WorldWideScience

Sample records for perennial herbaceous bioenergy

  1. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P...

  2. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO 2 emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels

  3. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO{sub 2} emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels.

  4. Perennial Grass Bioenergy Cropping on Wet Marginal Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Srabani; Teuffer, Karin; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Walter, Michael F.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Richards, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    The control of soil moisture, vegetation type, and prior land use on soil health parameters of perennial grass cropping systems on marginal lands is not well known. A fallow wetness-prone marginal site in New York (USA) was converted to perennial grass bioenergy feedstock production. Quadruplicate

  5. The Forecasting of Adaptation Potential of Herbaceous Perennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belykh, O. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the problem of the ecobiomorph productive features formation of perennial herbs Ranunculaceae family forecasting on the basis of quantitative connections of species parameters with the leading geomorphological factors of South Siberia environment.

  6. Nitrous oxide emission and soil carbon sequestration from herbaceous perennial biofuel feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and renewable, domestic fuels are needed in the United States. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential bioenergy feedstocks that may meet this need. However, managing perennial grasses for feedstock requires nitro...

  7. Use of Plant Growth Regulators to Improve Branching of Herbaceous Perennial Liners

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Mara Celeste

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of PGRs to improve branching during production of herbaceous perennial liners and finished plants. The effects of benzyladenine (BA) on the branching and root and shoot growth of Agastache Clayt. Ex Gronov. 'Purple Hazeâ , Gaura lindheimeri Engelm. & A. Gray 'Siskiyou Pink', Lavandula à intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. 'Provence', Leucanthemum à superbum (Bergmans ex J.W. Ingram) Bergmans ex Kent. 'Snowcap', and Salvia à sylv...

  8. Economics of herbaceous bioenergy crops for electricity generation: Implications for greenhouse gas mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, M.; Onal, H.; Dhungana, B.; Wander, M. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This paper examines the optimal land allocation for two perennial crops, switchgrass and miscanthus that can be co-fired with coal for electricity generation. Detailed spatial data at county level is used to determine the costs of producing and transporting biomass to power plants in Illinois over a 15-year period. A supply curve for bioenergy is generated at various levels of bioenergy subsidies and the implications of production for farm income and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are analyzed. GHG emissions are estimated using lifecycle analysis and include the soil carbon sequestered by perennial grasses and the carbon emissions displaced by these grasses due to both conversion of land from row crops and co-firing the grasses with coal. We find that the conversion of less than 2% of the cropland to bioenergy crops could produce 5.5% of the electricity generated by coal-fired power plants in Illinois and reduce carbon emissions by 11% over the 15-year period. However, the cost of energy from biomass in Illinois is more than twice as high as that of coal. Costly government subsidies for bioenergy or mandates in the form of Renewable Portfolio Standards would be needed to induce the production and use of bioenergy for electricity generation. Alternatively, a modest price for GHG emissions under a cap-and-trade policy could make bioenergy competitive with coal without imposing a fiscal burden on the government.

  9. Next steps in determining the overall sustainability of perennial bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial bioenergy crops are being developed and evaluated in the United States to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Accurate accounting of upstream and downstream greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is necessary to measure the overall carbon intensity of new biofuel feedstocks. For example, c...

  10. Gene Flow in Genetically Engineered Perennial Grasses: Lessons for Modification of Dedicated Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of dedicated bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass, will play a major role in crop improvement for a wide range of beneficial traits specific to biofuels. One obstacle that arises regarding transgenic improvement of perennials used for biofuels is the propensity of these plants t...

  11. Horticultural markets promote alien species invasions: an Estonian case study of herbaceous perennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Ööpik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardening is a popular pastime, but commercial horticulture is responsible for the introduction of alien species and contributes to invasions in a variety of ways. Although an extensive international literature is available on plant invasions, it is still important at the national level to examine the influence of local factors. Accordingly, 17 nurseries in Estonia that cultivated and sold perennial alien species were selected, and a list of species and prices was compiled. The relationships between species status, and factors such as their abundance in the wild were examined statistically. A qualitative list of the nationally problematic species among herbaceous perennials was also completed. A total of 880 taxa were recorded, of which 10.3% were native and 89.7% alien. In all, 87.3% of the alien species were still confined to cultivated areas. The ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the taxa were described, and lists of the families of casual, naturalised and invasive aliens were provided. Both native and increasing wild alien species have a very similar profile on the market. Alien species that are less expensive, widely available and have more cultivars per species on the market are also more likely to escape. The invasive status and abundance of escaped aliens in an area increases with residence time. In general, socio-economic factors create new and reflect previous propagule pressures from commercial horticulture, which continuously increase the likelihood of alien species surviving and invading new areas. Our findings suggest that these national socio-economic market-related factors explain much of the invasiveness of various perennial ornamental species, and therefore regional and national authorities urgently need to regulate and control the ornamental plant trade to diminish the risk of new invasions.

  12. Water Use and Water-Use Efficiency of Three Perennial Bioenergy Grass Crops in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry M. Bennett

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over two-thirds of human water withdrawals are estimated to be used for agricultural production, which is expected to increase as demand for renewable liquid fuels from agricultural crops intensifies. Despite the potential implications of bioenergy crop production on water resources, few data are available on water use of perennial bioenergy grass crops. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare dry matter yield, water use, and water-use efficiency (WUE of elephantgrass, energycane, and giant reed, grown under field conditions for two growing seasons in North Central Florida. Using scaled sap flow sensor data, water use ranged from about 850 to 1150 mm during the growing season, and was generally greater for giant reed and less for elephantgrass. Despite similar or greater water use by giant reed, dry biomass yields of 35 to 40 Mg ha−1 were significantly greater for energycane and elephantgrass, resulting in greater WUE. Overall, water use by the bioenergy crops was greater than the rainfall received during the study, indicating that irrigation will be needed in the region to achieve optimal yields. Species differ in water use and WUE and species selection can play an important role with regard to potential consequences for water resources.

  13. Growing C4 perennial grass for bioenergy using a new Agro-BGC ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Vittorio, A. V.; Anderson, R. S.; Miller, N. L.; Running, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate, spatially gridded estimates of bioenergy crop yields require 1) biophysically accurate crop growth models and 2) careful parameterization of unavailable inputs to these models. To meet the first requirement we have added the capacity to simulate C4 perennial grass as a bioenergy crop to the Biome-BGC ecosystem model. This new model, hereafter referred to as Agro-BGC, includes enzyme driven C4 photosynthesis, individual live and dead leaf, stem, and root carbon/nitrogen pools, separate senescence and litter fall processes, fruit growth, optional annual seeding, flood irrigation, a growing degree day phenology with a killing frost option, and a disturbance handler that effectively simulates fertilization, harvest, fire, and incremental irrigation. There are four Agro-BGC vegetation parameters that are unavailable for Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), and to meet the second requirement we have optimized the model across multiple calibration sites to obtain representative values for these parameters. We have verified simulated switchgrass yields against observations at three non-calibration sites in IL. Agro-BGC simulates switchgrass growth and yield at harvest very well at a single site. Our results suggest that a multi-site optimization scheme would be adequate for producing regional-scale estimates of bioenergy crop yields on high spatial resolution grids.

  14. Introducing perennial biomass crops into agricultural landscapes to address water quality challenges and provide other environmental services: Integrating perennial bioenergy crops into agricultural landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacho, J. F. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Negri, M. C. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Zumpf, C. R. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Campbell, P. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA

    2017-11-29

    The world is faced with a difficult multiple challenge of meeting nutritional, energy, and other basic needs, under a limited land and water budget, of between 9 and 10 billion people in the next three decades, mitigating impacts of climate change, and making agricultural production resilient. More productivity is expected from agricultural lands, but intensification of production could further impact the integrity of our finite surface water and groundwater resources. Integrating perennial bioenergy crops in agricultural lands could provide biomass for biofuel and potential improvements on the sustainability of commodity crop production. This article provides an overview of ways in which research has shown that perennial bioenergy grasses and short rotation woody crops can be incorporated into agricultural production systems with reduced indirect land use change, while increasing water quality benefits. Current challenges and opportunities as well as future directions are also highlighted.

  15. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: a consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-12-18

    In the endeavor of optimizing the sustainability of bioenergy production in Denmark, this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental impacts associated with the production of heat and electricity from one hectare of Danish arable land cultivated with three perennial crops: ryegrass (Lolium perenne), willow (Salix viminalis) and Miscanthus giganteus. For each, four conversion pathways were assessed against a fossil fuel reference: (I) anaerobic co-digestion with manure, (II) gasification, (III) combustion in small-to-medium scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants and IV) co-firing in large scale coal-fired CHP plants. Soil carbon changes, direct and indirect land use changes as well as uncertainty analysis (sensitivity, MonteCarlo) were included in the LCA. Results showed that global warming was the bottleneck impact, where only two scenarios, namely willow and Miscanthus co-firing, allowed for an improvement as compared with the reference (-82 and -45 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, respectively). The indirect land use changes impact was quantified as 310 ± 170 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, representing a paramount average of 41% of the induced greenhouse gas emissions. The uncertainty analysis confirmed the results robustness and highlighted the indirect land use changes uncertainty as the only uncertainty that can significantly change the outcome of the LCA results.

  16. Impacts of managing perennial grasses in the northern Midwest United States for bioenergy on soil organic C and nitrous oxide emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the USA perennial grasses [e.g., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman)] are proposed as cellulosic feedstock. Perennial grasses are often touted as being low input and as having a C-neutral foot print, but managing them as bioenergy feedstock means addin...

  17. Environmental impact of converting Conservation Reserve Program land to perennial bioenergy crops in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Betes, E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Khanna, M.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    Reducing dependence on fossil fuels by the 20% by 2022 mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act would require 35 billion Ga of ethanol and the loss of 9 to 12 Mha of food producing land to biofuel production, challenging our ability to develop a sustainable bioenergy source while meeting the food demands of a growing population. There are currently 8.5 Mha of land enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), a US government funded program to incentivize the retirement of environmentally sensitive cropland out of conventional crop production. About 63% of CRP land area could potentially be converted to energy crops, contributing to biofuel targets without displacing food. With high yields and low fertilization and irrigation requirements, perennial cellulosic crops (e.g. switchgrass and Miscanthus) not only would reduce land requirements by up to 15% compared to prairies or corn-based biofuel, but also serve other conservation goals such as C sequestration in soils, and water and air quality improvement. Here, we use the DayCent biogeochemical model to assess the potential of CRP land conversion to switchgrass or Miscanthus to provide a sustainable source of biofuel, reduce GHG emissions and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in the area of Illinois, which at present contributes to 10% of the biofuel production in the US. Model simulations indicate that the replacement of traditional corn-soy rotation with CRP reduces GHG emissions by 3.3 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 and increases SOC storage at a rate of 0.5 Mg C ha-1 y-1. Conversion of CRP land to cellulosic perennials would further reduce GHG emissions by 1.1 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 for switchgrass and 6.2 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 for Miscanthus, and increase C sequestration in soils (1.7 Tg C for switchgrass and 7.7 Tg C for Miscanthus in 30 years). Cellulosic energy crops would increase average annual yields by approximately 5.6 Mg ha-1 for switchgrass and 13.6 Mg ha-1 for Miscanthus, potentially

  18. Soil denitrifier community size changes with land use change to perennial bioenergy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Karen A.; Deen, Bill; Dunfield, Kari E.

    2016-10-01

    Dedicated biomass crops are required for future bioenergy production. However, the effects of large-scale land use change (LUC) from traditional annual crops, such as corn-soybean rotations to the perennial grasses (PGs) switchgrass and miscanthus, on soil microbial community functioning is largely unknown. Specifically, ecologically significant denitrifying communities, which regulate N2O production and consumption in soils, may respond differently to LUC due to differences in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) inputs between crop types and management systems. Our objective was to quantify bacterial denitrifying gene abundances as influenced by corn-soybean crop production compared to PG biomass production. A field trial was established in 2008 at the Elora Research Station in Ontario, Canada (n  =  30), with miscanthus and switchgrass grown alongside corn-soybean rotations at different N rates (0 and 160 kg N ha-1) and biomass harvest dates within PG plots. Soil was collected on four dates from 2011 to 2012 and quantitative PCR was used to enumerate the total bacterial community (16S rRNA) and communities of bacterial denitrifiers by targeting nitrite reductase (nirS) and N2O reductase (nosZ) genes. Miscanthus produced significantly larger yields and supported larger nosZ denitrifying communities than corn-soybean rotations regardless of management, indicating large-scale LUC from corn-soybean to miscanthus may be suitable in variable Ontario climatic conditions and under varied management, while potentially mitigating soil N2O emissions. Harvesting switchgrass in the spring decreased yields in N-fertilized plots, but did not affect gene abundances. Standing miscanthus overwinter resulted in higher 16S rRNA and nirS gene copies than in fall-harvested crops. However, the size of the total (16S rRNA) and denitrifying bacterial communities changed differently over time and in response to LUC, indicating varying controls on these communities.

  19. Desempenho de bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes Banana plant performance intercropping with perennial herbaceous legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Perin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de plantas de cobertura em consórcio com bananeiras pode ser uma estratégia de manejo, possibilitando aumentos de produtividade associados à otimização de processos biológicos e maior estabilidade do sistema produtivo. Neste trabalho, objetivo-se avaliar o efeito da cobertura viva, formada por leguminosas herbáceas perenes sobre a produção de bananeira cultivar Nanicão. Os tratamentos foram: amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg, cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth., siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb., vegetação espontânea (dominada por Panicum maximum Jacq. e vegetação espontânea + N-fertilizante. Foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo das bananeiras entre abril/1999 e julho/2000 e os atributos de produtividade. O peso do cacho e da penca foram positivamente influenciados pelo siratro e cudzu tropical empregados como coberturas vivas, quando comparados aos demais tratamentos. Todas as leguminosas proporcionaram maior crescimento das bananeiras (notadamente a partir do 6º mês, maior número de folhas emitidas e maior proporção de cachos colhidos, em relação aos tratamentos com vegetação espontânea (com e sem N-fertilizante. As leguminosas siratro e cudzu tropical promoveram condições adequadas ao desenvolvimento das bananeiras, acarretando ganhos de produtividade e eliminação da adubação nitrogenada no bananal. O potencial benéfico das leguminosas cudzu tropical e siratro como coberturas vivas capazes de proporcionar aumentos na produtividade de banana, qualifica essas espécies como alternativa promissora para a fertilidade do solo e nutrição das bananeiras.The use of coverage plants in cover cropping with bananas can be a management strategy, increasing in productivity associated with the optimization of biological processes and greater stability of production system. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of live coverage by herbaceous perennial legume on

  20. Comparing annual and perennial crops for bioenergy production - influence on nitrate leaching and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Schelde, Kirsten; Ugilt Larsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Production of energy crops is promoted as a means to mitigate global warming by decreasing dependency on fossil energy. However, agricultural production of bioenergy can have various environmental effects depending on the crop and production system. In a field trial initiated in 2008, nitrate...... concentration in soil water was measured below winter wheat, grass-clover and willow during three growing seasons. Crop water balances were modelled to estimate the amount of nitrate leached per hectare. In addition, dry matter yields and nitrogen (N) yields were measured, and N balances and energy balances...... was also measured in an old willow crop established in 1996 from which N leaching ranged from 6 to 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. Dry matter yields ranged between 5.9 and 14.8 Mg yr−1 with lowest yield in the newly established willow and the highest yield harvested in grass-clover. Grass-clover gave the highest net...

  1. Bioenergy

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Judy; Demain, Arnold L

    2008-01-01

    Given the limited supply of fossil fuels and the devastating effects of ever-increasing greenhouse gases, researchers have been committed to finding alternative fuel sources. Perhaps one of the least explored areas is bioenergy from microbes. In this landmark volume, world-renowned experts explore the possible contributions of microbes to the next generation of fuels. In 31 detailed chapters, Bioenergy provides thorough explanations of the current knowledge and future areas for research on microbial energy conversions. The volume begins with 10 chapters on ethanol production from cellulosic fe

  2. Physiological and morphological adaptations of herbaceous perennial legumes allow differential access to sources of varyingly soluble phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jiayin; Yang, Jiyun; Lambers, Hans; Tibbett, Mark; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Ryan, Megan H

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of three perennial legume species to access sources of varyingly soluble phosphorus (P) and their associated morphological and physiological adaptations. Two Australian native legumes with pasture potential (Cullen australasicum and Kennedia prostrata) and Medicago sativa cv. SARDI 10 were grown in sand under two P levels (6 and 40 µg P g(-1) ) supplied as Ca(H2 PO4 )2 ·H2 O (Ca-P, highly soluble, used in many fertilizers) or as one of three sparingly soluble forms: Ca10 (OH)2 (PO4 )6 (apatite-P, found in relatively young soils; major constituent of rock phosphate), C6 H6 O24 P6 Na12 (inositol-P, the most common form of organic P in soil) and FePO4 (Fe-P, a poorly-available inorganic source of P). All species grew well with soluble P. When 6 µg P g(-1) was supplied as sparingly soluble P, plant dry weight (DW) and P uptake were very low for C. australasicum and M. sativa (0.1-0.4 g DW) with the exception of M. sativa supplied with apatite-P (1.5 g). In contrast, K. prostrata grew well with inositol-P (1.0 g) and Fe-P (0.7 g), and even better with apatite-P (1.7 g), similar to that with Ca-P (1.9 g). Phosphorus uptake at 6 µg P g(-1) was highly correlated with total root length, total rhizosphere carboxylate content and total rhizosphere acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) activity. These findings provide strong indications that there are opportunities to utilize local Australian legumes in low P pasture systems to access sparingly soluble soil P and increase perennial legume productivity, diversity and sustainability. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes utilizadas como coberturas vivas Banana plants intercropped with perennial herbaceous legumes used as living mulches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Azevedo Espindola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de bananeiras consorciadas com as leguminosas herbáceas perenes - amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides e siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. Os tratamentos-controle consistiram em vegetação espontânea com predomínio de Panicum maximum, e vegetação espontânea com adubação nitrogenada das bananeiras. Também foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo das bananeiras. Entre as coberturas avaliadas, a vegetação espontânea e o cudzu tropical apresentaram produções maiores de biomassa; o cudzu tropical proporcionou valores maiores para quantidades de N acumulado e derivado da fixação biológica. As leguminosas amendoim forrageiro, cudzu tropical e siratro proporcionaram desenvolvimento vegetativo mais rápido nas bananeiras consorciadas. Cudzu tropical e siratro promoveram maiores valores de peso dos cachos e das pencas. O uso das leguminosas avaliadas resulta em aumento da porcentagem de cachos colhidos e redução do tempo de colheita, além de proporcionar maior produtividade, quando comparado ao uso de vegetação espontânea.The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of banana plants intercropped with the perennial herbaceous legumes forage groundnut (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. The control treatments were spontaneous vegetation (mainly Panicum maximum and spontaneous vegetation plus nitrogen fertilizer application to banana plants. The vegetative growth of banana plants was also evaluated. Among the treatments, spontaneous vegetation and tropical kudzu promoted the highest dry matter productions; tropical kudzu had the highest amounts of accumulated and fixed N. Forage groundnut, tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the fastest vegetative growth for banana plants in this intercropped system. Tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the highest values for bunch weight and

  4. Landscape control of nitrous oxide emissions during the transition from conservation reserve program to perennial grasses for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debasish Saha; Benjamin M. Rau; Jason P. Kaye; Felipe Montes; Paul R. Adler; Armen R. Kemanian

    2016-01-01

    Future liquid fuel demand from renewable sources may, in part, be met by converting the seasonally wet portions of the landscape currently managed for soil and water conservation to perennial energy crops. However, this shift may increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, thus limiting the carbon (C) benefits of energy crops. Particularly high emissions may occur during...

  5. Sustainable Use of Biotechnology for Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hong S.; Abercrombie, Jason M.; Kausch, Albert P.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2010-10-01

    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant’s biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  6. Bioenergy in the United States: progress and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.; Beyea, J.

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about global climate change and air quality have increased interest in biomass and other energy sources that are potentially CO 2 -neutral and less polluting. Large-scale bioenergy development could indeed bring significant ecological benefits - or equally significant damage - depending on the specific paths taken. In particular, the land requirements for biomass production are potentially immense. Various entities in the United States have performed research; prepared cost-supply assessments, environmental impact assessments, life cycle analyses and externality impact assessments; and engaged in demonstration and development regarding biomass crops and other potential biomass energy feedstocks. These efforts have focused on various biomass wastes, forest management issues, and biomass crops, including both perennial herbaceous crops and fast-growing woody crops. Simultaneously, several regional and national groups of bioenergy stakeholders have issued consensus recommendations and guidelines for sustainable bioenergy development. It is a consistent conclusion from these efforts that displacing annual agricultural crops with native perennial biomass crops could - in addition to reducing fossil fuel use and ameliorating associated ecological problems - also help restore natural ecosystem functions in worked landscapes, and thereby preserve natural biodiversity. Conversely, if forests are managed and harvested more intensively - and/or if biomass crops displace more natural land cover such as forests and wetlands - it is likely that ecosystem functions would be impaired and biodiversity lost. (author)

  7. Organic matter quality in a soil cultivated with perennial herbaceous legumes Qualidade da matéria orgânica de um solo cultivado com leguminosas herbáceas perenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Using herbaceous legumes in agricultural systems yields great quantities of plant residues, allowing changes in soil organic matter quality and content over the years. This study was conducted on an Ultisol, at Seropédica, RJ, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different perennial herbaceous legumes on soil organic matter quality. A factorial scheme with three replications was used to evaluate the species: forage groundnut cv. BR-14951 (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides, and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. After the first cut, each plot was divided into two subplots; plants were cut and left on the soil surface or cut and removed. Soil samples of a closed area covered by spontaneous vegetation (mainly C3 plants or by Panicum maximum were also analysed. Samples were collected from two layers (0-5 and 5-10 cm, processed for the fractionation of organic matter and the evaluation of structural characteristics of humic acids (HA. Evaluated legumes did not change total organic carbon contents, but promoted HA accumulation in the superficial soil layer. Humic acids may be used as indicators of the management effects on soil organic fractions, because there was significant incorporation of carbon and nitrogen derived from the legume residues, even for the short experimentation time (28 months. Residue management did not modify quantitative aspects of the distribution of the humified organic matter, but promoted, however, a higher condensation degree of humic acids evaluated by the elementary composition, IR and fluorescence spectroscopy.O uso de leguminosas herbáceas em sistemas agrícolas permite o aporte de quantidades expressivas de fitomassa, possibilitando alterações no teor e na qualidade da matéria orgânica do solo ao longo dos anos. Este trabalho avalia a qualidade da matéria orgânica de um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo localizado em Seropédica, RJ, e cultivado com diferentes espécies de leguminosas herb

  8. The role of drainage ditches in greenhouse gas emissions and surface leaching losses from a cutaway peatland cultivated with a perennial bioenergy crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyvonen, N.P.; Huttunen, J.T.; Shurpali, N.J.; Lind, S.E.; Marushchak, M.E.; Martikainen, P.J. [University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Science], E-mail: niina.hyvonen@uef.fi; Heitto, L. [Environmental Research of Savo-Karjala Ltd, Kuopio (Finland)

    2013-06-01

    We studied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from drainage ditches and leaching losses in a boreal cutaway peatland cultivated with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) for bioenergy. The objectives of the study were to assess to what extent GHG emissions from drainage ditches and leaching of carbon and nutrients via surface drainage contribute to the total losses of carbon and nitrogen from the site. The emissions of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} were measured with static chamber methods for three years and leaching losses for seven years. On average, the drainage ditches (covering 6% of the study site area) released 10% of the total CH{sub 4} emission (0.33 g m{sup -2} a{sup -1}), and 1% and 5% of the total N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Leaching of total nitrogen and phosphorous were 0.31 and 0.03 g m{sup -2} a{sup -1}, respectively. Leaching values were lower than those reported for agricultural catchments in general. (orig.)

  9. Attempting to restore herbaceous understories in Wyoming big sagebrush communities with mowing and seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrub steppe communities with depleted perennial herbaceous understories need to be restored to increase resilience, provide quality wildlife habitat, and improve ecosystem function. Mowing has been applied to Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle &Young) steppe...

  10. Ecobalances of technical options for the supply and utilization of bioenergy; Oekobilanzen technischer Optionen zur Bioenergiebereitstellung und -nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelberg, Elisa; Aretz, Astrid

    2013-05-15

    In Germany bioenergy production and consumption are promoted and encouraged by means of the Renewable Energy Law, which has as its objectives transforming the energy system and preventing climate change. In recent years several forms of bioenergy have been criticized as leading to ecological and socioeconomic risks. This study presents life cycle assessments (LCA) for existing bioenergy processes. The LCAs were conducted as a part of the Project ''Renewable Energy Regions: Socio-Ecology of Self-Sufficiency''; the objective was to assess the ecological impact of the selected bioenergy processes in order to calculate the overall ecological impact of existing bioenergy plants. The results prove that the usage of agricultural biomass such as corn and wheat for biogas production leads to negative ecological impacts such as eutrophication and acidification. If greenhouse gas emissions from land-use change are included, the net effect in comparison to the usage of fossil energies will only be small or even negative; however, when residues such as manure or materials from landscape management are used as substrates for biogas production they lead to several positive ecological impacts. Residual forest wood or wood from short-rotation coppices used in co-generation show the highest greenhouse gas reduction potential among the investigated processes. It must, however, be assumed that the potential of residual forest wood in Germany is already largely being tapped. Regions that have made bioenergy a priority thus should limit the usage of agricultural biomass for energy production to specific crops such as short-rotation coppices and floral and herbaceous perennials. Additionally, future challenges will require strategies to improve cascade utilization and gathering and efficient usage of residues.

  11. Modeling pollinator community response to contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley B Bennett

    Full Text Available In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation.

  12. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Blank

    Full Text Available Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields, and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  13. Bioenergy Sustainability Analysis | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    large scale since bioenergy coupled with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) could provide negative technologies followed by CCS is illustrated below. Coal and natural gas can reduce emissions with CCS but transport and power generation technologies both with and without CCS. Values are uncertain and depend on

  14. Postharvest residues from grass seed crops for bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Simić, Aleksandar; Čolić, Vladislava; Vučković, Savo; Dželetović, Željko; Bijelić, Zorica; Mandić, Violeta

    2016-01-01

    During grass seed production, a large amount of low forage quality biomass has been produced. Tall growing perennial grasses such as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) can be used as an alternative source for bioenergy production as they can be grown in less cultivated areas, their residues in seed production could be valuable energy source and can be potentially used as a dual purpose crop (bioenergy and forage). In this research, potentials o...

  15. Using corngrass1 to engineer poplar as a bioenergy crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilan, Richard; Rubinelli, Peter Marius; Chuck, George

    2016-05-10

    Embodiments of the present invention relate generally to new bioenergy crops and methods of creating new bioenergy crops. For example, genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are used to create transgenic crops. In some embodiments, over-expression of miRNA is used to produce transgenic perennials, such as trees, with altered lignin content or composition. In some embodiments, the transgenic perennials are Populus spp. In some embodiments, the miRNA is a member of the miR156 family. In some embodiments, the gene is Zea mays Cg1.

  16. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  17. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  18. Carbon Sequestration by Perennial Energy Crops: Is the Jury Still Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesco; Gregory, Andrew S; Richter, Goetz M

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) changes associated with land conversion to energy crops are central to the debate on bioenergy and their potential carbon neutrality. Here, the experimental evidence on SOC under perennial energy crops (PECs) is synthesised to parameterise a whole systems model and to identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps determining PECs being a sink or source of greenhouse gas (GHG). For Miscanthus and willow ( Salix spp.) and their analogues (switchgrass, poplar), we examine carbon (C) allocation to above- and belowground residue inputs, turnover rates and retention in the soil. A meta-analysis showed that studies on dry matter partitioning and C inputs to soils are plentiful, whilst data on turnover are rare and rely on few isotopic C tracer studies. Comprehensive studies on SOC dynamics and GHG emissions under PECs are limited and subsoil processes and C losses through leaching remain unknown. Data showed dynamic changes of gross C inputs and SOC stocks depending on stand age. C inputs and turnover can now be specifically parameterised in whole PEC system models, whilst dependencies on soil texture, moisture and temperature remain empirical. In conclusion, the annual net SOC storage change exceeds the minimum mitigation requirement (0.25 Mg C ha -1 year -1 ) under herbaceous and woody perennials by far (1.14 to 1.88 and 0.63 to 0.72 Mg C ha -1 year -1 , respectively). However, long-term time series of field data are needed to verify sustainable SOC enrichment, as the physical and chemical stabilities of SOC pools remain uncertain, although they are essential in defining the sustainability of C sequestration (half-life >25 years).

  19. MidSouth/Southeast BioEnergy Consortium DE-FG3608GO88036 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrier, Julie [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Tappe, Phil [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States)

    2014-11-30

    GO88036 project was conducted at three universities: Arkansas State University, University of Arkansas and University of Georgia from 2009 to 2012, and University of Arkansas from 2012 to 2014. The funds were used at all three universities to build capacity: 1) infrastructure, such as purchase of laboratory equipment and laboratory set-up; and, 2) agronomic capabilities, including the establishment of field trials and acquisition of harvesting equipment. This infrastructure was critical to ramping bioenergy activities at all three universities. Thermochemical and biochemical conversion were investigated; algal, woody, annual and perennial herbaceous energy crops were established and monitored; educational and outreach events were organized; co-product production and extraction were investigated; and, the nutritional qualities of biorefinery coproducts were evaluated. Funding from this project enabled 15 graduate students to submit PhD or MSc level theses; publication of one book and six book chapters; generation of 19 published abstracts; production of three lay press articles; and, dissemination of 31 peer-reviewed articles in good quality scientific journals.

  20. 2015 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  1. Biomass production on marginal lands - catalogue of bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Ivanina, Vadym; Hanzhenko, Oleksandr

    2017-04-01

    Marginal lands are the poorest type of land, with various limitations for traditional agriculture. However, they can be used for biomass production for bioenergy based on perennial plants or trees. The main advantage of biomass as an energy source compared to fossil fuels is the positive influence on the global carbon dioxide balance in the atmosphere. During combustion of biofuels, less carbon dioxide is emitted than is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis. Besides, 20 to 30 times less sulphur oxide and 3 to 4 times less ash is formed as compared with coal. Growing bioenergy crops creates additional workplaces in rural areas. Soil and climatic conditions of most European regions are suitable for growing perennial energy crops that are capable of rapid transforming solar energy into energy-intensive biomass. Selcted plants are not demanding for soil fertility, do not require a significant amount of fertilizers and pesticides and can be cultivated, therefore, also on unproductive lands of Europe. They prevent soil erosion, contribute to the preservation and improvement of agroecosystems and provide low-cost biomass. A catalogue of potential bioenergy plants was developed within the EU H2020 project SEEMLA including woody and perennial crops that are allowed to be grown in the territory of the EU and Ukraine. The catalogue lists high-productive woody and perennial crops that are not demanding to the conditions of growing and can guarantee stable high yields of high-energy-capacity biomass on marginal lands of various categories of marginality. Biomass of perennials plants and trees is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which are directly used to produce solid biofuels. Thanks to the well-developed root system of trees and perennial plants, they are better adapted to poor soils and do not require careful maintenance. Therefore, they can be grown on marginal lands. Particular C4 bioenergy crops are well adapted to a lack of moisture and high

  2. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  3. Bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a bioenergy system has to be considered as an integrated process in which each stage or step interacts with other steps in the overall process. There are a number of stages in the supply and conversion of woody biomass for energy. Each step in the chain has implications for the next step and for overall system efficiency. The resource can take many forms and will have varying physical and chemical characteristics which will influence the efficiency and cost of conversion. The point in the supply chain at which size and moisture content is reduced and the manner in which it is done is influential in determining feedstock delivered cost and overall system costs. To illustrate the interactions within the overall system, the influence of the nature, size and moisture content of delivered feedstocks on costs of generating electricity via thermal conversion processes is examined using a model developed to investigate the inter-relationships between the stages in the supply chain. (author)

  4. Bioenergy 93 conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In this report the presentations given in the Bioenergy 93 Conference are published. The papers are grouped as follows: Opening addresses, biomass implementation strategies, nordic bioenergy research programs, production, handling and conversion of biofuels, combustion technology of biofuels and bioenergy visions

  5. Molecular mechanisms responsive to dehydration may impact the invasiveness of perennial weeds under global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge is an invasive perennial weed in the great plains of the US and Canada. The ability of this herbaceous weed to regenerate new shoot growth from an abundance of crown and root buds after severe abiotic stress is critical for survival. Due to its adaptable and aggressive nature, global cl...

  6. Changes of biomass in some perennial grass species. | M.C. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of seasonal herbaceous biomass change in a burned, ungrazed savanna woodland are reported. A standard clipping technique was used and material farmed in the current season was separated from that formed in the previous season for three perennial grass species: Brachiaria nigropedata, Andropogon ...

  7. Extending the shelf life of flower bulbs and perennials in consumer packages by modiefied atmosphere packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.H.G.E.; Miller, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of flower bulbs and herbaceous perennials in consumer packages declines rapidly due to sprouting and drying out. The present study was undertaken to develop Modified Atmosphere Packages (MAP) with suitable filling materials for a prolonged shelf life of different species of flower bulbs

  8. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    ‚€Ã‚¢ How will these crops affect fertilizer use and water quality? • What kind of water management is needed to maintain a productive crop? The answers to these questions will help supporting institutions across the state to improve land assessment and agronomic management practices for biomass production. In the last decade, energy supply has become a worldwide problem. Bioenergy crops could supply energy in the future. Bioenergy crops are plants, usually perennial grasses and trees, that produce a lot of biomass that can be converted into energy. Bioenergy crops can be grown for two energy markets: power generation, such as heat and electricity, or liquid fuel, such as cellulosic ethanol. These resources could reduce petroleum dependency and greenhouse gas production. Woody plants and herbaceous warm-season grasses, such as switchgrass, giant miscanthus,energy cane, and high yielding sorghums, could be major sources of biomass in Mississippi.

  9. Herbaceous energy crops in humid lower South USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The humid lower South has the long warm growing season and high rainfall conditions needed for producing high-yielding perennial herbaceous grasses and shrubs. Many potential biomass plants were evaluated during a ten-year period. Perennial tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum spp.) and the leguminous shrub Leucaena leucocephala were the highest in biomass production. These perennial crops often have top growth killed by winter freezes and regenerate from underground parts. The tall grasses have high yields because of linear crop growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2} d{sup {minus}1} for long periods (140 to 196 d) each season. Tall grasses must be planted vegetatively, which is more costly than seed propagation, however, once established, they may persist for many seasons. Oven dry biomass yields have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in colder subtropical to mild temperate locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in the lower portion of the Florida peninsular. Highest biomass yields have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils in south Florida. The energy content of 1 Mg of oven dry tall grass and leucaena is equivalent to that of about 112 and 123 gallons of number 2 diesel fuel, respectively.

  10. Pest-suppression potential of midwestern landscapes under contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Meehan

    Full Text Available Biomass crops grown on marginal soils are expected to fuel an emerging bioenergy industry in the United States. Bioenergy crop choice and position in the landscape could have important impacts on a range of ecosystem services, including natural pest-suppression (biocontrol services provided by predatory arthropods. In this study we use predation rates of three sentinel crop pests to develop a biocontrol index (BCI summarizing pest-suppression potential in corn and perennial grass-based bioenergy crops in southern Wisconsin, lower Michigan, and northern Illinois. We show that BCI is higher in perennial grasslands than in corn, and increases with the amount of perennial grassland in the surrounding landscape. We develop an empirical model for predicting BCI from information on energy crop and landscape characteristics, and use the model in a qualitative assessment of changes in biocontrol services for annual croplands on prime agricultural soils under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios. Our analysis suggests that the expansion of annual energy crops onto 1.2 million ha of existing perennial grasslands on marginal soils could reduce BCI between -10 and -64% for nearly half of the annual cropland in the region. In contrast, replacement of the 1.1 million ha of existing annual crops on marginal land with perennial energy crops could increase BCI by 13 to 205% on over half of the annual cropland in the region. Through comparisons with other independent studies, we find that our biocontrol index is negatively related to insecticide use across the Midwest, suggesting that strategically positioned, perennial bioenergy crops could reduce insect damage and insecticide use on neighboring food and forage crops. We suggest that properly validated environmental indices can be used in decision support systems to facilitate integrated assessments of the environmental and economic impacts of different bioenergy policies.

  11. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, Roni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  12. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  13. Research Staff | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Staff Research Staff Photo of Adam Bratis, Ph.D. Adam Bratis Associate Lab Director-Bio research to accomplish the objectives of the Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office, and to serve as a spokesperson for the bioenergy research effort at NREL, both internally and externally. This

  14. Biochemical methane potential and anaerobic biodegradability of non-herbaceous and herbaceous phytomass in biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triolo, Jin Mi; Pedersen, Lene; Qu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of municipal plant waste for anaerobic digestion was examined using 57 different herbaceous and non-herbaceous samples. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) and anaerobic biodegradability were related to the degree of lignification and crystallinity of cellulose. The BMP of herbace...

  15. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  16. Large-scale bioenergy and oil forestry programs in rural China : an institutional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Liquid biofuel from oil crops are broadly promoted globally, among which biofuel from perennial wood species, as well as from bushes and small trees such as jatropha. In China, oil-bearing small trees, which mainly grow on slope land, are applied as so-called bioenergy and oil forests for liquid

  17. Dissecting the genetics of rhizomatousness: Towards sustainable food, forage, and bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizomatousness is a key trait influencing both the perenniality and biomass partitioning of plants. Increased understanding of the genetic control of rhizome growth offers potential towards the creation of more sustainable grain, forage, and bioenergy cropping systems. It is also applicable to th...

  18. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    Across the range of renewable energy resources, bioenergy is probably the most complex, as using biomass to support energy services ties into a number of fields; climate change, food production, rural development, biodiversity and environmental protection. Biomass offer several options...... for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite...... the undesirable impacts of bioenergy done wrong. However, doing bioenergy right is a significant challenge due to the ties into other fields of society. Fundamentally plant biomass is temporary storage of solar radiation energy and chemically bound energy from nutrients. Bioenergy is a tool to harness solar...

  19. Bioenergy Status Document 2012; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2012 geeft de huidige status weer van bio-energie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie, voor overheden en marktpartijen.

  20. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed

  1. 8. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This conference volume contains lectures and poster contributions with the following main topics: integrated biomass utilisation concepts; Solid bioenergy carrier; Bioenergy in the transport sector; Biogas. Seven papers are separately analyzed for this database. [de

  2. Critical factors to bioenergy implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.; Hektor, B.; Rakos, C.

    1999-01-01

    Barriers to bioenergy technology implementation have received increased attention in recent years. This paper contributes to the identification and analysis of barriers and drivers behind bioenergy market growth, here labelled c ritical factors . It presents a framework for the analysis of both existing and projected bioenergy market potential, using economic concepts and models from transaction cost theory and industrial organization. The framework can be used for assessments of the potential for market growth of different bioenergy systems by decision makers in administration and industry. The following critical factors are identified: Integration with other economic activity, Scale effects on bioenergy markets, Competition in bioenergy markets, Competition with other business, National policy, Local policy and local opinion. The framework is demonstrated with five cases of real bioenergy markets: Pellet residential heating in USA, bioenergy power in USA, pellet residential heating in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. Different applications of the framework are discussed

  3. Watershed scale impacts of bioenergy, landscape changes, and ecosystem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet; Cibin, Raj; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, high US gasoline prices and national security concerns have prompted a renewed interest in alternative fuel sources to meet increasing energy demands, particularly by the transportation sector. Food and animal feed crops, such as corn and soybean, sugarcane, residue from these crops, and cellulosic perennial crops grown specifically to produce bioenergy (e.g. switchgrass, Miscanthus, mixed grasses), and fast growing trees (e.g. hybrid poplar) are expected to provide the majority of the biofeedstock for energy production. One of the grand challenges in supplying large quantities of grain-based and lignocellulosic materials for the production of biofuels is ensuring that they are produced in environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. Feedstock selection will vary geographically based on regional adaptability, productivity, and reliability. Changes in land use and management practices related to biofeedstock production may have potential impacts on water quantity and quality, sediments, and pesticides and nutrient losses, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. We have made many improvements in the currently available biophysical models (e.g. Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT model) to evaluate sustainability of energy crop production. We have utilized the improved model to evaluate impacts of both annual (e.g. corn) and perennial bioenergy crops (e.g. Miscanthus and switchgrass at) on hydrology and water quality under the following plausible bioenergy crop production scenarios: (1) at highly erodible areas; (2) at agriculturally marginal areas; (3) at pasture areas; (4) crop residue (corn stover) removal; and (5) combinations of above scenarios. Overall results indicated improvement in water quality with introduction of perennial energy crops. Stream flow at the watershed outlet was reduced under energy crop production scenarios and ranged between 0.3% and 5% across scenarios. Erosion and sediment

  4. Bioenergy overview for Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Sergio; Moreira, Nuno Afonso; Monteiro, Eliseu

    2009-01-01

    Bioenergy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. Bioenergy is also an atypical energy source due to its diversity and inter-linkages with many other technological and policy areas. The goal of this paper is to analyze the Portuguese possibilities for bioenergy provision from biomass. The potentials of biomass, conversion technologies and legal framework are analysed and discussed. The result of this analysis shows that there are still unused potentials especially from forestry, which can contribute significantly to cover the bioenergy targets. However, the Portuguese experience with conversion technologies is limited to combustion, which is a drawback that must be solved so as to the bioenergy potential can be used. Research and Development projects, as well as demonstration projects are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the technological processes. At political level, Portuguese governments have been following the policies and strategies of the European Commission in the energy sector. However, energy crops market, due to the inter-linkage with agricultural policy, seems to need some additional political push. (author)

  5. Finnish Bioenergy Association - Finbio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopo, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Finnish Bioenergy Association, was founded in November 1991 in the city of Jyvaeskylae. In November 1996, the membership of FINBIO consisted of 17 contributing collective members and 75 individual members. Members of the organization include e.g. the Association of Finnish Peat Industries, Wood Energy Association and Finnish Biogas Centre, all of which represent specific bioenergy fields in Finland. The Finnish Bioenergy Association is a private, non-profit organization the objectives of which are to promote and develop harvesting, transportation and processing of biofuels and other biomass (wood-based biofuels, non-food crops, peat, biowaste); to promote the use of biomass in energy production and in other applications, in accordance with environmentally sound and sustainable development. The objectives of FINBIO is to promote the production and application of all forms of bioenergy in Finland. FINBIO acts as a coordinator for AEBIOM (the European Biomass Association) and its member associations, as well as for other international bioenergy-related organizations

  6. Bioenergy overview for Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Sergio [Tecaprod S.A., 5000 Vila Real (Portugal); Moreira, Nuno Afonso; Monteiro, Eliseu [CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2009-11-15

    Bioenergy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. Bioenergy is also an atypical energy source due to its diversity and inter-linkages with many other technological and policy areas. The goal of this paper is to analyze the Portuguese possibilities for bioenergy provision from biomass. The potentials of biomass, conversion technologies and legal framework are analysed and discussed. The result of this analysis shows that there are still unused potentials especially from forestry, which can contribute significantly to cover the bioenergy targets. However, the Portuguese experience with conversion technologies is limited to combustion, which is a drawback that must be solved so as to the bioenergy potential can be used. Research and Development projects, as well as demonstration projects are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the technological processes. At political level, Portuguese governments have been following the policies and strategies of the European Commission in the energy sector. However, energy crops market, due to the inter-linkage with agricultural policy, seems to need some additional political push. (author)

  7. 11. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The seven main focus of the bioenergy forum were: 1. Political regulation and its consequences; 2. Flexible energy supply; 3. Biorefineries for the use of residues from bioenergy production; 4. Process optimization biogas; 5. Alternative substrates for biogas production; 6. Cross-sectoral bioenergy concept; 7. Transport sector (biofuels). Five lectures are separately analyzed for this database. [de

  8. Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Tat; Lattimore, Brenna; Berndes, Göran

    This report summarizes the results of an IEA Bioenergy inter-Task project involving collaborators from Tasks 37 (Energy from Biogas), 38 (Climate Change Effects of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems), 39 (Commercialising Conventional and Advanced Liquid Biofuels from Biomass), 40 (Sustainable Internat......-scale mobilization of major bioenergy resources through five case studies that determine the factors critical to their sustainable mobilization....

