive models for irradiation hardening and the crystal plasticity framework are described in a previous report [1]. Here we describe these models briefly and then describe an algorithm for interfacing VPSC with finite elements. Example applications of tensile deformation of a dog bone specimen and a 3D pre-irradiated bar specimen performed using MOOSE are demonstrated.
Introduction of damage in an elasto-plastic model for unsaturated geo-materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Pense, S.; Pouya, A.; Gatmiri, B.
2012-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. During the excavation of nuclear waste repository galleries, the surrounding soil is suspected to undergo structural changes as well as modification of its stress state. The desaturation due to ventilation of galleries during this stage makes it necessary to consider the unsaturated state of the host geo-material. The decompression occurring after the excavation leads to a modification of the stress state. The purpose of our work is to develop a mechanical model to simulate the non-linear stress-strain behaviour of geo-materials which will have to contain radioactivity of nuclear waste for a very long time. Two irreversible phenomena can explain the non-linear behaviour of geo-materials. Plasticity leads to irrecoverable strains. Damage, linked to the appearance and extension of microcracks, results in a deterioration of elastic and hydraulic properties. We will present here the bases of a new model coupling damage and plasticity for the stress-strain behaviour of unsaturated geo-materials. This model should be thermodynamically consistent and use only a reasonable number of parameters. Based on the work of Houlsby, (Houlsby 1997), we choose to use as constitutive variables for unsaturated soils Bishop's stress and suction. This choice as the advantage to allow for continuity at the transition between saturated and unsaturated states. Damage is taken into account by defining a damaged constitutive stress, which is similar to the effective stress principle defined by Kachanov (Kachanov 1958). A simple damage criterion is proposed and an associative flow rule is assumed. We choose to follow the principle of strain equivalence defined by Lemaitre (Lemaitre 1996). This leads to the following elasticity law giving the damaged constitutive stress as a function of elastic strain. If non-linear elasticity is considered, a pressure-dependent bulk modulus and a constant shear modulus can be chosen in order to fit
A stochastic model for the interaction of plasticity and creep in metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steck, E.
1987-01-01
Describing the basic mechanisms for plastic deformations in crystalline materials by transition probabilities of a stochastic matrix over the state space of the internal barriers, results in a stochastic model which has the properties of a Markov-chain. It is possible to include in this model properties of the internal structure of the material and their changes during macroscopic deformation processes, such as hardening and recovery, or the influence of temperature on thermal activation. This description can be based on findings from metal physics and metallurgy, so that the stochastic model can be used as an intermediate model between the microscopic and the macroscopic description of the processes during plastic deformations. Inelastic deformations of crystalline materials (plasticity, creep, relaxation) are caused by slip processes in the crystal-lattice which are supported by movements of dislocations. The dislocation movements are opposed by internal barriers which have to be overcome by activation of the dislocations. This activation can be performed by stresses, which are in equilibrium with external forces, or by thermal energy. With the movements of dislocations and the connected slip processes, production of new dislocations occurs. The dislocations interact. This can result either in a reduction of their mobility or in annihilation. These processes are partially responsible for hardening or recovery. (orig./GL)
Toward Modeling Limited Plasticity in Ceramic Materials
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Grinfeld, Michael; Schoenfeld, Scott E; Wright, Tim W
2008-01-01
The characteristic features of many armor-related ceramic materials are the anisotropy on the micro-scale level and the very limited, though non-vanishing, plasticity due to limited number of the planes for plastic slip...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bammann, Douglas J.; Johnson, G. C. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Marin, Esteban B.; Regueiro, Richard A. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO)
2006-01-01
In this report we present the formulation of the physically-based Evolving Microstructural Model of Inelasticity (EMMI) . The specific version of the model treated here describes the plasticity and isotropic damage of metals as being currently applied to model the ductile failure process in structural components of the W80 program . The formulation of the EMMI constitutive equations is framed in the context of the large deformation kinematics of solids and the thermodynamics of internal state variables . This formulation is focused first on developing the plasticity equations in both the relaxed (unloaded) and current configurations. The equations in the current configuration, expressed in non-dimensional form, are used to devise the identification procedure for the plasticity parameters. The model is then extended to include a porosity-based isotropic damage state variable to describe the progressive deterioration of the strength and mechanical properties of metals induced by deformation . The numerical treatment of these coupled plasticity-damage constitutive equations is explained in detail. A number of examples are solved to validate the numerical implementation of the model.
Creating the Perfect Umbilicus: A Systematic Review of Recent Literature.
Joseph, Walter J; Sinno, Sammy; Brownstone, Nicholas D; Mirrer, Joshua; Thanik, Vishal D
2016-06-01
The aim of this study was to perform an updated systematic review of the literature over the last 10 years, analyzing and comparing the many published techniques with the hope of providing plastic surgeons with a new standard in creating the perfect umbilicus in the setting of both abdominoplasty and abdominally based free-flap breast reconstruction. An initial search using the PubMed online database with the keyword "umbilicoplasty" was performed. These results were filtered to only include articles published within the last 10 years. The remaining articles were thoroughly reviewed by the authors and only those pertaining to techniques for umbilicoplasty in the setting of abdominoplasty and abdominally based free flap were included. Of the 10 unique techniques yielded by our search, 9/10 (90 %) initially incised the native umbilicus with a round, oval, or vertical ellipse pattern. Of the 9 techniques that initially perform a round incision, 4 of them (44.4 %) later modify the round umbilicus with either an inferior or superior excision to create either a "U"- or "inverted U"-shaped umbilicus. In terms of the shape of the incision made in the abdominal flap for umbilical reinsertion, the most common were either a round incision or an inverted "V" or "U," both of which accounted for 4/10 (40 %) and 3/10 (30 %), respectively. Almost all of the studies (8/10; 80 %) describe "defatting" or trimming of the subcutaneous adipose tissue around the incision to create a periumbilical concavity following inset of the umbilicus. 4/10 (40 %) of the techniques describe suturing the dermis of the umbilical skin to rectus fascia. Furthermore, 3/10 (30 %) advise that stalk plication is a necessary step to their technique. 7/9 techniques (77.8 %) preferred nondissolvable sutures for skin closure, with nylon being the most common suture material used. Only 2/9 (22.2 %) used dissolvable sutures. Although future studies are necessary, it is our hope that this systematic
Assessment of effect of reinforcement on plastic limit load of branch junction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myung, Man Sik; Kim, Yun Jae; Yoon, Ki Bong
2009-01-01
The present work provides effects of reinforcement shape and area on plastic limit loads of branch junctions, based on detailed three-dimensional finite element limit analysis and small strain FE limit analyses assuming elastic-perfectly plastic material behavior. Three types of loading are considered; internal pressure, in-plane bending on the branch pipe and in-plane bending on the run pipe. It is found that reinforcement is the most effective in the case when (in-plane/out-of-plane) bending is applied to the branch pipe. When bending is applied to the run pipe, reinforcement is less effective, compared to the case when bending is applied to the branch pipe. The reinforcement effect is the least effective for internal pressure.
Plastic frames: Reduction of the kinematical inequality and optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brousse, P.
1979-01-01
It is well-known that the following inequality plays an essential part in the theory of perfectly plastic frames: for all kinematically admissible mechanisms and for bending moments associated with the hinge rotations by the flow rule, the plastic dissipation power is greater than or equal to the load power. This inequality will be termed as the kinematic inequality. It contains parameters generating the mechanisms. In simple cases, several ingenious authors obtained appreciable results excluding parameters. But, in more complicated cases, for instance when the given quantities are not numerical, the parameters remain in the kinematic inequality, thereby precluding exploitation of the kinematic approach. In the present work we overcome this dificulty: we reduce the kinematic inequality, i.e., we replace it by inequalities containing no variable parameter; we then state a process giving automatically such inequalities; finally, we treat a practical application. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolkhovityanov, Yu B; Sokolov, L V
2012-01-01
Pure edge 90° misfit dislocations (MDs) are the most effective linear defects that combine the substrate and the film with different lattice parameters. A system consisting of a nonstressed film and a substrate approaches the perfect case in terms of the structural transition from one lattice parameter to the other if imperfections in the form of an ordered network of edge MDs are located exclusively at the interface, while threading dislocations are practically absent. The path to this perfect case goes through studying the possibilities of creating such an ordered network of edge MDs. The mechanism of formation of edge MDs proposed previously by Kvam et al (1990 J. Mater. Res. 5 1900) is discussed. This mechanism involves induced formation of a complementary pair of 60° MDs whose coalescence at the interface creates an edge MD. Some publications are presented, which demonstrate on the basis of experimental data that this mechanism under certain conditions can be the basic mechanism responsible for plastic relaxation of Ge-on-Si films. A cardinal method for decreasing the number of defects at the initial stages of growth of Ge/Si heterosystems is a set of procedures that allow a specified number of MDs to be inserted into the stressed film earlier than conditions of spontaneous nucleation of MDs from the film surface in the 2D–3D transition occur. When the low-temperature/high-temperature strategy of growth is used, the low-temperature GeSi seed layer tuned with respect to the growth temperature, composition and thickness can serve as a source of 60° dislocations, which facilitate earlier formation of edge MDs at the initial stage of plastic relaxation of the GeSi or Ge main layer. Results of some recent publications that report reaching high structural perfection of thin (∼1 µm and less) Ge-on-Si films are discussed. The proposed explanation of these results is based on postulates of controlled insertion of MDs and formation of edge MDs by the model of
New plastic plane stress model for concrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winnicki, A.; Cichon, Cz.
1993-01-01
In the paper a description of concrete behaviour in the plane stress case is given on the basis of the modified bounding surface plasticity theory. Three independent plastic mechanisms have been introduced describing axiatoric and deviatoric plastic strains and their coupling. All the new analytical formulae for material functions being in agreement with experiments and loading/unloading criteria have been proposed. In addition, for the proper description of concrete behaviour in tension a new, separate function of bounding surface shrinkage has been introduced. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isa Kolo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A coupled elastic-plasticity-damage constitutive model, AK Model, is applied to predict fracture propagation in rocks. The quasi-brittle material model captures anisotropic effects and the distinct behavior of rocks in tension and compression. Calibration of the constitutive model is realized using experimental data for Carrara marble. Through the Weibull distribution function, heterogeneity effect is captured by spatially varying the elastic properties of the rock. Favorable comparison between model predictions and experiments for single-flawed specimens reveal that the AK Model is reliable and accurate for modelling fracture propagation in rocks.
An Elastic Plastic Contact Model with Strain Hardening for the LAMMPS Granular Package
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuhr, Bryan [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Brake, Matthew Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Component Science and Mechanics; Lechman, Jeremy B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanoscale and Reactive Processes
2015-03-01
The following details the implementation of an analytical elastic plastic contact model with strain hardening for normal im pacts into the LAMMPS granular package. The model assumes that, upon impact, the co llision has a period of elastic loading followed by a period of mixed elastic plas tic loading, with contributions to each mechanism estimated by a hyperbolic seca nt weight function. This function is implemented in the LAMMPS source code as the pair style gran/ep/history. Preliminary tests, simulating the pouring of pure nickel spheres, showed the elastic/plastic model took 1.66x as long as similar runs using gran/hertz/history.
Hammond, Simon P; Cross, Jane L; Shepstone, Lee; Backhouse, Tamara; Henderson, Catherine; Poland, Fiona; Sims, Erika; MacLullich, Alasdair; Penhale, Bridget; Howard, Robert; Lambert, Nigel; Varley, Anna; Smith, Toby O; Sahota, Opinder; Donell, Simon; Patel, Martyn; Ballard, Clive; Young, John; Knapp, Martin; Jackson, Stephen; Waring, Justin; Leavey, Nick; Howard, Gregory; Fox, Chris
2017-12-04
Health and social care provision for an ageing population is a global priority. Provision for those with dementia and hip fracture has specific and growing importance. Older people who break their hip are recognised as exceptionally vulnerable to experiencing confusion (including but not exclusively, dementia and/or delirium and/or cognitive impairment(s)) before, during or after acute admissions. Older people experiencing hip fracture and confusion risk serious complications, linked to delayed recovery and higher mortality post-operatively. Specific care pathways acknowledging the differences in patient presentation and care needs are proposed to improve clinical and process outcomes. This protocol describes a multi-centre, feasibility, cluster-randomised, controlled trial (CRCT) to be undertaken across ten National Health Service hospital trusts in the UK. The trial will explore the feasibility of undertaking a CRCT comparing the multicomponent PERFECTED enhanced recovery intervention (PERFECT-ER), which acknowledges the differences in care needs of confused older patients experiencing hip fracture, with standard care. The trial will also have an integrated process evaluation to explore how PERFECT-ER is implemented and interacts with the local context. The study will recruit 400 hip fracture patients identified as experiencing confusion and will also recruit "suitable informants" (individuals in regular contact with participants who will complete proxy measures). We will also recruit NHS professionals for the process evaluation. This mixed methods design will produce data to inform a definitive evaluation of the intervention via a large-scale pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT). The trial will provide a preliminary estimate of potential efficacy of PERFECT-ER versus standard care; assess service delivery variation, inform primary and secondary outcome selection, generate estimates of recruitment and retention rates, data collection difficulties, and
Avalanches and plastic flow in crystal plasticity: an overview
Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Cui, Yinan; Ghoniem, Nasr
2018-01-01
Crystal plasticity is mediated through dislocations, which form knotted configurations in a complex energy landscape. Once they disentangle and move, they may also be impeded by permanent obstacles with finite energy barriers or frustrating long-range interactions. The outcome of such complexity is the emergence of dislocation avalanches as the basic mechanism of plastic flow in solids at the nanoscale. While the deformation behavior of bulk materials appears smooth, a predictive model should clearly be based upon the character of these dislocation avalanches and their associated strain bursts. We provide here a comprehensive overview of experimental observations, theoretical models and computational approaches that have been developed to unravel the multiple aspects of dislocation avalanche physics and the phenomena leading to strain bursts in crystal plasticity.
Multiphase-field model of small strain elasto-plasticity according to the mechanical jump conditions
Herrmann, Christoph; Schoof, Ephraim; Schneider, Daniel; Schwab, Felix; Reiter, Andreas; Selzer, Michael; Nestler, Britta
2018-04-01
We introduce a small strain elasto-plastic multiphase-field model according to the mechanical jump conditions. A rate-independent J_2 -plasticity model with linear isotropic hardening and without kinematic hardening is applied exemplary. Generally, any physically nonlinear mechanical model is compatible with the subsequently presented procedure. In contrast to models with interpolated material parameters, the proposed model is able to apply different nonlinear mechanical constitutive equations for each phase separately. The Hadamard compatibility condition and the static force balance are employed as homogenization approaches to calculate the phase-inherent stresses and strains. Several verification cases are discussed. The applicability of the proposed model is demonstrated by simulations of the martensitic transformation and quantitative parameters.
Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koshelev, N.A., E-mail: koshna71@inbox.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy str 42, 432970 (Russian Federation)
2011-04-01
The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.
Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshelev, N.A.
2011-01-01
The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models
Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinnerichs, Terry D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lo, Chi S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-06-01
Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.
Dynamic plastic behaviour of a notched free-free beam subjected to step-loading at one end
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.; Yang, J.L.
2002-01-01
A rigid perfectly plastic model is developed to study the initial, small deflection response of a free-free beam with an initial notch along its span under a concentrated step-loading suddenly applied at one end of the beam. Complete solutions are obtained for various combinations of the magnitude of the load, the location of the notch and its defect-severity. The partitioning of the initial energy dissipation rates is discussed for some typical situations. It is concluded that: (i) the different initial deformation mechanisms and the initial energy dissipation rate of the beam depend not only on the magnitude of the load but also on the defect-severity and location of the notch; (ii) because of the influence of the notch, the structural response of the beam is far more complicated than that of the un-notched free-free beam; and (iii) for some cases the maximum rate of energy dissipation in plastic hinges will be more than 1/3 of the total input energy rate, while for an un-notched free-free beam, it has been demonstrated that the plastic dissipated energy is always less than 1/3 of the input energy [Int. J. Impact Engng 21 (1998) 165
Modelling of the Vajont rockslide displacements by delayed plasticity of interacting sliding blocks
Castellanza, riccardo; Hedge, Amarnath; Crosta, Giovanni; di Prisco, Claudio; Frigerio, Gabriele
2015-04-01
In order to model complex sliding masses subject to continuous slow movements related to water table fluctuations it is convenient to: i) model the time-dependent mechanical behaviour of the materials by means of a viscous-plastic constitutive law; ii) assume the water table fluctuation as the main input to induce displacement acceleration; iii) consider, the 3D constrains by maintaining a level of simplicity such to allow the implementation into EWS (Early Warning System) for risk management. In this work a 1D pseudo-dynamic visco-plastic model (Secondi et al. 2011), based on Perzyna's delayed plasticity theory is applied. The sliding mass is considered as a rigid block subject to its self weight, inertial forces and seepage forces varying with time. All non-linearities are lumped in a thin layer positioned between the rigid block and the stable bedrock. The mechanical response of this interface is assumed to be visco-plastic. The viscous nucleus is assumed to be of the exponential type, so that irreversible strains develop for both positive and negative values of the yield function; the sliding mass is discretized in blocks to cope with complex rockslide geometries; the friction angle is assumed to reduce with strain rate assuming a sort of strain - rate law (Dietrich-Ruina law). To validate the improvements introduced in this paper the simulation of the displacements of the Vajont rockslide from 1960 to the failure, occurred on October the 9th 1963, is perfomed. It will be shown that, in its modified version, the model satisfactorily fits the Vajont pre-collapse displacements triggered by the fluctuation of the Vajont lake level and the associated groundwater level. The model is able to follow the critical acceleration of the motion with a minimal change in friction properties.The discretization in interacting sliding blocks confirms its suitability to model the complex 3D rockslide behaviour. We are currently implementing a multi-block model capable to include
Discrete dislocation plasticity modeling of short cracks in single crystals
Deshpande, VS; Needleman, A; Van der Giessen, E
2003-01-01
The mode-I crack growth behavior of geometrically similar edge-cracked single crystal specimens of varying size subject to both monotonic and cyclic axial loading is analyzed using discrete dislocation dynamics. Plastic deformation is modeled through the motion of edge dislocations in an elastic
A Generalized Orthotropic Elasto-Plastic Material Model for Impact Analysis
Hoffarth, Canio
Composite materials are now beginning to provide uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems such as airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. These structural systems are often subjected to impact loads and there is a pressing need for accurate prediction of deformation, damage and failure. There are numerous material models that have been developed to analyze the dynamic impact response of polymer matrix composites. However, there are key features that are missing in those models that prevent them from providing accurate predictive capabilities. In this dissertation, a general purpose orthotropic elasto-plastic computational constitutive material model has been developed to predict the response of composites subjected to high velocity impacts. The constitutive model is divided into three components - deformation model, damage model and failure model, with failure to be added at a later date. The deformation model generalizes the Tsai-Wu failure criteria and extends it using a strain-hardening-based orthotropic yield function with a non-associative flow rule. A strain equivalent formulation is utilized in the damage model that permits plastic and damage calculations to be uncoupled and capture the nonlinear unloading and local softening of the stress-strain response. A diagonal damage tensor is defined to account for the directionally dependent variation of damage. However, in composites it has been found that loading in one direction can lead to damage in multiple coordinate directions. To account for this phenomena, the terms in the damage matrix are semi-coupled such that the damage in a particular coordinate direction is a function of the stresses and plastic strains in all of the coordinate directions. The overall framework is driven by experimental tabulated temperature and rate-dependent stress-strain data as well as data that characterizes the damage matrix and failure
Babaie, Hassan; Davarpanah, Armita
2016-04-01
We are semantically modeling the structural and dynamic process components of the plastic deformation of minerals and rocks in the Plastic Deformation Ontology (PDO). Applying the Ontology of Physics in Biology, the PDO classifies the spatial entities that participate in the diverse processes of plastic deformation into the Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity and Nonphysical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity classes. The Material_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes things such as microstructures, lattice defects, atoms, liquid, and grain boundaries, and the Immaterial_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes vacancies in crystals and voids along mineral grain boundaries. The objects under the many subclasses of these classes (e.g., crystal, lattice defect, layering) have spatial parts that are related to each other through taxonomic (e.g., Line_Defect isA Lattice_Defect), structural (mereological, e.g., Twin_Plane partOf Twin), spatial-topological (e.g., Vacancy adjacentTo Atom, Fluid locatedAlong Grain_Boundary), and domain specific (e.g., displaces, Fluid crystallizes Dissolved_Ion, Void existsAlong Grain_Boundary) relationships. The dynamic aspect of the plastic deformation is modeled under the dynamical Process_Entity class that subsumes classes such as Recrystallization and Pressure_Solution that define the flow of energy amongst the physical entities. The values of the dynamical state properties of the physical entities (e.g., Chemical_Potential, Temperature, Particle_Velocity) change while they take part in the deformational processes such as Diffusion and Dislocation_Glide. The process entities have temporal parts (phases) that are related to each other through temporal relations such as precedes, isSubprocessOf, and overlaps. The properties of the physical entities, defined under the Physical_Property class, change as they participate in the plastic deformational processes. The properties are categorized into dynamical, constitutive
Miehe, C; Teichtmeister, S; Aldakheel, F
2016-04-28
This work outlines a novel variational-based theory for the phase-field modelling of ductile fracture in elastic-plastic solids undergoing large strains. The phase-field approach regularizes sharp crack surfaces within a pure continuum setting by a specific gradient damage modelling. It is linked to a formulation of gradient plasticity at finite strains. The framework includes two independent length scales which regularize both the plastic response as well as the crack discontinuities. This ensures that the damage zones of ductile fracture are inside of plastic zones, and guarantees on the computational side a mesh objectivity in post-critical ranges. © 2016 The Author(s).
Development of a temperature-dependent cyclic plasticity constitutive model for SUS304 steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Yukio
1990-01-01
Development of an accurate inelastic constitutive model is required to improve the accuracy of inelastic analysis for structural components used in the inelastic region. Based on two fundamental assumptions derived from physical interpretation of temperature dependency of the plastic deformation behavior of type 304 stainless steel, a temperature-dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model is constructed here. Particular emphasis is placed on the modeling of enhanced hardening caused by the dynamic strain aging effect observed in some temperature regimes. Constants and functions involved in the model are determined based on the deformation characteristics observed in the low-cycle fatigue tests conducted at room temperature through 600degC. Several comparisons of model predictions with experimental data show the effectiveness of the present model in non-isothermal condition as well as in isothermal condition between room temperature and 600degC. (author)
New mesoscopic constitutive model for deformation of pearlitic steels up to moderate strains
Alkorta, J.; Martínez-Esnaola, J. M.; de Jaeger, P.; Gil Sevillano, J.
2017-07-01
A new constitutive model for deformation of pearlitic steels has been developed that describes the mechanical behaviour and microstructural evolution of lamellar multi-colony pearlite. The model, a two-phase continuum model, considers the plastic anisotropy of ferrite derived from its lamellar structure but ignores any anisotropy associated with cementite and does not consider the crystal structure of either constituent. The resulting plastic constitutive equation takes into account a dependence on both the pearlitic spacing (arising from the confined slip of dislocations in the lamellae) and on strengthening from the evolving intra-lamellar dislocation density. A Kocks-Mecking strain hardening/recovery model is used for the lamellar ferrite, whereas perfect-plastic behaviour is assumed for cementite. The model naturally captures the microstructural evolution and the internal micro-stresses developed due to the different mechanical behaviour of both phases. The model is also able to describe the lamellar evolution (orientation and interlamellar spacing) with good accuracy. The role of plastic anisotropy in the ferritic phase has also been studied, and the results show that anisotropy has an important impact on both microstructural evolution and strengthening of heavily drawn wires.
A elastic-plastic model for pipe whip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maneschy, J.E.A.
1980-04-01
The dynamic behavior of a cantilever beam simulating a pipe after full rupture at a given cross-section is investigated. This problem, known as pipe whip, has to be analysed within the frame of plastic deformations. The physical model is represented by a cantilever, subjected to a step-load at the free end, and a support designed to absorb the maximum possible kinetic energy of the tube generated by suddenly applied force. The analysis is performed using the Bernoulli theory for straight beams, assuming for the moment-curvature relation a bi-linear law. (author)
Russo, Ruth
1998-01-01
A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…
A kinematical model for the plastic deformation of face-centred cubic polycrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leffers, T.
1975-01-01
During the plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material the deformation of the individual grain must be adjusted to the deformation of the surrounding grains so that material continuity is maintained. This continuity condition is the essential feature distinguishing polycrystal deformation from single-crystal deformation. In the present work it is attempted to explain how the continuity condition is fulfilled in face-centred cubic polycrystals. The early treatments of the plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials were aimed directly at the formulation of a ''dynamical'' theory, i.e. it was the intention to cover the magnitude of the stresses involved as well as the slip processes producing the deformation. It is argued that rolling texture is a good tool for a necessary intermediate stage of establishing a ''kinematical'' model describing the slip processes, but not the magnitude of the necessary stresses. Three aspects of rolling texture are considered: (a) the development of the rolling textures found experimentally in face-centred cubic materials can be computer-simulated on the basis of models for the plastic deformation that only involve (111) slip; (b) experimentally that the widely accepted twinning theory for the transition in f.c.c. rolling texture does not reflect the behaviour of real materials; and (c) it is shown that the texture transition is thermally activated with an activation energy corresponding to that of cross slip. An electron-microscopical investigation of the slip process operating during rolling of f.c.c. polycrystals is also included. On the basis of the computer simulation of the texture formation supplemented by the experimental results a kinematical model is developed for the plastic deformation of f.c.c. polycrystals by rolling. In the proposed model the material continuity is maintained by inhomogeneous slip processes, combined with homogeneous multiple glide when the cross-slip frequency is high. (author)
Time between plastic displacements of elasto-plastic oscillators subject to Gaussian white noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager
2001-01-01
A one degree of freedom elasto-plastic oscillator subject to stationary Gaussian white noise has a plastic displacement response process of intermittent character. During shorter or longer time intervals the oscillator vibrates within the elastic domain without undergoing any plastic displacements...... between the clumps of plastic displacements. This is needed for a complete description of the plastic displacement process. A quite accurate fast simulation procedure is presented based on an amplitude model to determine the short waiting times in the transient regime of the elastic vibrations existing...
Multiaxial probabilistic elastic-plastic constitutive simulations of soils
Sadrinezhad, Arezoo
constitutive behaviors of uncertain elasto--plastic soils. In particular, the effects of uncertainties in soil properties on constitutive behaviors of soils subjected to an unconfined compression test and to an unconsolidated undrained triaxial test are evaluated. To this end, the governing FPK equation of probabilistic elasto-plasticity is specialized to uniaxial stress space and to two dimensional principal stress space. Then, the specialized FPK PDEs are solved using the developed algorithms. Simulation results show that by considering soil uncertainties in the constitutive simulation, more realistic constitutive behavior can be ontained which agrees well with the principles of micromechanics. It is also observed that by explicit treatment to soil uncertainties, some of the important aspects of soil behaviors-for example, hardening and Bauschinger effect- can be captured even with the simplest elastic-perfectly plastic von Mises (two-parameters) model.
Overlapped optics induced perfect coherent effects
Li, Jian Jie; Zang, Xiao Fei; Mao, Jun Fa; Tang, Min; Zhu, Yi Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin
2013-12-01
For traditional coherent effects, two separated identical point sources can be interfered with each other only when the optical path difference is integer number of wavelengths, leading to alternate dark and bright fringes for different optical path difference. For hundreds of years, such a perfect coherent condition seems insurmountable. However, in this paper, based on transformation optics, two separated in-phase identical point sources can induce perfect interference with each other without satisfying the traditional coherent condition. This shifting illusion media is realized by inductor-capacitor transmission line network. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experimental results are performed to confirm such a kind of perfect coherent effect and it is found that the total radiation power of multiple elements system can be greatly enhanced. Our investigation may be applicable to National Ignition Facility (NIF), Inertial Confined Fusion (ICF) of China, LED lighting technology, terahertz communication, and so on.
Selection of polychlorinated plastics in plastic waste by X-ray fluorescence method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumasaki, H.; Shinozaki, Y.
1979-01-01
The X-ray fluorescence method using a small source of 55 Fe was examined and found to be applicable for the selection of polychlorinated plastics from plastic waste in model areas in Tokyo designated for investigating their content in the waste. The weight ratios of soft and hard polychlorinated plastics to the total plastic waste estimated by this method were found to be 15.6% and 0.29% respectively. These values agree well with the results obtained with the Beilstein method. (author)
A new characterization of trivially perfect graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Rubio Montiel
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A graph $G$ is \\emph{trivially perfect} if for every induced subgraph the cardinality of the largest set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices (the stability number $\\alpha(G$ equals the number of (maximal cliques $m(G$. We characterize the trivially perfect graphs in terms of vertex-coloring and we extend some definitions to infinite graphs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Onur SAYMAN
2001-03-01
Full Text Available In the present study, an elastic-plastic stress analysis is carried out in a metal matrix composite cantilever beam loaded by a single force at its free end. A composite consisting of stainless-steel reinforced aluminium was produced for this work. The orientation angle of the fibers is chosen as 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°. The material is assumed to be perfectly plastic in the elasto-plastic solution. An analytical solution is performed for satisfying both the governing differential equation in the plane stress case and boundary conditions for small plastic deformations. The solution is carried out under the assumption of the Bernoulli-Navier hypotheses. The composite material is assumed as hardening linearly. The Tsai-Hill theory is used as a yield criterion.
