WorldWideScience

Sample records for percutaneous penetration studies

  1. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    . In order to predict the systemic risk of dermally absorbed chemicals and to enable agencies to set safety standards, data is needed on the rates of percutaneous penetration of important chemicals. Standardization of in vitro tests and comparison of their results with the in vivo data could produce...... internationally accepted penetration rates and/or absorption percentages very useful for regulatory toxicology. The work of the Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup of EC Dermal Exposure Network has been focussed on the standardization and validation of in vitro experiments, necessary to obtain internationally...... accepted penetration rates for regulatory purposes. The members of the Subgroup analyzed the guidelines on percutaneous penetration in vitro studies presented by various organizations and suggested a standardization of in vitro models for percutaneous penetration taking into account their individual...

  2. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    experiences, literature data and guidelines already in existence. During the meetings of Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup they presented a number of short papers of up to date information on the key issues. The objective was to focus the existing knowledge and the gaps in the knowledge in the field...

  3. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Simon C.; Maas, Wilfred J. M.; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    : Percutaneous penetration of caffeine (log P -0.01), testosterone (log P 3.32), propoxur (log P 1.52) (finite dose in ethanol to water vehicle ratio) and butoxyethanol (log P 0.83) (undiluted finite dose or as an infinite dose 50% [v/v] aqueous solution) through skin of varying thicknesses under occluded...... conditions was measured using flow through cells for 8-24 h. Saline (adjusted to pH 7.4) was used as receptor fluid, with BSA added for studies with testosterone and propoxur. Following exposure, the remaining surface dose was removed by swabbing and the skin digested prior to scintillation counting. Results......: The maximum flux of caffeine was increased with decreasing skin thickness, although these differences were found to be non-significant. The presence of caffeine in the skin membrane was not altered by skin thickness. Maximum flux and cumulative dose absorbed of testosterone and butoxyethanol (in both finite...

  4. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration.

  5. Elementary of animal model for percutaneous and ocular penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh Chhotalal Ashara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Models of animal are the most appropriate method for assessments of human in-vivo percutaneous and ocular penetrations. Monkey and rodents are used for the same. There are several nuts and bolts of each one, so it is necessary to study each one separately. Monkey, porcine and guinea pig penetration are correlated with that of human skin. The skin of rodents, lupus, pigs, etc. has more penetration properties than human skin. Rabbit, goat and sheep eye are mostly used for ocular penetration. The researcher also used hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane test for ocular irritation study. The other animals’ cornea, cul-de-sac, eyeballs and prepared corneal epithelial models are very less in practice. Web-based alternative non-animal models are also available instead of animal models too. This article describes characteristics of monkeys, pigs, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs and hairless rodents, HuSki model, Cellophane® membrane, egg membrane, gelatin membrane, animal models for ophthalmic delivery, hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane test, prepared corneal epithelial models and web-based alternative non-animal database.

  6. Storage Conditions of Skin Affect Tissue Structure and Subsequent in vitro Percutaneous Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Plasencia Gil, Maria Inés; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2011-01-01

    fluorescence microscopy) and in vitro percutaneous penetration of caffeine under four different storage conditions using skin samples from the same donors: fresh skin, skin kept at -20°C for 3 weeks (with or without the use of polyethylene glycol) and at -80°C. Our results show a correlation between increasing...... permeation of caffeine and tissue structural damage caused by the storage conditions, most so after skin storage at -80°C. The presented approach, which combines imaging techniques with studies on percutaneous penetration, enables the link between tissue damage at selected depths and penetration...

  7. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on in vitro percutaneous penetration of water, hydrocortisone and nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    The dose- and time-related effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on in vitro percutaneous penetration was studied using 3 radiolabeled tracer compounds with different physicochemical properties: tritiated water, hydrocortisone and nickel. Human cadaver abdominal skin from caucasian women was used...

  8. Enhancement of percutaneous penetration of aniline and o-toluidine in vitro using skin barrier creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Gintautas; Lüersen, Lars; Schaller, Karl Heinz; Angerer, Jürgen; Drexler, Hans

    2008-04-01

    Aniline (ANI) and the human carcinogen o-toluidine (OT) are released at the workplace during the production and processing of rubber. Recently, we showed in rubber industry workers that a frequent use of skin barrier creams (SBC) increased the internal exposure of ANI and OT. In the present study, diffusion cells were used to investigate the effects of two SBC and one skin care cream (SCC) on percutaneous penetration of neat ANI and OT as well as of OT from a mixture with a workplace specific lubricant. The experiments were carried out with untreated and with skin creams treated human skin. A considerable percutaneous penetration enhancement of test compounds was observed for treated skin compared with untreated skin; the highest enhancement (mean factors 6.2-12.3) was found for SBC (based on oil in water emulsion) treated skin. The lowest penetration enhancement showed SCC treated skin (mean factors 4.2-9.7). The in vitro data support our findings in workers that the percutaneous absorption of aromatic amines significantly increases in presence of skin creams. The efficacy of skin creams to protect the percutaneous penetration of aromatic amines is not confirmed by our own experiments.

  9. Percutaneous penetration of 3H-Huangbai extracts and H3-berberine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xipeng; Yu Xiaozhong; Zhang Nianbao; Kuang Jianwen

    1992-01-01

    The percutaneous penetration of 3 H-huangbai extracts and 3 H-berberine through excised guinea pig and human shins was studied using the static diffusion cell technique. The data were treated with mathematical model of skin absorption. The results showed that huangbai extracts and berberine could penetrate the guinea pig and human skins at (above) dose of 8.38 μg/cm 2 and 14.32 μg/cm 2 , respectively. The amount and rate of penetration increased linearly with the time of exposure and dose. The permeability of berberine through guinea pig and human skins in two vehicles (water and glycol) was lower than that of huangbai extracts. When Huangbai extracts and berberine were applied in glycol solution, the vehicle greatly enhanced the penetration of the two penetrant. The lag time of two penetrant through human skin was longer than that through guinea pig skin

  10. Percutaneous penetration of [sup 3]H-Huangbai extracts and H[sup 3]-berberine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xipeng, Jin; Xiaozhong, Yu [School of Public Health, Shanghai Medical Univ. (China); Nianbao, Zhang; Jianwen, Kuang [Shanghai Inst. of Nuclear Research Acdemic Sinica (China)

    1992-02-01

    The percutaneous penetration of [sup 3]H-huangbai extracts and [sup 3]H-berberine through excised guinea pig and human shins was studied using the static diffusion cell technique. The data were treated with mathematical model of skin absorption. The results showed that huangbai extracts and berberine could penetrate the guinea pig and human skins at (above) dose of 8.38 [mu]g/cm[sup 2] and 14.32 [mu]g/cm[sup 2], respectively. The amount and rate of penetration increased linearly with the time of exposure and dose. The permeability of berberine through guinea pig and human skins in two vehicles (water and glycol) was lower than that of huangbai extracts. When Huangbai extracts and berberine were applied in glycol solution, the vehicle greatly enhanced the penetration of the two penetrant. The lag time of two penetrant through human skin was longer than that through guinea pig skin.

  11. The weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenrath, W.G.; Hawkins, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Percutaneous penetration of compounds of varying lipid solubility was studied in three systems, in vivo with the data from weanling Yorkshire pigs compared to data reported for nine compounds in man, in vivo with the same nine compounds on either weanling Yorkshire pig skin or human skin grafted to athymic nude mice and in vitro with twelve compounds on weanling Yorkshire pig skin and human skin mounted on a skin penetration/evaporation apparatus. Correlations (P<0.05) were found between in vivo pig values and those reported for man (r=0.83), between values for human and pig skin grafted to nude mice (r=0.69) and between in vitro human and in vitro pig skin values (r=0.76). The in vitro skin penetration system provides a valid approximation of a chemical's penetration through human skin; therefore, the number of animals required to obtain such information is reduced

  12. Percutaneous penetration of 2-phenoxyethanol through rat and human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, C S; Howes, D; Blain, P G; Williams, F M

    1997-01-01

    2-Phenoxyethanol applied in methanol was absorbed (64 +/- 4.4% at 24 hr) through unoccluded rat skin in vitro in the static diffusion cell with ethanol/water as receptor fluid. By comparison (43 +/- 3.7% in 24 hr) was absorbed in the flow-through diffusion system with tissue culture medium as receptor fluid. 2-Phenoxyethanol applied in methanol was absorbed (59.3 +/- 7.0% at 6 hr) through unoccluded human skin in vitro in the flow-through diffusion cell with tissue culture medium. With both unoccluded cells, 2-phenoxyethanol was lost by evaporation but occlusion of the static cell reduced evaporation and increased total absorption to 98.8 +/- 7.0%. Skin, post mitochondrial fraction, metabolized phenoxyethanol to phenoxyacetic acid at 5% of the rate for liver. Metabolism was inhibited by 1 mM pyrazole, suggesting involvement of alcohol dehydrogenase. However, first-pass metabolism of phenoxyethanol to phenoxyacetic acid was not detected during percutaneous penetration through viable rat skin in the flow-through system. First-pass metabolism in the skin does not therefore have an influence on systemic availability of dermally absorbed phenoxyethanol. These measures of phenoxyethanol absorption through rat and human skin in vitro agree well with those obtained previously in vivo.

  13. Follicular and percutaneous penetration pathways of topically applied minoxidil foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Massoudy, Lida; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietz, Ekkehart; Rasulev, Utkur; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2010-11-01

    In the past, it was assumed that the intercellular route was the only relevant penetration pathway for topically applied substances. Recent results on follicular penetration emphasize that the hair follicles represent a highly relevant and efficient penetration pathway and reservoir for topically applied substances. This study investigates a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo assessing interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of topical minoxidil foam in humans. In delimited skin area, single hair orifices or interfollicular skin were blocked with a microdrop of special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Minoxidil foam (5%) was topically applied, and transcutaneous absorption was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry technique in serum. Different settings (open, closed or none of both) enabled to clearly distinguish between interfollicular and follicular penetration of the topically applied minoxidil foam. Five minutes after topical application, minoxidil was detected in blood samples when follicles remained open, whereas with closed follicles 30 min were needed. Highest levels were found first when both pathways were open, followed by open follicles and subsequently by closed follicles. These results demonstrate the high importance of the follicular penetration pathway. Hair follicles are surrounded by a dense network of blood capillaries and dendritic cells and have stem cells in their immediate vicinity, making them ideal targets for drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dermal uptake and percutaneous penetration of ten flame retardants in a human skin ex vivo model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Jensen, Niels Martin

    2016-01-01

    The dermal uptake and percutaneous penetration of ten organic flame retardants was measured using an ex vivo human skin model. The studied compounds were DBDPE, BTBPE, TBP-DBPE, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP, α, β and γ-HBCDD as well as syn- and anti-DDC-CO. Little or none of the applied flame retardants...

  15. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage of lung abscess through a diaphragmatic fistula caused by a penetrating liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masako; Morita, Satoru; Ueno, Eiko; Hayashi, Mitsutoshi; Ishikawa, Motonao; Mae, Masahiro

    2011-11-01

    Liver abscesses occurring just below the diaphragm can penetrate or perforate the thoracic cavity, resulting in lung abscess or pyothorax. Although surgical or percutaneous transpleural drainage is often required in such cases, the latter approach has some risks, including hemothorax and bronchopleural fistula formation when the cavity is surrounded by normal lung parenchyma. The present report describes a treatment technique of percutaneous transhepatic drainage through the diaphragmatic fistula to avoid the risks of a transpulmonary approach in a case of lung abscess caused by a penetrating liver abscess.

  16. Study on Penetration Characteristics of Tungsten Cylindrical Penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Shin; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Woon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The design of missile require extremely small warheads that must be highly efficient and lethal. The penetration characteristics of each penetrator and the total number of penetrators on the warhead are obvious key factors that influence warhead lethality. The design of the penetrator shape and size are directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. The design of the penetrator L/D was directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. L and D are the length and the diameter of the projectile, respectively. The AUTODYN-3a code was used to study the effect of penetrator penetration. The objective of numerical analysis was to determine the penetration characteristics of penetrator produced by hypervelocity impacts under different initial conditions such as initial velocity, obliquity angle and L/D of penetrator. The residual velocity and residual mass were decreased with increasing initial impact velocity under L/D{<=}4.

  17. Percutaneous penetration enhancement effect of essential oil of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq. on Chinese herbal components with different lipophilicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Wang

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: Mint oil at proper concentration could effectively facilitate percutaneous penetration of both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and exhibit higher efficiency for moderate hydrophilic drugs. Mechanisms of penetration enhancement by mint oil could be explained with saturation solubility, SC/vehicle partition coefficient and the secondary structure change of SC.

  18. Evaluation of Photoprotective Potential and Percutaneous Penetration by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of the Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Milena K; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Baesso, Mauro L; Nogueira, Ana C; Bento, Antonio C; Bortoluzzi, Bruno B; Serra, Lara Z; Cortez, Diogenes A G

    2015-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius is a plant rich in phenolic compounds, which have antioxidant properties and can provide new opportunities for treatment and prevention of diseases mediated by ultraviolet radiation like photoaging and skin cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photoprotective potential and ex vivo percutaneous penetration of the crude extract of Schinus terebinthifolius leaves. The extract was tested for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching test. The sun protection factor was also evaluated. The ex vivo skin permeation of the emulsion and gel formulations were assayed. Fractionation of the extract resulted in gallic acid, ethyl gallate and a mixture of flavonoids, suggesting derivatives of quercetin and myricetin. The phenolic content of the extract was 384.64 ± 2.60 mg GAE g(-1) extract. The antioxidant activity was superior to butylated hydroxytoluene, in DPPH method, and ascorbic acid and rutin, in β-carotene bleaching assay. The extract showed UV absorption with photoprotector potential in the UVB region. The photoacoustic spectroscopy measurements confirmed absorption in the UV region and topical application of the formulations caused no histological changes in the rats' skin. These results suggest that the crude extract of Schinus terebinthifolius leaves may be a promising natural sunscreen product. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. Development of a stratum corneum substitute for in vitro percutaneous penetration studies : a skin barrier model comprising synthetic stratum corneum lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Miranda Wilhelmina de

    2006-01-01

    The research outlined in this thesis was focused on the development of a skin barrier model, which can substitute for stratum corneum in diffusion studies. This so-called stratum corneum substitute (SCS) was prepared with reconstituted SC lipids (cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides) on a

  20. Study of Penetration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    srecimens fabricated at the AFATL, AISI-01 oil quenched bar stock was used. Three of the projectiles used in the Eglin penetration experiments are shown...in the Mathema- tical Laboratory at Eglin AFB, is essencially a fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method for solving simultaneous differential...C9G. VEL. X-COMPo (M4/5): d!10. I oil 140. 107. 82. RmCC~kr’ED TIME OF MAXIftjM/MINIM94U COIL VOLTAGE tSI MAX 0040 A 55 *.03J04A 0 0 05ji6 .000634 MIN

  1. The percutaneous nephrolithotomy global study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labate, Gaston; Modi, Pranjal; Timoney, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    PCNL Global Study collected prospective data for consecutive patients who were treated with PCNL at centers around the world for 1 year. Complications were evaluated by the modified Clavien classification system. RESULTS: Of 5724 patients with Clavien scores, 1175 (20.5%) patients experienced one......PURPOSE: This study evaluated postoperative complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and the influence of selected factors on the risk of complications using the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study database. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The CROES...... grade I. Two patients died in the postoperative period. The largest absolute increases in mean Clavien score were associated with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification IV (0.75) or III (0.34), anticoagulant medication use (0.29), positive microbiologic culture from...