  9. Ecophysiological responses of two herbaceous species to prescribed burning, alone or in combination with overstory thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Boerner, Ralph E J; Rebbeck, Joanne

    2007-05-01

    The oak-rich deciduous forests of the central Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America have changed significantly since the onset of effective fire suppression early in the 20th century. Those changes have resulted in progressively decreasing light and nutrient supplies to herbaceous perennial understory species. Application of ecological restoration treatments such as reintroduction of frequent dormant-season fire and overstory thinning to pre-suppression density often increase light, soil temperature and moisture, and short-term nutrient availability to pre-suppression levels. To persist in this environment, perennial understory herbs must be able to acclimate phenotypically to the very different resource supply combinations present with and without fire suppression. As part of a larger study of the response of the long-lived herbaceous perennials Desmodium nudiflorum and Panicum boscii to ecosystem restoration treatments in Ohio mixed-oak forests, this study examined the ecophysiological effects of prescribed burning (B) and the combination of burning and thinning (T + B) in mixed-oak forests in southern Ohio. Control (C) plants had significantly lower maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)) than those in the treated plots. The enhancement of A(max) averaged 26.7% and 52.7% in the B and T + B treatments, respectively. Plants from the T + B plots had higher quantum yield, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency than B and C plants. B plants had greater intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) than plants in the C or T + B treatments. Light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), and "dark" respiration (DR) did not differ among treatments. Photosynthetic parameters did vary significantly between the species, but no significant treatment × species interactions were detected. Our results support the hypothesis that prescribed burning, especially when combined with overstory thinning, in these perennial herbs can result in

  10. Bio-energy in Europe: changing technology choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-energy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. This is certainly evident in Europe, where a kaleidoscope of activities and programs was and is executed for developing and stimulating bio-energy. Over the past 10-15 years in the European Union, heat and electricity production from biomass increased with some 2% and 9% per year, respectively, between 1990 and 2000 and biofuel production increased about eight-fold in the same period. Biomass contributed some two-thirds of the total renewable energy production in the European Union (EU) (2000 PJ) or 4% of the total energy supply in 1999. Given the targets for heat, power and biofuels, this contribution may rise to some 10% (6000 PJ) in 2010. Over time, the scale at which bio-energy is being used has increased considerably. This is true for electricity and combined heat and power plants, and how biomass markets are developing from purely regional to international markets, with increasing cross-border trade-flows. So far, national policy programs proved to be of vital importance for the success of the development of bio-energy, which led to very specific technological choices in various countries. For the future, a supra-national approach is desired: comprehensive research development, demonstration and deployment trajectories for key options as biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle and advanced biofuel concepts, develop an international biomass market allowing for international trade and an integral policy approach for bio-energy incorporating energy, agricultural, forestry, waste and industrial policies. The Common Agricultural Policy of the (extended) EU should fully incorporate bio-energy and perennial crops in particular

  11. A generic model for estimating biomass accumulation and greenhouse gas emissions from perennial crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, Alicia; Heathcote, Richard; Hastings, Astley; Smith, Pete; Hillier, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is essential to maintain humankind but is, at the same time, a substantial emitter of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With a rising global population, the need for agriculture to provide secure food and energy supply is one of the main human challenges. At the same time, it is the only sector which has significant potential for negative emissions through the sequestration of carbon and offsetting via supply of feedstock for energy production. Perennial crops accumulate carbon during their lifetime and enhance organic soil carbon increase via root senescence and decomposition. However, inconsistency in accounting for this stored biomass undermines efforts to assess the benefits of such cropping systems when applied at scale. A consequence of this exclusion is that efforts to manage this important carbon stock are neglected. Detailed information on carbon balance is crucial to identify the main processes responsible for greenhouse gas emissions in order to develop strategic mitigation programs. Perennial crops systems represent 30% in area of total global crop systems, a considerable amount to be ignored. Furthermore, they have a major standing both in the bioenergy and global food industries. In this study, we first present a generic model to calculate the carbon balance and GHGs emissions from perennial crops, covering both food and bioenergy crops. The model is composed of two simple process-based sub-models, to cover perennial grasses and other perennial woody plants. The first is a generic individual based sub-model (IBM) covering crops in which the yield is the fruit and the plant biomass is an unharvested residue. Trees, shrubs and climbers fall into this category. The second model is a generic area based sub-model (ABM) covering perennial grasses, in which the harvested part includes some of the plant parts in which the carbon storage is accounted. Most second generation perennial bioenergy crops fall into this category. Both generic sub

  12. Perennial Environment Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, Frederic

    2014-07-01

    The Perennial Environment Observatory [Observatoire Perenne de l'Environnement - OPE] is a unique approach and infrastructure developed and implemented by ANDRA, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, as part of its overall project of deep geological disposal for radioactive waste. Its current mission is to assess the initial state of the rural (forest, pasture, open-field and aquatic) environment, prior to repository construction. This will be followed in 2017 (pending construction authorizations) and for a period exceeding a century, by monitoring of any impact the repository may have on the environment. In addition to serving its own industrial purpose of environmental monitoring, ANDRA also opens the OPE approach, infrastructure and acquired knowledge (database...) to the scientific community to support further research on long term evolution of the environment subjected to natural and anthropogenic stresses, and to contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between the various compartments of the environment

  13. Spatio-temporal Eigenvector Filtering: Application on Bioenergy Crop Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Kamarianakis, Y.; Georgescu, M.

    2017-12-01

    A suite of 10-year ensemble-based simulations was conducted to investigate the hydroclimatic impacts due to large-scale deployment of perennial bioenergy crops across the continental United States. Given the large size of the simulated dataset (about 60Tb), traditional hierarchical spatio-temporal statistical modelling cannot be implemented for the evaluation of physics parameterizations and biofuel impacts. In this work, we propose a filtering algorithm that takes into account the spatio-temporal autocorrelation structure of the data while avoiding spatial confounding. This method is used to quantify the robustness of simulated hydroclimatic impacts associated with bioenergy crops to alternative physics parameterizations and observational datasets. Results are evaluated against those obtained from three alternative Bayesian spatio-temporal specifications.

  14. World Bioenergy 2006. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    The conference and exhibition had over 1000 participants from 60 different countries. Subject areas covered by the conference were: Conversion, CHP; Innovative Applications; Resources; Logistics and Distribution; Agricultural Energy; Transport Fuels; Gasification; Steering Instruments; Market and Policy; Fuel Production including Refining; Bioenergy in a Sustainable Society. 75 contributions have been separately indexed for the database

  15. Field-based estimates of global warming potential in bioenergy systems of Hawaii: Crop choice and deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level bal...

  16. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Cox

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality.

  17. Above- and belowground competition from longleaf pine plantations limits performance of reintroduced herbaceous species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.B. Harrington; C.M. Dagley; M.B. Edwards.

    2003-10-01

    Although overstory trees limit the abundance and species richness of herbaceous vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood because of confounding among limiting factors. In fall 1998, research was initiated to determine the separate effects of above- and belowground competition and needlefall from overstory pines on understory plant performance. Three 13- to 15-yr-old plantations near Aiken, SC, were thinned to 0, 25, 50, or 100% of nonthinned basal area (19.5 m2 ha-1). Combinations of trenching (to eliminate root competition) and needlefall were applied to areas within each plot, and containerized seedlings of 14 perennial herbaceous species and longleaf pine were planted within each. Overstory crown closure ranged from 0 to 81%, and soil water and available nitrogen varied consistently with pine stocking, trenching, or their combination. Cover of planted species decreased an average of 16.5 and 14.1% as a result of above- and below-ground competition, respectively. Depending on species, needlefall effects were positive, negative, or negligible. Results indicate that understory restoration will be most successful when herbaceous species are established within canopy openings (0.1-0.2 ha) managed to minimize negative effects from above- and belowground competition and needlefall.

  18. Bioenergy good practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birse, J.; Chambers, K.

    2000-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to make the Good Practice Guidelines, which were developed to help the UK Bioenergy industry, the national and local governments, and the public, more widely available. Details concerning the designing of a Good Practice Programme, and the proposed codes of Good Practice programme are given, and general relevant good practice guidance documents are discussed. The stakeholder survey and workshop, and the proposed codes of a Good Practice Programme are presented in Annexes. (UK)

  19. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  20. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  1. Finnish bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, H. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1993-12-31

    Finland is one of the leading countries in the use of biofuels. The share of wood derived fuels of the total primary energy requirement was about 14% (ca. 4 million toe) and peat about 5% (1.4 million toe). The possibilities for increasing the use of biofuels in Finland are significant. There is theoretically about 10 million m{sup 3}/a (about 2 million toe/a) of harvestable wood. Areas suitable for fuel peat production (0.5 million ha) could produce ca. 420 million toe of peat. At present rates of use, the peat reserves are adequate for centuries. During the next few years 0.5--1 million hectares of fields withdrawn from farming could be used for biofuel production. The production potential of this field area is estimated to be about 0.2--0.5 million toe. In addition, the use of wastes in energy production could be increased. The aim of the new Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. New economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and use of biofuels will also be developed. The main research areas are production of wood fuels, peat production, use of bioenergy and conversion of biomass.

  2. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE HERBACEOUS AND SHRUBBY-ARBOREAL COMPONENTS IN A SEMIARID REGION IN THE NORTHEAST OF BRAZIL: COMPETITION OR FACILITATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLEBER ANDRADE DA SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of high stress, interactions between species can be positive. Islands of perennial vegetation can improve the conditions of the understory and facilitate the establishment of herbaceous plants. The hypothesis of this study is that islands of perennial vegetation in an area of caatinga harbor, a greater richness, diversity and density of herbaceous plants, and that individuals reach a greater height and diameter than in open spaces. The study was conducted in Petrolândia, Pernambuco, Brazil. Twenty-seven plots were installed in the center of the islands, 38 at the edge of the islands (in a total of 38 islands and 35 in the open spaces. A total of 51 species were recorded in the center and 55 on the edge of the islands and 48 in the open spaces. The mean richness of the open spaces was lower than on the islands. The diversity was greater in the center of the island and became less on the edge of the island and in the open spaces. The mean density was lower in the open spaces than on the islands. The mean density at the edge of the islands was greater than in the center of the islands. There was no difference in mean diameter of herbaceous plants. The mean height of the individuals was higher in the center of the islands. The herbaceous community growing on the islands exhibited higher richness, diversity, density and height than in open spaces. Thus, islands of perennial vegetation facilitate the establishment of herbaceous species.

  3. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    1998-11-08

    The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% of the

  4. A comparative study of AMF diversity in annual and perennial plant species from semiarid gypsum soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Roldán, A.; Díaz, G.; Torres, P.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities composition regulate plant interactions and determine the structure of plant communities. In this study we analysed the diversity of AMF in the roots of two perennial gypsophyte plant species, Herniaria fruticosa and Senecio auricula, and an annual herbaceous species, Bromus rubens, growing in a gypsum soil from a semiarid area. The objective was to determine whether perennial and annual host plants support different AMF communities in their roots and whether there are AMF species that might be indicators of specific functional plant roles in these ecosystems. The roots were analysed by nested PCR, cloning, sequencing of the ribosomal DNA small subunit region and phylogenetic analysis. Twenty AMF sequence types, belonging to the Glomus group A, Glomus group B, Diversisporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, Archaeosporaceae and Paraglomeraceae, were identified. Both gypsophyte perennial species had differing compositions of the AMF community and higher diversity when compared with the annual species, showing preferential selection by specific AMF sequences types. B. rubens did not show host specificity, sharing the full composition of its AMF community with both perennial plant species. Seasonal variations in the competitiveness of AM fungi could explain the observed differences in AMF community composition, but this is still a working hypothesis that requires the analysis of further data obtained from a higher number of both annual and perennial plant species in order to be fully tested.

  5. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  6. Impacts of Past Land Use Changes on Water Resources: An Analog for Assessing Effects of Proposed Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Schilling, K.; Young, M.; Duncan, I. J.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.

    2011-12-01

    Interest is increasing in renewable energy sources, including bioenergy. However, potential impacts of bioenergy crops on water resources need to be better understood before large scale expansion occurs. This study evaluates the potential for using past land use change impacts on water resources as an analog for assessing future bioenergy crop effects. Impacts were assessed for two cases and methods: (1) changes from perennial to annual crops in the Midwest U.S. using stream hydrograph separation; and (2) changes from perennial grasses and shrubs to annual crops in the Southwest U.S. using unsaturated zone and groundwater data. Results from the Midwest show that expanding the soybean production area by 80,000 km2 increased stream flow by 32%, based on data from Keokuk station in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Using these relationships, further expansion of annual corn production for biofuels by 10 - 50% would increase streamflow by up to 40%, with related increases in nitrate, phosphate, and sediment pollutant transport to the Gulf of Mexico. The changes in water partitioning are attributed to reducing evapotranspiration, increasing recharge and baseflow discharge to streams. Similar results were found in the southwestern US, where changes from native perennial grasses and shrubs to annual crops increased recharge from ~0.0 to 24 mm/yr, raising water tables by up to 7 m in some regions and flushing accumulated salts into underlying aquifers in the southern High Plains. The changes in water partitioning are related to changes in rooting depth from deep rooted native vegetation to shallow rooted crops and growing season length. Further expansion of annual bioenergy crops, such as changes from Conservation Reserve Program to corn in the Midwest, will continue the trajectory of reducing ET, thereby increasing recharge and baseflow to streams and nutrient export. We hypothesize that changing bioenergy crops from annual crops to perennial grasses, such as switchgrass

  7. Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    (Leading abstract). The conference ''Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology'' took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  8. 2016 Bioenergy Industry Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristen L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-03

    This report provides a snapshot of the bioenergy industry status at the end of 2016. The report compliments other annual market reports from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offices and is supported by DOE’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO). The 2016 Bioenergy Industry Status Report focuses on past year data covering multiple dimensions of the bioenergy industry and does not attempt to make future market projections. The report provides a balanced and unbiased assessment of the industry and associated markets. It is openly available to the public and is intended to compliment International Energy Agency and industry reports with a focus on DOE stakeholder needs.

  9. 10. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Biomass energy not only contributes to the energy transition, but also for climate and resource protection. The main topics of the conference are: Alternative solid bioenergy sources; Optimizing the use of heat; Prospects for biofuels; Emission reduction through use of biofuels; Alternative biomass for biogas; Optimization and adjustment in the biogas sector; Flexibility of biogas plants; New uses of bioenergy. 12 contributions were recorded separately for the INIS database. [de

  10. Herbaceous Legume Encroachment Reduces Grass Productivity and Density in Arid Rangelands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Wagner

    Full Text Available Worldwide savannas and arid grasslands are mainly used for livestock grazing, providing livelihood to over a billion people. While normally dominated by perennial C4 grasses, these rangelands are increasingly affected by the massive spread of native, mainly woody legumes. The consequences are often a repression of grass cover and productivity, leading to a reduced carrying capacity. While such encroachment by woody plants has been extensively researched, studies on similar processes involving herbaceous species are rare. We studied the impact of a sustained and massive spread of the native herbaceous legume Crotalaria podocarpa in Namibia's escarpment region on the locally dominant fodder grasses Stipagrostis ciliata and Stipagrostis uniplumis. We measured tussock densities, biomass production of individual tussocks and tussock dormancy state of Stipagrostis on ten 10 m x 10 m plots affected and ten similarly-sized plots unaffected by C. podocarpa over eight consecutive years and under different seasonal rainfalls and estimated the potential relative productivity of the land. We found the percentage of active Stipagrostis tussocks and the biomass production of individual tussocks to increase asymptotically with higher seasonal rainfall reaching a maximum around 300 mm while the land's relative productivity under average local rainfall conditions reached only 40% of its potential. Crotalaria podocarpa encroachment had no effect on the proportion of productive grass tussocks, but reduced he productivity of individual Stipagrostis tussocks by a third. This effect of C. podocarpa on grass productivity was immediate and direct and was not compensated for by above-average rainfall. Besides this immediate effect, over time, the density of grass tussocks declined by more than 50% in areas encroached by C. podocarpa further and lastingly reducing the lands carrying capacity. The effects of C. podocarpa on grass productivity hereby resemble those of woody

  11. Evaluation of Bioenergy Crop Growth and the Impacts Of Bioenergy Crops on Streamflow, Tile Drain Flow and Nutrient Losses Using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T.; Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.; Gitau, M. W.; Arnold, J. G.; Srinivasan, R.; Kiniry, J. R.; Engel, B.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenery crops are expected to produce large quantities of biofuel at a national scale to meet US biofuel goals. It is important to study bioenergy crop growth and the impacts on water quantity and quality to identify environment-friendly and productive biofeedstocks. In this study, SWAT2012 with a new tile drainage routine (DRAINMOD routine) and improved perennial grass and tree growth simulation was used to model long-term annual biomass yields, streamflow, tile flow, sediment load, total nitrogen, nitrate load in flow, nitrate in tile flow, soluble nitrogen, organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, mineral phosphorus and organic phosphorus under various bioenergy scenarios in an extensively agricultural watershed in the Midwestern US. The results showed that simulated annual crop yields matched with observed county level values for corn and soybeans, and were reasonable for Miscanthus, switchgrass and hybrid poplar. Removal of 38% of corn stover (66,439 Mg/yr) with Miscanthus production on highly erodible areas and marginal land (19,039 Mg/yr) provided the highest biofeedstock production. Streamflow, tile flow, erosion and nutrient losses were reduced under bioenergy crop scenarios of Miscanthus, switchgrass, and hybrid poplar on highly erodible areas, marginal land. Corn stover removal did not result in significant water quality changes. The increase in sediment load and nutrient losses under corn stover removal could be offset with production of other bioenergy crops. The study showed that corn stover removal with bioenergy crops both on highly erodible areas and marginal land could provide more biofuel production relative to the baseline, and was beneficial to hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale, providing guidance for further research on evaluation of bioenergy crop scenarios in a typical extensively tile-drained watershed in the Midwestern U.S.

  12. The bioenergy potential of conservation areas and roadsides for biogas in an urbanized region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meerbeek, Koenraad; Ottoy, Sam; De Meyer, Annelies; Van Schaeybroeck, Tom; Van Orshoven, Jos; Muys, Bart; Hermy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed the bioenergy potential of conservation areas and roadsides in Flanders. • An area of 31,055 ha produces 203 kton DM of herbaceous biomass annually. • The associated biomass supply chain was optimized with OPTIMASS in four scenarios. • The net energy balance of the studied systems was 7 GJ ha −1 in the 2020 scenarios. • We show that this biomass can play a role to meet the increased biomass demand in 2020. - Abstract: In many urbanized areas the roadside and nature conservation management offers a biomass-for-bioenergy resource potential which is barely valorized, because of the fragmented biomass production sites and the scarcity of accurate data on the spatial availability of the biomass. In this study, a GIS based assessment was performed to determine the regional non-woody biomass-for-bioenergy potential for biogas from conservation areas and roadsides in Flanders, Belgium. These systems, with an area of 31,055 ha, have an annual herbaceous biomass production of 203 kton dry matter. The full associated biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain was optimized in four scenarios to maximize the net energy output and the profit. The scenario analysis was performed with OPTIMASS, a recently developed GIS based strategic decision support system. The analysis showed that the energetic valorization of conservation and roadside biomass through anaerobic digestion had a positive net energy balance, although there is still much room for improvements. Economically, however, it is a less interesting biomass resource. Most likely, the economic picture would change when other ecosystem services delivered by the protected biodiversity would be taken into account. Future technical advances and governmental incentives, like green energy certificates, will be necessary to incorporate the biomass into the energy chain. By tackling the existing barriers and providing a detailed methodology for biomass potential assessments, this study tries to

  13. Managing for Multifunctionality in Perennial Grain Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew R; Crews, Timothy E; Culman, Steven W; DeHaan, Lee R; Hayes, Richard C; Jungers, Jacob M; Bakker, Matthew G

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Plant breeders are increasing yields and improving agronomic traits in several perennial grain crops, the first of which is now being incorporated into commercial food products. Integration strategies and management guidelines are needed to optimize production of these new crops, which differ substantially from both annual grain crops and perennial forages. To offset relatively low grain yields, perennial grain cropping systems should be multifunctional. Growing perennial grains for several years to regenerate soil health before rotating to annual crops and growing perennial grains on sloped land and ecologically sensitive areas to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses are two strategies that can provide ecosystem services and support multifunctionality. Several perennial cereals can be used to produce both grain and forage, and these dual-purpose crops can be intercropped with legumes for additional benefits. Highly diverse perennial grain polycultures can further enhance ecosystem services, but increased management complexity might limit their adoption. PMID:29662249

  14. Navigating Bioenergy. Contributing to informed decision making on bioenergy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, M.; Reumerman, P.; Frederiks, B. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    In order to further contribute to sustainable global bioenergy development, UNIDO will this year be launching the Bioenergy Capacity Building Programme (BIOCAB), offering a comprehensive training package to policy makers and entrepreneurs aimed at enhancing their engagement in shaping a sustainable bioenergy industry in developing countries. The training package, disseminated through a network of key institutions and certified trainers, will consist of four modules covering the following subjects: Technologies and Processes, Policy, Socio-Economic and Environmental Issues, Financial and Project Development Issues, Industrial Applications for Productive Use. While designing the training package and its modules at a meeting hosted by UNIDO at headquarters in August 2008, experts reiterated a demand, previously expressed by UNIDO clients at various international fora, for an easy-to-read, practical and user-friendly introduction to certain contentious bioenergy issues. The expert meeting selected the most hotly-debated bioenergy issues and came up with the following eight topics: (1) Jatropha, the feedstock of the future?; (2) Biomethane, is it an underestimated energy source?; (3) Energy from Municipal Solid Waste, can this potential be realized?; (4) The Biorefinery Concept, how relevant is it for developing countries?; (5) Competition with Food, what are the facts in the food versus fuel discussion?; (6) Sustainability and Certification of Biomass, what are the benefits?; (7) Clean Development Mechanism, how does it work?; (8) Success Stories.

  15. Functional role of the herbaceous layer in eastern deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Barton D. Clinton; Brian D. Kloeppel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the herbaceous layer in regulating ecosystem processes in deciduous forests is generally unknown. We use a manipulative study in a rich, mesophytic cove forest in the southern Appalachians to test the following hypotheses: (i) the herbaceous functional group (HFG) in mesophytic coves accelerates carbon and nutrient cycling, (ii) high litter quality...

  16. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    -diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result

  17. Nutrient supply to reed canary grass as a bioenergy crop. Intercropping and fertilization with ash or sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindvall, Eva

    2012-07-01

    Production of renewable energy from herbaceous crops on agricultural land is of great interest since fossil fuels need to be replaced with sustainable energy sources. Reed canary grass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea L. is an interesting species for this purpose. The aim of this thesis was to study different approaches to reduce the requirement of mineral fertilizers in RCG production for bioenergy purposes. Paper I describes a study where fertilization effects and risk of heavy metal enrichment were studied, using annual applications of ash for seven years. Ash from co-combustion of RCG and municipal wastes (mixed ash), pure RCG ash and commercial fertilizers were compared. The experiment was harvested each spring. Paper II describes an ongoing study in which the effects of intercropping RCG in mixture with nitrogen-fixing perennial legumes are examined in two experiments, in combination with various fertilization treatments. Three fertilization treatments were applied: high N, low N (half of the high N) and low N + RCG ash/sewage sludge. A delayed harvest method was used; cutting the biomass in late autumn and harvesting in spring. Besides dry matter yield, the N-fixation rate was estimated. The results from paper I showed no differences between treatments in the dry matter yields or in the heavy metal concentrations in the biomass. Soil samples, taken when the experiment was finished, showed differences between treatments for Cd, Pb and Zn only in the uppermost soil level, highest levels for the mixed ash treatment. The results in paper II showed that at one site the legume proportion in the mixtures was low and did not affect RCG growth negatively. The high N treatment gave a higher spring yield than the low N treatments. Mean rates of N2-fixation in the first production year were 12-28, 33-40 and 55 kg N ha-1 kg for goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.), plots, respectively. At the

  18. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  19. Combining Bioenergy with CCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a carbon reduction technology that offers permanent net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This has been termed negative carbon dioxide emissions, and offers a significant advantage over other mitigation alternatives, which only decrease the amount of emissions to the atmosphere. The benefits inherent within this technology are currently receiving increased attention from policy makers. To facilitate the development of appropriate policy incentives, this paper reviews the treatment of negative carbon dioxide emissions under current and planned international carbon accounting frameworks. It finds that, while current frameworks provide limited guidance, proposed and revised guidelines could provide an environmentally sound reporting framework for BECCS. However, the paper also notes that, as they currently stand, new guidelines do not tackle a critical issue that has implications for all biomass energy systems, namely the overall carbon footprint of biomass production and use. It recommends that, to the best extent possible, all carbon impacts of BECCS are fully reflected in carbon reporting and accounting systems under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol.

  20. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: A consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    and IV) co-firing in large scale coal-fired CHP plants. Soil carbon changes, direct and indirect land use changes as well as uncertainty analysis (sensitivity, MonteCarlo) were included in the LCA. Results showed that global warming was the bottleneck impact, where only two scenarios, namely willow...... and Miscanthus co-firing, allowed for an improvement as compared with the reference (-82 and -45 t CO2-eq. ha-1, respectively). The indirect land use changes impact was quantified as 310 ± 170 t CO2-eq. ha-1, representing a paramount average of 41% of the induced greenhouse gas emissions. The uncertainty...... analysis confirmed the results robustness and highlighted the indirect land use changes uncertainty as the only uncertainty that can significantly change the outcome of the LCA results. © 2012 American Chemical Society....

  1. Land-use change to bioenergy production in Europe: implications for the greenhouse gas balance and soil carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Don, Axel; Osborne, Bruce; Hastings, Astley

    2012-01-01

    for Miscanthus). However, there was no positive or even negative effects on the C balance if energy crops are established on former grassland. Increased bioenergy production may also result in direct and indirect land-use changes with potential high C losses when native vegetation is converted to annual crops......Bioenergy from crops is expected to make a considerable contribution to climate change mitigation. However, bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 during crop production may reduce or completely counterbalance CO2 savings of the substituted fossil fuels...... of lower fertilizer requirements as well as a higher N-use efficiency, due to effective N-recycling. Perennial energy crops have the potential to sequester additional carbon in soil biomass if established on former cropland (0.44 Mg soil C ha 1 yr 1 for poplar and willow and 0.66 Mg soil C ha 1 yr 1...

  2. Bioenergy research advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Vijai G; Kubicek, Christian P; Saddler, Jack; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications brings biology and engineering together to address the challenges of future energy needs. The book consolidates the most recent research on current technologies, concepts, and commercial developments in various types of widely used biofuels and integrated biorefineries, across the disciplines of biochemistry, biotechnology, phytology, and microbiology. All the chapters in the book are derived from international scientific experts in their respective research areas. They provide you with clear and concise information on both standard and more recent bioenergy production methods, including hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Chapters are also designed to facilitate early stage researchers, and enables you to easily grasp the concepts, methodologies and application of bioenergy technologies. Each chapter in the book describes the merits and drawbacks of each technology as well as its usefulness. The book provides information on recent approaches to graduates, post...

  3. Bioenergy Ecosystem Land-Use Modelling and Field Flux Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Niall; Bottoms, Emily; Donnison, Iain; Dondini, Marta; Farrar, Kerrie; Finch, Jon; Harris, Zoe; Ineson, Phil; Keane, Ben; Massey, Alice; McCalmont, Jon; Morison, James; Perks, Mike; Pogson, Mark; Rowe, Rebecca; Smith, Pete; Sohi, Saran; Tallis, Mat; Taylor, Gail; Yamulki, Sirwan

    2013-04-01

    Climate change impacts resulting from fossil fuel combustion and concerns about the diversity of energy supply are driving interest to find low-carbon energy alternatives. As a result bioenergy is receiving widespread scientific, political and media attention for its potential role in both supplying energy and mitigating greenhouse (GHG) emissions. It is estimated that the bioenergy contribution to EU 2020 renewable energy targets could require up to 17-21 million hectares of additional land in Europe (Don et al., 2012). There are increasing concerns that some transitions into bioenergy may not be as sustainable as first thought when GHG emissions from the crop growth and management cycle are factored into any GHG life cycle assessment (LCA). Bioenergy is complex and encapsulates a wide range of crops, varying from food crop based biofuels to dedicated second generation perennial energy crops and forestry products. The decision on the choice of crop for energy production significantly influences the GHG mitigation potential. It is recognised that GHG savings or losses are in part a function of the original land-use that has undergone change and the management intensity for the energy crop. There is therefore an urgent need to better quantify both crop and site-specific effects associated with the production of conventional and dedicated energy crops on the GHG balance. Currently, there is scarcity of GHG balance data with respect to second generation crops meaning that process based models and LCAs of GHG balances are weakly underpinned. Therefore, robust, models based on real data are urgently required. In the UK we have recently embarked on a detailed program of work to address this challenge by combining a large number of field studies with state-of-the-art process models. Through six detailed experiments, we are calculating the annual GHG balances of land use transitions into energy crops across the UK. Further, we are quantifying the total soil carbon gain or

  4. Assessment of renewable bioenergy application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    into biogas. In order to validate the proposed options of bioenergy application, we considered a food processing company in Denmark as a case company in a single in-depth case study. In the case studied, the produced biogas is to be utilized in one of two options at a bakery site: To substitute natural gas...... to realize financial benefits in terms of additional profits and cost savings, but that challenging conditions can be problematic from a company perspective and provide challenges for the promotion of bioenergy investments. Specifically, substituting natural gas for processes and boilers is identified...

  5. Stream Health Sensitivity to Landscape Changes due to Bioenergy Crops Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejadhashemi, A.; Einheuser, M. D.; Woznicki, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Global demand for bioenergy has increased due to uncertainty in oil markets, environmental concerns, and expected increases in energy consumption worldwide. To develop a sustainable biofuel production strategy, the adverse environmental impacts of bioenergy crops expansion should be understood. To study the impact of bioenergy crops expansion on stream health, the adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to predict macroinvertebrate and fish stream health measures. The Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family Index of Biological Integrity (Family IBI), and Number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT taxa) were used as macroinvertebrate measures, while the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) was used for fish. A high-resolution biophysical model built using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to obtain water quantity and quality variables for input into the ANFIS stream health predictive models. Twenty unique crop rotations were developed to examine impacts of bioenergy crops expansion on stream health in the Saginaw Bay basin. Traditional intensive row crops generated more pollution than current landuse conditions, while second-generation biofuel crops associated with less intensive agricultural activities resulted in water quality improvement. All three macroinvertebrate measures were negatively impacted during intensive row crop productions but improvement was predicted when producing perennial crops. However, the expansion of native grass, switchgrass, and miscanthus production resulted in reduced IBI relative to first generation row crops. This study demonstrates that ecosystem complexity requires examination of multiple stream health measures to avoid potential adverse impacts of landuse change on stream health.

  6. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  7. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  8. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  9. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  10. Site-adapted cultivation of bioenergy crops - a strategy towards a greener and innovative feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Thorsten; Emmerling, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops is of increasing interest to produce valuable feedstocks e.g. for anaerobic digestion. In the past decade, the focus was primarily set to cultivation of the most economic viable crop, namely maize. In Germany for example, the cultivation area of maize was expanded from approx. 200,000 ha in 2006 to 800,000 ha in 2015. However, this process initiated a scientific and public discussion about the sustainability of intense maize cultivation. Concerns addressed in this context are depletion of soil organic matter, soil erosion and compaction as well as losses of (agro-)biodiversity. However, from a soil science perspective, several problems arise from not site-adapted cultivation of maize. In contrast, the cultivation of perennial bioenergy crops may provide a valuable opportunity to preserve or even enhance soil fertility and agrobiodiversity without limiting economic efficiency. Several perennial energy crops, with various requirements regarding stand conditions, allow a beneficial selection of the most suitable species for a respective location. The study aimed to provide a first step towards a more strategic planning of bioenergy crop cultivation with respect to spatial arrangement, distribution and connectivity of sites on a regional scale. The identification of pedological site characteristics is a crucial step in this process. With the study presented, we tried to derive site information that allow for an assessment of the suitability for specific energy crops. Our idea is to design a multifunctional landscape with a coexistence of sites with reduced management for soil protection and highly productive site. By a site adapted cultivation of perennial energy plants in sensitive areas, a complex, heterogeneous landscape could be reached.

  11. Conundrums in mixed woody-herbaceous plant systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    House, JI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available -form communities, the novel, complex, nonlinear behaviour of mixed tree-grass systems cannot be accounted for by simply studying or modelling woody and herbaceous components independently. A more robust understanding requires addressing three fundamental conundrums...

  12. Recreational transformation of the herbaceous layer in an urban forest ecosystem of Central Podolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Blinkova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of recreational activities on herbaceous cover of forests on the example of an urban environment in Central Podolia. The features of changes in environmental conditions of ecotypes of an urban forest have been shown through the systematic, biomorphological and ecomorphic structure of the herbaceous cover, the ratio of ecological groups, changes in type of ecological strategy of species, assessment of ecological fractions valences, and phytodiversity. We found 78 species of vascular plants. The most diverse families are Asteraceae, Poaceae and Lamiaceae. The biomorphological range of phytodiversity of the intensive recreational zone is characterized by a high proportion of adventive and ruderal species, dominance of vegetative mobile species, forming of monodominant groups and disturbed distribution of all spectrum types for coenotic morphs. Perennial hemicryptophytes dominate in the spectrum of life forms. The share of therophytes increased along the gradient of recreational transformation. Unrosellate herbal plants dominate in the structure of aboveground shoots and leaf placement, plants that don’t have special modifications dominate in the structures of underground shoots. Helophytes dominated in the analysis of heliomorphic plants. Mesophytes dominated almost everywhere. The share of hydrocontrastophobes increased with a gradual removal from places of recreation. Changes in acidomorphic and nitromorphic structures of plants were not found. Types of transitional groups of ecological strategies, including CR-, CS-, and CRS-strategies prevailed. The share of patiens diminished. Exsplerents from all types of primary ecological strategies dominated. Analysis of ecological valence fractions showed that species of hemi-euryvalent and euryvalent fractions dominate among hydromorphs, hemi-euryvalent species dominate among ecogroups of scale variability humidification of soil, hemystenovalences species dominate among

  13. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  14. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  15. The future of bioenergy; Die Zukunft der Bioenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This volume contains the following five contributions: 1. The impact of the governmental biogas production on agricultural rents in Germany. An econometric study (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas as price drivers on the land and rental market? An Empirical Analysis (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analysis of comparative advantage of bioenergy in electricity and heat production. Greenhouse gas abatement and mitigation costs in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibility potential of biogas and biomethane CHP in the investment portfolio (Matthias Edel); 5. Legal possibilities and limitations of a reform of the system for the promotion of bioenergy (Jose Martinez). [German] Dieser Band enthaelt folgende fuenf Themenbeitraege: 1. Die Auswirkungen der staatlichen Biogasfoerderung auf landwirtschaftliche Pachtpreise in Deutschland. Eine oekonometrische Untersuchung (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas als Preistreiber am Bodenmarkt und Pachtmarkt? Eine empirische Analyse (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analyse komparativer Kostenvorteile von Bioenergielinien in der Strom- und Waermeproduktion Treibhausgasvermeidung und Vermeidungskosten in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibilisierungspotenzial von Biogas- und Biomethan-BHKWs im Anlagenbestand (Matthias Edel); 5. Rechtliche Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer Reform des Systems zur Foerderung der Bioenergie (Jose Martinez).

  16. Bioenergy. The manifold renewable energy. 4. compl. rev. ed.; Bioenergie. Die vielfaeltige erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Bioenergy is the most important renewable energy source in Germany. With about 70 percent bioenergy contributes to the largest share of energy supply from renewable energy sources. This brochure provides an overview of the various possibilities, advantages and opportunities in the use of biomass and bioenergy.

  17. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-07-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) supports the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry by providing access to a variety of data sets, publications, and collaboration and mapping tools that support bioenergy research, analysis, and decision making. In the KDF, users can search for information, contribute data, and use the tools and map interface to synthesize, analyze, and visualize information in a spatially integrated manner.

  18. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  19. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  20. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  1. Developments in international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre; Wit, Marc de; Bolkesjoe, Torjus; Bradley, Douglas; Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Walter, Arnaldo da Silva; Heinimoe, Jussi; Hektor, Bo; Leistad, Oeyvind; Ling, Erik; Perry, Miles; Rosillo-Calle, Frank; Ryckmans, Yves; Schouwenberg, Peter-Paul; Solberg, Birger; Troemborg, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

  2. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  3. Bioenergy Status Document 2011; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch status document on bio-energy has been updated with data for the year 2011. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets. The status document shows there has been a slight increase in the share of bio-energy in overall energy consumption as well as in the total amount of renewable energy generated (which now stands at a little over 4% of gross final consumption). The question, however, is whether this growth is sufficient to meet the European target of 14% renewables in 2020. The limited growth is due partly to the decrease in the amount of energy generated in the category 'other incineration'. In addition, there was a decline in the physical delivery of transport biofuels because certain types of fuel can be 'double-counted' in the records, although they do not contribute to the 14% target. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2011 geeft de huidige status weer van bioenergie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken aan overheden en marktpartijen in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie. De kabinetsdoelstellingen voor hernieuwbare energie zijn conform de doelstellingen uit de richtlijn voor hernieuwbare energie (2009/28/EG), die is vastgesteld door de EC. In 2020 moet 14% van het nationale bruto finaal eindgebruik afkomstig zijn van hernieuwbare bronnen, de Nederlandse overheid schat dat dat overeenkomt met 300 PJ. Naar schatting is in 2011 ongeveer 88 PJ aan hernieuwbare energie geproduceerd, ongeveer evenveel

  4. Managing Bioenergy Production on Arable Field Margins for Multiple Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Andrea; Serra, Paolo; Amaducci, Stefano; Trevisan, Marco; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    Growing crops for bioenergy is increasingly viewed as conflicting with food production. However, energy use continues to rise and food production requires fuel inputs, which have increased with intensification. The debate should shift from "food or fuel" to the more challenging target: how the increasing demand for food and energy can be met in the future, particularly when water and land availability will be limited. As for food crops, also for bioenergy crops it is questioned whether it is preferable to manage cultivation to enhance ecosystem services ("land sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand ("land sparing" strategy). Energy crop production systems differ greatly in the supply of ecosystem services. The use of perennial biomass (e.g. Switchgrass, Mischantus, Giant reed) for energy production is considered a promising way to reduce net carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. In addition, regulating and supporting ecosystem services could be provided when specific management of bioenergy crops is implemented. The idea of HEDGE-BIOMASS* project is to convert the arable field margins to bioenergy crop production fostering a win-win strategy at landscape level. Main objective of the project is to improve land management to generate environmental benefits and increase farmer income. The various options available in literature for an improved field boundary management are presented. The positive/unknown/negative effects of growing perennial bioenergy crops on field margins will be discussed relatively to the following soil-related ecosystem services: (I) biodiversity conservation and enhancement, (II) soil nutrient cycling, (III) climate regulation (reduction of GHG emissions and soil carbon sequestration/stabilization, (IV) water regulation (filtering and buffering), (V) erosion regulation, (VI) pollination and pest regulation. From the analysis of available

  5. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.

    2008-06-01

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  6. Altered belowground carbon cycling following land use change to perennial bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belowground carbon (C) dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems play an important role in the global C cycle and thereby in climate regulation, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, land use change is a major driver of changes in belowground C storage; in general, land clearing and tillage for agricult...

  7. Energy from biomass: Results of two-years trials on annual and perennial Herba ceous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, L.; Ceccarini, L.; Oggiano, N.; Bonari, E.

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of the PRisCa Project (Alternative Crops Research Project) a number of germ plasm collections were set up at the Department of Agronomy of the University of Pisa in order to identify annual and perennial herbaceous species utilizable for electric energy production. The first results deriving from trials carried out in 1992-93 are reported. The following species were used: 1) Annual: Sorghum bicolor, Hibiscus cannabinus, Pennisetum americanum, Kochia scoparia. 2) Perennial: Cynara cardunculus, Helianthus tuberosus, Miscantus sinensis, Arundo donax. Almost all species tested were represented by several genotypes. The total amount of species and genotype tested was 16. On all species, main phenological, biometric and productive determinations were performed. The hypothesized final use was intended to be electric power production by direct combustion and/or gasification. In addition, specific calorific value was also determined by adiabatic calorimeter as well as chemical composition of dry matter and ash composition. Species showing high yield potential, both from the quantitative and qualitative point of view, were Sorghum bicolor and Kochia scoparia (among annuals), as well as Miscanthus sinensis and Arundo donax (among perennials). Total dry matter yield ranged from about 23 tha -1 in the annual species to about 56 tha -1 in the perennials. The highest total calorific power obtainable from dry epigeic biomass was measured in Sorghum bicolor and Arundo donax - 4023 Kcal Kg -1 and 4166 Kcal Kg -1 respectively. The preliminary results suggest that vegetable biomass is environmentally-friendly and could contribute significantly to the world energy needs. (author)

  8. Bioenergy as a Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, P.; Brovkin, V.; Müller, C.; Cramer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bioenergy, being one of the renewable energies with the lowest costs, is expected to play an important role in the near future as climate change mitigation measure. Current practices of converting crop products such as carbohydrates or plant oils to ethanol or biodiesel have limited capabilities to curb emission. Moreover, they compete with food production for the most fertile lands. Thus, second generation bioenergy technologies are being developed to process lignocellulosic plant materials from fast growing tree and grass species. A number of deforestation experiments using Earth System models have shown that in the mid- to high latitudes, deforested surface albedo strongly increases in presence of snow. This biophysical effect causes cooling, which could dominate over the biogeochemical warming effect because of the carbon emissions due to deforestation. In order to find out the global bioenergy potential of extensive plantations in the mid- to high latitudes, and the resultant savings in carbon emissions, we use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5°. It represents both natural and managed ecosystems, including the cultivation of cellulosic energy crops. LPJmL is run with 21st century projections of climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration based on the IPCC-SRES business as usual or A2 scenario. Latitudes above 45° in both hemispheres are deforested and planted with crops having the highest bioenergy return for the respective pixels of the model. The rest of the Earth has natural vegetation. The agricultural management intensity values are used such that it results in the best approximation for 1999 - 2003 national yields of wheat and maize as reported by FAOSTAT 2009. Four different scenarios of land management are used ranging from an idealistic or best case scenario, where all limitations of soil and terrain properties are managed to the worst case scenario where none of these

  9. Recent Progress in Perennial Buckwheat Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Fu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Grains in the genus Fagopyrum have benefits to human health and are an excellent gluten-free raw material. Of all cereal foods, this genus has the highest total content of amino-acid nutrients necessary for humans; nutrients that are resistant to digestion (protein and starch resulting in their sustained release; higher dietary fiber content than key cereals, and is rich in a special healthy ingredient (flavonoids. Fagopyrum includes 24 species of which five are perennial. Among them, golden buckwheat (F.cymosum complex is the most important perennial buckwheat, which is not only used in Chinese medicine, but also has great potential in healthy food crop. In order to provide some clues for perennial crop studies and their industry development, this paper presents the state of perennial buckwheat research in terms of taxonomy; natural chemical products and pharmacological and health functions; genetics and evolution; breeding; and product development and utilization. The great advances such as successful interspecific crossing and its subsequent new perennial buckwheat varieties will speed up the development of the perennial buckwheat industry.

  10. Drought mitigation in perennial crops by fertilization and adjustments of regional yield models for future climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, I. B.; Blanc-Betes, E.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Masters, M. D.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    Increased variability and intensity of precipitation in the Midwest agricultural belt due to climate change is a major concern. The success of perennial bioenergy crops in replacing maize for bioethanol production is dependent on sustained yields that exceed maize, and the marketing of perennial crops often emphasizes the resilience of perennial agriculture to climate stressors. Land conversion from maize for bioethanol to Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) increases yields and annual evapotranspiration rates (ET). However, establishment of miscanthus also increases biome water use efficiency (the ratio between net ecosystem productivity after harvest and ET), due to greater belowground biomass in miscanthus than in maize or soybean. In 2012, a widespread drought reduced the yield of 5-year-old miscanthus plots in central Illinois by 36% compared to the previous two years. Eddy covariance data indicated continued soil water deficit during the hydrologically-normal growing season in 2013 and miscanthus yield failed to rebound as expected, lagging behind pre-drought yields by an average of 53% over the next three years. In early 2014, nitrogen fertilizer was applied to half of mature (7-year-old) miscanthus plots in an effort to improve yields. In plots with annual post-emergence application of 60 kg ha-1 of urea, peak biomass was 29% greater than unfertilized miscanthus in 2014, and 113% greater in 2015, achieving statistically similar yields to the pre-drought average. Regional-scale models of perennial crop productivity use 30-year climate averages that are inadequate for predicting long-term effects of short-term extremes on perennial crops. Modeled predictions of perennial crop productivity incorporating repeated extreme weather events, observed crop response, and the use of management practices to mitigate water deficit demonstrate divergent effects on predicted yields.

  11. Bioenergy production on degraded and marginal land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955

    2011-01-01

    Current global energy supply is primarily based on fossil fuels and is widely considered to be unsustainable. Bioenergy is considered an important option in making future global energy more sustainable. However, increasing global trade and consumption of bioenergy in industrialised countries has

  12. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  13. Investigating the Sustainability of Perennial Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherlin, C. E.; Brunsell, N. A.; De Oliveira, G.; Crews, T.; Vico, G.

    2017-12-01

    The changing climate leads to uncertainties concerning the sustainability of certain agricultural resources, and with the additional stresses of an increasing global population, uncertainty in food security will greatly increase. To adhere to future food demands in the face of this changing climate, perennial agriculture has been a proposed solution. However, it is equally important to assure that perennial agriculture is not negatively affecting the climate in exchange for this proposed more robust food source. We chose to examine the interactions between perennial and annual agricultural crops by focusing on the efficiency of exchanges with the atmosphere. This is done using the omega decoupling factor for 4 different sites as a way of quantifying the contributions of radiation and stomatal conductance over the resulting water and carbon cycles. This gives us an indication of how the plant canopy is interacting with, and influencing the local microclimate. Ultimately, this should give us an indication of the ability of perennial crops to aid in the climate mitigation process. We hypothesized that the perennial site chosen would have omega values more similar to the omega values of a natural grassland rather than an annual crop site. Using AmeriFlux towers to determine the canopy values needed to calculate the omega decoupling factor, we focused on the Kernza perennial crops being grown at the Land Institute in Salina, Kansas (KLS), in comparison to a natural grassland in Manhattan, Kansas (KON), a typical land cover model in Lawrence, Kansas (KFS), and an annual crop site in Lamont, Oklahoma (ARM). These results will allow us to move forward in the investigation of perennial crops as a sustainable food source.