A thermomechanical crystal plasticity constitutive model for ultrasonic consolidation
Siddiq, Amir
2012-01-01
We present a micromechanics-based thermomechanical constitutive model to simulate the ultrasonic consolidation process. Model parameters are calibrated using an inverse modeling approach. A comparison of the simulated response and experimental results for uniaxial tests validate and verify the appropriateness of the proposed model. Moreover, simulation results of polycrystalline aluminum using the identified crystal plasticity based material parameters are compared qualitatively with the electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) results reported in the literature. The validated constitutive model is then used to simulate the ultrasonic consolidation process at sub-micron scale where an effort is exerted to quantify the underlying micromechanisms involved during the ultrasonic consolidation process. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weixin Dong
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear elastic model and elastoplastic model are two main kinds of constitutive models of soil, which are widely used in the numerical analyses of soil structure. In this study, Duncan and Chang's EB model and the generalized plasticity model proposed by Pastor, Zienkiewicz, and Chan was discussed and applied to describe the stress-strain relationship of rockfill materials. The two models were validated using the results of triaxial shear tests under different confining pressures. The comparisons between the fittings of models and test data showed that the modified generalized plasticity model is capable of simulating the mechanical behaviours of rockfill materials. The modified generalized plasticity model was implemented into a finite element code to carry out static analyses of a high earth-rockfill dam in China. Nonlinear elastic analyses were also performed with Duncan and Chang's EB model in the same program framework. The comparisons of FEM results and in situ monitoring data showed that the modified PZ-III model can give a better description of deformation of the earth-rockfill dam than Duncan and Chang’s EB model.
Experiments and modeling of single plastic particle conversion in suspension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nakhaei, Mohammadhadi; Wu, Hao; Grévain, Damien
2018-01-01
Conversion of single high density polyethylene (PE) particles has been studied by experiments and modeling. The experiments were carried out in a single particle combustor for five different shapes and masses of particles at temperature conditions of 900 and 1100°C. Each experiment was recorded...... against the experiments as well as literature data. Furthermore, a simplified isothermal model appropriate for CFD applications was developed, in order to model the combustion of plastic particles in cement calciners. By comparing predictions with the isothermal and the non–isothermal models under typical...
Lattice fluid dynamics from perfect discretizations of continuum flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katz, E.; Wiese, U.
1998-01-01
We use renormalization group methods to derive equations of motion for large scale variables in fluid dynamics. The large scale variables are averages of the underlying continuum variables over cubic volumes and naturally exist on a lattice. The resulting lattice dynamics represents a perfect discretization of continuum physics, i.e., grid artifacts are completely eliminated. Perfect equations of motion are derived for static, slow flows of incompressible, viscous fluids. For Hagen-Poiseuille flow in a channel with a square cross section the equations reduce to a perfect discretization of the Poisson equation for the velocity field with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The perfect large scale Poisson equation is used in a numerical simulation and is shown to represent the continuum flow exactly. For nonsquare cross sections one can use a numerical iterative procedure to derive flow equations that are approximately perfect. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Modeling elasto-plastic behavior of polycrystalline grain structure of steels at mesoscopic level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovac, Marko; Cizelj, Leon
2005-01-01
The multiscale model is proposed to explicitly account for the inhomogeneous structure of polycrystalline materials. Grains and grain boundaries are modeled explicitly using Voronoi tessellation. The constitutive model of crystal grains utilizes anisotropic elasticity and crystal plasticity. Commercially available finite element code is applied to solve the boundary value problem defined at the macroscopic scale. No assumption regarding the distribution of the mesoscopic strain and stress fields is used, apart the finite element discretization. The proposed model is then used to estimate the minimum size of polycrystalline aggregate of selected reactor pressure vessel steel (22 NiMoCr 3 7), above which it can be considered macroscopically homogeneous. Elastic and rate-independent plastic deformation modes are considered. The results are validated by the experimental and simulation results from the literature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Hojun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Owen, Steven J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdeljawad, Fadi F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanks, Byron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Battaile, Corbett Chandler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-09-01
In order to better incorporate microstructures in continuum scale models, we use a novel finite element (FE) meshing technique to generate three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field grain growth model of grain microstructures. The proposed meshing technique creates hexahedral FE meshes that capture smooth interfaces between adjacent grains. Three dimensional realizations of grain microstructures from the phase field model are used in crystal plasticity-finite element (CP-FE) simulations of polycrystalline a -iron. We show that the interface conformal meshes significantly reduce artificial stress localizations in voxelated meshes that exhibit the so-called "wedding cake" interfaces. This framework provides a direct link between two mesoscale models - phase field and crystal plasticity - and for the first time allows mechanics simulations of polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional hexahedral finite element meshes with realistic topological features.
The pursuit of perfect packing
Weaire, Denis
2008-01-01
Coauthored by one of the creators of the most efficient space packing solution, the Weaire-Phelan structure, The Pursuit of Perfect Packing, Second Edition explores a problem of importance in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering: the packing of structures. Maintaining its mathematical core, this edition continues and revises some of the stories from its predecessor while adding several new examples and applications. The book focuses on both scientific and everyday problems ranging from atoms to honeycombs. It describes packing models, such as the Kepler conjecture, Voronoï decomposition, and Delaunay decomposition, as well as actual structure models, such as the Kelvin cell and the Weaire-Phelan structure. The authors discuss numerous historical aspects and provide biographical details on influential contributors to the field, including emails from Thomas Hales and Ken Brakke. With examples from physics, crystallography, engineering, and biology, this accessible and whimsical bo...
A model for rate-dependent but time-independent material behavior in cyclic plasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dafalias, Y.F.; Ramey, M.R.; Sheikh, I.
1977-01-01
This paper presents a model for rate-dependent but time independent material behavior under cyclic loading in the plastic range. What is referred to as time independent behavior here, is the absence of creep and relaxation phenomena from the behavior of the model. The notion of plastic internal variables (piv) is introduced, as properly invariant scalars or second order tensors, whose constitutive relations are rate-type equations not necessarily homogeneous of order one in the rates, as it would be required for independent plasticity. The concept of a yield surface in the strain space and a loading function in terms of the total strain rate is introduced, where the sign of the loading function defines zero or non-zero value of the rate of piv. Thus rate dependence is achieved without time dependent behaviour (no creep or relaxation). In addition, discrete memory parameters associated with the most recent event of unloading-reloading in different directions enter the constitutive relations for the piv. (Auth.)
Estimates of plastic loads for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Nak Hyun; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae
2008-01-01
This paper provides a method to estimate plastic loads (defined by twice-elastic-slope) for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment, based on detailed 3-D FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Because closing bending moment is always lower than opening bending moment, the combination of in-plane closing bending and out-of-plane bending moment becomes the most significant case. Due to conservatism of each bending moments, the resultant moment provided by ASME B and PV code is unduly conservative. However, the concept of the resultant moment is still valid. In this paper, FE results show that the accurate solutions of bending moments provide better estimates of plastic loads of pipe bend under combined in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending moment
Plasticity-induced damage in metals : nonlocal modelling at finite strains
Engelen, R.A.B.
2005-01-01
The plasticity models that are generally adopted to predict the response of e.g. a deforming piece of metal assume that the material behaves like a true local continuum. This implies that the evolution of a state variable in a single material point only depends on the material state of that
A model for rate-dependent but time-independent material behavior in cyclic plasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dafalias, Y.F.; Ramey, M.R.; Sheikh, I.
1977-01-01
It is the purpose of this paper to present a model for rate-dependent but time independent material behavior under cyclic loading in the plastic range. What is referred to as time independent behavior here, is the absence of creep and relaxation phenomena from the behavior of the model. The notion of plastic internal variables (piv) is introduced, as properly invariant scalars or second order tensors, whose constitutive relations are rate-type equations not necessarily homogeneous of oder one in the rates, as it would be required for independent plasticity. The concept of a yield surface in the strain space and a loading function in terms of the total strain rate is introduced, where the sign of the loading function defines zero or non-zero value of the rate of piv. Thus rate dependence is achieved without time dependent behavior (no creep or relaxation). In addition, discrete memory parameters associated with the most recent event of unloading-reloading in different directions enter the constitutive relations for the piv. A particular form of the constitutive relations is assumed, where the rate of piv is a linear combination of the strain rate components, with coefficients depending on the second invariant of the strain rate tensor, which can be viewed as a scalar measure of the rate of deformation in the multiaxial case and a direct generalization of the uniaxial strain rate. This leads to a particularly simple form of the constitutive relations resembling the ones for rate independent plasticity. The uniaxial counterpart would be a relation between the plastic strain rate (as one of the piv) and the total strain rate through a plastic modulus which depends on the strain rate, the piv, and the discrete memory parameters
Bacon, David
2010-01-01
The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…
Brouwer, Marieke T; Thoden van Velzen, Eggo U; Augustinus, Antje; Soethoudt, Han; De Meester, Steven; Ragaert, Kim
2018-01-01
The Dutch post-consumer plastic packaging recycling network has been described in detail (both on the level of packaging types and of materials) from the household potential to the polymeric composition of the recycled milled goods. The compositional analyses of 173 different samples of post-consumer plastic packaging from different locations in the network were combined to indicatively describe the complete network with material flow analysis, data reconciliation techniques and process technological parameters. The derived potential of post-consumer plastic packages in the Netherlands in 2014 amounted to 341 Gg net (or 20.2 kg net.cap -1 .a -1 ). The complete recycling network produced 75.2 Gg milled goods, 28.1 Gg side products and 16.7 Gg process waste. Hence the net recycling chain yield for post-consumer plastic packages equalled 30%. The end-of-life fates for 35 different plastic packaging types were resolved. Additionally, the polymeric compositions of the milled goods and the recovered masses were derived with this model. These compositions were compared with experimentally determined polymeric compositions of recycled milled goods, which confirmed that the model predicts these compositions reasonably well. Also the modelled recovered masses corresponded reasonably well with those measured experimentally. The model clarified the origin of polymeric contaminants in recycled plastics, either sorting faults or packaging components, which gives directions for future improvement measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Browning, R.V.; Scammon, R.J.
1998-01-01
Modeling impact events on systems containing plastic bonded explosive materials requires accurate models for stress evolution at high strain rates out to large strains. For example, in the Steven test geometry reactions occur after strains of 0.5 or more are reached for PBX-9501. The morphology of this class of materials and properties of the constituents are briefly described. We then review the viscoelastic behavior observed at small strains for this class of material, and evaluate large strain models used for granular materials such as cap models. Dilatation under shearing deformations of the PBX is experimentally observed and is one of the key features modeled in cap style plasticity theories, together with bulk plastic flow at high pressures. We propose a model that combines viscoelastic behavior at small strains but adds intergranular stresses at larger strains. A procedure using numerical simulations and comparisons with results from flyer plate tests and low rate uniaxial stress tests is used to develop a rough set of constants for PBX-9501. Comparisons with the high rate flyer plate tests demonstrate that the observed characteristic behavior is captured by this viscoelastic based model. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Optimal simulation of a perfect entangler
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Nengkun; Duan Runyao; Ying Mingsheng
2010-01-01
A 2 x 2 unitary operation is called a perfect entangler if it can generate a maximally entangled state from some unentangled input. We study the following question: How many runs of a given two-qubit entangling unitary operation are required to simulate some perfect entangler with one-qubit unitary operations as free resources? We completely solve this problem by presenting an analytical formula for the optimal number of runs of the entangling operation. Our result reveals an entanglement strength of two-qubit unitary operations.
Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seren, Huseyin R.; Keiser, George R.; Cao, Lingyue
2014-01-01
response of resonant metamaterials continues to be a challengingendeavor. Resonant perfect absorbers have flourished as one of the mostpromising metamaterial devices with applications ranging from power har-vesting to terahertz imaging. Here, an optically modulated resonant perfectabsorber is presented....... Utilizing photo-excited free carriers in silicon padsplaced in the capacitive gaps of split ring resonators, a dynamically modu-lated perfect absorber is designed and fabricated to operate in reflection.Large modulation depth (38% and 91%) in two absorption bands (with 97%and 92% peak absorption...
Micro-structural evolution in plastically deformed crystalline materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nellemann, Christopher
predictions for the two models to be obtained. Application of the two models to the pure shear boundary value problem is used to characterize plastic behavior, which also allows for the identification of inherent properties through closed form expressions. Single crystal Monazite containing a void is studied......Two rate-independent strain gradient crystal plasticity models are developed and applied in numerical studies designed to identify the properties inherent to model predictions of plastic deformation. The two models incorporate gradients of slip into the framework of conventional crystal plasticity...... in order to model size-dependent plasticity effects. This gradient dependence is achieved by relating a slip measure which combines both slip and their gradients to a shear hardening curve, as commonly done in conventional plasticity theories. Finite element codes are implemented which allow for numerical...
Modelling global distribution, risk and mitigation strategies of floating plastic pollution
van Sebille, Erik; Wilcox, Chris; Sherman, Peter; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Lavender Law, Kara
2016-04-01
Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on the North Pacific and North Atlantic accumulation zones, with much sparser coverage elsewhere. Here, we use the largest dataset of microplastic measurements assembled to date to assess the confidence we can have in global estimates of microplastic abundance and mass. We use a rigorous statistical framework to standardise a global dataset of plastic marine debris measured using surface-trawling plankton nets and couple this with three different ocean circulation models to spatially interpolate the observations. Our estimates show that the accumulated number of microplastic particles in 2014 ranges from 15 to 51 trillion particles, weighing between 93 and 236 thousand metric tons. A large fraction of the uncertainty in these estimates comes from sparse sampling in coastal and Southern Hemisphere regions. We then use this global distribution of small floating plastic debris to map out where in the ocean the risk to marine life (in particular seabirds and plankton growth) is greatest, using a quantitative risk framework. We show that the largest risk occurs not necessarily in regions of high plastic concentration, but rather in regions of extensive foraging with medium-high plastic concentrations such as coastal upwelling regions and the Southern Ocean. Finally, we use the estimates of distribution to investigate where in the ocean plastic can most optimally be removed, assuming hypothetical clean-up booms following the ideas from The Ocean Cleanup project. We show that mitigation of the plastic problem can most aptly be done near coastlines, particularly in Asia, rather than in the centres of the gyres. Based on these results, we propose more focus on the coastal zones when
Phenotypic plasticity, costs of phenotypes, and costs of plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Callahan, Hilary S; Maughan, Heather; Steiner, Uli
2008-01-01
Why are some traits constitutive and others inducible? The term costs often appears in work addressing this issue but may be ambiguously defined. This review distinguishes two conceptually distinct types of costs: phenotypic costs and plasticity costs. Phenotypic costs are assessed from patterns...... of covariation, typically between a focal trait and a separate trait relevant to fitness. Plasticity costs, separable from phenotypic costs, are gauged by comparing the fitness of genotypes with equivalent phenotypes within two environments but differing in plasticity and fitness. Subtleties associated with both...... types of costs are illustrated by a body of work addressing predator-induced plasticity. Such subtleties, and potential interplay between the two types of costs, have also been addressed, often in studies involving genetic model organisms. In some instances, investigators have pinpointed the mechanistic...
Everybody's Different Nobody's Perfect
... traten ni qué edad tengan — eso se llama “DISCAPACIDAD.” Some kids have a disability because their muscles ... have one? ¿Conoces a alguien que tenga una discapacidad? ¿Tienes una tú? Everybody’s different, nobody’s perfect. So ...
Visible light broadband perfect absorbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)
2016-03-15
The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.
Evolutive Masing model, cycling plasticity, ageing and memory effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidoroff, F.
1987-01-01
Many models are proposed for the mechanical description of the cyclic behaviour of metals and used for structure analysis under cyclic loading. The evolutive Masing model has been proposed (Fougeres, Sidoroff, Vincent and Waille 1985) to combine - the accuracy of hereditary models for the description of hysteresis on each cycle, - the versatility of internal variables for the state description and evolution, - a sufficient microstructural basis to make the interaction easier with microstructural investigations. The purpose of the present work is to discuss this model and to compare different evolution assumptions with respect to some memory effects (cyclic hardening and softening, multilevel tests, ageing). Attention is limited to uniaxial, rate independent elasto-plastic behaviour. (orig./GL)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cătălin Dima
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We present a variant of ATL with distributed knowledge operators based on a synchronous and perfect recall semantics. The coalition modalities in this logic are based on partial observation of the full history, and incorporate a form of cooperation between members of the coalition in which agents issue their actions based on the distributed knowledge, for that coalition, of the system history. We show that model-checking is decidable for this logic. The technique utilizes two variants of games with imperfect information and partially observable objectives, as well as a subset construction for identifying states whose histories are indistinguishable to the considered coalition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Massoud, J.P.; Bugat, St.; Marini, B.; Lidbury, D.; Van Dyck, St.; Debarberis, L.
2008-01-01
Full text of publication follows. In nuclear PWRs, materials undergo degradation due to severe irradiation conditions that may limit their operational life. Utilities operating these reactors must quantify the aging and the potential degradations of reactor pressure vessels and also of internal structures to ensure safe and reliable plant operation. The EURATOM 6. Framework Integrated Project PERFECT (Prediction of Irradiation Damage Effects in Reactor Components) addresses irradiation damage in RPV materials and components by multi-scale modelling. This state-of-the-art approach offers potential advantages over the conventional empirical methods used in current practice of nuclear plant lifetime management. Launched in January 2004, this 48-month project is focusing on two main components of nuclear power plants which are subject to irradiation damage: the ferritic steel reactor pressure vessel and the austenitic steel internals. This project is also an opportunity to integrate the fragmented research and experience that currently exists within Europe in the field of numerical simulation of radiation damage and creates the links with international organisations involved in similar projects throughout the world. Continuous progress in the physical understanding of the phenomena involved in irradiation damage and continuous progress in computer sciences make possible the development of multi-scale numerical tools able to simulate the effects of irradiation on materials microstructure. The consequences of irradiation on mechanical and corrosion properties of materials are also tentatively modelled using such multi-scale modelling. But it requires to develop different mechanistic models at different levels of physics and engineering and to extend the state of knowledge in several scientific fields. And the links between these different kinds of models are particularly delicate to deal with and need specific works. Practically the main objective of PERFECT is to build
Two-perfect fluid interpretation of an energy tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrando, J.J.; Morales, J.A.; Portilla, M.
1990-01-01
There are many topics in General Relativity where matter is represented by a mixture of two fluids. In fact, some astrophysical and cosmological situations need to be described by an energy tensor made up of the sum of two or more perfect fluids rather than that with only one. The paper contains the necessary and sufficient conditions for a given energy tensor to be interpreted as a sum of two perfect fluids. Given a tensor of this class, the decomposition in two perfect fluids (which is determined up to a couple of real functions) is obtained
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, C.Y. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: suncy@me.ustb.edu.cn; Fang, G.; Lei, L.P.; Zeng, P. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2009-01-15
Based on the crystallographic theory of martensitic transformation and internal variable constitutive theory, a micromechanical constitutive model of martensitic transformation induced plasticity was developed. Plastic strains of product and parent phases as well as the volume fraction of each martensitic variant were considered as internal variables describing the microstructure evolution. The plasticity flow both in austenite and martensitic variants domain is described by J{sub 2} flow theory. The thermodynamic driving force acting on these internal variables was obtained through the determination of the intrinsic dissipation due to plastic flow and the growth of martensitic domains. The evolution laws of the internal variables are derived, furthermore macroscopic response due to the change of internal variables is obtained. Thermomechanical behavior of armour steel under uniaxial loading was tested which showed a good agreement with experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, C.Y.; Fang, G.; Lei, L.P.; Zeng, P.
2009-01-01
Based on the crystallographic theory of martensitic transformation and internal variable constitutive theory, a micromechanical constitutive model of martensitic transformation induced plasticity was developed. Plastic strains of product and parent phases as well as the volume fraction of each martensitic variant were considered as internal variables describing the microstructure evolution. The plasticity flow both in austenite and martensitic variants domain is described by J 2 flow theory. The thermodynamic driving force acting on these internal variables was obtained through the determination of the intrinsic dissipation due to plastic flow and the growth of martensitic domains. The evolution laws of the internal variables are derived, furthermore macroscopic response due to the change of internal variables is obtained. Thermomechanical behavior of armour steel under uniaxial loading was tested which showed a good agreement with experimental results
Rheological characterization of plasticized corn proteins for fused deposition modeling
Chaunier, Laurent; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Della Valle, Guy; Lourdin, Denis; Marion, Didier; Leroy, Eric
2017-10-01
Additive Manufacturing (AM) of tailored natural biopolymer-based objects by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) opens new perspectives for applications such as biomedical temporary devices, or pharmaceutical tablets. This exploits the biocompatibility, resorbability and edibility properties of biopolymers. When adequately plasticized, zeins, storage proteins from endosperm of maize kernels, displayed thermomechanical properties possibly matching FDM processing requirements at a convenient temperature Tprinting=130°C. Indeed, with 20% glycerol added (Tg=42°C), plasticized zeins present a high modulus, E'>1GPa, at ambient conditions, which drops below 0.6 MPa at the processing temperature T=130°C, before flowing in the molten state. The rheological characterization shows that the processing window is limited by a progressive increase of viscosity linked to proteins aggregation and crosslinking by S-S bonding between cysteine amino acid residues, which can lead to gelation. However, for short residence time typical of FDM, the viscosity of plasticized zeins is comparable to the one of standard polymers, like ABS or PLA in their FDM processing conditions: indeed, in presence of glycerol, the molten zeins show a shear-thinning behavior with |η*|≈3kPa.s at 1s-1, decreasing to |η*|≈0.3kPa.s at 100s-1, at 130°C. Moreover, zeins presenting both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, amphiphilic plasticizers can be used supplementary to tune their rheological behavior. With 20% oleic acid added to the previous composition, the viscosity is divided down to a ratio about 1/2 at 100s-1 at 130°C, below the value of a standard polymer as PLA at its printing temperature. These results show the possible enhancement of the printability of zein-based materials in the molten state, by combining polar and amphiphilic plasticizers.
Maire, Pierre-Henri; Abgrall, Rémi; Breil, Jérôme; Loubère, Raphaël; Rebourcet, Bernard
2013-02-01
In this paper, we describe a cell-centered Lagrangian scheme devoted to the numerical simulation of solid dynamics on two-dimensional unstructured grids in planar geometry. This numerical method, utilizes the classical elastic-perfectly plastic material model initially proposed by Wilkins [M.L. Wilkins, Calculation of elastic-plastic flow, Meth. Comput. Phys. (1964)]. In this model, the Cauchy stress tensor is decomposed into the sum of its deviatoric part and the thermodynamic pressure which is defined by means of an equation of state. Regarding the deviatoric stress, its time evolution is governed by a classical constitutive law for isotropic material. The plasticity model employs the von Mises yield criterion and is implemented by means of the radial return algorithm. The numerical scheme relies on a finite volume cell-centered method wherein numerical fluxes are expressed in terms of sub-cell force. The generic form of the sub-cell force is obtained by requiring the scheme to satisfy a semi-discrete dissipation inequality. Sub-cell force and nodal velocity to move the grid are computed consistently with cell volume variation by means of a node-centered solver, which results from total energy conservation. The nominally second-order extension is achieved by developing a two-dimensional extension in the Lagrangian framework of the Generalized Riemann Problem methodology, introduced by Ben-Artzi and Falcovitz [M. Ben-Artzi, J. Falcovitz, Generalized Riemann Problems in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge Monogr. Appl. Comput. Math. (2003)]. Finally, the robustness and the accuracy of the numerical scheme are assessed through the computation of several test cases.
A cross-linguistic discourse analysis of the perfect
Swart, Henriëtte de
2007-01-01
Since Reichenbach (1947), the Present Perfect has been discussed in relation to the Simple Past. The Reichenbachian characterization E-R,S has led to the view that the English Present Perfect, with its restrictions on modification by time adverbials and its resistance to narrative structure is the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaihong Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies channel consisting of a manufacturer and two retailers. As a basis for comparison, the first, multiagent Stackelberg model has been structured based on perfect rationality. Further, fairness preference theory will be embedded in marketing channel multiagent Stackelberg model, and the results show that if the retailers have a jealous fairness preference, the manufacturer will reduce the wholesale price, retailers will increase the effort level, product sales will be increased, and the total channel utility and manufacturers’ utility will be pareto improvement, but the pareto improvement of retailers’ utility is associated with the interval of jealousy fairness preference coefficient. If the retailers have a sympathetic fairness preference, the manufacturer increases wholesale price, retailers reduce the effort level, and the total channel utility, manufacturer’s utility, and retailers’ utility are less than that of the no fairness preference utility.
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Owen Rackham
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Associative synaptic plasticity is synapse specific and requires coincident activity in presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons to activate NMDA receptors (NMDARs. The resultant Ca2+ influx is the critical trigger for the induction of synaptic plasticity. Given its centrality for the induction of synaptic plasticity, a model for NMDAR activation incorporating the timing of presynaptic glutamate release and postsynaptic depolarization by back-propagating action potentials could potentially predict the pre- and post-synaptic spike patterns required to induce synaptic plasticity. We have developed such a model by incorporating currently available data on the timecourse and amplitude of the postsynaptic membrane potential within individual spines. We couple this with data on the kinetics of synaptic NMDARs and then use the model to predict the continuous spine [Ca2+] in response to regular or irregular pre- and post-synaptic spike patterns. We then incorporate experimental data from synaptic plasticity induction protocols by regular activity patterns to couple the predicted local peak [Ca2+] to changes in synaptic strength. We find that our model accurately describes [Ca2+] in dendritic spines resulting from NMDAR activation during presynaptic and postsynaptic activity when compared to previous experimental observations. The model also replicates the experimentally determined plasticity outcome of regular and irregular spike patterns when applied to a single synapse. This model could therefore be used to predict the induction of synaptic plasticity under a variety of experimental conditions and spike patterns.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dan Yang; Qian Yu
2008-01-01
All motions provide sensory, motoric, and reflexive input to the central nervous system, as well as playing an important role in cerebral functional plasticity and compensation. Cerebral plasticity has become the theoretical basis of neurorehabilitation. Studies of cerebrovascular disease, in particular, demonstrate that regeneration is accompanied by multiple forms of plasticity, such as functional and structural, in different phases of stroke rehabilitation. This study was designed to measure synaptic plasticity and expression of associated proteins to analyze the effect of rehabilitation training on learning and memory in a rat model of cerebral infarction. Results suggest that rehabilitation training increases expression of nerve growth factor associated protein 43, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neural cell adhesion molecules, and also promotes cerebral functional plasticity.
Lorentz invariant noncommutative algebra for cosmological models coupled to a perfect fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abreu, Everton M.C.; Marcial, Mateus V.; Mendes, Albert C.R.; Oliveira, Wilson
2013-01-01
Full text: In current theoretical physics there is a relevant number of theoretical investigations that lead to believe that at the first moments of our Universe, the geometry was not commutative and the dominating physics at that time was ruled by the laws of noncommutative (NC) geometry. Therefore, the idea is that the physics of the early moments can be constructed based on these concepts. The first published work using the idea of a NC spacetime were carried out by Snyder who believed that NC principles could make the quantum field theory infinities disappear. However, it did not occur and Snyder's ideas were put to sleep for a long time. The main modern motivations that rekindle the investigation about NC field theories came from string theory and quantum gravity. In the context of quantum mechanics for example, R. Banerjee discussed how NC structures appear in planar quantum mechanics providing a useful way for obtaining them. The analysis was based on the NC algebra used in planar quantum mechanics that was originated from 't Hooft's analysis on dissipation and quantization. In this work we carry out a NC algebra analysis of the Friedmann-Robert-Walker model, coupled to a perfect fluid and in the presence of a cosmological constant. The classical field equations are modified, by the introduction of a shift operator, in order to introduce noncommutativity in these models. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Liu
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a finite element implementation of a strain-hardening Drucker–Prager model and its application to tunnel excavation. The computational model was constructed based on the return mapping scheme, in which an elastic trial step was first executed, followed by plastic correction involving the Newton–Raphson method to return the predicted state of stresses to the supposed yield surface. By combining the plastic shear hardening rule and stress correction equations, the loading index for the strain-hardening Drucker–Prager model was solved. It is therefore possible to update the stresses, elastic and plastic strains, and slope of the yield locus at the end of each incremental step. As an illustrative example, an integration algorithm was incorporated into ABAQUS through the user subroutine UMAT to solve the tunnel excavation problem in strain-hardening Drucker–Prager rock formations. The obtained numerical results were found to be in excellent agreement with the available analytical solutions, thus indicating the validity and accuracy of the proposed UMAT code, as well as the finite element model.
Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ChenJianguo
2004-01-01
Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.