  2. Natural oils affect the human skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid dose-dependently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    three natural oils (eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil, peppermint oil) would affect the skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid when applied topically in relevant concentrations. An experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells mounted with human breast or abdominal skin...

  3. In vitro percutaneous penetration and characterization of silver from silver-containing textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlotta Bianco,1 Sanja Kezic,2 Matteo Crosera,1 Vesna Svetličić,3 Suzana Šegota,3 Giovanni Maina,4 Canzio Romano,5 Francesca Larese,6,7 Gianpiero Adami11Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy; 2Academic Medical Center, Coronel Institute, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Laboratory for Bioelectrochemistry and Surface Imaging, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruder Boškovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; 4Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 5Department of Public and Pediatric Health Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 6Unit of Occupational Medicine, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy; 7Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, ItalyAbstract: The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro percutaneous penetration of silver and characterize the silver species released from textiles in different layers of full thickness human skin. For this purpose, two different wound dressings and a garment soaked in artificial sweat were placed in the donor compartments of Franz cells for 24 hours. The concentration of silver in the donor phase and in the skin was determined by an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ET-AAS and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS. The characterization of silver species in the textiles and in the skin layers was made by scanning electron microscopy with integrated energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. Additionally, the size distribution of silver nanoparticles in the textiles was performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. On the surface of all investigated materials, silver nanoparticles of different size and morphology were found. Released silver concentrations in the soaking solutions (ie, exposure concentration ranged from 0.7 to 4.7 µg/mL (0.6–4.0 µg/cm2, fitting the bactericidal range. Silver and silver

  4. The usual suspects-influence of physicochemical properties on lag time, skin deposition, and percutaneous penetration of nine model compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo Nielsen, Jesper; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Nielsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    The influence of physicochemical properties of nine model compounds on lag time, skin deposition, and percutaneous penetration was evaluated. Static diffusion cells mounted with human skin were used as the experimental model, and experiments were carried out in accordance with Organization for Ec...... agencies using experimental data for assessing systemic toxicity following dermal exposures as for development of structure activity relationships for dermal absorption of chemicals....

  5. Biomechanical study of percutaneous lumbar diskectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan; Huang Xianglong; Shen Tianzhen; Hu Zhou; Hong Shuizong; Mei Haiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the stiffness of lumbar spine after the injury caused by percutaneous diskectomy and evaluate the efficiency of percutaneous lumbar diskectomy by biomechanical study. Methods: Four fresh lumbar specimens were used to analyse load-displacement curves in the intact lumbar spine and vertical disc-injured lumbar spine. The concepts of average flexibility coefficient (f) and standardized average flexibility coefficient (fs) were also introduced. Results: The load-displacement curves showed a good stabilization effect of the intact lumbar spine and disc-injured lumbar spine in flexion, extension, right and left bending. The decrease of anti-rotation also can be detected (P<0.05). Conclusion: In biomechanical study, percutaneous lumbar diskectomy is one of the efficiency methods to treat lumbar diac hernia

  6. Autoradiographic study on percutaneous absorption of several oils useful for cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; Asaba, K.; Komatsu, H.; Mochizuka, M.

    1978-01-01

    Percutaneous absorption of five 14 C-labelled oils, n-octadecane, decanoxy decane, 2-hexyldecanoxy octane, isopropyl myristate and glyceryl tri-(oleate), commonly used is cosmetics were studied from the point of view of their safety. In whole body autoradiography of hairless mice, there was no visible penetration into the skin and organs, whereas microautoradiography of guinea pigs showed local penetration. Isopropyl myristate penetrated to the greatest extent, whereas 2-hexyldecanoxy octane was hardly absorbed. Percutaneous absorption of these two oils, therefore, was examined in Angora rabbits by microautoradiography simultaneously with skin irritation potential by a histological method, from the following aspects, (1) patterns of penetration and irritation in relation to application time and (2) fate within the skin and pattern of irritation after application. In addition, intradermal metabolic fate was studied in vivo. (author)

  7. Rheological, mechanical and membrane penetration properties of novel dual drug systems for percutaneous delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, A D; Malcolm, R K; Campbell, K; Jones, D S; Russell, J A

    2000-07-03

    In this study it has been demonstrated that mixtures of two solid drugs, ibuprofen and methyl nicotinate, with different but complementary pharmacological activities and which exist as a single liquid phase over a wide composition range at skin temperature, can be formulated as o/w emulsions without the use of an additional hydrophobic carrier. These novel dual drug systems provided significantly enhanced in vitro penetration rates through a model lipophilic barrier membrane compared to conventional individual formulations of each active. Thus, for ibuprofen, drug penetration flux enhancements of three- and 10-fold were observed when compared to an aqueous ibuprofen suspension and a commercial alcohol-based ibuprofen formulation, respectively. Methyl nicotinate penetration rates were shown to be similar for aqueous gels and emulsified systems. Mechanisms explaining these observations are proposed. Novel dual drug formulations of ibuprofen and methyl nicotinate, formulated within the liquid range at skin temperature, were investigated by oscillatory rheology and texture profile analysis, demonstrating the effects of drug and viscosity enhancer concentrations, and disperse phase type upon the rheological, mechanical and drug penetration properties of these systems.

  8. Combined use of nanocarriers and physical methods for percutaneous penetration enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Nina; Maibach, Howard

    2018-02-06

    Dermal and transdermal drug delivery (due to its non-invasiveness, avoidance of the first-pass metabolism, controlling the rate of drug input over a prolonged time, etc.) have gained significant acceptance. Several methods are employed to overcome the permeability barrier of the skin, improving drug penetration into/through skin. Among chemical penetration enhancement methods, nanocarriers have been extensively studied. When applied alone, nanocarriers mostly deliver drugs to skin and can be used to treat skin diseases. To achieve effective transdermal drug delivery, nanocarriers should be applied with physical methods, as they act synergistically in enhancing drug penetration. This review describes combined use of frequently used nanocarriers (liposomes, novel elastic vesicles, lipid-based and polymer-based nanoparticles and dendrimers) with the most efficient physical methods (microneedles, iontophoresis, ultrasound and electroporation) and demonstrates superiority of the combined use of nanocarriers and physical methods in drug penetration enhancement compared to their single use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. In vitro percutaneous absorption enhancement of granisetron by chemical penetration enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nanxi; Cun, Dongmei; Li, Wei; Ma, Xu; Sun, Lin; Xi, Honglei; Li, Li; Fang, Liang

    2013-04-01

    Granisetron (GRN), a potent antiemetic agent, is frequently used to prevent nausea and vomiting induced by cancer cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. As part of our efforts to further modify the physicochemical properties of this market drug, with the ultimate goal to formulate a better dosage form for GRN, this work was carried out to improve its permeability in vitro. The permeation behavior of GRN in isopropyl myristate (IPM) was investigated across excised rabbit abdominal skin and the enhancing activities of three novel O-acylmenthol derivatives synthesized in our laboratory as well as five well-known chemical enhancers were evaluated. It was found that the steady-state flux of granisetron free base (GRN-B) was about 26-fold higher than that of granisetron hydrochloride (GRN-H). The novel enhancer, 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl heptanoate (M-HEP), was observed to provide the most significant enhancement for the absorption of GRN-B. When incorporated in the donor solution with the optimal enhancer M-HEP, the steady-state flux of GRN-B increased from (196.44 ± 12.03) μg·cm⁻²·h⁻¹ to (1044.95 ± 71.99) μg·cm⁻²·h⁻¹ (P < 0.01). These findings indicated that the application of chemical enhancers was an effective approach to increase the percutaneous absorption of GRN in vitro.

  10. Influence of jet thrust on penetrator penetration when studying the structure of space object blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Fedorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the calculation-and-theory-based research results to examine the possibility for using the jet thrust impulse to increase a penetration depth of high-velocity penetrator modules. Such devices can be used for studies of Earth surface layer composition, and in the nearest future for other Solar system bodies too. Research equipment (sensors and different instruments is housed inside a metal body of the penetrator with a sharpened nose that decreases drag force in soil. It was assumed, that this penetrator is additionally equipped with the pulse jet engine, which is fired at a certain stage of penetrator motion into target.The penetrator is considered as a rigid body of variable mass, which is subjected to drag force and reactive force applied at the moment the engine fires. A drag force was represented with a binomial empirical law, and penetrator nose part was considered to be conical. The jet thrust force was supposed to be constant during its application time. It was in accordance with assumption that mass flow and flow rate of solid propellant combustion products were constant. The amount of propellant in the penetrator was characterized by Tsiolkovsky number Z, which specifies the ratio between the fuel mass and the penetrator structure mass with no fuel.The system of equations to describe the penetrator dynamics was given in dimensionless form using the values aligned with penetration of an equivalent inert penetrator as the time and penetration depth scales. Penetration dynamics of penetrator represented in this form allowed to eliminate the influence of penetrator initial mass and its cross-section diameter on the solution results. The lack of such dependency is convenient for comparing the calculation results since they hold for penetrators of various initial masses and cross-sections.To calculate the penetration a lunar regolith was taken as a soil material. Calculations were carried out for initial velocities of

  11. A quantitative study of nanoparticle skin penetration with interactive segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Onseok; Lee, See Hyun; Jeong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jaeyoung; Ryu, Hwa Jung; Oh, Chilhwan; Son, Sang Wook

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, the application of nanotechnology techniques has expanded within diverse areas such as pharmacology, medicine, and optical science. Despite such wide-ranging possibilities for implementation into practice, the mechanisms behind nanoparticle skin absorption remain unknown. Moreover, the main mode of investigation has been qualitative analysis. Using interactive segmentation, this study suggests a method of objectively and quantitatively analyzing the mechanisms underlying the skin absorption of nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy and applied to the human skin equivalent model. Captured fluorescence images of this model were used to evaluate degrees of skin penetration. These images underwent interactive segmentation and image processing in addition to statistical quantitative analyses of calculated image parameters including the mean, integrated density, skewness, kurtosis, and area fraction. In images from both groups, the distribution area and intensity of fluorescent silica gradually increased in proportion to time. Since statistical significance was achieved after 2 days in the negative charge group and after 4 days in the positive charge group, there is a periodic difference. Furthermore, the quantity of silica per unit area showed a dramatic change after 6 days in the negative charge group. Although this quantitative result is identical to results obtained by qualitative assessment, it is meaningful in that it was proven by statistical analysis with quantitation by using image processing. The present study suggests that the surface charge of SNPs could play an important role in the percutaneous absorption of NPs. These findings can help achieve a better understanding of the percutaneous transport of NPs. In addition, these results provide important guidance for the design of NPs for biomedical applications.

  12. Improving the applicability of (Q)SARs for percutaneous penetration in regulatory risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, T; Cronin, M T D; Bessems, J G M; van de Sandt, J J M

    2008-04-01

    The new regulatory framework REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals) foresees the use of non-testing approaches, such as read-across, chemical categories, structure-activity relationships (SARs) and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Although information on skin absorption data are not a formal requirement under REACH, data on dermal absorption are an integral part of risk assessment of substances/products to which man is predominantly exposed via the dermal route. In this study, we assess the present applicability of publicly available QSARs on skin absorption for risk assessment purposes. We explicitly did not aim to give scientific judgments on individual QSARs. A total of 33 QSARs selected from the public domain were evaluated using the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Principles for the Validation of (Q)SAR Models. Additionally, several pragmatic criteria were formulated to select QSARs that are most suitable for their use in regulatory risk assessment. Based on these criteria, four QSARs were selected. The predictivity of these QSARs was evaluated by comparing their outcomes with experimentally derived skin absorption data (for 62 compounds). The predictivity was low for three of four QSARs, whereas one model gave reasonable predictions. Several suggestions are made to increase the applicability of QSARs for skin absorption for risk assessment purposes.

  13. A Pseudoaneurysm of the Deep Palmar Arch After Penetrating Trauma to the Hand: Successful Exclusion by Ultrasound Guided Percutaneous Thrombin Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bosman

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Pseudoaneurysm of the hand is a rare condition; most are treated surgically. Ultrasound guided thrombin injection has not previously been reported as a treatment option for pseudoaneurysms of the deep palmar arch. Report: A man was referred to the emergency department with a swollen, painful hand after penetrating trauma. On physical examination, a pulsating tumor was found on the dorsum of the hand. Imaging revealed a pseudoaneurysm vascularized by the deep palmar arch. Ultrasound guided percutaneous thrombin injection was successfully performed. Conclusion: Thrombin injection might be a safe alternative option in the treatment of pseudoaneurysm of the deep palmar arch. Keywords: Deep palmar arch, Pseudoaneurysm, Thrombin injection

  14. Percutaneous Penetration - Methodological Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Rikke; Benfeldt, Eva; Nielsen, Jesper B

    2014-01-01

    developed to replace methods involving experimental animals. The results obtained from these methods are decided not only by the chemical or product tested, but to a significant degree also by the experimental set-up and decisions made by the investigator during the planning phase. The present Mini...

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Measurement of Percutaneous Penetration of Low Molecular Weight Toxins of Military Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-21

    DDT from soil . Toxicologist, 10 (1990) 156. 37. D.A.W. Bucks, J.-P.L. Marty, and H.I. Maibach, Percutaneous absorption of malathion in the guinea-pig...tissue. The pigs were then housed in stainless steel metabolism cages for approximately 3 days. Urine and feces were collected twice a day. The pigs were...site as previously described (8). The patch kept the application site from contacting the metabolism cage and prevented radioactive exfoliated skin

  16. Comparative Study between Standard and Totally Tubeless Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Sung Il; Lee, Yoon Hyung; Kim, Jae Soo; Cho, Sung Ryong; Kim, Bum Soo; Kwon, Joon Beom

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Several recent studies have reported the benefits of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Postoperatively, tubeless PNL patients have an indwelling ureteral stent placed, which is often associated with stent-related morbidity. We have performed totally tubeless (tubeless and stentless) PNL in which no nephrostomy tube or ureteral stent is placed postoperatively. We evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of totally tubeless PNL. Materials and Methods From March 20...