  14. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical Framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Dr Jeff A [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A global energy crop productivity model that provides geospatially explicit quantitative details on biomass potential and factors affecting sustainability would be useful, but does not exist now. This study describes a modeling platform capable of meeting many challenges associated with global-scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed an analytical framework for bioenergy crops consisting of six major components: (i) standardized natural resources datasets, (ii) global field-trial data and crop management practices, (iii) simulation units and management scenarios, (iv) model calibration and validation, (v) high-performance computing (HPC) simulation, and (vi) simulation output processing and analysis. The HPC-Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (HPC-EPIC) model simulated a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), estimating feedstock production potentials and effects across the globe. This modeling platform can assess soil C sequestration, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, nonpoint source pollution (e.g., nutrient and pesticide loss), and energy exchange with the atmosphere. It can be expanded to include additional bioenergy crops (e.g., miscanthus, energy cane, and agave) and food crops under different management scenarios. The platform and switchgrass field-trial dataset are available to support global analysis of biomass feedstock production potential and corresponding metrics of sustainability.

  15. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Wang, Dali [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Kang, Shujiang [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.

  16. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report describes the work in the Executive Committee and includes short reports from the four tasks which have been in operation 1992-94: Task VIII - Efficient and Environmentally-Sound Biomass Production Systems; Task IX - Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Task X - Biomass Utilization; Task XI - The Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstocks to Energy. The three new tasks (XII-XIV) for the period 1995-97 approved during 1994 are presented in the report. At the end of 1994 there were sixteen Contracting Parties to the IEA Bioenergy Agreement - Fifteen countries plus the European Commission. 164 refs

  17. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-31

    The report describes the work in the Executive Committee and includes short reports from the four tasks which have been in operation 1992-94: Task VIII - Efficient and Environmentally-Sound Biomass Production Systems; Task IX - Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Task X - Biomass Utilization; Task XI - The Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstocks to Energy. The three new tasks (XII-XIV) for the period 1995-97 approved during 1994 are presented in the report. At the end of 1994 there were sixteen Contracting Parties to the IEA Bioenergy Agreement - Fifteen countries plus the European Commission. 164 refs

  18. Integrating bioenergy into a green economy: identifying opportunities and constraints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available .kashan.co.za] BACKGROUND Bioenergy is a renewable energy option that has the potential to contribute to a low-carbon development path and stimulate a green economy. However, since bioenergy uses land and natural resources, it is in competition with the valuable bio... an analytical framework and decision-support tools to assist in assessing, managing and monitoring the sustainability of bioenergy. IMPROVING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF BIOENERGY THROUGH INTEGRATION WITH OTHER BIO-BASED PRODUCTS Since bioenergy production...

  19. The impact of grazing on forage quality of the herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on research conducted in the Mamoro cork oak forest of Morocco to describe the impacts of sheep grazing in March, April, May and June of 1987 and 1988 on seasonal changes in forage quality of the herbaceous vegetation. The study showed that trends in herbage quality were related mainly to plant maturity.

  20. PREDICTING FIELD PERFORMANCE OF HERBACEOUS SPECIES FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERCHLORATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of these short-term experiments coupled with ecological knowledge of the nine herbaceous plant species tested suggest that several species may by successful in on-site remediation of perchlorate. The two wetland species which appear to be most suitable for field experimen...

  1. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  2. Research Note Pilot survey to assess sample size for herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot survey to determine sub-sample size (number of point observations per plot) for herbaceous species composition assessments, using a wheel-point apparatus applying the nearest-plant method, was conducted. Three plots differing in species composition on the Zululand coastal plain were selected, and on each plot ...

  3. Functional leaf attributes predict litter decomposition rate in herbaceous plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J. H C; Thompson, K.

    1997-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that functional attributes of living leaves provide a basis for predicting the decomposition rate of leaf litter. The data were obtained from standardized screening tests on 38 British herbaceous species. Graminoid monocots had physically tougher leaves with higher silicon

  4. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser

    2015-01-01

    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  5. Test of two methods for determining herbaceous yield and botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Above-ground herbaceous yield was estimated using the comparative yield method to win + 10% (p < 0,05) of the harvested mean using 150 harvested and 600 rated quadrats of 50 x 50 cm. The number of quadrats can be substantially reduced by improved observer rating. Using the dry mass rank method and 240 ...

  6. The influence of tree thinning on the establishment of herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of tree thinning on the establishment of herbaceous plants in a semi-arid savanna of southern Africa. GN Smit, FG Rethman. Abstract. The investigation was conducted on an area covered by a dense stand of Colophospermum mopane. Seven plots (65 m × 180 m) were subjected to different intensities of tree ...

  7. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtler, J.L.; Femenias, A.; Blondy, J.

    2009-01-01

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  8. Bioenergy for sustainable development: An African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoyana, Robert Blessing

    This paper assesses the sustainability concerns of bioenergy systems against the prevailing and potential long term conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa with a special attention on agricultural and forestry waste, and cultivated bioenergy sources. Existing knowledge and processes about bioenergy systems are brought into a “sustainability framework” to support debate and decisions about the implementation of bioenergy systems in the region. Bioenergy systems have been recommended based on the potential to (i) meet domestic energy demand and reduce fuel importation (ii) diversify rural economies and create employment (iii) reduce poverty, and (iv) provide net energy gains and positive environmental impacts. However, biofuels will compete with food crops for land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover the environmental benefits of some feedstocks are questionable. These challenges are, however, surmountable. It is concluded that biomass energy production could be an effective way to achieve sustainable development for bioenergy pathways that (i) are less land intensive, (ii) have positive net energy gains and environmental benefits, and (iii) provide local socio-economic benefits. Feasibility evaluations which put these issues into perspective are vital for sustainable application of agricultural and forest based bioenergy systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluations should consider the long run potential of biofuels accounting for demographic, economic and technological changes and the related implications.

  9. Monetization of Environmental Externalities (Emissions from Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle BROSE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy from agriculture is today in the heart of sustainabledevelopment, integrating its key components: environment and climate change,energy economics and energy supply, agriculture, rural and social development.Each bioenergy production route presents externalities that must be assessed inorder to compare one bioenergy route to another (bioenergy route. The lack ofprimary and reliable data on externalities is, nevertheless, an important nontechnologicalbarrier to the implementation of the best (bioenergy routes. In thisarticle, we want to monetize one environmental externality from bioenergy:emissions (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3; CO, NOx, SO2, metal, and PM. We have tomonetize emissions on the basis of their effects on health, global warming, and soiland water quality. Emissions will be quantified through Life Cycle Analysis (LCAand ECOINVENT database. Impacts on health will be monetized on the basis ofmortality (number of life expectancy years lost multiplied by Value Of Life Year(VOLY and morbidity (number of ill persons multiplied by Cost Of Illness(COI. Impacts on global warming will be monetized by Benefits Transfers fromthe Stern Review and its critics. Finally, impacts on soil and water quality will bemonetized by Averting Behaviour or Defensive Expenses methods. Monetizationresults will be gathered, weighted, and incorporated in states and firms’ decisionmakingtools. They would enhance capacity of policy makers and managers tochose the best (bioenergy routes.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Bioenergy from Lignocellulosic Crops Cultivated on Marginal Land in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmaier, Nils; Schmidt, Tobias; Gärtner, Sven; Reinhardt, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Population growth and changing diets due to economic development lead to an additional demand for land for food and feed production. Slowly but surely turning into a mass market, also the cultivation of non-food biomass crops for fibre (bio-based products) and fuel (biofuels and bioenergy) is increasingly contributing to the pressure on global agricultural land. As a consequence, the already prevailing competition for land might even intensify over the next decades. Against this background, the possibilities of shifting the cultivation of non-food biomass crops to so-called 'marginal lands' are investigated. The EC-funded project 'Sustainable exploitation of biomass for bioenergy from marginal lands in Europe' (SEEMLA) aims at the establishment of suitable innovative land-use strategies for a sustainable production of bioenergy from lignocellulosic crops on marginal lands while improving general ecosystem services. For a complete understanding of the environmental benefits and drawbacks of the envisioned cultivation of bioenergy crops on marginal land, life cycle assessments (LCA) have proven to be a suitable and valuable tool. Thus, embedded into a comprehensive sustainability assessment, a screening LCA is carried out for the entire life cycles of the bioenergy carriers researched in SEEMLA. Investigated systems, on the one hand, include the specific field trials carried out by the SEEMLA partners in Ukraine, Greece and Germany. On the other hand, generic scenarios are investigated in order to derive reliable general statements on the environmental impacts of bioenergy from marginal lands in Europe. Investigated crops include woody and herbaceous species such as black locust, poplar, pine, willow and Miscanthus. Conversion technologies cover the use in a domestic or a district heating plant, power plant, CHP as well as the production of Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FT diesel) and lignocellulosic ethanol. Environmental impacts are compared to conventional reference

  11. Effects on Environmental and Socioeconomic Sustainability of Producing Ethanol from Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, V. H.; Parish, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    Using perennial grasses to produce ethanol can enhance progress toward sustainability. A suite of 35 environmental and socioeconomic sustainability indicators was considered in a holistic sustainability assessment of a five-year switchgrass-to-ethanol production experiment centered on a demonstration-scale biorefinery in Vonore, Tennessee. By combining field measurements, literature review and expert opinion, the team was able to rate 28 of the 35 recommended sustainability indicators. The team combined these ratings within a multi-attribute decision support system tool and used this information to compare the sustainability of producing 2118 hectares of no-till switchgrass relative to two alternative business-as-usual scenarios of unmanaged pasture and tilled corn production. The results suggest that East Tennessee switchgrass production improves environmental quality overall and can be beneficial to the counties surrounding the biorefinery in terms of dollars earned and jobs created. The timing of switchgrass production also provides an opportunity to use inactive equipment and laborers. By incorporating a landscape design approach, the opportunities, constraints and most reasonable paths forward for growing bioenergy feedstock in specific context can be assessed in a way that adapts and improves local practices. Lessons learned from this case study are being incorporated into sustainability assessments of corn stover in Iowa and a variety of bioenergy feedstocks in diverse settings. The overall goal is to develop sound management practices that can address the multiple and sometimes competing demands of stakeholders.

  12. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  13. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, D. N.; Smith, P.; Davies, C.; McNamara, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and likely to play a major role in transitioning to a lower CO2 energy system. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on broader sustainability encompassed by ecosystem services, further enhanced by ongoing climate change. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers ecosystem services at a continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC; willow and poplar) was modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models are utilised. We will present results for synergies and trade-offs between land use change and ecosystem services, impact on food security and land management. Further, we will show modelled yield maps for different cultivars of Miscanthus, willow and poplar in Europe and constraint/opportunity maps based on projected yield and other factors e.g. total economic value, technical potential, current land use, climate change and trade-offs and synergies. It will be essential to include multiple ecosystem services when assessing the potential for bioenergy production/expansion that does not impact other land uses or provisioning services. Considering that the soil GHG balance is dominated by change in soil organic carbon (SOC) and the difference among Miscanthus and SRC is largely determined by yield, an important target for management of perennial energy crops is to achieve the best possible yield using the most appropriate energy crop and cultivar for the local situation. This research could inform future policy decisions on bioenergy crops in

  14. Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology; Bioenergi `97: nordisk bioenergikonferanse, marked, miljoe og teknikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    (Leading abstract). The conference ``Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology`` took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  15. Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology; Bioenergi `97: nordisk bioenergikonferanse, marked, miljoe og teknikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    (Leading abstract). The conference ``Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology`` took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  16. Comparison of corn and switchgrass on marginal soils for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvel, G.E.; Vogel, K.P.; Mitchell, R.B. [USDA-ARS, 344 Keim Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, P.O. Box 830937, Lincoln, NE 68583-0937 (United States); Follett, R.F. [USDA-ARS, Room S-100, 2150 Centre Avenue Building D, Ft. Collins, CO 80526-8119 (United States); Kimble, J.M. [USDA-NRCS, National Soil Survey Center, 100 Centennial Mall North, Lincoln, NE 68508-3866 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Crop residues such as corn (Zea mays L.) stover are viewed as an abundant and inexpensive source of biomass that can be removed from fields to produce bioenergy. Assumptions include that with minimum or no-tillage farming methods, there will be no deleterious production or environmental effects. A long-term field study was established in eastern Nebraska, USA, to compare the switchgrass managed as a biomass energy crop versus no-till corn on a non-irrigated site, marginal for row-crop production, in the western Corn Belt. Our objective in this paper is to report on corn stover removal effects on corn grain yields and potential ethanol production in both cropping systems. Corn, under no-till management, and switchgrass were grown at three N fertilizer levels. In the first 5 years (2001-2005), removal of half the available stover significantly reduced corn yields. During that same time period, the potential ethanol yield for switchgrass was equal to or greater than the potential total ethanol yield of corn grain and harvested stover fertilized at the same optimum N rate. The effect of crop residue removal on crop productivity needs to be investigated in other agro-ecosystems and the potential use of dedicated perennial biomass energy crops should remain a viable renewable energy option on non-irrigated marginal croplands. (author)

  17. 2013 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  18. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors......, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value...... disagreements, or to make apparent the regulatory complexity, clouds the issue of how to move forward with governance of bioenergy. We suggest that governance should be shaped with greater focus on the role of value disagreements and regulatory complexity. There is a need for more openness and transparency...

  19. Root Characteristics of Perennial Warm-Season Grasslands Managed for Grazing and Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Minirhizotrons were used to study root growth characteristics in recently established fields dominated by perennial C4-grasses that were managed either for cattle grazing or biomass production for bioenergy in Virginia, USA. Measurements over a 13-month period showed that grazing resulted in smaller total root volumes and root diameters. Under biomass management, root volume was 40% higher (49 vs. 35 mm3 and diameters were 20% larger (0.29 vs. 0.24 mm compared to grazing. While total root length did not differ between grazed and biomass treatments, root distribution was shallower under grazed areas, with 50% of total root length in the top 7 cm of soil, compared to 41% in ungrazed exclosures. These changes (i.e., longer roots and greater root volume in the top 10 cm of soil under grazing but the reverse at 17–28 cm soil depths were likely caused by a shift in plant species composition as grazing reduced C4 grass biomass and allowed invasion of annual unsown species. The data suggest that management of perennial C4 grasslands for either grazing or biomass production can affect root growth in different ways and this, in turn, may have implications for the subsequent carbon sequestration potential of these grasslands.

  20. Canada report on bioenergy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Canada possesses significant forest resources. This paper reviewed Canada's bioenergy potential and market. Biomass in Canada is used to produce heat and power, as well as to produce ethanol and biodiesel. Biomass is also used to produce pyrolysis oil and wood pellets. Biomass resources included woody biomass; annual residue production; hog fuel piles; forest harvest waste and urban wood residues; agricultural residues; and municipal solid wastes. Trends in biomass production and consumption were discussed, and current biomass users were identified. A review of biomass prices was presented, and imports and exports for ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets were discussed. Barriers and opportunities for trade were also outlined. 6 tabs., 6 figs. 1 appendix.

  1. The position of bioenergy and development possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a review of bioenergy in energy economy of Finland and generally a review of bioenergy markets in the world. This review concentrates on wood and peat fuels. Municipal wastes, agro biomass and use of biogas in energy production are also considered in this review but in minor aspect. The significant part of this work is an estimation of bioenergy development prospects. The schedule is strategic to the year 2010, partly to the year 2025. The use of bioenergy in Finland has increased 64 % from the year 1980 and was in 1996 almost 7 million toe. The use of peat was 2,1 million toe and the rest consisted mainly of wood and wood based fuels. The share of bioenergy in the primary energy consumption is over 20 %. As far as the resources are concerned the possibilities to increase the use are very good. The main problem is the competitiveness. The competitiveness of forest biomass has improved as a result of technological research and development but it is still potential to maintain more by systematical R and D. A large target setting of increasing the bioenergy use in Finland is included in this review. The target is to increase the bioenergy use 25 % by the year 2005. This equals to 1,5 million toe. The target for the year 2010 is suggested to increase of 3,5 million toe from the 1995 level. Also the possibilities to develop new bioenergy technology for export markets are considered. A large number of concrete actions and long term activities to achieve these targets are presented. (orig.) 24 refs

  2. The Vermont Bioenergy Initiative: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, Chris [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States); Sawyer, Scott [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States); Kahler, Ellen [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of the Vermont Bioenergy Initiative (VBI) was to foster the development of sustainable, distributed, small-scale biodiesel and grass/mixed fiber industries in Vermont in order to produce bioenergy for local transportation, agricultural, and thermal applications, as a replacement for fossil fuel based energy. The VBI marked the first strategic effort to reduce Vermont’s dependency on petroleum through the development of homegrown alternatives.

  3. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  4. Microbial nitrogen cycling response to forest-based bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minick, Kevan J; Strahm, Brian D; Fox, Thomas R; Sucre, Eric B; Leggett, Zakiya H

    2015-12-01

    Concern over rising atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases due to fossil fuel combustion has intensified research into carbon-neutral energy production. Approximately 15.8 million ha of pine plantations exist across the southeastern United States, representing a vast land area advantageous for bioenergy production without significant landuse change or diversion of agricultural resources from food production. Furthermore, intercropping of pine with bioenergy grasses could provide annually harvestable, lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks along with production of traditional wood products. Viability of such a system hinges in part on soil nitrogen (N) availability and effects of N competition between pines and grasses on ecosystem productivity. We investigated effects of intercropping loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on microbial N cycling processes in the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. Soil samples were collected from bedded rows of pine and interbed space of two treatments, composed of either volunteer native woody and herbaceous vegetation (pine-native) or pure switchgrass (pine-switchgrass) in interbeds. An in vitro 15N pool-dilution technique was employed to quantify gross N transformations at two soil depths (0-5 and 5-15 cm) on four dates in 2012-2013. At the 0-5 cm depth in beds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was two to three times higher in November and February compared to the pine-native treatment, resulting in increased NH4(+) availability. Gross and net nitrification were also significantly higher in February in the same pine beds. In interbeds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was lower from April to November, but higher in February, potentially reflecting positive effects of switchgrass root-derived C inputs during dormancy on microbial activity. These findings indicate soil N cycling and availability has increased in pine beds of the pine

  5. Bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owino, Frederick

    1990-01-01

    The monograph reviews the state of energy research and suggest direction for future research with information required to shape the energy strategies. The monograph covers the following topics: research and development in alternative energy sources; biomass energy development, biomass energy technology ; biomethanation process; biomass as a fuel and health risks associated with it. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. (original)

  6. Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    Integration of poly-(MG) modified RVC with NAD+-dependent enzymes immobilized in chitosan /CNTs composite scaffold -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6...voltammetry 2D glassy carbon 3D reticulated vitreous carbon 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 200 400 600 800 1000 10 cycles 25 cycles 50 cycles 200 cycles

  7. Influences of image resolution on herbaceous root morphological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zeyou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Root images of four herbaceous species (including Plantago virginica,Solidago canadensis,Conyza canadensis and Erigeron philadelphicus were obtained by using EPSON V7000 scanner with different resolutions.Root morphological parameters including root length,diameter,volume and area were determined by using a WinRhizo root analyzing software.The results show a distinct influence of image resolution on root morphological parameter.For different herbaceous species,the optimal resolutions of root images,which would produce an acceptable precision with relative short time,vary with different species.For example,a resolution of 200 dpi was recommended for the root images of Plantago virginica and S.Canadensis, while 400 dpi for Conyza canadensis and Erigeron philadelphicus.

  8. IEA Bioenergy Task 40Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade:Securing Supply and Demand Country Report 2014—United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J. Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heath, Brendi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Logistical barrier are tied to feedstock harvesting, collection, storage and distribution. Current crop harvesting machinery is unable to selectively harvest preferred components of cellulosic biomass while maintaining acceptable levels of soil carbon and minimizing erosion. Actively managing biomass variability imposes additional functional requirements on biomass harvesting equipment. A physiological variation in biomass arises from differences in genetics, degree of crop maturity, geographical location, climatic events, and harvest methods. This variability presents significant cost and performance risks for bioenergy systems. Currently, processing standards and specifications for cellulosic feedstocks are not as well-developed as for mature commodities. Biomass that is stored with high moisture content or exposed to moisture during storage is susceptible to spoilage, rotting, spontaneous combustion, and odor problems. Appropriate storage methods and strategies are needed to better define storage requirements to preserve the volume and quality of harvested biomass over time and maintain its conversion yield. Raw herbaceous biomass is costly to collect, handle, and transport because of its low density and fibrous nature. Existing conventional, bale-based handling equipment and facilities cannot cost-effectively deliver and store high volumes of biomass, even with improved handling techniques. Current handling and transportation systems designed for moving woodchips can be inefficient for bioenergy processes due to the costs and challenges of transporting, storing, and drying high-moisture biomass. The infrastructure for feedstock logistics has not been defined for the potential variety of locations, climates, feedstocks, storage methods, processing alternatives, etc., which will occur at a national scale. When setting up biomass fuel supply chains, for large-scale biomass systems, logistics are a pivotal part in the system. Various studies have shown that long

  9. determination of bio-energy potential of palm kernel shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    88888888

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... most viable application in Renewable Energy options such as bioenergy and biomass utilization. Its higher heating ... enable it release volatile matter necessary for bio-energy production. ..... ment and Efficiency. Ministry of ...

  10. Developing a sustainability framework for assessing bioenergy projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harrison, JA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the situation relating to bioenergy in India, this paper provides analyses of the currently available methodologies for assessing the varied impacts, both positive and negative, of bioenergy production. This contextual information...

  11. The development of bioenergy technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.Z.; Yin, X.L.; Yuan, Z.H.; Zhou, Z.Q.; Zhuang, X.S. [The Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate Key Laboratory of CAS, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Among renewable energy resources, bioenergy is one of the fastest growth energy alternatives with tremendous potential in China. The thermal, physical, and biological processes of conversion of biomass yield a number of products and can be obtained as gases, liquids, solid fuels, and electricity as well as a variety of chemicals. Various bioenergy technologies that have been developed are at the fundamental research, demonstration, and commercialization stages. This review concentrates on the processes that are attracting the most attention in China. This paper presents the important roles bioenergy plays in China. Firstly, the application status of bioenergy technologies are introduced, including biogas, fuel ethanol, biodiesel, and power generation at the commercialization stage. Then, the current research progresses are analyzed of ethanol derived from lignocellulose, sweet sorghum and cassava, biodiesel from jatropha, biomass briquetting, synthesized fuels and pyrolysis technologies at the fundamental research and demonstration stages. Finally, it is concluded that the key areas for developing bioenergy for the future are the exploitation of new biomass resources and R and D in biofuels from non-food biomass resources, as well as the development of commercialization methods suitable for developing countries. (author)

  12. Bioenergy, its present and future competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Erik

    1999-01-01

    The thesis deals with aspects of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The central aim is to develop a number of concepts that enables an extended analysis. The thesis is composed of four studies. In study 1 and 2 the emphasis is put on two institutional frameworks within the forest company, i.e. the framework around the forest fuel operations and the framework around the industrial timber operations. Depending on which of the two institutional frameworks that makes up the basis for the understanding of forest fuel operations, the forest fuel operations will be given different roles and different priorities. Different goals and the process of integrating the forest fuel operations into the forest company will therefore be carried out with different means, different feelings and different resources. Study 3 examines the conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold. The study presents the concept of logic, which is an institutionalised conception of the competitiveness of bioenergy. Logics can be seen as the dominating conceptions within the energy system and are decisive in determining the factors and parameters that state the competitiveness of different forms of energy. Study 4 argues that the strategical work concerning the competitiveness of bioenergy in the long-run to a great extent is about understanding, shaping and utilising the conceptions that affect the bioenergy system. The study problematises strategies that are used to develop bioenergy by introducing the uncertainty of the future into the analysis. The uncertainty of the future is captured in different scenarios

  13. Rostock bioenergy forum. Future technologies for bioenergy. Proceedings; 4. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Zukunftstechnologien fuer Bioenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 4th Rostock bioenergy forum 'future technologies for bioenergy' at 27th and 28th October, 2010, in Rostock (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Sustainable supply of biomass from the agriculture (Christian Gienapp); (2) Biogas plants in conflict of different legal regulation systems (Michael Kern); (3) Logistics of biomass - Do you know the real costs? (Nadine Doden); (4) Potentials of wooden biomass from the landscape conservation using the Lower Saale valley (Sachsen-Anhalt) as an example (Karen Runge); (5) Value creation with energy wood in rural area - Results of a potential study (Marco Hahs); (6) Soil ecological evaluation of short rotational plantations on farmland (Christel Baum); (7) Development of moulds and dry weight losses in bulk wood chips (Christine Idler); (8) Logistics of pellets during the harvest of short-term rotation areas with a field chopper (Franz Handler); (9) Concepts of combustion of biomass within the scope of the BMU funding program 'Energetic utilization of biomass' (Diana Pfeiffer); (10) Thermoelectric transformer for biogenic heat (Karl-Ernst Schnorr); (11) Emissions of benzene in the combustion f gases from wood in cogeneration plants (Christian Hirschmeier); (12) Utilization of additives in the combustion of miscanthus pellets in a small-scale furnace < 100 kW{sub N}WL (Thomas Zeng); (13) Practical experiences with dust separators for small-scale furnaces (Peter Turowski); (14) Analysis for gaining the minimum goal of 10 % renewable energy in traffic sector (Karin Naumann); (15) New diesel components from glycerine (E. Paetzold); (16) Challenges and possibilities in the utilization of biofuels in customary auxiliary heatings (Hajo Hoffmann); (17) Demands on biofuels for the use in combustion engines (Volker Wichmann); (18) Alternative fuel dimethyl ether (Martin Werner); (19) Long-term investigation of the stability of rapeseed fuel and field study of modern Common Rail

  14. Synthesis report: System studies Bioenergy; Syntesrapport Systemstudier bioenergi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Technology; Gustavsson, Leif [Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden). Dept. of Natural and Environmental Sciences; Hylander, Nippe [Aangpannefoereningen, Stockholm (SE)] (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    The present report marks the end of the research program 'System studies Bioenergy' (1998-2002). The program comprised 17 projects performed at 9 universities or research institutes. All project results were studied in order to identify: contributions to our present knowledge; possible gaps of knowledge, methodology or systems perspective that still exist; and the needs for further research. The projects can be classified into the following groups: Resource potential of forest fuels; Industrial use of biofuels; Potential for synthetic fuels (pellets, bio-oils and transportation fuels); System analysis of efficient use of biofuels; and Socio-economic analyses. The total potential for available biofuel has been estimated to be 125-175 TWh/year (excl. black liquors of paper industry). The potential demand is estimated to about 123 TWh/year, or distributed into the different sectors: Industry: 26 TWh/year, Buildings and services: 35 TWh/year, District heating: 31 TWh/year, and electric power generation (incl. cogeneration in district heating): 31 TWh/year. Further research is needed in the following areas: Systems and methodology of more generic character on optimization of production, refining and use of biofuels in order to substitute fossil fuels directly or indirectly; Heat sinks/district heating in combination with cogeneration vs. other power production in a long term perspective (> 10 years), in the light of new technologies, open markets, economic and political incentives; Energy efficiency in industry, esp. paper and pulp with its unique possibility for process integration, biofuel processing and CO{sub 2} separation; How far should the processing/refinement of biofuels go; Importance of factors of scale; New distributed (small-scale) energy technology; International trade in biofuels; Transport and handling costs for biofuel pellets in Europe; System aspects of implementation and incentives; How are biofuels affected if CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels

  15. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  16. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  17. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  18. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  19. Decomposition of aboveground biomass of a herbaceous wetland stand

    OpenAIRE

    KLIMOVIČOVÁ, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The master?s thesis is part of the project GA ČR č. P504/11/1151- Role of plants in the greenhouse gas budget of a sedge fen. This thesis deals with the decomposition of aboveground vegetation in a herbaceous wetland. The decomposition rate was established on the flooded part of the Wet Meadows near Třeboň. The rate of the decomposition processes was evaluated using the litter-bag method. Mesh bags filled with dry plant matter were located in the vicinity of the automatic meteorological stati...

  20. Water Quality Effects of Miscanthus as a Bioenergy Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T.; Eheart, J. W.; Cai, X.

    2009-12-01

    There is increasing interest in perennial grasses as a renewable source of bioenergy and biofuels. Under the right conditions, environmental advantages of cultivating such crops, relative to conventional row crops, include reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and waterborne pollutants, increased biodiversity and improved soil properties. This study focuses on the riverine nitrate load of cultivating miscanthus in lieu of conventional crops. Miscanthus has been identified as a high-yielding, low-input perennial grass suitable as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production and power generation by biomass combustion. To achieve the objective of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to model runoff and stream water quality in the Salt Creek watershed in East-Central Illinois. The watershed is agricultural and its nitrogen export, like that of most other agricultural watersheds in the region, is a major contributor to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. SWAT is a hydrologic model with a built-in crop growth component. However, as miscanthus is relatively new as a crop of interest, data for the SWAT crop growth parameters for it are lacking. This study reports an evaluation of those parameters and an application of them to estimate the potential reduction in nitrate load from miscanthus cultivation under various scenarios. The miscanthus growth parameters are divided into three subsets. The first subset contains those parameters describing optimal growth under zero stress conditions, while the second contains those used to estimate nitrogen stress. Those parameters that are remaining (namely, maximum root depth and phosphorus and temperature stress parameters) are included in the third subset. To calibrate for the parameters in the first subset, simulated data from another miscanthus growth model are used. That other model is highly mechanistic and has been validated (no calibration is necessary because of its degree of mechanisticity) using

  1. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.

    environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global...... warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction....

  2. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  3. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  4. Technological learning in bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Martin; Visser, Erika de; Hjort-Gregersen, Kurt; Koornneef, Joris; Raven, Rob; Faaij, Andre; Turkenburg, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to determine whether cost reductions in different bioenergy systems can be quantified using the experience curve approach, and how specific issues (arising from the complexity of biomass energy systems) can be addressed. This is pursued by case studies on biofuelled combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Sweden, global development of fluidized bed boilers and Danish biogas plants. As secondary goal, the aim is to identify learning mechanisms behind technology development and cost reduction for the biomass energy systems investigated. The case studies reveal large difficulties to devise empirical experience curves for investment costs of biomass-fuelled power plants. To some extent, this is due to lack of (detailed) data. The main reason, however, are varying plant costs due to differences in scale, fuel type, plant layout, region etc. For fluidized bed boiler plants built on a global level, progress ratios (PRs) for the price of entire plants lies approximately between 90-93% (which is typical for large plant-like technologies). The costs for the boiler section alone was found to decline much faster. The experience curve approach delivers better results, when the production costs of the final energy carrier are analyzed. Electricity from biofuelled CHP-plants yields PRs of 91-92%, i.e. an 8-9% reduction of electricity production costs with each cumulative doubling of electricity production. The experience curve for biogas production displays a PR of 85% from 1984 to the beginning of 1990, and then levels to approximately 100% until 2002. For technologies developed on a local level (e.g. biogas plants), learning-by-using and learning-by-interacting are important learning mechanism, while for CHP plants utilizing fluidized bed boilers, upscaling is probably one of the main mechanisms behind cost reductions

  5. Stump torrefaction for bioenergy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Khanh-Quang; Luo, Xun; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Jirjis, Raida

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First study on torrefaction of stump for bioenergy application. ► Stump can achieve higher energy densification factors. ► Torrefied stump requires longer grinding time than torrefied wood. - Abstract: A fixed bed reactor has been developed for study of biomass torrefaction, followed by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Norway spruce stump was used as feedstock. Two other types of biomass, poplar and fuel chips were also included in the study for comparison. Effects of feedstock types and process parameters such as torrefaction temperature and reaction time on fuel properties of torrefied solid product were investigated. The study has demonstrated that fuel properties, including heating values and grindability of the investigated biomasses were improved by torrefaction. Both torrefaction temperature and reaction time had strong effects on the torrefaction process, but temperature effects are stronger than effects of reaction time. At the same torrefaction temperature, the longer reaction time, the better fuel qualities for the solid product were obtained. However, too long reaction times and/or too higher torrefaction temperatures would decrease the solid product yield. The torrefaction conditions of 300 °C for 35 min resulted in the energy densification factor of 1.219 for the stump, which is higher than that of 1.162 for the poplar wood samples and 1.145 for the fuel chips. It appears that torrefied stump requires much longer time for grinding, while its particle size distribution is only slightly better than the others. In addition, the TG analyses have shown that untreated biomass was more reactive than its torrefaction products. The stump has less hemicelluloses than the two other biomass types. SEM analyses indicated that the wood surface structure was broken and destroyed by torrefaction process

  6. Synthesis report: System studies Bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsson, Thore

    2003-01-01

    The present report marks the end of the research program 'System studies Bioenergy' (1998-2002). The program comprised 17 projects performed at 9 universities or research institutes. All project results were studied in order to identify: contributions to our present knowledge; possible gaps of knowledge, methodology or systems perspective that still exist; and the needs for further research. The projects can be classified into the following groups: Resource potential of forest fuels; Industrial use of biofuels; Potential for synthetic fuels (pellets, bio-oils and transportation fuels); System analysis of efficient use of biofuels; and Socio-economic analyses. The total potential for available biofuel has been estimated to be 125-175 TWh/year (excl. black liquors of paper industry). The potential demand is estimated to about 123 TWh/year, or distributed into the different sectors: Industry: 26 TWh/year, Buildings and services: 35 TWh/year, District heating: 31 TWh/year, and electric power generation (incl. cogeneration in district heating): 31 TWh/year. Further research is needed in the following areas: Systems and methodology of more generic character on optimization of production, refining and use of biofuels in order to substitute fossil fuels directly or indirectly; Heat sinks/district heating in combination with cogeneration vs. other power production in a long term perspective (> 10 years), in the light of new technologies, open markets, economic and political incentives; Energy efficiency in industry, esp. paper and pulp with its unique possibility for process integration, biofuel processing and CO 2 separation; How far should the processing/refinement of biofuels go; Importance of factors of scale; New distributed (small-scale) energy technology; International trade in biofuels; Transport and handling costs for biofuel pellets in Europe; System aspects of implementation and incentives; How are biofuels affected if CO 2 from fossil fuels can be separated and

  7. Energy sorghum--a genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John; Morishige, Daryl; McCormick, Ryan; Truong, Sandra; Hilley, Josie; McKinley, Brian; Anderson, Robert; Olson, Sara N; Rooney, William

    2014-07-01

    Sorghum is emerging as an excellent genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. Annual energy Sorghum hybrids also serve as a source of biomass for bioenergy production. Elucidation of Sorghum's flowering time gene regulatory network, and identification of complementary alleles for photoperiod sensitivity, enabled large-scale generation of energy Sorghum hybrids for testing and commercial use. Energy Sorghum hybrids with long vegetative growth phases were found to accumulate more than twice as much biomass as grain Sorghum, owing to extended growing seasons, greater light interception, and higher radiation use efficiency. High biomass yield, efficient nitrogen recycling, and preferential accumulation of stem biomass with low nitrogen content contributed to energy Sorghum's elevated nitrogen use efficiency. Sorghum's integrated genetics-genomics-breeding platform, diverse germplasm, and the opportunity for annual testing of new genetic designs in controlled environments and in multiple field locations is aiding fundamental discovery, and accelerating the improvement of biomass yield and optimization of composition for biofuels production. Recent advances in wide hybridization between Sorghum and other C4 grasses could allow the deployment of improved genetic designs of annual energy Sorghums in the form of wide-hybrid perennial crops. The current trajectory of energy Sorghum genetic improvement indicates that it will be possible to sustainably produce biofuels from C4 grass bioenergy crops that are cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Decentralised bioenergy systems: A review of opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoyana, Robert B.; Smith, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralised bioenergy systems are receiving increasing attention due to the potential ability to support local development, create local employment, and contribute to climate change mitigation. These issues, along with other bioenergy sustainability issues, are reviewed through eighteen international case studies with the objective of identifying opportunities and threats to decentralised bioenergy systems. The case studies were selected based on feedstock type, bioenergy type, production capacity, synergistic alliances, ownership structure and physical locations. This variation was used to provide a basis for evaluating opportunities and threats from different contexts. Commercial viability remains the primary concern for the sustainability of decentralised bioenergy systems. There are, however, opportunities for compounding benefits through integrating small scale decentralised bioenergy systems with other production systems. Integrated production, including closed loop models, allow waste materials from one process to be used as inputs in other production processes, and thereby increasing economic, social and environmental outcomes. Synergistic opportunities along the bioenergy production chain, which include feedstock production, bioenergy marketing and distribution could also be exploited by communities and other investors to minimise decentralised production risk. - Research Highlights: → Small scale decentralised bioenergy production is a potentially sustainable energy system. →Economic viability limits small scale decentralised bioenergy production. → Synergistic alliances along the bioenergy production chain could enhance viability.

  9. Carbon balances during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, T.; Chen, J.; Gelfand, I.; Robertson, G. P.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we established a field experiment and deployed seven eddy-covariance towers to quantify the roles of land use change and the subsequent carbon (C) balances of three different bioenergy systems (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie species) that were developed from two historical land use types: monocultural grasslands dominated by smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) and lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Three CRP fields and three cropland fields were converted to soybean in 2009 (conversion year) before establishing the cellulosic biofuel cropping systems in 2010 (establishment year). A CRP perennial grassland site was kept undisturbed as a reference. Conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year (134 -262 g C m-2 yr-1), while in the same year the net C balance at the CRP grassland reference was -35 g C m-2 yr-1 (i.e., net C sequestration). The establishment of switchgrass and mixed prairie induced a cumulative C balance of -113 g C m-2 (switchgrass from CRP), 250 g C m-2 (switchgrass from cropland), 706 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from CRP), and 59 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from cropland) over the three-year study period. The cumulative three-year C balance of corn converted from CRP and from cropland was -151 g C m-2 and -183 g C m-2, respectively. Eddy flux measurements during cellulosic biofuel crop establishment reveal annual changes in C balance that cannot be detected using conventional mass balance approaches. When end-use of harvested biomass was considered, the C balances for all studied systems, except the reference site, exhibited large C emissions ranging from 150 to 990 g C m-2 over the three-year conversion phase.

  10. Examination of the combustion conditions of herbaceous biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szemmelveisz, K.; Szucs, I.; Palotas, A.B.; Winkler, L. [Department of Combustion Technology and Thermal Energy, University of Miskolc (Hungary); Eddings, E.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Power generation from biomass is a fairly new area, and boilers that utilize various types of biomass have in many cases experienced serious problems with slagging, fouling and corrosion of boiler tubes. Mineral matter in these fuels can deposit on the heat-exchanger surfaces in the boiler and generate an insulating layer, which will significantly reduce the degree of heat-transfer from flue gas to water and steam. Our investigations were focused on the slag characteristics of different kinds of herbaceous biomass fuels. Since there is usually a reducing atmosphere present in the direct combustion zone of modern low-NO{sub x} firing systems, it is important to study mineral matter transformation of burned fuel residues in a reducing atmosphere. An excellent device for this type of study is the electric-resistance heated Bunte-Baum softening temperature testing instrument, which was used in this work. Ash chemical composition was analyzed via flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the microstructure of ash was determined using a scanning electron microscope. Crystalline compounds of the ashes were identified by using X-ray powder diffraction. This paper provides an overview of results on the combustion and slag characteristics of herbaceous biomass fuels. The results include chemical compositions, morphology and softening properties of these fuels, with special attention to switch grass and sunflower seed shell. (author)

  11. Genetic markers for flowering in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paina, Cristiana; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan

    2011-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the principal forage grass utilized in Danish agriculture and underpins the beef and dairy sectors. It is characterized as having high digestibility, high nutritional value, and high productivity during vegetative growth. However, at the reproductive growth...... genes will be converted to molecular markers and mapped in an existing mapping population previously characterized for flowering time and vernalization response. References: Amasino, R.M., Michaels S.D. (2010). The Timing of Flowering. Plant Physiology 154: 516–520 Greenup, A., W. Peacock, W.J., Dennis...

  12. IEA Bioenergy Countries' Report: Bioenergy policies and status of implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacovsky, Dina [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Ludwiczek, Nikolaus [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Pointner, Christian [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Verma, Vijay Kumar [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2016-08-05

    This report was prepared from IEA statistical data, information from IRENA, and IEA Bioenergy Tasks’ country reports, combined with data provided by the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee. All individual country reports were reviewed by the national delegates to the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee, who have approved the content. In the first section of each country report, national renewable energy targets are presented (first table in each country report), and the main pieces of national legislation are discussed. In the second section of each country report the total primary energy supply (TPES) by resources and the contribution of bioenergy are presented. All data is taken from IEA statistics for the year 2014. Where 2014 data was not available, 2013 data was used. It is worth noting that data reported in national statistics can differ from the IEA data presented, as the reporting categories and definitions are different. In the third section of each country report, the research focus related to bioenergy is discussed. Relevant funding programs, major research institutes and projects are described. In the fourth section, recent major bioenergy developments are described. Finally, in the fifth section, links to sources of information are provided.

  13. Perennial Pepperweed Patches - San Francisco Estuary [ds295

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer contains polygon data for the perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) database. This database represents distribution data collected within the areas...

  14. Genomics: a potential panacea for the perennial problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kendra A; Sawler, Jason; Gardner, Kyle M; Money, Daniel; Myles, Sean

    2014-10-01

    Perennial crops represent important fresh and processed food sources worldwide, but advancements in breeding perennials are often impeded due to their very nature. The perennial crops we rely on most for food take several years to reach production maturity and require large spaces to grow, which make breeding new cultivars costly compared with most annual crops. Because breeding perennials is inefficient and expensive, they are often grown in monocultures consisting of small numbers of elite cultivars that are vegetatively propagated for decades or even centuries. This practice puts many perennial crops at risk for calamity since they remain stationary in the face of evolving pest and disease pressures. Although there is tremendous genetic diversity available to them, perennial crop breeders often struggle to generate commercially successful cultivars in a timely and cost-effective manner because of the high costs of breeding. Moreover, consumers often expect the same cultivars to be available indefinitely, and there is often little or no incentive for growers and retailers to take the risk of adopting new cultivars. While genomics studies linking DNA variants to commercially important traits have been performed in diverse perennial crops, the translation of these studies into accelerated breeding of improved cultivars has been limited. Here we explain the "perennial problem" in detail and demonstrate how modern genomics tools can significantly improve the cost effectiveness of breeding perennial crops and thereby prevent crucial food sources from succumbing to the perils of perpetual propagation. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  15. Wood bioenergy and soil productivity research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2016-01-01

    Timber harvesting can cause both short- and long-term changes in forest ecosystem functions, and scientists from USDA Forest Service (USDA FS) have been studying these processes for many years. Biomass and bioenergy markets alter the amount, type, and frequency at which material is harvested, which in turn has similar yet specific impacts on sustainable productivity....

  16. Bioenergy production and food security in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    This will in turn, facilitate industrialization in other sectors of economy through provision of affordable ... bioenergy production on food security, land allocation for energy crop production can be regulated. ... bility determines the type of industries, and the cost of ...... African countries, yeast and crude enzyme production.

  17. Social Aspects of Bioenergy Sustainability Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchner, Sarah [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Kristen [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Lindauer, Alicia [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); McKinnon, Taryn [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Broad, Max [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-05-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office held a workshop on “Social Aspects of Bioenergy” on April 24, 2012, in Washington, D.C., and convened a webinar on this topic on May 8, 2012. The findings and recommendations from the workshop and webinar are compiled in this report.

  18. Sustainable bioenergy production from Missouri's Ozark forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry E. Stelzer; Chris Barnett; Verel W. Bensen

    2008-01-01

    The main source of wood fiber for energy resides in Missouri's forests. Alternative bioenergy systems that can use forest thinning residues are electrical energy, thermal energy, and liquid bio-fuel. By applying a thinning rule and accounting for wood fiber that could go into higher value wood products to all live biomass data extracted from the U.S. Forest...

  19. Sustainable forest-based bioenergy in Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kraxner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the Russian forest biomass-based bioenergy sector. It is shown that presently – although given abundant resources – the share of heat and electricity from biomass is very minor. With the help of two IIASA models (G4M and BeWhere, future green-field bioenergy plants are identified in a geographically explicit way. Results indicate that by using 3.78 Mt (or 6.16 M m3, twice as much heat and electricity than is presently available from forest biomass could be generated. This amount corresponds to 3.3 % of the total annual wood removals or 12 % of the annually harvested firewood, or about 11 % of illegal logging. With this amount of wood, it is possible to provide an additional 444 thousand households with heat and 1.8 M households with electricity; and at the same time to replace 2.7 Mt of coal or 1.7 Mt of oil or 1.8 G m3 of natural gas, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels by 716 Mt of CO2-equivalent per year. A multitude of co-benefits can be quantified for the socio-economic sector such as green jobs linked to bioenergy. The sustainable sourcing of woody biomass for bioenergy is possible as shown with the help of an online crowdsourcing tool Geo-Wiki.org for forest certification.