Plasticity induced by phase transformation in steel: experiment vs modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tahimi, Abdeladhim
2011-01-01
The objectives of this work are: (i) understand the mechanisms and phenomena involved in the plasticity of steels in the presence of a diffusive or martensitic phase transformation. (ii) develop tools for predicting TRIP, which are able to correctly reproduce the macroscopic deformation for cases of complex loading and could also provide information about local elasto-visco-plastic interactions between product and parent phases. To this purpose, new experimental tests are conducted on 35NCD16 steel for austenite to martensite transformation and on 100C6 steel for austenite to pearlite transformation. The elasto viscoplastic properties of austenite and pearlite of the 100C6 steel are characterized through tension compression and relaxation tests. The parameters of macro-homogeneous and crystal-based constitutive laws could then be identified such as to analyse different models with respect to the experimental TRIP: the analytical models of Leblond (1989) and Taleb and Sidoroff (2003) but also, above all, different numerical models which can be distinguished by the prevailing assumptions concerning the local kinetics and the constitutive laws. An extension of the single-grain model dedicated to martensitic transformations developed during the thesis of S. Meftah (2007) is proposed. It consists in introducing the polycrystalline character of the austenite through a process of homogenization based on a self-consistent scheme by calculating the properties of an Equivalent Homogeneous Medium environment (EHM). (author)
Forbidden Structures for Planar Perfect Consecutively Colourable Graphs
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Borowiecka-Olszewska Marta
2017-05-01
Full Text Available A consecutive colouring of a graph is a proper edge colouring with posi- tive integers in which the colours of edges incident with each vertex form an interval of integers. The idea of this colouring was introduced in 1987 by Asratian and Kamalian under the name of interval colouring. Sevast- janov showed that the corresponding decision problem is NP-complete even restricted to the class of bipartite graphs. We focus our attention on the class of consecutively colourable graphs whose all induced subgraphs are consecutively colourable, too. We call elements of this class perfect consecutively colourable to emphasise the conceptual similarity to perfect graphs. Obviously, the class of perfect consecutively colourable graphs is induced hereditary, so it can be characterized by the family of induced forbidden graphs. In this work we give a necessary and sufficient conditions that must be satisfied by the generalized Sevastjanov rosette to be an induced forbid- den graph for the class of perfect consecutively colourable graphs. Along the way, we show the exact values of the deficiency of all generalized Sevastjanov rosettes, which improves the earlier known estimating result. It should be mentioned that the deficiency of a graph measures its closeness to the class of consecutively colourable graphs. We motivate the investigation of graphs considered here by showing their connection to the class of planar perfect consecutively colourable graphs.
Tang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Eugene Y-X
2018-06-11
Bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) is a perfectly isotactic, crystalline material possessing properties suitable for substituting petroleum plastics, but high costs and low volumes of its production are impractical for commodity applications. The chemical synthesis of P3HB via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of racemic β-butyrolactone has attracted intensive efforts since the 1960s, but not yet produced P3HB with high isotacticity and molecular weight. Here, we report a route utilizing racemic cyclic diolide (rac-DL) derived from bio-sourced succinate. With stereoselective racemic catalysts, the ROP of rac-DL under ambient conditions produces rapidly P3HB with perfect isotacticity ([mm] > 99%), high melting temperature (T m = 171 °C), and high molecular weight (M n = 1.54 × 10 5 g mol -1 , Đ = 1.01). With enantiomeric catalysts, kinetic resolution polymerizations of rac-DL automatically stops at 50% conversion and yields enantiopure (R,R)-DL and (S,S)-DL with >99% e.e. and the corresponding poly[(S)-3HB] and poly[(R)-3HB] with high T m = 175 °C.
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi Type VIh universes with stiff perfect fluid and radiation
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1995-03-01
Families of inhomogeneous models filled with a stiff perfect fluid and radiation have been derived in which there is no flow of total momentum. The models are generalizations of those of Bianchi Type VIh and are discussed for some particular forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in them.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quan Wang
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The ability to learn sequential behaviors is a fundamental property of our brains. Yet a long stream of studies including recent experiments investigating motor sequence learning in adult human subjects have produced a number of puzzling and seemingly contradictory results. In particular, when subjects have to learn multiple action sequences, learning is sometimes impaired by proactive and retroactive interference effects. In other situations, however, learning is accelerated as reflected in facilitation and transfer effects. At present it is unclear what the underlying neural mechanism are that give rise to these diverse findings. Here we show that a recently developed recurrent neural network model readily reproduces this diverse set of findings. The self-organizing recurrent neural network (SORN model is a network of recurrently connected threshold units that combines a simplified form of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP with homeostatic plasticity mechanisms ensuring network stability, namely intrinsic plasticity (IP and synaptic normalization (SN. When trained on sequence learning tasks modeled after recent experiments we find that it reproduces the full range of interference, facilitation, and transfer effects. We show how these effects are rooted in the network's changing internal representation of the different sequences across learning and how they depend on an interaction of training schedule and task similarity. Furthermore, since learning in the model is based on fundamental neuronal plasticity mechanisms, the model reveals how these plasticity mechanisms are ultimately responsible for the network's sequence learning abilities. In particular, we find that all three plasticity mechanisms are essential for the network to learn effective internal models of the different training sequences. This ability to form effective internal models is also the basis for the observed interference and facilitation effects. This suggests that
Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koelmans, Albert A.; Besseling, Ellen; Foekema, Edwin M.
2014-01-01
It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Arenicola marina (lugworm) and Gadus morhua (North Sea cod). We use a biodynamic model that allows calculations of the relative contribution of plastic ingestion to total exposure of aquatic species to chemicals residing in the ingested plastic. Uncertainty in the most crucial parameters is accounted for by probabilistic modeling. Our conservative analysis shows that plastic ingestion by the lugworm yields NP and BPA concentrations that stay below the lower ends of global NP and BPA concentration ranges, and therefore are not likely to constitute a relevant exposure pathway. For cod, plastic ingestion appears to be a negligible pathway for exposure to NP and BPA. - Highlights: • Uptake of plastic additives after plastic ingestion was modeled for worms and fish. • This was done for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. • Uncertainty was accounted for by Monte Carlo simulations. • It appeared that exposure by plastic ingestion was negligible for fish. • Plastic ingestion may occasionally be relevant for marine worms. - Leaching of nonylphenol and bisphenol A from ingested microplastic may be relevant for the lugworm, but is irrelevant for fish like cod
Mechanisms of GABAergic Homeostatic Plasticity
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Peter Wenner
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Homeostatic plasticity ensures that appropriate levels of activity are maintained through compensatory adjustments in synaptic strength and cellular excitability. For instance, excitatory glutamatergic synapses are strengthened following activity blockade and weakened following increases in spiking activity. This form of plasticity has been described in a wide array of networks at several different stages of development, but most work and reviews have focussed on the excitatory inputs of excitatory neurons. Here we review homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic neurons and their synaptic connections. We propose a simplistic model for homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic components of the circuitry (GABAergic synapses onto excitatory neurons, excitatory connections onto GABAergic neurons, cellular excitability of GABAergic neurons: following chronic activity blockade there is a weakening of GABAergic inhibition, and following chronic increases in network activity there is a strengthening of GABAergic inhibition. Previous work on GABAergic homeostatic plasticity supports certain aspects of the model, but it is clear that the model cannot fully account for some results which do not appear to fit any simplistic rule. We consider potential reasons for these discrepancies.
Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blijderveen, Maarten van; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We model piloted ignition times of wood and plastics. ► The model is applied on a packed bed. ► When the air flow is above a critical level, no ignition can take place. - Abstract: To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.
Mottron, Laurent; Belleville, Sylvie; Rouleau, Guy A; Collignon, Olivier
2014-11-01
The phenotype of autism involves heterogeneous adaptive traits (strengths vs. disabilities), different domains of alterations (social vs. non-social), and various associated genetic conditions (syndromic vs. nonsyndromic autism). Three observations suggest that alterations in experience-dependent plasticity are an etiological factor in autism: (1) the main cognitive domains enhanced in autism are controlled by the most plastic cortical brain regions, the multimodal association cortices; (2) autism and sensory deprivation share several features of cortical and functional reorganization; and (3) genetic mutations and/or environmental insults involved in autism all appear to affect developmental synaptic plasticity, and mostly lead to its upregulation. We present the Trigger-Threshold-Target (TTT) model of autism to organize these findings. In this model, genetic mutations trigger brain reorganization in individuals with a low plasticity threshold, mostly within regions sensitive to cortical reallocations. These changes account for the cognitive enhancements and reduced social expertise associated with autism. Enhanced but normal plasticity may underlie non-syndromic autism, whereas syndromic autism may occur when a triggering mutation or event produces an altered plastic reaction, also resulting in intellectual disability and dysmorphism in addition to autism. Differences in the target of brain reorganization (perceptual vs. language regions) account for the main autistic subgroups. In light of this model, future research should investigate how individual and sex-related differences in synaptic/regional brain plasticity influence the occurrence of autism. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Structural plasticity in the dentate gyrus- revisiting a classic injury model.
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Julia V. Perederiy
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The adult brain is in a continuous state of remodeling. This is nowhere more true than in the dentate gyrus, where competing forces such as neurodegeneration and neurogenesis dynamically modify neuronal connectivity, and can occur simultaneously. This plasticity of the adult nervous system is particularly important in the context of traumatic brain injury or deafferentation. In this review, we summarize a classic injury model, lesioning of the perforant path, which removes the main extrahippocampal input to the dentate gyrus. Early studies revealed that in response to deafferentation, axons of remaining fiber systems and dendrites of mature granule cells undergo lamina-specific changes, providing one of the first examples of structural plasticity in the adult brain. Given the increasing role of adult-generated new neurons in the function of the dentate gyrus, we also compare the response of newborn and mature granule cells following lesioning of the perforant path. These studies provide insights not only to plasticity in the dentate gyrus, but also to the response of neural circuits to brain injury.
Regional approach to modeling the transport of floating plastic debris in the Adriatic Sea.
Liubartseva, S; Coppini, G; Lecci, R; Creti, S
2016-02-15
Sea surface concentrations of plastics and their fluxes onto coastlines are simulated over 2009-2015. Calculations incorporate combinations of terrestrial and maritime litter inputs, the Lagrangian model MEDSLIK-II forced by AFS ocean current simulations, and ECMWF wind analyses. With a relatively short particle half-life of 43.7 days, the Adriatic Sea is defined as a highly dissipative basin where the shoreline is, by construction, the main sink of floating debris. Our model results show that the coastline of the Po Delta receives a plastic flux of approximately 70 kg(km day)(-1). The most polluted sea surface area (>10 g km(-2) floating debris) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. Evident seasonality is found in the calculated plastic concentration fields and the coastline fluxes. Complex source-receptor relationships among the basin's subregions are quantified in impact matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan
2016-03-01
Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.
Perfect Power Prototype for Illinois Institute of Technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. Of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)
2014-09-30
Starting in October 2008, Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), in collaboration with over 20 participating members, led an extensive effort to develop, demonstrate, promote, and commercialize a microgrid system and offer supporting technologies that will achieve Perfect Power at the main campus of IIT. A Perfect Power system, as defined by the Galvin Electricity Initiative (GEI), is a system that cannot fail to meet the electric needs of the individual end-user. The Principle Investigator of this Perfect Power project was Dr. Mohammad Shahidehpour, Director of the Robert W. Galvin Center for Electricity Innovation at IIT. There were six overall objectives of the Perfect Power project: (1) Demonstrate the higher reliability introduced by the microgrid system at IIT; (2) Demonstrate the economics of microgrid operations; (3) Allow for a decrease of fifty percent (50%) of grid electricity load; (4) Create a permanent twenty percent (20%) decrease in peak load from 2007 level; (5) Defer planned substation through load reduction; (6) Offer a distribution system design that can be replicated in urban communities.
Quantum FRW cosmological solutions in the presence of Chaplygin gas and perfect fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedram, P.; Jalalzadeh, S.
2008-01-01
We present a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker quantum cosmological model in the presence of Chaplygin gas and perfect fluid for early and late time epochs. In this work, we consider perfect fluid as an effective potential and apply Schutz's variational formalism to the Chaplygin gas which recovers the notion of time. These give rise to Schroedinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the scale factor. We use the eigenfunctions in order to construct wave packets and study the time dependent behavior of the expectation value of the scale factor using the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. We show that contrary to the classical case, the expectation value of the scale factor avoids singularity at quantum level. Moreover, this model predicts that the expansion of Universe is accelerating for the late times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Donato, O.; Parisi, M.A.
1977-01-01
When loads increase proportionally beyond the elastic limit in the presence of elastic-plastic piecewise-linear constitutive laws, the problem of finding the whole evolution of the plastic strain and displacements of structures was recently shown to be amenable to a parametric linear complementary problem (PLCP) in which the parameter is represented by the load factor, the matrix is symmetric positive definite or at least semi-definite (for perfect plasticity) and the variables with a direct mechanical meaning are the plastic multipliers. With reference to plane trusses and frames with elastic-plastic linear work-hardening material behaviour numerical solutions were also fairly efficiently obtained using a recent mathematical programming algorithm (due to R.W. Cottle) which is able to provide the whole deformation history of the structure and, at the same time to rule out local unloadings along the given proportional loading process by means of 'a priori' checks carried out before each pivotal step of the procedure. Hence it becomes possible to use the holonomic (reversible, path-independent) constitutive laws in finite terms and to benefit by all the relevant numerical and computational advantages despite the non-holonomic nature of plastic behaviour. In the present paper the method of solution is re-examined in view to overcome an important drawback of the algorithm deriving from the size of PLCP fully populated matrix when structural problems with large number of variables are considered and, consequently, the updating, the storing or, generally, the handling of the current tableau may become prohibitive. (Auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zamorano, M.; Hontaria, E. [Universidad de Granada (Spain)
1997-12-31
The purpose of this study was to investigate recycled plastic used to cover crops as support beds in submerged biofilters for the purification of residual water, which also permit the re-used of recycled or waste products and the clarification and improvement of the effluent flow from the filter. The recycled plastic shows that the efficiency was 88% COD-removal and 84% SS-removal, without secondary clarification. The functioning of the system with this material has not improved 100%, this study has opened up a new field of investigation that will perfect the system and materials. (Author) 10 refs.
The metallization of Ge-doped plastics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huser, G.; Recoules, V.; Salin, G.; Galmiche, D.; Ozaki, N.; Miyanishi, K.; Kodama, R.; Sano, T.; Sakawa, Y.
2013-01-01
Ge-doped plastics are used in inertial fusion targets. Doped plastics are complex mixtures and the validation of their properties in a broad range of thermodynamic conditions requires an experimental validation. The metallization of plastics appears when shock waves generated by power lasers create pressures around 10 6 bar and temperatures around 10.000 K. The shock front propagating in the plastic becomes reflective. We have performed experiments to test the mathematical models describing the compressibility of such materials. We have compared the Thomas-Fermi model that is implemented in the QEOS formalism (Quotidian Equation of State) with 2 other models: the Sommerfeld metal model and a model that allows the closure of the semi-conducting gap. It appears that the Thomas-Fermi model predicts satisfactorily the compressibility of a mixture compressed at a few 10 6 bars, but over-estimates the average ionisation by a factor up to 10 which leads to an over-estimation of the metallization step
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong Gi Hyeon
1987-04-01
This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.
Rahimi Dalkhani, Amin; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Mahdavi Basir, Hadi
2018-04-01
Wave propagation modeling as a vital tool in seismology can be done via several different numerical methods among them are finite-difference, finite-element, and spectral-element methods (FDM, FEM and SEM). Some advanced applications in seismic exploration benefit the frequency domain modeling. Regarding flexibility in complex geological models and dealing with the free surface boundary condition, we studied the frequency domain acoustic wave equation using FEM and SEM. The results demonstrated that the frequency domain FEM and SEM have a good accuracy and numerical efficiency with the second order interpolation polynomials. Furthermore, we developed the second order Clayton and Engquist absorbing boundary condition (CE-ABC2) and compared it with the perfectly matched layer (PML) for the frequency domain FEM and SEM. In spite of PML method, CE-ABC2 does not add any additional computational cost to the modeling except assembling boundary matrices. As a result, considering CE-ABC2 is more efficient than PML for the frequency domain acoustic wave propagation modeling especially when computational cost is high and high-level absorbing performance is unnecessary.
Research on geometrical model and mechanism for metal deformation based on plastic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An, H P; Li, X; Rui, Z Y
2015-01-01
Starting with general conditions of metal plastic deformation, it analyses the relation between the percentage spread and geometric parameters of a forming body with typical machining process are studied. A geometrical model of deforming metal is set up according to the characteristic of a flowing metal particle. Starting from experimental results, the effect of technological parameters and friction between workpiece and dies on plastic deformation of a material were studied and a slippage deformation model of mass points within the material was proposed. Finally, the computing methods for strain and deformation energy and temperature rise are derived from homogeneous deformation. The results can be used to select technical parameters and compute physical quantities such as strain, deformation energy, and temperature rise. (paper)
Simulating faults and plate boundaries with a transversely isotropic plasticity model
Sharples, W.; Moresi, L. N.; Velic, M.; Jadamec, M. A.; May, D. A.
2016-03-01
In mantle convection simulations, dynamically evolving plate boundaries have, for the most part, been represented using an visco-plastic flow law. These systems develop fine-scale, localized, weak shear band structures which are reminiscent of faults but it is a significant challenge to resolve the large- and the emergent, small-scale-behavior. We address this issue of resolution by taking into account the observation that a rock element with embedded, planar, failure surfaces responds as a non-linear, transversely isotropic material with a weak orientation defined by the plane of the failure surface. This approach partly accounts for the large-scale behavior of fine-scale systems of shear bands which we are not in a position to resolve explicitly. We evaluate the capacity of this continuum approach to model plate boundaries, specifically in the context of subduction models where the plate boundary interface has often been represented as a planar discontinuity. We show that the inclusion of the transversely isotropic plasticity model for the plate boundary promotes asymmetric subduction from initiation. A realistic evolution of the plate boundary interface and associated stresses is crucial to understanding inter-plate coupling, convergent margin driven topography, and earthquakes.
GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING
Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia
2016-01-01
This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...
Qian, Guian; Lei, Wei-Sheng; Niffenegger, M.; González-Albuixech, V. F.
2018-04-01
The work relates to the effect of temperature on the model parameters in local approaches (LAs) to cleavage fracture. According to a recently developed LA model, the physical consensus of plastic deformation being a prerequisite to cleavage fracture enforces any LA model of cleavage fracture to observe initial yielding of a volume element as its threshold stress state to incur cleavage fracture in addition to the conventional practice of confining the fracture process zone within the plastic deformation zone. The physical consistency of the new LA model to the basic LA methodology and the differences between the new LA model and other existing models are interpreted. Then this new LA model is adopted to investigate the temperature dependence of LA model parameters using circumferentially notched round tensile specimens. With the published strength data as input, finite element (FE) calculation is conducted for elastic-perfectly plastic deformation and the realistic elastic-plastic hardening, respectively, to provide stress distributions for model calibration. The calibration results in temperature independent model parameters. This leads to the establishment of a 'master curve' characteristic to synchronise the correlation between the nominal strength and the corresponding cleavage fracture probability at different temperatures. This 'master curve' behaviour is verified by strength data from three different steels, providing a new path to calculate cleavage fracture probability with significantly reduced FE efforts.
Lorentz invariant noncommutative algebra for cosmological models coupled to a perfect fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abreu, Everton M.C.; Marcial, Mateus V.; Mendes, Albert C.R.; Oliveira, Wilson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Full text: In current theoretical physics there is a relevant number of theoretical investigations that lead to believe that at the first moments of our Universe, the geometry was not commutative and the dominating physics at that time was ruled by the laws of noncommutative (NC) geometry. Therefore, the idea is that the physics of the early moments can be constructed based on these concepts. The first published work using the idea of a NC spacetime were carried out by Snyder who believed that NC principles could make the quantum field theory infinities disappear. However, it did not occur and Snyder's ideas were put to sleep for a long time. The main modern motivations that rekindle the investigation about NC field theories came from string theory and quantum gravity. In the context of quantum mechanics for example, R. Banerjee discussed how NC structures appear in planar quantum mechanics providing a useful way for obtaining them. The analysis was based on the NC algebra used in planar quantum mechanics that was originated from 't Hooft's analysis on dissipation and quantization. In this work we carry out a NC algebra analysis of the Friedmann-Robert-Walker model, coupled to a perfect fluid and in the presence of a cosmological constant. The classical field equations are modified, by the introduction of a shift operator, in order to introduce noncommutativity in these models. (author)
10 CFR 609.16 - Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral. 609.16... THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.16 Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral. (a... to perfect and maintain liens, as applicable, on assets which are pledged as collateral for the...
Beyond the perfect fluid hypothesis for the dark energy equation of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardone, V.F.; Troisi, A.; Tortora, C.; Capozziello, S.
2006-01-01
Abandoning the perfect fluid hypothesis, we investigate here the possibility that the dark energy equation of state (EoS) w is a nonlinear function of the energy density ρ. To this aim, we consider four different EoS describing classical fluids near thermodynamical critical points and discuss the main features of cosmological models made out of dust matter and a dark energy term with the given EoS. Each model is tested against the data on the dimensionless coordinate distance to Type Ia Supernovae and radio galaxies, the shift and the acoustic peak parameters and the positions of the first three peaks in the anisotropy spectrum of the comic microwave background radiation. We propose a possible interpretation of each model in the framework of scalar field quintessence determining the shape of the self-interaction potential V(φ) that gives rise to each one of the considered thermodynamical EoS. As a general result, we demonstrate that replacing the perfect fluid EoS with more general expressions gives both the possibility of successfully solving the problem of cosmic acceleration escaping the resort to phantom models
Scheme for achieving coherent perfect absorption by anisotropic metamaterials
Zhang, Xiujuan
2017-02-22
We propose a unified scheme to achieve coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves by anisotropic metamaterials. The scheme describes the condition on perfect absorption and offers an inverse design route based on effective medium theory in conjunction with retrieval method to determine practical metamaterial absorbers. The scheme is scalable to frequencies and applicable to various incident angles. Numerical simulations show that perfect absorption is achieved in the designed absorbers over a wide range of incident angles, verifying the scheme. By integrating these absorbers, we further propose an absorber to absorb energy from two coherent point sources.
Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; Dubois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Rajan,Subramaniam; Blackenhorn, Gunther
2015-01-01
The need for accurate material models to simulate the deformation, damage and failure of polymer matrix composites under impact conditions is becoming critical as these materials are gaining increased usage in the aerospace and automotive industries. While there are several composite material models currently available within commercial transient dynamic finite element codes, several features have been identified as being lacking in the currently available material models that could substantially enhance the predictive capability of the impact simulations. A specific desired feature pertains to the incorporation of both plasticity and damage within the material model. Another desired feature relates to using experimentally based tabulated stress-strain input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage as opposed to specifying discrete input properties (such as modulus and strength) and employing analytical functions to track the response of the material. To begin to address these needs, a combined plasticity and damage model suitable for use with both solid and shell elements is being developed for implementation within the commercial code LS-DYNA. The plasticity model is based on extending the Tsai-Wu composite failure model into a strain-hardening based orthotropic plasticity model with a non-associative flow rule. The evolution of the yield surface is determined based on tabulated stress-strain curves in the various normal and shear directions and is tracked using the effective plastic strain. The effective plastic strain is computed by using the non-associative flow rule in combination with appropriate numerical methods. To compute the evolution of damage, a strain equivalent semi-coupled formulation is used, in which a load in one direction results in a stiffness reduction in multiple coordinate directions. A specific laminated composite is examined to demonstrate the process of characterizing and analyzing the response of a composite using the developed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. N. Vasilenko
2012-01-01
Full Text Available On the basis of the classical equations of an isothermal pressure head current of two rheology the various not mixing up viscou- plastic environments in the cylindrical channel, Ostvald-de-Vil submitting to the law, the model of a current of two viscous-plastic environments in the moulding channel extruder is synthesised at co-extrusion on which basis the technique of a choice of diameter of a dosing out branch pipe on the demanded value of the ratio of volume expenditures of two viscous-plastic environments (extrudat and stuffings is offered.
The perfect man in the literary opus of John Climacus and Ibn Arabi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rašić Dunja
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In search of the perfect man of the Islamic and Christian mysticisms, this paper also discusses the nature of mystical knowledge, to whose domain the perfect man, as the highest model of human existence and spiritual life, indisputably belongs. This study belongs to the philosophical discipline of comparative philosophy. Hence, searching for the lost paradise of human existence, still remembering the taste of bliss of residence filled only with infinite happiness, this paper will consider the extent to which the methodology of Paul Masson-Oursel and Henry Corbin, as two well-known comparative philosophy research methods can try to measure their strength with cryptic teachings of mysticism.
Classical and quantum dynamics of a perfect fluid scalar-metric cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vakili, Babak
2010-01-01
We study the classical and quantum models of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology, coupled to a perfect fluid, in the context of the scalar-metric gravity. Using the Schutz' representation for the perfect fluid, we show that, under a particular gauge choice, it may lead to the identification of a time parameter for the corresponding dynamical system. It is shown that the evolution of the universe based on the classical cosmology represents a late time power law expansion coming from a big-bang singularity in which the scale factor goes to zero while the scalar field blows up. Moreover, this formalism gives rise to a Schroedinger-Wheeler-DeWitt (SWD) equation for the quantum-mechanical description of the model under consideration, the eigenfunctions of which can be used to construct the wave function of the universe. We use the resulting wave function in order to investigate the possibility of the avoidance of classical singularities due to quantum effects by means of the many-worlds and ontological interpretation of quantum cosmology.
González, C.; Segurado, J.; LLorca, J.
2004-07-01
The deformation of a composite made up of a random and homogeneous dispersion of elastic spheres in an elasto-plastic matrix was simulated by the finite element analysis of three-dimensional multiparticle cubic cells with periodic boundary conditions. "Exact" results (to a few percent) in tension and shear were determined by averaging 12 stress-strain curves obtained from cells containing 30 spheres, and they were compared with the predictions of secant homogenization models. In addition, the numerical simulations supplied detailed information of the stress microfields, which was used to ascertain the accuracy and the limitations of the homogenization models to include the nonlinear deformation of the matrix. It was found that secant approximations based on the volume-averaged second-order moment of the matrix stress tensor, combined with a highly accurate linear homogenization model, provided excellent predictions of the composite response when the matrix strain hardening rate was high. This was not the case, however, in composites which exhibited marked plastic strain localization in the matrix. The analysis of the evolution of the matrix stresses revealed that better predictions of the composite behavior can be obtained with new homogenization models which capture the essential differences in the stress carried by the elastic and plastic regions in the matrix at the onset of plastic deformation.
Diederich, Nick; Bartsch, Thorsten; Kohlstedt, Hermann; Ziegler, Martin
2018-06-19
Memristive systems have gained considerable attention in the field of neuromorphic engineering, because they allow the emulation of synaptic functionality in solid state nano-physical systems. In this study, we show that memristive behavior provides a broad working framework for the phenomenological modelling of cellular synaptic mechanisms. In particular, we seek to understand how close a memristive system can account for the biological realism. The basic characteristics of memristive systems, i.e. voltage and memory behavior, are used to derive a voltage-based plasticity rule. We show that this model is suitable to account for a variety of electrophysiology plasticity data. Furthermore, we incorporate the plasticity model into an all-to-all connecting network scheme. Motivated by the auto-associative CA3 network of the hippocampus, we show that the implemented network allows the discrimination and processing of mnemonic pattern information, i.e. the formation of functional bidirectional connections resulting in the formation of local receptive fields. Since the presented plasticity model can be applied to real memristive devices as well, the presented theoretical framework can support both, the design of appropriate memristive devices for neuromorphic computing and the development of complex neuromorphic networks, which account for the specific advantage of memristive devices.
Indefinite and Continuative Interpretations of the English Present Perfect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katarina Dea Žetko
2005-06-01
Full Text Available The objective of our paper is to demonstrate that the English present perfect is not by inherent meaning either indefinite or continuative. Notions like indefinite and continuative are contextdependent interpretations of whole constructions and their broader context. However, continuative interpretation can also be triggered by certain adverbials, negative constructions and verbs in the progressive form. But, even these factors do not always guarantee continuative interpretations. Construction, continuative meaning can be cancelled by the context in a broader sense, this fact being a proof that this meaning is merely an implicature. We will demonstrate how different factors interact and trigger either indefinite or continuative interpretations which are not inherent in the present perfect itself. Our paper will attempt to provide sufficient evidence that there is no indefinite/continuative distinction in the English present perfect, the inherent meaning or function of the present perfect is merely to locate the situation somewhere within a period that starts before the time of utterance and leads up to it.
A minimal rupture cascade model for living cell plasticity
Polizzi, Stefano; Laperrousaz, Bastien; Perez-Reche, Francisco J.; Nicolini, Franck E.; Maguer Satta, Véronique; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise
2018-05-01
Under physiological and pathological conditions, cells experience large forces and deformations that often exceed the linear viscoelastic regime. Here we drive CD34+ cells isolated from healthy and leukemic bone marrows in the highly nonlinear elasto-plastic regime, by poking their perinuclear region with a sharp AFM cantilever tip. We use the wavelet transform mathematical microscope to identify singular events in the force-indentation curves induced by local rupture events in the cytoskeleton (CSK). We distinguish two types of rupture events, brittle failures likely corresponding to irreversible ruptures in a stiff and highly cross-linked CSK and ductile failures resulting from dynamic cross-linker unbindings during plastic deformation without loss of CSK integrity. We propose a stochastic multiplicative cascade model of mechanical ruptures that reproduces quantitatively the experimental distributions of the energy released during these events, and provides some mathematical and mechanistic understanding of the robustness of the log-normal statistics observed in both brittle and ductile situations. We also show that brittle failures are relatively more prominent in leukemia than in healthy cells suggesting their greater fragility.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colvin, J D; Minich, R W; Kalantar, D H
2007-03-29
The recent diagnostic capability of the Omega laser to study solid-solid phase transitions at pressures greater than 10 GPa and at strain rates exceeding 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} has also provided valuable information on the dynamic elastic-plastic behavior of materials. We have found, for example, that plasticity kinetics modifies the effective loading and thermodynamic paths of the material. In this paper we derive a kinetics equation for the time-dependent plastic response of the material to dynamic loading, and describe the model's implementation in a radiation-hydrodynamics computer code. This model for plasticity kinetics incorporates the Gilman model for dislocation multiplication and saturation. We discuss the application of this model to the simulation of experimental velocity interferometry data for experiments on Omega in which Fe was shock compressed to pressures beyond the {alpha}-to-{var_epsilon} phase transition pressure. The kinetics model is shown to fit the data reasonably well in this high strain rate regime and further allows quantification of the relative contributions of dislocation multiplication and drag. The sensitivity of the observed signatures to the kinetics model parameters is presented.