  17. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy for chronic elbow tendinosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Darryl E; Beckley, James M; Smith, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Elbow tendinopathy is the most common cause of elbow pain affecting active populations. Surgical excision is reserved for patients with refractory symptoms. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy performed under local anesthesia also removes degenerated tissue and therefore provides an alternative treatment option to surgical excision. This investigation prospectively documented the safety and 1-year efficacy of ultrasonic percutaneous tenotomy performed by a single operator. Nineteen patients, aged 38 to 67 years, in whom >6 months of conservative management for medial (7) or lateral (12) elbow tendinopathy had failed were prospectively studied. All patients were treated with percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy of the elbow by a single operator. Visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick DASH) index, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) were assessed by an independent observer before treatment and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after treatment. No procedural complications occurred. Total treatment time was elbow tendinopathy up to 1 year after the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Endoscopic colostomy with percutaneous colopexy: an animal feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Lopez, Leonardo Alfonso; Sulbaran, Marianny; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; de Moura, Eduardo Guimaraes Horneaux; Nahas, Caio Sergio; Marques, Carlos Frederico; Sakai, Christiano; Cecconello, Ivan; Sakai, Paulo

    2017-04-01

    Indications for colostomy in colorectal diseases are obstruction of the large bowel, such as in cancer, diverticular disease in the acute phase, post-radiotherapy enteritis, complex perirectal fistulas, anorectal trauma and severe anal incontinence. Some critically ill patients cannot tolerate an exploratory laparotomy, and laparoscopic assisted colostomy also requires general anesthesia. To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of performing colostomy assisted by colonoscopy and percutaneous colopexy. Five pigs underwent endoscopic assisted colostomy with percutaneous colopexy. Animals were evaluated in post-operative days 1, 2, 5 and 7 for feeding acceptance and colostomy characteristics. On day 7 full colonoscopy was performed on animals followed by exploratory laparotomy. Average procedure time was 27 minutes (21-54 min). Postoperative mobility and feeding of animals were immediate after anesthesia recovery. Position of the colostomy, edges color, appearance of periostomal area, as well as its function was satisfactory in four animals. Retraction of colostomy was present in one pig. The colonoscopy and laparotomy control on the seventh day were considered as normal. A bladder perforation that was successfully repaired through the colostomy incision occurred in one pig. The main limitation of this study is its experimental nature. Endoscopic assisted colostomy with percutaneous colopexy proves to be a safe and effective method with low morbidity for performing colostomy in experimental animals, with possible clinical application in humans.

  19. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  20. Stylet penetration of Cacopsylla pyri; an electrical penetration graph (EPG) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Civolani, S.; Leis, M.; Grandi, G.; Garzo, E.; Pasqualini, E.; Musacchi, S.; Chicca, M.; Castaldelli, G.; Rossie, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed information on plant penetration activities by pear psylla Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera Psyllidae) is essential to study phytoplasma transmission of “Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri” responsible of pear decline disease (PD) and to trace and evaluate resistant traits in new pear tree selections

  1. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Batistoni, Paola; Obryk, Barbara; Popovichev, Sergey; Naish, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The results of the simulations were compared against experimental data obtained using thermoluminescence detectors and activation foils.

  2. Fluorescent Penetrant INSPECTION—CLEANING Study Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used in the aviation industry and other industries for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. There is variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. Before the FPI process begins, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. From the first three phases of this project it has been found that a hot water rinse can aid in the detection process when using this nondestructive method.

  3. Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenrath, W.G.; Hawkins, G.S.; Kurtz, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Formulations of the mosquito repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in combination with a variety of additives were developed to control repellent evaporation and percutaneous penetration. Deet was also formulated with the repellent dimethyl phthalate to study the interaction of the two compounds on the skin. The evaporation and penetration processes were evaluated on whole and split-thickness pig skin using radiolabeled repellents with an in vitro apparatus. Under essentially still air and air flow conditions, one of the deet formulations resulted in significantly reduced total evaporation and percutaneous penetration of deet as compared to unformulated repellent. When deet and dimethyl phthalate were combined, neither repellent affected the total amount of evaporation and penetration of the other compound. However, initial percutaneous penetration and evaporation rates were slightly less and decayed less rapidly than when both chemicals were tested separately at the same dose. These results indicated a degree of competition of the two compounds for the same avenues of loss

  4. A clinical study on localized renal damage from percutaneous nephroureterolithotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Yutaka; Orikasa, Seiichi

    1988-01-01

    To study the localized renal damage from percutaneous nephroureterolithotomy (PNL), 3 divided DMSA renal scintigraphy in 41 renal units and dynamic CT in 17 renal units were performed. 1) Localized renal damages corresponding to the nephrostomy tract estimated by 3 divided DMSA renal scintigraphy were almost recovered by 6 months after PNL in most cases. But in 17 of the 41 renal units (41 %), the postoperative renal scintigram showed low uptake or cold area at the nephrostomy tract. 2) In several cases which showed cold area in postoperative renal scintigram, dynamic CT showed linear or diffuse low density area with sclerotic cortical deformity at the posterior wall of the kidney. These results indicate that an anatomically proper site of the puncture and a smaller nephrostomy size are mandatory to minimize localized renal damage from PNL. (author)

  5. UO2/magnetite concrete interaction and penetration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadieh, R.; Purviance, R.; Carlson, N.

    1983-01-01

    The concrete structure represents a line of defense in safety assessment of containment integrity and possible minimization of radiological releases following a reactor accident. The penetration study of hot UO 2 particles into limestone concrete and basalt concrete highlighted some major differences between the two concretes. These included penetration rate, melting and dissolution phenomena, released gases, pressurization of the UO 2 chamber, and characteristics of post-test concrete. The present study focuses on the phenomena associated with core debris interaction with and penetration into magnetite type concrete. The real material experiment was carried out with UO 2 particles and magnetite concrete in a test apparatus similar to the one utilized in the UO 2 /limestone experiment

  6. A Study of Crystalline Mechanism of Penetration Sealer Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Li-Wei; Huang, Ran; Chen, Jie; Cheng, An; Hsu, Hui-Mi

    2014-01-14

    It is quite common to dispense a topping material like crystalline penetration sealer materials (CPSM) onto the surface of a plastic substance such as concrete to extend its service life span by surface protections from outside breakthrough. The CPSM can penetrate into the existing pores or possible cracks in such a way that it may form crystals to block the potential paths which provide breakthrough for any unknown materials. This study investigated the crystalline mechanism formed in the part of concrete penetrated by the CPSM. We analyzed the chemical composites, in order to identify the mechanism of CPSM and to evaluate the penetrated depth. As shown in the results, SEM observes the acicular-structured crystals filling capillary pores for mortar substrate of the internal microstructure beneath the concrete surface; meanwhile, XRD and FT-IR showed the main hydration products of CPSM to be C-S-H gel and CaCO₃. Besides, MIP also shows CPSM with the ability to clog capillary pores of mortar substrate; thus, it reduces porosity, and appears to benefit in sealing pores or cracks. The depth of CPSM penetration capability indicated by TGA shows 0-10 mm of sealer layer beneath the concrete surface.

  7. A Study of Crystalline Mechanism of Penetration Sealer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Teng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is quite common to dispense a topping material like crystalline penetration sealer materials (CPSM onto the surface of a plastic substance such as concrete to extend its service life span by surface protections from outside breakthrough. The CPSM can penetrate into the existing pores or possible cracks in such a way that it may form crystals to block the potential paths which provide breakthrough for any unknown materials. This study investigated the crystalline mechanism formed in the part of concrete penetrated by the CPSM. We analyzed the chemical composites, in order to identify the mechanism of CPSM and to evaluate the penetrated depth. As shown in the results, SEM observes the acicular-structured crystals filling capillary pores for mortar substrate of the internal microstructure beneath the concrete surface; meanwhile, XRD and FT-IR showed the main hydration products of CPSM to be C-S-H gel and CaCO3. Besides, MIP also shows CPSM with the ability to clog capillary pores of mortar substrate; thus, it reduces porosity, and appears to benefit in sealing pores or cracks. The depth of CPSM penetration capability indicated by TGA shows 0–10 mm of sealer layer beneath the concrete surface.

  8. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy among patients with renal anomalies: patient characteristics and outcomes; a subgroup analysis of the clinical research office of the endourological society global percutaneous nephrolithotomy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle Jörn; Razvi, Hassan; Liatsikos, Evangelos

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the characteristics and outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with and without renal malformations using the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study database.......This study compared the characteristics and outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with and without renal malformations using the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study database....

  9. Percutaneous planter fasciitis release under local anesthesia: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Percutaneous planter fasciitis release under local anesthesia is a minimally invasive procedure that can be performed in the outpatient setting. It is easy, quick, effective and moreover with few complications.

  10. The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Global Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucuras, Viorel; Gopalakrishnam, Ganesh; Wolf, J Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The study compared characteristics and outcomes in patients with solitary and bilateral kidneys who were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study.......The study compared characteristics and outcomes in patients with solitary and bilateral kidneys who were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study....

  11. Supine Versus Prone Position During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Report from the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Global Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Vadivia, José; M. Scarpa, Roberto; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2011-01-01

    To determine differences in patients' characteristics, operative time and procedures, and perioperative outcomes between prone and supine positioning in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) using the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study database....

  12. A Novel Penetration System for in situ Astrobiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to ultraviolet flux in the surface layers of most solar bodies, future astrobiological research is increasingly seeking to conduct subsurface penetration and drilling to detect chemical signature for extant or extinct life. To address this issue, we present a micro-penetrator concept (mass < 10 kg that is suited for extraterrestrial planetary deployment and in situ investigation of chemical and physical properties. The instrumentation in this concept is a bio-inspired drill to access material beneath sterile surface layer for biomarker detection. The proposed drill represents a novel concept of two-valve-reciprocating motion, inspired by the working mechanism of wood wasp ovipositors. It is lightweight (0.5 kg, driven at low power (3 W, and able to drill deep (1-2 m. Tests have shown that the reciprocating drill is feasible and has potential of improving drill efficiency without using any external force. The overall penetration system provides a small, light and energy efficient solution to in situ astrobiological studies, which is crucial for space engineering. Such a micro-penetrator can be used for exploration of terrestrial-type planets or other small bodies of the solar system with the minimum of modifications.

  13. A Novel Penetration System for in situ Astrobiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to ultraviolet flux in the surface layers of most solar bodies, future astrobiological research is increasingly seeking to conduct subsurface penetration and drilling to detect chemical signature for extant or extinct life. To address this issue, we present a micro-penetrator concept (mass < 10 kg that is suited for extraterrestrial planetary deployment and in situ investigation of chemical and physical properties. The instrumentation in this concept is a bio-inspired drill to access material beneath sterile surface layer for biomarker detection. The proposed drill represents a novel concept of two-valve-reciprocating motion, inspired by the working mechanism of wood wasp ovipositors. It is lightweight (0.5 kg, driven at low power (3 W, and able to drill deep (1-2 m. Tests have shown that the reciprocating drill is feasible and has potential of improving drill efficiency without using any external force. The overall penetration system provides a small, light and energy efficient solution to in situ astrobiological studies, which is crucial for space engineering. Such a micro-penetrator can be used for exploration of terrestrial-type planets or other small bodies of the solar system with the minimum of modifications.

  14. Study into penetration speed during laser cutting of brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Z; Sami, M; Patiroglu, T

    1998-01-01

    The applications of CO2 continuous-wave lasers in neurosurgery have become important in recent years. Theoretical considerations of laser applicability in medicine are subsequently confirmed experimentally. To obtain precision operation in the laser cutting process, further theoretical developments and experimental studies need to be conducted. Consequently, in the present study, the heat transfer mechanism taking place during laser-tissue interaction is introduced using Fourier theory. The results obtained from the theoretical model are compared with the experimental results. In connection with this, an experiment is designed to measure the penetration speed during the laser cutting process. The measurement is carried out using an optical method. It is found that both results for the penetration speed obtained from the theory and experiment are in a good agreement.

  15. Dermal uptake and percutaneous penetration of organophosphate esters in a human skin ex vivo model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Stapleton, Heather M; Vorkamp, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are used as flame retardants, plasticizers, and as hydraulic fluids. They are present in indoor environments in high concentrations compared with other flame retardants, and human exposure is ubiquitous. In this study we provide data for estimating dermal uptake...... through the skin. For tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP), tris(n-butyl) phosphate (TNBP), and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP) the mass balance was not stable over time indicating possible degradation during the experimental period of 72 h. The rates at which OPEs permeated through the skin decreased...

  16. Experimental study with domestic bone cement in the percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Caifang; Liu Xisheng; Chen Long; Yang Huilin; Tang Tiansi; Ding Yi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of injecting domestic bone cement in the process of the percutaneous vertebroplasty. Methods: (1) Various types cement were disposed with domestic PMMA. The concretionary phases of cement were observed according to the stages and holding time. Then the most ideal ratio of the mixed cement was selected and ten cement columns were made with this ratio, which was taken as the trial group. The other ten referring to was taken as the contrast one. The biological mechanics was measured with a load and the data of the results were compared. (2) Twenty thoracic and lumbar adjacent bodies were removed intact from five human corpses. These bodies were divided into two groups, in one group PMMA were injected, the other was severed as the contrast one. Then in these twenty vertebral bodies the biological mechanics was measured and the treatment effect was evaluated. (3) In 12 healthy dogs PVP in lumber was tried so as to observe the operational difficulty during the process of injected this bone cement and CT was used to evaluate the result of PMMA, diffusion and the complications caused by it. Results: The most ideal ratio was 4:2.6:1 (g, ml, ml) between powder, monome and contrast. After injecting this kind of cement, the loading strength of these vertebral bodies was increased remarkably (P<0.01). Conclusion: Injecting domestic bone cement provides the theoretical foundations for the clinical application of PVP. (author)

  17. Comparative Study between Standard and Totally Tubeless Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung Il; Lee, Yoon Hyung; Kim, Jae Soo; Cho, Sung Ryong; Kim, Bum Soo; Kwon, Joon Beom

    2012-11-01

    Several recent studies have reported the benefits of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Postoperatively, tubeless PNL patients have an indwelling ureteral stent placed, which is often associated with stent-related morbidity. We have performed totally tubeless (tubeless and stentless) PNL in which no nephrostomy tube or ureteral stent is placed postoperatively. We evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of totally tubeless PNL. From March 2008 to February 2012, 57 selected patients underwent standard or totally tubeless PNL. Neither a nephrostomy tube nor a ureteral stent was placed in the totally tubeless PNL group. We compared patient and stone characteristics, operation time, length of hospitalization, analgesia requirements, stone-free rate, blood loss, change in creatinine, and perioperative complications between the standard and totally tubeless PNL groups. There were no significant differences in preoperative patient characteristics, postoperative complications, or the stone-free rate between the two groups, but the totally tubeless PNL group showed a shorter hospitalization and a lesser analgesic requirement compared with the standard PNL group. Blood loss and change in creatinine were not significantly different between the two groups. Totally tubeless PNL appears to be a safe and effective alternative for the management of renal stone patients and is associated with a decrease in length of hospital stay.