  20. Water for bioenergy: A global analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Meer, Theodorus H.; Gasparatos, A.; Stromberg, P.

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is by far the largest water user. This chapter reviews studies on the water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy (in the form of bioethanol, biodiesel, and heat and electricity produced from biomass) and compares their results with the WFs of fossil energy and other types of renewables (wind

  1. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayse Hilal; Demirbas, Imren

    2007-01-01

    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  2. Eleventh-year results of fertilization, herbaceous, and woody plant control in a loblolly pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Allan E. Tiarks

    1990-01-01

    Through 11 years, fertilization at planting significantly increased the stemwood volume (outside bark) per loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on an intensively prepared moderately well-drained fine sandy loam site in northern Louisiana. Four years of herbaceous plant control significantly increased pine survival, and because herbaceous plant control...

  3. Variation in herbaceous vegetation and soil moisture under treated and untreated oneseed juniper trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector Ramirez; Alexander Fernald; Andres Cibils; Michelle Morris; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Clearing oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) may make more water available for aquifer recharge or herbaceous vegetation growth, but the effects of tree treatment on soil moisture dynamics are not fully understood. This study investigated juniper treatment effects on understory herbaceous vegetation concurrently with soil moisture dynamics using vegetation sampling...

  4. Assessing tolerance of longleaf pine understory herbaceous plants to herbicide applications in a container nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Paul Jackson; Scott A. Enebak; James West; Drew Hinnant

    2015-01-01

    Renewed efforts in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem restoration has increased interest in the commercial production of understory herbaceous species. Successful establishment of understory herbaceous species is enhanced when using quality nursery-grown plants that have a better chance of survival after outplanting. Nursery growing practices have not been...

  5. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A S; Masao, H P; Sawe, E N; Shechambo, F C [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  6. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  7. Risoe energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.; Kossmann, J.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    Three growing concerns - sustainability (particularly in the transport sector), security of energy supply and climate change - have combined to increase interest in bioenergy. The trend towards bioenergy has been further encouraged by technological advances in biomass conversion and significant changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, 'modern bioenergy', to cover those areas of bioenergy technology - traditional as well as emerging - that could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides its potential to be carbon-neutral if produced sustainable, modern bioenergy shows the promise of covering a considerable part of the world's energy needs, increasing the security of energy supply through the use of indigenous resources, and improving local employment and land-use. To make these promises, however, requires further R and D. This report provides a critical examination of modern bioenergy, and describes current trends in both established and emerging bioenergy technologies. As well as examining the implications for the global energy scene, the report draws national conclusions for European and Danish energy supply, industry and energy research. The report presents the status of current R and D in biomass resources, supply systems, end products and conversion methods. A number of traditional and modern bioenergy technologies are assessed to show their current status, future trends and international R and D plans. Recent studies of emerging bioenergy technologies from international organisations and leading research organisations are reviewed. (BA)

  8. Risoe energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H; Kossmann, J; Soenderberg Petersen, L [eds.

    2003-11-01

    Three growing concerns - sustainability (particularly in the transport sector), security of energy supply and climate change - have combined to increase interest in bioenergy. The trend towards bioenergy has been further encouraged by technological advances in biomass conversion and significant changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, 'modern bioenergy', to cover those areas of bioenergy technology - traditional as well as emerging - that could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides its potential to be carbon-neutral if produced sustainable, modern bioenergy shows the promise of covering a considerable part of the world's energy needs, increasing the security of energy supply through the use of indigenous resources, and improving local employment and land-use. To make these promises, however, requires further R and D. This report provides a critical examination of modern bioenergy, and describes current trends in both established and emerging bioenergy technologies. As well as examining the implications for the global energy scene, the report draws national conclusions for European and Danish energy supply, industry and energy research. The report presents the status of current R and D in biomass resources, supply systems, end products and conversion methods. A number of traditional and modern bioenergy technologies are assessed to show their current status, future trends and international R and D plans. Recent studies of emerging bioenergy technologies from international organisations and leading research organisations are reviewed. (BA)

  9. Role of community acceptance in sustainable bioenergy projects in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eswarlal, Vimal Kumar; Vasudevan, Geoffrey; Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Vasudevan, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Community acceptance has been identified as one of the key requirements for a sustainable bioenergy project. However less attention has been paid to this aspect from developing nations and small projects perspective. Therefore this research examines the role of community acceptance for sustainable small scale bioenergy projects in India. While addressing the aim, this work identifies influence of community over bioenergy projects, major concerns of communities regarding bioenergy projects and factors influencing perceptions of communities about bioenergy projects. The empirical research was carried out on four bioenergy companies in India as case studies. It has been identified that communities have significant influence over bioenergy projects in India. Local air pollution, inappropriate storage of by-products and credibility of developer are identified as some of the important concerns. Local energy needs, benefits to community from bioenergy companies, level of trust on company and relationship between company and the community are some of the prime factors which influence community's perception on bioenergy projects. This research sheds light on important aspects related to community acceptance of bioenergy projects, and this information would help practitioners in understanding the community perceptions and take appropriate actions to satisfy them

  10. Manipulation of Auxin Response Factor 19 affects seed size in the woody perennial Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Xiyuan; Mao, Huizhu; Zhu, Changxiang; Wen, Fujiang; Wang, Xianghua; Lu, Zhijun; Yue, Genhua; Xu, Zengfu; Ye, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J. curcas. Importantly, transgenic overexpression of JcARF19 significantly increased seed size and seed yield in plants Arabidopsis thaliana and J. curcas, indicating the importance of auxin pathway in seed yield controlling in dicot plants. Transcripts analysis indicated that ectopic expression of JcARF19 in J. curcas upregulated auxin responsive genes encoding essential regulators in cell differentiation and cytoskeletal dynamics of seed development. Our data suggested the potential of improving seed traits by precisely engineering auxin signaling in woody perennial plants. PMID:28102350

  11. Rethinking Bioenergy from an Agricultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shortall, Orla

    The aim of this project is to explore the social and ethical dimensions of the agricultural production of perennial energy crop and crop residues for energy. Biomass – any living or recently living matter – is being promoted in industrialised countries as part of the transition from fossil fuels...... agriculture including the biorefinery strategy; multifunctional perennial energy crop production on environmentally marginal land; and ecologically integrated multipurpose biomass production through agroforestry production. There is also an argument which cuts across the paradigms and maintains...

  12. Agroecology of Novel Annual and Perennial Crops for Biomass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production.......The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production....

  13. Determination of microbial protein in perennial ryegrass silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driehuis, F.; Wikselaar, van P.G.

    2001-01-01

    The microbial matter fraction was determined in perennial ryegrass silages of different dry-matter (DM) contents, ensiled with or without Lactobacillus plantarum. 15N-Leucine and the bacterial cell wall constituent diaminopimelic acid (DAPA) were used as markers for microbial-N. Perennial ryegrass

  14. Bioenergy and biodiversity: Key lessons from the Pan American region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinelli, Fernanda Silva [UFRRJ/Conservation International Brazil, Seropedica (Brazil); Mayer, Audrey L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Medeiros, Rodrigo [Federal Rural Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F. [Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Sparovek, Gerd [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba (Brazil); Walter, Arnaldo [Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Venier, Lisa A. [Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie (Canada). Great Lakes Forestry Centre

    2015-06-24

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil, regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land management systems. Lastly, we propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  15. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  16. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  17. Bioenergy from agricultural residues in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    and biomethane under Ghanaian conditions. Detailed characterisations of thirteen of the most common agricultural residues in Ghana are presented, enabling estimations of theoretical bioenergy potentials and identifying specific residues for future biorefinery applications. When aiming at residue-based ethanol...... to pursue increased implementation of anaerobic digestion in Ghana, as the first bioenergy option, since anaerobic digestion is more flexible than ethanol production with regard to both feedstock and scale of production. If possible, the available manure and municipal liquid waste should be utilised first....... A novel model for estimating BMP from compositional data of lignocellulosic biomasses is derived. The model is based on a statistical method not previously used in this area of research and the best prediction of BMP is: BMP = 347 xC+H+R – 438 xL + 63 DA , where xC+H+R is the combined content of cellulose...

  18. Opportunities and barriers for international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Martin; Dam, Jinke van; Zarrilli, Simonetta; Ali Mohamed, Fatin; Marchal, Didier; Faaij, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the international trade of various bioenergy commodities has grown rapidly, yet this growth is also hampered by some barriers. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of what market actors currently perceive as major opportunities and barriers for the development of international bioenergy trade. The work focuses on three bioenergy commodities: bioethanol, biodiesel and wood pellets. Data were collected through an internet-based questionnaire. The majority of the 141 respondents had an industrial background. Geographically, two-thirds were from (mainly Western) Europe, with other minor contributions from all other continents. Results show that import tariffs and the implementation of sustainability certification systems are perceived as (potentially) major barriers for the trade of bioethanol and biodiesel, while logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for wood pellets. Development of technical standards was deemed more as an opportunity than a barrier for all commodities. Most important drivers were high fossil fuel prices and climate change mitigation policies. Concluding, to overcome some of the barriers, specific actions will be required by market parties and policy makers. Import tariffs for biofuels could be reduced or abolished, linked to multinational trade agreements and harmonization (including provisions on technical standards and sustainability requirements). - Research highlights: → We analyze main barriers for global trade of wood pellets, ethanol and biodiesel. → Import tariffs can be a major barrier for liquid biofuels trade. → Implementation of sustainability certification systems may hamper biofuels trade. → Logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for the trade of wood pellets. → Development of technical standards are deemed an opportunity for bioenergy trade.

  19. Proceedings of the IEA Bioenergy Task 39 conference : biofuels and bioenergy, a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this conference was to showcase the advancements that have been made in bioenergy development. The presentations addressed several issues, including biorefinery integration; thermochemical technologies; biochemical technologies; feedstock harvest, pretreatment and logistics; biomass production and management; policy, strategies and trade; and greenhouse gas and life cycle assessment. Discussions focused on recent innovations in bioenergy and the feasibility of biofuels in the commercial marketplace with the aim to advance bioenergy development and reduce fossil fuel dependency. A two-day forest management and supply chain field trip was organized in conjunction with the conference. The conference featured 152 presentations, of which 30 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Proceedings of the 2008 Atlantic bioenergy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    A number of new technologies are now being developed to ensure the economic viability of using renewable resources to generate electricity and heat. This conference examined ways of increasing the use of bioenergy resources in the Maritimes region. It provided a forum for industry representatives, researchers, and policy-makers to discuss methods of ensuring the sustainable development of biomass and waste residue resources. The current state of the industry in Atlantic Canada was reviewed on a provincial basis, and government policies related to the use of renewable fuels were outlined. North America's bioenergy resources were assessed and new bio-energy, bio-chemicals, and pyrolysis techniques were reviewed along with newly developed co-products at small-scale ethanol plants. New closed loop biofuels projects and their benefits to rural communities were discussed with reference to air quality issues. New forest bioproducts research was also presented, including highlights from the Canadian Biomass Innovation Network (CBIN). These included innovations in commercial biogas, and new biorefinery and biomass co-firing models. A total of 23 papers were presented at the conference. tabs., figs

  1. The basis for a Platform Bio-Energy. Combining forces for the Dutch bio-energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Halen, C.J.G.

    1998-02-01

    It appears that there is a need for a community of interests in the field of bio-energy to solve numerous problems and to answer many questions with respect to the development of businesses that are active in the field of bio-energy. The title study was carried out in the third and fourth quarter of 1997 by means of surveys and depth interviews among representatives of bio-energy businesses, interest groups and research institutes. The majority of the respondents supports the foundation of the Platform Bio-Energy and suggests many different activities

  2. Tolerance of herbaceous summer legumes of temporary waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Ciotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study to evaluate adaptation of 4 herbaceous summer legumes to temporary waterlogging was conducted.  Species evaluated were Desmanthus virgatus and Aeschynomene americana in their vegetative stage, and Macroptilium lathyroides and M. atropurpureum in both vegetative and reproductive stages.  The experimental design was randomized blocks with 5 replications and treatments were:  T0, control; T1, saturation by capillary movement placing pots in buckets of 5 L with 10 cm of permanent water; and T2, flooding, placing pots in buckets of 10 L and a layer of water 5 cm above the soil.  The duration of the water treatments was 7 days. Waterlogging did not affect shoot or root biomass production nor nodulation in A. americana, whereas D. virgatus had its highest dry matter production in saturated soil (T1.  In M. lathyroides flooding tolerance was more evident in the reproductive than in the vegetative stage, probably due to more production of adventitious roots and formation of aerenchymatic tissue.  Macroptilium atropurpureum showed adaptation to temporary flooding.  Survival and quick recovery of these species would confirm their potential as forages for temporarily waterlogged soils.Keywords: Forage legumes, flooding, Aeschynomene americana, Desmanthus virgatus, Macroptilium lathyroides, Northeast Argentina.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2278-286

  3. Herbaceous energy crops: a general survey and a microeconomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caserta, G.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid fuels (bioethanol and biooil) derived from herbaceous crops are considered beneficial for the environment and human health especially if they are used as fuels for motor vehicles. The choice of the most suited crop to be cultivated for liquid biofuel production depends on many factors; the most important being the economic convenience for farmers to cultivate the new energy crop in place of the traditional ones. In order to analyse the conditions which favour the cultivation and selling of specific energy crops, a simple methodology is proposed, based on the calculation of the ''threshold price'' of the energy crop products. The ''threshold price'' is the minimum price at which the primary products of the energy crop, i.e., roots, tubers, seeds, etc., must be sold in order to obtain a gross margin equal to that usually obtained from the traditional crop which is replaced by the energy crop. As a case-study, this methodology has been applied to twelve Italian provinces where the cultivation of six energy crops, both in productive lands and set-aside lands, is examined. The crops considered are sugar beet, sweet sorghum and topinambour, useful for bioethanol production; and rapeseed, sunflower and soya, which are usually employed for the production of biooil. (Author)

  4. Symbiotic Performance of Herbaceous Legumes in Tropical Cover Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Ibewiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of herbaceous legumes such as mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis [Wright] Bruck and lablab (Lablab purpureus [L.] Sweet in the derived savannas of West Africa can be attributed to their potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. The effects of management practices on N2 fixation in mucuna and lablab were examined using 15N isotope dilution technique. Dry matter yield of both legumes at 12 weeks was two to five times more in in situ mulch (IM than live mulch (LM systems. Land Equivalent Ratios, however, showed 8 to 30% more efficient utilization of resources required for biomass production under LM than IM systems. Live mulching reduced nodule numbers in the legumes by one third compared to values in the IM systems. Similarly, nodule mass was reduced by 34 to 58% under LM compared to the IM systems. The proportion of fixed N2 in the legumes was 18% higher in LM than IM systems. Except for inoculated mucuna, the amounts of N fixed by both legumes were greater in IM than LM systems. Rhizobia inoculation of the legumes did not significantly increase N2 fixation compared to uninoculated plots. Application of N fertilizer reduced N2 fixed in the legumes by 36 to 51% compared to inoculated or uninoculated systems. The implications of cover cropping, N fertilization, and rhizobia inoculation on N contributions of legumes into tropical low-input systems were discussed.

  5. Management of Herbaceous Seeps and Wet Savannas for Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harper, Mary

    1998-01-01

    Wetland communities such as herbaceous seeps and wet savannas occur on military installations throughout the southeastern United States, usually as pockets of wet habitat within a matrix of drier longleaf pine woodlands...

  6. Simkin et al. 2016 PNAS data on herbaceous species richness and associated plot and covariate information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the geographic location (lat/lon) for 15,136 plots, as well as the herbaceous species richness, climate, soil pH, and other variables related...

  7. Herbaceous forage and selection patterns by ungulates across varying herbivore assemblages in a South African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treydte, A.C.; Baumgartner, S.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Grant, C.C.; Getz, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivores generally have strong structural and compositional effects on vegetation, which in turn determines the plant forage species available. We investigated how selected large mammalian herbivore assemblages use and alter herbaceous vegetation structure and composition in a southern African

  8. Recycling of uranium by a perennial vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Y.

    2005-01-01

    At sites of large scale mining and processing of uranium ore, tailings and waste rock piles are today the most visible relics of the uranium extractive industry. These mining relics are constantly subjected to weathering and leaching processes causing the dissemination of radioactive and toxic elements and sometimes requiring remedial operations. The in situ remediation of waste rock piles usually includes their revegetation for minimizing the water infiltration and for increasing surface soil stability. Thanks to its biomass density and longevity, the perennial vegetation plays an important role in stabilisation of the water cycling. The buffer role of forest vegetation can reduce water export from watersheds as well as erosion and hydrological losses of chemicals including radionuclides from contaminated sites. If long term reduction of contaminant dispersion at revegetated uranium mining sites is to be fully appreciated, then the extent of radioactive contaminant availability to forest vegetation and ecosystem cycling as well as the possible economic valorisation of the woody products must be considered. Concerned study focused on a Scots pine plantation established 35 years ago on a uranium waste rock pile (Wismuth GmbH) situated near Schlema (Germany). This investigation aimed at quantifying the mobility of uranium in the mining debris and its transport to the different tree compartments with emphasis on the processes involved. The influence of pine vegetation on uranium cycling dynamics was further assessed in terms of annual fluxes)

  9. 75 FR 11836 - Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Biofuels AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS), USDA. ACTION: Notice of Contract for Proposal... Year 2009 for the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels under criteria established in the prior NOCP... Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels. In response to the previously published NOCP, approximately $14.5...

  10. Bioenergy sector needs professionals - how to do it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, V.; Aeaenismaa, P. (JAMK Univ. of Applied Sciences, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: varpu.savolainen@jamk.fi, Email: pekka.aanismaa@jamk.fi; Wihersaari, M. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Bio-and Environmantal Sciences), Email: margareta.wihersaari@jyu.fi; Lehtonen, M. (Vocational Education Institute of Northern Central Finland (POKE), Tarvaala (Finland)), Email: maija.lehtonen@poke.fi

    2009-07-01

    A model of networking and cooperation in different levels of bio energy education is being developed jointly by Jam University of Applied Sciences (Jam), University of Jyvaeskylae (JYU) and the Vocational Education Institute of Northern Central Finland (POKE). In this three-year project scientific approach will be combined with a pragmatic perspective to ensure the sustainable future of the bioenergy sector in Central Finland. The idea of the project is to identify the educational needs and bottlenecks and to develop new education packages to promote the whole bioenergy sector, to increase the competitiveness of the bioenergy business in the region, to ensure life-long learning and to make round-the-year employment possible. For example, new models of bioenergy entrepreneurship will be determined and tested. The objective is also to increase bioenergy know-how among manufactures of machinery and equipment and, on the other hand, to increase the number of 'bioenergy masters' and 'bioenergy doctors' in Central Finland. The project is a part of the bioenergy cluster programme of Central Finland. (orig.)

  11. Potential Bioenergy Options in Developed and Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant –based energy production (energy crops, forest growth) and residue and waste based fuels can substitute fossil fuels in a sustainable and environmental friendly way. In this study, bioenergy includes bio-resources that can be potentially used for modern energy production. Modern bioenergy options offer significant, ...

  12. IEA Bioenergy Task 40 country report for the Netherlands 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.; Junginger, H.M.; Jonker, J.G.G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This country report was written within the frame of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. In summary, the aims of this country report are: (1) To provide a concise overview of biomass policy, domestic resources, biomass users, biomass prices and biomass trade, and (2) To analyse bioenergy trends, and reasons for

  13. Analysis of growth dynamics of Mediterranean bioenergy crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archontoulis, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the rapidly growing bioenergy production worldwide, there is lack of field experience and experimental data on the cultivation of bioenergy crops. This study aims to advance crop management operations and modelling studies by providing essential information on phenology, agronomy and

  14. Future Perspectives of International Bioenergy Trade – Summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranzl, L.; Matzenberger, J.; Junginger, H.M.; Daioglou, V.; Tromborg, E.; Keramidas, K.

    2013-01-01

    According to the IEA World Energy Outlook 2012, primary demand for bioenergy will strongly increase up to the year 2035: the demand for biofuels and biomass for electricity is expected to triple. These changes will have an impact on the regional balance of demand and supply of bioenergy leading to

  15. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  16. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production systems. First, the potential contribution of bioenergy to the energy supply in different world regions in the year 2050 from different biomass sources (dedicated woody energy crops, residues and

  17. The biogeochemistry of bioenergy landscapes: carbon, nitrogen, and water considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G Philip; Hamilton, Stephen K; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J

    2011-06-01

    The biogeochemical liabilities of grain-based crop production for bioenergy are no different from those of grain-based food production: excessive nitrate leakage, soil carbon and phosphorus loss, nitrous oxide production, and attenuated methane uptake. Contingent problems are well known, increasingly well documented, and recalcitrant: freshwater and coastal marine eutrophication, groundwater pollution, soil organic matter loss, and a warming atmosphere. The conversion of marginal lands not now farmed to annual grain production, including the repatriation of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and other conservation set-aside lands, will further exacerbate the biogeochemical imbalance of these landscapes, as could pressure to further simplify crop rotations. The expected emergence of biorefinery and combustion facilities that accept cellulosic materials offers an alternative outcome: agricultural landscapes that accumulate soil carbon, that conserve nitrogen and phosphorus, and that emit relatively small amounts of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. Fields in these landscapes are planted to perennial crops that require less fertilizer, that retain sediments and nutrients that could otherwise be transported to groundwater and streams, and that accumulate carbon in both soil organic matter and roots. If mixed-species assemblages, they additionally provide biodiversity services. Biogeochemical responses of these systems fall chiefly into two areas: carbon neutrality and water and nutrient conservation. Fluxes must be measured and understood in proposed cropping systems sufficient to inform models that will predict biogeochemical behavior at field, landscape, and regional scales. Because tradeoffs are inherent to these systems, a systems approach is imperative, and because potential biofuel cropping systems and their environmental contexts are complex and cannot be exhaustively tested, modeling will be instructive. Modeling alternative biofuel cropping systems converted

  18. Evaluation de la diversité floristique en herbacées dans le Parc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. Phyllanthaceae. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. 1. Polygalaceae. Polygala petitiana A. Rich. 1. Portulacaceae. Portulaca quadrifida L. 1. Total. 23. DISCUSSION. Les résultats de cette étude fournissent des informations sur l'état actuel de la végétation herbacée du PNM au Tchad. La végétation herbacée de la zone du.

  19. The cost of silage harvest and transport systems for herbaceous crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.; Downing, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Butler, J. [Butler (James), Tifton, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Some of the highest yielding herbaceous biomass crops are thick- stemmed species. Their relatively high moisture content necessitates they be handled and stored as silage rather than hay bales or modules. This paper presents estimated costs of harvesting and transporting herbaceous crops as silage. Costs are based on an engineering- economic approach. Equipment costs are estimated by combining per hour costs with the hours required to complete the operation. Harvest includes severing, chopping, and blowing stalks into a wagon or truck.

  20. Harmonising bioenergy resource potentials - Methodological lessons from review of state of the art bioenergy potential asessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Published estimates of the potential of bioenergy vary widely, mainly due to the heterogeneity of methodologies, assumptions and datasets employed. These discrepancies are confusing for policy and it is thus important to have scientific clarity on the basis of the assessment outcomes. Such clear

  1. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  2. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  3. Allium hookeri , Thw. Enum. A lesser known terrestrial perennial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lesser known terrestrial perennial herb used as food and its ethnobotanical ... from the wilderness, for consumption and traditional healing of various ailments. ... plants, the lifestyles of the people are changed and they prefer 'junk foods'.

  4. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Pawlowski

    Full Text Available Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2, as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield.

  5. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Meghan N; Crow, Susan E; Meki, Manyowa N; Kiniry, James R; Taylor, Andrew D; Ogoshi, Richard; Youkhana, Adel; Nakahata, Mae

    2017-01-01

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2), as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP) compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield.

  6. Advancing Bioenergy in Europe. Exploring bioenergy systems and socio-political issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Kes

    2007-09-15

    This research work explores the implementation of bioenergy systems in Europe focusing on socio-political issues. The purpose is to improve understanding of key drivers and barriers for bioenergy. The author conducted literature reviews, case studies, site visits, stakeholder interviews, industry interactions, and research workshops. The research process also involved extensive fieldwork and the development of 12 case studies from 8 countries in Europe. Combating climate change and enhancing energy security are identified in the literature as key drivers for bioenergy. Promoting regional development is also often mentioned although it is not well explored by empirical studies. This thesis analyses regional development activity associated with the implementation of bioenergy systems in 4 case studies from Sweden. The case studies suggest there are at least 4 benefits that can flow from bioenergy systems. These benefits can be key drivers for local and regional actors. The key drivers include: Distribution and diversification; Partnerships and synergies; Business and employment; Environment and landscape. The key barriers include: Economic conditions; Know-how and institutional capacity; Supply chain co-ordination. The second research objective for this thesis is to investigate and discuss experiences of supportive (and disruptive) policies and actions for the implementation of bioenergy systems in Europe. The main findings include: Bioenergy systems: While there are key barriers hindering bioenergy systems, this research identifies no absolute barriers to realising the targets on bioenergy utilisation defined by the European Union. Interestingly, there are some consistent policies and actions evident in the case studies that are employed to overcome key barriers, including: investment grants; policy measures; pilot projects; local initiatives; local champions; and supply contracts. Not surprisingly, supportive economic policies and partnerships between the public

  7. Bacterial endophytes of perennial crops for management of plant disease

    OpenAIRE

    Melnick, Rachel L.; Bailey, B.A.; Backman, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Metadata only record Bacterial endophytes, microorganisms which inhabit the internal tissues of plants, can suppress disease and are often used as a biological control in annual crops. Less research, however, has been applied to the use of bacterial endophytes to prevent disease in perennial crops, which presents a more complex challenge. However, exploration of their potential as a biological control in perennial crops has been limited. This chapter assembles current knowledge on the subj...

  8. The role of bioenergy in the UK's energy future formulation and modelling of long-term UK bioenergy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, Sophie; Bauen, Ausilio; Strachan, Neil; Brand, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the prospects and policy implications for bioenergy to contribute to a long-term sustainable UK energy system. The UK MARKAL technology-focused energy systems dynamic cost optimisation model - which has been used to quantify the costs and benefits of alternative energy strategies in UK policy making - is enhanced with detailed representation of bio-energy chains and end-uses. This provides an important advance in linking bioenergy expert-knowledge with a whole system modelling approach, in order to better understand the potential role of bioenergy in an evolving energy system. The new BIOSYS-MARKAL model is used to run four scenarios constructed along the pillars of UK energy policy objectives (low carbon and energy security). The results are analysed in terms of bioenergy resources use and bioenergy pathways penetration in different end use sectors. The main findings suggest that the complexity of different bioenergy pathways may have been overlooked in previous modelling exercises. A range of bioenergy pathways - notably bio-heat and biofuels for transport - may have a much wider potential role to play. The extent to which this potential is fulfilled will be further determined by resources availability, and market segment constraints, as well as policy measures to improve deployment. (author)

  9. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N.; Suurs, Roald A.A.; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2005-01-01

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonne dry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJ HHV ) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonne dry or 2.1 euros/GJ HHV ; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MW HHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJ HHV , when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJ primary /MJ delivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss

  10. Market survey Czech Republic. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in the Czech Republic and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. The Czech biomass market is still developing and is segmented and disintegrated to many regional or sector markets where also prices of biomass differ significantly and could be affected by dominant players. There were several attempts to establish a kind of biomass exchange, but were unsuccessful. The biomass trade is done usually on bilateral basis but without clear long-term agreements on contracts which would secure stable supply and prices

  11. Adaptation of C4 Bioenergy Crop Species to Various Environments within the Southern Great Plains of USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As highly productive perennial grasses are evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks, a major consideration is biomass yield stability. Two experiments were conducted to examine some aspects of yield stability for two biofuel species: switchgrass (Panicum vigratum L. and Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg. Biomass yields of these species were evaluated under various environmental conditions across the Southern Great Plains (SGP, including some sites with low soil fertility. In the first experiment, measured yields of four switchgrass ecotypes and Mxg varied among locations. Overall, plants showed optimal growth performance in study sites close to their geographical origins. Lowland switchgrass ecotypes and Mxg yields simulated by the ALMANAC model showed reasonable agreement with the measured yields across all study locations, while the simulated yields of upland switchgrass ecotypes were overestimated in northern locations. In the second experiment, examination of different N fertilizer rates revealed switchgrass yield increases over the range of 0, 80, or 160 kg N ha−1 year−1, while Mxg only showed yield increases between the low and medium N rates. This provides useful insights to crop management of two biofuel species and to enhance the predictive accuracy of process-based models, which are critical for developing bioenergy market systems in the SGP.

  12. Comparing herbaceous plant communities in active and passive riparian restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Gornish

    Full Text Available Understanding the efficacy of passive (reduction or cessation of environmental stress and active (typically involving planting or seeding restoration strategies is important for the design of successful revegetation of degraded riparian habitat, but studies explicitly comparing restoration outcomes are uncommon. We sampled the understory herbaceous plant community of 103 riparian sites varying in age since restoration (0 to 39 years and revegetation technique (active, passive, or none to compare the utility of different approaches on restoration success across sites. We found that landform type, percent shade, and summer flow helped explain differences in the understory functional community across all sites. In passively restored sites, grass and forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age, but in actively restored sites forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age. Native cover and richness were lower with passive restoration compared to active restoration. Invasive species cover and richness were not significantly different across sites. Although some of our results suggest that active restoration would best enhance native species in degraded riparian areas, this work also highlights some of the context-dependency that has been found to mediate restoration outcomes. For example, since the effects of passive restoration can be quite rapid, this approach might be more useful than active restoration in situations where rapid dominance of pioneer species is required to arrest major soil loss through erosion. As a result, we caution against labeling one restoration technique as better than another. Managers should identify ideal restoration outcomes in the context of historic and current site characteristics (as well as a range of acceptable alternative states and choose restoration approaches that best facilitate the achievement of revegetation goals.

  13. BIOENERGIA - Focus on wood in bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [Jyvaeskylae Science Park, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most important area of research on wood fuel production is the development of various methods, machines and systems connected to this area, in order to produce economically competitive fuels. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research area because they seem to be most promising. The growing amount of small-sized trees ant the need of their first thinnings have created a demand for new harvesting methods. At the moment the economical aspects restrict the harvesting of the first thinning trees either for industrial use or energy production. Research on peat production focuses on the complete use of a bog and on the development of peat production methods and machines. Development work in this area aims at decreasing production costs and also at reducing the drainage water and other elements in environmental load around the peat production sites. The use of bioenergy research will be focused on the small-scale (<20 MW{sub th},) applications. In the long term, the increase of bioenergy in heating of small houses and farms and buildings, as well as in the production of heat and power has been estimated. Research into the conversion of biomass is concentrated on the production of biomass-based liquid fuels

  14. Cadmium in the bioenergy system - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfont, K.

    1997-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal without any known positive biological effects. Both emissions and atmospheric deposition of cadmium have decreased radically in Sweden during recent years. In Sweden, about 150 tonnes of cadmium was supplied to the technosphere in 1990, mostly originating from NiCd batteries. More than 100 tonnes of cadmium accumulated in the technosphere. Mankind takes up cadmium from water, food and particulate atmospheric pollution. Even small amounts may be injurious in the long-term since the half-life in the kidneys is 30 years. Cadmium in biofuel and ashes are generally a cause of discussion. Ashes from biofuel constitute a nutrient resource that should be returned to the soil. A possible risk with spreading ashes is the spreading of heavy metals, and then foremost cadmium, which is among the heavy metals that forest soils are considered to tolerate the least. Several studies on cadmium in the bioenergy system have been made, both within the Research Programme for Recycling of Wood-ash, and within Vattenfall's Bioenergy Project. The present report is intended to provide a picture of the current state of knowledge and to review plans for the future With a 3 page summary in English. 51 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  15. Sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, Patricia; Upham, Paul; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Use of bioenergy as a renewable resource is increasing in many parts of the world and can generate significant environmental, economic and social benefits if managed with due regard to sustainability constraints. This work reviews the environmental, social and economic constraints on key feedstocks for UK heat, power and transport fuel. Key sustainability constraints include greenhouse gas savings achieved for different fuels, land availability, air quality impacts and facility siting. Applying those constraints, we estimate that existing technologies would facilitate a sustainability constrained level of medium-term bioenergy/biofuel supply to the UK of 4.9% of total energy demand, broken down into 4.3% of heat demands, 4.3% of electricity, and 5.8% of transport fuel. This suggests that attempts to increase the supply above these levels could have counterproductive sustainability impacts in the absence of compensating technology developments or identification of additional resources. The barriers that currently prevent this level of supply being achieved have been analysed and classified. This suggests that the biggest policy impacts would be in stimulating the market for heat demand in rural areas, supporting feedstock prices in a manner that incentivised efficient use/maximum greenhouse gas savings and targeting investment capital that improves yield and reduces land-take.

  16. Bioenergy in the new Finnish energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, S.

    1997-01-01

    As discussed in this conference paper, the goal of Finnish energy strategy is to bring the growth of the total energy consumption to a halt in the next 10-15 years and to speed up the restructuring of the energy economy without hampering economic growth. By 2010 the emission of greenhouse gases should be down to the 1990 level. To reach the goals, various means are available: taxation, subsidies, energy efficiency measures, replacing fossil sources with renewable and low-emission energy sources. By 1999 Finland should be connected to the European gas network. The use of bioenergy, wood fuels and wind power is encouraged. Peat is a competitive fuel in areas where it is locally available. To cut down on CO 2 emission it is necessary to increase the use of bioenergy, and by 2025 the use of wood will have increased considerably from the present level. At present, the wood reserves increase by one percent per year. Public funds will be set aside for energy wood research, for product development and marketing. Peat is an important indigenous energy resource, accounting for about 5% of all energy use. The Government is committed to closely follow up the implementation of its energy strategy. 1 ref., 3 figs

  17. ACMECS Bioenergy Network: Implementing a transnational science-based policy network on bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Haruthaithanasan, Maliwan; Kraxner, Florian; Brenner, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Despite the currently low prices for fossil energy resulting from a number of geopolitical reasons, intergovernmental efforts are being made towards a transition to a sustainable bio-economy. The main reasons for this include climate change mitigation, decreasing dependencies fossil fuel imports and hence external market fluctuations, diversification of energy generation and feedstock production for industrial processes. Since 2012, the ACMECS bioenergy network initiative leads negotiations and organizes workshops to set up a regional bioenergy network in Indochina, with the aim to promote biomass and -energy markets, technology transfer, rural development and income generation. Policy development is guided by the International Union of Forest Research Institutions (IUFRO) Task Force "Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Network". In this paper, we highlight the achievements so far and present results of a multi-stakeholder questionnaire in combination with a quantitative analysis of the National Bioenergy Development Plans (NBDP's). We found that traditional fuelwood is still the most important resource for generating thermal energy in the region, especially in rural settings, and it will remain an important resource even in 25 years. However, less fuelwood will be sourced from natural forests as compared to today. NBDP's have a focus on market development, technology transfer and funding possibilities of a regional bioenergy strategy, while the responses of the questionnaire favored more altruistic goals, i.e. sustainable resource management, environmental protection and climate change mitigation, generation of rural income and community involvement etc. This is surprising, since a sub-population of the (anonymous) questionnaire respondents was actually responsible drafting the NBDP's. We therefore suggest the following measures to ensure regulations that represent the original aims of the network (climate change mitigation, poverty alleviation, sustainable resource use

  18. Bio-energy status document 2012; Statusdocument bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.L.; Van Grinsven, A.H.; Bergsma, G.C.; Croezen, H.C.

    2013-05-15

    In 2012 bio-energy contributed over 71 PJ to the Dutch energy supply, a rise of almost 2 PJ over 2011. This means that 75% of the renewable energy consumed in the Netherlands is now derived from biomass. The growth is due mainly to the increase in the mandatory biotransport fuel percentage from 4.25% to 4.5%. The use of energy from 'other biomass combustion' (incl. paper sludge, green waste and chicken excrement) recovered to the level of 2010, following a marked drop in 2011 due to plant maintenance, termination of the MEP ('Environmental Quality of Power Generation') subsidy scheme and high biomass prices. At large power stations there was a considerable decrease in co-incineration of biomass because of incidents (a fire at the Nijmegen coal-fired plant) and a maintenance backlog (at the Amer power station). These are some of the results reported in the 'Bio-energy status document 2012', prepared by CE Delft for NL Agency. In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] De bijdrage van bio-energie aan de Nederlandse energievoorziening bedroeg in 2012 ruim 71 PJ, een stijging van bijna 2 PJ ten opzichte van 2011. Daarmee is 75% van het verbruik van hernieuwbare energie in Nederland afkomstig van bio-energie. De stijging wordt vooral veroorzaakt door de oplopende bijmengplicht van biotransportbrandstoffen van 4,25% naar 4,5%. Verbruik van energie uit 'overige biomassaverbranding' (o.a. papierslib, groenafval en kippenmest) herstelde zicht tot het niveau van 2010, na een forse daling in 2011 door onderhoud aan installaties, afloop van MEP-subsidies en hoge prijzen van biomassa. Het bij- en meestoken van biomassa in grote elektriciteitscentrales daalde juist aanzienlijk door calamiteiten en uitloop van onderhoud (brand kolencentrale bij Nijmegen

  19. Proceedings of the CANBIO conference : realizing the bioenergy opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This conference explored domestic bioenergy options in Canada, including potential for bioenergy trade. As biomass cogeneration proceeds, investments are now being made for exportable biofuels such as wood pellets and BioOil, driven by demand for biomass in Europe. Mill residue surpluses are rapidly diminishing, causing industry and government to look at forest residues. The conference also addressed obstacles to developing bioenergy options in Canada compared to countries with comprehensive bioenergy strategies. An entire session was devoted to Finnish expertise in residue harvesting and bioenergy equipment. Various national and international development opportunities for wood residue and bioenergy products were also explored along with new technologies in bioenergy practices and development in syngas production techniques. The conference sessions were entitled: volumes of economic biomass; costs and logistics of forest biomass; development opportunities; Finnish solutions for biomass; progress in Ontario; policies in Canada and Europe; and, towards a biofuels transportation infrastructure. The conference featured 34 presentations, of which 13 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Large or small? Rethinking China’s forest bioenergy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Su, Yufang; Tennigkeit, Timm; Yang, Yongping; Xu, Jianchu

    2013-01-01

    China’s forest bioenergy policies are evolving against the backdrop of pressing national energy challenges similar to those faced by OECD countries, and chronic rural energy challenges more characteristic of developing countries. Modern forest bioenergy could contribute to solutions to both of these challenges. However, because of limitations in current technologies and institutions, significant policy and resource commitments would be required to make breakthroughs in either commercializing forest bioenergy or modernizing rural energy systems in China. Given the potential attention, funding, and resource trade-offs between these two goals, we provide an argument for why the focus of China’s forest bioenergy policy should initially be on addressing rural energy challenges. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for laying the groundwork for a modern, biomass-based energy infrastructure in rural China. -- Highlights: ► China’s bioenergy policy is at a crossroads. ► Trade-offs exist between forest bioenergy policy for urban and rural users in China. ► There are strong arguments for focusing forest bioenergy policy on rural areas. ► China’s rural energy policy should increasingly support modern energy carriers

  1. Bioenergy: how much can we expect for 2050?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Krausmann, Fridolin; Running, Steve; Kolby Smith, W; Searchinger, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of global primary bioenergy potentials in the literature span almost three orders of magnitude. We narrow that range by discussing biophysical constraints on bioenergy potentials resulting from plant growth (NPP) and its current human use. In the last 30 years, terrestrial NPP was almost constant near 54 PgC yr −1 , despite massive efforts to increase yields in agriculture and forestry. The global human appropriation of terrestrial plant production has doubled in the last century. We estimate the maximum physical potential of the world’s total land area outside croplands, infrastructure, wilderness and denser forests to deliver bioenergy at approximately 190 EJ yr −1 . These pasture lands, sparser woodlands, savannas and tundras are already used heavily for grazing and store abundant carbon; they would have to be entirely converted to bioenergy and intensive forage production to provide that amount of energy. Such a high level of bioenergy supply would roughly double the global human biomass harvest, with far-reaching effects on biodiversity, ecosystems and food supply. Identifying sustainable levels of bioenergy and finding ways to integrate bioenergy with food supply and ecological conservation goals remains a huge and pressing scientific challenge. (perspective)

  2. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Edward Martinus Wilhelmus Utrecht University

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production. To this end, the following research questions have been formulated: (1). What is the potential of different world regions to produce biomass for energy generation in the year 2050, taking account of biological and climatological limitations, the use of biomass to produce food, materials and traditional bioenergy, as well as the need to maintain existing forests and thus protect biodiversity?; (2) What are the main bottlenecks to formulating and implementing sustainability criteria for bioenergy production?; (3) To what extent does complying with sustainability criteria have impacts on the costs and potential of bioenergy production?; (4) To what extent do fertilizer- and manure-induced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to energy crop production have an impact on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when conventional transportation fuels are replaced by first-generation biofuels?; (5) In terms of economic and environmental performance, how does Europe's production, storage and transport of miscanthus and switchgrass in 2004 compare to that in 2030? Throughout this thesis, specific attention is paid to knowledge gaps and their potential impact on results, the aim being to identify priorities for future research and development. Another key element of our research is that we evaluate the possibilities and limitations of strategies that are designed to improve the performance of bioenergy production systems and that may be incorporated in bioenergy certification schemes and bioenergy promoting policies

  3. BioenergyKDF: Enabling Spatiotemporal Data Synthesis and Research Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; Movva, Sunil [ORNL; Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; White, Devin A [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Chase, Adrian S Z [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (BioenergyKDF) is a scalable, web-based collaborative environment for scientists working on bioenergy related research in which the connections between data, literature, and models can be explored and more clearly understood. The fully-operational and deployed system, built on multiple open source libraries and architectures, stores contributions from the community of practice and makes them easy to find, but that is just its base functionality. The BioenergyKDF provides a national spatiotemporal decision support capability that enables data sharing, analysis, modeling, and visualization as well as fosters the development and management of the U.S. bioenergy infrastructure, which is an essential component of the national energy infrastructure. The BioenergyKDF is built on a flexible, customizable platform that can be extended to support the requirements of any user community especially those that work with spatiotemporal data. While there are several community data-sharing software platforms available, some developed and distributed by national governments, none of them have the full suite of capabilities available in BioenergyKDF. For example, this component-based platform and database independent architecture allows it to be quickly deployed to existing infrastructure and to connect to existing data repositories (spatial or otherwise). As new data, analysis, and features are added; the BioenergyKDF will help lead research and support decisions concerning bioenergy into the future, but will also enable the development and growth of additional communities of practice both inside and outside of the Department of Energy. These communities will be able to leverage the substantial investment the agency has made in the KDF platform to quickly stand up systems that are customized to their data and research needs.

  4. 11. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 11. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2017-08-01

    The seven main focus of the bioenergy forum were: 1. Political regulation and its consequences; 2. Flexible energy supply; 3. Biorefineries for the use of residues from bioenergy production; 4. Process optimization biogas; 5. Alternative substrates for biogas production; 6. Cross-sectoral bioenergy concept; 7. Transport sector (biofuels). Five lectures are separately analyzed for this database. [German] Die sieben Themenschwerpunkte des Bioenergieforums waren: 1. Politische Regulierung und deren Folgen; 2. Flexible Energiebereitstellung; 3. Bioraffinerie zur Nutzung von Reststoffen der Bioenergiegewinnung; 4. Prozessoptimierung Biogas; 5. Alternative Substrate zur Biogasgewinnung; 6. Sektoruebergreifende regionale Bioenergiekonzept; und 7. Transportsektor (Biokraftstoffe). Fuenf Vortraege wurden fuer diese Datenbank separat aufgenommen.

  5. Smart bioenergy technologies and concepts for a more flexible bioenergy provision in future energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a vital source of renewable energy, because it offers a wide range of established and potential methods for energy generation. It is also an important facet of the progression toward a sustainable energy future. The need for further development in the provision of bioenergy is underlined by challenges affecting the biomass resource base, including rising demand for biomass for food, feed, materials and fuel. This is underlined by significant concerns over factors relating to land, such as soil, nutrients and biodiversity. This book examines and analyzes Germany's decade-long initiative toward implementation of an active policy for the transition of the energy system to make greater use of renewable energy sources, which has resulted in a significant increase in the amount of biomass used for electricity, heat and transport fuel. The book begins with a review of market and resource base issues, and moves on to analyze the technical options for a more integrated bioenergy use. The analysis spans the ...

  6. Seasonal versus perennial immunotherapy: evaluation after three years of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Lejarazu, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audícana, M; Ventas, P; Martín, S; Fernández de Corres, L

    1993-01-01

    We have performed a comparative study to evaluate seasonal and perennial schedules after 3 years of immunotherapy. Sixty patients suffering from rhinitis and/or asthma due to grass pollen sensitization were randomly allocated to receive a semi-depot extract of Phleum pratense according to a perennial or seasonal schedule. The last year of the study, 14 patients were recruited as a control group without immunotherapy. The cumulative dose was 602 BU in the perennial group and 372 BU in the seasonal group. The frequency and severity of side-effects were similar and very low in both treated groups. The IgE level was significantly lower after perennial immunotherapy at the end of the first 2 years. A seasonal decrease in specific IgG levels was observed in patients who interrupted immunotherapy, while this was not observed in patients under the perennial schedule. Symptoms and medication scores did not show differences between groups. Nevertheless, we found a significant difference between treated patients and the control group.