CORRELATION OF THE GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE OF PLASTICIZED PVC USING A LATTICE FLUID MODEL
A model has been developed to describe the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) + plasticizer mixtures. The model is based on Sanchez-Lacombe equation of state and the Gibbs-Di Marzio criterion, which states that th...
Garion, Cedric
2003-01-01
Ductile materials (like stainless steel or copper) show at cryogenic temperatures three principal phenomena: serrated yielding (discontinuous in terms of dsigma/depsilon), plastic strain-induced phase transformations and evolution of ductile damage. The present paper deals exclusively with the two latter cases. Thus, it is assumed that the plastic flow is perfectly smooth. Both in the case of damage evolution and for the gamma-alpha prime phase transformation, the principal mechanism is related to the formation of plastic strain fields. In the constitutive modeling of both phenomena, a crucial role is played by the accumulated plastic strain, expressed by the Odqvist parameter p. Following the general trends, both in the literature concerning the phase transformation and the ductile damage, it is assumed that the rate of transformation and the rate of damage are proportional to the accumulated plastic strain rate. The gamma-alpha prime phase transformation converts the initially homogenous material to a two-p...
A new visco-elasto-plastic model via time-space fractional derivative
Hei, X.; Chen, W.; Pang, G.; Xiao, R.; Zhang, C.
2018-02-01
To characterize the visco-elasto-plastic behavior of metals and alloys we propose a new constitutive equation based on a time-space fractional derivative. The rheological representative of the model can be analogous to that of the Bingham-Maxwell model, while the dashpot element and sliding friction element are replaced by the corresponding fractional elements. The model is applied to describe the constant strain rate, stress relaxation and creep tests of different metals and alloys. The results suggest that the proposed simple model can describe the main characteristics of the experimental observations. More importantly, the model can also provide more accurate predictions than the classic Bingham-Maxwell model and the Bingham-Norton model.
Antonietti, Alberto; Casellato, Claudia; D'Angelo, Egidio; Pedrocchi, Alessandra
The cerebellum plays a critical role in sensorimotor control. However, how the specific circuits and plastic mechanisms of the cerebellum are engaged in closed-loop processing is still unclear. We developed an artificial sensorimotor control system embedding a detailed spiking cerebellar microcircuit with three bidirectional plasticity sites. This proved able to reproduce a cerebellar-driven associative paradigm, the eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), in which a precise time relationship between an unconditioned stimulus (US) and a conditioned stimulus (CS) is established. We challenged the spiking model to fit an experimental data set from human subjects. Two subsequent sessions of EBCC acquisition and extinction were recorded and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied on the cerebellum to alter circuit function and plasticity. Evolutionary algorithms were used to find the near-optimal model parameters to reproduce the behaviors of subjects in the different sessions of the protocol. The main finding is that the optimized cerebellar model was able to learn to anticipate (predict) conditioned responses with accurate timing and success rate, demonstrating fast acquisition, memory stabilization, rapid extinction, and faster reacquisition as in EBCC in humans. The firing of Purkinje cells (PCs) and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) changed during learning under the control of synaptic plasticity, which evolved at different rates, with a faster acquisition in the cerebellar cortex than in DCN synapses. Eventually, a reduced PC activity released DCN discharge just after the CS, precisely anticipating the US and causing the eyeblink. Moreover, a specific alteration in cortical plasticity explained the EBCC changes induced by cerebellar TMS in humans. In this paper, for the first time, it is shown how closed-loop simulations, using detailed cerebellar microcircuit models, can be successfully used to fit real experimental data sets. Thus, the changes of the
Perfect and Periphrastic Passive Constructions in Danish
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerre, Tavs; Bjerre, Anne
2007-01-01
This paper gives an account of the event and argument structure of past participles and the linking between argument structure and valence structure. It further accounts for how participles form perfect and passiv constructions with auxiliaries. We assume that the same participle form is used...... in both types of construction. Our claim is that the valence structure of a past participle is predictable from its semantic type, and that the valence structure predicts with which auciliary a past participle combines in perfect constructions and whether the past participle may occur in passiv...
Perfect 800 Advanced Strategies for Top Students
Celenti, Dan
2010-01-01
Getting into the nation's most competitive universities requires more than a good SAT score, it requires a perfect score. Perfect 800: SAT Math gives advanced students the tools needed to master the SAT math test. Covering areas including arithmetic concepts; algebra; geometry; and additional topics such as probability and weighted average, the book offers exposure to a wide range of degrees of difficulty in a holistic approach that allows students to experience the "real thing," including the impact of time constraints on their performance. By emphasizing critical thinking and analytic skills
Approximating perfection a mathematician's journey into the world of mechanics
Lebedev, Leonid P
2004-01-01
This is a book for those who enjoy thinking about how and why Nature can be described using mathematical tools. Approximating Perfection considers the background behind mechanics as well as the mathematical ideas that play key roles in mechanical applications. Concentrating on the models of applied mechanics, the book engages the reader in the types of nuts-and-bolts considerations that are normally avoided in formal engineering courses: how and why models remain imperfect, and the factors that motivated their development. The opening chapter reviews and reconsiders the basics of c
Stochastic Finite Element Analysis of Non-Linear Structures Modelled by Plasticity Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2003-01-01
A Finite Element Reliability Method (FERM) is introduced to perform reliability analyses on two-dimensional structures in plane stress, modeled by non-linear plasticity theory. FERM is a coupling between the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and the Finite Element Method (FEM). FERM can be us...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Psakhie
2013-04-01
Full Text Available A general approach to realization of models of elasticity, plasticity and fracture of heterogeneous materials within the framework of particle-based numerical methods is proposed in the paper. It is based on building many-body forces of particle interaction, which provide response of particle ensemble correctly conforming to the response (including elastic-plastic behavior and fracture of simulated solids. Implementation of proposed approach within particle-based methods is demonstrated by the example of the movable cellular automaton (MCA method, which integrates the possibilities of particle-based discrete element method (DEM and cellular automaton methods. Emergent advantages of the developed approach to formulation of many-body interaction are discussed. Main of them are its applicability to various realizations of the concept of discrete elements and a possibility to realize various rheological models (including elastic-plastic or visco-elastic-plastic and models of fracture to study deformation and fracture of solid-phase materials and media. Capabilities of particle-based modeling of heterogeneous solids are demonstrated by the problem of simulation of deformation and fracture of particle-reinforced metal-ceramic composites.
Application of the perfectly matched layer in 3-D marine controlled-source electromagnetic modelling
Li, Gang; Li, Yuguo; Han, Bo; Liu, Zhan
2018-01-01
In this study, the complex frequency-shifted perfectly matched layer (CFS-PML) in stretching Cartesian coordinates is successfully applied to 3-D frequency-domain marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) field modelling. The Dirichlet boundary, which is usually used within the traditional framework of EM modelling algorithms, assumes that the electric or magnetic field values are zero at the boundaries. This requires the boundaries to be sufficiently far away from the area of interest. To mitigate the boundary artefacts, a large modelling area may be necessary even though cell sizes are allowed to grow toward the boundaries due to the diffusion of the electromagnetic wave propagation. Compared with the conventional Dirichlet boundary, the PML boundary is preferred as the modelling area of interest could be restricted to the target region and only a few absorbing layers surrounding can effectively depress the artificial boundary effect without losing the numerical accuracy. Furthermore, for joint inversion of seismic and marine CSEM data, if we use the PML for CSEM field simulation instead of the conventional Dirichlet, the modelling area for these two different geophysical data collected from the same survey area could be the same, which is convenient for joint inversion grid matching. We apply the CFS-PML boundary to 3-D marine CSEM modelling by using the staggered finite-difference discretization. Numerical test indicates that the modelling algorithm using the CFS-PML also shows good accuracy compared to the Dirichlet. Furthermore, the modelling algorithm using the CFS-PML shows advantages in computational time and memory saving than that using the Dirichlet boundary. For the 3-D example in this study, the memory saving using the PML is nearly 42 per cent and the time saving is around 48 per cent compared to using the Dirichlet.
Perfect 2-colorings of the generalized Petersen graph
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
There are no perfect 2-colorings of GP(n, 2) with the matrix A3. Proof. Suppose, contrary to our claim, there is a perfect 2-coloring of GP(n, 2) with the matrix A3. By Lemma 3.4, there are 2 vertices ai and bi, for some 0 ≤ i ≤ n−1, such that they are the same color. By symmetry, without loss of generality, we can assume T (a0) ...
Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; DuBois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther
2015-01-01
Several key capabilities have been identified by the aerospace community as lacking in the material/models for composite materials currently available within commercial transient dynamic finite element codes such as LS-DYNA. Some of the specific desired features that have been identified include the incorporation of both plasticity and damage within the material model, the capability of using the material model to analyze the response of both three-dimensional solid elements and two dimensional shell elements, and the ability to simulate the response of composites composed with a variety of composite architectures, including laminates, weaves and braids. In addition, a need has been expressed to have a material model that utilizes tabulated experimentally based input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage as opposed to utilizing discrete input parameters (such as modulus and strength) and analytical functions based on curve fitting. To begin to address these needs, an orthotropic macroscopic plasticity based model suitable for implementation within LS-DYNA has been developed. Specifically, the Tsai-Wu composite failure model has been generalized and extended to a strain-hardening based orthotropic plasticity model with a non-associative flow rule. The coefficients in the yield function are determined based on tabulated stress-strain curves in the various normal and shear directions, along with selected off-axis curves. Incorporating rate dependence into the yield function is achieved by using a series of tabluated input curves, each at a different constant strain rate. The non-associative flow-rule is used to compute the evolution of the effective plastic strain. Systematic procedures have been developed to determine the values of the various coefficients in the yield function and the flow rule based on the tabulated input data. An algorithm based on the radial return method has been developed to facilitate the numerical implementation of the material
Thermodynamical stability for a perfect fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Xiongjun; Jing, Jiliang [Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Changsha, Hunan (China); He, Xiaokai [Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Changsha, Hunan (China); Hunan First Normal University, School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Changsha (China)
2017-12-15
According to the maximum entropy principle, it has been proved that the gravitational field equations could be derived by the extrema of the total entropy for a perfect fluid, which implies that thermodynamic relations contain information as regards gravity. In this manuscript, we obtain a criterion for the thermodynamical stability of an adiabatic, self-gravitating perfect fluid system by the second variation of the total entropy. We show, for Einstein's gravity with spherical symmetry spacetime, that the criterion is consistent with that for the dynamical stability derived by Chandrasekhar and Wald. We also find that the criterion could be applied to cases without spherical symmetry, or under general perturbations. The result further establishes the connection between thermodynamics and gravity. (orig.)
Exact EGB models for spherical static perfect fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hansraj, Sudan; Chilambwe, Brian; Maharaj, Sunil D. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa)
2015-06-15
We obtain a new exact solution to the field equations for a 5-dimensional spherically symmetric static distribution in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet modified theory of gravity. By using a transformation, the study is reduced to the analysis of a single second order nonlinear differential equation. In general the condition of pressure isotropy produces a first order differential equation which is an Abel equation of the second kind. An exact solution is found. The solution is examined for physical admissibility. In particular a set of constants is found which ensures that a pressure-free hypersurface exists which defines the boundary of the distribution. Additionally the isotropic pressure and the energy density are shown to be positive within the radius of the sphere. The adiabatic sound-speed criterion is also satisfied within the fluid ensuring a subluminal sound speed. Furthermore, the weak, strong and dominant conditions hold throughout the distribution. On setting the Gauss-Bonnet coupling to zero, an exact solution for 5-dimensional perfect fluids in the standard Einstein theory is obtained. Plots of the dynamical quantities for the Gauss-Bonnet and the Einstein case reveal that the pressure is unaffected, while the energy density increases under the influence of the Gauss-Bonnet term. (orig.)
Perfect 3-colorings of the cubic graphs of order 10
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehdi Alaeiyan
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Perfect coloring is a generalization of the notion of completely regular codes, given by Delsarte. A perfect m-coloring of a graph G with m colors is a partition of the vertex set of G into m parts A_1, A_2, ..., A_m such that, for all $ i,j \\in \\lbrace 1, ... , m \\rbrace $, every vertex of A_i is adjacent to the same number of vertices, namely, a_{ij} vertices, of A_j. The matrix $A=(a_{ij}_{i,j\\in \\lbrace 1,... ,m\\rbrace }$, is called the parameter matrix. We study the perfect 3-colorings (also known as the equitable partitions into three parts of the cubic graphs of order 10. In particular, we classify all the realizable parameter matrices of perfect 3-colorings for the cubic graphs of order 10.
Track treeing mechanism and plastic zone in solid Part 1: Initial development of plastic zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Boyang
2008-01-01
After neutron exposure and chemical etching in advance, latent tracks of recoil nucleon develop into pits on CR39 surface. During electrochemical etching, plastic zone is formed at top of pits. Some pits develop into tree cracks in the initial stage of plastic zone development. Physical and mathematical model of crack and plastic zone is proposed; parameter of development free path of plastic zone is presented. Based on integration of elementary theories the stress analysis is build up; based on analyses of measured parameters, a set of common relations between parameters is obtained. Integrate parameter analysis and stress analysis, depth of plastic zone development, law and phenomenon in experimental data can be interpreted completely
Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Carpet Cloak
Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Baile
2015-05-01
It has been shown that a spherical invisibility cloak originally proposed by Pendry et al. can be electromagnetically detected by shooting a charged particle through it, whose underlying mechanism stems from the asymmetry of transformation optics applied to motions of photons and charges [PRL 103, 243901 (2009)]. However, the conceptual three-dimensional invisibility cloak that exactly follows specifications of transformation optics is formidably difficult to implement, while the simplified cylindrical cloak that has been experimentally realized is inherently visible. On the other hand, the recent carpet cloak model has acquired remarkable experimental development, including a recently demonstrated full-parameter carpet cloak without any approximation in the required constitutive parameters. In this paper, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle passing through a perfect carpet cloak and propose an experimentally verifiable model to demonstrate symmetry breaking of transformation optics.
[Photography in plastic surgery: practices, uses and legislation].
de Runz, A; Simon, E; Brix, M; Sorin, T; Brengard-Bresler, T; Pineau, V; Guyon, G; Claudot, F
2015-02-01
Photography in plastic surgery is omnipresent. Through its various uses, it may present both ethical and forensic risks. The objective of this study is to analyze the use of medical photography by the plastic surgeon, the perception of this use by the patient, and consequence of such use. A questionnaire about the use of medical photography was assessed to 629 plastic surgeons. A questionnaire was given to patients, about their perception of the use of photography by their surgeon. One hundred and seventy-six surgeon's questionnaires and 93 patient's questionnaires were analyzed. For 97.7% of the responding surgeons, the proportion of patients refusing to be photographed was less then 1/20. The objective of the photography was especially medicolegal for 62.5% of the surgeons, especially for following the patient progress (87.5%), partially for the formation (72.1%), partially for scientific publications (57.8%) and not at all for the personal publicity (73.1%). Surgeons often share his photographs with others surgeons (71.1%), sometimes with others medical personnel (48.8%). The security and the access to photographs were determined to be correct for 67.6% of the surgeons and perfect for 23.3%. In total, 17.2% of the surgeons obtained a written consent, 41.4% obtained an oral consent, and 38.5% did not request patient consent. It was found that 48.3% of the surgeons and 40.2% of the patients think that the right to the photographic images belong to the patient. Medical photographs expose the plastic surgeon to medico-legal risks. He must know and follow the law in order to prevent eventual legal proceedings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Computing a quasi-perfect equilibrium of a two-player game
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre
2010-01-01
Refining an algorithm due to Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel, we show how to apply Lemke's algorithm for solving linear complementarity programs to compute a quasi-perfect equilibrium in behavior strategies of a given two-player extensive-form game of perfect recall. A quasi-perfect equilibrium...... of a zero-sum game, we devise variants of the algorithm that rely on linear programming rather than linear complementarity programming and use the simplex algorithm or other algorithms for linear programming rather than Lemke's algorithm. We argue that these latter algorithms are relevant for recent...
A Hypergraph Dictatorship Test with Perfect Completeness
Chen, Victor
A hypergraph dictatorship test is first introduced by Samorodnitsky and Trevisan and serves as a key component in their unique games based {operatorname{PCP}} construction. Such a test has oracle access to a collection of functions and determines whether all the functions are the same dictatorship, or all their low degree influences are o(1). Their test makes q ≥ 3 queries, has amortized query complexity 1+Oleft(log q/qright), but has an inherent loss of perfect completeness. In this paper we give an (adaptive) hypergraph dictatorship test that achieves both perfect completeness and amortized query complexity 1+Oleft(log q/qright).
Optimization of Perfect Absorbers with Multilayer Structures
Li Voti, Roberto
2018-02-01
We study wide-angle and broadband perfect absorbers with compact multilayer structures made of a sequence of ITO and TiN layers deposited onto a silver thick layer. An optimization procedure is introduced for searching the optimal thicknesses of the layers so as to design a perfect broadband absorber from 400 nm to 750 nm, for a wide range of angles of incidence from 0{°} to 50{°}, for both polarizations and with a low emissivity in the mid-infrared. We eventually compare the performances of several optimal structures that can be very promising for solar thermal energy harvesting and collectors.
Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Invisibility Cloak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Baile; Wu, Bae-Ian
2009-01-01
A perfect invisibility cloak is commonly believed to be undetectable from electromagnetic (EM) detection because it is equivalent to a curved but empty EM space created from coordinate transformation. Based on the intrinsic asymmetry of coordinate transformation applied to motions of photons and charges, we propose a method to detect this curved EM space by shooting a fast-moving charged particle through it. A broadband radiation generated in this process makes a cloak visible. Our method is the only known EM mechanism so far to detect an ideal perfect cloak (curved EM space) within its working band.
Apnea of prematurity--perfect storm.
Di Fiore, Juliann M; Martin, Richard J; Gauda, Estelle B
2013-11-01
With increased survival of preterm infants as young as 23 weeks gestation, maintaining adequate respiration and corresponding oxygenation represents a clinical challenge in this unique patient cohort. Respiratory instability characterized by apnea and periodic breathing occurs in premature infants because of immature development of the respiratory network. While short respiratory pauses and apnea may be of minimal consequence if oxygenation is maintained, they can be problematic if accompanied by chronic intermittent hypoxemia. Underdevelopment of the lung and the resultant lung injury that occurs in this population concurrent with respiratory instability creates the perfect storm leading to frequent episodes of profound and recurrent hypoxemia. Chronic intermittent hypoxemia contributes to the immediate and long term co-morbidities that occur in this population. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology leading to the perfect storm, diagnostic assessment of breathing instability in this unique population and therapeutic interventions that aim to stabilize breathing without contributing to tissue injury. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Evolutive masing model, cyclic plasticity, ageing and memory effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidoroff, F.
1987-01-01
Many models are proposed for the mechanical description of the cyclic behaviour of metals and used for structure analysis under cyclic loading. Such a model must include two basic features: Dissipative behaviour on each cycle (hysteresis loop); evolution of this behaviour during the material's life (cyclic hardening or softening, aging,...). However, if both aspects are present in most existing models, the balance between them may be quite different. Many metallurgical investigations have been performed about the microstructure and its evolution during cyclic loading, and it is desirable to introduce these informations in phenomenological models. The evolutive Masing model has been proposed to combine: the accuracy of hereditary models for the description of hysteresis on each cycle, the versatility of internal variables for the state description and evolution, a sufficient microstructural basis to make the interaction easier with microstructural investigations. The purpose of the present work is to discuss this model and to compare different evolution assumptions with respect to some memory effects (cyclic hardening and softening, multilevel tests, aging). Attention is limited to uniaxial, rate independent elasto-plastic behaviour
A perfectly conducting surface in electrodynamics with Lorentz symmetry breaking
Borges, L. H. C.; Barone, F. A.
2017-10-01
In this paper we consider a model which exhibits explicit Lorentz symmetry breaking due to the presence of a single background vector v^{μ } coupled to the gauge field. We investigate such a theory in the vicinity of a perfectly conducting plate for different configurations of v^{μ }. First we consider no restrictions on the components of the background vector and we treat it perturbatively up to second order. Next, we treat v^{μ } exactly for two special cases: the first one is when it has only components parallel to the plate, and the second one when it has a single component perpendicular to the plate. For all these configurations, the propagator for the gauge field and the interaction force between the plate and a point-like electric charge are computed. Surprisingly, it is shown that the image method is valid in our model and we argue that it is a non-trivial result. We show there arises a torque on the mirror with respect to its positioning in the background field when it interacts with a point-like charge. It is a new effect with no counterpart in theories with Lorentz symmetry in the presence of a perfect mirror.
A perfectly conducting surface in electrodynamics with Lorentz symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, L.H.C. [UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta, DFQ, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [IFQ, Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)
2017-10-15
In this paper we consider a model which exhibits explicit Lorentz symmetry breaking due to the presence of a single background vector v{sup μ} coupled to the gauge field. We investigate such a theory in the vicinity of a perfectly conducting plate for different configurations of v{sup μ}. First we consider no restrictions on the components of the background vector and we treat it perturbatively up to second order. Next, we treat v{sup μ} exactly for two special cases: the first one is when it has only components parallel to the plate, and the second one when it has a single component perpendicular to the plate. For all these configurations, the propagator for the gauge field and the interaction force between the plate and a point-like electric charge are computed. Surprisingly, it is shown that the image method is valid in our model and we argue that it is a non-trivial result. We show there arises a torque on the mirror with respect to its positioning in the background field when it interacts with a point-like charge. It is a new effect with no counterpart in theories with Lorentz symmetry in the presence of a perfect mirror. (orig.)
Modelling of cyclic plasticity for austenitic stainless steels 304L, 316L, 316L(N)-IG
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalla Palma, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.dallapalma@igi.cnr.it
2016-11-01
Highlights: • Stress-strain amplitudes of cyclic stress strain curves defined by design codes are provided as reference data. • A macroinstruction simulating cyclic plasticity and producing hardening parameters of constitutive models is developed. • Hardening parameters of the nonlinear Chaboche model are provided for stainless steels 316l-N, 316L, 304L at different temperatures. • Ratcheting is simulated by using the produced hardening parameters. - Abstract: The integrity assessment of structures subjected to cyclic loading must be verified with regard to cyclic type damage including time-independent fatigue and progressive deformation or ratcheting. Cyclic damage is verified simulating the material elastic-plastic loop and looking at the accumulated net plastic strain during each cycle at all points of the structure subjected to the complete time history of loadings. This work deals with the development of a numerical model producing the Chaboche hardening parameters starting from stress-strain data produced by testing of materials. Then, the total plastic strain can be simulated using the Chaboche inelastic constitutive model requested for finite element analyses. This is particularly demanding for pressure vessels, pressurised piping, boilers, and mechanical components of nuclear installations made of stainless steels. A design optimisation by iterative analyses is developed to approach the stress-strain test data with the Chaboche model. The parameters treated as design variables are the Chaboche parameters and the objective function to be minimised is a combination of the deviations from test data. The optimiser calls a macroinstruction simulating cyclic loading of a sample for different material temperatures. The numerical model can be used to produce hardening parameters of materials for inelastic finite element verifications of structures with complex joints like elbows subjected to a combination of steady sustained and cyclic loads.
River plastic emissions to the world's oceans
Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; van der Zwet, Joost; Damsteeg, Jan-Willem; Slat, Boyan; Andrady, Anthony; Reisser, Julia
2017-06-01
Plastics in the marine environment have become a major concern because of their persistence at sea, and adverse consequences to marine life and potentially human health. Implementing mitigation strategies requires an understanding and quantification of marine plastic sources, taking spatial and temporal variability into account. Here we present a global model of plastic inputs from rivers into oceans based on waste management, population density and hydrological information. Our model is calibrated against measurements available in the literature. We estimate that between 1.15 and 2.41 million tonnes of plastic waste currently enters the ocean every year from rivers, with over 74% of emissions occurring between May and October. The top 20 polluting rivers, mostly located in Asia, account for 67% of the global total. The findings of this study provide baseline data for ocean plastic mass balance exercises, and assist in prioritizing future plastic debris monitoring and mitigation strategies.
Effect of Sirtuin-1 on Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens in a Rat Model of Heroin Addiction.
Xia, Baijuan; Li, Yixin; Li, Rongrong; Yin, Dan; Chen, Xingqiang; Li, Jie; Liang, Wenmei
2018-06-05
BACKGROUND Synaptic plasticity plays an important role in the process of addiction. This study investigated the relationship between synaptic plasticity and changes in addictive behavior and examined the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins and genes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) region in different rat models. MATERIAL AND METHODS Heroin addiction, SIRT1-overexpression, and SIRT1-silenced rat models were established. Polymerase chain reaction gene chip technology, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect changes in synaptic plasticity-related gene and protein expression, and changes in the ultrastructure of synapses, in the NAc. RESULTS Naloxone withdrawal symptoms appeared in the SIRT1-overexpression group. In the SIRT1-silenced group the symptoms were reduced. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting results showed that FOXO1 expression decreased in the heroin addiction (HA) group but increased in the SIRT1-silenced group (paddiction. SIRT1 overexpression can increase behavioral sensitization in the NAc of rats, and SIRT1 silencing might ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce conditioned place preferences.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hubert, Olivier; Lazreg, Said
2017-01-01
A growing interest of automotive industry in the use of high performance steels is observed. These materials are obtained thanks to complex manufacturing processes whose parameters fluctuations lead to strong variations of microstructure and mechanical properties. The on-line magnetic non-destructive monitoring is a relevant response to this problem but it requires fast models sensitive to different parameters of the forming process. The plastic deformation is one of these important parameters. Indeed, ferromagnetic materials are known to be sensitive to stress application and especially to plastic strains. In this paper, a macroscopic approach using the kinematic hardening is proposed to model this behavior, considering a plastic strained material as a two phase system. Relationship between kinematic hardening and residual stress is defined in this framework. Since stress fields are multiaxial, an uniaxial equivalent stress is calculated and introduced inside the so-called magneto-mechanical multidomain modeling to represent the effect of plastic strain. The modeling approach is complemented by many experiments involving magnetic and magnetostrictive measurements. They are carried out with or without applied stress, using a dual-phase steel deformed at different levels. The main interest of this material is that the mechanically hard phase, soft phase and the kinematic hardening can be clearly identified thanks to simple experiments. It is shown how this model can be extended to single phase materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hubert, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.hubert@lmt.ens-cachan.fr; Lazreg, Said
2017-02-15
A growing interest of automotive industry in the use of high performance steels is observed. These materials are obtained thanks to complex manufacturing processes whose parameters fluctuations lead to strong variations of microstructure and mechanical properties. The on-line magnetic non-destructive monitoring is a relevant response to this problem but it requires fast models sensitive to different parameters of the forming process. The plastic deformation is one of these important parameters. Indeed, ferromagnetic materials are known to be sensitive to stress application and especially to plastic strains. In this paper, a macroscopic approach using the kinematic hardening is proposed to model this behavior, considering a plastic strained material as a two phase system. Relationship between kinematic hardening and residual stress is defined in this framework. Since stress fields are multiaxial, an uniaxial equivalent stress is calculated and introduced inside the so-called magneto-mechanical multidomain modeling to represent the effect of plastic strain. The modeling approach is complemented by many experiments involving magnetic and magnetostrictive measurements. They are carried out with or without applied stress, using a dual-phase steel deformed at different levels. The main interest of this material is that the mechanically hard phase, soft phase and the kinematic hardening can be clearly identified thanks to simple experiments. It is shown how this model can be extended to single phase materials.
Wilcox, C.; van Sebille, E.
2016-02-01
Several global studies have attempted to estimate the standing stock of plastic debris in the oceans at the global scale. However, recent work estimating the amount lost from land on an annual basis suggests that the standing stock should be several orders of magnitude larger than the global estimates. We investigate the role of coastal deposition within the first few weeks after plastic enters the ocean and very near its sources, one of the hypothesized sinks for the missing plastic in this mass balance. We utilize a continental scale dataset of plastics collected along Australia's coast and in the offshore regions together with models of plastic release and transport based on Lagrangian tracking to investigate the role of local deposition in the coastal environment. Our models predict that the vast majority of positively buoyant plastic is deposited within a very short distance from its release point, with only a small fraction escaping into the open ocean. These predictions match our coastal and offshore observations, providing clear evidence that this mechanism of immediate coastal deposition is, at least in part, driving the apparent mismatch between coastal emissions and the standing stock in the ocean.
Simulation of ratcheting in straight pipes using ANSYS with an improved cyclic plasticity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, T.; Zhu, Y.; Matzen, V.C.