  18. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: an experimental study in adult corpses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shicheng; Teng Gaojun; Zeng Shuilin; Guo Jinhe; Fang Wen; Zhu Guangyu; Liu Zhentian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the key technique factors and the mechanisms of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). Methods: PMMA was classified into three groups according to the ratio of powder/liquid as 1:1, 3:2 and 2:1. Polymerizing process in vitro was measured respectively in each group, which included 10 samples. Twenty vertebrae from T12-L4 in 4 adult corpses were randomly distributed into 2 groups. In one group, PVP was performed under monitoring by combined CT and C-arm X-ray machines. All vertebrae were dissected into individual vertebra and the ultimate compressive strength was measured in double-blind tests. Results: The period of the polymerizing process and the temperature changes during the polymerizing among 3 groups with different ratio of powder/liquid were significantly different. The ratio of 3/2 was the proper regimen for injection. Punctures were successfully reached in one set of puncture in all vertebrae but one, with 4.5 ml of PMMA in average injected in each vertebra. Pre-vertebral leakage of PMMA was demonstrated in 4 of 20 vertebrae. The ultimate compressive strength increased in 38% in the experimental group compared with that of the control group. Conclusions: Proper ratio of powder/liquid and injection time of PMMA is the key technique for PVP. The puncture route of trans-arch of vertebra is accessible for PVP. It is proven in this study that the ultimate compressive strength of vertebra enhances greatly after PVP

  19. Comparison of percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty for the management of Kümmell's disease: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Quan; Gao, Yan-Zheng; Chen, Shu-Lian; Ding, Shuai; Gao, Kun; Wang, Hong-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Post traumatic osteonecrosis of a vertebral body occurring in a delayed fashion was first described by the German doctor Kümmell in 1895. Several studies have reported percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), or percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) for Kümmell's disease achieves good outcomes. However, it is unknown whether a technique is superior for the treatment of this disease. The objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of PVP and PKP for the treatment of Kümmell's disease. A retrospective review was conducted for 73 patients with Kümmell's disease. PVP was performed in 38 patients and PKP in 35 patients. Visual analogue score (VAS) was used to evaluate pain. The anterior vertebral height was measured. The operative time, the incidence of cement leakage and the costs were recorded. In both PVP group and PKP group, the VAS and anterior vertebral height significantly improved at 1-day postoperatively (P 0.05). Between the PVP and PKP groups, there were no significant differences in VAS and the anterior vertebral height at 1-day postoperatively and at the final followup (P > 0.05). The operating time and expense in the PKP group were higher than the PVP group (P pain relief and restoration of vertebral height to PKP for the treatment of Kümmell's disease. PKP has a significant advantage over PVP in term of the fewer cement leakages.

  20. Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2009-02-01

    Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (Ppig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (Pguinea pig and 24% for human, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, Ppig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3guinea pig skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation.

  1. Preliminary study of percutaneous nephrolithotomy on an ambulatory basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tabey, Magdy Ahmed; Abd-Allah, Osama Abdel-Wahab; Ahmed, Ahmed Sebaey; El-Barky, Ehab Mohammed; Noureldin, Yasser Abdel-Sattar

    2013-02-01

    Preliminary study to assess the feasibility and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) as an ambulatory procedure. Between February 2011 and September 2012, 84 patients with renal calculi fulfilling the inclusion criteria were admitted to the Urology Department of Benha University Hospitals for PCNL. All patients were subjected to a full medical history, clinical, laboratory and radiological examinations. Tubeless PCNLs were done in the supine position, and an antegrade double-J stent was inserted. Operative time and intraoperative complications were recorded. Postoperatively, the hematocrit value, postoperative pain and analgesics, need of blood transfusion, stone-free rate, and length of hospital stay were recorded. Stable patients that could be safely discharged within 24 hours after surgery were considered ambulatory. All cases of tubeless PCNL were successfully done and no cases converted to open surgery. The overall stone-free rate was 91.7%, the mean postoperative pain score measured by the visual analog scale was 4.4 ± 1.2, the mean overall hematocrit deficit was 4.8 ± 2.2% and the mean hospital stay was 33.4 ± 17.5 hours. Ambulatory PCNL was accomplished in 60 out of 84 patients (71.4%) and double-J stents were removed 7-10 days postoperatively. In the non-ambulatory cases, double-J stents were removed after auxillary procedures were done according to each case. PCNL can be safely done on an ambulatory basis under strict criteria, but further studies are needed to confirm and expand these findings.

  2. A prospective randomized study comparing percutaneous nephrolithotomy under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with percutaneous nephrolithotomy under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Sankhwar, S N; Malik, Anita

    2011-01-01

    A prospective randomized study was executed to compare the surgical parameters and stone clearance in patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) versus those who underwent PNL under general anesthesia (GA). Between January 2008 to December 2009, 64 patients with renal calculi were randomized into 2 groups and evaluated for the purpose of this study. Group 1 consisted of patients who underwent PNL under CSEA and Group 2 consisted of patients who underwent PNL under GA. The operative time, stone clearance rate, visual pain analog score, mean analgesic dose and mean hospital stay were compared amongst other parameters. The difference between visual pain analog score after the operation and the dose of analgesic requirement was significant on statistical analysis between both groups. PNL under CSEA is as effective and safe as PNL under GA. Patients who undergo PNL under CESA require lesser analgesic dose and have a shorter hospital stay. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Comparison of percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty for the management of Kümmell's disease: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Quan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post traumatic osteonecrosis of a vertebral body occurring in a delayed fashion was first described by the German doctor Kümmell in 1895. Several studies have reported percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP, or percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP for Kümmell's disease achieves good outcomes. However, it is unknown whether a technique is superior for the treatment of this disease. The objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of PVP and PKP for the treatment of Kümmell's disease. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted for 73 patients with Kümmell's disease. PVP was performed in 38 patients and PKP in 35 patients. Visual analogue score (VAS was used to evaluate pain. The anterior vertebral height was measured. The operative time, the incidence of cement leakage and the costs were recorded. Results: In both PVP group and PKP group, the VAS and anterior vertebral height significantly improved at 1-day postoperatively (P 0.05. Between the PVP and PKP groups, there were no significant differences in VAS and the anterior vertebral height at 1-day postoperatively and at the final followup (P > 0.05. The operating time and expense in the PKP group were higher than the PVP group (P < 0.001. Cement leakages in the PKP group were fewer than PVP group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: PVP is a faster, less expensive option that still provides a comparable pain relief and restoration of vertebral height to PKP for the treatment of Kümmell's disease. PKP has a significant advantage over PVP in term of the fewer cement leakages.

  4. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy among patients with renal anomalies: patient characteristics and outcomes; a subgroup analysis of the clinical research office of the endourological society global percutaneous nephrolithotomy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osther, Palle Jörn; Razvi, Hassan; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Averch, Timothy; Crisci, Alfonso; Garcia, Juan Lòpez; Mandal, Arup; de la Rosette, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the characteristics and outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with and without renal malformations using the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study database. The CROES PCNL Global Study collected prospective data for

  5. Penetration tests to study the mechanical tribological properties of chisel type knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlăduţoiu, L.; Chişiu, G.; Andrei, T.; Predescu, A.; Muraru, C.; Vlăduţ, V.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the behaviour of chisel knife type penetration in a certain type of sand. A series of penetration tests were carried out with chisel knife type, the answer to penetration depending mainly on nature, shape, size of knife and operating parameters such as speed, depth and working conditions. Tests were conducted in work conditions with wet sand and dry sand and determined force of resistance to penetration of the chisel knife type to a certain depth.

  6. BIOCOMPATIBLE FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERES: SAFE PARTICLES FOR MATERIAL PENETRATION STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, G; Leif, R

    2009-07-15

    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds have been used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres were produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  7. The clinical research office of the endourological society percutaneous nephrolithotomy global study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desai, Mahesh; De Lisa, Antonello; Turna, Burak

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study compared characteristics and outcomes in patients with staghorn or nonstaghorn stones who were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) within the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data over a 1-year ...

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in Middle Eastern patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from the first Jordanian percutaneous coronary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Ayman J; Alhaddad, Imad A; Khader, Yousef; Tabbalat, Ramzi; Al-Mousa, Eyas; Saleh, Akram; Jarrah, Mohamad; Nammas, Assem; Izraiq, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    Background and aims: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Middle East. We sought to study the prevalence and coexistence of 6 cardiovascular risk factors (RFs) among patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and to evaluate the impact of age and gender on the presence of multiple RFs. In this prospective, multicenter study, 2426 consecutive patients were enrolled. Mean age was 59.0 ± 10.1 years and 500 (20.6%) were women. Acute coronary syndrome and stable coronary disease were the indications for PCI in 77.1% and 22.9%, respectively. Hypertension was present in 62.3%, diabetes in 53.8%, hypercholesterolemia in 48.8%, smoking in 43.5%, family history of premature CVD 39.4% and obesity in 28.8%. Only 3.8% did not have any of these RFs. Presence of ⩾3 and ⩾4 RFS was observed in 57.4% and 29.5% of patients, respectively. Presence of ⩾3 RFs was more common in women than men (69.0% vs. 54.5%, p  Eastern population undergoing PCI. More than half and more than one-fourth of the patients had at least 3 or 4 RFs; respectively. More women than men and more middle aged patients than older or younger patients had significantly higher rates of presence of multiple RFs.

  9. Emphysema and pneumothorax after percutaneous tracheostomy: case reports and an anatomic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, B.G.; Veen, J.A. van; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Pickkers, P.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Hillen, B.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2004-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Part 1: To describe cases of emphysema (subcutaneous and/or mediastinal) and pneumothorax after percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) in a series of 326 patients, and to review the existing literature describing the incidence and possible mechanisms. Part 2: To analyze the

  10. A prospective study of percutaneous vertebroplasty in patients with myeloma and spinal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, C.; Ritchie, M.; O’Dwyer, P.J.; Edwards, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess patient outcome in a consecutive series of patients with myeloma and spinal metastases who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty. Materials and methods: Data were gathered prospectively on all patients undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty between June 2001 and June 2010. Outcome measures included visual analogue pain scores (VAS) and Roland–Morris Questionnaire (RMQ) in patients treated since 2005 as well as complications and long-term outcome in all patients. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight patients underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty for myeloma (n = 41) or spinal metastases (n = 87) over a 9 year period. VAS scores fell from 7.75 ± 1.88 pre-vertebroplasty to 4.77 ± 2.69 post-vertebroplasty (p = 0.001). RDQ scores improved from 18.55 ± 4.79 to 13.5 ± 6.96 (p = 0.001). Complications were recorded in three patients: cement extension to vena cava (n = 1), local haematoma (n = 1), and loss of sensation over T1 dermatome (n = 1). The Kaplan–Meier estimate of 5 year survival post-vertebroplasty was 40% for patients with myeloma and 25% for those with metastases. Conclusion: This large prospective study demonstrates percutaneous vertebroplasty reduces pain and improves disability in patients from intractable pain from myeloma or spinal metastases and now forms an important part of the multimodality treatment for these patients.

  11. BIOCOMPATIBLE FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERES: SAFE PARTICLES FOR MATERIAL PENETRATION STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    farquar, G; Leif, R

    2008-09-12

    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds are being used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres are being produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will be presented and discussed in greater detail along with fluorescent and charge properties of the aerosols. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  12. Penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Meret E Ricklin; Reist, Martin; Persohn, Elke; Peel, John E; Roosje, Petra J

    2006-01-01

    ASM 981 has been developed for topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. It specifically inhibits the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We measured the skin penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin and compared penetration in living and frozen skin. To make penetration of ASM 981 visible in dog skin, tritium labelled ASM 981 was applied to a living dog and to defrosted skin of the same dog. Using qualitative autoradiography the radioactive molecules were detected in the lumen of the hair follicles until the infundibulum, around the superficial parts of the hair follicles and into a depth of the dermis of 200 to 500 microm. Activity could not be found in deeper parts of the hair follicles, the dermis or in the sebaceous glands. Penetration of ASM 981 is low in canine skin and is only equally spread in the upper third of the dermis 24 hours after application. Penetration in frozen skin takes even longer than in living canine skin but shows the same distribution.

  13. Study on penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiangxin; Xu, Heyang

    2017-09-01

    In order to investigate penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment penetrating target, PTFE/Al (mass ratio 73.5/26.5) pressed and sintered into a Ф8mm × 8mm cylinder. To form energetic fragment, the cylinder was put into a closed container made by 35CrMnSiA. The container is 12mm long, 2mm thick. Energetic fragments were launched by a 14.5mm ballistic gun with a series of velocities and the penetrate process was simulated by AUTODYN-3D. The results show that the stress peak of energetic material exceed the initiation threshold, and energetic material will deflagrate, when energetic fragments impact velocity more than 800 m/s. The research results can provide reference for designs of energetic warhead.

  14. A study of the penetration of projectiles into marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The work described in this document consists of three main parts: - Application, after having reviewed calculation methods and known codes, of a dynamic plasticity model based on the upper bound-method (with dissipated energy calculations by plastic deformations). The soil model used for this calculation is the Cambridge Clay Model. - Carrying out a programme of tests with instrumented small scale penetrators in centrifuge on a consolidated clay-target. The trials are done under 50 g, with projectiles, fired with an airgun at high impact velocity (50 m/s). The penetrators' instrumentation consists of either measuring acceleration, or tip force with strain gauges. - The mounting of a small instrumented penetrator for shallow water depth experimentations, with an accelerometer, and a local cell for tip resistance. A rapid electronic data acquisition system has been developed for these experimentations. The preliminary tests are done in a large tank filled with clay. The geotechnical characteristics of the clay are perfectly controlled. The tests performed under these conditions have shown the following observations: the rapid electronic data acquisition system works perfectly and could be used as a basic component for a deep water instrumentated penetrator; the results, obtained in these particular test conditions, are in a perfect agreement with the predictions of the model developed in the frame of this contract

  15. Operating times and bleeding complications in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a comparison of tract dilation methods in 5,537 patients in the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Global Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamaguchi, Akito; Skolarikos, Andreas; Buchholz, Niels-Peter Noor; Chomón, Gonzalo Bueno; Grasso, Michael; Saba, Pietro; Nakada, Stephen; de la Rosette, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated factors that affect operating times and bleeding complications associated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the PCNL Global Study. All patients who underwent PCNL for primary or secondary treatment of kidney stone indications during the study period (November

  16. Essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. and its main components used as transdermal penetration enhancers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yi; Li, Hui; Chen, Yan-yan; Zhang, Ye-wen; Liu, Na; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Our previous studies had confirmed that the essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Z. bungeanum oil) could effectively enhance the percutaneous permeation of drug molecules as a natural transdermal penetration enhancer. The aim of the present study is to investigate and compare the skin penetration enhancement effect of Z. bungeanum oil and its main components on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) active components. Toxicities of Z. bungeanum oil and three selected terpene compounds (terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) in epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) and dermal fibroblast (CCC-ESF-1) cell lines were measured using an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Five model drugs in TCM external preparations, namely osthole (OT), tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), ferulic acid (FA), puerarin (PR), and geniposide (GP), which were selected based on their lipophilicity denoted by logKo/w, were tested using in vitro permeation studies in which vertical Franz diffusion cells and rat abdominal skin were employed. The secondary structure changes of skin stratum corneum (SC) and drug thermodynamic activities were investigated to understand their mechanisms of action using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and saturation solubility studies, respectively. It was found that Z. bungeanum oil showed lower toxicities in both HaCaT cells and CCC-ESF-1 cells compared with three terpene compounds used alone. The enhancement permeation capacities by all tested agents were in the following increasing order: terpinen-4-ol≈1,8-cineole

  17. Study of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy for the spine lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ji; Wu Chungen; Cheng Yongde; Zhu Xuee; Gu Yifeng; Zhang Huijian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the successful rate, diagnostic accuracy and clinical usefulness of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy for the spine lesions. Methods: Eight-five patients (61 outpatients, 24 ward patients)underwent CT-guided percutaneous biopsy for the spine lesion. The imaging appearance of spinal lesions were lytic in 57 cases, osteosclerotic in 19 cases, and mixed in 9 cases. Biopsy specimens were sent for cytologic and histologic analysis in order to correct diagnosis. Bacterial studies were performed when ever infection was suspected. Results: The localization of puncture biopsy needle inside the spinal lesions, was conformed by computed tomography including 3 cervical, 26 thoracic, 37 lumbar, and 19 sacral lesions. Biopsy specimens included bone (29 cases), soft tissue (5 cases), mixed tissue (47 cases )and no specimen be obtained(4 cases). An adequate specimen for pathologic examination was obtained in 81 biopsies (95%). The pathologic examinations revealed 44 metastases, 17 primary bone neoplasms, 18 infections (included tuberculosis)and 2 normal tissues of vertebral body. The diagnostic accuracy reached 97.5% (79 of 81 patients). Conclusions: CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is an important tool in the evaluation of spinal lesions, providing accurate localization, less trauma and reliable pathologic diagnosis and worthwhile to be the routine before vertebroplasy. (authors)

  18. The CROES percutaneous nephrolithotomy global study: the influence of body mass index on outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuller, Andrew; Razvi, Hassan; Denstedt, John D

    2012-01-01

    In addition to more commonly forming stones, obese patients present a number of challenges when undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We evaluated percutaneous nephrolithotomy outcomes in 3,709 patients stratified by body mass index.......In addition to more commonly forming stones, obese patients present a number of challenges when undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We evaluated percutaneous nephrolithotomy outcomes in 3,709 patients stratified by body mass index....