  7. Effects of radiation, litterfall and throughfall on herbaceous biomass production in oak woodlands of Southern Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J.; Sa, C.; Madeira, M.; Gazarini, L.

    2002-01-01

    Micro climatic characteristics (soil moisture, and air and soil temperature) were monitored both under and outside the influence of Quercus rotundifolia canopy. The influence of tree cover on biomass production of herbaceous vegetation was studied through the simulation of the physical and chemical effects associated to the tree canopy (radiation, litterfall, throughfall). Treatments were: control (T), radiation shortage (RR), application of leaf litter (F), application of leaflitter and radiation shortage (FRR) , application of throughfall (N) and application of throughfall and radiation shortage (NRR). Most of the times, and especially in winter, soil temperature was higher in areas not influenced by the canopies than in those under their influence. Soil moisture tended to decrease faster in the areas outside the canopy influence. Mean annual biomass production of the herbaceous vegetation was 159.5, 145.8, 132.2, 126.66, 134.9 and 173.1 g m2, respectively, in treatments C, RR, F, FRR, N and NRR. The N, P, K, Mg, Mn and Ca concentrations in the herbaceous biomass were generally higher in the shaded treatments. When the amount of nutrients accumulated in the herbaceous vegetation biomass was expressed on an area basis, the highest values were observed for treatment with throughfall application and radiation shortage. Besides the possible effects of the micro climatic characteristics, differences with respect to herbaceous vegetation production may be explained by the presence of litterfall, as well as by the nutrients present in the throughfall solution [pt

  8. Diagnosis of vegetation recovery within herbaceous sub-systems in the West African Sahel Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchang, J.; Hanan, N. P.; Prihodko, L.; Sathyachandran, S. K.; Ji, W.; Ross, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    The West African Sahel (WAS) region is an extensive water limited environment that features a delicate balance of herbaceous and woody vegetation sub systems. These play an important role in the cycling of carbon while also supporting the dominant agro-pastoral human activities in the region. Quantifying the temporal trends in vegetation with regard to these two systems is therefore very important in assessing resource sustainability and food security. In water limited areas, rainfall is a primary driver of vegetation productivity and past watershed scale studies in the WAS region have shown that increase in the slope of the productivity-to-rainfall relationship is indicative of increasing cover and density of herbaceous plants. Given the importance of grazing resources to the region, we perform a wall-to-wall pixel based analysis of changing short-term vegetation sensitivity to changing annual rainfall (hereafter referred to as dS) to examine temporal trends in herbaceous vegetation health. Results indicate that 43% of the Sahelian region has experienced changes (P Western and Central Mali and South Western Niger. Positive dS is indicative of herbaceous vegetation recovery, in response to changing management and rainfall conditions that promote long-term herbaceous community recovery following degradation during the 1970-1980s droughts.

  9. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  10. The role of bioenergy in the electricity and heating market; Die Rolle der Bioenergie im Strom-/Waermemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Frank [IZES gGmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany); Hauser, Eva; Wem, Bernhard

    2014-07-01

    Bioenergy, especially from biomass crops, is today increasingly viewed with criticism on grounds ranging from economic and ecological to sociopolitical, especially when potential competing uses are taken into account. On the other hand, due to characteristics that distinguish it from other renewable energy resources, bioenergy can already today make a significant contribution to the ongoing transformation of the energy supply system. This can occur through existing as well as through new production plants. The present article provides an overview of possible approaches to this end and goes on to assess the future role of bioenergy in the electricity and heating market on this basis.

  11. Bioenergy. The Impact of Indirect Land Use Change. Summary and Conclusions from the IEA Bioenergy ExCo63 Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Tustin, J.

    2009-09-01

    This publication provides the summary and conclusions from the title workshop, held in conjunction with he meeting of the Executive Committee of IEA Bioenergy in Rotterdam, Netherlands, on 12 May 2009. The purpose of the workshop was to inform the Executive Committee on the rapidly evolving international debate on bioenergy and land use - particularly the thorny issue of indirect land use change. The aim was to stimulate discussion between the Executive Committee and invited experts and thereby enhance the new policy-oriented work within IEA Bioenergy.

  12. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  13. The genome and transcriptome of perennial ryegrass mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Studer, Bruno; Byrne, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is one of the most important forage and turf grass species of temperate regions worldwide. Its mitochondrial genome is inherited maternally and contains genes that can influence traits of agricultural importance. Moreover, the DNA sequence...... and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome from perennial ryegrass. Results: Intact mitochondria from perennial ryegrass leaves were isolated and used for mtDNA extraction. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced to a 167-fold coverage using the Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium platform, and assembled...... of mitochondrial genomes has been established and compared for a large number of species in order to characterize evolutionary relationships.Therefore, it is crucial to understand the organization of the mitochondrial genome and how it varies between and within species. Here, we report the first de novo assembly...

  14. Totally impermeable film (TIF reduces emissions in perennial crop fumigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suduan Gao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many perennial nursery fields and replanted orchards and vineyards in California are treated with preplant soil fumigants to control soilborne pests. In annual crops, such as strawberry, covering fumigated fields with totally impermeable film (TIF has shown promise in controlling emissions and improving fumigant distribution in soil. The objective of this research was to optimize the use of TIF for perennial crops via three field trials. TIF reduced peak emission flux and cumulative emissions by > 90% relative to polyethylene tarp during a 2-week covering period. After the TIF was cut, emissions were greatly reduced compared to when tarps were cut after 6 days. TIF maintained higher fumigant concentrations under tarp and in the soil than polyethylene film. The results indicate that TIF can increase fumigation efficiency for perennial crop growers.

  15. The role of sustainability requirements in international bioenergy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelkmans, Luc; Goovaerts, Liesbet; Goh, Chun Sheng

    2014-01-01

    As the main driver for bioenergy is to enable society to transform to more sustainable fuel and energy production systems, it is important to safeguard that bioenergy deployment happens within certain sustainability constraints. There is currently a high number of initiatives, including binding...... regulations and several voluntary sustainability standards for biomass, bioenergy and/or biofuels. Within IEA Bioenergy studies were performed to monitor the actual implementation process of sustainability regulations and certification, evaluate how stakeholders are affected and envisage the anticipated......’ of biomass involves different policy arenas and legal settings. Policy pathways should be clear and predictable, and future revisions of sustainability requirements should be open and transparent. Sustainability assurance systems (both through binding regulations and voluntary certification) should take...

  16. Assessing Water-use Relationships in a Perennial Kernza Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, G.; Brunsell, N. A.; Sutherlin, C. E.; Crews, T.; Vico, G.

    2017-12-01

    Perennial grain/forage crops can sustain high yields without replanting for 3-10 years or more, resulting in potentially important environmental benefits. Although previous research has been conducted in perennial food crops, the coupling between these ecosystems and the atmosphere is not well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the magnitude and temporal variability of the water-use relationships in a perennial Kernza wheatgrass crop in Salina, north-central region of Kansas (KS), USA. The study period comprised approximately 4.5 years (May 2012-October 2016) of eddy covariance observations collected at the US-KLS AmeriFlux tower. In particular, we examine the water-use efficiency, carbon and water fluxes in relation to the local environmental factors, such as vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, air temperature, etc. An analysis of the correspondence between accumulated precipitation (PPT) and ET in the perennial crop indicated a most likely low surface runoff and that there were other sources of water for plant intake in addition to the annual PPT, i.e., deep water. In this sense, we highlight that the long roots observed in perennial crops may facilitate the water uptake in the deeper soil layers, providing extra resources for the plant growth especially when the rainfall indices are low. The results obtained in this work are important in order to better understand the hydrologic cycle of perennial agroecosystems as well as to understand the benefits and disadvantages in relation to annual crops particularly under changing climatic conditions.

  17. The Controversies over Bioenergy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Andersen, Bente Hessellund

    2012-01-01

    convert coal fired power plants to biomass in order to sustain the role of these power plants. Their increasing use of imported wood pellets is criticized for increasing greenhouse gas emissions because of fast logging of years of forest growth. A Danish biotech company is developing enzymes...... a prominent role in several Danish climate and energy plans, alongside with wind and solar energy, and energy savings. There are major controversies about targets for bioenergy with respect to acceptable types, sources and amounts of biomass. Strong path dependency is identified. Energy companies in Denmark...... for processing of biomass for biofuels. The alignment with the private car regime is strong, because biofuel enables continuation of fuel-driven vehicles as dominating transportation mode. Danish farmers see manure as important source for biogas while arguing for reduction of climate impact and nuisances from...

  18. Integrated Model of Bioenergy and Agriculture System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased burden on the environment caused by human activities, focus on industrial ecology designs are gaining more attention. In that perspective an environ- mentally effective integration of bionergy and agriculture systems has significant potential. This work introduces a modeling...... of the overall model. C- TOOL and Yasso07 are used in the carbon balance of agri- culture, Dynamic Network Analysis is used for the energy simulation and Brightway2 is used to build a Life Cycle Inventory compatible database and processes it for vari- ous impacts assessment methods. The model is success- fully...... approach that builds on Life Cycle Inventory and carries out Life Cycle Impact Assessment for a con- sequential Life Cycle Assessment on integrated bioenergy and agriculture systems. The model framework is built in Python which connects various freely available soft- ware that handle different aspects...

  19. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains...... land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical....... Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution...

  20. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  1. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  2. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  3. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  4. Technical/economical analysis of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solantausta, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Technoeconomic Analysis Activity are: (1) To promote development of thermochemical biomass conversion methods by carrying out selected site specific feasibility studies in participating countries. Both agricultural and woody biomasses will be converted either into electricity or boiler fuels; (2) To compare advanced technologies to commercial alternatives based on technoeconomic basis to establish future development needs, and (3) To facilitate information exchange between participants on relevant basic process issues. Five countries (Finland, Canada, USA, Norway, Austria) are participating to the Activity. Initially two feasibility studies are planned for each country. Each study has three common elements: site specific, technical, and economic data. The site specific cases are described below in short. Products in the cases are electricity, heat and fuel oil. Total of two cases per country are planned. (orig.)

  5. Techno-economic analysis of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solantausta, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Technoeconomic Analysis Activity are: To promote development of thermochemical biomass conversion methods by carrying out selected site specific feasibility studies in participating countries. Both agricultural and woody biomasses will be converted either into electricity or boiler fuels. To compare advanced technologies to commercial alternatives based on techno-economic basis to establish future development needs. To facilitate information exchange between participants on relevant basic process issues. Five countries (Finland, Canada, USA, Norway, Austria) are participating to the Activity. Initially two feasibility studies are planned for each country. Each study has three common elements: site specific, technical, and economic data. The site specific cases are described below in short. Products in the cases are electricity, heat and fuel oil. Total of two cases per country are planned

  6. IEA Bioenergy Task 40 country report for the Netherlands 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, C.S.; Junginger, H.M.; Jonker, J.G.G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This country report was written within the frame of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. In summary, the aims of this country report are: (1) To provide a concise overview of biomass policy, domestic resources, biomass users, biomass prices and biomass trade, and (2) To analyse bioenergy trends, and reasons for change in the Netherlands and point out barriers & opportunities for trade in detail, and Current biomass user (energy use) Table ES-1 shows the energy use of biomass in the Netherlands in 2010. The...

  7. Policies to Enable Bioenergy Deployment: Key Considerations and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolinksi, Sharon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Bioenergy is renewable energy generated from biological source materials, and includes electricity, transportation fuels and heating. Source materials are varied types of biomass, including food crops such as corn and sugarcane, non-edible lignocellulosic materials such as agricultural and forestry waste and dedicated crops, and municipal and livestock wastes. Key aspects of policies for bioenergy deployment are presented in this brief as part of the Clean Energy Solutions Center's Clean Energy Policy Brief Series.

  8. Bioenergy in Germany. Facts and figures. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-11

    The brochure under consideration gives statistical information about the bioenergy in Germany: Renewable energies (bioenergy) and solid fuels. For example, the structure of the primary energy consumption in the year 2010, the energy supply from renewables, gross electricity generation, the total sales of renewables, growth in number of installed pellet boilers, wood fuel equivalent prices by energy value or biofuels in comparison with heating oil are presented.

  9. Securing a bioenergy future without imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfle, Andrew; Gilbert, Paul; Thornley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The UK has legally binding renewable energy and greenhouse gas targets. Energy from biomass is anticipated to make major contributions to these. However there are concerns about the availability and sustainability of biomass for the bioenergy sector. A Biomass Resource Model has been developed that reflects the key biomass supply-chain dynamics and interactions determining resource availability, taking into account climate, food, land and other constraints. The model has been applied to the UK, developing four biomass resource scenarios to analyse resource availability and energy generation potential within different contexts. The model shows that indigenous biomass resources and energy crops could service up to 44% of UK energy demand by 2050 without impacting food systems. The scenarios show, residues from agriculture, forestry and industry provide the most robust resource, potentially providing up to 6.5% of primary energy demand by 2050. Waste resources are found to potentially provide up to 15.4% and specifically grown biomass and energy crops up to 22% of demand. The UK is therefore projected to have significant indigenous biomass resources to meet its targets. However the dominant biomass resource opportunities identified in the paper are not consistent with current UK bioenergy strategies, risking biomass deficit despite resource abundance. - Highlights: • Biomass Resource Model and Scenarios reflect biomass supply-chain dynamics to 2050. • High potential availability of biomass and energy crops without food systems impacts. • UK Indigenous biomass resource could service up to 44% of UK energy demand by 2050. • Robust residue resource from ongoing activities and large potential waste resource. • Indigenous resource abundance and the UK’s path towards increased resource deficit

  10. Bioenergy in the national forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikurainen, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the national forestry programme is to develop the treatment, utilization and protection of forests in order to increase the employment level in the forestry sector as well as enhance the utilization of the forests for recreation purposes. Increment of the utilization of wood energy is one of the means for meeting the objective of the programme. In addition to the silvicultural reasons, one of the main reasons for increasing of the utilization of energy wood is the possibilities of energywood-related small and medium-sized entrepreneurship to employ people. The emission reduction requirements of the Kyoto summit offer also a reason for the increment of the utilization of wood energy, because the carbon dioxide emissions of biofuels are not included in the emission share of the country. The techno-economically viable unutilized wood energy potential of clearcuts has been estimated to 3.7 million m 3 and that of the integrated harvesting of first thinnings 2.3 million m 3 . On the basis of these figures the latest objective of the programme has been set to increase the energy wood harvesting and utilization to 5.0 million m 3 /a up to the year 2010. The main means listed in the programme are: Development of integrated harvesting methods, by which it is possible to produce energy wood economically (price less than 45 FIM/MWh) as a byproduct of commercial timber; The environmental support paid to the forest chips purchasers; Bioenergy capacity developed in the forest industry; Social support for product development and entrepreneurhip in the field of bioenergy; Reduction of the value added taxes of the end users of split firewood and wood briquettes

  11. On Farm Agronomic and First Environmental Evaluation of Oil Crops for Sustainable Bioenergy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lazzeri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy crops, and in particular oil crops, could be an important occasion for developing new non food production rows for a new multi-functional agriculture in Italy. In this view, the use of local biomass is a fundamental starting point for the development of a virtuous energy chain that should pursue not only agricultural profitability, but also chain sustainability and that is less dependent on the global market, characterized by instability in terms of biomass availability and price. From this perspective, particular attention must be paid to crop choice on the basis of its rusticity and of its adaptability to local growing conditions and to low input cropping systems. In this context, alike woody and herbaceous biomasses, oil crops such as sunflower and rapeseed should be able to support local agricultural bioenergy chain in Italy. In addition, in a local bioenergy chain, the role of the farmers should not be limited just to grain production; but also grain processing should be performed at farm or consortium level in oilseed extraction plants well proportioned to the cropped surface. In this way, by means of a simple power generator, farmer could thus produce its own thermal and electric energy from the oil, maximizing his profit. This objective could also be achieved through the exploitation of the total biomass, including crop residues and defatted seed meals, that may be considered as fundamental additional economic and/or environmental benefits of the chain. This paper reports some results of three-years on-farm experiments on oil crop chain carried out in the framework of “Bioenergie” project, that was focused to enhance farmers awareness of these criteria and to the feasibility at open field scale of low-input cultivation of rapeseed, sunflower and Brassica carinata in seven Italian regions. In several on-farm experiences, these crops produced more than 800 kg ha-1 of oil with good energy properties. Defatted seed meals could be

  12. On Farm Agronomic and First Environmental Evaluation of Oil Crops for Sustainable Bioenergy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lazzeri

    Full Text Available Energy crops, and in particular oil crops, could be an important occasion for developing new non food production rows for a new multi-functional agriculture in Italy. In this view, the use of local biomass is a fundamental starting point for the development of a virtuous energy chain that should pursue not only agricultural profitability, but also chain sustainability and that is less dependent on the global market, characterized by instability in terms of biomass availability and price. From this perspective, particular attention must be paid to crop choice on the basis of its rusticity and of its adaptability to local growing conditions and to low input cropping systems. In this context, alike woody and herbaceous biomasses, oil crops such as sunflower and rapeseed should be able to support local agricultural bioenergy chain in Italy. In addition, in a local bioenergy chain, the role of the farmers should not be limited just to grain production; but also grain processing should be performed at farm or consortium level in oilseed extraction plants well proportioned to the cropped surface. In this way, by means of a simple power generator, farmer could thus produce its own thermal and electric energy from the oil, maximizing his profit. This objective could also be achieved through the exploitation of the total biomass, including crop residues and defatted seed meals, that may be considered as fundamental additional economic and/or environmental benefits of the chain. This paper reports some results of three-years on-farm experiments on oil crop chain carried out in the framework of “Bioenergie” project, that was focused to enhance farmers awareness of these criteria and to the feasibility at open field scale of low-input cultivation of rapeseed, sunflower and Brassica carinata in seven Italian regions. In several on-farm experiences, these crops produced more than 800 kg ha-1 of oil with good energy properties. Defatted seed meals could be

  13. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  14. LCA Study of Oleaginous Bioenergy Chains in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cocco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports outcomes of life cycle assessments (LCAs of three different oleaginous bioenergy chains (oilseed rape, Ethiopian mustard and cardoon under Southern Europe conditions. Accurate data on field practices previously collected during a three-year study at two sites were used. The vegetable oil produced by oleaginous seeds was used for power generation in medium-speed diesel engines while the crop residues were used in steam power plants. For each bioenergy chain, the environmental impact related to cultivation, transportation of agricultural products and industrial conversion for power generation was evaluated by calculating cumulative energy demand, acidification potential and global warming potential. For all three bioenergy chains, the results of the LCA study show a considerable saving of primary energy (from 70 to 86 GJ·ha−1 and greenhouse gas emissions (from 4.1 to 5.2 t CO2·ha−1 in comparison to power generation from fossil fuels, although the acidification potential of these bioenergy chains may be twice that of conventional power generation. In addition, the study highlights that land use changes due to the cultivation of the abovementioned crops reduce soil organic content and therefore worsen and increase greenhouse gas emissions for all three bioenergy chains. The study also demonstrates that the exploitation of crop residues for energy production greatly contributes to managing environmental impact of the three bioenergy chains.

  15. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott Campbell, J; Zumkehr, Andrew; Lobell, David B; Genova, Robert C; Field, Christopher B

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability. (letter)

  16. Future bio-energy potential under various natural constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Vliet, Jasper van; Stehfest, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Potentials for bio-energy have been estimated earlier on the basis of estimates of potentially available land, excluding certain types of land use or land cover (land required for food production and forests). In this paper, we explore how such estimates may be influenced by other factors such as land degradation, water scarcity and biodiversity concerns. Our analysis indicates that of the original bio-energy potential estimate of 150, 80 EJ occurs in areas classified as from mild to severe land degradation, water stress, or with high biodiversity value. Yield estimates were also found to have a significant impact on potential estimates. A further 12.5% increase in global yields would lead to an increase in bio-energy potential of about 50%. Changes in bio-energy potential are shown to have a direct impact on bio-energy use in the energy model TIMER, although the relevant factor is the bio-energy potential at different cost levels and not the overall potential.

  17. Barriers to and drivers for UK bioenergy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, P.W.; Mezzullo, W.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Design, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Hammond, G.P.; McManus, M.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Design, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Institute for Sustainable Energy and Environment (I.SEE), University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Barriers to UK bioenergy development arise from a number of technical, financial, social and other constraints. Likewise, the drivers for using bioenergy are numerous and diverse. A range of these barriers and drivers have been identified through a comprehensive literature and case study review, and then assessed through an online questionnaire, completed by stakeholders from across the UK bioenergy industry: farmers/suppliers, developers/owners of bioenergy projects, primary end-users, and government/policy stakeholders. The results are presented in the form of 'spider web' diagrams. The most critical barriers and drivers relate to economic factors of bioenergy projects. Farmers/suppliers and developers are influenced by production costs and benefits, whilst primary end-users of bioenergy are concerned mainly with the cost of purchasing energy resources. Common drivers for all stakeholders were found to be reducing carbon emissions and the dependency on fossil fuels. In order to satisfy the needs of stakeholders schemes must be both economically attractive and environmentally sustainable for projects to be successful. (author)

  18. Bioenergy in Greece: Policies, diffusion framework and stakeholder interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoutsou, Calliope

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides a high-level scene setting analysis to understand the policy context in which the diffusion of bioenergy takes place in Greece and analysis of the perceptions of the key stakeholders at local and national levels. It is divided into six sections. Firstly the framework conditions for biomass heat and electricity generation in Greece are presented. In the second section, the policy context is set in order to identify the key support mechanisms for bioenergy in the country. The third section presents an outline of the diffusion of bioenergy in terms of key groups involved as well as key factors affecting the planning and implementation of a bioenergy scheme at local/regional and national levels. The fourth section reviews the perception of key stakeholders towards bioenergy/biofuels schemes at national level based on national networks. The fifth section focuses on a case study region (Rodopi, northern Greece) and provides an in-depth analysis for the perception of the main local actors (farmers and end users) based on structured questionnaire interviews. The final section provides the main conclusions from the surveys and draws a set of recommendations for the integration of bioenergy schemes into the Greek energy system

  19. Bioenergy systems sustainability assessment & management (BIOSSAM) guidance portal for policy, decision and development support of integrated bioenergy supply interventions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, WHL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available . There are several new bioenergy interventions (policies, projects, or programmes) that are being considered and these developments must be assessed in terms of their sustainability. Both public and private sector policy makers, decision makers, and technology...

  20. Bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark - competition between food, bioenergy and fossil fuels under physical and environmental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callesen, I.; OEstergaard, H. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Biosystems Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Grohnheit, P.E. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Systems Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    Globally, bioenergy is emphasized as an important contributor to reach strategic goals of energy security. The commodity markets for energy, bioenergy and food are interdependent and interacting through the energy dependency of agriculture, an increasing demand for both food and energy, and the option to replace fossil energy resources with bioenergy resources. A model for supply of biomass for bioenergy in Denmark was developed using linear programming. The model includes biomass supply from annual crops on arable land, short rotation forestry (willow) and plantation forestry, and minimizes production costs of an energy mix consisting of bioenergy and fossil diesel oil. Here, we analyze the possibilities of substituting domestic bioenergy for fossil energy under the constraint of a given food supply and environmental constraints on land use. Crop area distributions of a total area of 3200 kha were simulated in two sets of scenarios, each examining a range of fossil oil prices. Both scenarios were based on cost and production data of the year 2005. Scenario (a) required a total food and feed energy yield similar to that produced in the year 2005; scenario (b) addressed high prioritization of dedicated bioenergy crops. This was secured by relaxing the food and feed supply to 50% of the 2005 production level. Further, a maximum limit of 25% cultivation area with willow in short rotation was set, and the area reserved for permanent grassland was set to 275 kha (+100 kha compared to 2005). The trade-based animal husbandry sector was excluded from the analysis and the forest area was fixed to 600 kha. The crop area distributions were affected by fossil oil prices varying from oil index 25 to 200. Oil index 100approx9.4 Euro GJ-1 corresponded with a crude oil price of 55$ per barrel in 2005. The woody biofuels, especially high-yielding willow in short rotation, were competitive with fossil oil from around oil index 40 and occupied the maximum allowed area in all crop

  1. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1995, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 14 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1995 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry as at power plants than it is possible at present appliances. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel-oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. The main aim of the research in bioenergy utilization is to create the technological potential for increasing the bioenergy use. The aim is further defined as to get into commercial phase 3-4 new techniques or methods and to start several demonstrations, which will have 0.2-0.3 million toe bioenergy utilization potential

  2. Response of herbaceous plant community diversity and composition to overstorey harvest within riparian management zones in Northern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Zenner; Michelle A. Martin; Brian J. Palik; Jerilynn E. Peck; Charles R. Blinn

    2013-01-01

    Partial timber harvest within riparian management zones (RMZs) may permit active management of riparian forests while protecting stream ecosystems, but impacts on herbaceous communities are poorly understood. We compared herbaceous plant community abundance, diversity and composition in RMZs along small streams in northern Minnesota, USA, among four treatments before...

  3. Defoliation effects of perennial grasses – continuing confusion | DL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although an adequate knowledge of growth patterns and defoliation effects in perennial grasses is a prerequisite for the rational use of veld and pastures for animal production, our knowledge of this subject is far from adequate. The results of various physiological and clipping studies on tropical and sub-tropical grasses are ...

  4. Rhetorical Transcendence Revisited: The "Thin Red Line" as Perennial Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Scott R.

    Fifteen years ago, J. H. Rushing published a seminal article addressing the fragmentation within contemporary society and the ways in which myths (films) may address this exigence. The exigence of fragmentation is relieved, according to her analysis, by mediated recourse to the perennial philosophy of monistic holism that is found across the…

  5. The occurrence of large branchiopod crustaceans in perennial pans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pans are isolated, shallow depressions that are endorheic in nature. Because of the natural hydrological functioning of pans, these systems are usually restricted to arid regions and complete desiccation occurs seasonally. In the eastern provinces of South Africa many pans are perennial in nature often remaining inundated ...

  6. Transgenic perennial biofuel feedstocks and strategies for bioconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of transgenic tools for the improvement of plant feedstocks will be required to realize the full economic and environmental benefits of cellulosic and other biofuels, particularly from perennial plants. Traits that are targets for improvement of biofuels crops include he...

  7. Ionomics: Genes and QTLs controlling heavy metal uptake in perennial grasses grown on phytoxic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses occupy diverse soils throughout the world, including many sites contaminated with heavy metals. Uncovering the genetic architecture of QTLs controlling mineral homoeostasis is critical for understanding the biochemical pathways that determine the elemental profiles of perennial pl...

  8. Estimated Perennial Streams of Idaho and Related Geospatial Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    The perennial or intermittent status of a stream has bearing on many regulatory requirements. Because of changing technologies over time, cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not always accurate and (or) consistent from one map sheet to another. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 cubic feet per second. To establish consistency with the Idaho Administrative Code, the USGS developed regional regression equations for Idaho streams for several low-flow statistics, including 7Q2. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams anywhere in Idaho to help determine perennial/intermittent status of streams. Using these equations in conjunction with a Geographic Information System (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along a stream, which in turn can be used to determine if a stream is intermittent or perennial according to the Idaho Administrative Code operational definition. The selected regression equations were applied to create continuous grids of 7Q2 estimates for the eight low-flow regression regions of Idaho. By applying the 0.1 ft3/s criterion, the perennial streams have been estimated in each low-flow region. Uncertainty in the estimates is shown by identifying a 'transitional' zone, corresponding to flow estimates of 0.1 ft3/s plus and minus one standard error. Considerable additional uncertainty exists in the model of perennial streams presented in this report. The regression models provide overall estimates based on general trends within each regression region. These models do not include local factors such as a large spring or a losing reach that may greatly affect flows at any given point. Site-specific flow data, assuming a sufficient period of

  9. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1997. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikku, P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the research programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy, by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The total funding for 1997 was 33.5 million FIM, and the number of projects 62. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 17 and biomass conversion 4. Results from the projects that were going on in 1997 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate at least 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2-0.3 million toe per year till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small scale combustion concepts, but the large scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seem to be a very challenging goal. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of the use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of the biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilization of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe per year by 2005 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of the storage stability of imported wood oils and their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  10. Market survey Slovak Republic. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  11. Market survey Slovakia. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  12. Current and future competitiveness of bioenergy - Conceptions about competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, E.; Lundgren, K.; Maartensson, Kjell

    1998-01-01

    It is important to visualize the conceptions that guide the behaviour of the actors within the energy system to be able to, in an efficient manner, increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. A major issue is to elucidate explicit and implicit presumptions within judgements on the competitiveness of bioenergy. This study focuses on how conceptions of bioenergy in the form of patterns of thinking, influence whether bioenergy can become competitive. The aim of the study is to develop a framework that will enable an increased understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy today and in the future. The conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold are studied and analysed. The conceptions of the actors are seen as key factors for the understanding of the function of the energy system and accordingly also for the understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The over-all method perspective in the study is an actor approach. The actors' conceptions have been identified from interviews with 30 significant actors within the energy system. The material from the interviews has been synthesised into nine ideal types of actors. These nine 'model actors' are seen as representing the whole material and form the basis for the further analysis of the competitiveness of bioenergy as depending on patterns of thinking called logics. Three idealized logics are developed. The three logics developed in the study are production logic, market logic and socio-economic logic. (Upholders of the logics rank energy sources after production cost, profitability, and socio-economic legitimacy, respectively.) The logics co-exist within the different parts of the energy system. A single person can even uphold more than one logic. The three logics have however different weight in different organisations and in different parts of the energy system. Finally, the study proposes an enlarged description of the competitiveness of bioenergy in three dimensions: price

  13. BioEnergy transport systems. Life cycle assessment of selected bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Goeran

    1999-07-01

    Biomass for energy conversion is usually considered as a local resource. With appropriate logistic systems, access to biomass can be improved over a large geographical area. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as method to investigate the environmental impacts of selected bioenergy transport chains. As a case study, chains starting in Sweden and ending in Holland have been investigated. Biomass originates from tree sections or forest residues, the latter upgraded to bales or pellets. The study is concentrated on production of electricity, hot cooling water is considered as a loss. Electricity is, as the main case, produced from solid biomass in the importing country. Electricity can also be produced in the country of origin and exported via the trans-national grid as transportation media. As an alternative, a comparison is made with a coal cycle. The results show that contribution of emissions from long-range transportation is of minor importance. The use of fuels and electricity for operating machines and transportation carriers requires a net energy input in bioenergy systems which amounts to typically 7-9% of delivered electrical energy from the system. Emissions of key substances such as NO{sub x}, CO, S, hydrocarbons, and particles are low. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from biocombustion are considered to be zero since there is approximately no net contribution of carbon to the biosphere in an energy system based on biomass. A method to quantify non-renewability is presented. For coal, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be 110%. For most of the cases with bioenergy, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be between 6 and 11%. Reclamation of biomass results in certain losses of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and base cations such as K, Ca and Mg. These are balanced by weathering, vitalisation or ash recirculation procedures. Withdrawal of N from the ecological system is approximately 10 times the load from the technical

  14. Herbaceous plants as filters: Immobilization of particulates along urban street corridors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo; Säumel, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is considered to be the most serious threat to human health. Plants provide ecosystem services in urban areas, including reducing levels of PM by providing a surface for deposition and immobilization. While previous studies have mostly addressed woody species, we focus on herbaceous roadside vegetation and assess the role of species traits such as leaf surface roughness or hairiness for the immobilization of PM. We found that PM deposition patterns on plant surfaces reflect site-specific traffic densities and that strong differences in particulate deposition are present among species. The amount of immobilized PM differed according to particle type and size and was related to specific plant species traits. Our study suggests that herbaceous vegetation immobilizes a significant amount of the air pollutants relevant to human health and that increasing biodiversity of roadside vegetation supports air filtration and thus healthier conditions along street corridors. -- Highlights: • We assessed PM immobilization by common urban herbaceous roadside species. • PM deposition was related to traffic density and plant species traits. • Amount of PM deposited differed according to particle type and size. • Increasing biodiversity of roadside vegetation supports air filtration. -- Herbaceous urban roadside vegetation immobilizes particulate matter relevant to human health, thus supporting healthier conditions next to busy roads

  15. DIATOMS AS INDICATORS OF ISOLATED HERBACEOUS WETLAND CONDITION IN FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic, epiphytic, and phytoplanktonic diatoms, as well as soil and water physical-chemical parameters, were sampled from 70 small (~1 ha) isolated depressional herbaceous wetlands located along a gradient of human disturbance in peninsular Florida to: 1) compare assemblage str...

  16. Herbaceous vegetation in thinned and defoliated forest stands in north central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. L. C. Fosbroke; D. Feicht; R. M. Muzika

    1995-01-01

    Herbaceous vegetation was inventoried in 1992 and 1993 in eight Appalachian mixed hardwood stands ( 50% basal area/acre in oak species) in north central West Virginia. Vegetation was sampled on 20 6-foot radius plots per stand twice each growing season (once during late spring to sample spring ephemeral...

  17. Facilitation between woody and herbaceous plants that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in temperate European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresoglou, Stavros D; Wulf, Monika; Rillig, Matthias C

    2017-02-01

    In late-successional environments, low in available nutrient such as the forest understory, herbaceous plant individuals depend strongly on their mycorrhizal associates for survival. We tested whether in temperate European forests arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) woody plants might facilitate the establishment of AM herbaceous plants in agreement with the mycorrhizal mediation hypothesis. We used a dataset spanning over 400 vegetation plots in the Weser-Elbe region (northwest Germany). Mycorrhizal status information was obtained from published resources, and Ellenberg indicator values were used to infer environmental data. We carried out tests for both relative richness and relative abundance of herbaceous plants. We found that the subset of herbaceous individuals that associated with AM profited when there was a high cover of AM woody plants. These relationships were retained when we accounted for environmental filtering effects using path analysis. Our findings build on the existing literature highlighting the prominent role of mycorrhiza as a coexistence mechanism in plant communities. From a nature conservation point of view, it may be possible to promote functional diversity in the forest understory through introducing AM woody trees in stands when absent.

  18. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Firn; J.L. Moore; A.S. MacDougall; E.T. Borer; E.W. Seabloom; J. HilleRisLambers; S. Harpole; E.E. Cleland; C.S. Brown; J.M.H. Knops; S.M. Prober; D.A. Pyke; K.A. Farrell; J.D. Bakker; L.R. O’Halloran; P.B. Adler; S.L. Collins; C.M. D’Antonio; M.J. Crawley; E.M. Wolkovich; K.J. La Pierre; B.A. Melbourne; Y. Hautier; J.W. Morgan; A.D.B. Leakey; A.D. Kay; R.L. McCulley; K.F. Davies; C.J. Stevens; C.J. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at...

  19. Evaluating subsoiling and herbaceous weed control on shortleaf pine planted in retired farm land

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Kushla

    2010-01-01

    In March 2005, shortleaf pine was planted on retired fields of the Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station in Holly Springs. The objectives were to evaluate subsoiling and herbaceous weed control on first year seedling stocking, survival, and size. First year seedling measurements were made on stocking, survival, and size. Only results for first year...

  20. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  1. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  2. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  3. Better Use of Biomass for Energy. Position Paper of IEA RETD and IEA Bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, U.R.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2009-12-01

    Key findings are presented from a joint project on 'Better Use of Biomass for Energy' which identifies opportunities of bioenergy for better greenhouse-gas reduction, and of climate policies for better bioenergy development.

  4. Perspective: The social science of sustainable bioenergy production in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The social sciences have made considerable inroads into exploring the politics of environment, land and resources throughout Southeast Asia, yet the social and political character of bioenergy development remains little understood. Current assumptions that bioenergy provides benefits to rural

  5. Eleventh-year response of loblolly pine and competing vegetation to woody and herbaceous plant control on a Georgia flatwoods site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Zutter; James H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Through 11 growing seasons, growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) increased after control of herbaceous, woody, or both herbaceous and woody vegetation (total control) for the first 3 years after planting on a bedded site in the Georgia coastal flatwoods. Gains in stand volume index from controlling either herbaceous or woody vegetation alone were approximately two-...

  6. Herbaceous land plants as a renewable energy source for Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    Herbaceous tropical plants are a renewable energy source of major importance to many tropical nations. They convert the radiant energy of sunlight to chemical energy, which is stored in plant tissues (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) and fermentable solids (sugars, starches). Because all tropical plants do this - even those commonly regarded as weeds - they constitute an inexpensive, renewable, and domestic alternative to foreign fossil energy. The vast majority of herbaceous tropical plants have never been cultivated for food, fiber, or energy. A major screening program would be needed to identify superior species and the most effective roles they can play in a domestic energy industry. Other herbaceous plants, such as sugarcane and tropical forage grasses, have been cultivated for centuries as agricultural commodities. As energy crops, important revisions in management will be needed to maximize their energy yield. Two broad groups of herbaceous plants are seen to have an immediate potential for reducing Puerto Rico's reliance on imported fossil fuels: the tropical grasses (of which sugarcane is the dominant member) and the tropical legumes. Managed for its maximum growth potential, sugarcane is an excellent source of boiler fuel, fermentation substrates, cellulosic feedstocks, and the sweetener sucrose. Other tropical grasses store relatively little extractable sugar while equaling or moderately surpassing sugarcane in yield of cellulosic dry matter. The latter might soon become an economical source of fermentation substrates. Certain legume species are also very effective producers of biomass. Herbaceous tropical legumes are perceived as a potential source of biological nitrogen for energy crops unable to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere.

  7. Herbaceous land plants as a renewable energy source for Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A G

    1980-01-01

    Herbaceous tropical plants are a renewable energy source of major importance to many tropical nations. They convert the radiant energy of sunlight to chemical energy, which is stored in plant tissues (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) and fermentable solids (sugars, starches). Because all tropical plants do this - even those commonly regarded as weeds - they constitute an inexpensive, renewable, and domestic alternative to foreign fossil energy. The vast majority of herbaceous tropical plants have never been cultivated for food, fiber, or energy. A major screening program would be needed to identify superior species and the most effective roles they can play in a domestic energy industry. Other herbaceous plants, such as sugarcane and tropical forage grasses, have been cultivated for centuries as agricultural commodities. As energy crops, important revisions in management will be needed to maximize their energy yield. Two broad groups of herbaceous plants are seen to have an immediate potential for reducing Puerto Rico's reliance on imported fossil fuels: the tropical grasses (of which sugarcane is the dominant member) and the tropical legumes. Managed for its maximum growth potential, sugarcane is an excellent source of boiler fuel, fermentation substrates, cellulosic feedstocks, and the sweetener sucrose. Other tropical grasses store relatively little extractable sugar while equaling or moderately surpassing sugarcane in yield of cellulosic dry matter. The latter might soon become an economical source of fermentation substrates. Certain legume species are also very effective producers of biomass. Herbaceous tropical legumes are perceived as a potential source of biological nitrogen for energy crops unable to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere.

  8. Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Pisarek, Marcin; Buriak, Jerzy; Oniszk-Poplawska, Anna; Bucko, Pawel; Ericsson, Karin; Jaworski, Lukasz

    2006-01-01

    Poland, as many other countries, has ambitions to increase the use of renewable energy sources. In this paper, we review the current status of bioenergy in Poland and make a critical assessment of the prospects for increasing the share of bioenergy in energy supply, including policy implications. Bioenergy use was about 4% (165 PJ) of primary energy use (3900 PJ) and 95% of renewable energy use (174 PJ) in 2003, mainly as firewood in the domestic sector. Targets have been set to increase the contribution of renewable energy to 7.5% in 2010, in accordance with the EU accession treaty, and to 14% in 2020. Bioenergy is expected to be the main contributor to reaching those targets. From a resource perspective, the use of bioenergy could at least double in the near term if straw, forestry residues, wood-waste, energy crops, biogas, and used wood were used for energy purposes. The long-term potential, assuming short rotation forestry on potentially available agricultural land is about one-third, or 1400 PJ, of current total primary energy use. However, in the near term, Poland is lacking fundamental driving forces for increasing the use of bioenergy (e.g., for meeting demand increases, improving supply security, or further reducing sulphur or greenhouse gas emissions). There is yet no coherent policy or strategy for supporting bioenergy. Co-firing with coal in large plants is an interesting option for creating demand and facilitating the development of a market for bioenergy. The renewable electricity quota obligation is likely to promote such co-firing but promising applications of bioenergy are also found in small- and medium-scale applications for heat production. Carbon taxes and, or, other financial support schemes targeted also at the heating sector are necessary in the near term in order to reach the 7.5% target. In addition, there is a need to support the development of supply infrastructure, change certain practices in forestry, coordinate RD and D efforts, and

  9. The market for bioenergy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1997-01-01

    Conference paper. The demand for energy in Europe at present amounts to 16 PWh. Of this, 50% is needed for heating, 27% for transportation, 23% for light, communication and power. The European Commission in 1996 proposed that the share of renewables should be doubled to 12% by 2010. It is calculated that 3/4 of the supply of renewables must be supplied by biomass. A comprehensive energy crop programme is needed to guarantee the supply. According to calculations, 77% of the bioenergy supply will be used to deliver heat. For small heating installations financial support is necessary to overcome the investment costs. It is recommended that biomass based district heating grids should be subsidized by a joint programme of the Commission and the national governments. For industrial users little or no subsidies are required. It is suggested that the members of the EU should submit to the commission regional heat concepts, ''heat from biomass'', of a certain specified content. The necessary investment should come from private investors, from public money and from the EU. Green electricity is a way to promote renewable energy resources. As a realistic target for electricity from biomass within 12 years, 80 TWh is proposed. The production of raw materials for the energy sector on set-aside land is unsuccessful because of the changing set-aside rate. Some remedial actions are proposed

  10. Improving Bioenergy Crops through Dynamic Metabolic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Faraji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enormous advances in genetics and metabolic engineering have made it possible, in principle, to create new plants and crops with improved yield through targeted molecular alterations. However, while the potential is beyond doubt, the actual implementation of envisioned new strains is often difficult, due to the diverse and complex nature of plants. Indeed, the intrinsic complexity of plants makes intuitive predictions difficult and often unreliable. The hope for overcoming this challenge is that methods of data mining and computational systems biology may become powerful enough that they could serve as beneficial tools for guiding future experimentation. In the first part of this article, we review the complexities of plants, as well as some of the mathematical and computational methods that have been used in the recent past to deepen our understanding of crops and their potential yield improvements. In the second part, we present a specific case study that indicates how robust models may be employed for crop improvements. This case study focuses on the biosynthesis of lignin in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. Switchgrass is considered one of the most promising candidates for the second generation of bioenergy production, which does not use edible plant parts. Lignin is important in this context, because it impedes the use of cellulose in such inedible plant materials. The dynamic model offers a platform for investigating the pathway behavior in transgenic lines. In particular, it allows predictions of lignin content and composition in numerous genetic perturbation scenarios.

  11. Pellets - the advance of refined bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstroem, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This conference paper discusses the role of pellets in the use of bioenergy in Sweden. Pellets (P) have many advantages: (1) P are dry and can be stored, (2) P create local jobs, (3) P burn without seriously polluting the environment, (4) P are made from domestic and renewable resources, (5) P have high energy density, (6) P fit well in an energy system adapted to nature, (6) P are an economical alternative, both on a small scale and on a large scale. Pellets are more laborious to use than oil or electricity and require about three times as much storage space as oil. The Swedish pellets manufacturers per 1997 are listed. Locally pellets are most conveniently transported as bulk cargo and delivered to a silo by means of pressurized air. Long-distance transport use train or ship. At present, pellets are most often used in large or medium-sized heat plants, but equipment exists for use from private houses and up to the size of MW. Pellets may become the most important alternative to the fossil fuels which along with electricity today are dominating the small scale market. 1 fig., 1 table

  12. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  13. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  14. Governance of the emerging bio-energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdonk, M.; Dieperink, C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Despite its promising prospects, a growing global bio-energy market may have sustainability risks as well. Governing this market with respect to installing safeguards to ensure sustainable biomass production might reduce these risks. Therefore, proposals for governance systems for bio-energy are discussed in this article. The proposals are based on comparative case study research on the governance of comparable commodities. By assessing the governance system of global coffee trade, fair trade coffee, the global and the EU sugar market and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) wood, strong and weak points of governance systems for commodities are discerned. FSC is selected as the best performing case study and serves as the proposal's basis. FSC's weaknesses are minimized by, among others, using the lessons learned from the other case studies. This results in a system consisting of two pillars, a bio-energy labelling organization (BLO) and a United Nations Agreement on Bio-energy (UNAB). Although consulted experts in the research process are critical about this system they do suggest several conditions a governance system for bio-energy should meet in order to be effective, such as a facilitative government, professional monitoring and using progressive certification combined with price premiums. These conditions have been taken into account in the final proposal. (author)

  15. The current situation in the bioenergy sector in South Ostrobothnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauhanen, R.; Humalamaeki, H.