1996-01-01
Ratcheting has been shown to be a contributing cause of failure in several seismic experiments on piping components and systems. Most commercial finite element codes have been unable to simulate the ratcheting in those tests accurately. The reason for this can be traced to inadequate plasticity constitutive models in the analysis codes. The authors have incorporated an improved cyclic plasticity model, based on an Armstrong-Frederick kinematic hardening rule in conjunction with the Drucker-Palgen plastic modulus equation, into an ANSYS user subroutine. This modified analysis code has been able to simulate quite accurately the ratcheting behavior of a tube subjected to a constant internal pressure and axially strain controlled cycling. This paper describes simulations obtained form this modified ANSYS code for two additional tests: (1) a tube subjected to constant axial stress and prescribed torsional cycling, and (2) a straight pipe subjected to constant internal pressure and quasi-static cyclic bending. The analysis results from the modified ANSYS code are compared to the experimental data, as well as results from ABAQUS and the original ANSYS code. The resulting correlation shows a significant improvement over the original ANSYS and the ABAQUS codes
Buchanan, Dennis J.; John, Reji; Brockman, Robert A.; Rosenberger, Andrew H.
2010-01-01
Shot peening is a commonly used surface treatment process that imparts compressive residual stresses into the surface of metal components. Compressive residual stresses retard initiation and growth of fatigue cracks. During component loading history, shot-peened residual stresses may change due to thermal exposure, creep, and cyclic loading. In these instances, taking full credit for compressive residual stresses would result in a nonconservative life prediction. This article describes a methodical approach for characterizing and modeling residual stress relaxation under elevated temperature loading, near and above the monotonic yield strength of INI 00. The model incorporates the dominant creep deformation mechanism, coupling between the creep and plasticity models, and effects of prior plastic strain to simulate surface treatment deformation.
Holographic perfect fluidity, Cotton energy-momentum duality and transport properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukhopadhyay, Ayan [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR 7644,Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, CNRS URA 2306,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petkou, Anastasios C. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Petropoulos, P. Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR 7644,Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Siampos, Konstadinos [Service de Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons, UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium)
2014-04-23
We investigate background metrics for 2+1-dimensional holographic theories where the equilibrium solution behaves as a perfect fluid, and admits thus a thermodynamic description. We introduce stationary perfect-Cotton geometries, where the Cotton-York tensor takes the form of the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, i.e. they are of Petrov type D{sub t}. Fluids in equilibrium in such boundary geometries have non-trivial vorticity. The corresponding bulk can be exactly reconstructed to obtain 3+1-dimensional stationary black-hole solutions with no naked singularities for appropriate values of the black-hole mass. It follows that an infinite number of transport coefficients vanish for holographic fluids. Our results imply an intimate relationship between black-hole uniqueness and holographic perfect equilibrium. They also point towards a Cotton/energy-momentum tensor duality constraining the fluid vorticity, as an intriguing boundary manifestation of the bulk mass/nut duality.
Holographic perfect fluidity, Cotton energy-momentum duality and transport properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Petkou, Anastasios C.; Petropoulos, P. Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina; Siampos, Konstadinos
2014-01-01
We investigate background metrics for 2+1-dimensional holographic theories where the equilibrium solution behaves as a perfect fluid, and admits thus a thermodynamic description. We introduce stationary perfect-Cotton geometries, where the Cotton-York tensor takes the form of the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, i.e. they are of Petrov type D t . Fluids in equilibrium in such boundary geometries have non-trivial vorticity. The corresponding bulk can be exactly reconstructed to obtain 3+1-dimensional stationary black-hole solutions with no naked singularities for appropriate values of the black-hole mass. It follows that an infinite number of transport coefficients vanish for holographic fluids. Our results imply an intimate relationship between black-hole uniqueness and holographic perfect equilibrium. They also point towards a Cotton/energy-momentum tensor duality constraining the fluid vorticity, as an intriguing boundary manifestation of the bulk mass/nut duality
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Haslinger, Jaroslav; Repin, S.; Sysala, Stanislav
2016-01-01
Roč. 303, September 2016 (2016), s. 156-170 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602; GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : variational problems with linear growth energy * incremental limit analysis * elastic-perfectly plastic problems * finite element approximation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377042716300917
Structural Plasticity Denoises Responses and Improves Learning Speed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robin Spiess
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Despite an abundance of computational models for learning of synaptic weights, there has been relatively little research on structural plasticity, i.e. the creation and elimination of synapses. Especially, it is not clear how structural plasticity works in concert with spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP and what advantages their combination offers.Here we present a fairly large-scale functional model that uses leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, STDP, homeostasis, recurrent connections, and structural plasticity to learn the input encoding, the relation between inputs, and to infer missing inputs. Using this model, we compare the error and the amount of noise in the network's responses with and without structural plasticity and the influence of structural plasticity on the learning speed of the network.Using structural plasticity during learning shows good results for learning the representation of input values, i.e. structural plasticity strongly reduces the noise of the response by preventing spikes with a high error.For inferring missing inputs we see similar results, with responses having less noise if the network was trained using structural plasticity.Additionally, using structural plasticity with pruning significantly decreased the time to learn weights suitable for inference.Presumably, this is due to the clearer signal containing less spikes that misrepresent the desired value. Therefore, this work shows that structural plasticity is not only able to improve upon the performance using STDP without structural plasticity but also speeds up learning.Additionally, it addresses the practical problem of limited resources for connectivity that is not only apparent in the mammalian neocortex but also in computer hardware or neuromorphic (brain-inspired hardware by efficiently pruning synapses without losing performance.
Modelling Elasto-Plastic Behaviour of Human Single Trabecula-Comparison with Bending Test
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zlamal, P.; Jiroušek, Ondřej; Doktor, Tomáš; Kytýř, Daniel
2012-01-01
Roč. 45, S1 (2012), s. 479-479 ISSN 0021-9290 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : digital image correlation * elasto-plastic material model * FEM * three-point bending * trabecular bone Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 2.716, year: 2012
Stacking fault tetrahedron induced plasticity in copper single crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Liang, E-mail: lz592@uowmail.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Lu, Cheng, E-mail: chenglu@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Tieu, Kiet; Su, Lihong; Zhao, Xing [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Pei, Linqing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2017-01-05
Stacking fault tetrahedron (SFT) is the most common type of vacancy clustered defects in fcc metals and alloys, and can play an important role in the mechanical properties of metallic materials. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to investigate the incipience of plasticity and the underlying atomic mechanisms in copper single crystals with SFT. Different deformation mechanisms of SFT were reported due to the crystal orientations and loading directions (compression and tension). The results showed that the incipient plasticity in crystals with SFT resulted from the heterogeneous dislocation nucleation from SFT, so the stress required for plastic deformation was less than that needed for perfect single crystals. Three crystal orientations ([1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1]) were specified in this study because they can represent most of the typical deformation mechanisms of SFT. MD simulations revealed that the structural transformation of SFT was frequent under the applied loading; a metastable SFT structure and the collapse of SFT were usually observed. The structural transformation resulted in a different reduction of yield stress in compression and tension, and also caused a decreased or reversed compression/tension asymmetry. Compressive stress can result in the unfaulting of Frank loop in some crystal orientations. According to the elastic theory of dislocation, the process of unfaulting was closely related to the size of the dislocation loop and the stacking fault energy.
On the spherical symmetry of static perfect fluids in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beig, R.; Simon, W.
1990-01-01
We present a theorem which establishes uniqueness, in particular spherical symmetry, of a wide class of general relativistic, static perfect-fluid models provided there exists a spherically symmetric model with the same equation of state and surface potential. The method of proof, which is inspired by recent work of Masood-ul-Alam, is illustrated by demonstrating uniqueness of a class of solutions due to Buchdahl which correspond to an extreme case of the inequality on the equation of state required by our theorem. 16 refs. (Authors)
Electron microscopy and plastic deformation of industrial austenitic stainless steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, Barry
1976-01-01
The different mechanisms of plastic deformation observed in austenitic stainless steels are described and the role of transmission electron microscopy in the elucidation of the mechanisms is presented. At temperatures below 0,5Tm, different variants of dislocation glide are competitive: slip of perfect and partial dislocations, mechanical twinning and strain-induced phase transformations. The predominance of one or other of these mechanisms can be rationalized in terms of the temperature and composition dependence of the stacking fault energy and the thermodynamic stability of the austenite. At temperatures above 0,5Tm dislocation climb and diffusion of point defects become increasingly important and at these temperatures recovery, recrystallization and precipitation can also occur during deformation [fr
Black hole formation in perfect fluid collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S
2004-01-01
We construct here a special class of perfect fluid collapse models which generalizes the homogeneous dust collapse solution in order to include nonzero pressures and inhomogeneities into evolution. It is shown that a black hole is necessarily generated as the end product of continued gravitational collapse, rather than a naked singularity. We examine the nature of the central singularity forming as a result of endless collapse and it is shown that no nonspacelike trajectories can escape from the central singularity. Our results provide some insights into how the dynamical collapse works and into the possible formulations of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, which is as yet a major unsolved problem in black hole physics
Lee, K. J.; Choi, Y.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Lee, M. G.
2018-06-01
Finite element simulations and experiments for the split-ring test were conducted to investigate the effect of anisotropic constitutive models on the predictive capability of sheet springback. As an alternative to the commonly employed associated flow rule, a non-associated flow rule for Hill1948 yield function was implemented in the simulations. Moreover, the evolution of anisotropy with plastic deformation was efficiently modeled by identifying equivalent plastic strain-dependent anisotropic coefficients. Comparative study with different yield surfaces and elasticity models showed that the split-ring springback could be best predicted when the anisotropy in both the R value and yield stress, their evolution and variable apparent elastic modulus were taken into account in the simulations. Detailed analyses based on deformation paths superimposed on the anisotropic yield functions predicted by different constitutive models were provided to understand the complex springback response in the split-ring test.
Design rules to prevent from elasto-plastic bucking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Autrusson, B.; Acker, D.
1986-10-01
The development of fast neutron reactors requires the construction of mechanical structures which are subject to thermal transients. These structures being thin, there is a risk of important buckling. Studies developed in the general framework of dimensioning propose a simplified method. This method is based on the determination of the elastic critical load of the perfect structure and its correction by a reduction coefficient which takes into account the effect of tolerances, plasticity and a possible instable post-critical behavior. This paper presents this method and its experimental validation, as also a comparison with the rules proposed by the CODAP 80 (C4 41) for structures subject to an external pressure load. This method has been introduced in the French Rules of design and construction of fast neutron reactor mechanical components (RCC-MR) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okajima, Satoshi
2016-01-01
The prevention of excessive deformation by thermal ratcheting is important in the design of high-temperature components of fast breeder reactors (FBR). This includes evaluation methods for a new type of thermal ratcheting caused by an axial traveling of temperature distribution, which corresponds to moving-up of liquid sodium surface in startup phase. Long range traveling of the axial temperature distribution brings flat plastic deformation profile in wide range. Therefore, at the center of this range, residual stress that brings shakedown behavior does not accumulate. As a result, repeating of this temperature traveling brings continuous accumulation of the plastic strain, even if there is no primary stress. In contrast, in the case with short range traveling, residual stress is caused by constraint against elastic part, and finally it results in shakedown. Because of this mechanism, we supposed that limit for the shakedown behavior depends on distance from the elastic part (i.e. half length of region with plastic deformation). In this paper, we examined characteristics of the accumulation of the plastic strain caused by realistic heat transients, namely, traveling of temperature distribution synchronizing with temperature rise. This examination was based on finite element analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic material. As a result, we confirmed that the shakedown limit depends not on the traveling range of the temperature distribution but the plastic deformation range, which was predicted by the elastic analysis. In the actual application, we can control the plastic deformation range by changing rate of the moving-up of liquid sodium surface. (author)
Doppler ultrasound compatible plastic material for use in rigid flow models.
Wong, Emily Y; Thorne, Meghan L; Nikolov, Hristo N; Poepping, Tamie L; Holdsworth, David W
2008-11-01
A technique for the rapid but accurate fabrication of multiple flow phantoms with variations in vascular geometry would be desirable in the investigation of carotid atherosclerosis. This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of implementing numerically controlled direct-machining of vascular geometries into Doppler ultrasound (DUS)-compatible plastic for the easy fabrication of DUS flow phantoms. Candidate plastics were tested for longitudinal speed of sound (SoS) and acoustic attenuation at the diagnostic frequency of 5 MHz. Teflon was found to have the most appropriate SoS (1376 +/- 40 m s(-1) compared with 1540 m s(-1) in soft tissue) and thus was selected to construct a carotid bifurcation flow model with moderate eccentric stenosis. The vessel geometry was machined directly into Teflon using a numerically controlled milling technique. Geometric accuracy of the phantom lumen was verified using nondestructive micro-computed tomography. Although Teflon displayed a higher attenuation coefficient than other tested materials, Doppler data acquired in the Teflon flow model indicated that sufficient signal power was delivered throughout the depth of the vessel and provided comparable velocity profiles to that obtained in the tissue-mimicking phantom. Our results indicate that Teflon provides the best combination of machinability and DUS compatibility, making it an appropriate choice for the fabrication of rigid DUS flow models using a direct-machining method.
Construction of Subgame-Perfect Mixed Strategy Equilibria in Repeated Games
Berg, Kimmo; Schoenmakers, Gijsbertus
2017-01-01
This paper examines how to construct subgame-perfect mixed-strategy equilibria in discounted repeated games with perfect monitoring.We introduce a relatively simple class of strategy profiles that are easy to compute and may give rise to a large set of equilibrium payoffs. These sets are called
The Dugdale solution for two unequal straight cracks weakening
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A crack arrest model is proposed for an inﬁnite elastic perfectly-plastic plate weakened by two unequal, quasi-static, collinear straight cracks. The Dugdale model solution is obtained for the above problem when the developed plastic zones are subjected to normal cohesive quadratically varying yield point stress. Employing ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Yijun; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Grummon, David S.
2007-01-01
Indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects are recently discovered thermo-mechanical behaviors that may find important applications in many areas of science and engineering. Theoretical understanding of these phenomena is challenging because both martensitic phase transformation and slip plasticity exist under complex contact loading conditions. In this paper, we develop a three-dimensional constitutive model of shape memory alloys with plasticity. Spherical indentation-induced superelasticity in a NiTi shape memory alloy was simulated and compared to experimental results on load-displacement curves and recovery ratios. We show that shallow indents have complete recovery upon unloading, where the size of the phase transformation region is about two times the contact radius. Deep indents have only partial recovery when plastic deformation becomes more prevalent in the indent-affected zone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)
1996-10-28
For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.
What is behind the plastic strain rate?
Hütter, M.; Grmela, M.; Öttinger, H.C.
2009-01-01
The plastic strain rate plays a central role in macroscopic models on elasto-viscoplasticity. In order to discuss the concept behind this quantity, we propose, first, a kinetic toy model to describe the dynamics of sliding layers representative of plastic deformation of single crystalline metals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vincent, L.
2008-01-01
Fatigue analyses of materials are generally based on a so-called stabilized cycle, on which plastic strain amplitude, plastic energy, maximum shear stress and so on are determined. The part of plastic energy which is dissipated in heat cannot be used to accumulate damage and it should be worthwhile extracting only the part of plastic energy which is stored in material microstructure in order to build a consistent damage model. In this paper, some cyclic plasticity models including a polycrystalline model are reformulated in the thermodynamic framework in order to test their capacity to predict both the stress-strain behaviour and the partition of plastic energy for a high cycle fatigue test on a type 304L stainless steel. For an equivalent description of stress-strain loops, the number of kinematic hardening variables chosen in a model may qualitatively alter the prediction of plastic energy partition due to the modification of the isotropic hardening variable. Measurements of the specimen temperature increase due to plastic dissipation is therefore proposed as a convenient complementary experimental data to identify the constitutive equation of the isotropic hardening variable of a cyclic plasticity model. (author)
Binary Mixture of Perfect Fluid and Dark Energy in Modified Theory of Gravity
Shaikh, A. Y.
2016-07-01
A self consistent system of Plane Symmetric gravitational field and a binary mixture of perfect fluid and dark energy in a modified theory of gravity are considered. The gravitational field plays crucial role in the formation of soliton-like solutions, i.e., solutions with limited total energy, spin, and charge. The perfect fluid is taken to be the one obeying the usual equation of state, i.e., p = γρ with γ∈ [0, 1] whereas, the dark energy is considered to be either the quintessence like equation of state or Chaplygin gas. The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained for power-law and exponential volumetric expansion. The geometrical and physical parameters for both the models are studied.
Dynamics of shock waves in elastic-plastic solids
Favrie , Nicolas; Gavrilyuk , Sergey ,
2010-01-01
Submitted in ESAIM Procedings; The Maxwell type elastic-plastic solids are characterized by decaying the absolute values of the principal components of the deviatoric part of the stress tensor during the plastic relaxation step. We propose a mathematical formulation of such a model which is compatible with the von Mises criterion of plasticity. Numerical examples show the ability of the model to deal with complex physical phenomena.
Plasticity size effects in voided crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hussein, M. I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation and strain......The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled as line...... predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model chosen to be $0.325\\mu m$ (around ten times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....
Plasticity size effects in voided crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hussein, M.I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2008-01-01
as line singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation......The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation, the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled...... between predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model is chosen to be 0.325 mu m (about 10 times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....
Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.
Stamps, Judy A
2016-05-01
plasticities observed at a given age. Several authors have predicted correlations across individuals between different types of behavioural plasticities, i.e. that some individuals will be generally more plastic than others. However, empirical support for most of these predictions, including indirect evidence from studies of relationships between personality traits and plasticities, is currently sparse and equivocal. The final section of this review suggests how an appreciation of the similarities and differences between different types of behavioural plasticities may help theoreticians formulate testable models to explain the evolution of individual differences in behavioural plasticities and the evolutionary and ecological consequences of individual differences in behavioural plasticities. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Hu, Li; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhou, Tao; Tu, Jian; Shi, Laixin; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Mingbo
2017-10-13
Numerical modeling of microstructure evolution in various regions during uniaxial compression and canning compression of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) are studied through combined macroscopic and microscopic finite element simulation in order to investigate plastic deformation of NiTi SMA at 400 °C. In this approach, the macroscale material behavior is modeled with a relatively coarse finite element mesh, and then the corresponding deformation history in some selected regions in this mesh is extracted by the sub-model technique of finite element code ABAQUS and subsequently used as boundary conditions for the microscale simulation by means of crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM). Simulation results show that NiTi SMA exhibits an inhomogeneous plastic deformation at the microscale. Moreover, regions that suffered canning compression sustain more homogeneous plastic deformation by comparison with the corresponding regions subjected to uniaxial compression. The mitigation of inhomogeneous plastic deformation contributes to reducing the statistically stored dislocation (SSD) density in polycrystalline aggregation and also to reducing the difference of stress level in various regions of deformed NiTi SMA sample, and therefore sustaining large plastic deformation in the canning compression process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Hu
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Numerical modeling of microstructure evolution in various regions during uniaxial compression and canning compression of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA are studied through combined macroscopic and microscopic finite element simulation in order to investigate plastic deformation of NiTi SMA at 400 °C. In this approach, the macroscale material behavior is modeled with a relatively coarse finite element mesh, and then the corresponding deformation history in some selected regions in this mesh is extracted by the sub-model technique of finite element code ABAQUS and subsequently used as boundary conditions for the microscale simulation by means of crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM. Simulation results show that NiTi SMA exhibits an inhomogeneous plastic deformation at the microscale. Moreover, regions that suffered canning compression sustain more homogeneous plastic deformation by comparison with the corresponding regions subjected to uniaxial compression. The mitigation of inhomogeneous plastic deformation contributes to reducing the statistically stored dislocation (SSD density in polycrystalline aggregation and also to reducing the difference of stress level in various regions of deformed NiTi SMA sample, and therefore sustaining large plastic deformation in the canning compression process.
Zeroth Poisson Homology, Foliated Cohomology and Perfect Poisson Manifolds
Martínez-Torres, David; Miranda, Eva
2018-01-01
We prove that, for compact regular Poisson manifolds, the zeroth homology group is isomorphic to the top foliated cohomology group, and we give some applications. In particular, we show that, for regular unimodular Poisson manifolds, top Poisson and foliated cohomology groups are isomorphic. Inspired by the symplectic setting, we define what a perfect Poisson manifold is. We use these Poisson homology computations to provide families of perfect Poisson manifolds.
Perfect quantum multiple-unicast network coding protocol
Li, Dan-Dan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2018-01-01
In order to realize long-distance and large-scale quantum communication, it is natural to utilize quantum repeater. For a general quantum multiple-unicast network, it is still puzzling how to complete communication tasks perfectly with less resources such as registers. In this paper, we solve this problem. By applying quantum repeaters to multiple-unicast communication problem, we give encoding-decoding schemes for source nodes, internal ones and target ones, respectively. Source-target nodes share EPR pairs by using our encoding-decoding schemes over quantum multiple-unicast network. Furthermore, quantum communication can be accomplished perfectly via teleportation. Compared with existed schemes, our schemes can reduce resource consumption and realize long-distance transmission of quantum information.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert J Bryant
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Audience: This Edible Cricothyrotomy trainer is designed to teach residents and faculty the procedure of cricothyrotomy. Introduction: Cricothyrotomy is an essential procedure for any provider in the emergency department where the estimated incidence of a failed airway leading to surgical airway is 0.5%.1,2,3 It is challenging to obtain cost effective and realistic models to train clinicians and provide further opportunities for practice and skills maintenance. We (RB created a novel edible cricothyrotomy (EC model that is made entirely of edible materials, other than the trachea, which is represented by a piece of ventilator tubing. There is a tortilla base layer, with great vessels represented by colored licorice, thyroid cartilage made from Hersheys chocolate, cricoid from gummy worm, and fruit leather platysma topped with an additional tortilla to complete the skin layer. Objectives: Produce a cost effective surgical airway trainer, and compare it to existing trainers. Train learners to identify laryngeal landmarks, and then perform a cricothyrotomy. Method: An edible cricothyrotomy model was built for each participant from the ingredients listed above. An educational session was developed to test the EC in comparison to the more traditional pig trachea (PT and plastic model (PM. A pre- and post-survey was administered to participants to assess the usability and realism of the models as well as the learners’ comfort with the procedure. During the session, a lecture was given, and then participants rotated to all three models and were videotaped and timed performing a scalpel-finger-bougie cricothyrotomy. Times to successful completion, participant satisfaction with the models, and cost of the models were compared. Results: 43 participants completed the educational session. All completed the pre-survey and 40 of 43 completed the post-surveys (93% response rate. Times to complete a cricothyrotomy were faster for PT (median 32 sec
Garion, C; Sgobba, Stefano
2006-01-01
The present paper is focused on constitutive modelling and identification of parameters of the relevant model of plastic strain- induced martensitic transformation in austenitic stainless steels at low temperatures. The model used to describe the FCCrightward arrow BCC phase transformation in austenitic stainless steels is based on the assumption of linearization of the most intensive part of the transformation curve. The kinetics of phase transformation is described by three parameters: transformation threshold (p/sub xi/), slope (A) and saturation level (xi/sub L/). It is assumed that the phase transformation is driven by the accumulated plastic strain p. In addition, the intensity of plastic deformation is strongly coupled to the phase transformation via the description of mixed kinematic /isotropic linear plastic hardening based on the Mori-Tanaka homogenization. The theory of small strains is applied. Small strain fields, corresponding to phase transformation, are decomposed into the volumic and the shea...
Optimization of wood plastic composite decks
Ravivarman, S.; Venkatesh, G. S.; Karmarkar, A.; Shivkumar N., D.; Abhilash R., M.
2018-04-01
Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) is a new class of natural fibre based composite material that contains plastic matrix reinforced with wood fibres or wood flour. In the present work, Wood Plastic Composite was prepared with 70-wt% of wood flour reinforced in polypropylene matrix. Mechanical characterization of the composite was done by carrying out laboratory tests such as tensile test and flexural test as per the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the laboratory test specimen (tensile test) was created and explicit finite element analysis was carried out on the finite element model in non-linear Explicit FE code LS - DYNA. The piecewise linear plasticity (MAT 24) material model was identified as a suitable model in LS-DYNA material library, describing the material behavior of the developed composite. The composite structures for decking application in construction industry were then optimized for cross sectional area and distance between two successive supports (span length) by carrying out various numerical experiments in LS-DYNA. The optimized WPC deck (Elliptical channel-2 E10) has 45% reduced weight than the baseline model (solid cross-section) considered in this study with the load carrying capacity meeting acceptance criterion (allowable deflection & stress) for outdoor decking application.
Plasticity margin recovery during annealing after cold deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogatov, A.A.; Smirnov, S.V.; Kolmogorov, V.L.
1978-01-01
Restoration of the plasticity margin in steel 20 after cold deformation and annealing at 550 - 750 C and soaking for 5 - 300 min was investigated. The conditions of cold deformation under which the metal acquires microdefects unhealed by subsequent annealing were determined. It was established that if the degree of utilization of the plasticity margin is psi < 0.5, the plasticity margin in steel 20 can be completely restored by annealing. A mathematical model of restoration of the plasticity margin by annealing after cold deformation was constructed. A statistical analysis showed good agreement between model and experiment
On some properties of Einstein equations with the perfect fluid energy-momentum tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biesiada, M.; Szydlowski, M.; Szczesny, J.
1989-01-01
We discuss the symmetries of Einstein equations with the perfect fluid energy momentum tensor. We show that the symmetries inherited from vacuum equations enforce the equation of state in the form p p 0 = γρ which is the most often used one and contains models with the cosmological constant. 9 refs. (author)
Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.
In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Mat´ern III process within a bounded window in Rd fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahmouni, Adib N.
2004-01-01
In 1994, Berenger [Journal of Computational Physics 114 (1994) 185] proposed a new layer method: perfectly matched layer, PML, for electromagnetism. This new method is based on the truncation of the computational domain by a layer which absorbs waves regardless of their frequency and angle of incidence. Unfortunately, the technique proposed by Berenger (loc. cit.) leads to a system which has lost the most important properties of the original one: strong hyperbolicity and symmetry. We present in this paper an algebraic technique leading to well-known PML model [IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 44 (1996) 1630] for the linearized Euler equations, strongly well-posed, preserving the advantages of the initial method, and retaining symmetry. The technique proposed in this paper can be extended to various hyperbolic problems
Implementation of a perfect metamaterial absorber into multi-functional sensor applications
Akgol, O.; Karaaslan, M.; Unal, E.; Sabah, C.
2017-05-01
Perfect metamaterial absorber (MA)-based sensor applications are presented and investigated in the microwave frequency range. It is also experimentally analyzed and tested to verify the behavior of the MA. Suggested perfect MA-based sensor has a simple configuration which introduces flexibility to sense the dielectric properties of a material and the pressure of the medium. The investigated applications include pressure and density sensing. Besides, numerical simulations verify that the suggested sensor achieves good sensing capabilities for both applications. The proposed perfect MA-based sensor variations enable many potential applications in medical or food technologies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristiano eCuppini
2011-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present two neural network models - devoted to two specific and widely investigated aspects of multisensory integration - in order to evidence the potentialities of computational models to gain insight into the neural mechanisms underlying organization, development and plasticity of multisensory integration in the brain. The first model considers visual-auditory interaction in a midbrain structure named Superior Colliculus (SC. The model is able to reproduce and explain the main physiological features of multisensory integration in SC neurons and to describe how SC integrative capability – not present at birth - develops gradually during postnatal life depending on sensory experience with cross-modal stimuli. The second model tackles the problem of how tactile stimuli on a body part and visual (or auditory stimuli close to the same body part are integrated in multimodal parietal neurons to form the perception of peripersonal (i.e., near space. The model investigates how the extension of peripersonal space - where multimodal integration occurs - may be modified by experience such as use of a tool to interact with the far space. The utility of the modelling approach relies on several aspects: i The two models, although devoted to different problems and simulating different brain regions, share some common mechanisms (lateral inhibition and excitation, non-linear neuron characteristics, recurrent connections, competition, Hebbian rules of potentiation and depression that may govern more generally the fusion of senses in the brain, and the learning and plasticity of multisensory integration. ii The models may help interpretation of behavioural and psychophysical responses in terms of neural activity and synaptic connections. iii The models can make testable predictions that can help guiding future experiments in order to validate, reject, or modify the main assumptions.
The strain path dependence of plastic deformation response of AA5754: Experiment and modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham, Minh-Son; Hu, Lin; Iadicola, Mark; Creuziger, Adam; Rollett, Anthony D.