  19. The impact of skin decontamination on the time window for effective treatment of percutaneous VX exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Berg, R.M. van den; Jong, A.L. de; Schans, M.J. van der; Noort, D.; Langenberg, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to obtain insight into depot formation and penetration following percutaneous VX poisoning, in order to identify an appropriate decontamination window that can enhance or support medical countermeasures. The study was executed in two phases, using the hairless

  20. Copper foliar sorption: study of cuticular uptake and penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamel, Andre; Bougie, Bernadette

    1977-01-01

    Results show that copper is easily retained by enzymatically isolated cuticles from pear leaves discs. The sorption is very rapid during the first hour, then progressively slower with increasing time. Upper and lower cuticles exhibit the same sorption when immersed, but the sorption by the upper internal surface is greater than that by the external surface. Sorption depends on the dates of sampling of the leaves and vegetal species. The variation of the process with concentrations is hyperbolic. The retained copper may be partially exchanged: from 16 to 95% after 24 hours of exchange in a cupric solution, as the Cu concentration increases from 10 -6 to 10 -2 M. The penetration of copper through astomatous cuticular discs is extremely reduced if there is pure water in the receiver unit [fr

  1. A Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Mini-surgical Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy With Surgical and Classical Percutaneous Tracheostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad-Reza; Digaleh, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is more accessible and less time-demanding compared with surgical tracheostomy (ST), it has its own limitations. We introduced a modified PDT technique and brought some surgical knowledge to the bedside to overcome some standard percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy relative contraindications. PDT uses a blind route of tracheal access that usually requires perioperational imaging guidance to protect accidental injuries. Moreover, there are contraindications in certain cases, limiting widespread PDT application. Different PDT modifications and devices have been represented to address the problem; however, these approaches are not generally popular among professionals due to limited accessibility and/or other reasons. We prospectively analyzed the double-blinded trial, patient and nurse head evaluating the complications, and collected data from 360 patients who underwent PDT, ST, or our modified mini-surgical PDT (msPDT, Hashemian method). These patients were divided into 2 groups—contraindicated to PDT—and randomization was done for msPDT or PDT in PDT-indicated group and msPDT or ST for PDT-contraindicated patients. The cases were compared in terms of pre and postoperational complications. Data analysis demonstrated that the mean value of procedural time was significantly lower in the msPDT group, either compared with the standard PDT or the ST group. Paratracheal insertion, intraprocedural hypoxemia, and bleeding were also significantly lower in the msPDT group compared with the standard PDT group. Other complications were not significantly different between msPDT and ST patients. The introduced msPDT represented a semiopen incision, other than blinded PDT route of tracheal access that allowed proceduralist to withdraw bronchoscopy and reduced the total time of procedure. Interestingly, the most important improvement was performing msPDT on PDT-contraindicated patients with the complication rate

  2. A controlled monitoring study of simulated clandestine graves using 3D ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Schoor, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A controlled three-dimensional ground penetrating radar monitoring study over simulated clandestine graves was conducted near Pretoria, South Africa, in which the detectability of graves as a function of post-burial interval was assessed...

  3. A study of the effects of penetration framing on steel containment buckling capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.E.; Butler, T.A.

    1987-05-01

    Polycarbonate cylinders modeling steel containment structures were tested to study the effects of different framing designs around large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of containments. Two of the four models had equipment hatch penetrations and two had personnel airlock penetrations. Both types of models were tested with axial and shear loads as framing was incrementally added. Results indicate that, for the models constructed of polycarbonate, buckling is influenced minimally with added framing. Numerical results support the experimental results. Extrapolation of the results to containment constructed under field conditions with prototypic steel materials is discussed and further testing is recommended

  4. CT-guided percutaneous cryoablation of osteoid osteoma in children: an initial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bin; Xiao, Yue-Yong; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Lei; Carrino, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided percutaneous cryoablation for osteoid osteoma in children. This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. From January 2007 to July 2008, six children (four boys, two girls, mean age 12.6 years old) with osteoid osteoma were treated with CT-guided percutaneous cryoablation. The procedures were carried out under conscious sedation and local anesthesia. CT guidance was used for procedural planning, instrument guidance, and monitoring. An argon-based cryoablation system was used. Each cryoablation included two freezing-thawing cycles. Follow-up was performed to assess technical and clinical outcome for a minimum of 12 months. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess severity of pain pre- and post-procedure, and mean VAS for the group was compared pre- and post-procedure with a t-test. The mean clinical follow-up period was 28.7 months (ranging from 18 to 36 months). Cryoablation was technically and clinically successful for all patients. No major immediate or delayed complications were observed. Significant pain relief (P <0.05) was observed in all patients after operation. Mean VAS were 6.57 ± 0.55 pre-procedure and 0.57 ± 0.10 1 month post-procedure. Patients were allowed to fully bear their weight and function without limitation within 3 days after the procedure. Pain recurrence was not observed in any patient. Percutaneous cryoablation is safe and effective for the treatment of osteoid osteomas in children. Notably, this procedure can be accomplished without general anesthesia. (orig.)

  5. On-scene time and outcome after penetrating trauma: an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamillia S.; Steinmetz, Jacob; Petersen, John Asger

    2011-01-01

    This was an observational cohort study of penetrating trauma patients treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in Copenhagen with a 30-day follow-up. Between January 2002 and September 2009, data were prospectively registered regarding the anatomical location of the trauma, time intervals and procedures performed......-scene time might be important in penetrating trauma, and ALS procedures should not delay transport to definite care at the hospital....

  6. A comparative study on the transdermal penetration effect of gaseous and aqueous plasma reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Gan, Lu; Ma, Mingyu; Zhang, Song; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Hongxiang; Liu, Dawei; Lu, Xinpei

    2018-02-01

    To improve the depth of plasma active species in the skin, it is very important to develop skin disease treatment using plasma. In this article, an air plasma source was used to work directly with the skin of a mouse. A tortuous pathway, hair follicles, electroporation and a microneedle do not aid the transdermal delivery of gaseous plasma active species, therefore these gaseous plasma active species cannot penetrate mouse skin with a thickness of ~0.75 mm. The plasma activated water (PAW) produced by the air plasma source was used to study the transdermal penetration of the aqueous plasma activated species. This aqueous plasma activated species can penetrate the skin through hair follicles, intercellular and transcellular routes. The pH of the PAW did not affect the penetration efficiency of the aqueous plasma active species.

  7. A numerical study on the disturbance of explosive reactive armors to jet penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-dong Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The disturbance of flat and V-shaped sandwich reactive armor configurations to shaped-charge jet is studied by a numerical approach. The disturbing and cutting effects of the two reactive armor configurations to the jet are successfully captured. The predicted disturbance characteristics and patterns are in fairly good agreement with the X-ray photographic observations. The residual depth of penetration into a semi-infinitive homogeneous steel target behind the reactive armor is computed for a series of jet/armor parameters. For the flat configuration, it is demonstrated that the residual penetration depth is not significantly reduced for a normal impact while it is reduced up to 75% for an oblique impact. In comparison, the V-shaped configuration reduces the penetration depth of the jet to 90%, and it is observed that the penetration depth is not sensitive to the V-shaped angle.

  8. An experimental study of aerosol penetration through horizontal tubes and strom-type loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.S.; McFarland, A.R.; Anand, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Because some designers of aerosol transport systems use the assumption that aerosol penetration through a system is maximized of the flow Reynolds number is 2,800, we have conducted tests to determine if such an assumption is appropriate. Although we do not believe that optimal performance of an aerosol sample transport system can be presented solely in terms of the Reynolds number, we have presented our results in terms of that parameter to compare our work with the results of an earlier study. Two types of experiments were performed. First, the penetration of liquid aerosol particles through horizontal tubes was experimentally investigated for a range of design and operational conditions. For a particle size of 10 μm aerodynamic diameter, the maximum penetration through a 6.7 mm diameter tube was associated with a Reynolds number of approximately 2,000; the maximum penetration through a tube of 15.9 mm occurred at a Reynolds number of about 3,000; and the maximum penetration through a 26.7 mm diameter tube occurred at about 4,000. It was also experimentally demonstrated that for a fixed flow rate through a horizontal tube, there is an optimum tube diameter for which the aerosol penetration is a maximum. An early study dealing with aerosol particle penetration through a 16.8 mm inside diameter loop of tubing (two vertical tubes, two horizontal tubes and three 90 degrees bends) suggested there was a fixed Reynolds number for optimal aerosol penetration independent of particle size. Those experiments were repeated here and the agreement with those tests is excellent. 16 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  9. The Tubular Penetration Depth and Adaption of Four Sealers: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The tubular penetration and adaptation of the sealer are important factors for successful root canal filling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tubular penetration depth of four different sealers in the coronal, middle, and apical third of root canals as well as the adaptation of these sealers to root canal walls. Materials and Methods. 50 single-rooted teeth were prepared in this study. Forty-eight of them were filled with different sealers (Cortisomol, iRoot SP, AH-Plus, and RealSeal SE and respective core filling materials. Then the specimens were sectioned and scanning electron microscopy was employed to assess the tubular penetration and adaptation of the sealers. Results. Our results demonstrated that the maximum penetration was exhibited by RealSeal SE, followed by AH-Plus, iRoot SP, and Cortisomol. As regards the adaptation property to root canal walls, AH-Plus has best adaptation capacity followed by iRoot SP, RealSeal SE, and Cortisomol. Conclusion. The tubular penetration and adaptation vary with the different sealers investigated. RealSeal SE showed the most optimal tubular penetration, whereas AH-Plus presented the best adaptation to the root canal walls.

  10. Evaluation of penetration and scattering components in conventional pinhole SPECT: phantom studies using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloar, Hossain M; Watabe, Hiroshi; Aoi, Toshiyuki; Iida, Hidehiro

    2003-01-01

    In quantitative pinhole SPECT, photon penetration through the collimator edges (penetration), and photon scattering by the object (object scatter) and collimator (collimator scatter) have not been investigated rigorously. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate these three physical processes for different tungsten knife-edge pinhole collimators using uniform, hotspot and donut phantoms filled with 201 Tl, 99m Tc, 123 I and 131 I solutions. For the hotspot phantom, the penetration levels with respect to total counts for a 1 mm pinhole aperture were 78%, 28% and 23% for 131 I, 123 I and 99m Tc, respectively. For a 2 mm aperture, these values were 65% for 131 I, 16% for 123 I and 12% for 99m Tc. For all pinholes, 201 Tl penetration was less than 4%. The evaluated scatter (from object and collimator) with a hotspot phantom for the 1 mm pinhole was 24%, 16%, 18% and 13% for 201 Tl, 99m Tc, 123 I and 131 I, respectively. Summation of the object and collimator scatter for the uniform phantom was approximately 20% higher than that for the hotspot phantom. Significant counts due to penetration and object and collimator scatter in the reconstructed image were observed inside the core of the donut phantom. The collimator scatter can be neglected for all isotopes used in this study except for 131 I. Object scatter correction for all radionuclides used in this study is necessary and correction for the penetration contribution is necessary for all radionuclides but 201 Tl

  11. Storage conditions of skin affect tissue structure and in vitro percutaneus penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    skin at -20oC causes structural changes in the upper Stratum Corneum observable with image techniques such as multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy. The presently available literature does, however, not support that the observed structural damage to the integrity is sufficient to cause...... structural changes in upper as well as deeper parts of Stratum Corneum. These more severe changes corresponds to significantly increased percutaneous penetration of chemicals applied to skin specimens stored at very low temperatures. Storage of human skin for later use in in vitro studies on percutaneous......For logistic and practical reasons it is difficult to perform in vitro studies on percutaneous penetration on fresh human skin obtained directly from surgery. Skin samples are therefore often kept frozen until use. The present chapter present the available literature on the topic. Storage of human...

  12. Increased mortality associated with low use of clopidogrel in patients with heart failure and acute myocardial infarction not undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth; Sorensen, Rikke; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup

    2010-01-01

    We studied the association of clopidogrel with mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with heart failure (HF) not receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).......We studied the association of clopidogrel with mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with heart failure (HF) not receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)....