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006, a research project was launched about bioenergy production and use that serves the South Ostrobothnia Target 2 area. The project is funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the South Ostrobothnia Employment and Economic Centre and Sein j oki University of Applied Sciences. A meeting of experts was held in Aehtaeri during April 2006 to establish the views on the problems, bottlenecks and research needs of the bioenergy sector. The bioenergy trade was seen as regional opportunity and strength. Its domestic content, effect on employment and the regional economy plus the plentiful raw material sources of forests, fields and bogs were identified. Like-wise, the competing position between bioenergy and other forms of energy became evident. Forest owners emphasised the weakness of low energy wood prices and the risks of forest soil nutrient losses. The forest industry was concerned about a foreseen shortage of machine operators. Forest owners, municipalities, researchers and Forest Centre raised the short-sightedness of state subsidy policy. The Forest Centre also brought up the issue of operators who only seek fast profits in a fast growing trade. The issue of emissions trade benefits ending up outside the forest sector was also considered a problem. The core research needs identified were collating fragmented research in-formation for the use of operators in the Target area, mapping the bioenergy potential of the region, logistical calculations and energy wood measurement

  16. Governance of the emerging bio-energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M. [Department of Water and Energy, Grontmij Nederland BV, P.O. Box 203, 3730 AE, De Bilt (Netherlands); Dieperink, C. [Department of Innovation and Environmental Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands); Faaij, A.P.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    Despite its promising prospects, a growing global bio-energy market may have sustainability risks as well. Governing this market with respect to installing safeguards to ensure sustainable biomass production might reduce these risks. Therefore, proposals for governance systems for bio-energy are discussed in this article. The proposals are based on comparative case study research on the governance of comparable commodities. By assessing the governance system of global coffee trade, fair trade coffee, the global and the EU sugar market and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) wood, strong and weak points of governance systems for commodities are discerned. FSC is selected as the best performing case study and serves as the proposal's basis. FSC's weaknesses are minimized by, among others, using the lessons learned from the other case studies. This results in a system consisting of two pillars, a bio-energy labelling organization (BLO) and a United Nations Agreement on Bio-energy (UNAB). Although consulted experts in the research process are critical about this system they do suggest several conditions a governance system for bio-energy should meet in order to be effective, such as a facilitative government, professional monitoring and using progressive certification combined with price premiums. These conditions have been taken into account in the final proposal. (author)

  17. 76 FR 64839 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... sugar to ethanol and other bioenergy production. Surplus Determination As required by the 2008... with selling sugar for ethanol, if FFP is activated, are significantly lower than if sales could be... eligible sugar buyer, the bioenergy producer must produce bioenergy products, including fuel grade ethanol...

  18. Small-scale bioenergy alternatives for industry, farm, and institutions: A user's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folk, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases

  19. Overcoming barriers to increased bio-energy use. Suggestions for a high impact policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanakya, H.N.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    A few options that are likely to result in a high impact policy towards ensuring increased use of bio-energy in the developing world are discussed. Such options are: Moving towards greater energy security /guarantee, bio-energy technology transfer platforms, documentation in bio-energy businesses, removing risk perceptions in financing, increasing private entrepreneur stakes, etc. (K.A.)

  20. Residues of bioenergy production chains as soil amendments: Immediate and temporal phytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gell, K.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Cayuela, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The current shift towards bioenergy production increases streams of bioenergy rest-products (RPs), which are likely to end-up as soil amendments. However, their impact on soil remains unclear. In this study we evaluated crop phytotoxicity of 15 RPs from common bioenergy chains (biogas, biodiesel,

  1. Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folk, Richard [ed.] [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Forest Products

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  2. Optimization of bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Østergård, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    A cost minimization model for supply of starch, oil, sugar, grassy and woody biomass for bioenergy in Denmark was developed using linear programming. The model includes biomass supply from annual crops on arable land, short rotation forestry (willow) and plantation forestry. Crop area distributions...... and feed production, or e) on site carbon sequestration. In addition, two oil price levels were considered. The crop area distributions differed between scenarios and were affected by changing fossil oil prices up to index 300 (using 55$ per barrel in 2005 as index = 100). The bioenergy supply (district...... heating, electric power, biogas, RME or bioethanol) varied between 56 PJ in the “2005” scenario at oil index 100 and 158 PJ at oil index 300 in the groundwater scenario. Our simple model demonstrates the effect of prioritizing multiple uses of land resources for food, feed or bioenergy, while maintaining...

  3. 10. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 10. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2016-08-01

    Biomass energy not only contributes to the energy transition, but also for climate and resource protection. The main topics of the conference are: Alternative solid bioenergy sources; Optimizing the use of heat; Prospects for biofuels; Emission reduction through use of biofuels; Alternative biomass for biogas; Optimization and adjustment in the biogas sector; Flexibility of biogas plants; New uses of bioenergy. 12 contributions were recorded separately for the INIS database. [German] Energie aus Biomasse traegt nicht nur zur Energiewende bei, sondern auch zum Klima- und Ressourcenschutz. Die Schwerpunktthemen der Konferenz sind: Alternative feste Bioenergietraeger; Optimierung der Waermenutzung; Perspektiven fuer Biokraftstoffe; Emissionsminderung durch Biokraftstoffnutzung; Alternative Biomassen fuer Biogas; Optimierung und Anpassung im Biogasbereich; Flexibilisierung von Biogasanlagen; Neue Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten der Bioenergie. Fuer die Datenbank INIS wurden 12 Beitraege separat aufgenommen.

  4. The Role of Bioenergy in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Biomass can play a dual role in greenhouse gas mitigation related to the objectives of the UNFCCC, i.e. as an energy source to substitute fossil fuels and as a carbon store. However, compared to the maintenance and enhancement of carbon sinks and reservoirs, it appears that the use of bioenergy has so far received less attenuation as a means of mitigating climate change. Modern bioenergy options offer significant, cost-effective and perpetual opportunities toward meeting emission reduction targets while providing additional ancillary benefits. Moreover, via the sustainable use of the accumulated carbon, bioenergy has the potential for resolving some of the critical issues surrounding long-term maintenance of biotic carbon stocks. < finally, wood products can act as substitutes for more energy-intensive products, can constitute carbon sinks, and can be used as biofuels at the end of their lifetime. (author)

  5. VOC emissions and carbon balance of two bioenergy plantations in response to nitrogen fertilization: A comparison of Miscanthus and Salix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Jarosch, Ann-Mareike; Gauder, Martin; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Grote, Rüdiger; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2018-06-01

    Energy crops are an important renewable source for energy production in future. To ensure high yields of crops, N fertilization is a common practice. However, knowledge on environmental impacts of bioenergy plantations, particularly in systems involving trees, and the effects of N fertilization is scarce. We studied the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which negatively affect the environment by contributing to tropospheric ozone and aerosols formation, from Miscanthus and willow plantations. Particularly, we aimed at quantifying the effect of N fertilization on VOC emission. For this purpose, we determined plant traits, photosynthetic gas exchange and VOC emission rates of the two systems as affected by N fertilization (0 and 80 kg ha -1 yr -1 ). Additionally, we used a modelling approach to simulate (i) the annual VOC emission rates as well as (ii) the OH . reactivity resulting from individual VOC emitted. Total VOC emissions from Salix was 1.5- and 2.5-fold higher compared to Miscanthus in non-fertilized and fertilized plantations, respectively. Isoprene was the dominating VOC in Salix (80-130 μg g -1 DW h -1 ), whereas it was negligible in Miscanthus. We identified twenty-eight VOC compounds, which were released by Miscanthus with the green leaf volatile hexanal as well as dimethyl benzene, dihydrofuranone, phenol, and decanal as the dominant volatiles. The pattern of VOC released from this species clearly differed to the pattern emitted by Salix. OH . reactivity from VOC released by Salix was ca. 8-times higher than that of Miscanthus. N fertilization enhanced stand level VOC emissions, mainly by promoting the leaf area index and only marginally by enhancing the basal emission capacity of leaves. Considering the higher productivity of fertilized Miscanthus compared to Salix together with the considerably lower OH . reactivity per weight unit of biomass produced, qualified the C 4 -perennial grass Miscanthus as a superior source of future

  6. Mapping the temporary and perennial character of whole river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferreras, A. M.; Barquín, J.

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of temporary and perennial river channels in a whole catchment is important for effective integrated basin management and river biodiversity conservation. However, this information is usually not available or is incomplete. In this study, we present a statistically based methodology to classify river segments from a whole river network (Deva-Cares catchment, Northern Spain) as temporary or perennial. This method is based on an a priori classification of a subset of river segments as temporary or perennial, using field surveys and aerial images, and then running Random Forest models to predict classification membership for the rest of the river network. The independent variables and the river network were derived following a computer-based geospatial simulation of riverine landscapes. The model results show high values of overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the evaluation of the fitted model to the training and testing data set (≥0.9). The most important independent variables were catchment area, area occupied by broadleaf forest, minimum monthly precipitation in August, and average catchment elevation. The final map shows 7525 temporary river segments (1012.5 km) and 3731 perennial river segments (662.5 km). A subsequent validation of the mapping results using River Habitat Survey data and expert knowledge supported the validity of the proposed maps. We conclude that the proposed methodology is a valid method for mapping the limits of flow permanence that could substantially increase our understanding of the spatial links between terrestrial and aquatic interfaces, improving the research, management, and conservation of river biodiversity and functioning.

  7. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    , North America or Brazil. For that reason, it is difficult to estimate bioenergy potentials in the African region. As a part of an on‐going research collaboration investigating production of 2g biofuels in Ghana, this study have analysed 13 common African agricultural residues: yam peelings, cassava...... peelings, cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB). This was done to establish detailed compositional mass balances, enabling estimations of accurate bioenergy...

  8. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, A.J.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  9. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, A.J.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group; Mitchell, C.P.; Watters, M.P. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Wood Supply Research Group; Stevens, D.J. [Cascade Research, Inc. (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  10. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, A J; Bridgwater, A V [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group; Mitchell, C P; Watters, M P [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Wood Supply Research Group; Stevens, D J [Cascade Research, Inc. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of Bioenergy Policies in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Gerald; Noe, Egon; Saggau, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter compares bioenergy policy developments in Germany and Denmark to better understand the responses of EU country policy regimes to global shocks; to examine potentially emerging new trends of productivist policy models; and to explore potential land use conflicts in the context...... of a multifunctional EU agricultural policy. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews the bioenergy policy development pathways taken by Germany and Denmark, highlighting key consequences for agricultural land use and rural development. Findings from both case studies are then compared in summary tables...

  12. Bioenergy. A sustainable and reliable energy source. A review of status and prospects. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauen, A.; Vuille, F.; Berndes, G.; Junginger, M.; Londo, M.

    2009-08-01

    This publication is the Executive Summary of a report prepared for IEA Bioenergy. The full report 'Bioenergy - a Sustainable and Reliable Energy Source' will be available on the website of IEA Bioenergy in digital form and in hard copy in a few months time. The purpose of the project was to produce an authoritative review of the entire bioenergy sector aimed at policy and investment decision makers. The brief to the contractors was to provide a global perspective of the potential for bioenergy, the main opportunities for deployment in the short and medium term and the principal issues and challenges facing the development of the sector.

  13. Bioenergy, the Carbon Cycle, and Carbon Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    The evolving energy and land-use policies across North America and Africa provide critical case studies in the relationship between regional development, the management of natural resources, and the carbon cycle. Over 50 EJ of the roughly 430 EJ total global anthropogenic energy budget is currently utilized in the form of direct biomass combustion. In North America 3 - 4 percent of total energy is derived from biomass, largely in combined heat and power (CHP) combustion applications. By contrast Africa, which is a major consumer of 'traditional' forms of biomass, uses far more total bioenergy products, but largely in smaller batches, with quantities of 0.5 - 2 tons/capita at the household level. Several African nations rely on biomass for well over 90 percent of household energy, and in some nations major portions of the industrial energy supply is also derived from biomass. In much of sub-Saharan Africa the direct combustion of biomass in rural areas is exceeded by the conversion of wood to charcoal for transport to the cities for household use there. There are major health, and environmental repercussions of these energy flows. The African, as well as Latin American and Asian charcoal trade has a noticeable signature on the global greenhouse gas cycles. In North America, and notably Scandinavia and India as well, biomass energy and emerging conversion technologies are being actively researched, and provide tremendous opportunities for the evolution of a sustainable, locally based, energy economy for many nations. This talk will examine aspects of these current energy and carbon flows, and the potential that gassification and new silvicultural practices hold for clean energy systems in the 21st century. North America and Africa will be examined in particular as both sources of innovation in this field, and areas with specific promise for application of these energy technologies and biomass/land use practices to further energy and global climate management.

  14. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  15. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses

  16. A transcriptome map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Bruno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are increasingly becoming the DNA marker system of choice due to their prevalence in the genome and their ability to be used in highly multiplexed genotyping assays. Although needed in high numbers for genome-wide marker profiles and genomics-assisted breeding, a surprisingly low number of validated SNPs are currently available for perennial ryegrass. Results A perennial ryegrass unigene set representing 9,399 genes was used as a reference for the assembly of 802,156 high quality reads generated by 454 transcriptome sequencing and for in silico SNP discovery. Out of more than 15,433 SNPs in 1,778 unigenes fulfilling highly stringent assembly and detection parameters, a total of 768 SNP markers were selected for GoldenGate genotyping in 184 individuals of the perennial ryegrass mapping population VrnA, a population being previously evaluated for important agronomic traits. A total of 592 (77% of the SNPs tested were successfully called with a cluster separation above 0.9. Of these, 509 (86% genic SNP markers segregated in the VrnA mapping population, out of which 495 were assigned to map positions. The genetic linkage map presented here comprises a total of 838 DNA markers (767 gene-derived markers and spans 750 centi Mogan (cM with an average marker interval distance of less than 0.9 cM. Moreover, it locates 732 expressed genes involved in a broad range of molecular functions of different biological processes in the perennial ryegrass genome. Conclusions Here, we present an efficient approach of using next generation sequencing (NGS data for SNP discovery, and the successful design of a 768-plex Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay in a complex genome. The ryegrass SNPs along with the corresponding transcribed sequences represent a milestone in the establishment of genetic and genomics resources available for this species and constitute a further step towards molecular breeding

  17. Thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry study of woody residues and an herbaceous biomass crop using PCA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, C.J.; Velo, E.; Puigjaner, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avinguda Diagonal 647, G2, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Meszaros, E.; Jakab, E. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 17, Budapest 1525 (Hungary)

    2007-10-15

    The devolatilization behaviour of pine and beech wood from carpentry residuals and an herbaceous product from an energy plantation (artichoke thistle) was investigated by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS). The effect of three pre-treatments, hot-water washing, ethanol extraction and their combination, was also studied. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to help in the evaluation of the large data set of results. The characteristics of the thermal decomposition of the herbaceous crop are considerably different from that of the woody biomass samples. The evolution profiles of some characteristic pyrolysis products revealed that the thermal behaviour of wood and thistle is still considerably different after the elimination of some of the inorganic ions and extractive compounds, although the macromolecular components of the samples decompose at similar temperatures. With the help of the PCA calculations, the effect of the different pre-treatments on the production of the main pyrolysis products was evidenced. (author)

  18. Feeding habits of Carabidae (Coleoptera associated with herbaceous plants and the phenology of coloured cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Henrique da Matta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae are recognized as polyphagous predators and important natural enemies of insect pests. However, little is known about the feeding habits of these beetles. In this work, we determine the types of food content in the digestive tracts of nine species of Carabidae associated with herbaceous plants and different growth stages of coloured cotton. The food contents were evaluated for beetles associated with the coloured cotton cv. BRS verde, Gossypium hirsutum L. latifolium Hutch., adjacent to weed plants and the flowering herbaceous plants (FHPs Lobularia maritima (L., Tagetes erecta L., and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. The digestive tract analysis indicated various types of diets and related arthropods for Abaris basistriata, Galerita brasiliensis, Scarites sp., Selenophorus alternans, Selenophorus discopunctatus and Tetracha brasiliensis. The carabids were considered to be polyphagous predators, feeding on different types of prey.

  19. Mercury from bioenergy. Environmental problem or phobia?; Kwik uit bio-energie. Milieuprobleem of fobie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, W.C. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2003-06-01

    An overview is given of the consequences of mercury emission from bioenergy projects, based on several environmental effect reports (so-called Mer or 'Milieueffectrapportages' in Dutch). It is concluded that in the Netherlands there is no atmospheric mercury problem. [Dutch] De gevolgen van de kwikemissies bij bioenergieprojecten worden beschreven op basis van diverse uitgevoerde Milieu-effectrapportages. Daarbij wordt ingegaan op de bezwaren ten aanzien van deze emissies die onder andere door milieugroepen worden ingebracht en de verpande emissie-eisen die vergunningverleners menen te moeten opleggen. De auteur beargumenteert dat er geen atmosferisch kwikprobleem is in Nederland en ten gevolge van de bio-energieprojecten ook niet is te verwachten. Alleen een Europese aanpak van grootschalige luchtverontreiniging is effectief. De Nederlandse kwikemissie is verhoudingsgewijs al zeer laag. Op basis hiervan zijn er volgens de auteur geen goede redenen om in Nederland strengere kwikeisen op te leggen dan elders in Europa.

  20. Large scale international bioenergy trading. How bioenergy trading can be reliazed under safe and sustainable frame conditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Kirchovas, Simas

    2011-01-01

    Biomass sources as Woodchips – Wood pellets, Straw – Bio pellets, animal manure, farm-by products and new cropping systems are integrated in our society’s needs. The mindset for shifting from fossil fuels based economies into sustainable energy economies already exist. Bioenergy utilization systems...... sustainability criteria. The sustainability criteria agreed internationally could be realized as a tool to secure the positive impacts of bioenergy and to foster the international trade. This study investigates the developments by national and international bodies of biomass standardization and certification...

  1. Robust and sustainable bioenergy: Biomass in the future Danish energy system; Robust og baeredygtig bioenergi: Biomasse i fremtidens danske energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoett, T.

    2012-09-15

    The publication is a collection of articles about new, exciting technologies for the production of bioenergy, which received support from Danish research programmes. The green technologies must be sustainable so that future generations' opportunities for bioenergy use is not restricted, and the solutions must be robust in relation to security of supply, costs and energy economy. In this context, research plays a crucial role. Research is especially carried out within the use of residues as bio-waste, straw, wood and manure for energy purposes, but there are also projects on energy crops, as well as research into how algae from the sea can increase the production of biomass. (LN)

  2. Bio-energy Alliance High-Tonnage Bio-energy Crop Production and Conversion into Conventional Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capareda, Sergio [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hall, Kenneth R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Holtzapple, Mark [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Searcy, Royce [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; Thompson, Wayne H. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Baltensperger, David [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Myatt, Robert [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Blumenthal, Jurg [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences

    2012-11-30

    Maintaining a predictable and sustainable supply of feedstock for bioenergy conversion is a major goal to facilitate the efficient transition to cellulosic biofuels. Our work provides insight into the complex interactions among agronomic, edaphic, and climatic factors that affect the sustainability of bioenergy crop yields. Our results provide science-based agronomic response measures that document how to better manage bioenergy sorghum production from planting to harvest. We show that harvest aids provide no significant benefit as a means to decrease harvest moisture or improve bioenergy yields. Our efforts to identify optimal seeding rates under varied edaphic and climatological conditions reinforce previous findings that sorghum is a resilient plant that can efficiently adapt to changing population pressures by decreasing or increasing the numbers of additional shoots or tillers – where optimal seeding rates for high biomass photoperiod sensitive sorghum is 60,000 to 70,000 seeds per acre and 100,000 to 120,000 seeds per acre for sweet varieties. Our varietal adaptability trials revealed that high biomass photoperiod sensitive energy sorghum consistently outperforms conventional photoperiod insensitive sweet sorghum and high biomass forage sorghum as the preferred bioenergy sorghum type, with combined theoretical yields of both cellulosic and fermentable water-soluble sugars producing an average yield of 1,035 gallons of EtOH per acre. Our nitrogen trials reveal that sweet sorghums produce ample amounts of water-soluble sugars with minimal increases in nitrogen inputs, and that excess nitrogen can affect minor increases in biomass yields and cellulosic sugars but decrease bioenergy quality by decreasing water-soluble sugar concentrations and increasing ash content, specifically when plant tissue nitrogen concentrations exceed 0.6 %, dry weight basis. Finally, through our growth and re-growth trials, we show that single-cut high biomass sorghum bioenergy yields

  3. The time aspect of bioenergy. Climate impacts of bioenergy due to differences in carbon uptake rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Chen, Deliang [Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the climate impacts from bioenergy due to how they influence carbon stocks over time and more specifically how fast combustion related carbon emissions are compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon. A set of fuel types representing different uptake rates are investigated, namely willow, branches and tops, stumps and coal. Net emissions are defined as emissions from utilizing the fuel minus emissions from a reference case of no utilisation. In the case of forest residues, the compensating 'uptake' is avoided emissions from the reference case of leaving the residues to decompose on the ground. Climate impacts are estimated using the measures radiative forcing and global average surface temperature, which have been calculated by an energy balance climate model. We conclude that there is a climate impact from using bioenergy due to how fast the emission pulse is compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon (or avoided emissions). Biofuels with slower uptake rates have a stronger climate impact than fuels with a faster uptake rate, assuming all other parameters equal. The time perspective over which the analysis is done is crucial for the climate impact of biofuels. If only biogenic fluxes are considered, our results show that over a 100 year perspective branches and tops are better for climate mitigation than stumps which in turn are better than coal. Over a 20 year time perspective this conclusion holds, but the differences between these fuels are relatively smaller. Establishing willow on earlier crop land may reduce atmospheric carbon, provided new land is available. However, these results are inconclusive since we haven't considered the effects, if needed, of producing the traditional agricultural crops elsewhere. The analysis is not a life cycle assessment of different fuels and does therefore not consider the use of fossil fuels for logging, transportation and refining, other greenhouse gases than carbon or energy

  4. Evaluation quantitative et qualitative de la strate herbacée du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude s'insère dans le cadre de la compréhension de l'apport de la strate herbacée dans une formation de Quercus rotundifolia L. utilisée par un cheptel dont l'importance socio-économique pour la population est vitale. Le défrichement, moyen pratique d'accroître la production fourragère en milieu forestier, est ...

  5. 127 Evaluation quantitative et qualitative de la strate herbacée du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utilsateur

    Résumé. Cette étude s'insère dans le cadre de la compréhension de l'apport de la strate herbacée dans une formation de Quercus rotundifolia L. utilisée par un cheptel dont l'importance socio-économique pour la population est vitale. Le défrichement, moyen pratique d'accroître la production fourragère en milieu forestier ...

  6. Impacts of environmental factors on the climbing behaviors of herbaceous stem-twiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Chen, Youfang; Liu, Meicun

    2017-11-01

    The curvature of the helical trajectory formed by herbaceous stem-twiners has been hypothesized to be constant on uniformly sized cylindrical supports and remains constant on different supports varying in diameter. However, experimental studies on the constant curvature hypothesis have been very limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis in a series of experiments on five herbaceous stem-twiners ( Ipomoea triloba , Ipomoea nil , Phaseolus vulgaris , Vigna unguiculata, and Mikania micrantha ). We investigated how internode characteristics (curvature [β], diameter [ d ], and length [ L ]) and success rate (SR) of twining shoots would be affected by support thickness ( D ), temperature ( T ), illumination, and support inclination. The results showed that: (1) the SR of tested species decreased, but d increased with increasing support thickness. The β of the twining shoots on erect cylindrical poles was not constant, but it decreased with increasing d or support thickness. (2) The SR of tested species was not obviously reduced under low-temperature conditions, but their β was significantly higher and d significantly lower when temperature was more than 5°C lower. (3) The SR , d, and L of two tested Ipomoea species significantly declined, but β increased under 50% shading stress. (4) The curvatures of upper semicycles of I. triloba shoots on 45° inclined supports were not significantly different from curvatures of those shoots climb on erect supports, whereas the curvatures of lower semicycles were 40%-72% higher than curvatures of upper semicycles. Synthesis : Our study illustrates that stem curvatures of a certain herbaceous stem-twiners are not constant, but rather vary in response to external support, temperature, and illumination conditions. We speculate that herbaceous stem-twiners positively adapt to wide-diameter supports by thickening their stems and by reducing their twining curvatures. This insight helps us better understand climbing processes and

  7. Assessing radiation exposure of herbaceous plant species at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimullina, Elina; Antonova, Elena; Pozolotina, Vera

    2013-01-01

    The East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) is a result of the Mayak Production Association accident that occurred in 1957 in Russia. Radiological assessment improves the interpretation of biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore a modeling approach was used to estimate dose rates on Leonurus quinquelobatus, Silene latifolia, Stellaria graminea and Bromus inermis. Soil-to-organism transfer parameter values are delivered from empirical data of 90 Sr and 137 Cs soil and vegetative plant mass activity concentrations. External and internal whole-body dose rates were calculated using deterministic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 2 and R and D 128/SP1a) and probabilistic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 3) methods. The total dose rate for herbs was under 100 μGy h −1 at the most polluted site. The total absorbed dose rates increased 43–110 times (Tier 3) for different herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. Based on these data, it can be concluded that herbaceous plant populations currently exist under low-level chronic exposure at the EURT area. -- Highlights: • A modeling approach (The ERICA Tool-Tier 2, Tier 3 and R and D 128/SP1a) was used to estimate dose rates for herbs growing in the wild at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace. • The highest levels of anthropogenic radiation exposure were determined for herbs at Impact EURT sites. • Total absorbed dose rates increased 43–110 times (Tier 3) for different herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. • Total dose rate per plant organism for herbs is under 100 μGy h −1 at the most polluted site. Currently herbaceous plant populations exist under low-level chronic exposure at the EURT area

  8. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Li Lin; Xiao-Guo Xiang; Rosa del C. Ortiz; Yang Liu; Kun-Li Xiang; Sheng-Xiang Yu; Yao-Wu Xing; Zhi-Duan Chen

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We...

  9. Soil properties and understory herbaceous biomass in forests of three species of Quercus in Northeast Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper aims to characterize some soil properties within the first 25 cm of the soil profile and the herbaceous biomass in Quercus forests, and the possible relationships between soil properties and understory standing biomass.Area of study: Three monoespecific Quercus forests (Q. suber L., Q. ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Q. pyrenaica Willd in NE Portugal.Material and methods: During 1999 and 2000 soil properties (pH-KCl, total soil nitrogen (N, soil organic carbon (SOC, C/N ratio, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K and herbaceous biomass production of three forest types: Quercus suber L., Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd were studied.Main results: The results showed a different pattern of soil fertility (N, SOC, P, K in Quercus forests in NE of Portugal. The C/N ratio and the herbaceous biomass confirmed this pattern. Research highlights: There is a pattern of Quercus sp. distribution that correlates with different soil characteristics by soil characteristics in NE Portugal. Q. pyrenaica ecosystems were found in more favoured areas (mesic conditions; Q. rotundifolia developed in nutrient-poor soils (oligotrophic conditions; and Q. suber were found in intermediate zones.Keywords: fertility; biomass; C/N ratio; cork oak; holm oak; pyrenean oak.

  10. Large herbivores maintain termite-caused differences in herbaceous species diversity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okullo, Paul; Moe, Stein R

    2012-09-01

    Termites and large herbivores affect African savanna plant communities. Both functional groups are also important for nutrient redistribution across the landscape. We conducted an experiment to study how termites and large herbivores, alone and in combination, affect herbaceous species diversity patterns in an African savanna. Herbaceous vegetation on large vegetated Macrotermes mounds (with and without large herbivores) and on adjacent savanna areas (with and without large herbivores) was monitored over three years in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. We found substantial differences in species richness, alpha diversity, evenness, and stability between termite mound herbaceous vegetation and adjacent savanna vegetation. Within months of fencing, levels of species richness, evenness, and stability were no longer significantly different between savanna and mounds. However, fencing reduced the cumulative number of species, particularly for forbs, of which 48% of the species were lost. Fencing increased the beta diversity (dissimilarity among plots) on the resource-poor (in terms of both nutrients and soil moisture) savanna areas, while it did not significantly affect beta diversity on the resource-rich termite mounds. While termites cause substantial heterogeneity in savanna vegetation, large herbivores further amplify these differences by reducing beta diversity on the savanna areas. Large herbivores are, however, responsible for the maintenance of a large number of forbs at the landscape level. These findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying the effects of termites and large herbivores on savanna plant communities scale up to shape community structure and dynamics at a landscape level.

  11. Seedling Composition and Facilitative Effects of the Herbaceous Layer in a Monsoon-Affected Forest in Nanjenshan, Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Wei Fan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree seedlings play an important role in forest regeneration. To understand the factors that control seedling establishment, we (1 compared the composition patterns of tree seedlings and their corresponding overstories, (2 examined the relationships between seedling composition and environmental factors and (3 evaluated the interaction (competition or facilitation between seedlings and herbaceous layer in a wind-stressed forest in Nanjenshan, southern Taiwan. In the study plot, seedling abundance of canopy, subcanopy and shrub species (with true leaves and < 1 cm diameter at breast height and coverage of herbaceous species (including herbaceous species, climbers and tree ferns ≤ ca. 1 m in height were investigated on three transects with a total of 180 contiguous 5 × 5 m quadrats. Clustering classification and ordination methods were used to reveal the tree seedling composition patterns and the relationships between seedling composition and environmental factors. Correlation coefficients were computed between herbaceous coverage and seedling abundance among herb-seedling species pairs and between tall (≥ 1 m high/short (< 0.5 m high herbs and seedlings pairs to test the herb-seedling interaction. The spatial distribution of tree seedlings presented a perfect match to the overstory vegetation pattern. There was a strong relationship among seedling composition, herbaceous composition and topographic features, especially exposure to monsoon winds. Because of the absence of strong correlations between herbaceous structure/species and seedling abundances, the strong linkage in spatial patterns between seedling and herbaceous compositions suggests that certain plant species in the study plot have similar responses to the monsoon exposure. Our results also indicated that seedlings < 1 cm in diameter were strongly influenced by wind stress, similar to the response of the overstory composition, and that the facilitative/competitive effects of the

  12. A Phenology-Based Method for Monitoring Woody and Herbaceous Vegetation in Mediterranean Forests from NDVI Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    David Helman; Itamar M. Lensky; Naama Tessler; Yagil Osem

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient method for monitoring woody (i.e., evergreen) and herbaceous (i.e., ephemeral) vegetation in Mediterranean forests at a sub pixel scale from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The method is based on the distinct development periods of those vegetation components. In the dry season, herbaceous vegetation is absent or completely dry in Mediterranean forests. Thus the mean NDVI ...

  13. Wood to energy: using southern interface fuels for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Staudhammer; L.A. Hermansen; D. Carter; Ed Macie

    2011-01-01

    This publications aims to increase awareness of potential uses for woody biomass in the southern wildland-urban interface (WUI) and to disseminate knowledge about putting bioenergy production systems in place, while addressing issues unique to WUI areas. Chapter topics include woody biomass sources in the wildland-urban interface; harvesting, preprocessing and delivery...

  14. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater

  15. The Biogeochemistry of Bioenergy Landscapes: Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biogeochemical liabilities of grain-based crop production for bioenergy are no different from those of grain-based food production: excessive nitrate leakage, soil carbon and phosphorus loss, nitrous oxide production, and attenuated methane uptake. Contingent problems are well-known, increasingl...

  16. Regional carbon dioxide implications of forest bioenergy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Law, Beverly E.; Wirth, Christian; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2011-01-01

    Strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include substitution of fossil fuel with bioenergy from forests, where carbon emitted is expected to be recaptured in the growth of new biomass to achieve zero net emissions, and forest thinning to reduce wildfire emissions. Here, we use forest

  17. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  18. The South's outlook for sustainable forest bioenergy and biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wear; Robert Abt; Janaki Alavalapati; Greg Comatas; Mike Countess; Will McDow

    2010-01-01

    The future of a wood-based biofuel/bioenergy sector could hold important implications for the use, structure and function of forested landscapes in the South. This paper examines a set of questions regarding the potential effects of biofuel developments both on markets for traditional timber products and on the provision of various non-timber ecosystem services. In...

  19. Field windbreaks for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree windbreaks are a multi-benefit land use with the ability to mitigate climate change by modifying the local microclimate for improved crop growth and sequestering carbon in soil and biomass. Agroforestry practices are also being considered for bioenergy production by direct combustion or produci...

  20. Spatial variation in environmental impacts of bioenergy supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, F. van der; Dam, J.M.C. van; Verweij, P.A.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas

  1. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: July 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-09

    This is the May 2014 Update to the Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Office. It identifies the research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation.

  2. Evolutionary algorithms approach for integrated bioenergy supply chains optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, Nasser; Elmoshi, Elsayed; Seki, Hiroya; Naka, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimization model and solution approach for designing and evaluating integrated system of bioenergy production supply chains, SC, at the local level. Designing SC that simultaneously utilize a set of bio-resources together is a complicated task, considered here. The complication arises from the different nature and sources of bio-resources used in bioenergy production i.e., wet, dry or agriculture, industrial etc. Moreover, the different concerns that decision makers should take into account, to overcome the tradeoff anxieties of the socialists and investors, i.e., social, environmental and economical factors, was considered through the options of multi-criteria optimization. A first part of this research was introduced in earlier research work explaining the general Bioenergy Decision System gBEDS [Ayoub N, Martins R, Wang K, Seki H, Naka Y. Two levels decision system for efficient planning and implementation of bioenergy production. Energy Convers Manage 2007;48:709-23]. In this paper, brief introduction and emphasize on gBEDS are given; the optimization model is presented and followed by a case study on designing a supply chain of nine bio-resources at Iida city in the middle part of Japan.

  3. Best practices guidelines for managing water in bioenergy feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    In the quest to develop renewable energy sources, woody and agricultural crops are being viewed as an important source of low environmental impact feedstocks for electrical generation and biofuels production (Hall and Scrase 1998, Eriksson et al. 2002, Somerville et al. 2010, Berndes and Smith 2013). In countries like the USA, the bioenergy feedstock potential is...

  4. Assessing hydrological impacts of tree-based bioenergy feedstock

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter provides a methodology for assessing the hydrological impacts of tree-based bioenergy feedstock. Based on experience gained in South Africa, it discusses the tasks required to reach an understanding of the likely water resource impacts...

  5. Sustainability of bioenergy chains: the result is in the details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigated how the feasibility and sustainability of large-scale bioenergy production, supply and use for local use or trade can be determined ex ante on a regional level, taking into account the complexities and variabilities of the underlying factors like food demand and land use.

  6. Role of arthropod communities in bioenergy crop litter decomposition†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Miresmailli, Saber; Nabity, Paul; Lawrance, Allen; Yanahan, Alan; Mitchell, Corey A; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; David, Mark B; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-10-01

    The extensive land use conversion expected to occur to meet demands for bioenergy feedstock production will likely have widespread impacts on agroecosystem biodiversity and ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. Although arthropod detritivores are known to contribute to litter decomposition and thus energy flow and nutrient cycling in many plant communities, their importance in bioenergy feedstock communities has not yet been assessed. We undertook an experimental study quantifying rates of litter mass loss and nutrient cycling in the presence and absence of these organisms in three bioenergy feedstock crops-miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and a planted prairie community. Overall arthropod abundance and litter decomposition rates were similar in all three communities. Despite effective reduction of arthropods in experimental plots via insecticide application, litter decomposition rates, inorganic nitrogen leaching, and carbon-nitrogen ratios did not differ significantly between control (with arthropods) and treatment (without arthropods) plots in any of the three community types. Our findings suggest that changes in arthropod faunal composition associated with widespread adoption of bioenergy feedstock crops may not be associated with profoundly altered arthropod-mediated litter decomposition and nutrient release. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Food Access, Food Subsidy, and Residue-Based Bioenergy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Food Access, Food Subsidy, and Residue-Based Bioenergy Production in ... The goal is to show how the Indian government can improve access to food ... IDRC has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Government of ...

  8. Carbon debt and carbon sequestration parity in forest bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.R. Mitchell; M.E. Harmon; K.B. O' Connell

    2012-01-01

    The capacity for forests to aid in climate change mitigation efforts is substantial but will ultimately depend on their management. If forests remain unharvested, they can further mitigate the increases in atmospheric CO2 that result from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation. Alternatively, they can be harvested for bioenergy production and...

  9. Impacts of Extreme Events on Phenology: Drought-Induced Changes in Productivity of Mixed Woody-Herbaceous Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, P. M.; Breshears, D. D.; White, A. B.

    2006-12-01

    Ecosystem responses to key climate drivers are reflected in phenological dynamics such as the timing and degree of "greenup" that integrate responses over spatial scales from individual plants to ecosystems. This integration is clearest in ecosystems dominated by a single species or life form, such as seasonally dynamic grasslands or more temporally constant evergreen forests. Yet many ecosystems have substantial contribution of cover from both herbaceous and woody evergreen plants. Responses of mixed woody- herbaceous ecosystems to climate are of increasing concern due to their extensive nature, the potential for such systems to yield more complex responses than those dominated by a single life form, and projections that extreme climate and weather events will increase in frequency and intensity with global warming. We present responses of a mixed woody-herbaceous ecosystem type to an extreme event: regional scale piñon pine mortality following an extended drought and the subsequent herbaceous greenup following the first wet period after the drought. This example highlights how reductions in greenness of the slower, more stable evergreen woody component can rapidly be offset by increases associated with resources made available to the relatively more responsive herbaceous component. We hypothesize that such two-phase phenological responses to extreme events are characteristic of many mixed woody-herbaceous ecosystems.

  10. Market survey Austria. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Austria has a well developed bioenergy infrastructure as regards solid biomass and a strong growth in the biogas and biofuel sector. The results of a SWOT analysis show the major issues for the development in each of these sectors now and in the short to medium-term future. Based on the SWOT analyses the following conclusions are formulated: (1)The development of the wood biomass sector in Austria is successful. This can be seen from the point of view of the end user, biomass for heating in single houses as well in district heating systems is very widely spread. This created opportunities for Austrian firms producing biomass technology, now having a large market and expending abroad. This development creates, however, major challenges for players from other countries like the Netherlands. It may be difficult to enter this market, unless one offers a cheaper product with the same quality or finding a niche market with a new unique product; (2) The growth of the wood biomass application for heat and electricity has led to the occurrence of another problem, a competition for wood as resource between the energy sector and other applications as pulp and paper industry. Wood imports are nowadays increasing but in the longer term Austria cannot rely on that because of the growing biomass use in neighbouring countries. Austria will therefore have to look for ways how to optimise biomass use for the energy sector and increasing the use of other fuels like straw and other forms of agricultural waste: (3) The production of biogas presents a number of new applications, production of renewable electricity, production of biogas for the transport sector as well as the possibility to inject cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. In the short term, production of renewable electricity is the most promising for investors as feed-in tariffs are available for these projects. The other applications are still in a pilot phase but may become interesting in the coming years; (4) The

  11. Bioenergy industries development in China. Dilemma and solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peidong, Zhang; Yanli, Yang; Xutong, Yang; Yonghong, Zheng; Lisheng, Wang; Yongsheng, Tian; Yongkai, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Having 2.8 x 10 8 -3.0 x 10 8 t/a of wood energy, 4.0 x 10 6 t/a of oil seeds, 7.7 x 10 8 t/a of crops straw, 3.97 x 10 9 t/a of poultry and livestock manure, 1.48 x 10 8 t/a of municipal waste, and 4.37 x 10 10 t/a of organic wastewater, China is in possession of good resource condition for the development of bioenergy industries. Until the end of 2007, China has popularized 2.65 x 10 7 rural household biogas, established 8318 large and middle-scale biogas projects, and produced 1.08 x 10 10 m 3 /a of biogas; the production of bioethanol, biodiesel, biomass briquettes fuel and biomass power generation reached to 1.5 x 10 6 t/a, 3.0 x 10 5 t/a, 6.0 x 10 4 t/a and 6.42 x 10 9 kWh, respectively. In recent years, bioenergy industries developed increasingly fast in China. However, the industrial base was weak with some dilemma existing in raw material supply, technological capability, industry standards, policy and regulation, and follow-up services, etc. From the viewpoint of long-term effective development system for bioenergy industries in China, a series of policy suggestions have been offered, such as strengthening strategy research, improving bioenergy industries development policies and plan, enhancing scientific research input, persisting in technology innovation, establishing product quality standard, improving industrial standard system, opening market and accelerating commercialization, etc. It is expected that the advices mentioned above could be helpful for the improvement of bioenergy industries development. (author)

  12. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M; Ahlhaus, M [eds.

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster the energetic use

  13. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  14. Climate, economic, and environmental impacts of producing wood for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, Richard; Duffy, Philip; Smyth, Carolyn; Kurz, Werner A.; Dugan, Alexa J.; Houghton, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Increasing combustion of woody biomass for electricity has raised concerns and produced conflicting statements about impacts on atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, climate, and other forest values such as timber supply and biodiversity. The purposes of this concise review of current literature are to (1) examine impacts on net GHG emissions and climate from increasing bioenergy production from forests and exporting wood pellets to Europe from North America, (2) develop a set of science-based recommendations about the circumstances that would result in GHG reductions or increases in the atmosphere, and (3) identify economic and environmental impacts of increasing bioenergy use of forests. We find that increasing bioenergy production and pellet exports often increase net emissions of GHGs for decades or longer, depending on source of feedstock and its alternate fate, time horizon of analysis, energy emissions associated with the supply chain and fuel substitution, and impacts on carbon cycling of forest ecosystems. Alternative uses of roundwood often offer larger reductions in GHGs, in particular long-lived wood products that store carbon for longer periods of time and can achieve greater substitution benefits than bioenergy. Other effects of using wood for bioenergy may be considerable including induced land-use change, changes in supplies of wood and other materials for construction, albedo and non-radiative effects of land-cover change on climate, and long-term impacts on soil productivity. Changes in biodiversity and other ecosystem attributes may be strongly affected by increasing biofuel production, depending on source of material and the projected scale of biofuel production increases.

  15. Harmonising bioenergy resource potentials-Methodological lessons from review of state of the art bioenergy potential assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Published estimates of the potential of bioenergy vary widely, mainly due to the heterogeneity of methodologies, assumptions and datasets employed. These discrepancies are confusing for policy and it is thus important to have scientific clarity on the basis of the assessment outcomes. Such clear

  16. Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade. Evaluating the impact of sustainability criteria and policy on past and future bioenergy supply and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Within a single decade, bioenergy has shifted from a largely local energy source with marginal trade volumes to a globally traded item. The primary objective of this thesis is to evaluate the links between national renewable energy support and trade policies and market forces on past global

  17. Energizing marginal soils: A perennial cropping system for Sida hermaphrodita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabel, Moritz; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky; Schrey, Silvia D.; Koller, Robert; Schurr, Ulrich; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.

    2017-04-01

    As a way to avoid land use conflicts, the use of marginal soils for the production of plant biomass can be a sustainable alternative to conventional biomass production (e.g. maize). However, new cropping strategies have to be found that meet the challenge of crop production under marginal soil conditions. We aim for increased soil fertility by the use of the perennial crop Sida hermaphrodita in combination with organic fertilization and legume intercropping to produce substantial biomass yield. We present results of a three-year outdoor mesocosm experiment testing the perennial energy crop Sida hermaphrodita grown on a marginal model substrate (sand) with four kinds of fertilization (Digestate broadcast, Digestate Depot, mineral NPK and unfertilized control) in combination with legume intercropping. After three years, organic fertilization (via biogas digestate) compared to mineral fertilization (NPK), reduced the nitrate concentration in leachate and increased the soil carbon content. Biomass yields of Sida were 25% higher when fertilized organically, compared to mineral fertilizer. In general, digestate broadcast application reduced root growth and the wettability of the sandy substrate. However, when digestate was applied locally as depot to the rhizosphere, root growth increased and the wettability of the sandy substrate was preserved. Depot fertilization increased biomass yield by 10% compared to digestate broadcast fertilization. We intercropped Sida with various legumes (Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense, Melilotus spp. and Medicago sativa) to enable biological nitrogen fixation and make the cropping system independent from synthetically produced fertilizers. We could show that Medicago sativa grown on marginal substrate fixed large amounts of N, especially when fertilized organically, whereas mineral fertilization suppressed biological nitrogen fixation. We conclude that the perennial energy crop Sida in combination with organic fertilization has great

  18. Association of Candidate Genes With Submergence Response in Perennial Ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xicheng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass is a popular cool-season grass species due to its high quality for forage and turf. The objective of this study was to identify associations of candidate genes with growth and physiological traits to submergence stress and recovery after de-submergence in a global collection of 94 perennial ryegrass accessions. Accessions varied largely in leaf color, plant height (HT, leaf fresh weight (LFW, leaf dry weight (LDW, and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm at 7 days of submergence and in HT, LFW and LDW at 7 days of recovery in two experiments. Among 26 candidate genes tested by various models, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 10 genes showed significant associations with traits including 16 associations for control, 10 for submergence, and 8 for recovery. Under submergence, Lp1-SST encoding sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and LpGA20ox encoding gibberellin 20-oxidase were associated with LFW and LDW, and LpACO1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase was associated with LFW. Associations between Lp1-SST and HT, Lp6G-FFT encoding fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase and Fv/Fm, LpCAT encoding catalase and HT were also detected under submergence stress. Upon de-submergence, Lp1-SST, Lp6G-FFT, and LpPIP1 encoding plasma membrane intrinsic protein type 1 were associated with LFW or LDW, while LpCBF1b encoding C-repeat binding factor were associated with HT. Nine significant SNPs in Lp1-SST, Lp6G-FFT, LpCAT, and LpACO1 resulted in amino acid changes with five substitutions found in Lp1-SST under submergence or recovery. The results indicated that allelic diversity in genes involved in carbohydrate and antioxidant metabolism, ethylene and gibberellin biosynthesis, and transcript factor could contribute to growth variations in perennial ryegrass under submergence stress and recovery after de-submergence.