2013-01-01
This work presents modeling of experiments on a balanced biaxial (BB) pre-strained AA5754 alloy, subsequently reloaded uniaxially along the rolling direction and transverse direction. The material exhibits a complex plastic deformation response during the change in strain path due to 1) crystallographic texture, 2) aging (interactions between dislocations and Mg atoms) and 3) recovery (annihilation and re-arrangement of dislocations). With a BB prestrain of about 5 %, the aging process is dominant, and the yield strength for uniaxially deformed samples is observed to be higher than the flow stress during BB straining. The strain hardening rate after changing path is, however, lower than that for pre-straining. Higher degrees of pre-straining make the dynamic recovery more active. The dynamic recovery at higher strain levels compensates for the aging effect, and results in: 1) a reduction of the yield strength, and 2) an increase in the hardening rate of re-strained specimens along other directions. The yield strength of deformed samples is further reduced if these samples are left at room temperature to let static recovery occur. The synergistic influences of texture condition, aging and recovery processes on the material response make the modeling of strain path dependence of mechanical behavior of AA5754 challenging. In this study, the influence of crystallographic texture is taken into account by incorporating the latent hardening into a visco-plastic self-consistent model. Different strengths of dislocation glide interaction models in 24 slip systems are used to represent the latent hardening. Moreover, the aging and recovery effects are also included into the latent hardening model by considering strong interactions between dislocations and dissolved atom Mg and the microstructural evolution. These microstructural considerations provide a powerful capability to successfully describe the strain path dependence of plastic deformation behavior of AA5754
Cyclic plastic hinges with degradation effects for frame structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tidemann, Lasse; Krenk, Steen
2017-01-01
A model of cyclic plastic hinges in frame structures including degradation effects for stiffness and strength is developed. The model is formulated via potentials in terms of section forces. It consists of a yield surface, described in a generic format permitting representation of general convex...... shapes including corners, and a set of evolution equations based on an internal energy potential and a plastic flow potential. The form of these potentials is specified by five parameters for each generalized stress-strain component describing yield level, ultimate stress capacity, elastic...... and stiffness parameters. The cyclic plastic hinges are introduced into a six-component equilibrium-based beam element, using additive element and hinge flexibilities. When converted to stiffness format the plastic hinges are incorporated into the element stiffness matrix. The cyclic plastic hinge model...
Abrosimov, N. A.; Novosel'tseva, N. A.
2017-05-01
A technique for numerically analyzing the dynamic strength of two-layer metal-plastic cylindrical shells under an axisymmetric internal explosive loading is developed. The kinematic deformation model of the layered package is based on a nonclassical theory of shells. The geometric relations are constructed using relations of the simplest quadratic version of the nonlinear elasticity theory. The stress and strain tensors in the composite macrolayer are related by Hooke's law for an orthotropic body with account of degradation of the stiffness characteristics of the multilayer package due to local failure of some its elementary layers. The physical relations in the metal layer are formulated in terms of a differential theory of plasticity. An energy-correlated resolving system of dynamic equations for the metal-plastic cylindrical shells is derived by minimizing the functional of total energy of the shells as three-dimensional bodies. The numerical method for solving the initial boundary-value problem formulated is based on an explicit variational-difference scheme. The reliability of the technique considered is verified by comparing numerical results with experimental data. An analysis of the ultimate strains and strength of one-layer basalt-and glass-fiber-reinforced plastic and two-layer metalplastic cylindrical shells is carried out.
Crystal Plasticity Model of Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement in GRIZZLY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, Pritam [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Biner, Suleyman Bulent [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spencer, Benjamin Whiting [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-07-01
The integrity of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is of utmost importance to ensure safe operation of nuclear reactors under extended lifetime. Microstructure-scale models at various length and time scales, coupled concurrently or through homogenization methods, can play a crucial role in understanding and quantifying irradiation-induced defect production, growth and their influence on mechanical behavior of RPV steels. A multi-scale approach, involving atomistic, meso- and engineering-scale models, is currently being pursued within the GRIZZLY project to understand and quantify irradiation-induced embrittlement of RPV steels. Within this framework, a dislocation-density based crystal plasticity model has been developed in GRIZZLY that captures the effect of irradiation-induced defects on the flow stress behavior and is presented in this report. The present formulation accounts for the interaction between self-interstitial loops and matrix dislocations. The model predictions have been validated with experiments and dislocation dynamics simulation.
Crystal Plasticity Model of Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement in GRIZZLY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, Pritam; Biner, Suleyman Bulent; Zhang, Yongfeng; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting
2015-01-01
The integrity of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is of utmost importance to ensure safe operation of nuclear reactors under extended lifetime. Microstructure-scale models at various length and time scales, coupled concurrently or through homogenization methods, can play a crucial role in understanding and quantifying irradiation-induced defect production, growth and their influence on mechanical behavior of RPV steels. A multi-scale approach, involving atomistic, meso- and engineering-scale models, is currently being pursued within the GRIZZLY project to understand and quantify irradiation-induced embrittlement of RPV steels. Within this framework, a dislocation-density based crystal plasticity model has been developed in GRIZZLY that captures the effect of irradiation-induced defects on the flow stress behavior and is presented in this report. The present formulation accounts for the interaction between self-interstitial loops and matrix dislocations. The model predictions have been validated with experiments and dislocation dynamics simulation.
Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhong-ping; Li, Chun-wang
2018-03-01
This paper modified an Armstrong-Frederick-type plasticity model for investigating the stable cyclic deformation behavior of metallic materials with different sensitivity to nonproportional loadings. In the modified model, the nonproportionality factor and nonproportional cyclic hardening coefficient coupled with the Jiang-Sehitoglu incremental plasticity model were used to estimate the stable stress-strain responses of the two materials (1045HR steel and 304 stainless steel) under various tension-torsion strain paths. A new equation was proposed to calculate the nonproportionality factor on the basis of the minimum normal strain range. Procedures to determine the minimum normal strain range were presented for general multiaxial loadings. Then, the modified model requires only the cyclic strain hardening exponent and cyclic strength coefficient to determine the material constants. It is convenient for predicting the stable stress-strain responses of materials in engineering application. Comparisons showed that the modified model can reflect the effect of nonproportional cyclic hardening well.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Weihua
2011-01-01
We study the similarity and correlations between relaxations and plastic deformation in metallic glasses (MGs) and MG-forming liquids. It is shown that the microscope plastic events, the initiation and formation of shear bands, and the mechanical yield in MGs where the atomic sites are topologically unstable induced by applied stress, can be treated as the glass to supercooled liquid state transition induced by external shear stress. On the other hand, the glass transition, the primary and secondary relaxations, plastic deformation and yield can be attributed to the free volume increase induced flow, and the flow can be modeled as the activated hopping between the inherent states in the potential energy landscape. We then propose an extended elastic model to describe the flow based on the energy landscape theory. That is, the flow activation energy density is linear proportional to the instantaneous elastic moduli, and the activation energy density ρ E is determined to be a simple expression of ρ E =(10/11)G+(1/11)K. The model indicates that both shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in MGs and MG-forming liquids. The elastic model is experimentally certified. We show that the elastic perspectives offers a simple scenario for the flow in MGs and MG-forming liquids and are suggestive for understanding the glass transition, plastic deformation, and nature and characteristics of MGs
Elasto-plastic model for transversely isotropic Tournemire shale based on microstructure approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdi, H.; Evgin, E.; Fall, M.; Nguyen, T.S.; Labrie, D.; Barnichon, J.D.; Su, G.; Simon, R.
2012-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. Argillaceous formations being considered as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of nuclear wastes are usually characterized by the presence of bedding planes, resulting in anisotropy of their strength and deformation properties. A laboratory program of uniaxial tests, triaxial tests, cyclic tests, and Brazilian tests with concurrent monitoring of acoustic emission was performed in order to determine the above properties. The experimental results and their interpretation are presented in detail in a companion paper (Abdi et al., 2012, in these proceedings). Typical results from triaxial tests indicate the following behaviour: 1. There is a strong dependence of the stress-strain behaviour with the loading orientation with respect to the bedding planes. 2. There are four distinct zones of the stress strain curve: a crack and/or bedding closure zone; an elastic zone, a plastic zone with strain hardening, and a collapse zone after the peak that leads abruptly to a residual strength value. 3. There is damage, especially after the peak, resulting in the degradation of the stiffness as shown by unloading-reloading cycles. In order to reproduce the above behaviour, we adopted a classical elasto-plastic framework. In the elastic range, the transversely isotropic nature of the material is taken into account by the adoption of an elastic stiffness matrix that requires five independent elastic constants. These elastic constants show degradation with the accumulated damage. Using the deviatoric plastic strain as a measure of damage, we expressed functional relationships for these constants, using the results of cyclic triaxial tests. For the plastic behaviour, we used a Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion which takes into account the relative orientation of the applied stress and the bedding planes, and also strain hardening and softening. In this work we used the deviatoric plastic strain as the hardening parameter in
Kumar, Jagadish; Ananthakrishna, G
2018-01-01
Scale-invariant power-law distributions for acoustic emission signals are ubiquitous in several plastically deforming materials. However, power-law distributions for acoustic emission energies are reported in distinctly different plastically deforming situations such as hcp and fcc single and polycrystalline samples exhibiting smooth stress-strain curves and in dilute metallic alloys exhibiting discontinuous flow. This is surprising since the underlying dislocation mechanisms in these two types of deformations are very different. So far, there have been no models that predict the power-law statistics for discontinuous flow. Furthermore, the statistics of the acoustic emission signals in jerky flow is even more complex, requiring multifractal measures for a proper characterization. There has been no model that explains the complex statistics either. Here we address the problem of statistical characterization of the acoustic emission signals associated with the three types of the Portevin-Le Chatelier bands. Following our recently proposed general framework for calculating acoustic emission, we set up a wave equation for the elastic degrees of freedom with a plastic strain rate as a source term. The energy dissipated during acoustic emission is represented by the Rayleigh-dissipation function. Using the plastic strain rate obtained from the Ananthakrishna model for the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, we compute the acoustic emission signals associated with the three Portevin-Le Chatelier bands and the Lüders-like band. The so-calculated acoustic emission signals are used for further statistical characterization. Our results show that the model predicts power-law statistics for all the acoustic emission signals associated with the three types of Portevin-Le Chatelier bands with the exponent values increasing with increasing strain rate. The calculated multifractal spectra corresponding to the acoustic emission signals associated with the three band types have a maximum
Perfect transfer of arbitrary states in quantum spin networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christandl, Matthias; Kay, Alastair; Datta, Nilanjana; Dorlas, Tony C.; Ekert, Artur; Landahl, Andrew J.
2005-01-01
We propose a class of qubit networks that admit perfect state transfer of any two-dimensional quantum state in a fixed period of time. We further show that such networks can distribute arbitrary entangled states between two distant parties, and can, by using such systems in parallel, transmit the higher-dimensional systems states across the network. Unlike many other schemes for quantum computation and communication, these networks do not require qubit couplings to be switched on and off. When restricted to N-qubit spin networks of identical qubit couplings, we show that 2 log 3 N is the maximal perfect communication distance for hypercube geometries. Moreover, if one allows fixed but different couplings between the qubits then perfect state transfer can be achieved over arbitrarily long distances in a linear chain. This paper expands and extends the work done by Christandl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187902 (2004)
Song-Gui Chen; Chuan-Hu Zhang; Yun-Tian Feng; Qi-Cheng Sun; Feng Jin
2016-01-01
This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) parallel multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LBM) for Bingham plastics which overcomes numerical instabilities in the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids for the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK) model. The MRT-LBM and several related mathematical models are briefly described. Papanastasiou’s modified model is incorporated for better numerical stability. The impact of the relaxation parameters of the model is studied in detail. The MRT-L...
Plasticity resembling spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity: the evidence in human cortex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian Müller-Dahlhaus
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP has been studied extensively in a variety of animal models during the past decade but whether it can be studied at the systems level of the human cortex has been a matter of debate. Only recently newly developed non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS have made it possible to induce and assess timing dependent plasticity in conscious human subjects. This review will present a critical synopsis of these experiments, which suggest that several of the principal characteristics and molecular mechanisms of TMS-induced plasticity correspond to those of STDP as studied at a cellular level. TMS combined with a second phasic stimulation modality can induce bidirectional long-lasting changes in the excitability of the stimulated cortex, whose polarity depends on the order of the associated stimulus-evoked events within a critical time window of tens of milliseconds. Pharmacological evidence suggests an NMDA receptor mediated form of synaptic plasticity. Studies in human motor cortex demonstrated that motor learning significantly modulates TMS-induced timing dependent plasticity, and, conversely, may be modulated bidirectionally by prior TMS-induced plasticity, providing circumstantial evidence that long-term potentiation-like mechanisms may be involved in motor learning. In summary, convergent evidence is being accumulated for the contention that it is now possible to induce STDP-like changes in the intact human central nervous system by means of TMS to study and interfere with synaptic plasticity in neural circuits in the context of behaviour such as learning and memory.
Tufto, Jarle
2015-08-01
Adaptive responses to autocorrelated environmental fluctuations through evolution in mean reaction norm elevation and slope and an independent component of the phenotypic variance are analyzed using a quantitative genetic model. Analytic approximations expressing the mutual dependencies between all three response modes are derived and solved for the joint evolutionary outcome. Both genetic evolution in reaction norm elevation and plasticity are favored by slow temporal fluctuations, with plasticity, in the absence of microenvironmental variability, being the dominant evolutionary outcome for reasonable parameter values. For fast fluctuations, tracking of the optimal phenotype through genetic evolution and plasticity is limited. If residual fluctuations in the optimal phenotype are large and stabilizing selection is strong, selection then acts to increase the phenotypic variance (bet-hedging adaptive). Otherwise, canalizing selection occurs. If the phenotypic variance increases with plasticity through the effect of microenvironmental variability, this shifts the joint evolutionary balance away from plasticity in favor of genetic evolution. If microenvironmental deviations experienced by each individual at the time of development and selection are correlated, however, more plasticity evolves. The adaptive significance of evolutionary fluctuations in plasticity and the phenotypic variance, transient evolution, and the validity of the analytic approximations are investigated using simulations. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Analysis of metal forming processes by using physical modeling and new plastic similarity condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gronostajski, Z.; Hawryluk, M.
2007-01-01
In recent years many advances have been made in numerical methods, for linear and non-linear problems. However the success of them depends very much on the correctness of the problem formulation and the availability of the input data. Validity of the theoretical results can be verified by an experiment using the real or soft materials. An essential reduction of time and costs of the experiment can be obtained by using soft materials, which behaves in a way analogous to that of real metal during deformation. The advantages of using of the soft materials are closely connected with flow stress 500 to 1000 times lower than real materials. The accuracy of physical modeling depend on the similarity conditions between physical model and real process. The most important similarity conditions are materials similarity in the range of plastic and elastic deformation, geometrical, frictional and thermal similarities. New original plastic similarity condition for physical modeling of metal forming processes is proposed in the paper. It bases on the mathematical description of similarity of the flow stress curves of soft materials and real ones
[INVITED] Coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic wave in subwavelength structures
Yan, Chao; Pu, Mingbo; Luo, Jun; Huang, Yijia; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang
2018-05-01
Electromagnetic (EM) absorption is a common process by which the EM energy is transformed into other kinds of energy in the absorber, for example heat. Perfect absorption of EM with structures at subwavelength scale is important for many practical applications, such as stealth technology, thermal control and sensing. Coherent perfect absorption arises from the interplay of interference and absorption, which can be interpreted as a time-reversed process of lasing or EM emitting. It provides a promising way for complete absorption in both nanophotonics and electromagnetics. In this review, we discuss basic principles and properties of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA). Various subwavelength structures including thin films, metamaterials and waveguide-based structures to realize CPAs are compared. We also discuss the potential applications of CPAs.
Janson, Natalia B; Marsden, Christopher J
2017-12-05
It is well known that architecturally the brain is a neural network, i.e. a collection of many relatively simple units coupled flexibly. However, it has been unclear how the possession of this architecture enables higher-level cognitive functions, which are unique to the brain. Here, we consider the brain from the viewpoint of dynamical systems theory and hypothesize that the unique feature of the brain, the self-organized plasticity of its architecture, could represent the means of enabling the self-organized plasticity of its velocity vector field. We propose that, conceptually, the principle of cognition could amount to the existence of appropriate rules governing self-organization of the velocity field of a dynamical system with an appropriate account of stimuli. To support this hypothesis, we propose a simple non-neuromorphic mathematical model with a plastic self-organized velocity field, which has no prototype in physical world. This system is shown to be capable of basic cognition, which is illustrated numerically and with musical data. Our conceptual model could provide an additional insight into the working principles of the brain. Moreover, hardware implementations of plastic velocity fields self-organizing according to various rules could pave the way to creating artificial intelligence of a novel type.
Reconstructing extreme AMOC events through nudging of the ocean surface: a perfect model approach
Ortega, Pablo; Guilyardi, Eric; Swingedouw, Didier; Mignot, Juliette; Nguyen, Sébastien
2017-11-01
While the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is thought to be a crucial component of the North Atlantic climate, past changes in its strength are challenging to quantify, and only limited information is available. In this study, we use a perfect model approach with the IPSL-CM5A-LR model to assess the performance of several surface nudging techniques in reconstructing the variability of the AMOC. Special attention is given to the reproducibility of an extreme positive AMOC peak from a preindustrial control simulation. Nudging includes standard relaxation techniques towards the sea surface temperature and salinity anomalies of this target control simulation, and/or the prescription of the wind-stress fields. Surface nudging approaches using standard fixed restoring terms succeed in reproducing most of the target AMOC variability, including the timing of the extreme event, but systematically underestimate its amplitude. A detailed analysis of the AMOC variability mechanisms reveals that the underestimation of the extreme AMOC maximum comes from a deficit in the formation of the dense water masses in the main convection region, located south of Iceland in the model. This issue is largely corrected after introducing a novel surface nudging approach, which uses a varying restoring coefficient that is proportional to the simulated mixed layer depth, which, in essence, keeps the restoring time scale constant. This new technique substantially improves water mass transformation in the regions of convection, and in particular, the formation of the densest waters, which are key for the representation of the AMOC extreme. It is therefore a promising strategy that may help to better constrain the AMOC variability and other ocean features in the models. As this restoring technique only uses surface data, for which better and longer observations are available, it opens up opportunities for improved reconstructions of the AMOC over the last few decades.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Jia; Fang, Qihong; Wu, Hong; Liu, Youwen; Wen, Pihua
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Diffusion induced stress is established. • Yield stress is dependent upon concentration. • Plastic deformation induced stress lowers tensile stress. • Plastic deformation suppresses crack nucleation. • Plastic deformation occurs not only at lithiated phase but also at electrode interior. - Abstract: This paper is theoretically suggested to describe diffusion induced stress in the elastoplastic hollow spherical silicon electrode for plastic deformation using both analytical model and molecular simulation. Based on the plastic deformation and the yield criterion, we develop this model accounting for the lithium-ion diffusion effect in hollow electrode, focusing on the concentration and stress distributions undergoing lithium-ion insertion. The results show that the two ways, applied compressive stress to inner surface or limited inner surface with higher concentration using biological membranes maintaining concentration difference, lead to the compressive stress induced by the lithium-ion diffusion effect. Hollow spherical electrode reduces effectively diffusion induced stress through controlling and tuning electrode parameters to obtain the reasonably low yield strength. According to MD simulations, plastic deformation phenomenon not only occurs at interface layer of lithiated phase, but also penetrates at electrode interior owning to confinement imposed by lithiated phase. These criteria that radial and hoop stresses reduce dramatically when plastic deformation occurs near the end faces of hollow electrode, may help guide development of new materials for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced mechanical durability, by means of reasonable designing yield strength to maintain mechanical stress below fracture strength, thereby increasing battery life.
Lubliner, Jacob
2008-01-01
The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and
Aldakheel, Fadi; Wriggers, Peter; Miehe, Christian
2017-12-01
The modeling of failure in ductile materials must account for complex phenomena at the micro-scale, such as nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids, as well as the final rupture at the macro-scale, as rooted in the work of Gurson (J Eng Mater Technol 99:2-15, 1977). Within a top-down viewpoint, this can be achieved by the combination of a micro-structure-informed elastic-plastic model for a porous medium with a concept for the modeling of macroscopic crack discontinuities. The modeling of macroscopic cracks can be achieved in a convenient way by recently developed continuum phase field approaches to fracture, which are based on the regularization of sharp crack discontinuities, see Miehe et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 294:486-522, 2015). This avoids the use of complex discretization methods for crack discontinuities, and can account for complex crack patterns. In this work, we develop a new theoretical and computational framework for the phase field modeling of ductile fracture in conventional elastic-plastic solids under finite strain deformation. It combines modified structures of Gurson-Tvergaard-Needelman GTN-type plasticity model outlined in Tvergaard and Needleman (Acta Metall 32:157-169, 1984) and Nahshon and Hutchinson (Eur J Mech A Solids 27:1-17, 2008) with a new evolution equation for the crack phase field. An important aspect of this work is the development of a robust Explicit-Implicit numerical integration scheme for the highly nonlinear rate equations of the enhanced GTN model, resulting with a low computational cost strategy. The performance of the formulation is underlined by means of some representative examples, including the development of the experimentally observed cup-cone failure mechanism.
Soil plasticity with a different porosity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klovanych Sergii
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The model of soils with different porosity in the framework of the associated theory of plasticity is presented The single analytical function describes the loading surface in the stress space. The deformational hardening/softening and the phenomenon of dilatancy during plastic flow are incorporated in the model. The triaxial compression tests are simulated and compared with the experimental results for different values of the void ratio and initial hydrostatic stresses.
A triple-scale crystal plasticity modeling and simulation on size effect due to fine-graining
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurosawa, Eisuke; Aoyagi, Yoshiteru; Tadano, Yuichi; Shizawa, Kazuyuki
2010-01-01
In this paper, a triple-scale crystal plasticity model bridging three hierarchical material structures, i.e., dislocation structure, grain aggregate and practical macroscopic structure is developed. Geometrically necessary (GN) dislocation density and GN incompatibility are employed so as to describe isolated dislocations and dislocation pairs in a grain, respectively. Then the homogenization method is introduced into the GN dislocation-crystal plasticity model for derivation of the governing equation of macroscopic structure with the mathematical and physical consistencies. Using the present model, a triple-scale FE simulation bridging the above three hierarchical structures is carried out for f.c.c. polycrystals with different mean grain size. It is shown that the present model can qualitatively reproduce size effects of macroscopic specimen with ultrafine-grain, i.e., the increase of initial yield stress, the decrease of hardening ratio after reaching tensile strength and the reduction of tensile ductility with decrease of its grain size. Moreover, the relationship between macroscopic yielding of specimen and microscopic grain yielding is discussed and the mechanism of the poor tensile ductility due to fine-graining is clarified. (author)
Qi, Z; Kikuchi, S; Tretter, F; Voit, E O
2011-05-01
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects about 16% of the general population and is a leading cause of death in the United States and around the world. Aggravating the situation is the fact that "drug use disorders" are highly comorbid in MDD patients, and VICE VERSA. Drug use and MDD share a common component, the dopamine system, which is critical in many motivation and reward processes, as well as in the regulation of stress responses in MDD. A potentiating mechanism in drug use disorders appears to be synaptic plasticity, which is regulated by dopamine transmission. In this article, we describe a computational model of the synaptic plasticity of GABAergic medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens, which is critical in the reward system. The model accounts for effects of both dopamine and glutamate transmission. Model simulations show that GABAergic medium spiny neurons tend to respond to dopamine stimuli with synaptic potentiation and to glutamate signals with synaptic depression. Concurrent dopamine and glutamate signals cause various types of synaptic plasticity, depending on input scenarios. Interestingly, the model shows that a single 0.5 mg/kg dose of amphetamine can cause synaptic potentiation for over 2 h, a phenomenon that makes synaptic plasticity of medium spiny neurons behave quasi as a bistable system. The model also identifies mechanisms that could potentially be critical to correcting modifications of synaptic plasticity caused by drugs in MDD patients. An example is the feedback loop between protein kinase A, phosphodiesterase, and the second messenger cAMP in the postsynapse. Since reward mechanisms activated by psychostimulants could be crucial in establishing addiction comorbidity in patients with MDD, this model might become an aid for identifying and targeting specific modules within the reward system and lead to a better understanding and potential treatment of comorbid drug use disorders in MDD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New
Simulation of finite-strain inelastic phenomena governed by creep and plasticity
Li, Zhen; Bloomfield, Max O.; Oberai, Assad A.
2017-11-01
Inelastic mechanical behavior plays an important role in many applications in science and engineering. Phenomenologically, this behavior is often modeled as plasticity or creep. Plasticity is used to represent the rate-independent component of inelastic deformation and creep is used to represent the rate-dependent component. In several applications, especially those at elevated temperatures and stresses, these processes occur simultaneously. In order to model these process, we develop a rate-objective, finite-deformation constitutive model for plasticity and creep. The plastic component of this model is based on rate-independent J_2 plasticity, and the creep component is based on a thermally activated Norton model. We describe the implementation of this model within a finite element formulation, and present a radial return mapping algorithm for it. This approach reduces the additional complexity of modeling plasticity and creep, over thermoelasticity, to just solving one nonlinear scalar equation at each quadrature point. We implement this algorithm within a multiphysics finite element code and evaluate the consistent tangent through automatic differentiation. We verify and validate the implementation, apply it to modeling the evolution of stresses in the flip chip manufacturing process, and test its parallel strong-scaling performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Moon Shik; Suh, Yeong Sung; Song, Seung
2011-01-01
An elasto-plastic finite element method using the theory of strain gradient plasticity is proposed to evaluate the size dependency of structural plasticity that occurs when the configuration size decreases to micron scale. For this method, we suggest a low-order plane and three-dimensional displacement-based elements, eliminating the need for a high order, many degrees of freedom, a mixed element, or super elements, which have been considered necessary in previous researches. The proposed method can be performed in the framework of nonlinear incremental analysis in which plastic strains are calculated and averaged at nodes. These strains are then interpolated and differentiated for gradient calculation. We adopted a strain-gradient-hardening constitutive equation from the Taylor dislocation model, which requires the plastic strain gradient. The developed finite elements are tested numerically on the basis of typical size-effect problems such as micro-bending, micro-torsion, and micro-voids. With respect to the strain gradient plasticity, i.e., the size effects, the results obtained by using the proposed method, which are simple in their calculation, are in good agreement with the experimental results cited in previously published papers
Lee, Jong Suk; Madden, William; Koros, William J.
2010-01-01
A previous paper characterized effects of exposure of Matrimid® asymmetric fibers to either toluene or n-heptane or a combination of both contaminants during permeation. In all cases, reductions in the carbon dioxide permeance and the carbon dioxide/methane selectivity were observed for both annealed and non-annealed samples. In this paper, the respective potential impacts of competitive sorption, fiber compaction, and antiplasticization/plasticization on membrane performance during contaminant exposure are quantified and analyzed. The combined impact of competitive sorption and antiplasticization/plasticization are shown to account for the loss in membrane performance observed during exposure to highly sorbing feed stream contaminants. The dual mode transport model for penetrant mixtures was used to explain reduction in CO2 permeance due to competitive sorption effects, while free volume-based modeling explained decrease in CO2 permeance due to antiplasticization. Finally, the impact on CO2 permeance during exposure of the annealed Matrimid® fibers to contaminants is analyzed. The analysis is based on reduction in segmental mobility expected due to reduction of residual unrelaxed volume as compared to unanealed sample. © 2010.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Peng Xu
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by profound synapse loss and impairments of learning and memory. Magnesium affects many biochemical mechanisms that are vital for neuronal properties and synaptic plasticity. Recent studies have demonstrated that the serum and brain magnesium levels are decreased in AD patients; however, the exact role of magnesium in AD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we found that the intraperitoneal administration of magnesium sulfate increased the brain magnesium levels and protected learning and memory capacities in streptozotocin-induced sporadic AD model rats. We also found that magnesium sulfate reversed impairments in long-term potentiation (LTP, dendritic abnormalities, and the impaired recruitment of synaptic proteins. Magnesium sulfate treatment also decreased tau hyperphosphorylation by increasing the inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β at serine 9, thereby increasing the activity of Akt at Ser473 and PI3K at Tyr458/199, and improving insulin sensitivity. We conclude that magnesium treatment protects cognitive function and synaptic plasticity by inhibiting GSK-3β in sporadic AD model rats, which suggests a potential role for magnesium in AD therapy.
Lee, Jong Suk
2010-03-15
A previous paper characterized effects of exposure of Matrimid® asymmetric fibers to either toluene or n-heptane or a combination of both contaminants during permeation. In all cases, reductions in the carbon dioxide permeance and the carbon dioxide/methane selectivity were observed for both annealed and non-annealed samples. In this paper, the respective potential impacts of competitive sorption, fiber compaction, and antiplasticization/plasticization on membrane performance during contaminant exposure are quantified and analyzed. The combined impact of competitive sorption and antiplasticization/plasticization are shown to account for the loss in membrane performance observed during exposure to highly sorbing feed stream contaminants. The dual mode transport model for penetrant mixtures was used to explain reduction in CO2 permeance due to competitive sorption effects, while free volume-based modeling explained decrease in CO2 permeance due to antiplasticization. Finally, the impact on CO2 permeance during exposure of the annealed Matrimid® fibers to contaminants is analyzed. The analysis is based on reduction in segmental mobility expected due to reduction of residual unrelaxed volume as compared to unanealed sample. © 2010.
A model of shape memory alloys taking into account plasticity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kružík, Martin; Zimmer, J.
2011-01-01
Roč. 76, č. 1 (2011), s. 193-216 ISSN 0272-4960 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : elasto-plasticity * energetic solution * plastic strain gradients Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2011
Nonminimal coupling of perfect fluids to curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, Orfeu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Paramos, Jorge
2008-01-01
In this work, we consider different forms of relativistic perfect fluid Lagrangian densities that yield the same gravitational field equations in general relativity (GR). A particularly intriguing example is the case with couplings of the form [1+f 2 (R)]L m , where R is the scalar curvature, which induces an extra force that depends on the form of the Lagrangian density. It has been found that, considering the Lagrangian density L m =p, where p is the pressure, the extra-force vanishes. We argue that this is not the unique choice for the matter Lagrangian density, and that more natural forms for L m do not imply the vanishing of the extra force. Particular attention is paid to the impact on the classical equivalence between different Lagrangian descriptions of a perfect fluid.
Hydrogen can be used as a perfect fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydin, E.