  13. The isolated perfused human skin flap model: A missing link in skin penetration studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Development of effective (trans)dermal drug delivery systems requires reliable skin models to evaluate skin drug penetration. The isolated perfused human skin flap remains metabolically active tissue for up to 6h during in vitro perfusion. We introduce the isolated perfused human skin flap as a close-to-in vivo skin penetration model. To validate the model's ability to evaluate skin drug penetration the solutions of a hydrophilic (calcein) and a lipophilic (rhodamine) fluorescence marker were applied. The skin flaps were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH7.4). Infrared technology was used to monitor perfusion and to select a well-perfused skin area for administration of the markers. Flap perfusion and physiological parameters were maintained constant during the 6h experiments and the amount of markers in the perfusate was determined. Calcein was detected in the perfusate, whereas rhodamine was not detectable. Confocal images of skin cross-sections shoved that calcein was uniformly distributed through the skin, whereas rhodamine accumulated in the stratum corneum. For comparison, the penetration of both markers was evaluated on ex vivo human skin, pig skin and cellophane membrane. The proposed perfused flap model enabled us to distinguish between the penetrations of the two markers and could be a promising close-to-in vivo tool in skin penetration studies and optimization of formulations destined for skin administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of the disorder by means of the superconducting penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    Measurements of the weak magnetic field penetration depth in the amorphous superconducting systems Lasub(1-x) Msub(x), being M = Cu, Al, Ga and Au, and in the Zr 70 Cu 30 system are presented. Measurements of the sample geometrical factors and the flux expulsion between the lowest temperature reached and the critical temperature, allows the determination of zero temperature penetration depth. The measurement of the flux expulsion as a function of temperature is used to determine the temperature dependence of penetration depth, used to evaluate the temperature dependence superconducting gap. The magnetization measurements have been made using an rf-SQUID. The evolution of the penetration depth with annealing is studied in the La 70 Cu 30 and Zr 70 Cu 30 systems. Measurements of the electrical resistivity and the critical temperature are used to verify the Gorkov equations in these materials. The variation of the penetration depth with annealing suggests that a metallurgical phase separation occurs within the submicrometer range. Penetration depth measurement is a tool to detect this type of phase separation in high kappa materials. (M.E.L.) [es

  15. A study on the particle penetration in RMS Right Single Quotation Marks particle transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S. M.; Oh, S. H.; Choi, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, a radiation monitoring system (RMS) monitors the exhaust gas containing the radioactive material. Samples of exhaust gas are collected in the downstream region of air cleaning units (ACUs) in order to examine radioactive materials. It is possible to predict an amount of radioactive material by analyzing the corrected samples. Representation of the collected samples should be assured in order to accurately sense and measure of radioactive materials. The radius of curvature is mainly 5 times of tube diameter. Sometimes, a booster fan is additionally added to enhance particle penetration rate... In this study, particle penetrations are calculated to evaluate particle penetration rate with various design parameters (tube lengths, tube declined angles, radius of curvatures, etc). The particle penetration rates have been calculated for several elements in the particle transport system. In general, the horizontal length of tube and the number of bending tube have a big impact on the penetration rate in the particle transport system. If the sampling location is far from the radiation monitoring system, additional installation of booster fans could be considered in case of large diameter tubes, but is not recommended in case of small diameter tube. In order to enhance particle penetration rate, the following works are recommended by priority. 1) to reduce the interval between sampling location and radiation monitoring system 2) to reduce the number of the bending tube

  16. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Insertion in Neurodegenerative Disease: A Retrospective Study and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Sarkar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims With the notable exceptions of dementia, stroke, and motor neuron disease, relatively little is known about the safety and utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG tube insertion in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to determine the safety and utility of PEG feeding in the context of neurodegenerative disease and to complete a literature review in order to identify whether particular factors need to be considered to improve safety and outcome. Methods A retrospective case note review of patients referred for PEG insertion by neurologists in a single neuroscience center was conducted according to a pre-determined set of standards. For the literature review, we identified references from searches of PubMed, mainly with the search items “percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy” and “neurology” or “neurodegenerative disease.” Results Short-term mortality and morbidity associated with PEG in patients with neurological disease were significant. Age greater than 75 years was associated with poor outcome, and a trend toward adverse outcome was observed in patients with low serum albumin. Conclusions This study highlights the relatively high risk of PEG in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We present points for consideration to improve outcome in this particularly vulnerable group of patients.

  17. A Study on Strategy Establishment for Foreign Market Penetrating of Nuclear Technology Venture Business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Kim, S. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Park, C. S.; Bae, C. I.; Chung, J. M.; Roe, S. P

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this study is to suggest feasible strategy for foreign market penetration of nuclear venture technology business. Especially, this study focuses on the technology and product export to the Frankfurt-Hoechst Industrial Park in Germany. This study analyzed the operating system of German Industrial Park, especially the Frankfurt-Hoechst Industrial Park. This study also analyzed the current status of Industrial Science Parks in Northern European countries such as Finland, Sweden, and England. Then, this study suggested the strategy for nuclear technology venture business to penetrate German export market effectively.

  18. A Study on Strategy Establishment for Foreign Market Penetrating of Nuclear Technology Venture Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Kim, S. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Park, C. S.; Bae, C. I.; Chung, J. M.; Roe, S. P.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to suggest feasible strategy for foreign market penetration of nuclear venture technology business. Especially, this study focuses on the technology and product export to the Frankfurt-Hoechst Industrial Park in Germany. This study analyzed the operating system of German Industrial Park, especially the Frankfurt-Hoechst Industrial Park. This study also analyzed the current status of Industrial Science Parks in Northern European countries such as Finland, Sweden, and England. Then, this study suggested the strategy for nuclear technology venture business to penetrate German export market effectively

  19. The Effect and Mechanism of Transdermal Penetration Enhancement of Fu's Cupping Therapy: New Physical Penetration Technology for Transdermal Administration with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Fang-Fang

    2017-03-27

    In this paper, a new type of physical penetration technology for transdermal administration with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristics is presented. Fu's cupping therapy (FCT), was established and studied using in vitro and in vivo experiments and the penetration effect and mechanism of FCT physical penetration technology was preliminarily discussed. With 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-ylacetic acid (indomethacin, IM) as a model drug, the establishment of high, medium, and low references was completed for the chemical permeation system via in vitro transdermal tests. Furthermore, using chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) and iontophoresis as references, the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT for IM patches was evaluated using seven species of in vitro diffusion kinetics models and in vitro drug distribution; the IM quantitative analysis method in vivo was established using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology (UPLC-MS/MS), and pharmacokinetic parameters: area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to last time t (AUC 0-t , AUMC 0-t ), area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to infinity (AUC 0-∞ , AUMC 0-∞ ), maximum plasma concentration (C max ) and mean residence time (MRT), were used as indicators to evaluate the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT in vivo. Additionally, we used the 3 K factorial design to study the joint synergistic penetration effect on FCT and chemical penetration enhancers. Through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, micro- and ultrastructural changes on the surface of the stratum corneum (SC) were observed to explore the FCT penetration mechanism. In vitro and in vivo skin permeation experiments revealed that both the total cumulative percutaneous amount and in vivo percutaneous absorption amount of IM using FCT were greater than the amount using CPEs and iontophoresis. Firstly, compared with

  20. The clinical research office of the endourological society percutaneous nephrolithotomy global study: tract dilation comparisons in 5537 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Tomé; Sangam, Kandasami; Alken, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The study focused on the use of balloon or telescopic/serial dilation methods in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the Global PCNL Study. Patients and Methods: Centers worldwide provided data from consecutive patients who were treated with PCNL during a 1-year period. Tract...

  1. The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Global Study: tract dilation comparisons in 5537 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, Tomé; Sangam, Kandasami; Alken, Peter; Barroilhet, Benjamin Silva; Saussine, Christian; Shi, Lei; de la Rosette, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The study focused on the use of balloon or telescopic/serial dilation methods in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the Global PCNL Study. Centers worldwide provided data from consecutive patients who were treated with PCNL during a 1-year period. Tract dilation was performed using a balloon or

  2. Penetrating trauma; experience from Southwest Finland between 1997 and 2011, a retrospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, J; Kirjasuo, K; Gunn, J; Kuttila, K

    2015-08-01

    (1) There is lack of epidemiological data on penetrating trauma in European countries. (2) In Finland most acts of violence are performed under the influence of alcohol. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and types of injury, treatment and survival of patients with penetrating injuries to the thorax and abdomen. This study includes two trauma centers with combined catchment area of approximately 720,000 patients. Patients were identified from patient records using ICD-10 codes. Patients were predominantly young males and they were stab victims. The average yearly incidence for penetrating trauma was 0.9/100,000 inhabitants. Thirteen percent of patients admitted gave a negative toxicology screen or breathalyzer test for alcohol. Twenty two percent of wounds were self-inflicted. Fifty five percent of patients received a chest tube and 30 patients (23%) underwent emergent thoracotomy after sustaining critical injury to the thorax. A considerable proportion (12%) of the study group also later died due to alcohol and/or violence, highlighting the psychosocial co-morbidity among penetrating trauma victims. Chest tube insertion is a skill to be mastered by any on-call physician. This simple procedure can be potentially life-saving. There is also a call for assessment of psychosocial well-being among penetrating trauma victims.

  3. A comprehensive study on Li-ion battery nail penetrations and the possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are the state-of-the-art power sources for portable electronics, electric vehicles, and aerospace applications. The safety issues regarding Li-ion batteries arouse particular attentions after several accidents reported in recent years. Among various abuse conditions, nail penetration is one of the most dangerous for Li-ion batteries due to the accumulated heat generation, which could give rise to the thermal runaway and could damage entire energy storage system. In this paper, an electrochemical-thermal coupling model is developed to study the nail penetration process of Li-ion batteries. By introducing joule heating at the nail location, the model shows good agreement with the testing results. With this verified model, a comprehensive parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of battery capacity, internal resistance, and nail diameter on the electrochemical and thermal behaviors of Li-ion batteries during the penetration processes. Furthermore, three possible solutions to prevent the thermal runaway, which includes decreasing the state of charge, improving heat dissipation, and increasing contact resistance, are compared and discussed in detail based on a series of simulations. - Highlights: • A coupling model is developed to simulate Li-ion battery nail penetrations. • A contact resistance – contact area curve is plotted based on experiments. • Simulation results show good agreements with nail tests. • The behaviors of Li-ion batteries in different penetration scenarios are studied. • Possible strategies to prevent thermal runaway are investigated and discussed.

  4. Application of a Microstructure-Based ISV Plasticity Damage Model to Study Penetration Mechanics of Metals and Validation through Penetration Study of Aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangqing Dou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A developed microstructure-based internal state variable (ISV plasticity damage model is for the first time used for simulating penetration mechanics of aluminum to find out its penetration properties. The ISV damage model tries to explain the interplay between physics at different length scales that governs the failure and damage mechanisms of materials by linking the macroscopic failure and damage behavior of the materials with their micromechanical performance, such as void nucleation, growth, and coalescence. Within the continuum modeling framework, microstructural features of materials are represented using a set of ISVs, and rate equations are employed to depict damage history and evolution of the materials. For experimental calibration of this damage model, compression, tension, and torsion straining conditions are considered to distinguish damage evolutions under different stress states. To demonstrate the reliability of the presented ISV model, that model is applied for studying penetration mechanics of aluminum and the numerical results are validated by comparing with simulation results yielded from the Johnson-Cook model as well as analytical results calculated from an existing theoretical model.

  5. Comparison of two percutaneous tracheostomy techniques, guide wire dilating forceps and Ciaglia Blue Rhino: a sequential cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, B.G.; Staatsen, M; Lardenoije, S.G.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To evaluate and compare the peri-operative and postoperative complications of the two most frequently used percutaneous tracheostomy techniques, namely guide wire dilating forceps (GWDF) and Ciaglia Blue Rhino (CBR). METHODS: A sequential cohort study with comparison of short-term and

  6. Study of DSA-guided percutaneous puncture location of foramen oval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaojun; He Jiawei; Bai Guanghui; Shi Jianjing; Xu Chongyong; Zhan Gonghao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the technique of digital substraction angiography (DSA)-guided percutaneous puncture location of foramen oval. Methods: 39 cases of trigeminal neuralgia were included in the study from Feb. 2004 to Oct. 2006. The patients were punctured by the amending anterior position. The f0ramen oval was displayed by moving the tube tilted 20-28 degree to the caudal and 16-23 degree to the healthy side. The direction and depth of the needles was determined on the lateral view. Then, radio-frequency thermocoagulation therapy was performed. Results: The needles were located in oval foramen in all the patients. Pain disappeared in 36 cases, alleviated in other cases, and no serious complication occurred during therapy. Conclusions: Oval foramen locations by DSA can improve the successful rate of operation. The foramen oval can be clearly displayed by DSA-guided in amending position, with comfortable position for patients. (authors)

  7. Penetrating abdominal injuries in children: a study of 33 cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Trauma is gradually becoming a major cause of disability and it can be of any form, physical or emotional. For the surgeon the physical form is of major interest, especially its causes and incidence, which can be influenced by environmental or social factors. Aim: The aim of this work was to study the incidence, ...

  8. Percutaneous sacroiliac screw versus anterior plating for sacroiliac joint disruption: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruipeng; Yin, Yingchao; Li, Shilun; Hou, Zhiyong; Jin, Lin; Zhang, Yingze

    2018-02-01

    Sacroiliac joint disruption (SJD) is a common cause of pelvic ring instability. Clinically, percutaneous unilateral S1 sacroiliac screw and anterior plating are always applied to manage SJD. The objective of this study is to elaborate their respective therapeutic traits. Patients with SJD fixed with unilateral S1 sacroiliac screw or anterior plating from June 2011 to June 2015 were recruited into this study and were divided into two groups: group A (unilateral sacroiliac screw) and group B (anterior plating). Surgical time, blood loss, frequency of intraoperative fluoroscopy and complications were reviewed. Postoperative radiograph and CT were conducted to assess the reduction quality. Fracture healing was evaluated by radiograph performed at each follow-up. Majeed score was recorded at the final follow-up to assess the functional outcome. Thirty-eight patients were included in group A and thirty-two patients in group B in this study. There was no significant difference in the demographic data of the two groups. A significant difference existed in the results for average operation time (P = .022) and blood loss (P = .000) between group A and group B. The mean frequency of intraoperative fluoroscopy was 15.82 in group A and 3.94 in group B (P = .000). All the fractures healed in this study. The rates of satisfactory reduction quality and functional outcome showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > .05). The complication rate was 15.79% (6/38) in group A and 9.38% (3/32) in group B (P = .660). Compared with anterior plating, percutaneous unilateral S1 sacroiliac screw usage is less invasive; however, more intraoperative X-ray exposure and permanent neurologic damage may accompany this procedure. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  10. Use of a human skin in vitro model to investigate the influence of 'every-day' clothing and skin surface decontamination on the percutaneous penetration of organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C A; Wilkinson, S C; Blain, P G; Dunn, M; Aust, G A; Williams, F M

    2014-08-17

    Organophosphates (OPs) are widely used in agriculture. Many studies have investigated the capability of personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce chemical exposure; however, investigations into the protective effect of 'every-day' clothing are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of 'every-day' clothing against dermal exposure and to measure early decontamination of skin following exposure to chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos. Using human skin in vitro, absorption of (14)C-labelled chlorpyrifos (500 ng/cm(2)), was shown to be significantly reduced when applied to clothed skin (cotton shirt), regardless of application vehicle (isopropanol (IPA) or propylene glycol (PG)). The majority of applied dose was retained within the clothing after 4 h exposure. Significant reduction in absorption of chlorpyrifos (in PG) was seen through clothed skin when supplemented with skin decontamination at 4 h, compared with clothed skin decontaminated after 24 h, however, this was not observed with IPA. Absorption of dichlorvos (5 μg/cm(2)) was greater through unclothed skin than chlorpyrifos for all vehicles (IPA, isopropyl myristate (IPM) and PG). Significant reduction in absorption was observed when decontaminating clothed skin at 30 min, compared with decontamination at 24 h (post-exposure) for all vehicles. indicate that 'every-day' clothing is effective at reducing exposure to chemicals in contact with skin. Washing the skin surface immediately following removal of exposed clothing can further reduce exposure, depending on the properties of the chemical and vehicle applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Materials properties of hafnium and zirconium silicates: Metal interdiffusion and dopant penetration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo Lopez, Manuel Angel

    Hafnium and Zirconium based gate dielectrics are considered potential candidates to replace SiO2 or SiON as the gate dielectric in CMOS processing. Furthermore, the addition of nitrogen into this pseudo-binary alloy has been shown to improve their thermal stability, electrical properties, and reduce dopant penetration. Because CMOS processing requires high temperature anneals (up to 1050°C), it is important to understand the diffusion properties of any metal associated with the gate dielectric in silicon at these temperatures. In addition, dopant penetration from the doped polysilicon gate into the Si channel at these temperatures must also be studied. Impurity outdiffusion (Hf, Zr) from the dielectric, or dopant (B, As, P) penetration through the dielectric into the channel region would likely result in deleterious effects upon the carrier mobility. In this dissertation extensive thermal stability studies of alternate gate dielectric candidates ZrSixOy and HfSixO y are presented. Dopant penetration studies from doped-polysilicon through HfSixOy and HfSixOyNz are also presented. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Heavy Ion RBS (HI-RBS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), and Time of Flight and Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS, D-SIMS) methods were used to characterize these materials. The dopant diffusivity is calculated by modeling of the dopant profiles in the Si substrate. In this disseration is reported that Hf silicate films are more stable than Zr silicate films, from the metal interdiffusion point of view. On the other hand, dopant (B, As, and P) penetration is observed for HfSixO y films. However, the addition of nitrogen to the Hf - Si - O systems improves the dopant penetration properties of the resulting HfSi xOyNz films.