  19. Impacts of nitrogen fertilization and plant species diversity on soil C accumulation in a lignocellulosic bioenergy cropping system nine years following land conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaff, M. A.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol production from second generation biofuel feedstocks, including the perennial grasses switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) has expanded rapidly, with the aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, land conversion for bioenergy production releases carbon (C) stored in soil to the atmosphere as CO2, and creates a C debt in ecosystems. If biofuels are to aid in curbing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it is important that this initial C debt be repaid rapidly. A variety of management approaches aimed at increasing NPP and soil C input may be used to accelerate the repayment of soil C. We conducted a long-term field experiment located at the Fermilab National Environmental Research Park in IL, that compares a variety of approaches for perennial feedstock production following conversion of an old-field dominated by C3 grasses to a grassland dominated by C4 perennial grasses. Treatments included a variety of big bluestem and switchgrass cultivars grown in monoculture, diversity manipulated at both the species- and cultivar level, and nitrogen (N) applied at two levels (0 and 67 kg/ha). Previous results from this experiment indicated that four years following initiation of this experiment, only choice of plant species significantly affected the rate of bulk soil C-debt repayment. Here we quantified how nine years of fertilization, plant species, and inter- and intra-specific diversity treatments affect soil C accumulation. To increase our detection of changes in soil C and our mechanistic understanding of the processes that drive C accumulation in this experiment, we used the natural abundance C isotope ratio technique to estimate the contribution and fate of root-derived C to soil organic matter pools. Additionally, we evaluated how the different management approaches affected the ecological sustainability of bioenergy production, by quantifying impacts of the treatments on soil micro-and meso fauna abundance and diversity

  20. Bioenergy knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes among young citizens - from cross-national surveys to conceptual model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, P

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of the students

  1. Bioenergy knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes among young citizens - from cross-national surveys to conceptual model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, P.

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of

  2. Tradeoffs between water requirements and yield stability in annual vs. perennial crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.

    2018-02-01

    Population growth and changes in climate and diets will likely further increase the pressure on agriculture and water resources globally. Currently, staple crops are obtained from annuals plants. A shift towards perennial crops may enhance many ecosystem services, but at the cost of higher water requirements and lower yields. It is still unclear when the advantages of perennial crops overcome their disadvantages and perennial crops are thus a sustainable solution. Here we combine a probabilistic description of the soil water balance and crop development with an extensive dataset of traits of congeneric annuals and perennials to identify the conditions for which perennial crops are more viable than annual ones with reference to yield, yield stability, and effective use of water. We show that the larger and more developed roots of perennial crops allow a better exploitation of soil water resources and a reduction of yield variability with respect to annual species, but their yields remain lower when considering grain crops. Furthermore, perennial crops have higher and more variable irrigation requirements and lower water productivity. These results are important to understand the potential consequences for yield, its stability, and water resource use of a shift from annual to perennial crops and, more generally, if perennial crops may be more resilient than annual crops in the face of climatic fluctuations.

  3. Impact of bioenergy on regionalized nitrogen balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häußermann, Uwe; Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin

    2017-04-01

    use a dataset which is kept and regularly updated by the Germany Federal Network Agency („Bundesnetzagentur") (Bundesnetzagentur 2016). These dataset does not include information about substrate input and therefore need to be intersect with regionalized substrate input data (DBFZ 2012), and to obtain nitrogen input quantities with the nitrogen content of these substrates (KTBL 2016). Without including bioenergy production, the linear trend of the net-N-surplus in 2003 to 2014 for Germany is -1.66x + 71.25 kg N (ha LF a)-1? , therefore, an overall decrease of the net-N-surplus of 18.3 kg N ha LF-1 within 11 years was calculated. No such decrease was calculated, when biogas production was included into the net-N-balance.

  4. Bioenergy: Resource efficiency and contributions to energy- and climate policy objectives; Bioenergi: Resurseffektivitet och bidrag till energi- och klimatpolitiska maal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goeran; Karlsson, Sten [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Physical Resource Theory; Boerjesson, Paal; Rosenqvist, Haakan [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies

    2008-09-15

    Increasing the use of bioenergy in place of fossil fuels is motivated by a number of energy policy goals. Individual bioenergy systems must be evaluated relative to a particular goal or set of goals. Depending on which specific political goal that is in focus, the attractiveness of different bioenergy systems can vary in relation to even broad objectives such as the resource-efficient use of agricultural and forest land. Furthermore, the outcome of a specific evaluation is sensitive to explicit as well as implicit assumptions and choices regarding, e.g., definition of system boundaries, economic conditions, implementation of policies, byproduct markets, and establishment of new technologies. Several biofuels production chains generate byproducts of value. Energy balance calculations are greatly influenced by how such byproducts are taken into account. Often, the most important factor underlying different results from different energy balance studies is a difference in analytic assumptions, for instance in allocation methods and system borders. Different studies can only be accurately compared if they are based on comparable analytic assumptions. Which methods are justified in a given energy balance study is determined by the current conditions for the specific bioenergy system under analysis. In the future, bioenergy systems may increasingly consist of various generation combinations wherein liquid biofuels may for instance be co-generated with power, heat, and solid biofuels, etc. from a mix of raw biomass. The driving factors are the synergies available with the higher total energy efficiency and resources efficiency obtained by combined approaches, compared to when the energy carriers are produced on their own. These solutions imply that if there is a market for the other energy carriers, and the total net system exchange is high, a lower net value for liquid fuels may be acceptable. The climate efficiency of a bioenergy system also depends on its impact on

  5. Woody-Herbaceous Species Coexistence in Mulga Hillslopes: Modelling Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanjalili, M. J.; Saco, P. M.; Willgoose, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The fundamental processes underlying the coexistence of woody and herbaceous species in arid and semi-arid areas have been a topic of intense research during the last few decades. Experimental and modelling studies have both supported and disputed alternative hypotheses explaining this phenomenon. Vegetation models including the key processes that drive coexistence can be used to understand vegetation pattern dynamics and structure under current climate conditions, and to predict changes under future conditions. Here we present work done towards linking the observations to modelling. The model captures woody-herbaceous coexistence along a rainfall gradient characteristic of typical conditions on Mulga ecosystems in Australia. The dynamic vegetation model simulates the spatial dynamics of overland flow, soil moisture and vegetation growth of two species. It incorporates key mechanisms for coexistence and pattern formation, including facilitation by evaporation reduction through shading, and infiltration feedbacks, local and non-local seed dispersal, competition for water uptake. Model outcomes, obtained including diflerent mechanisms, are qualitatively compared to typical vegetation cover patterns in the Australian Mulga bioregion where bush fire is very infrequent and the fate of vegetation cover is mostly determined by intra- and interspecies interactions. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the dynamics of such ecosystems, we identify main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the dynamic vegetation models. We show that a realistic parameterization of the model leads to results which are aligned with the observations reported in the literature. At the lower end of the rainfall gradient woody species coexist with herbaceous species within a sparse banded pattern, while at higher rainfall woody species tend to dominate the landscape.

  6. MONITORING PHENOLOGY OF FLOODPLAIN GRASSLAND AND HERBACEOUS VEGETATION WITH UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. van Iersel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available River restoration projects, which aim at improved flood safety and increased ecological value, have resulted in more heterogeneous vegetation. However, they also resulted in increasing hydraulic roughness, which leads to higher flood water levels during peak discharges. Due to allowance of vegetation development and succession, both ecological and hydraulic characteristics of the floodplain change more rapidly over time. Monitoring of floodplain vegetation has become essential to document and evaluate the changing floodplain characteristics and associated functioning. Extraction of characteristics of low vegetation using single-epoch remote sensing data, however, remains challenging. The aim of this study was to (1 evaluate the performance of multi-temporal, high-spatial-resolution UAV imagery for extracting temporal vegetation height profiles of grassland and herbaceous vegetation in floodplains and (2 to assess the relation between height development and NDVI changes. Vegetation height was measured six times during one year in 28 field plots within a single floodplain. UAV true-colour and false-colour imagery of the floodplain were recorded coincidently with each field survey. We found that: (1 the vertical accuracy of UAV normalized digital surface models (nDSMs is sufficiently high to obtain temporal height profiles of low vegetation over a growing season, (2 vegetation height can be estimated from the time series of nDSMs, with the highest accuracy found for combined imagery from February and November (RMSE = 29-42 cm, (3 temporal relations between NDVI and observed vegetation height show different hysteresis behaviour for grassland and herbaceous vegetation. These results show the high potential of using UAV imagery for increasing grassland and herbaceous vegetation classification accuracy.

  7. Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. as an Alternative Source of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA have been proven to possess many biological activities, and much attention is focused on the search for plants which are rich in OA and UA. In this report, the OA and UA accumulation characteristics were investigated in 47 cultivars of Chinese herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. and were followed in three cultivars over different developmental stages as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. OA and UA levels in leaves and stems demonstrated an overall upward trend from May 1 to September 15 except for UA in the leaves of “Hong Feng”. The maximum values of OA and UA in leaves of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 852.98, 575.60, 290.48 μg/g FW and 924.94, 827.36, 432.67 μg/g FW, respectively. The maximum values of OA and UA in stems of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 359.28, 90.49, 43.90 μg/g FW and 326.86, 82.25, 56.63 μg/g FW, respectively. OA and UA contents in leaves of 47 different herbaceous peony cultivars ranged from 66.73–618.12 and 36.23–665.14 μg/g FW, respectively, with average values of 171.62 and 227.57 μg/g FW, respectively. The results suggested that the aboveground parts of herbaceous peony may be used as an alternative source of OA and UA for medicinal purposes in addition to its ornamental purposes.

  8. Implications of sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development: Assessing optimistic and precautionary approaches with UK MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowall, Will; Anandarajah, Gabrial; Dodds, Paul E.; Tomei, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Bioenergy is an important renewable energy resource. However, assessments of the future of bioenergy are beset with uncertainty and contested values, suggesting that a precautionary approach to bioenergy resource development may be warranted. This paper uses UK MARKAL to examine the implications of adopting a precautionary approach to bioenergy development in the UK. The paper reports a detailed review of UK bioenergy resources and sustainability constraints, and develops precautionary and optimistic resource scenarios. The paper then examines the implications of these scenarios using the energy systems model MARKAL, finding that a precautionary approach adds to the cost of decarbonisation, but does not significantly alter the optimal technology mix. In particular, biomass and co-firing CCS emerge as optimal technologies across scenarios. The question of UK land availability for bioenergy production is highlighted within the paper. With less land available for bioenergy production, the costs of decarbonisation will rise; whereas if more land is available for bioenergy, then less land is available for either food production or ecosystem conservation. This paper quantifies one side of this trade-off, by estimating the additional costs incurred when UK land availability for bioenergy production is constrained. - Highlights: ► We assess UK bioenergy resources under optimistic and precautionary approaches. ► Using MARKAL, we find that sustainability constraints add to decarbonisation costs. ► Preferred use of bioenergy is similar in optimistic and precautionary cases. ► Best use of bioenergy is heat and power, not transport, if CCS is available. ► The marginal value of additional land availability to the energy system is high.

  9. Impact of herbaceous vegetation on the enzymatic activity of coal mining wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmanczyk, D

    1980-01-01

    Differences in the enzymatic activity of reclaimed and crude dump wastes after coal mining were investigated. Due to the increased activity of six investigated enzymes (dehydrogenase, catalase, saccharase, BETA-glucosidase, urease and asparaginase), a favourable impact of herbaceous vegetation on the biological activation of the breeding-ground was noticed. Particularly in the case of sacharase and BETA-glucosidase, an increase of the enzymatic activity at a rate of several times or even more than ten times speaks not only for an adequate increase of the metabolic rate of carbohydrates but also for specific properties of the habitat which favours an adsorption of these enzymes. (6 refs.) (In Polish)

  10. Sweet sorghum as a model system for bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Martín; Messing, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Bioenergy is the reduction of carbon via photosynthesis. Currently, this energy is harvested as liquid fuel through fermentation. A major concern, however, is input cost, in particular use of excess water and nitrogen, derived from an energy-negative process, the Haber-Bosch method. Furthermore, the shortage of arable land creates competition between uses for food and fuel, resulting in increased living expenses. This review seeks to summarize recent knowledge in genetics, genomics, and gene expression of a rising model species for bioenergy applications, sorghum. Its diploid genome has been sequenced, it has favorable low-input cost traits, and genetic crosses between different cultivars can be used to study allelic variations of genes involved in stem sugar metabolism and incremental biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Invasive plants as feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rui; Gao, Bin; Fang, June

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the potential of invasive plant species as feedstock for value-added products (biochar and bioenergy) through pyrolysis was investigated. The product yield rates of two major invasive species in the US, Brazilian Pepper (BP) and Air Potato (AP), were compared to that of two traditional feedstock materials, water oak and energy cane. Three pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450, and 600°C) and four feedstock masses (10, 15, 20, and 25 g) were tested for a total of 12 experimental conditions. AP had high biochar and low oil yields, while BP had a high oil yield. At lower temperatures, the minimum feedstock residence time for biochar and bioenergy production increased at a faster rate as feedstock weight increased than it did at higher temperatures. A simple mathematical model was successfully developed to describe the relationship between feedstock weight and the minimum residence time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioenergy development pathways for Europe. Potentials, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, M.P.

    2011-09-26

    Fossil resources dominate the global energy system today which cannot be sustained indefinitely. Bioenergy use can meet a large share of future energy supply sustainably. For example, it can substitute fossil fuels including petroleum, and when sustainably produced, bioenergy avoids greenhouse gas emissions. However, with the recent increase of modern bioenergy use several drawbacks have become apparent that may lead to negative ecological impacts. Europe plays an important role in the further sustainable development of bioenergy due to its ambitious renewable energy policies and its state-of-the-art agricultural sector. The main objective of this thesis is to evaluate development pathways for bioenergy in Europe by assessing preconditions for its development, an economic outlook for such development and an assessment of its environmental implications. The technical European biomass potential has a substantial potential to contribute to Europe's energy consumption. Energy crop production on European croplands and grasslands supplemented with agricultural and forestry residues offers an ultimate technical potential of 27.7 EJ y-1. These findings were based on the assumption that agricultural land needs for future domestic food production decrease as productivities per hectare increase. Central and Eastern Europe pose the more attractive region with relatively high potentials and low costs. In European agriculture, it is possible to combine large-scale biomass production with food production sustained at current levels, without direct or indirect land-use changes and while accomplishing significant net cumulative greenhouse gas emission reductions when both bioenergy and agricultural production are considered. To accomplish this situation two preconditions need to be met: a gradual intensification of food production and implementation of structural improvements to agricultural management. Based on the current economic performance and future prospects for

  13. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan. March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office is one of the 10 technology development offices within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at the U.S. Department of Energy. This Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (the Office). It identifies the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D), and market transformation and crosscutting activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation. This MYPP is intended for use as an operational guide to help the Office manage and coordinate its activities, as well as a resource to help communicate its mission and goals to stakeholders and the public.

  14. Barriers for the introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlagh, T.; Groenendaal, B.; Van Ree, R.; Dinkelbach, L.; Van Doorn, J.; Hemmes, K.

    2000-01-01

    The use of biomass for energy in the Netherlands is still limited despite the political incentives to make bio-energy a major source of renewable energy. The hesitation of many stake-holders is due to the limited insight into the potential of biomass in the Netherlands and the presence of numerous other barriers. Availability of biomass, emission regulation and waste treatment regulations are considered important barriers. Analyses of their current state show that these barriers are broadly recognised and possibilities to decrease their impact are present. Some barriers with a minor influence so far will be of increasing importance and could be a threat to the development of bio-energy in future. These are the fast liberalising of the energy market and sustainable energy market, the competition with other renewables and the unclear status of the current technology available. Future research should focus on the possibilities to overcome these new barriers. 5 refs

  15. Willow and poplar for bioenergy on former cropland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros

    and water demands of the trees. The water requirements of SRWCs are generally high, and high evapotranspiration rates in both SRC willow and SRF poplar decreased deep percolation, which along with low N concentrations led to low N leaching. Excessive N leaching was only observed when SRC was fertilized......Climate change is one of the 21st century’s greatest challenges and calls for immediate action through the implementation of mitigation strategies. A shift from fossil fuel to renewable energy is a key factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, with bioenergy being...... the predominant sector of renewables in the current European and global energy markets. Dedicated energy crops, such as short rotation woody crops (SRWC), are promising bioenergy feedstock in southern Scandinavia due to their high yields. Such cropping systems have high demands for land, water, and nutrients...

  16. Bioenergy potentials from forestry to 2050. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, E.; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-05-01

    In this study a bottom-up scenario analysis of the global bioenergy production potential is carried out, with specific attention for the impact of underlying factors, existing outlook studies on demand and supply and gaps in the knowledge base that explain the large range in estimates. Key variables are the demand for industrial roundwood and fuelwood, plantation establishment rates and natural forest growth. Key uncertainties are the supply of wood from trees outside and the impact of sustainable forest management (SFM) of yields. Results show that the world is capable of meeting the future demand for industrial roundwood and fuelwood, without further deforestation. The total potential of bioenergy from surplus forest growth and residues is estimated at 27 to 140 EJy -1 in 2050

  17. IEA Bioenergy task 40. Country report for the Netherlands 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkema, R.; Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.

    2007-12-01

    Short-term objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Task 40 'Sustainable International Bio-energy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand' are amongst other objectives to present an overview of development of biomass markets in various parts of the world and to identify existing barriers hampering development of a (global) commodity market (e.g. policy framework, ecology, economics). As in most countries biomass is a relatively new (though quickly growing) commodity, relatively little information is available on e.g. the traded volumes and prices of various biomass streams, policies and regulations on biomass use and trade, and existing and perceived barriers. This country report aims to provide an overview of these issues for the Netherlands and is an extended update of previous reports (2005 and 2006)

  18. Young citizens' knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy and future policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, Pradipta; Pietarinen, Janne; Havu-Nuutinen, Sari; Pelkonen, Paavo

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years extensive discussions on bioenergy has been both positive and negative. In Europe, the image of bioenergy appears to be low with lack of broad public support. Previous studies show that younger people are unsure about many issues surrounding renewable energy. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy among pupils in North Karelia, Finland. Data drawn from 495 ninth grade students indicate that the majority of them lack in-depth knowledge about different renewable energy sources, including bioenergy. Only a small percentage has a 'high' level of knowledge about bioenergy and the majority indicates critical perceptions of it. Statistically significant gender differences are not apparent. Girls appear to be more knowledgeable than boys. Results also show a clear 'urban' and 'rural' difference in perceptions of bioenergy. Perceptions of urban respondents being more positive than that of their rural counterparts. Developing collaboration between future bioenergy policies and bioenergy education for younger citizens is necessary for their engagement in critical debates on bioenergy.

  19. Sustainability standards for bioenergy-A means to reduce climate change risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Renate; Blasch, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of standards for sustainable bioenergy production. Sustainability of bioenergy production is crucial if bioenergy is supposed to contribute effectively to climate change mitigation. First, a brief overview of current bioenergy policies and of initiatives and legislation for bioenergy sustainability are given. Then, the authors show that under free market conditions undersupply of sustainable bioenergy will prevail. Two types of market failures are identified: information asymmetry and externalities in bioenergy production. Due to these market failures bioenergy is less sustainable than it could be. It is shown that mandatory certification and subsequent labeling can help to overcome the information asymmetry and lead to a more efficient market outcome since consumers can choose products according to their preferences. The authors conclude, however, that the existence of production externalities asks for stronger market intervention, for example in the form of binding minimum standards or taxes. The paper discusses the efficiency and feasibility of such policy measures and shows that mandatory certification combined with binding minimum standards can be an adequate policy choice to regulate the bioenergy market.

  20. Sustainable Palm Oil Production For Bioenergy Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wai Kiat

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergy supply chain is formed by many parts which from the raw material, biomass feedstock until the distribution and utilisation. The upstream activity is always managed in a sustainable way in order to be capable enough to support the downstream activity. In this dissertation, the sustainable production of palm oil is focused and researched through problem identification and solving by using the operation management perspective and practices. At first, the global biomass industry is st...

  1. Can we produce carbon and climate neutral forest bioenergy?

    OpenAIRE

    Repo, Anna; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka; Liski, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting branches, stumps and unmercantable tops, in addition to stem wood, decreases the carbon input to the soil and consequently reduces the forest carbon stock. We examine the changes in the forest carbon cycle that would compensate for this carbon loss over a rotation period and lead to carbon neutral forest residue bioenergy systems. In addition, we analyse the potential climate impact of these carbon neutral systems. In a boreal forest, the carbon loss was compensated for with a 10% ...

  2. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Robert F.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Searcy, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO 2 -limiting policy is enacted.

  3. The drought of 2012: Effects on photosynthesis and soil respiration in bioenergy cropping systems of the Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, M.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of drought conditions across the central US. This heightened risk on producers and economies alike also supports the need to improve our understanding of how extreme environmental conditions impact other ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, which is directly linked to net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In doing so, the scientific community aims to improve the realism of ecosystem models that are relied upon to project changes in large scale and long-term land surface-atmosphere carbon exchange as they are affected by continued land management change and climate change. One such large-scale land management change of the next several decades in the Midwest US could be the expansion of bioenergy cropping systems across the landscape. A wide range of bioenergy cropping systems (e.g., miscanthus, switchgrass, diverse prairie, hybrid poplar) are now targeted to support a feedstock supply chain for production of cellulosic biofuels. Many of these agroecosystems have only recently begun to appear as functional types in dynamic ecosystem models, and a general lack of observational data across a wide range of soils and climate has hampered model development and validation. In response to this shortcoming, from 2009 through 2012, component measurements of ecosystem carbon exchange (total soil respiration and leaf level photosynthetic rates) have been made along with measurements of other soil and meteorological variables in three model bioenergy cropping systems (continuous corn, hybrid poplar and switchgrass) at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) field trial at Arlington, Wisconsin. The three cropping systems encompass a wide range of growth (e.g. C3 vs. C4, annual vs. perennial) and management (e.g., tillage, harvesting) strategies that are predicted to impart different controls on NEE given likely varying biological responses to extreme weather events. Throughout the study period, the

  4. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: effects of cultivar on herbage intake during grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne , sward morphology, sward cutting, n-alkanes, herbage intake, selection, preference.Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) is the most important species for feeding dairy cows. The majority of the farmers in the Netherlands graze their

  5. Perennial wheat lines have highly admixed population structure and elevated rates of outcrossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial wheat has been proposed to alleviate long standing issues with soil erosion in annual cropping systems, while supporting rural communities and providing grain farmers with a marketable climate-resilient crop. The Washington State University perennial wheat breeding program has created sev...

  6. Adaptive management of perennial pepperweed for endangered specias and tidal marsh recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial pepperweed has invaded a wide range of habitat types in the far west. In the San Francisco Estuary, dense infestations have impacted sensitive tidal wetlands and compromised endangered species recovery efforts. An adaptive management effort to reduce perennial pepperweed was initiated by...

  7. Transcriptional Profiling and Identification of Heat-Responsive Genes in Perennial Ryegrass by RNA-Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehua Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne is one of the most widely used forage and turf grasses in the world due to its desirable agronomic qualities. However, as a cool-season perennial grass species, high temperature is a major factor limiting its performance in warmer and transition regions. In this study, a de novo transcriptome was generated using a cDNA library constructed from perennial ryegrass leaves subjected to short-term heat stress treatment. Then the expression profiling and identification of perennial ryegrass heat response genes by digital gene expression analyses was performed. The goal of this work was to produce expression profiles of high temperature stress responsive genes in perennial ryegrass leaves and further identify the potentially important candidate genes with altered levels of transcript, such as those genes involved in transcriptional regulation, antioxidant responses, plant hormones and signal transduction, and cellular metabolism. The de novo assembly of perennial ryegrass transcriptome in this study obtained more total and annotated unigenes compared to previously published ones. Many DEGs identified were genes that are known to respond to heat stress in plants, including HSFs, HSPs, and antioxidant related genes. In the meanwhile, we also identified four gene candidates mainly involved in C4 carbon fixation, and one TOR gene. Their exact roles in plant heat stress response need to dissect further. This study would be important by providing the gene resources for improving heat stress tolerance in both perennial ryegrass and other cool-season perennial grass plants.

  8. Control of perennial weeds by mechanical methods and anaerobic soil disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiting, H.F.; Bleeker, P.O.; Riemens, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Perennial weeds are difficult to control and ask for a specific approach. During the most recent years it has even become a great challenge to control these weeds in conventional farming systems, although in comparison effective perennial weed control in organic farming systems remains more

  9. Socio-economic drivers in implementing bioenergy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domac, J.; Richards, K.; Risovic, S.

    2005-01-01

    Within the international community there is considerable interest in the socio-economic implications of moving society towards the more widespread use of renewable energy resources. Such change is seen to be very necessary but is often poorly communicated to people and communities who need to accept such changes. There are pockets of activity across the world looking at various approaches to understand this fundamental matter. Typically, socio-economic implications are measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment and monetary gains, but in effect the analysis relates to a number of aspects which include social, cultural, institutional, and environmental issues. The extremely complex nature of bioenergy, many different technologies involved and a number of different, associated aspects (socio-economics, greenhouse gas mitigation potential, environment, ?) make this whole topic a complex subject. This paper is primarily a descriptive research and review of literature on employment and other socio-economic aspects of bioenergy systems as drivers for implementing bioenergy projects. Due to the limited information, this paper does not provide absolute quantification on the multiplier effects of local and or national incomes of any particular country or region. The paper intends to trigger a more in-depth discussion of data gaps, potentials, opportunities and challenges. An encouraging trend is that in many countries policy makers are beginning to perceive the potential economic benefits of commercial biomass e.g. employment/earnings, regional economic gain, contribution to security of energy supply and all others

  10. Assessment of bioenergy potential on marginal land in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Dafang; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Lei; Huang, Yaohuan [Data Center for Resources and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Bioenergy developed from energy plants will play a more and more important role in future energy supply. Much attention has been paid to energy plants in recent years. As China has fairly limited cultivated land resources, the bioenergy development may mainly rely on the exploitation of marginal land. This study focused on the assessment of marginal land resources and bio-fuel potential in China using newly acquired data and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. A multi-factor analysis method was adopted to identify marginal lands for bioenergy development in China, with data of several main types of energy plants on the eco-environmental requirements and natural habits employed. A combined planting zonation strategy was proposed, which was targeted for five species of energy plants including Helianthus tuberous L., Pistacia chinensis, Jatropha curcas L., Cassava and Vernicia fordii. The results indicated that total area of marginal land exploitable for development of energy plants on a large scale was about 43.75 million ha. If 10% of this marginal land was fully utilized for growing the energy plants, the production of bio-fuel would be 13.39 million tons. (author)

  11. The role of bioenergy in the energy transition. The ''Smart Bioenergy'' concept; Die Rolle der Bioenergie in der Energiewende. Das ''Smart Bioenergy''-Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thraen, Daniela [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Bioenergie (BEN); DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Seitz, Stefanie B.; Wirkner, Ronny; Nelles, Michael [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme

    2016-08-01

    The energy system's transformation away from fossil and therefore finite resources and ecological harmful use towards renewable energy sources and sustainable forms of usage proceeds. But even after 35 years, the German energy transition has yet not reached its ambitious goals. Moreover, in the recent years the progress has stagnated in certain areas. This is due to the fact that one of the central challenges of the energy system's changeover to an sole use renewable energy (RE) have not yet mastered: the reliable and stable delivery of RE for all energy dependent sectors starting form electricity via heat to mobility in the face of fluctuating energy sources like sun and wind. Bioenergy with its flexible use of innovative technologies and smart integration in the overall system is therefore vital to grant stability of energy supply. Furthermore, bioenergy can recourse on sustainable resources and may become therefore the backbone of the future bioeconomy. For this purpose an integrative approach is necessary that aligns the aforementioned building blocks in a cohesive whole: the Smart Bioenergy concept - that will be presented here with its elements but also open questions and challenges.

  12. Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elghali, Lucia; Clift, Roland; Sinclair, Philip; Panoutsou, Calliope; Bauen, Ausilio

    2007-01-01

    The potential for biomass to contribute to energy supply in a low-carbon economy is well recognised. However, for the sector to contribute fully to sustainable development in the UK, specific exploitation routes must meet the three sets of criteria usually recognised as representing the tests for sustainability: economic viability in the market and fiscal framework within which the supply chain operates; environmental performance, including, but not limited to, low carbon dioxide emissions over the complete fuel cycle; and social acceptability, with the benefits of using biomass recognised as outweighing any negative social impacts. This paper describes an approach to developing a methodology to establish a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems to provide practical advice for policy makers, planners and the bioenergy industry, and thus to support policy development and bioenergy deployment at different scales. The approach uses multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision-conferencing, to explore how such a process is able to integrate and reconcile the interests and concerns of diverse stakeholder groups

  13. Regional plan throughout sectional bioenergy of Castilla y Leon (PBCYL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.; Ayuste, R.; Diez, S.; Munoz, M. (Ente Regional de la Energia de Castilla y Leon, Leon (Spain))

    2009-07-01

    The Bioenergy Action Plan of Castilla y Leon (BAPCyL) is a tool of the Regional Government to set up measures for supporting the bioenergy sector. The plan has been elaborated by experts in energy, agriculture, woodlands, residues and economy from the Junta de castilla y Leon (the region government). The BAPCyL designers for 2020, according to European Union: Mobilize local biomass (1.600 ktep). Reach an electrical power of 260 MWe. provide heating for 250.000 people. Substitution of 10% of fossil fuels used in transport. It proposes a strategy with 50 measures and 100 specific actions, from the raw material to the final consumer: Resources: Plan of Mobilization Wood to increase the offer of the resource. Regional Energy crops Program. Complete the use of biogas from dumps. Improve the management of farmer, agricultures and agroofood residues. Inventory all organic residues available. Boost the associations of biomass producers. Users: Planning big projects. Biomass boilers for public buildings. RTDI in equipment, technology and process. Cross measures: Advising for SMEes and professional training. Biomass handbooks. Promotional campaigns. Standardization of biofuels. Regional Observatory for the bioenergy. (orig.)

  14. Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Christian

    Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

  15. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 - Countries report. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on biorefineries: Co-production of fuels, chemicals, power and materials from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Mandl, M. (Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2010-07-01

    This report has been developed by the members of IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery: Co-production of Fuels, Chemicals, Power and Materials from Biomass (www.biorefinery.nl/ieabioenergy-task42). IEA Bioenergy is a collaborative network under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) to improve international cooperation and information exchange between national bioenergy RD and D programs. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery covers a new and very broad biomass-related field, with a very large application potential, and deals with a variety of market sectors with many interested stakeholders, a large number of biomass conversion technologies, and integrated concepts of both biochemical and thermochemical processes. This report contains an overview of the biomass, bioenergy and biorefinery situation, and activities, in the Task 42 member countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The overview includes: national bioenergy production, non-energetic biomass use, bioenergy related policy goals, national oil refineries, biofuels capacity for transport purposes, existing biorefinery industries, pilot and demo plants, and other activities of research and development (such as main national projects and stakeholders). Data are provided by National Task Leaders (NTLs), whose contact details are listed at the end of the report. (author)

  16. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  17. Fusarium-induced diseases of tropical, perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT The world's oldest ecosystems are found in the tropics. They are diverse, highly evolved, but barely understood. This and subsequent papers describe diseases of tropical, perennial plants that are caused by Fusarium spp. Many of these are economically significant, difficult to manage, and of scientific interest. Some represent coevolved patho-systems (e.g., Panama disease, tracheomycosis of coffee, fusariosis of pineapple, and Fusarium wilt of oil palm), whereas others may be new-encounter diseases or are caused by generalist pathogens (cushion gall of cacao). New vector relationships are evident in other pathosystems (e.g., mango malformation), and two or more pathogens have been shown to cause some of the diseases (Panama disease and tracheomycosis of coffee). More work on these pathosystems is warranted as they could reveal much about the evolution of plant pathogens and the important diseases they cause.

  18. Efficacy of montelukast for treating perennial allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, George; Williams-Herman, Debora; Patel, Piyush; Weinstein, Steven F; Alon, Achilles; Gilles, Leen; Tozzi, Carol A; Dass, S Balachandra; Reiss, Theodore F

    2007-01-01

    Perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) is a chronic inflammatory nasal condition in individuals exposed year-round to allergens. This was a double-blind study of 15- to 85-year-old patients randomly allocated to montelukast, 10 mg (n=630), placebo (n=613), or the positive control cetirizine, 10 mg (n=122) for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in Daytime Nasal Symptoms Score (DNSS; mean of congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and itching scores, rated daily by patients [scale: 0=none to 3=severe]) averaged during the initial 4 weeks (primary analysis) or entire 6 weeks of treatment. Also assessed were combined post hoc results of primary end point data from this study and another similarly designed study (Patel P, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of montelukast for treating perennial allergic rhinitis, Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 95:551, 2005). Over 4 weeks, montelukast showed numerical improvement over placebo in DNSS (least-squares mean difference of -0.04 [95% confidence interval (CI}, -0.09, 0.01]); the difference between cetirizine and placebo was significant: -0.10 (95% CI, -0.19, -0.01). However, when averaged over 6 weeks, neither active treatment was significantly different from placebo. The Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality-of-Life score was significantly improved by montelukast (p < 0.05), but not by cetirizine, during 4 and 6 weeks. The treatment effect of montelukast, but not cetirizine, generally remained consistent through the 6 weeks of treatment. In pooled data, montelukast consistently improved DNSS versus placebo during all 6 weeks of treatment (-0.07 [95% CI, -0.10, -0.041). In conclusion, montelukast produced numerical improvement in daytime nasal symptoms and significant improvement in quality of life. In a pooled post hoc analysis, montelukast provided consistent improvement in daytime nasal symptoms over 6 weeks, supportive of an overall benefit in PAR.

  19. The effect of technogenic emissions on the heavy metals accumulation by herbaceous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Victor; Minkina, Tatiana; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Burachevskaya, Marina; Sushkova, Svetlana; Poluektov, Evgeniy; Antonenko, Elena; Kumacheva, Valentina

    2018-02-07

    The effect of technogenic emissions on the input of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Cr, and Ni into plants from the Poaceae and Asteraceae families has been studied. Soil and plant contamination by anthropogenic emissions from industrial enterprises leads the decreasing of crop quality; therefore, the monitoring investigation of plants and soils acquires special importance. The herbaceous plants may be used as bioindicators for main environmental changes. It was found that the high level of anthropogenic load related to atmospheric emissions from the power plant favors the heavy metal (HM) accumulation in herbaceous plants. Contamination with Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni was revealed in plants growing near the power plant. Heavy metals arrive to plants from the soil in the form of mobile compounds. Plant family is one of the main factors affecting the HM distribution in the above- and underground parts of plants. Plants from the Poaceae family accumulate less chemical elements in their aboveground parts than the Asteraceae plants. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Artemisia austriaca are HM accumulators. For assessing the stability of plants under contamination with HMs, metal accumulation by plants from soil (the bioconcentration factor) and metal phytoavailability from plants above- and underground parts (the acropetal coefficient) were calculated. According to the bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values, Poaceae species are most resistant to technogenic contamination with HMs. The translocation factor highest values were found for Tanacetum vulgare; the lowest bioconcentration factor values were typical for Poa pratensis.

  20. Herbaceous Angiosperms Are Not More Vulnerable to Drought-Induced Embolism Than Angiosperm Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Delmas, Chloé E L; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Cochard, Hervé; Jansen, Steven; Chauvin, Thibaud; Doria, Larissa Chacon; Del Arco, Marcelino; Delzon, Sylvain

    2016-10-01

    The water transport pipeline in herbs is assumed to be more vulnerable to drought than in trees due to the formation of frequent embolisms (gas bubbles), which could be removed by the occurrence of root pressure, especially in grasses. Here, we studied hydraulic failure in herbaceous angiosperms by measuring the pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance (P 50 ) in stems of 26 species, mainly European grasses (Poaceae). Our measurements show a large range in P 50 from -0.5 to -7.5 MPa, which overlaps with 94% of the woody angiosperm species in a worldwide, published data set and which strongly correlates with an aridity index. Moreover, the P 50 values obtained were substantially more negative than the midday water potentials for five grass species monitored throughout the entire growing season, suggesting that embolism formation and repair are not routine and mainly occur under water deficits. These results show that both herbs and trees share the ability to withstand very negative water potentials without considerable embolism formation in their xylem conduits during drought stress. In addition, structure-function trade-offs in grass stems reveal that more resistant species are more lignified, which was confirmed for herbaceous and closely related woody species of the daisy group (Asteraceae). Our findings could imply that herbs with more lignified stems will become more abundant in future grasslands under more frequent and severe droughts, potentially resulting in lower forage digestibility. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. EASTERN DODDER (CUSCUTA MONOGYNA VAHL.) SEED GERMINATION AFFECTED BY SOME HERBACEOUS DISTILLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassaghi, M; Hassannejad, S

    2015-01-01

    Eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.) is one of the noxious parasitic weeds that infected many ornamental trees in green spaces and gardens. Our purpose is to find natural inhibitors for prevention of its seed germination. In order to reach this aim, laboratory studies were conducted by using of herbaceous distillates of Dracocephalum moldavica, Nasturtium officinalis, Malva neglecta, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Rosa damascene, Ziziphora tenuior, and Urtica dioica on seed germination of C. monogyna. Z. tenuior distillate stimulated C. monogyna seed germination, whereas others reduced this parasitic weed's seed germination. D. moldavica caused maximum inhibition on weed seed germination. Seedling growth of C. monogyna was more affected than its seed germination. All of these herbaceous distillates reduced C. monogyna seedling length so that the latter decreased from 28.2 mm in distilled water to 4.5, 3.97, 3.85, 3.67, 3.1, 2.87, 2.57, 1.9, and 1.17 in M. pulegium, M. piperita, F. officinalis, Z. tenuior, N. officinalis, M. neglecta, R. damascene, U. dioica and D. moldavica, respectively. By using these medicinal plants distillates instead of herbicides, the parasitic weed seedling length and host plant infection will reduce.

  2. A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.H.

    1999-11-24

    To perform a statistically rigorous meta-analysis of research results on the response by herbaceous vegetation to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, a multiparameter database of responses was compiled from the published literature. Seventy-eight independent CO{sub 2}-enrichment studies, covering 53 species and 26 response parameters, reported mean response, sample size, and variance of the response (either as standard deviation or standard error). An additional 43 studies, covering 25 species and 6 response parameters, did not report variances. This numeric data package accompanies the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center's (CDIAC's) NDP-072, which provides similar information for woody vegetation. This numeric data package contains a 30-field data set of CO{sub 2}-exposure experiment responses by herbaceous plants (as both a flat ASCII file and a spreadsheet file), files listing the references to the CO{sub 2}-exposure experiments and specific comments relevant to the data in the data sets, and this documentation file (which includes SAS{reg_sign} and Fortran codes to read the ASCII data file). The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from CDIAC.

  3. Greenhouse gas balances of bioenergy systems: Programme and accomplishments of IEA Bioenergy Task XV, 1995-97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzer, J.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of IEA Bioenergy Task XV was to investigate all processes involved in using bioenergy systems, on a full fuel-cycle basis, with the aim of establishing overall greenhouse gas (GHG) balances. Task participants have been Austria, Canada, Finland, Sweden and the U.S.A. (Operating Agent: Austria). During its work period (1995-97), Task XV hosted five international workshops. The scientific achievements of the Task are documented in a number of published papers. Also, a bibliography on the research area was compiled. Much work was devoted to the question of carbon accounting in the context of the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and Task XV made contributions to a draft IPCC special report prepared for the IPCC Expert Group on Harvested Wood Products. The technical paper 'Forest harvests and wood products: sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide' (Forest Science, forthcoming) contrasts two carbon accounting approaches for considering wood products in the IPCC Guidelines (i.e., 'atmospheric-flow' vs. 'stock-change' method) and reports on estimated national carbon source-sink balances for selected countries, regions, and the world. Finally, progress was made in establishing a common analytical framework to compare different bioenergy options. The framework considers on-site carbon storage changes as well as GHG emissions from auxiliary fossil fuels, conversion efficiencies, and emission credits for by-products; comparisons between bioenergy systems and traditional fossil fuel and other energy systems as a reference are allowed, and reference land-uses accounted for. The continuation Task is Task 25 (1998-2000), with New Zealand joining the current partners 9 refs, 2 tabs

  4. What is the future of the bioenergy?; Wo geht es mit der Bioenergie hin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, S. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Within the scope of the 3rd symposium ''Processes and materials for energy technologies'', held between 20th and 21st June, 2007, at the ATZ Entwicklungszentrum in Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Federal Republic of Germany), the authors report on an extract from and on the state of the art of the current research and development in the range of the energetic use of biofuels and fermentation gas. The main themes of this contribution are: (a) state of the art and future development of the renewable energy; (b) Procedures in the energetic use of biomass; (c) Biofuels; (d) Fermentation gas. In the year 2006, the emission of carbon dioxide could be reduced by 97 million tons due to a substitution of other sources of energies in the area of electric current, thermal energy and fuels. An additional reduction of the emission of carbon dioxide of nearly 11 million tons were achieved by the development of the renewable energy. Due to an increased demand, the renewable energy increasingly becomes an increasingly economic factor in the Federal Republic of Germany. Simultaneously, other sources of regenerative energy such as geothermal processes have to be used more strongly. In order to reduce the future consumption of energy decisively, the efficiency of utilization in all sectors as well as the efficiency of transformation have to be improved by enlargement of combined heat and power generation and more efficient power stations. Even the consumer has to contribute to the development of the consumption of energy. Today, the potentials of the use of bioenergy are existing. In future, these potentials have to be used technically, economically and ecologically without any ideology.

  5. A systematic review of bioenergy life cycle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, Stefan; Guenther, Edeltraud

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We conducted a systematic literature review of bioenergy LCAs. • We provide a detailed overview of GWP, AP, and EP for biomass electricity and heat. • We discuss methodological choices that can lead to variations in results. • Relevant choices are functional unit, allocation method, system boundary, and carbon modelling. - Abstract: On a global scale, bioenergy is highly relevant to renewable energy options. Unlike fossil fuels, bioenergy can be carbon neutral and plays an important role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass electricity and heat contribute 90% of total final biomass energy consumption, and many reviews of biofuel Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) have been published. However, only a small number of these reviews are concerned with electricity and heat generation from biomass, and these reviews focus on only a few impact categories. No review of biomass electricity and heat LCAs included a detailed quantitative assessment. The failure to consider heat generation, the insufficient consideration of impact categories, and the missing quantitative overview in bioenergy LCA reviews constitute research gaps. The primary goal of the present review was to give an overview of the environmental impact of biomass electricity and heat. A systematic review was chosen as the research method to achieve a comprehensive and minimally biased overview of biomass electricity and heat LCAs. We conducted a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact of biomass electricity and heat. There is a significant variability in results of biomass electricity and heat LCAs. Assumptions regarding the bioenergy system and methodological choices are likely reasons for extreme values. The secondary goal of this review is to discuss influencing methodological choices. No general consensus has been reached regarding the optimal functional unit, the ideal allocation of environmental impact between co-products, the definition of the system boundary

  6. Potential Air Quality Impacts of Global Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The use of bioenergy crops as a replacement for traditional coal-powered electricity generation will require large-scale land-use change, and the resulting changes in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may have negative impacts on local to regional air quality. BVOCs contribute to the formation of both ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with magnitudes of specific compound emissions governed largely by plant speciation and land coverage. For this reason, large-scale land-use change has the potential to markedly alter regional O3 and PM2.5 levels, especially if there are large differences between the emission profiles of the replacement bioenergy crops (many of which are high BVOC emitters) and the previous crops or land cover. In this work, replacement areas suitable for the cultivation of the bioenergy crops switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and giant reed (Arundo donax) were selected based on existing global inventories of under-utilized cropland and local climatological conditions. These two crops are among the most popular current candidates for bioenergy production, and provide contrasting examples of energy densities and emissions profiles. While giant reed has been selected in an ongoing large-scale coal-to-biocharcoal conversion in the Northwestern United States due to its high crop yields and energy density, it is also among the highest biogenic emitters of isoprene. On the other hand, switchgrass produces less biomass per acre, but also emits essentially no isoprene and low total BVOCs. The effects of large-scale conversion to these crops on O3 and PM2.5 were simulated using version 1.1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with version 2.1 of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). By comparing crop replacement scenarios involving A. donax and P. virgatum, the sensitivities of O3 and PM2.5 levels to worldwide increases in bioenergy production were examined, providing an initial

  7. Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Peter D. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-09-12

    Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds

  8. Bioenergy Crop Breeding and Production Research in the Southeast, Final Report for 1996 to 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.H.