2005-01-01
At present, hydrogen is one of the new and clean energy production sources. Hydrogen is the perfect partner for electricity, and together they create an integrated energy system based on distributed power generation and use. Hydrogen and electricity are interchangeable using a fuel cell (to convert hydrogen to electricity) or an electrolyzer (for converting electricity to hydrogen). A regenerative fuel cell works either way, converting hydrogen to electricity and vice versa. Hydrogen and electricity are both energy carriers because, unlike naturally occurring hydrocarbon fuels, they must both be produced using a primary energy source. In this study, it will be discussed whether hydrogen is perfect fuel or not
Plastic deformation of solids viewed as a self-excited wave process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuev, L.B.; Danilov, V.I.
1998-01-01
A self-excited wave model of plastic flow in crystalline solids is proposed. Experimental data on plastic flow in single crystals and polycrystalline solids involving different mechanisms have been correlated. The main types of strain localization in the materials investigated have been established and correlated with the respective stages of plastic flow curves. The best observing conditions have been defined for the major types of autowaves emerging by plastic deformation. The synergetic concepts of self-organization are shown to apply to description of plastic deformation. Suggested is a self-excited wave model of plastic flow in materials with different mechanisms of deformation. (orig.)
Frequency dependent changes in NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arvind eKumar
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity is thought to mediate several forms of learning, and can be induced by spike trains containing a small number of spikes occurring with varying rates and timing, as well as with oscillations. We computed the influence of these variables on the plasticity induced at a single NMDAR containing synapse using a reduced model that was analytically tractable, and these findings were confirmed using detailed, multi-compartment model. In addition to explaining diverse experimental results about the rate and timing dependence of synaptic plasticity, the model made several novel and testable predictions. We found that there was a preferred frequency for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP such that higher frequency stimuli induced lesser LTP, decreasing as 1/f when the number of spikes in the stimulus was kept fixed. Among other things, the preferred frequency for inducing LTP varied as a function of the distance of the synapse from the soma. In fact, same stimulation frequencies could induce LTP or LTD depending on the dendritic location of the synapse. Next, we found that rhythmic stimuli induced greater plasticity then irregular stimuli. Furthermore, brief bursts of spikes significantly expanded the timing dependence of plasticity. Finally, we found that in the ~5-15Hz frequency range both rate- and timing-dependent plasticity mechanisms work synergistically to render the synaptic plasticity most sensitive to spike-timing. These findings provide computational evidence that oscillations can have a profound influence on the plasticity of an NMDAR-dependent synapse, and show a novel role for the dendritic morphology in this process.
Perfect-fluid models admitting a non-Abelian and maximal two-parameter group of isometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van den Bergh, N.
1988-01-01
A proof is given that, when a spacetime admits an invariant timelike congruence orthogonal to the orbits of a non-Abelian two-parameter group of isometries, the given congruence is vorticity-free provided the group is maximal. The result is used to derive a canonical coordinate form for perfect-fluid solutions satisfying the above condition. It is also shown that such a group of isometries cannot be orthogonally transitive and a brief discussion is given of the self-similar case. (author)
2017-09-05
cross-wire around the resonance wavelength. This is caused by the structural asymmetry depending on the propagation direction of incident light. For...1.82 μm. The significant change of φ r( )21 is caused by eff , which changes from i64 72 7 08. + . to . + . i4 19 1 28 in the same wavelength range...et al. Circular Dichroism Metamirrors with Near-Perfect Extinction . ACS Photonics 3, 2096–2101 (2016). 16. Li, W. et al. Circularly polarized light
The creep low application for numerical modeling of elastic-plastic flows
Tyapin, Anatoly; Rudenko, Vladimir; Chekhunov, Evgeny; Shaburov, Michail
1999-06-01
The present paper demonstrates the applicability of Lomnitz logarithm creep law [1] in some approximated version for calculating the elastic-plastic flows. The model has been developed resulting from the intention to have appropriate calculation approximation for particle-velocity -vs-time histories observed in plate 6061-T6 Al samples of various thickness under shock loading and subsequent release and additional compression. The approximation is unique in the whole loading range, from very low to such that elastic precursor is swallowed up by plastic wave . The model is based on Lipkin and Asay [2] remark on scale similarity of the above mentioned particle velocity -vs-time histories for equal shock loading and on approximate equality of velocities that initial portions of release and recompression waves travel at. A Lomnitz creep law presents an ideal phenomenological tool providing both of the requirements be fulfilled at the same time. Its application to high rate processes of loading and release has required some law modification and a nontrivial review of the dislocation mechanism for stress relaxation. The agreement achieved with the experiment is illustrated in figures. The model is worked out and realized in the 1D user software MAG. 1. Lomnitz C. Joun. of Geology, 1956, vol. 64, p. 473-479. 2. Lipkin J., Asay J.R. J. Appl. Phys. ,1977, vol. 48, 1, p.182-189. 3. Johnson J., Barker L. J. Appl. Phys., 1969, vol. 40, 11, p. 4321-4334. 4. Asay J.R., Chhabildas L. M.: Metallurgia., 1984, p. 110-120.
10 CFR 611.108 - Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral. 611... of collateral. (a) The Agreement and other documents related thereto shall provide that: (1) DOE and... necessary to perfect and maintain liens, as applicable, on assets which are pledged as collateral for the...
Thompson, Robert Bruce
2006-01-01
This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Z.; Schreyer, H.L. [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1995-09-01
The response of underground structures and transportation facilities under various external loadings and environments is critical for human safety as well as environmental protection. Since quasi-brittle materials such as concrete and rock are commonly used for underground construction, the constitutive modeling of these engineering materials, including post-limit behaviors, is one of the most important aspects in safety assessment. From experimental, theoretical, and computational points of view, this report considers the constitutive modeling of quasi-brittle materials in general and concentrates on concrete in particular. Based on the internal variable theory of thermodynamics, the general formulations of plasticity and damage models are given to simulate two distinct modes of microstructural changes, inelastic flow and degradation of material strength and stiffness, that identify the phenomenological nonlinear behaviors of quasi-brittle materials. The computational aspects of plasticity and damage models are explored with respect to their effects on structural analyses. Specific constitutive models are then developed in a systematic manner according to the degree of completeness. A comprehensive literature survey is made to provide the up-to-date information on prediction of structural failures, which can serve as a reference for future research.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Song-Gui Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D parallel multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LBM for Bingham plastics which overcomes numerical instabilities in the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids for the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK model. The MRT-LBM and several related mathematical models are briefly described. Papanastasiou’s modified model is incorporated for better numerical stability. The impact of the relaxation parameters of the model is studied in detail. The MRT-LBM is then validated through a benchmark problem: a 3D steady Poiseuille flow. The results from the numerical simulations are consistent with those derived analytically which indicates that the MRT-LBM effectively simulates Bingham fluids but with better stability. A parallel MRT-LBM framework is introduced, and the parallel efficiency is tested through a simple case. The MRT-LBM is shown to be appropriate for parallel implementation and to have high efficiency. Finally, a Bingham fluid flowing past a square-based prism with a fixed sphere is simulated. It is found the drag coefficient is a function of both Reynolds number (Re and Bingham number (Bn. These results reveal the flow behavior of Bingham plastics.
Le Perfectionnement en Phonetique (Perfecting Phonetics)
Laroche-Bouvy, Danielle
1975-01-01
This article describes the programs of the Institut d'Etudes Linguistiques et Phonetiques, located in Paris. The program focuses on perfecting the students' phonetic production of French. Both curriculum and teaching methods are described, as well as a course in phonetics for future teachers of French. (Text is in French.) (CLK)
The appearance of plasticity on the blocks surfaces in geological media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sibiryakov, Boris P., E-mail: sibiryakovbp@ipgg.sbras.ru [Trofimuk Institute of Oil and Gas Geology and Geophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia and Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)
2014-11-14
In present the elasticity and plasticity are absolutely different models of solids, which are not relate to each other. The experimental observations show, that the plasticity arrives and localizes on the surfaces of structures, which contain solid samples. The transition in special state, where a small part of solid volume is in plastic state, while the main part of volume is in elastic state not be describe by classical continuum Cauchy and Poisson model. This classical model requires two alternative states. Either is elastic state in the all volume or plastic one for all elementary volume too. However, the structured model of space gives us a possibility to describe this complicate state. In this paper shown that the sliding surfaces divided to each other by distances equal to the average sizes of microstructures, in the contrary of classical plasticity, where they have not characteristic distance. The energy of plastic transition is very small, because the main part of volume is elastic body. This description means the smooth transition from elasticity to plasticity in vicinity of sliding surfaces.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Heaton, Pamela
2012-01-01
Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increas...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Gwang Ung
1988-01-15
This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Gwang Ung
1988-01-01
This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.
Elastic and plastic characteristics of a model Cu–Zr amorphous alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Akiho; Kamimura, Yasushi; Edagawa, Keiichi; Takeuchi, Shin
2014-01-01
Athermal quasistatic simulation of shear deformation has been conducted for a realistic model Cu–Zr amorphous alloy to investigate characteristic features of elasticity and plasticity of the material. Significant reduction of the shear modulus by nonaffine atomic displacements and appreciable nonlinearity of elasticity have been observed. The fourth-order elastic constant in shear deformation and the ideal shear strength have been evaluated. Plastic deformation has been observed to start with isolated local shear transformations (LSTs) followed by collective LSTs leading to the formation of a shear band. Participation-ratio analysis (PRA) has demonstrated how the nonaffine displacement field converges as the system approaches the critical point of losing structural stability. PRA has also evaluated quantitatively the numbers of atoms participating in LSTs – the average number is about 30. Spatially anisotropic development of nascent shear band on a plane has been shown, attributable to anisotropic internal stress field induced by an LST. The evaluated stresses for the shear-band nucleation and for its propagation have indicated that the yielding in real materials is controlled by the shear-band propagation, as previously pointed out
Looking beyond the perfect lens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wee, W H; Pendry, J B
2010-01-01
The holy grail of imaging is the ability to see through anything. From the conservation of energy, we can easily see that to see through a lossy material would require lenses with gain. The aim of this paper therefore is to propose a simple scheme by which we can construct a general perfect lens, with gain-one that can restore both the phases and amplitudes of near and far fields.
Validation of a Crystal Plasticity Model Using High Energy Diffraction Microscopy
Beaudoin, A. J.; Obstalecki, M.; Storer, R.; Tayon, W.; Mach, J.; Kenesei, P.; Lienert, U.
2012-01-01
High energy diffraction microscopy is used to measure the crystallographic orientation and evolution of lattice strain in an Al Li alloy. The relative spatial arrangement of the several pancake-shaped grains in a tensile sample is determined through in situ and ex situ techniques. A model for crystal plasticity with continuity of lattice spin is posed, where grains are represented by layers in a finite element mesh following the arrangement indicated by experiment. Comparison is drawn between experiment and simulation.
Elliott, Terry; Kramer, Jörg
2002-10-01
We couple a previously studied, biologically inspired neurotrophic model of activity-dependent competitive synaptic plasticity and neuronal development to a neuromorphic retina chip. Using this system, we examine the development and refinement of a topographic mapping between an array of afferent neurons (the retinal ganglion cells) and an array of target neurons. We find that the plasticity model can indeed drive topographic refinement in the presence of afferent activity patterns generated by a real-world device. We examine the resilience of the developing system to the presence of high levels of noise by adjusting the spontaneous firing rate of the silicon neurons.
Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R
2017-05-15
Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Present Perfect in World Englishes
Yao, Xinyue; Collins, Peter
2012-01-01
This paper reports on a comprehensive corpus-based study of regional and stylistic variation in the distribution of the English present perfect. The data represents ten English varieties of both the Inner Circle and Outer Circle, covering four major text types: conversation, news reportage, academic and fictional writing. The results are discussed…
Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on Mie resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji, E-mail: zhouji@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bi, Ke [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhao, Qian [State Key Lab of Tribology, Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2016-08-08
We numerically and experimentally demonstrated a polarization insensitive dual-band metamaterial perfect absorber working in wide incident angles based on the two magnetic Mie resonances of a single dielectric “atom” with simple structure. Two absorption bands with simulated absorptivity of 99% and 96%, experimental absorptivity of 97% and 94% at 8.45 and 11.97 GHz were achieved due to the simultaneous magnetic and electric resonances in dielectric “atom” and copper plate. Mie resonances of dielectric “atom” provide a simple way to design metamaterial perfect absorbers with high symmetry.
Common mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in vertebrates and invertebrates
Glanzman, David L.
2016-01-01
Until recently, the literature on learning-related synaptic plasticity in invertebrates has been dominated by models assuming plasticity is mediated by presynaptic changes, whereas the vertebrate literature has been dominated by models assuming it is mediated by postsynaptic changes. Here I will argue that this situation does not reflect a biological reality and that, in fact, invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems share a common set of mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:20152143
Lombardi, Sara A; Hicks, Reimi E; Thompson, Katerina V; Marbach-Ad, Gili
2014-03-01
This study investigated the impact of three commonly used cardiovascular model-assisted activities on student learning and student attitudes and perspectives about science. College students enrolled in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (organ dissections, virtual dissections, or plastic models). Each group received a 15-min lecture followed by a 45-min activity with one of the treatments. Immediately after the lesson and then 2 mo later, students were tested on anatomy and physiology knowledge and completed an attitude survey. Students who used plastic models achieved significantly higher overall scores on both the initial and followup exams than students who performed organ or virtual dissections. On the initial exam, students in the plastic model and organ dissection treatments scored higher on anatomy questions than students who performed virtual dissections. Students in the plastic model group scored higher than students who performed organ dissections on physiology questions. On the followup exam, when asked anatomy questions, students in the plastic model group scored higher than dissection students and virtual dissection students. On attitude surveys, organ dissections had higher perceived value and were requested for inclusion in curricula twice as often as any other activity. Students who performed organ dissections were more likely than the other treatment groups to agree with the statement that "science is fun," suggesting that organ dissections may promote positive attitudes toward science. The findings of this study provide evidence for the importance of multiple types of hands-on activities in anatomy laboratory courses.
Strain gradient crystal plasticity effects on flow localization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borg, Ulrik
2007-01-01
for metals described by the reformulated Fleck-Hutchinson strain gradient plasticity theory. The theory is implemented numerically within a finite element framework using slip rate increments and displacement increments as state variables. The formulation reduces to the classical crystal plasticity theory...... in the absence of strain gradients. The model is used to study the effect of an internal material length scale on the localization of plastic flow in shear bands in a single crystal under plane strain tension. It is shown that the mesh sensitivity is removed when using the nonlocal material model considered...
Strain gradient plasticity effects in whisker-reinforced metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2002-01-01
A metal reinforced by fibers in the micron range is studied using the strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck and Hutchinson (2001). Cell-model analyzes are used to study the influence of the material length parameters numerically. Different higher order boundary conditions are considered...... at the fiber-matrix interface. The results are presented as overall stress-strain curves for the whisker-reinforced metal, and also contour plots of effective plastic strain are shown. The strain gradient plasticity theory predicts a significant stiffening effect when compared to conventional models...
Admal, Nikhil Chandra; Po, Giacomo; Marian, Jaime
2017-12-01
The standard way of modeling plasticity in polycrystals is by using the crystal plasticity model for single crystals in each grain, and imposing suitable traction and slip boundary conditions across grain boundaries. In this fashion, the system is modeled as a collection of boundary-value problems with matching boundary conditions. In this paper, we develop a diffuse-interface crystal plasticity model for polycrystalline materials that results in a single boundary-value problem with a single crystal as the reference configuration. Using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into lattice and plastic parts, i.e. F( X,t)= F L( X,t) F P( X,t), an initial stress-free polycrystal is constructed by imposing F L to be a piecewise constant rotation field R 0( X), and F P= R 0( X)T, thereby having F( X,0)= I, and zero elastic strain. This model serves as a precursor to higher order crystal plasticity models with grain boundary energy and evolution.
Tunable THz perfect absorber with two absorption peaks based on graphene microribbons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gu, Mingyue; Xiao, Binggang; Xiao, Sanshui
2018-01-01
Perfect absorption is characterised by the complete suppression of incident and reflected electromagnetic wave, and complete dissipation of the incident energy. A tunable perfect terahertz (THz) absorber with two absorption peaks based on graphene is presented. The proposed structure consists of ...
AN FDTD ALGORITHM WITH PERFECTLY MATCHED LAYERS FOR CONDUCTIVE MEDIA. (R825225)
We extend Berenger's perfectly matched layers (PML) to conductive media. A finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with PML as an absorbing boundary condition is developed for solutions of Maxwell's equations in inhomogeneous, conductive media. For a perfectly matched laye...
Strain gradient plasticity-based modeling of hydrogen environment assisted cracking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; P. Gangloff, Richard
2016-01-01
Finite element analysis of stress about a blunt crack tip, emphasizing finite strain and phenomenologicaland mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity (SGP) formulations, is integrated with electrochemical assessment of occluded-crack tip hydrogen (H) solubility and two H-decohesion models...... to predict hydrogen environment assisted crack growth properties. SGP elevates crack tip geometrically necessary dislocation density and flow stress, with enhancement declining with increasing alloy strength. Elevated hydrostatic stress promotes high-trapped H concentration for crack tip damage......; it is imperative to account for SGP in H cracking models. Predictions of the threshold stress intensity factor and H-diffusion limited Stage II crack growth rate agree with experimental data for a high strength austenitic Ni-Cusuperalloy (Monel®K-500) and two modern ultra-high strength martensitic steels (Aer...
The Role of Neuromodulators in Cortical Plasticity. A Computational Perspective
Pedrosa, Victor; Clopath, Claudia
2017-01-01
Neuromodulators play a ubiquitous role across the brain in regulating plasticity. With recent advances in experimental techniques, it is possible to study the effects of diverse neuromodulatory states in specific brain regions. Neuromodulators are thought to impact plasticity predominantly through two mechanisms: the gating of plasticity and the upregulation of neuronal activity. However, the consequences of these mechanisms are poorly understood and there is a need for both experimental and theoretical exploration. Here we illustrate how neuromodulatory state affects cortical plasticity through these two mechanisms. First, we explore the ability of neuromodulators to gate plasticity by reshaping the learning window for spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Using a simple computational model, we implement four different learning rules and demonstrate their effects on receptive field plasticity. We then compare the neuromodulatory effects of upregulating learning rate versus the effects of upregulating neuronal activity. We find that these seemingly similar mechanisms do not yield the same outcome: upregulating neuronal activity can lead to either a broadening or a sharpening of receptive field tuning, whereas upregulating learning rate only intensifies the sharpening of receptive field tuning. This simple model demonstrates the need for further exploration of the rich landscape of neuromodulator-mediated plasticity. Future experiments, coupled with biologically detailed computational models, will elucidate the diversity of mechanisms by which neuromodulatory state regulates cortical plasticity. PMID:28119596
Whole genome association mapping by incompatibilities and local perfect phylogenies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mailund, Thomas; Besenbacher, Søren; Schierup, Mikkel Heide
2006-01-01
around each marker that is compatible with a single phylogenetic tree. This perfect phylogenetic tree is treated as a decision tree for determining disease status, and scored by its accuracy as a decision tree. The rationale for this is that the perfect phylogeny near a disease affecting mutation should...... a fast method for accurate localisation of disease causing variants in high density case-control association mapping experiments with large numbers of cases and controls. The method searches for significant clustering of case chromosomes in the "perfect" phylogenetic tree defined by the largest region...... provide more information about the affected/unaffected classification than random trees. If regions of compatibility contain few markers, due to e.g. large marker spacing, the algorithm can allow the inclusion of incompatibility markers in order to enlarge the regions prior to estimating their phylogeny...
The Plastic Potential, Double-slip, Double-spin and Viscoplasticity
Harris, David
2010-05-01
In this paper we describe two classical models for rate-independent behaviour of granular materials, namely the plastic potential and the double shearing model, emphasising their ill-posedness. We then describe a model, called the doubleslip and double-spin model which generalises the plastic potential model and is closely related to the double shearing model. This new model eliminates the causes of the ill-posedness in the classical models and provides a suitable basis for the analysis of the deformation and flow of granular materials in the rate-independent regime. There has been considerable recent interest in the intermediate regime between densely-packed, rate-independent, quasistatic flow and the rate-dependent dilute gaseous regime. In this intermediate regime the material also exhibits a degree of ratedependence. The natural extension of a rate-independent plasticity model to incorporate rate-dependent material behaviour is by way of viscoplasticity. The archetypal example here is the Bingham material which generalises a von Mises type plasticity model and introduces a viscosity parameter into the model. We propose an extension of the double-slip and double-spin model to incorporate viscosity, thereby extending the range of the model to incorporate rate-dependent behaviour. The new model is then applied to a simplified problem of pipe flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longhi, Stefano
2014-01-01
Quantum recurrence and dynamic localization are investigated in a class of ac-driven tight-binding Hamiltonians, the Krawtchouk quantum chain, which in the undriven case provides a paradigmatic Hamiltonian model that realizes perfect quantum state transfer and mirror inversion. The equivalence between the ac-driven single-particle Krawtchouk Hamiltonian H -hat (t) and the non-interacting ac-driven bosonic junction Hamiltonian enables to determine in a closed form the quasi energy spectrum of H -hat (t) and the conditions for exact wave packet reconstruction (dynamic localization). In particular, we show that quantum recurrence, which is predicted by the general quantum recurrence theorem, is exact for the Krawtchouk quantum chain in a dense range of the driving amplitude. Exact quantum recurrence provides perfect wave packet reconstruction at a frequency which is fractional than the driving frequency, a phenomenon that can be referred to as fractional dynamic localization
Mixed-waste pyrolysis of biomass and plastics waste – A modelling approach to reduce energy usage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oyedun, Adetoyese Olajire; Gebreegziabher, Tesfaldet; Ng, Denny K.S.; Hui, Chi Wai
2014-01-01
Thermal co-processing of waste mixtures had gained a lot of attention in the last decade. This is largely due to certain synergistic effects such as higher quantity and better quality of oil, limited supply of certain feedstock and improving the overall pyrolysis process. Many experiments have been conducted via TGA analysis and different reactors to achieve the stated synergistic effects in co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastic wastes. The thermal behaviour of plastics during pyrolysis is different from that of biomass because its decomposition happens at a high temperature range with sudden release of volatile compared to biomass which have a wide range of thermal decomposition. A properly designed recipe and operational strategy of mixing feedstock can ease the operational difficulties and at the same time decrease energy consumption and/or improve the product yield. Therefore it is worthwhile to study the possible synergistic effects on the overall energy used during co-pyrolysis process. In this work, two different modelling approaches were used to study the energy related synergistic effect between polystyrene (PS) and bamboo waste. The mass loss and volatile generation profiles show that significant interactions between the two feedstocks exist. The results also show that both modelling approaches give an appreciable synergy effect of reduction in overall energy when PS and bamboo are co-pyrolysed together. However, the second approach which allows interaction between the two feedstocks gives a more reduction in overall energy usage up to 6.2% depending on the ratio of PS in the mixed blend. - Highlights: • Proposed the mixed-waste pyrolysis modelling via two modelling approaches. • Study the energy related synergistic effects when plastics and biomass are pyrolysed together. • Mass loss and volatile generation profiles show the existence of significant interactions. • Energy usage can be reduced by up to 6.2% depending on the percentage of the plastic
An Infinite Family of Circulant Graphs with Perfect State Transfer in Discrete Quantum Walks
Zhan, Hanmeng
2017-01-01
We study perfect state transfer in a discrete quantum walk. In particular, we show that there are infinitely many $4$-regular circulant graphs that admit perfect state transfer between antipodal vertices. To the best of our knowledge, previously there was no infinite family of $k$-regular graphs with perfect state transfer, for any $k\\ge 3$.
Environmental evaluation of plastic waste management scenarios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rigamonti, L.; Grosso, M.; Møller, Jacob
2014-01-01
The management of the plastic fraction is one of the most debated issues in the discussion on integrated municipal solid waste systems. Both material and energy recovery can be performed on such a waste stream, and different separate collection schemes can be implemented. The aim of the paper....... The study confirmed the difficulty to clearly identify an optimal strategy for plastic waste management. In fact none of the examined scenarios emerged univocally as the best option for all impact categories. When moving from the P0 treatment strategy to the other scenarios, substantial improvements can...... is to contribute to the debate, based on the analysis of different plastic waste recovery routes. Five scenarios were defined and modelled with a life cycle assessment approach using the EASEWASTE model. In the baseline scenario (P0) the plastic is treated as residual waste and routed partly to incineration...
Simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model
Chen, SongGui; Sun, QiCheng; Jin, Feng; Liu, JianGuo
2014-03-01
Fresh cement mortar is a type of workable paste, which can be well approximated as a Bingham plastic and whose flow behavior is of major concern in engineering. In this paper, Papanastasiou's model for Bingham fluids is solved by using the multiplerelaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LB). Analysis of the stress growth exponent m in Bingham fluid flow simulations shows that Papanastasiou's model provides a good approximation of realistic Bingham plastics for values of m > 108. For lower values of m, Papanastasiou's model is valid for fluids between Bingham and Newtonian fluids. The MRT-LB model is validated by two benchmark problems: 2D steady Poiseuille flows and lid-driven cavity flows. Comparing the numerical results of the velocity distributions with corresponding analytical solutions shows that the MRT-LB model is appropriate for studying Bingham fluids while also providing better numerical stability. We further apply the MRT-LB model to simulate flow through a sudden expansion channel and the flow surrounding a round particle. Besides the rich flow structures obtained in this work, the dynamics fluid force on the round particle is calculated. Results show that both the Reynolds number Re and the Bingham number Bn affect the drag coefficients C D , and a drag coefficient with Re and Bn being taken into account is proposed. The relationship of Bn and the ratio of unyielded zone thickness to particle diameter is also analyzed. Finally, the Bingham fluid flowing around a set of randomly dispersed particles is simulated to obtain the apparent viscosity and velocity fields. These results help simulation of fresh concrete flowing in porous media.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Connor, Isabel A.; Golsteijn, Laura; Hendriks, A. Jan
2016-01-01
Marine plastic debris are found worldwide in oceans and coastal areas. They degrade only slowly and contain chemicals added during manufacture or absorbed from the seawater. Therefore, they can pose a long-lasting contaminant source and potentially transfer chemicals to marine organisms when ingested. In order to assess their risk, the contaminant concentration in the plastics needs to be estimated and differences understood. We collected from literature plastic water partition coefficients of various organic chemicals for seven plastic types: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), high-density, low-density and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (LDPE, HDPE, UHMWPE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Most data was available for PDMS (1060) and LDPE (220), but much less for the remaining plastics (73). Where possible, regression models were developed and the partitioning was compared between the different plastic types. The partitioning of chemicals follows the order of LDPE ≈ HDPE ≥ PP > PVC ≈ PS. Data describing the impact of weathering are urgently needed. - Highlights: • Comparison of organic chemicals partitioning into seven plastic types • Linear correlation between plastic-water partition coefficient K pw and K ow • More data is needed for polypropylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride. • In all plastic types, most K pw were similar to/smaller than the corresponding K ow .
Computational description of nanocrystalline deformation based on crystal plasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, H.-H.; Benson, David J.; Andre Meyers, Marc
2004-01-01
The effect of grain size on the mechanical response of polycrystalline metals was investigated computationally and applied to the nanocrystalline domain. A phenomenological constitutive description is adopted to build the computational crystal model. Two approaches are implemented. In the first, the material is envisaged as a composite; the grain interior is modeled as a monocrystalline core surrounded by a mantle (grain boundary) with a lower yield stress and higher work hardening rate response. Both a quasi-isotropic and crystal plasticity approaches are used to simulate the grain interiors. The grain boundary is modeled either by an isotropic Voce equation (Model I) or by crystal plasticity (Model II). Elastic and plastic anisotropy are incorporated into this simulation. An implicit Eulerian finite element formulation with von Mises plasticity or rate dependent crystal plasticity is used to study the nonuniform deformation and localized plastic flow. The computational predictions are compared with the experimentally determined mechanical response of copper with grain sizes of 1 μm and 26 nm. Shear localization is observed during work hardening in view of the inhomogeneous mechanical response. In the second approach, the use of a continuous change in mechanical response, expressed by the magnitude of the maximum shear stress orientation gradient, is introduced. It is shown that the magnitude of the gradient is directly dependent on grain size. This gradient term is inserted into a constitutive equation that predicts the local stress-strain evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreno, A.
1977-01-01
A new elastic-plastic-viscous model is described. The model is one of the multiple integral type, and has been included in a numerical code to predict the behaviour of a nuclear fuel of cylindrical form. Some features of this code are also described. (author)
Programmatic material on perfection of competition activity of highly skilled basketball players.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sushko Ruslana Aleksandrovna
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The special facilities are considered for creation of the programs of correction of training process and perfection of competitiveness activity. Basic estimations and structure of correction of technical tactical actions are resulted. It is set that programmatic material must take into account playing specialization of basketball-player, model indexes. It is also necessary to take into account optimization and modification of existent technologies of estimation of technical tactical actions.
Cerebellar plasticity and motor learning deficits in a copy-number variation mouse model of autism.