  12. Experimental Study of Bacterial Penetration into Chalk Rock: Mechanisms and Effect on Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery, as bacteria can plug the water-swept zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. However, complete understanding of the penetration...... behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where characteristic pore throat sizes are comparable with the sizes of bacterial cells. In this study, two bacterial strains, Bacillus licheniformis 421 (spore-forming) and Pseudomonas putida K12 (non-spore forming) were used to investigate...... the penetration of bacteria into chalk and its effect on permeability reduction. The core plugs were produced from Stevns Klint outcrop with low permeability (2–4 mD) and with pore sizes comparable to bacterial sizes. Both types of bacteria were able to penetrate and to be transported through the cores to some...

  13. Percutaneous treatment of lumbar disc herniation by oxygen-ozone injection -clinical study with indication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhuying; Jiang Caimei; Wang Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical effect and the range of indications of oxygen-ozone treatment for lumber disc herniation. Methods: 6-15 ml of oxygen-ozone (35-45 μg/ml) were injected percutaneously into lumbar disc. In case of multiple disc herniations, the procedure could be taken with two discs for once. Results: 323 patients with 433 discs were treated by oxygen-ozone injection procedure. Total effective rate was 77.7%. Conclusions: The treatment of lumber disc herniation by oxygen-ozone injection is simple, safe and effective with mild trauma. Oxygen-ozone not only can oxidize the proteoglycan in the nucleus leading to the contraction of nucleus, but also provide anti-inflammation effect with pain relief and without complication yet. (authors)

  14. Anatomical study of forearm arteries with ultrasound for percutaneous coronary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-xian; Zhou, Yu-jie; Zhao, Ying-xin; Zhou, Zhi-ming; Yang, Shi-wei; Wang, Zhi-jian

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, the radial artery (RA) has become an alternative vascular access site for percutaneous coronary procedures, and the ulnar artery (UA) is another possibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the forearm arteries with ultrasound (US) and to evaluate the effect of the anatomy of the right RA (RRA) on the outcomes of transradial coronary procedures. The 638 patients undergoing transradial coronary procedures were examined with US for measurement of the diameters of the forearm arteries and determination of their anatomical abnormalities before the procedures. The next day the incidence of RA occlusion was recorded. The diameters of the radial and ulnar arteries were similar (P>0.05). The procedure time was longer in patients with anatomical abnormalities (Pforearm arteries of Chinese people are similar. The small diameter and anatomical abnormalities of the RRA could result in longer procedure time, more incidence of procedure failure and RA occlusion.

  15. A comparative study of high-viscosity cement percutaneous vertebroplasty vs. low-viscosity cement percutaneous kyphoplasty for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Liu, Yang; Peng, Hao; Tan, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Mi; Zheng, Xian-Nian; Chen, Fang-Zhou; Li, Ming-Hui

    2016-06-01

    The clinical effects of two different methods-high-viscosity cement percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and low-viscosity cement percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) were investigated. From June 2010 to August 2013, 98 cases of OVCFs were included in our study. Forty-six patients underwent high-viscosity PVP and 52 patients underwent low-viscosity PKP. The occurrence of cement leakage was observed. Pain relief and functional activity were evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. Restoration of the vertebral body height and angle of kyphosis were assessed by comparing preoperative and postoperative measurements of the anterior heights, middle heights and the kyphotic angle of the fractured vertebra. Nine out of the 54 vertebra bodies and 11 out of the 60 vertebra bodies were observed to have cement leakage in the high-viscosity PVP and low-viscosity PKP groups, respectively. The rate of cement leakage, correction of anterior vertebral height and kyphotic angles showed no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05). Low-viscosity PKP had significant advantage in terms of the restoration of middle vertebral height as compared with the high-viscosity PVP (Pviscosity PVP and low-viscosity PKP have similar clinical effects in terms of the rate of cement leakage, restoration of the anterior vertebral body height, changes of kyphotic angles, functional activity, and pain relief. Low-viscosity PKP is better than high-viscosity PVP in restoring the height of the middle vertebra.

  16. The primary experimental study of self-made percutaneous catheterized thrombectomy device for acute massive pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junliang; Yang Ning; Zhao Shijun; Ma Junshan; Yang Jianping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate efficacy, feasibility and safety of the self-made percutaneous catheterized thrombectomy divice in animal model for thrombus removal. Methods: Seven dogs were selected, with acute massive pulmonary embolism animal models created by injecting thrombi into the pulmonary arterial trunk via percutaneous femoral vein approach. After half an hours the catheter sheath was inserted into the occluded pulmonary artery through right femoral vein in 5 dogs, left femoral vein in 1 dog and right internal jugular vein in another one. The procedure began to remove the thrombi with simultaneous recording the thrombectomy time and the blood volume drainage. Blood gass was tested before and after embolization together with those of thrombi removement, continuously monitored pulmonary arterial pressure and intermittently performed angiography. The mean time form vascular recanalization to euthanasia was 2 hours, and then the lung specimens were resected for histological examination. Results: One animal died of pulmonary arterial penetration during thrombi removal, but others were all alive by the end of the test. Mean time of removing thrombi was 2.4 minutes with mean volume blood drainage of 84 ml. Angiograms showed the approximately complete patency of the pulmonary arterial trunk after reopening of occlusion but still with remnont thrombi within distal branches and arterial pressure with blood gas returned to normal level. Pathology revealed the recanalization of pulmonary arterial trunk but with thromi still staying in the distal branches, and effusion around the arteries. Conclusions: The self-made percutaneous catheterized thrombectomy device is effective, feasible and comparatively safe in the treatment of acute massive pulmonary embolism in this primary test. (authors)

  17. Study of Patient Information after percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SPICI): should prevention programmes become more effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Joep; Hambraeus, Kristina; Burell, Gunilla; Carlsson, Roland; Johansson, Pelle; Lisspers, Jan

    2015-03-22

    This cross-sectional observational study was designed to evaluate the uptake and outcome of patient education after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A questionnaire containing 41 items was handed out to consecutive patients from randomly selected Swedish hospitals after PCI. Questions concerned the patient's attribution of the cause of the cardiac event, perception of the information provided by physicians and nurses, and a self-assessment of changes in lifestyle post PCI regarding tobacco, physical activity, food habits and stress. Replies were obtained from 1,073 patients (reply rate 67%). Non-modifiable risk factors (age, heredity) were attributed a higher rate as the cause of disease compared to modifiable factors (smoking, physical activity, food habits). Most patients (67%) perceived they were cured, and 38% perceived from the given information that there was no need to change their habits. A mere 27% reported that they still had cardiovascular disease and needed behavioural change. After PCI, 16% continued to use tobacco; half of these were offered smoking cessation support. In spite of an 80% referral rate to cardiac rehabilitation, one out of two patients did not enrol. Fewer than half were regularly physically active. Nutritional counselling was provided to 71%, but only 40% changed food habits. Stress management programmes were rarely provided. Current preventive practice scarcely meets the challenge posed by the progress in modern invasive cardiology. The Study of Patient Information after percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SPICI) motivates an in-depth revision and adaptation of cardiac rehabilitation programmes in order to improve patient understanding of the disease, and to support greater compliance with a cardioprotective lifestyle.

  18. Percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper B

    2005-01-01

    with human skin. A slight damage to the barrier integrity was induced by pre-treatment of the skin with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) before pesticide exposure. The experimental model with 3 h pre-treatment with SLS (0.1% or 0.3%) assured a significant but controlled damage to the barrier integrity, a damage...

  19. Cohort study of lumbar percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel in sciatica refractory to conservative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Damiano, Joël; Tran, Olivia; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy of percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel (PCEG) in alleviating radicular pain due to disc herniation after failure of conservative treatment. After failure of conservative treatment, PCEG was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in 42 patients with sciatica >4/10 on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for at least 6 weeks and consistent disc herniation on MRI or CT <3 months. The VAS pain score was determined at baseline, then after 1 and 3 months. We assessed the influence of patient-related factors (age, gender, pain duration) and disc herniation-related factors (level, migration pattern, disc herniation-related spinal stenosis) on outcome of PCEG. Mean pain duration was 6.7 months. Pain intensity decreased by 44% and 62.6% after 1 and 3 months, respectively, versus baseline (P = 0.007). A mild improvement was noted by the rheumatologist in 30/42 (71.4%) and 36/42 (85.7%) patients after 1 and 3 months, respectively, and in 31/42 (73.8%) and 33/42 (78.6%) patients by self-evaluation. Patients who failed PCEG were significantly older (49.8 vs. 37.3 years, P = 0.03). None of the other variables studied were significantly associated with pain relief. PCEG may significantly improve disc-related radicular pain refractory to conservative treatment. • Percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel (PCEG) is feasible on an outpatient basis. • PCEG improves disc-related radicular pain refractory to conservative treatment. • PCEG is feasible on an outpatient basis. • Failure of PCEG does not interfere with subsequent spinal surgery.

  20. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera, Jorge E.; Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong; Ruiz, Bernardo; Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach

  1. Experimental study on ablating goat liver tissue with ultrasound imaging guided percutaneous irreversible electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying LIU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the proper method of percutaneous irreversible electroporation(IRE to ablate goat liver tissue under ultrasonic guidance,and observe the features of ultrasound imaging and histological changes.Methods The pulse electric fields(PEFs with permanent duration(100 μs,frequency(1Hz,voltage(2000V and pulses(120 pieces were applied to the electrodes,and the electrodes were placed into goats’ liver under ultrasound guidance through the animal skin to the target area.The treated area was observed by real-time ultrasound scanning,and the histopathological changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE staining under light microscope at the time of 0h and 24h after IRE ablation.The circumscribed ablated area was compared with that of finite element modeling(FEM calculation method.Results Ultrasound imaging guidance was accurate in focusing on the target area.Imaging captured by the ultrasound after IRE procedure was quite different from that of the normal liver imaging.Complete hepatic cell death with a sharp demarcation between the ablated zone and the non-ablated zone was well visualized 24 hours after the procedure.Necrospy-based measurement demonstrated a high consistence with FEM-anticipated ablation zones.Conclusion With real-time monitoring by ultrasonography and well-controlled ablation of the target tissue,percutaneous IRE can provide a novel and unique ablative method for cancer treatment.The present paper provides a fundamental experimental work for future studies on clinical application of IRE.

  2. Percutaneous transcholecystic approach for an experiment of biliary stent placement: an experimental study in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Tae Seok [Medical School of Gachon, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young; Lim, Jin Oh; Ko, Gi Young; Sung, Kyu Bo; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Ho Jung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    To determine, in an experimental study of biliary stent placement, the usefulness and safety of the percutaneous transcholecystic approach and the patency of a newly designed biliary stent. A stent made of 0.15-mm-thick nitinol wire, and 10 mm in diameter and 2 cm in length, was loaded in an introducer with an 8-F outer diameter. The gallbladders of seven mongrel dogs were punctured with a 16-G angiocath needle under sonographic guidance, and cholangiography was performed. After anchoring the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall using a T-fastener, the gallbladder body was punctured again under fluoroscopic guidance. The cystic and common bile ducts were selected using a 0.035-inch guide wire and a cobra catheter, and the stent was placed in the common bile duct. Post-stenting cholangiography was undertaken, and an 8.5-F drainage tube was inserted in the gallbladder. Two dogs were followed-up and sacrificed at 2,4 and 8 weeks after stent placement, respectively, and the other expired 2 days after stent placement. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained before aninmal was sacrified, and a pathologic examination was performed. Stent placement was technically successful in all cases. One dog expired 2 days after placement because of bile peritonitis due to migration of the drainage tube into the peritoneal cavity, but the other six remained healthy during the follow-up period. Cholangiography performed before the sacrifice of each dog showed that the stents were patent. Pathologic examination revealed the proliferation of granulation tissue at 2 weeks, and complete endothelialization over the stents by granulation tissue at 8 weeks. Percutaneous transcholecystic biliary stent placement appears to be safe, easy and useful. After placement, the stent was patent during the follow-period.

  3. [Percutaneous tracheotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleczny, J; Maciejewski, D; Łoniewska-Paleczny, E; Sawczuk, M; Kaczur, A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare on the basis of up to date papers currently applied methods of the percutaneous tracheostomy (PT). There are four main PT methods by: Ciaglia, Schachner, Griggs and Fantoni. In these methods a wire is introduced into the trachea serving as a guide for special forceps or series of dilatators of increasing diameter to dilate the wall and allow cannulation of the trachea. In the literature authors found a low incidence of complications after PT. Acute complications were documented in 6-18% and late complications in 1-3% of the patients. Follow-up showed no late obstructive complications at the level of stomia and very low (0.3-0.36%) mortality risk. Translaryngeal tracheostomy (TLT) by Fantoni ensures minimal risk of complications and tissue trauma. In the TLT method through a needle inserted in to the trachea a guide wire is retrogradely pushed out of the mouth and attached to special flexible tracheostomy tube by flexible plastic cone with pointed metal tip. This device is then pulled back through larynx and outwards across the trachea and neck wall by traction on the wire. TLT can also be used in infants and children and in difficult patients in whom other techniques are riskier Review of the literature suggests that the PT can be safe and also cost-effective for properly selected patients in intensive care and other hospital units.