    2003-05-30

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native grass species to much of the US. It has shown great potential for use in production of fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass (Lynd et al., 1991). Work in Alabama demonstrated very high dry matter yields can be achieved with switchgrass (Maposse et al. 1995) in the southeastern US. Therefore, this region is thought to be an excellent choice for development of a switchgrass cropping system where farmers can produce the grass for either biomass or forage. Another report has shown success with selection and breeding to develop high yielding germplasm from adapted cultivars and ecotypes of switchgrass (Moser and Vogel 1995). In the mid 1990s, however, there was little plant breeding effort for switchgrass with a potential for developing a cultivar for the southeast region. The main goal of the project was to develop adaptive, high-yielding switchgrass cultivars for use in cropping systems for bioenergy production in the southeastern US. A secondary objective was to assess the potential of alternate herbaceous species such as bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge.), and napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) that may compete with switchgrass for herbaceous bioenergy production in the southeast. During the conduct of the project, another goal of developing molecular markers useful for genetic mapping was added. The ''lowland'' cultivars, Alamo and Kanlow, were found to be the highest yielding switchgrass cultivars. Although most summers during the project period were hot and dry, their annual dry matter yield continue to outperform the best ''upland'' cultivars such as Cave-in-Rock, Shawnee, NE Late, and Trailblazer. The use of a breeding procedure based on the ''honeycomb design'' and multi-location progeny testing, coupled with the solid heritability and genetic gain estimates for dry matter yield in lowland type switchgrass

  9. The role of bioenergy in the energy transition. The ''Smart Bioenergy'' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thraen, Daniela; DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig; Seitz, Stefanie B.; Wirkner, Ronny; Nelles, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The energy system's transformation away from fossil and therefore finite resources and ecological harmful use towards renewable energy sources and sustainable forms of usage proceeds. But even after 35 years, the German energy transition has yet not reached its ambitious goals. Moreover, in the recent years the progress has stagnated in certain areas. This is due to the fact that one of the central challenges of the energy system's changeover to an sole use renewable energy (RE) have not yet mastered: the reliable and stable delivery of RE for all energy dependent sectors starting form electricity via heat to mobility in the face of fluctuating energy sources like sun and wind. Bioenergy with its flexible use of innovative technologies and smart integration in the overall system is therefore vital to grant stability of energy supply. Furthermore, bioenergy can recourse on sustainable resources and may become therefore the backbone of the future bioeconomy. For this purpose an integrative approach is necessary that aligns the aforementioned building blocks in a cohesive whole: the Smart Bioenergy concept - that will be presented here with its elements but also open questions and challenges.

  10. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  11. Towards reconstructing herbaceous biome dynamics and associated precipitation in Africa: insights from the classification of grass morphological traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasturel, Marine; Alexandre, Anne; Novello, Alice; Moctar Dieye, Amadou; Wele, Abdoulaye; Paradis, Laure; Hely, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Inter-tropical herbaceous ecosystems occupy a 1/5th of terrestrial surface, a half of the African continent, and are expected to extend in the next decades. Dynamic of these ecosystems is simulated with poor accuracy by Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). One of the bias results from the fact that the diversity of the grass layer dominating these herbaceous ecosystems is poorly taken into account. Mean annual precipitation and the length of the dry season are the main constrains of the dynamics of these ecosystems. Conversely, changes in vegetation affect the water cycle. Inaccuracy in herbaceous ecosystem simulation thus impacts simulations of the water cycle (including precipitation) and vice versa. In order to increase our knowledge of the relationships between grass morphological traits, taxonomy, biomes and climatic niches in Western and South Africa, a 3-step methodology was followed: i) values of culm height, leaf length and width of dominant grass species from Senegal were gathered from flora and clustered using the Partition Around Medoids (PAM) method; ii) trait group ability to sign climatic domains and biomes was assessed using Kruskal-Wallis tests; iii) genericity and robustness of the trait groups were evaluated through their application to Chadian and South African botanical datasets. Results show that 8 grass trait groups are present either in Senegal, Chad or South Africa. These 8 trait groups are distributed along mean annual precipitation and dry season length gradients. The combination of three of them allow to discriminate mean annual precipitation domains (1000 mm) and herbaceous biomes (steppes, savannas, South African grasslands and Nama-Karoo). With these results in hand, grass Plant Functional Types (PFTs) of the DGMV LPJ-GUESS will be re-parameterized and particular attention will be given to the herbaceous biomass assigned to each grass trait group. Simultaneously, relationships between grass trait groups and phytolith vegetation

  12. Modeling the development and utilization of bioenergy and exploring the environmental economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A complete bioenergy flow is schemed to industrialize bioenergy utilization. • An input–output optimization simulation model is developed. • Energy supply and demand and bioenergy industries’ development are optimized. • Carbon tax and subsidies are endogenously derived by the model. • Environmental economic benefits of bioenergy utilization are explored dynamically. - Abstract: This paper outlines a complete bioenergy flow incorporating bioresource procurement, feedstock supply, conversion technologies and energy consumption to industrialize the development and utilization of bioenergy. An input–output optimization simulation model is developed to introduce bioenergy industries into the regional socioeconomy and energy production and consumption system and dynamically explore the economic, energy and environmental benefits. 16-term simulation from 2010 to 2025 is performed in scenarios preset based on bioenergy industries, carbon tax-subsidization policy and distinct levels of greenhouse gas emission constraints. An empirical study is conducted to validate and apply the model. In the optimal scenario, both industrial development and energy supply and demand are optimized contributing to a 8.41% average gross regional product growth rate and a 39.9% reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the base scenario. By 2025 the consumption ratio of bioenergy in total primary energy could be increased from 0.5% to 8.2%. Energy self-sufficiency rate could be increased from 57.7% to 77.9%. A dynamic carbon tax rate and the extent to which bioenergy industrial development could be promoted are also elaborated. Regional economic development and greenhouse gas mitigation can be potentially promoted simultaneously by bioenergy utilization and a proper greenhouse gas emission constraint. The methodology presented is capable of introducing new industries or policies related to energy planning and detecting the best tradeoffs of

  13. Sustainability of bioenergy chains. The result is in the details

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, J.M.C.

    2009-05-13

    This thesis investigated how the feasibility and sustainability of large-scale bioenergy production, supply and use for local use or trade can be determined ex ante on a regional level, taking into account the complexities and variabilities of the underlying factors like food demand and land use. Recently, governments, NGOs, companies and international organizations (e.g. Dutch government, Solidaridad, Shell or FAO) have taken initiatives to guarantee the sustainable production and use of biomass. Uncertainties on the feasibility, implementation and costs of international biomass certification systems and the compliance with international laws and agreements have to be resolved. A developed software tool shows that it is possible to allow users from various regions to use one methodology and tool to calculate the GHG balances and cost-effectiveness of biomass energy systems. Core methodological issues are accommodated in the tool. One of the case studies demonstrates e.g. that the allocation procedure should be carefully defined as is shown by the variation in results, which is 35 to 50 kg CO2 eq./GJ delivered in GHG emissions. The technical potentials and cost-supply curves of bioenergy are assessed for Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) on a regional level. The more favourable scenarios to 2030 show a highest potential of 11.7 EJ. In most CEEC, bulk of the biomass potential can be produced at costs below 2 euro/GJ. The cost performance of energy carriers supplied from the CEEC is assessed for a set of bioenergy chains. Ethanol can be produced at 12 to 21 euro/GJ if the biomass conversion is performed at selected destinations in Western Europe or at 15 to 18 euro/GJ if biomass to ethanol conversion takes place where the biomass is produced. A case in Argentina shows the potential and economic feasibility of large-scale bioenergy production from soybeans and switchgrass, cultivated in La Pampa province. For the various scenarios to 2030, biodiesel from

  14. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    To increase security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions the European Commission set out a long-term strategy for renewable energy in the European Union (EU). Bioenergy from forestry and agriculture plays a key role for both. Since the last decade a significant increase of biomass energy plantations has been observed in Europe. Concurrently, the EU agreed to halt the loss of biodiversity within its member states. One measure is the Natura2000 network of important nature sites that actually covers about 20% of the EU land surface. However, to fulfil the biodiversity target more nature conservation and restoration sites need to be designated. There are arising concerns that an increased cultivation of bioenergy crops will decrease the land available for nature reserves and for "traditional" agriculture and forestry. In the following the economic and ecological impacts of structural land use changes are demonstrated by two examples. First, a case study of land use changes on the Eiderstedt peninsula in Schleswig-Holstein/Germany evaluates the impacts of grassland conversion into bioenergy plantations under consideration of selected meadow birds. Scenarios indicate not only a quantitative loss of habitats but also a reduction of habitat quality. The second study assesses the role of bioenergy production in light of possible negative impacts on potential wetland conservation sites in Europe. By coupling the spatial wetland distribution model "SWEDI" (cf. SCHLEUPNER 2007) to the European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (EUFASOM; cf. SCHNEIDER ET AL. 2008) economic and environmental aspects of land use are evaluated simultaneously. This way the costs and benefits of the appropriate measures and its consequences for agriculture and forestry are investigated. One aim is to find the socially optimal balance between alternative wetland uses by integrating biological benefits - in this case wetlands - and economic opportunities - here

  15. Do agrometeorological data improve optical satellite-based estimations of the herbaceous yield in Sahelian semi-arid ecosystems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Hiernaux, Pierre; Brandt, Martin Stefan

    2016-01-01

    evapotranspiration satellite gridded data to estimate the annual herbaceous yield in the semi-arid areas of Senegal. It showed that a machine-learning model combining FAPAR seasonal metrics with various agrometeorological data provided better estimations of the in situ annual herbaceous yield (R2 = 0.69; RMSE = 483...... kg·DM/ha) than models based exclusively on FAPAR metrics (R2 = 0.63; RMSE = 550 kg·DM/ha) or agrometeorological variables (R2 = 0.55; RMSE = 585 kg·DM/ha). All the models provided reasonable outputs and showed a decrease in the mean annual yield with increasing latitude, together with an increase...

  16. Bio-energy and youth: Analyzing the role of school, home, and media from the future policy perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, Pradipta; Havu-Nuutinen, Sari; Pietarinen, Janne; Pelkonen, Paavo

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the relationships between students' perceived information on bio-energy from school, home and media and their perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge regarding bio-energy. The study also analyzed the scope of future policies to raise awareness among young students about bio-energy. Data drawn from 495 Finnish students studying in ninth grade revealed that the students were more positive in their attitudes towards bio-energy compared to their perceptions of it. They were very positive about learning about bio-energy, while not so eager towards its utilization. It appeared that school, home, and media all had statistically significant effects on students' perceptions, attitudes, and level of knowledge related to bio-energy. Three principal components emerged from students' perceptions and attitudes towards bio-energy viz. 'motivation' revealing students' eagerness to know more about bio-energy; 'considering sustainability' revealing their criticality of forest bio-energy; and 'utilization' revealing their state of interests to use bio-energy. Bio-energy policies to be effective must consider the role of school, home, and media as important means to engage young students in bio-energy related discussions. It is also desirable to establish interactions between energy and educational policies to integrate the modern renewable energy concepts in the school curriculum.

  17. Bio-energy and youth: Analyzing the role of school, home, and media from the future policy perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Pradipta; Pelkonen, Paavo [School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Havu-Nuutinen, Sari [School of Applied Educational Science and Teacher Education, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pietarinen, Janne [School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2011-04-15

    The study investigated the relationships between students' perceived information on bio-energy from school, home and media and their perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge regarding bio-energy. The study also analyzed the scope of future policies to raise awareness among young students about bio-energy. Data drawn from 495 Finnish students studying in ninth grade revealed that the students were more positive in their attitudes towards bio-energy compared to their perceptions of it. They were very positive about learning about bio-energy, while not so eager towards its utilization. It appeared that school, home, and media all had statistically significant effects on students' perceptions, attitudes, and level of knowledge related to bio-energy. Three principal components emerged from students' perceptions and attitudes towards bio-energy viz. 'motivation' revealing students' eagerness to know more about bio-energy; 'considering sustainability' revealing their criticality of forest bio-energy; and 'utilization' revealing their state of interests to use bio-energy. Bio-energy policies to be effective must consider the role of school, home, and media as important means to engage young students in bio-energy related discussions. It is also desirable to establish interactions between energy and educational policies to integrate the modern renewable energy concepts in the school curriculum. (author)

  18. [Reflection on developing bio-energy industry of large oil company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyang; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Shumin; Wang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    China's energy supply becomes more serious nowadays and the development of bio-energy becomes a major trend. Large oil companies have superb technology, rich experience and outstanding talent, as well as better sales channels for energy products, which can make full use of their own advantages to achieve the efficient complementary of exist energy and bio-energy. Therefore, large oil companies have the advantages of developing bio-energy. Bio-energy development in China is in the initial stage. There exist some problems such as available land, raw material supply, conversion technologies and policy guarantee, which restrict bio-energy from industrialized development. According to the above key issues, this article proposes suggestions and methods, such as planting energy plant in the marginal barren land to guarantee the supply of bio-energy raw materials, cultivation of professional personnel, building market for bio-energy counting on large oil companies' rich experience and market resources about oil industry, etc, aimed to speed up the industrialized process of bio-energy development in China.

  19. Fostering the Bioeconomic Revolution in Biobased Products and Bioenergy: An Environmental Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2001-01-01

    This document is a product of the Biomass Research and Development Board and presents a high-level summary of the emerging national strategy for biobased products and bioenergy. It provides the first integrated approach to policies and procedures that will promote R&D and demonstration leading to accelerated production of biobased products and bioenergy.

  20. Small-scale bioenergy projects in rural China: Lessons to be learnt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Large amounts of small-scale bioenergy projects were carried out in China's rural areas in light of its national renewable energy policies. These projects applied pyrolysis gasification as the main technology, which turns biomass waste at low costs into biogas. This paper selects seven bioenergy

  1. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land: a case study of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217; Tabeau, A.; Hilbert, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input–output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural

  2. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land—A case study of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, E.; Tabeau, Andrzej; Hilbert, Jorge; Faaij, André

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input–output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural

  3. Bioenergy, Land Use Change and Climate Change Mitigation. Report for Policy Advisors and Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.

  4. Chinese academic experts' assessment for forest bio-energy development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Mei; Ahponen, Pirkkoliisa; Tahvanainen, Liisa; Pelkonen, Paavo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current situation of the forest bio-energy development in China. This assessment is based on opinions of Chinese academic experts. Key drivers and uncertainties regarding the implementation, and the strategies for the future practices in the development of forest bio-energy were investigated. In addition, the purpose of this study was also to determine whether there is a consensus among the experts concerning forest bio-energy and if this consensus agrees with policy-makers in China. A thorough assessment was conducted using a two-round Delphi survey of sixty-one bio-energy experts in China. The results revealed the advantages, potential problems, and the experts' recommendations for the future development. Furthermore, the experts agreed that the Chinese government plays a dominant role in the development process of forest bio-energy in the country. The experts recognized that the process of developing forest bio-energy is a challenging task both domestically and globally. At the same time they also highlighted the potential benefits of developing forest bio-energy in China during the next ten years. The outcomes of this study could be used to give advice to policy-makers and to support the implementation of the future forest bio-energy policies in China.

  5. Linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO2 emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bright, Ryan M.; Stromman, Anders H.; Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Many future energy and emission scenarios envisage an increase of bio-energy in the global primary energy mix. In most climate impact assessment models and policies, bio-energy systems are assumed to be carbon neutral, thus ignoring the time lag between CO 2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO 2 uptake by vegetation. Here, we show that the temperature peak caused by CO 2 emissions from bio-energy is proportional to the maximum rate at which emissions occur and is almost insensitive to cumulative emissions. Whereas the carbon-climate response (CCR) to fossil fuel emissions is approximately constant, the CCR to bio-energy emissions depends on time, biomass turnover times, and emission scenarios. The linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO 2 emission rates resembles the characteristic of the temperature response to short-lived climate forcers. As for the latter, the timing of CO 2 emissions from bio-energy matters. Under the international agreement to limit global warming to 2 C by 2100, early emissions from bio-energy thus have smaller contributions on the targeted temperature than emissions postponed later into the future, especially when bio-energy is sourced from biomass with medium (50-60 years) or long turnover times (100 years). (authors)

  6. Bioenergy resources in forest. Economic potential survey; Bioenergiressurser i skog. Kartlegging av oekonomisk potensial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergseng, Even; Eid, Tron; Roerstad, Per Kristian; Troemborg, Erik

    2012-07-01

    Forests constitute the largest resource potential for bioenergy in Norway. Based on simulations of forest development in Norway forward costs in the industry and other specified conditions, this study gives analysis and cost curves for increased recovery of bioenergy from Norwegian forests. (Author)

  7. A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Thomas S.; Volk, Timothy A.; Luzadis, Valerie A.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner

  8. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper: targeted use of genome resources for comparative grass genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben; Mayer, Klaus F X; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Byrne, Stephen; Frei, Ursula; Studer, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species.

  9. Determination of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability indicators using fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkeman, Y.; Rizkyanti, R. A.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    Development of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy faces an international challenge regarding to sustainability issue, indicated by the establishment of standards on sustainable bioenergy. Currently, Indonesia has sustainability standards limited to palm-oil cultivation, while other standards are lacking appropriateness for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability regarding to real condition in Indonesia. Thus, Indonesia requires sustainability indicators for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy to gain recognition and easiness in marketing it. Determination of sustainability indicators was accomplished through three stages, which were preliminary analysis, indicator assessment (using fuzzy inference system), and system validation. Global Bioenergy partnership (GBEP) was used as the standard for the assessment because of its general for use, internationally accepted, and it contained balanced proportion between environment, economic, and social aspects. Result showed that the number of sustainability indicators using FIS method are 21 indicators. The system developed has an accuracy of 85%.

  10. From Sustainability-as-usual to Sustainability Excellence in Local Bioenergy Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Kasurinen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy business operators can significantly contribute to the sustainability of bioenergy systems. While research has addressed the maturity of corporate responsibility for sustainability, the maturity levels of bioenergy business have not been determined. The objectives of this research were to characterise the maturity levels of bioenergy corporate responsibility for sustainability and outline an approach by which companies can operate at the most mature sustainability excellence level. Literature, three workshops attended by bioenergy experts and a case study on biobutanol production in Brazil were used to develop the maturity model and approach. The results characterise the profitability, acceptability, and sustainability orientation maturity levels through sustainability questions and methods, and list the components of a systemic, holistic approach. Although the shift of business mindset from sustainability-as-usual to sustainability excellence is challenging, a systemic approach is necessary to broadly identify sustainability questions and a multitude of methods by which they can be answered.

  11. Cumulative drought and land-use impacts on perennial vegetation across a North American dryland region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Long, A. Lexine; Wallace, Cynthia; Webb, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Question The decline and loss of perennial vegetation in dryland ecosystems due to global change pressures can alter ecosystem properties and initiate land degradation processes. We tracked changes of perennial vegetation using remote sensing to address the question of how prolonged drought and land-use intensification have affected perennial vegetation cover across a desert region in the early 21st century? Location Mojave Desert, southeastern California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona, USA. Methods We coupled the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Enhanced Vegetation Index (MODIS-EVI) with ground-based measurements of perennial vegetation cover taken in about 2000 and about 2010. Using the difference between these years, we determined perennial vegetation changes in the early 21st century and related these shifts to climate, soil and landscape properties, and patterns of land use. Results We found a good fit between MODIS-EVI and perennial vegetation cover (2000: R2 = 0.83 and 2010: R2 = 0.74). The southwestern, far southeastern and central Mojave Desert had large declines in perennial vegetation cover in the early 21st century, while the northeastern and southeastern portions of the desert had increases. These changes were explained by 10-yr precipitation anomalies, particularly in the cool season and during extreme dry or wet years. Areas heavily impacted by visitor use or wildfire lost perennial vegetation cover, and vegetation in protected areas increased to a greater degree than in unprotected areas. Conclusions We find that we can extrapolate previously documented declines of perennial plant cover to an entire desert, and demonstrate that prolonged water shortages coupled with land-use intensification create identifiable patterns of vegetation change in dryland regions.

  12. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) loci mapping in the genome of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivorienė, O; Pašakinskienė, I; Brazauskas, G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize new ISSR markers and their loci in the genome of perennial ryegrass. A subsample of the VrnA F2 mapping family of perennial ryegrass comprising 92 individuals was used to develop a linkage map including inter-simple sequence repeat markers...... demonstrated a 70% similarity to the Hordeum vulgare germin gene GerA. Inter-SSR mapping will provide useful information for gene targeting, quantitative trait loci mapping and marker-assisted selection in perennial ryegrass....

  13. The development of bioenergy in Austria and in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Austria is interested in using of biomass for energy because of its energy, environmental, agricultural and social policy. The country imports more than two thirds of the energy (about 350 P J/a). As the energy production using fossils decreases, the dependence of the country on imported energy increases. Compensation of this could be only an increase of hydropower and of bio-energy utilization but about 70% of the domestic hydropower is already used and the use of the remaining 30% is ecologically objected. So this increase relies on bio-energy. It is non exhaustible and very attractive as is neutral to carbon dioxide emissions. With of 46% of its territory wooded and large quantities of by-products, the country has an enormous potential for bio-energy production. Like other European countries there is surplus food and feed production, expressed as about 350 000 ha arable and greenland . The cultivation of new and special crops could reduce the surplus area to 170 000 ha for energy crops. The regional utilization of biomass for energy production would contribute to the creation of new jobs in the undeveloped rural areas. Each MW installed capacity would result to 2-3 new jobs and prevent the migration of 2-3 families from rural to urban regions saving large subsidies. The share of bio-energy is 10.9% of the primary energy consumption or 13.5% of the end energy consumption and is continually increasing. Bio-energy by wood by-product is mainly used for space heating with a total capacity of 2.5 GW: 90% of the furnaces are of less than 100 k W, the rest are of medium capacity (100-1000 k W) and only 364 of a capacity larger than 1MW. Considerable technical progress in decreasing emissions from wood burning was made in recently. About 25% of the bio-fuels are used in industrial installations and about 75% for space heating. The industrial boilers use fluidized-bed technology and co-generation systems using steam. Starting from 2005 3% of the electricity have to be

  14. Sustainability and meanings of farm-based bioenergy production in rural Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S.

    2013-06-01

    Rural bioenergy production has accrued interest in recent years. EU pressure for climate change abatement and energy political concerns regarding the availability of fossil fuels, have increased bioenergy production objectives in Finland. In addition, rural regions in Finland have encountered structural changes following EU inclusion, including an emergent interest in auxiliary production lines of which bioenergy production is an example. Local bioenergy production has the potential to increase rural sustainability and provide a model for sustainable rural development and energy production. Focusing on the recent emergence of small-scale farm-related bioenergy production: heat provision from wood fuels and biogas and biodiesel production, this study aims to discover if and how farm-based bioenergy production contributes to sustainable rural development. The study derives from the field of rural studies and evaluates sustainable rural development via the concepts of multifunctionality, embeddedness, ecological modernization and sustainable livelihoods, with a particular focus on social sustainability. The empirical portion of the study is comprised of thematic qualitative interviews of bioenergy producing farmers, and on newspaper and periodical article material. The results demonstrate how rural small-scale bioenergy production can have important positive developmental effects that ameliorate and sustain livelihoods in remote areas. This occurs via the multifunctional benefits of bioenergy production to the producers and local communities. The positive effects include social, economical and environmental aspects and rural bioenergy production can present traits of sustainable rural development, predominantly manifested in the social aspects of increased capabilities and reinforced social networks. There are, however, important differences between the examined production models. As an example of achieving sustainable rural development and livelihoods, heat

  15. Taxonomic revision and distribution of herbaceous Paramollugo (Molluginaceae in the Eastern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Sukhorukov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Paramollugo with the type species Paramollugo nudicaulis (≡Mollugo nudicaulis has recently been described after molecular investigations. Here we report two new endemic Malagasy species: Paramollugo simulans and P. elliotii, and transfer a forgotten New Caledonian endemic Mollugo digyna to Paramollugo (P. digyna. Consequently, the number of Paramollugo species in the Eastern Hemisphere is increased from three to six. Almost all genus representatives (except P. nudicaulis, which has a wide distribution in Southern Asia, Arabia and tropical Africa are endemic to Madagascar, Somalia, or New Caledonia. Since the type of seed coat ornamentation is crucial for species delimitation, a diagnostic key with new taxonomically significant carpological characters and other new traits is provided for all the herbaceous Paramollugo. The distribution patterns of P. nudicaulis s.str., P. simulans and P. elliotii are presented.

  16. Evaluation of the Relative Merits of Herbaceous and Woody Crops for Use in Tunable Thermochemical Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon-Hyun [Ceres, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Martinalbo, Ilya [Choren USA, LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes the work and findings of the grant work conducted from January 2009 until September 2011 under the collaboration between Ceres, Inc. and Choren USA, LLC. This DOE-funded project involves a head-to-head comparison of two types of dedicated energy crops in the context of a commercial gasification conversion process. The main goal of the project was to gain a better understanding of the differences in feedstock composition between herbaceous and woody species, and how these differences may impact a commercial gasification process. In this work, switchgrass was employed as a model herbaceous energy crop, and willow as a model short-rotation woody crop. Both crops are species native to the U.S. with significant potential to contribute to U.S. goals for renewable liquid fuel production, as outlined in the DOE Billion Ton Update (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/billion_ton_update.html, 2011). In some areas of the U.S., switching between woody and herbaceous feedstocks or blending of the two may be necessary to keep a large-scale gasifier operating near capacity year round. Based on laboratory tests and process simulations it has been successfully shown that suitable high yielding switchgrass and willow varieties exist that meet the feedstock specifications for large scale entrained flow biomass gasification. This data provides the foundation for better understanding how to use both materials in thermochemical processes. It has been shown that both switchgrass and willow varieties have comparable ranges of higher heating value, BTU content and indistinguishable hydrogen/carbon ratios. Benefits of switchgrass, and other herbaceous feedstocks, include its low moisture content, which reduce energy inputs and costs for drying feedstock. Compared to the typical feedstock currently being used in the Carbo-V® process, switchgrass has a higher ash content, combined with a lower ash melting temperature. Whether or not this may cause inefficiencies in the

  17. Evaluation of nodulation and nitrogen fixing potentials of some herbaceous legumes in inland valley soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayorbor, T. B.; Addai, I. K.; Lawson, I. Y. D.; Dogbe, W.; Djagbletey, D.

    2006-01-01

    A screening experiment was conducted to evaluate the nodulation, nitrogen fixation and biomass production of eleven herbaceous legumes in three soil series mainly used for rice production in the Guinea savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana. This study was carried out with a view to fully exploiting the potential of N-fixating legumes as a supplement to inorganic N-fertilizers in rice-based cropping systems. The treatment combinations were laid out in a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Plant samples were harvested at flowering for nodule count, biomass production and N-fixation. The study revealed that the mucuna and crotalaria species were the best nitrogen fixers and biomass producers. For increased yields of rice in the study area, these legumes require more intensive field study for their integration into the rice-based cropping systems. (au)

  18. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  19. Effects of Dichrostachys cinerea (l. Wight & Arn (Fabaceae on herbaceous species in a semi-arid rangeland in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Mudzengi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic alteration of an environment and other disturbance regimes may enable the expansion of some native species into new geographical areas, a phenomenon observed with Dichrostachys cinerea. Five D. cinerea invaded sites, each approximately one hectare in size were assessed for the effects of D. cinerea on native herbaceous species diversity, richness, basal cover, litter cover, top hamper and plant vigour. The same attributes were studied in five uninvaded sites adjacent to, and equal in size to each invaded site. Forty herbaceous species were identified in the area. There were significant differences (P < 0.05 noted in species richness, basal cover, litter cover, top hamper, plant vigour, and species diversities between invaded and uninvaded sites, with uninvaded sites recording higher values than invaded sites. Altitude, erosion and the edaphic variables pH, N, P and K, which were included as explanatory variables, also differed significantly (P<0.05 between invaded and uninvaded sites. Of the 30 D. cinerea invaded plots established for herbaceous species assessments, 26 were positively correlated with altitude, erosion, pH, P, N and K. It is imperative to find ways of managing D. cinerea in order to reduce its adverse effects on herbaceous species.

  20. Cutting and resprouting of Detarium microcarpum and herbaceous forage availability in a semiarid environment in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M.G.; Blijdorp, R.R.S.; Slingerland, M.

    1998-01-01

    The tree-shrub savanna ‘Forêt Classée de Nazinon’ (Burkina Faso) is submitted to a management of grazing and rotational cutting of Detarium microcarpum. This species resprouts after cutting. In order to investigate whether this silvopastoral land use system is sustainable, aboveground herbaceous

  1. Response of loblolly pine to complete woody and herbaceous control: projected yields and economic outcomes - the COMProject

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; R.L. Busby; B.R. Zutter; S.M. Zedaker; M.B. Edwards; R.A. Newbold

    1995-01-01

    Abstract.Age-8 and -9 data from the 13 study plantations of the Competition Omission Monitoring Project (COMP) were used to project yields and derive economic outcomes for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). COMP treatments were chop-burn, complete woody plant control, complete herbaceous plant control for 4 years, and complete woody...

  2. Effets du pâturage sur la biomasse herbacée et sur des paramètres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that grazing decreases significantly herbaceous aboveground biomass (but not root biomass). However, grazing does not impact soil chemical and biological parameters, except for soil basal respiration that increases significantly in grazing situation. Thus, after 18 months of exclosure, we detect very little ...

  3. The effect of herbaceous species removal, fire and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) on soil water availability in sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Whittaker; Bruce Roundy; Jeanne Chambers; Susan Meyer; Robert Blank; Stanley Kitchen; John Korfmacher

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several decades, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has been continually expanding in the sagebrush steppe ecosystem. There has been very little research that examines why cheatgrass is able to invade these communities. To determine the effects of herbaceous vegetation removal and fire on available water for cheatgrass invasion, as well as...

  4. Adapting to change in banana-based farming systems of northwest Tanzania: the potential role of herbaceous legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baijukya, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Land use changes; Herbaceous legumes; Adoptability; N 2 -fixation; Residual effect; Legume management; Exploration of options, Nutrient depleted soils.The banana-based farming system in

  5. A Phenology-Based Method for Monitoring Woody and Herbaceous Vegetation in Mediterranean Forests from NDVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Helman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient method for monitoring woody (i.e., evergreen and herbaceous (i.e., ephemeral vegetation in Mediterranean forests at a sub pixel scale from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The method is based on the distinct development periods of those vegetation components. In the dry season, herbaceous vegetation is absent or completely dry in Mediterranean forests. Thus the mean NDVI in the dry season was attributed to the woody vegetation (NDVIW. A constant NDVI value was assumed for soil background during this period. In the wet season, changes in NDVI were attributed to the development of ephemeral herbaceous vegetation in the forest floor and its maximum value to the peak green cover (NDVIH. NDVIW and NDVIH agreed well with field estimates of leaf area index and fraction of vegetation cover in two differently structured Mediterranean forests. To further assess the method’s assumptions, understory NDVI was retrieved form MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF data and compared with NDVIH. After calibration, leaf area index and woody and herbaceous vegetation covers were assessed for those forests. Applicability for pre- and post-fire monitoring is presented as a potential use of this method for forest management in Mediterranean-climate regions.

  6. Selection and characterization of coal mine autochthonous rhizobia for the inoculation of herbaceous legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Anabel González; de Moura, Ginaini Doin; Binati, Renato Leal; Nascimento, Francisco Xavier Inês; Londoño, Diana Morales; Mamede, Ana Carolina Peixoto; da Silva, Emanuela Pille; de Armas, Rafael Dutra; Giachini, Admir José; Rossi, Márcio José; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2017-09-01

    Coal open pit mining in the South of Santa Catarina state (Brazil) was inappropriately developed, affecting approximately 6.700 ha. Re-vegetation is an alternative for the recovery of these areas. Furthermore, the use of herbaceous legumes inoculated with nitrogen fixing bacteria is motivated due to the difficulty implementing a vegetation cover in these areas, mainly due to low nutrient availability. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate, among 16 autochthonous rhizobia isolated from the coal mining areas, those with the greatest potential to increase growth of the herbaceous legumes Vicia sativa and Calopogonium mucunoides. Tests were conducted in greenhouse containing 17 inoculation treatments (16 autochthonous rhizobia + Brazilian recommended strain for each plant species), plus two treatments without inoculation (with and without mineral nitrogen). After 60 days, nodulation, growth, N uptake, and symbiotic efficiency were evaluated. Isolates characterization was assessed by the production of indole acetic acid, ACC deaminase, siderophores, and inorganic phosphate solubilization. The classification of the isolates was performed by 16 S rDNA gene sequencing. Only isolates UFSC-M4 and UFSC-M8 were able to nodulate C. mucunoides. Among rhizobia capable of nodulating V. sativa, only UFSC-M8 was considered efficient. It was found the presence of more than one growth-promoting attributes in the same organism, and isolate UFSC-M8 presented all of them. Isolates were classified as belonging to Rhizobium, Burkholderia and Curtobacterium. The results suggest the inoculation of Vicia sativa with strain UFSC-M8, classified as Rhizobium sp., as a promising alternative for the revegetation of coal mining degraded areas.

  7. Spatial partitioning of water use by herbaceous and woody lifeforms in semiarid woodlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological studies of soil moisture, plant water uptake, and community composition in semiarid regions have focused on differences with depth in the soil profile, yet there are many reasons to expect that moisture also varies with the presence or absence of woody vegetation. Plant and soil moisture relationships for three dominant species in a semiarid woodland, Bouteloua gracilis, Juniperus monosperma, and Pinus edulis, were studied for 1.5 years. Soil moisture varied by type of plant cover as well as by depth. Plant water potential and conductance differed among species and was related to spatial variability in soil moisture. Water potential for blue grama was most correlated with soil moisture in the 0-15 cm layer of intercanopies; juniper water potential was highly correlated with soil moisture in the 0-15 cm layer beneath tree canopies of either species, and pinyon water potential was only weakly correlated with soil moisture in the 15-30 cm depth interval beneath pinyons. Pinyons had consistently greater maximum conductance rates than junipers, even though pinyon conductance was more sensitive to reductions in soil moisture. The results from this study indicate that horizontal differences in the soil moisture profile associated with type of plant cover may be as important as differences in depth for predicting plant-water relationships. A simple model was hypothesized for predicting community composition of three lifeforms: Herbaceous plants, shallow-rooted woody plants, and deeper-rooted woody plants. Distributions of roots of each lifeform and plant-available water were defined with respect to four soil compartments that distinguish upper vs. lower and canopy vs. intercanopy soil regions. The model predicts that multiple combinations of herbaceous and woody biomass can exist at a site and was qualitatively consistent with field data from a climatic gradient

  8. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  9. Assessment of biomass residue availability and bioenergy yields in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Kamp, Andreas; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2014-01-01

    is expected to increase with more efficient applications, such as the production of biogas and liquid biofuels for cooking, transportation and the generation of power. The aim of this study is to establish the amount of Ghana's energy demand that can be satisfied by using the country's crop residues, animal...... manure, logging residues and municipal waste. The study finds that the technical potential of bioenergy from these sources is 96 PJ in 2700 Mm3 of biogas or 52 PJ in 2300 ML of cellulosic ethanol. The biogas potential is sufficient to replace more than a quarter of Ghana's present woodfuel use...

  10. 9. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 9. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2015-07-01

    This volume contains the following main topics: (1) Valorisation/overall optimization by (waste) heat utilization; (2) Flexible energy supply; (3) Traditional and alternative solid bioenergy sources; (4) Conditions for biofuel supply; (5) Utilization of biofuels for engines; (6) Bio-waste as resource; (7) Optimization of biogas plants/process optimization; (8) Energy crops and their rotations. [German] Dieser Tagungsband enthaelt folgenden Themenschwerpunkte: (1) Inwertsetzung/Gesamtoptimierung durch (Ab-)Waermenutzung; (2) Flexible Energiebereitstellung; (3) Traditionelle und alternative feste Bioenergietraeger; (4) Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Biokraftstoff-Bereitstellung; (5) Motorische Nutzung von Biokraftstoffen; (6) Bioabfall als Ressourcen; (7) Optimierung von Biogasanlagen/Prozessoptimierung; (8) Energiepflanzen-Fruchtfolgen.

  11. Bioenergy Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is accelerating the commercialization of first-of-a-kind technologies that use our nation’s abundant renewable biomass resources for the production of advanced biofuels and biobased products. Non-food sources of biomass, such as algae, agricultural residues and forestry trimmings, and energy crops like switchgrass, are being used in BETO-supported, cutting-edge technologies to produce drop-in biofuels, including renewable gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. BETO is also investigating how to improve the economics of biofuel production by converting biomass into higher-value chemicals and products that historically have always been derived from petroleum.

  12. Proceedings of the first meeting of IEA, Bioenergy, Task 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, L.; Ledin, S. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The present proceedings are the result of the first meeting of Task 17 within the frame of IEA, Bioenergy. During the meeting the objectives of Task 17 were discussed and determined to be: * to stimulate the full-scale implementation of energy crops in participating countries; * to strengthen the contacts and co-operation between participating countries, scientists, biomass producers, machine developers, entrepreneurs, and end users; * to select the most urgent research and development areas, and to suggest projects of co-operation; * to deliver Proceedings from the meetings, and * to inform Ex-Co-members. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the 7 papers presented.

  13. Determining greenhouse gas balances of biomass fuel cycles. Results to date from task 15 of IEA bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlamadinger, B.; Spitzer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Selected activities of IEA Bio-energy Task 15 are described. Task 15 of IEA Bio-energy, entitled 'Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bio-energy Systems', aims at investigating processes involved in the use of bio-energy systems on a full fuel-cycle basis to establish overall greenhouse gas balances. The work of Task 15 includes, among other things, a compilation of existing data on greenhouse gas emissions from various biomass production and conversion processes, a standard methodology for greenhouse gas balances of bio-energy systems, a bibliography, and recommendations for selection of appropriate national strategies for greenhouse gas mitigation. (K.A.)

  14. The potential of perennial cave ice in isotope palaeoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonge, Charles J.; MacDonald, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Perennial ice from caves on and to the east of the Canadian Great Divide yield delta O 18 and delta D values which are usually high measurements where compared with the average precipitation for the region. Furthermore, these ice data fall below and along lines of lower slope than the Global Meteoric Water Line. To explain the observed relationships, we propose the following process. a vapour-ice isotopic fractionation mechanism operates on warm season vapour when it precipitates as hoar ice on entering the caves. The subsequent fall of hoar to the cave floor through mechanical overloading along with ice derived from ground-water seepage (with a mean annual isotopic composition), results in massive ice formation of a mixed composition. This mixed composition is what is observed in the characteristic relationships found here. Such findings suggest that a warm versus cold climate interpretation for ancient cave ice may be the opposite of that found in the more familiar polar and glacial ice caves. (Author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  15. Root proliferation in native perennial grasses of arid Patagonia, Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanina A. TORRES; Mara M. MUJICA; Sandra S. BAIONI; Jos ENTO; Mara N. FIORETTI; Guillermo TUCAT; Carlos A. BUSSO; Oscar A. MONTENEGRO; Leticia ITHURRART; Hugo D. GIORGETTI; Gustavo RODRGUEZ; Diego BENTIVEGNA; Roberto E. BREVEDAN; Osvaldo A. FERNNDEZ

    2014-01-01

    Pappophorum vaginatum is the most abundant C4 perennial grass desirable to livestock in rangelands of northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. We hypothesized that (1) defoliation reduce net primary productivity, and root length density and weight in the native species, and (2) root net primary productivity, and root length density and weight, are greater in P. vaginatum than in the other, less desirable, native species (i.e., Aristida spegazzinii, A. subulata and Sporobolus cryptandrus). Plants of all species were either exposed or not to a severe defoliation twice a year during two growing seasons. Root proliferation was measured using the cylinder method. Cylindrical, iron structures, wrapped up using nylon mesh, were buried diagonally from the periphery to the center on individual plants. These structures, initially filled with soil without any organic residue, were dug up from the soil on 25 April 2008, after two successive defoliations in mid-spring 2007. During the second growing season (2008-2009), cylinders were destructively harvested on 4 April 2009, after one or two defoliations in mid-and/or late-spring, respectively. Roots grown into the cylinders were obtained after washing the soil manually. Defoliation during two successive years did reduce the study variables only after plants of all species were defoliated twice, which supported the first hypothesis. The greater root net primary productivity, root length den-sity and weight in P. vaginatum than in the other native species, in support of the second hypothesis, could help to explain its greater abundance in rangelands of Argentina.

  16. Modelling farmer uptake of perennial energy crops in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrington, Chris; Moran, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    The UK Biomass Strategy suggests that to reach the technical potential of perennial energy crops such as short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and miscanthus by 2020 requires 350,000 hectares of land. This represents a more than 20-fold increase on the current 15,546 hectares. Previous research has identified several barriers to adoption, including concerns over security of income from contracts. In addition, farmers perceive returns from these crops to be lower than for conventional crops. This paper uses a farm-level linear programming model to investigate theoretical uptake of energy crops at different gross margins under the assumption of a profit-maximising decision maker, and in the absence of known barriers to adoption. The findings suggest that while SRC willow, at current prices, remains less competitive, returns to miscanthus should have encouraged adoption on a wider scale than at present. This highlights the importance of the barriers to adoption. Recently announced contracts for miscanthus appear to offer a significant premium to farmers in order to encourage them to grow the crops. This raises the question of whether a more cost-effective approach would be for government to provide guarantees addressing farmers concerns including security of income from the contracts. Such an approach should encourage adoption at lower gross margins. (author)

  17. BETA DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY DIFFERENTIATION IN DRY PERENNIAL SAND GRASSLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KOVACS-LANG

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of species composition was studied in perennial sand grasslands in Hungary at multiple scales. Three sites were compared along an aridity gradient. Existing differences in climate along this ca. 200 km gradient correspond to regional climate changes predicted for the next 20-30 years. Six stands of Festucetum vaginatae grasslands were selected at each site within 400 x 1200 m areas for representing the coarse-scale within-site heterogeneity. Fine-scale compositional heterogeneity of vegetation within stands was sampled by recording the presence of species along 52 m long circular belt transects of 1040 units of 5 cm x 5 cm contiguous microquadrats. This sampling design enabled us to study the patterns of species combinations at a wide range of scales. The highest variability of plant species combinations appeared at very fine scales, between 10 cm and 25 cm. Differences in beta diversity along the gradient were scale-dependent. We found a decreasing trend of beta diversity with increasing aridity at fine scale, and on the contrary, an increasing trend at landscape scale. We conclude that the major trend of the vegetation differentiation due to aridity is the decrease of compositional variability at fine-scale accompanied by a coarse-scale diversification.

  18. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 10 and biomass conversion 6. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2- 0.3 million toe/a till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small-scale combustion concepts, but large-scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seems to be a very challenging aim. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilisation of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe/a by the year 2000 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  19. Establishment techniques in under-sown perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Establishment methods have proven to be of major importance for grass-seed production. The objective of this research was to test the effect of different sowing techniques on plant establishment and the subsequent seed yield. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is used as the model grass due...... to its large importance in Danish agriculture. In a three-year trial six different methods of under-sowing of perennial ryegrass in a spring barley cover crop were employed. Perennial ryegrass was either sown directly at different depths within the spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rows or placed 2, 6......, or 12 cm from the spring barley rows. Results of dry-matter yield indicate that the best establishment of the grass occurred when placing the grass 6 or 12 cm from the cover-crop row, and this is of importance in less vigorous grasses. Overall, no seed-yield difference has been observed for perennial...

  20. Feasibility studies on selected bioenergy concepts producing electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. IEA Bioenergy, Techno-economic analysis activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Podesser, E. [Joanneum Research (Austria); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc. (Canada); Overend, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The IEA Bioenergy Techno-Economic Analysis Activity reported here, had the following objectives: To assist companies working with technologies and products related to bioenergy applications in their efforts to demonstrate these; To promote bioenergy technologies, processes and applications; To build and maintain a network for R and D organisations and industry. The objectives were pursued 1995 - 1997 through carrying out site-specific prefeasibility studies in participating countries. Both electricity and liquid fuel applications were studied, utilising gasification, pyrolysis, and combustion technologies. Studies were carried out in collaboration with companies developing new products or services from participating countries (Austria, Canada, Finland, and the United States of America) in the bioenergy field. Cases are: Austria: Power production at a district heating station, Stirling-engine driven by unclean boiler flue gases, 50 kWe; Canada - Bio-oil production for a boiler power plant, Fast pyrolysis of sawmill wastes and bark, 11 MWe; Finland: Co-generation of power and heat at a pulp and paper mill, Pressurised integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) using bark and wood, 34 MWe; Sweden: Bio-oil production for heating fuel, Fast pyrolysis of forest residues, 20 000 t/a; USA - Case 1: Co-firing in a coal boiler, Combustion of plantation willow, 15 MWe; USA - Case 2: Condensing power production, Pressurised IGCC using alfalfa stems, 75 MWe All of the cases studied are at different stages of development. Results from these case studies are reported together with technical uncertainties and future development needs, which are required for all the systems. In general, the results showed that for most of the cases studied economic conditions are possible, through existing subsidies or tax incentives, for feasible industrial operation. Specially designed Stirling engines have a short amortisation time integrated to biomass district heating plants in Austria