Piochon, Claire; Kloth, Alexander D; Grasselli, Giorgio; Titley, Heather K; Nakayama, Hisako; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Wan, Vivian; Simmons, Dana H; Eissa, Tahra; Nakatani, Jin; Cherskov, Adriana; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko; Takumi, Toru; Kano, Masanobu; Wang, Samuel S-H; Hansel, Christian
2014-11-24
A common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the impairment of motor control and learning, occurring in a majority of children with autism, consistent with perturbation in cerebellar function. Here we report alterations in motor behaviour and cerebellar synaptic plasticity in a mouse model (patDp/+) for the human 15q11-13 duplication, one of the most frequently observed genetic aberrations in autism. These mice show ASD-resembling social behaviour deficits. We find that in patDp/+ mice delay eyeblink conditioning--a form of cerebellum-dependent motor learning--is impaired, and observe deregulation of a putative cellular mechanism for motor learning, long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses. Moreover, developmental elimination of surplus climbing fibres--a model for activity-dependent synaptic pruning--is impaired. These findings point to deficits in synaptic plasticity and pruning as potential causes for motor problems and abnormal circuit development in autism.
Perfect synchronization in networks of phase-frustrated oscillators
Kundu, Prosenjit; Hens, Chittaranjan; Barzel, Baruch; Pal, Pinaki
2017-11-01
Synchronizing phase-frustrated Kuramoto oscillators, a challenge that has found applications from neuronal networks to the power grid, is an eluding problem, as even small phase lags cause the oscillators to avoid synchronization. Here we show, constructively, how to strategically select the optimal frequency set, capturing the natural frequencies of all oscillators, for a given network and phase lags, that will ensure perfect synchronization. We find that high levels of synchronization are sustained in the vicinity of the optimal set, allowing for some level of deviation in the frequencies without significant degradation of synchronization. Demonstrating our results on first- and second-order phase-frustrated Kuramoto dynamics, we implement them on both model and real power grid networks, showing how to achieve synchronization in a phase-frustrated environment.
Material model validation for laser shock peening process simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amarchinta, H K; Grandhi, R V; Langer, K; Stargel, D S
2009-01-01
Advanced mechanical surface enhancement techniques have been used successfully to increase the fatigue life of metallic components. These techniques impart deep compressive residual stresses into the component to counter potentially damage-inducing tensile stresses generated under service loading. Laser shock peening (LSP) is an advanced mechanical surface enhancement technique used predominantly in the aircraft industry. To reduce costs and make the technique available on a large-scale basis for industrial applications, simulation of the LSP process is required. Accurate simulation of the LSP process is a challenging task, because the process has many parameters such as laser spot size, pressure profile and material model that must be precisely determined. This work focuses on investigating the appropriate material model that could be used in simulation and design. In the LSP process material is subjected to strain rates of 10 6 s −1 , which is very high compared with conventional strain rates. The importance of an accurate material model increases because the material behaves significantly different at such high strain rates. This work investigates the effect of multiple nonlinear material models for representing the elastic–plastic behavior of materials. Elastic perfectly plastic, Johnson–Cook and Zerilli–Armstrong models are used, and the performance of each model is compared with available experimental results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, T.; Ohno, N.; Suzuki, A.; Igari, T.
1987-01-01
The authorization of constitutive models under plasticity-creep condition and life estimation methods in fatigue-creep regime is expected to be achieved from the viewpoint of design purposes of high temperature components of reactor structures. The present Subcommittee has performed the cooperative project consisting of the following two parts: (A) To review and evaluate inelastic constitutive models relevant to the material response under plasticity-creep interaction and (B) to recommend some adequate methods to estimate material life under fatigue-creep interaction by taking account of the effect of plasticity-creep interaction on the stress-strain hysteresis loops. The material treated is normalized and tempered 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel at 600 0 C. The part (A) plays a preliminary role for the part (B), since the constitutive models examined in the part (A) were used to describe the stress-strain hysteresis loops necessary to predict analytically the lives under fatigue-creep interaction. In the part (A), thererfore, it is important to check how accurately the constitutive models simulate the stress-strain hysteresis loops especially by taking account of the effect of plasticity-creep interaction. (orig./GL)
Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.
Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J
2011-11-01
We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the
Perfect lensing with phase-conjugating surfaces: toward practical realization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslovski, Stanislav; Tretyakov, Sergei
2012-01-01
It is theoretically known that a pair of phase-conjugating surfaces can function as a perfect lens, focusing propagating waves and enhancing evanescent waves. However, the known experimental approaches based on thin sheets of nonlinear materials cannot fully realize the required phase conjugation boundary condition. In this paper, we show that the ideal phase-conjugating surface is, in principle, physically realizable and investigate the necessary properties of nonlinear and nonreciprocal particles which can be used to build a perfect lens system. The physical principle of the lens operation is discussed in detail and directions of possible experimental realizations are outlined. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barcala Riveira, J M; Fernandez Marron, J L; Alberdi Primicia, J; Navarrete Marin, J J; Oller Gonzalez, J C
2003-07-01
This document describes the calibration of a plastic Classification system with the CCW model (Classification by Quaternions built Wavelet Coefficients). The method is applied to spectra of plastics usually present in domestic wastes. Obtained results are showed. (Author) 16 refs.
Crystallographically based model for transformation-induced plasticity in multiphase carbon steels
Tjahjanto, D.D.; Turteltaub, S.; Suiker, A.S.J.
2007-01-01
The microstructure of multiphase steels assisted by transformation-induced plasticity consists of grains of retained austenite embedded in a ferrite-based matrix. Upon mechanical loading, retained austenite may transform into martensite, as a result of which plastic deformations are induced in the
Crystallographically based model for transformation-induced plasticity in multiphase carbon steels
Tjahjanto, D.D.; Turteltaub, S.R.; Suiker, A.S.J.
2008-01-01
The microstructure of multiphase steels assisted by transformation-induced plasticity consists of grains of retained austenite embedded in a ferrite-based matrix. Upon mechanical loading, retained austenite may transform into martensite, as a result of which plastic deformations are induced in the
Plasticity Approach to Shear Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter
1998-01-01
The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in non......-shear reinforced beams as well as in lightly shear reinforced beams. For such beams the shear strength is determined by the recently developed crack sliding model. This model is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed...... in uncracked concrete. Good agree between theory and tests has been found.Keywords: dsign, plasticity, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, shear, web crushing....
On the uniqueness of static perfect-fluid solutions in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beig, R.; Simon, W.
1990-01-01
Following earlier work of Masood-ul-Alam, we consider a uniqueness problem for nonrotating stellar models. Given a static, asymptotically flat perfect-fluid spacetime with barotropic equation of state ρ(p), and given another such spacetime which is spherically symmetric and has the same ρ(p) and the same surface potential: we prove that both are identical provided ρ(p) satisfies a certain differential inequality. This inequality is more natural and less restrictive that the conditions required by Masood-ul-Alam. 30 refs. (Authors)
Gerya, Taras V.; Yuen, David A.
2007-08-01
We have extended our previous 2D method [Gerya, T.V., Yuen, D.A., 2003. Characteristics-based marker-in-cell method with conservative finite-differences schemes for modeling geological flows with strongly variable transport properties. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 140, 295-320], which is a combination of conservative finite-differences with marker-in-cell techniques to include the effects of visco-elasto-plastic rheology, self-gravitation and a self-consistently derived evolving curvilinear planetary surface. This code is called I2ELVIS and can solve a new class of computationally challenging problems in geodynamics, such as shear localization with large strains, crustal intrusion emplacement of magmas, bending of realistic visco-elasto-plastic plates and core-formation by vigorous shell tectonics activities related to a global Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a metal layer formed around silicate-rich lower density (primordial) core during planetary accretion. We discuss in detail the computational strategy required the rheological constraints to be satisfied at each time step and spatial location. We show analytical benchmarks and examples drawn from comparing between numerical and analogue experiments in structural geology, subducting slab bending with a visco-elasto-plastic rheology and equilibrium spherical configurations from self-gravitation. We have also tested possibilities of future applications by addressing 3D geometries based on multigrid method and including inertial effects in the momentum equation with tracers in order to simulate meteoritic impact events and eventually earthquake instabilities.
Plasticity around an Axial Surface Crack in a Cylindrical Shell
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1979-01-01
of the yield zone. The model is used to analyse published test data on surface cracked pressurised pipes. The analysis consists in COD evaluation and estimate of failure as a consequence of plastic instability. A method is proposed which deals with the problem by simultaneous analysis of a number of cracks......This paper presents a plasticity model for deep axial surface cracks in pressurised pipes. The model is used in an investigation of the relative merits of fracture criteria based on COD and plastic instability. Recent investigations have shown that the inconsistency of the singular bending stress...... on the bending stresses is considerable. In the case of surface cracks moments are induced due to the eccentricity of the crack and transverse shear effects should therefore be included. A plasticity model for a rectangular axial surface crack is developed. Like a previous surface crack model by Erdogen...
What is anthropological about The Perfect Human?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Line Hassall
2015-01-01
Jørgen Leth has classified The Perfect Human as an anthropological film. But is the film anthropological at all? This article explores Leth’s connections with anthropology and finds that he is more inspired by anthropological framing than he is by anthropological research methods....
The Finite Strain Johnson Cook Plasticity and Damage Constitutive Model in ALEGRA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez, Jason James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2018-02-01
A finite strain formulation of the Johnson Cook plasticity and damage model and it's numerical implementation into the ALEGRA code is presented. The goal of this work is to improve the predictive material failure capability of the Johnson Cook model. The new implementation consists of a coupling of damage and the stored elastic energy as well as the minimum failure strain criteria for spall included in the original model development. This effort establishes the necessary foundation for a thermodynamically consistent and complete continuum solid material model, for which all intensive properties derive from a common energy. The motivation for developing such a model is to improve upon ALEGRA's present combined model framework. Several applications of the new Johnson Cook implementation are presented. Deformation driven loading paths demonstrate the basic features of the new model formulation. Use of the model produces good comparisons with experimental Taylor impact data. Localized deformation leading to fragmentation is produced for expanding ring and exploding cylinder applications.
The super-Turing computational power of plastic recurrent neural networks.
Cabessa, Jérémie; Siegelmann, Hava T
2014-12-01
We study the computational capabilities of a biologically inspired neural model where the synaptic weights, the connectivity pattern, and the number of neurons can evolve over time rather than stay static. Our study focuses on the mere concept of plasticity of the model so that the nature of the updates is assumed to be not constrained. In this context, we show that the so-called plastic recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are capable of the precise super-Turing computational power--as the static analog neural networks--irrespective of whether their synaptic weights are modeled by rational or real numbers, and moreover, irrespective of whether their patterns of plasticity are restricted to bi-valued updates or expressed by any other more general form of updating. Consequently, the incorporation of only bi-valued plastic capabilities in a basic model of RNNs suffices to break the Turing barrier and achieve the super-Turing level of computation. The consideration of more general mechanisms of architectural plasticity or of real synaptic weights does not further increase the capabilities of the networks. These results support the claim that the general mechanism of plasticity is crucially involved in the computational and dynamical capabilities of biological neural networks. They further show that the super-Turing level of computation reflects in a suitable way the capabilities of brain-like models of computation.
Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; Dubois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Khaled, Bilal; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther
2016-01-01
A material model which incorporates several key capabilities which have been identified by the aerospace community as lacking in the composite impact models currently available in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) is under development. In particular, the material model, which is being implemented as MAT 213 into a tailored version of LS-DYNA being jointly developed by the FAA and NASA, incorporates both plasticity and damage within the material model, utilizes experimentally based tabulated input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage as opposed to specifying discrete input parameters (such as modulus and strength), and is able to analyze the response of composites composed with a variety of fiber architectures. The plasticity portion of the orthotropic, three-dimensional, macroscopic composite constitutive model is based on an extension of the Tsai-Wu composite failure model into a generalized yield function with a non-associative flow rule. The capability to account for the rate and temperature dependent deformation response of composites has also been incorporated into the material model. For the damage model, a strain equivalent formulation is utilized to allow for the uncoupling of the deformation and damage analyses. In the damage model, a diagonal damage tensor is defined to account for the directionally dependent variation of damage. However, in composites it has been found that loading in one direction can lead to damage in multiple coordinate directions. To account for this phenomena, the terms in the damage matrix are semi-coupled such that the damage in a particular coordinate direction is a function of the stresses and plastic strains in all of the coordinate directions. The onset of material failure, and thus element deletion, is being developed to be a function of the stresses and plastic strains in the various coordinate directions. Systematic procedures are being developed to generate the required input parameters based on the results of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shokoohfar, Ahmad; Rahai, Alireza, E-mail: rahai@aut.ac.ir
2016-03-15
Highlights: • This paper describes nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a (PCCV). • Coupled temp-disp. analysis and concrete damage plasticity are considered. • Temperature has limited effects on correct failure mode estimation. • Higher pre-stressing forces have limited effects on ultimate radial displacements. • Anchorage details of liner plates leads to prediction of correct failure mode. - Abstract: This paper describes the nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). The analyses are performed under pressure and high temperature effects with considering anchorage details of liner plate. The temperature-time history of the model test is considered as an input boundary condition in the coupled temp-displacement analysis. The constitutive model developed by Chang and Mander (1994) is adopted in the model as the basis for the concrete stress–strain relation. To trace the crack pattern of the PCCV concrete faces, the concrete damage plasticity model is applied. This study includes the results of the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the PCCV subject to temperature loading and internal pressure at the same time. The test results are compared with the analysis results. The analysis results show that the temperature has little impact on the ultimate pressure capacity of the PCCV. To simulate the exact failure mode of the PCCV, the anchorage details of the liner plates around openings should be maintained in the analytical models. Also the failure mode of the PCCV structure hasn’t influenced by hoop tendons pre-stressing force variations.
Diffraction of love waves by two staggered perfectly weak half-planes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asghar, S.; Zaman, F.D.; Sajida Asghar
1989-01-01
Love wave travelling in a layer of uniform thickness overlying a half-space is assumed to be incident on two parallel but staggered perfectly weak half-planes lying in the upper layer. The diffracted fields is calculated using the modified Wiener-Hopf technique and contour integration method. The diffracted waves satisfy the dispersion relations appropriate to different regions formed by the perfectly weak half-planes
Global plastic models for computerized structural analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roche, R.; Hoffmann, A.
1977-01-01
Two different global models are used in the CEASEMT system for structural analysis, one for the shells analysis and the other for piping analysis (in plastic or creep field). In shell analysis the generalized stresses choosed are the membrane forces Nsub(ij) and bending (including torsion) moments Msub(ij). There is only one yield condition for a normal (to the middle surface) and no integration along the thickness is required. In piping analysis, the choice of generalized stresses is: bending moments, torsional moments, Hoop stress and tension stress. There is only a set of stresses for a cross section and non integration over the cross section area is needed. Connected strains are axis curvature, torsion, uniform strains. The definition of the yield surface is the most important item. A practical way is to use a diagonal quadratic fonction of the stress components. But the coefficients are depending of the shape of the pipe element, especially for curved segments. Indications will be given on the yield fonctions used. Some examples of applications in structural analysis are added to the text [fr
Plastic zone size for nanoindentation of irradiated Fe–9%Cr ODS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dolph, Corey K. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Silva, Douglas J. da [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235 - SP-310, São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Swenson, Matthew J. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Wharry, Janelle P., E-mail: jwharry@purdue.edu [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2016-12-01
The objective of this study is to determine irradiation effects on the nanoindentation plastic zone morphology in a model Fe–9%Cr ODS alloy. Specimens are irradiated to 50 displacements per atom at 400°C with Fe{sup ++} self-ions or to 3 dpa at 500°C with neutrons. The as-received specimen is also studied as a control. The nanoindentation plastic zone size is calculated using two approaches: (1) an analytical model based on the expanding spherical cavity analogy, and (2) finite element modeling (FEM). Plastic zones in all specimen conditions extend radially outward from the indenter, ∼4–5 times the tip radius, indicative of fully plastic contact. Non-negligible plastic flow in the radial direction requires the experimentalist to consider the plastic zone morphology when nanoindenting ion-irradiated specimens; a single nanoindent may sample non-uniform irradiation damage, regardless of whether the indent is made top-down or in cross-section. Finally, true stress-strain curves are generated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, B.N.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Trinkaus, H.
2002-01-01
The analysis of the available experimental observations shows that the occurrence of a sudden yield drop and the associated plastic flow localization are the major concerns regarding the performance and lifetime of materials exposed to fission or fusion neutrons. In the light of the known mechanical properties and microstructures of the as-irradiated and irradiated and deformed materials, it has been argued that the increase in the upper yield stress, the sudden yield drop and the initiation of plastic flow localization, can be rationalized in terms of the cascade induced source hardening (CISH) model. Various aspects of the model (main assumptions and predictions) have been investigated using analytical calculations, 3-D dislocation dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations. The main results and conclusions are briefly summarized. Finally, it is pointed out that even though the formation of cleared channels may be rationalized in terms of climb-controlled glide of the source dislocation, a number of problems regarding the initiation and the evolution of these channels remain unsolved
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, B.N. E-mail: bachu.singh@risoe.dk; Ghoniem, N.M.; Trinkaus, H
2002-12-01
The analysis of the available experimental observations shows that the occurrence of a sudden yield drop and the associated plastic flow localization are the major concerns regarding the performance and lifetime of materials exposed to fission or fusion neutrons. In the light of the known mechanical properties and microstructures of the as-irradiated and irradiated and deformed materials, it has been argued that the increase in the upper yield stress, the sudden yield drop and the initiation of plastic flow localization, can be rationalized in terms of the cascade induced source hardening (CISH) model. Various aspects of the model (main assumptions and predictions) have been investigated using analytical calculations, 3-D dislocation dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations. The main results and conclusions are briefly summarized. Finally, it is pointed out that even though the formation of cleared channels may be rationalized in terms of climb-controlled glide of the source dislocation, a number of problems regarding the initiation and the evolution of these channels remain unsolved.
Cerebellar Plasticity and Motor Learning Deficits in a Copy Number Variation Mouse Model of Autism
Piochon, Claire; Kloth, Alexander D; Grasselli, Giorgio; Titley, Heather K; Nakayama, Hisako; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Wan, Vivian; Simmons, Dana H; Eissa, Tahra; Nakatani, Jin; Cherskov, Adriana; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko; Takumi, Toru; Kano, Masanobu; Wang, Samuel S-H; Hansel, Christian
2014-01-01
A common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the impairment of motor control and learning, occurring in a majority of children with autism, consistent with perturbation in cerebellar function. Here we report alterations in motor behavior and cerebellar synaptic plasticity in a mouse model (patDp/+) for the human 15q11-13 duplication, one of the most frequently observed genetic aberrations in autism. These mice show ASD-resembling social behavior deficits. We find that in patDp/+ mice delay eyeblink conditioning—a form of cerebellum-dependent motor learning—is impaired, and observe deregulation of a putative cellular mechanism for motor learning, long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. Moreover, developmental elimination of surplus climbing fibers—a model for activity-dependent synaptic pruning—is impaired. These findings point to deficits in synaptic plasticity and pruning as potential causes for motor problems and abnormal circuit development in autism. PMID:25418414
Geers, M.G.D.
2004-01-01
This paper addresses the extension of a Eulerian logarithmic finite strain hyperelasto-plasticity model in order to incorporate an isotropic plastic damage variable that leads to softening and failure of the plastic material. It is shown that a logarithmic elasto-plastic model with a strongly
Maxwell's fish-eye lens and the mirage of perfect imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merlin, R
2011-01-01
Recent claims that Maxwell's fish-eye is a perfect lens, capable of providing images with deep subwavelength resolution, are examined. We show that the imaging properties of a dispersionless fish-eye are very similar to those of an ideal spherical cavity. Using this correspondence, we prove that the correct solution to Maxwell equations in the fish-eye gives image sizes that are consistent with the standard diffraction limit. Perfect focusing is an optical illusion that results from placing a time-reversed source at the position of the geometrical image which, when combined with the field due to the primary (object) source, mimics the behavior of a perfect drain. Issues of causality are briefly discussed. We also demonstrate that passive outlets are not a good alternative to time-reversed sources for broadband drain-like behavior and that, even if they were, they could not do a better job than conventional optical systems at providing high resolution
Inelastic response spectra of simple degrading systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreaus, U.; Ceradini, G.; D'Asdia, P.; Gaudenzi, P.
1985-01-01
Ductility was first stated, for single-degree-of-freedom elastic-perfectly plastic systems as the ratio of maximum to yield displacements. An alternative approach, aimed to reduce design forces for ductile structures and based on the energy dissipated during earthquake allows to obtain more reliable ductility factors even when system restoring characteristics are affected by deterioration during loading history. Inelastic response of SDOF systems has been investigated under seimic excitation, assuming stable and degrading constitutive laws to model their structural behaviour. Energy spectra and ductility requirent diagrams are generated and compared with those of the corresponding elastic-perfectly plastic systems. (orig.)
Making perfect life : bio-engineering (in) the 21st century : interim study
Est, van R.; Keulen, van I.; Geesink, I.; Schuiff, M.
2010-01-01
Reportnumber: PE 438.829; This document is the result of the preparatory phase of the STOA-project "Making perfect life", that defined the project focus. This resulted in the study document Making Perfect Life: Bio-engineering (in) the 21st century. A project plan for the next two phases was
Hit by a Perfect Storm? Art & Design in the National Student Survey
Yorke, Mantz; Orr, Susan; Blair, Bernadette
2014-01-01
There has long been the suspicion amongst staff in Art & Design that the ratings given to their subject disciplines in the UK's National Student Survey are adversely affected by a combination of circumstances--a "perfect storm". The "perfect storm" proposition is tested by comparing ratings for Art & Design with those…
Jilg, Andreas; Seifert, Thomas
2018-05-01
Hot work tools are subjected to complex thermal and mechanical loads during hot forming processes. Locally, the stresses can exceed the material's yield strength in highly loaded areas as e.g. in small radii in die cavities. To sustain the high loads, the hot forming tools are typically made of martensitic hot work steels. While temperatures for annealing of the tool steels usually lie in the range between 400 and 600 °C, the steels may experience even higher temperatures during hot forming, resulting in softening of the material due to coarsening of strengthening particles. In this paper, a temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for the martensitic hot work tool steel 1.2367 (X38CrMoV5-3) is presented that includes softening due to particle coarsening and that can be applied in finite-element calculations to assess the effect of softening on the thermomechanical fatigue life of hot work tools. To this end, a kinetic model for the evolution of the mean size of secondary carbides based on Ostwald ripening is coupled with a cyclic plasticity model with kinematic hardening. Mechanism-based relations are developed to describe the dependency of the mechanical properties on carbide size and temperature. The material properties of the mechanical and kinetic model are determined on the basis of tempering hardness curves as well as monotonic and cyclic tests.
Motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease.
Udupa, Kaviraja; Chen, Robert
2013-09-04
In Parkinson's disease (PD), there are alterations of the basal ganglia (BG) thalamocortical networks, primarily due to degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. These changes in subcortical networks lead to plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1), which mediates cortical motor output and is a potential target for treatment of PD. Studies investigating the motor cortical plasticity using non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have found altered plasticity in PD, but there are inconsistencies among these studies. This is likely because plasticity depends on many factors such as the extent of dopaminergic loss and disease severity, response to dopaminergic replacement therapies, development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID), the plasticity protocol used, medication, and stimulation status in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). The influences of LID and DBS on BG and M1 plasticity have been explored in animal models and in PD patients. In addition, many other factors such age, genetic factors (e.g., brain derived neurotropic factor and other neurotransmitters or receptors polymorphism), emotional state, time of the day, physical fitness have been documented to play role in the extent of plasticity induced by TMS in human studies. In this review, we summarize the studies that investigated M1 plasticity in PD and demonstrate how these afore-mentioned factors affect motor cortical plasticity in PD. We conclude that it is important to consider the clinical, demographic, and technical factors that influence various plasticity protocols while developing these protocols as diagnostic or prognostic tools in PD. We also discuss how the modulation of cortical excitability and the plasticity with these non-invasive brain stimulation techniques facilitate the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD and help design potential therapeutic possibilities in this disorder.
Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in plastic surgery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lea Juul; Matzen, Steen H
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism is a well-documented complication of surgery, including plastic surgery. However, few consensus guidelines on thromboembolism prophylaxis exist in plastic surgery and, thus, the different approaches in the public as well as the private clinics in Denmark were...... investigated using a web-based survey. METHODS: Forty-two clinics were contacted and 45% responded. RESULTS: The collected data reveals a lack of consensus in plastic surgery in Denmark, not only regarding the use of mechanical and chemical prophylaxis, but also which type of prophylaxis to apply, the duration...... of prophylaxis, and how to risk stratify the patients. CONCLUSION: The development of a guideline, based on plastic surgical data, using a validated risk assessment model, which combines the surgical risk with the patient related risk and recommends guidelines for mechanical as well as chemoprophylaxis...
Tie-breaking in games of perfect information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tranæs, Torben
1998-01-01
The paper suggests that ties in an extensive form game have strategic implications if they represent credible threats or promises. We consider a subset of subgame-perfect Nash equilibria obtained by breaking ties according to their strategic implications, and show that the subset is nonempty for ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleh, Ahmed A.; Pereloma, Elena V.; Clausen, Bjørn; Brown, Donald W.; Tomé, Carlos N.; Gazder, Azdiar A.
2014-01-01
The evolution of lattice strains in a fully recrystallised Fe–24Mn–3Al–2Si–1Ni–0.06C TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel subjected to uniaxial tensile loading up to a true strain of ∼35% was investigated via in-situ neutron diffraction. Typical of fcc elastic and plastic anisotropy, the {111} and {200} grain families record the lowest and highest lattice strains, respectively. Using modelling cases with and without latent hardening, the recently extended Elasto-Plastic Self-Consistent model successfully predicted the macroscopic stress–strain response, the evolution of lattice strains and the development of crystallographic texture. Compared to the isotropic hardening case, latent hardening did not have a significant effect on lattice strains and returned a relatively faster development of a stronger 〈111〉 and a weaker 〈100〉 double fibre parallel to the tensile axis. Close correspondence between the experimental lattice strains and those predicted using particular orientations embedded within a random aggregate was obtained. The result suggests that the exact orientations of the surrounding aggregate have a weak influence on the lattice strain evolution
A not-so-short description of the PERFECT platform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugat, S.; Zeghadi, A.; Adjanor, G.
2010-01-01
This article describes the building of the so-called 'PERFECT platform', which main issue was to allow the development of the PERFECT end-products dedicated to the prediction of the degradation of material properties due to irradiation. First, the general principles used to build the platform are detailed. Such principles guided the choices of preferential development language, architecture, and operating system. The architecture of the platform is then described. It allows an easy development of the end-products, and a 'black-box' integration of the codes developed during the project. Each end-product can be seen as a sequence of modules, each module representing a physical phenomenon in time and space. The platform is very flexible, so that different methodologies can be tested and compared inside an end-product. The second part is devoted to the description of a classical PERFECT study, defined thanks to the graphical user interface developed in the project. Focus is made in particular on how a selection of modules is done, how the input data can be entered, and how the study execution is fully controlled by the user. A final description of the post-processing facilities on the results is exposed.
Mechanisms by Which Phenotypic Plasticity Affects Adaptive Divergence and Ecological Speciation.
Nonaka, Etsuko; Svanbäck, Richard; Thibert-Plante, Xavier; Englund, Göran; Brännström, Åke
2015-11-01
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of one genotype to produce different phenotypes depending on environmental conditions. Several conceptual models emphasize the role of plasticity in promoting reproductive isolation and, ultimately, speciation in populations that forage on two or more resources. These models predict that plasticity plays a critical role in the early stages of speciation, prior to genetic divergence, by facilitating fast phenotypic divergence. The ability to plastically express alternative phenotypes may, however, interfere with the early phase of the formation of reproductive barriers, especially in the absence of geographic barriers. Here, we quantitatively investigate mechanisms under which plasticity can influence progress toward adaptive genetic diversification and ecological speciation. We use a stochastic, individual-based model of a predator-prey system incorporating sexual reproduction and mate choice in the predator. Our results show that evolving plasticity promotes the evolution of reproductive isolation under diversifying environments when individuals are able to correctly select a more profitable habitat with respect to their phenotypes (i.e., adaptive habitat choice) and to assortatively mate with relatively similar phenotypes. On the other hand, plasticity facilitates the evolution of plastic generalists when individuals have a limited capacity for adaptive habitat choice. We conclude that plasticity can accelerate the evolution of a reproductive barrier toward adaptive diversification and ecological speciation through enhanced phenotypic differentiation between diverging phenotypes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreno, A.
1977-01-01
In this work a new elastic-plastic-viscous model is described. The model is one of the multiple integral type, and has been included in a numerical code to predict the behaviour of a nuclear fuel of cylindrical form. Some features of this code are also described. (Author) 91 refs
Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a visco-plastic fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demianov, A Yu; Doludenko, A N; Son, E E; Inogamov, N A
2010-01-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities of a visco-plastic fluid are discussed. The Bingham model is used as an effective rheological model which takes into account plastic effects. For the purposes of numerical simulation a one-mode disturbance of the contact surface between two fluids is considered. The main goal of this work is to construct numerical 2D and 3D models and to obtain the relationship between yield stress and the development of instability.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a visco-plastic fluid
Demianov, A. Yu; Doludenko, A. N.; Inogamov, N. A.; Son, E. E.
2010-12-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities of a visco-plastic fluid are discussed. The Bingham model is used as an effective rheological model which takes into account plastic effects. For the purposes of numerical simulation a one-mode disturbance of the contact surface between two fluids is considered. The main goal of this work is to construct numerical 2D and 3D models and to obtain the relationship between yield stress and the development of instability.