  4. Is the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit a suitable experimental model for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in humans? A light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanibuchi, H.; Dingemans, K. P.; Becker, A. E.; Ueda, M.; Naruko, T.; Tanizawa, S.; Nakamura, K.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to assess an experimental model for the study of mechanisms that underlie restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit lacks the receptor for low density lipoproteins, produces atherosclerotic lesions

  5. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen; Veda, Santosh; Elgindy, Tarek; Liu, Yilu

    2017-04-11

    Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

  6. An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppstein, Margaret J.; Grover, David K.; Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Rizzo, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    A spatially explicit agent-based vehicle consumer choice model is developed to explore sensitivities and nonlinear interactions between various potential influences on plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) market penetration. The model accounts for spatial and social effects (including threshold effects, homophily, and conformity) and media influences. Preliminary simulations demonstrate how such a model could be used to identify nonlinear interactions among potential leverage points, inform policies affecting PHEV market penetration, and help identify future data collection necessary to more accurately model the system. We examine sensitivity of the model to gasoline prices, to accuracy in estimation of fuel costs, to agent willingness to adopt the PHEV technology, to PHEV purchase price and rebates, to PHEV battery range, and to heuristic values related to gasoline usage. Our simulations indicate that PHEV market penetration could be enhanced significantly by providing consumers with ready estimates of expected lifetime fuel costs associated with different vehicles (e.g., on vehicle stickers), and that increases in gasoline prices could nonlinearly magnify the impact on fleet efficiency. We also infer that a potential synergy from a gasoline tax with proceeds is used to fund research into longer-range lower-cost PHEV batteries. - Highlights: → We model consumer agents to study potential market penetration of PHEVs. → The model accounts for spatial, social, and media effects. → We identify interactions among potential leverage points that could inform policy. → Consumer access to expected lifetime fuel costs may enhance PHEV market penetration. → Increasing PHEV battery range has synergistic effects on fleet efficiency.

  7. Effect of Supine vs Prone Position on Outcomes of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Staghorn Calculi: Results From the Clinical Research Office of the Endourology Society Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astroza, Gaston; Lipkin, Michael; Neisius, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the effect of patient positioning on outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) among patients with staghorn stones. The choice of optimal position for these patients undergoing PNL remains challenging. No previous studies exclusively addressing this point have been performed....

  8. Study of percutaneous absorption of diclofenac diethylamine in the presence of cetrimide through hairless rabbit skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S. N.; Rabbain, M.; Amir, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of Cetrimide as an enhancer on transdermal absorption of 1% diclofenac diethylamine (Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug) through hairless rabbit skin was evaluated in vitro study at various concentrations to improve the skin permeability. From the data, Cetrimide shows the small lag time which gives a picture about its enhancing effect. The permeability co-efficient and flux rate calculated for diclofenac diethylamine in the presence of Cetrimide shows that the penetration of drug through hairless rabbit skin has been significantly increased. (author)

  9. A comparative study of percutaneous atherectomy for femoropopliteal arterial occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongquan; Malas, Mahmoud B; Qi, Lixing; Guo, Lianrui; Guo, Jianming; Yu, Hengxi; Tong, Zhu; Gao, Xixiang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Zhonggao

    2017-08-01

    SilverHawk™ directional atherectomy has been used to treat more than 300 thousand cases of lower extremity atherosclerotic occlusive disease in the world since it was approved by FDA in 2003. This study aimed to analyze the safety and effectiveness of symptomatic femoral popliteal atherosclerotic disease treated by directional atherectomy (DA). Clinical data of all consecutive patients treated with percutaneous atherectomy utilizing the SilverHawk™ plaque excision was retrospectively analyzed. The anatomic criteria of the atherosclerotic lesions were divided into four types: type I stenosis; type II occlusion; type III in-stent restenosis; type IV stent occlusion. There were 160 patients treated during the study period. Intermittent claudication in 75 patients (47%), rest pain in 55 patients (34.5%) and tissue loss in 30 patients (18.5%). The number of patients was 72, 15, 49 and 24 in type I, II, III and IV lesions, respectively. Technical success rate was 98.6%, 93.3%, 97.9% and 91.7% in type I, II, III and IV lesions, respectively. Debris of intimal plaque was captured by protection device in 92 patients (71.3%). The mean follow-up period was 23.5±10.4 months. Restenosis rate of type I to IV lesions was 21%, 36%, 36% and 40% respectively. Restenosis rate in type I lesion was significantly lower than that in type III and IV lesions (P<0.05). Patients with tissue loss responded to revascularization as follow: type I, 11/13 healed or reduced (84.6%), type II, 3/3 patients improved (100%), type III, 5/6 patients improved (83.3%) and type IV 4/4 healed (100%). In type IV group, four patients had in-stent thrombosis found by postoperative Duplex ultrasonography. They all underwent DA after catheter-directed thrombolysis with good angiographic results. Percutaneous DA is safe and effective for both de-novo atherosclerotic and in-stent stenotic or occlusive lesions. Thrombolysis before plaque excision is recommended in case of in-stenting thrombosis.

  10. Clinical study on the application of minimally invasive percutaneous pedicle screw fixation in single segment thoracolumbar fracture without neurological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-ping LIU

    2016-04-01

    . The short-term effect of percutaneous surgery is similar to open surgery, however, its long-term effect remains to be further studied. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.03.004

  11. Obstructive jaundice: a comparative study of forceps and brush biopsy under percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongdong; Han Xinwei; Wu Gang; Ma Bo; Xing Gusheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity between forceps biopsy and brushing, and to explore a feasible approach to pathological diagnosis of the obstructive jaundice. Methods: 92 consecutive patients with obstructive jaundice underwent transluminal forceps biopsy and brushing during percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage. The technique was performed through a preexisting percutaneous transhepatic tract with multiple specimens obtained after passing the forceps biopsy or brush into a 8-French sheath. Finally the specimens were fixed with formalin for pathologic or cytologic diagnosis. Results: The histopathologic diagnosis was acquired in 81 out of 92 patients with forceps biopsy reaching the successful rate of 97.83%. Sensitivity of forceps biopsy in 92 patients was higher than that of brush in 84 patients (88.04% vs 76.19% χ 2 =4.251, P= <0.05). Conclusions: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiobiopsy is a simple technique with minimal invasion, high sensitivity and worthy to be used spread extensively. Percutaneous transluminal brush cytology is also an useful method for establishing a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. (authors)

  12. Percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy: sequential versus spiral scanning. A randomized prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaye, B.; Dondelinger, R.F.; Dewe, W.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in a prospective and randomized study spiral versus sequential scanning in the guidance of percutaneous lung biopsy. Fifty thoracic lesions occurring in 48 patients were biopsied by a senior and a junior operator. Six different time segments of the procedure were measured. Scanning mode versus length of procedure, pathological results, irradiation and complications were evaluated. Total duration of the procedure and of the first sampling was significantly longer with spiral CT for the senior operator (p < 0.004). No significant time difference was observed for the junior operator. Diameter of the lesion, depth of location, position of the patient and needle entry site did not influence the results. The sensitivity was 90.9, specificity 100, positive predictive value 100 and negative predictive value 60 % for spiral CT, and 94.7, 100, 100 and 85.7 % for sequential CT, respectively. Eleven pneumothoraces and ten perinodular hemorrhages were seen with spiral CT and six and ten, respectively, with sequential CT. The mean dose of irradiation was 4027 mAs for spiral CT and 2358 mAs for conventional CT. Spiral CT does neither reduce procedure time nor the rate of complications. Pathological results do not differ compared with sequential CT, and total dose of irradiation is higher with spiral scanning. (orig.)

  13. [Synchronized anterograde perfusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: preliminary clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcot, J C; Berland, J; Derumeaux, G; Letac, B; Bourdarias, J P

    1995-03-01

    A new circulatory system, "physiologic anteroperfusion system", has been developed and tested in 6 patients with significant proximal coronary artery stenosis. Prolonged and safe balloon inflation was possible without any ischemic signs. The system consists of an electronic cardiac synchroperfusor which, by activating a pulsatile unit, permits increased diastolic anteroperfusion of autologous blood under physiologic pressure through low-profile standard angioplasty catheters. This study reports the results obtained in 6 patients during proximal prolonged percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Four men and two women suffering from severe exertional angina pectoris, with normal resting left ventricular function, no collaterals and excellent apical two-dimensional four-chamber echocardiographic views were studied. After a 90 +/- 10 seconds of control occlusion under continuous monitoring of hemodynamics, electrocardiograms (3 to 4 leads), two-dimensional echo and chest pain grading, a second balloon inflation protected by the physiologic anteroperfusion system at a flow rate of 44 +/- 12 ml/min was performed for fifteen minutes. The ischemic signs present in the myocardium depending on the occluded artery were totally abolished during prolonged inflation protected by physiologic anteroperfusion system. All the patients were successfully dilated and were discharged from hospital the following morning without cardiac enzyme elevation or signs of central or peripheral hemolysis. Conclusion, in 6 patients with severe proximal coronary artery stenosis, safe prolonged proximal angioplasty without signs of ischemia was performed using a new simple physiologic anteroperfusion system, which allows active diastolic flow-pressure controlled autologous arterial blood perfusion, through standard low profile catheters.

  14. Two Different Percutaneous Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid Abutment Systems: Comparative Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Beldan; İşeri, Mete; Orhan, Kadir Serkan; Yılmazer, Ayça Başkadem; Enver, Necati; Ceylan, Didem; Kara, Ahmet; Güldiken, Yahya; Çomoğlu, Şenol

    2016-04-01

    To compare two different percutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) abutment systems regarding operation time, scar healing, quality of life, implant stability, audiologic results, and complications. The study involves a prospective multi-center clinical evaluation. Thirty-two consecutive patients who had undergone BAHA surgery from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary centers were included in the study. The Glasgow Inventory Benefit Score was used to assess the patients at least 6 months after surgery. The operation time and complications were recorded. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were recorded using resonance frequency analysis. Holger's classification was used to evaluate skin reactions. The mean length of the operation was 39.2±4 min for standard abutment and 18.3±5.7 min for hydroxyapatite-coated abutment. ISQ scores were significantly better for standard abutment in all tests. The mean total Glasgow Inventory Benefit Score was 39.3±19 for the standard abutment and 46.3±24.5 for the hydroxyapatite-coated abutment groups, but there was no statistical significance between the two groups. There was no difference in audiological improvement between the two groups after surgery. Hydroxyapatite-coated abutment provided a shorter operation time that was significantly different from standard abutment. There were no significant differences between standard abutment and hydroxyapatite-coated abutment regarding audiologic improvement, quality of life, loading time, and complications.

  15. Brachytherapy and percutaneous stenting in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma: A prospective randomised study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valek, Vlastimil; Kysela, Petr; Kala, Zdenek; Kiss, Igor; Tomasek, Jiri; Petera, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of radiation therapy including intraluminal brachyterapy with iridium-192 on survival of patients with malignant biliary strictures (cholangiocarcinoma, histologically improved) treated with metallic stent in a prospective randomised study. Method and materials: In the prospective randomised study, 21 patients with cholangiocarcinoma were treated with implantation of percutaneous stents followed with intraluminal Ir-192 brachytherapy (mean dose 30 Gy) and external radiotherapy (mean dose 50 Gy) and 21 patients were treated only with stents insertion. We did not find any statistically significant differences in age and tumor localization between these two groups of patients. Results: All the patients died. In the group of patients treated with brachytherapy and with stent implantation, the mean survival time was 387.9 days. In the group of patients treated only with stent insertion the mean survival was 298 days. In effort to eliminate possible effect of external radiotherapy we treated the control group of eight patients with cholangiocarcinoma by stent insertion and brachyterapy only. Conclusion: Our results show that combined radiation therapy could extend the survival in the patients with cholangiocarcinoma obstruction

  16. Percutaneous Soft Tissue Release for Treating Chronic Recurrent Myofascial Pain Associated with Lateral Epicondylitis: 6 Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Kao, Mu-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin's technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale), pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer), and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer) were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain. PMID:23243428

  17. Management of vaginal penetration phobia in Arab women: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muammar, Tarfah; McWalter, Patricia; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Shoukri, Mohamed; Gabr, Alia; Bin, Abdulaziz AlDanah

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal penetration phobia is a common and distressing problem world.wide. It interferes with vaginal penetrative sexual relations, and leads to unconsummated marriage (UCM). This problem may be heightened in Arab women, due to cultural taboos about pain and bleeding, that may be associated with the first coital experience after marriage. Data about this problem is scarce in Arab societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of these women and their husbands to an individualized, psychotherapeutic assessment and treatment to resolve this problem. Retrospective descriptive in a general gynecology community setting over a 6-year period. The study involved a retrospective sequential cohort of 100 Arab couples with UCM due to the woman's VPP. They were evaluated by a female gynecologist in out patient clinics. Data was collected through chart review, and telephone interviews. Final analysis was performed on 100 Arab couples, who satisfied the inclusion criteria. They were followed up to assess their response to an individualized, structured treatment protocol. The treatment combined sex education with systematic desensitization, targeting fear and anxiety as.sociated with vaginal penetration. A total of 96% of the studied group had a successful outcome after an average of 4 sessions. Penetrative intercourse was reported by the tolerance of these women; further pregnancy was achieved in 77.8 % of the infertile couples. Insufficient knowledge of sexual intercourse is a major contributor to the development of VPP in the sampled population. It appears that they respond well to an individualized, structured treatment protocol as described by Hawten 1985 (regardless of other risk factors associated with vaginismus).

  18. Aerosol penetration through capillaries and leaks: experimental studies on the influence of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, D.A.V.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    It is important to understand the movement of aerosols through ultrafine leak-paths with dimensions of similar order to the gas-borne particles when assessing the validity of leak-testing procedures for transport containers for radioactive materials. Experiments have been undertaken to investigate the penetration of micron-sized airborne particles using glass micro-capillaries as model leak-paths. Previous studies demonstrated a simple relationship between air leakage and total particle penetration rates at a constant driving pressure (100 kPa). The present work has demonstrated the importance of pressure in regulating the rate at which the leak-path is plugged by deposited particles. Much of this deposition appears to take place at the entrances of the capillaries where the air-flow converges. (author)

  19. Autoradiographic study of the penetration of radiolabelled dextrans and inulin through non-keratinized oral mucosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, M C; Chasens, A I; Masi, C W [Block Periodontal Research Laboratories, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Fairleigh Dickinson University, School of Dentistry, Hackensack, New Jersey, U.S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although a well known barrier effect against the penetration of macromolecules exists at the basement membrane region of epithelial tissues, recent reports suggest that the penetration of smaller molecules may be impeded by this region. Considering the probable importance of the permeability of gingival crevicular tissues in the etiology of inflammatory periodontal disease, the present study was designed to evaluate the barrier function of the basement membrane region of non-keratinized oral mucosal epithelium to a series of radiolabelled penetrating molecules of increasing molecular weight. Tritium labeled inulin (Mw 5,000), dextran 20 (Mw 20,000) and dextran 70 (Mw 70,000) were used as penetrating molecules, and autoradiographic tracer techniques were used to evaluate the barrier function. The study was conducted in vitro to eliminate vascular ''wash-out'' effects and to facilitate study of penetration across the basement membrane region in both directions. The results indicated that although the penetration of inulin and dextran 70 was impeded by the basement membrane region, the penetration of dextran 20 was not affected. Therefore, the barrier function of the basement membrane region is not solely dependent on the molecular weight of the penetration molecule. Mechanisms to account for the findings are described and the significance to periodontal disease is discussed.

  20. Autoradiographic study of the penetration of radiolabelled dextrans and inulin through non-keratinized oral mucosa in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfano, M.C.; Chasens, A.I.; Masi, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Although a well known barrier effect against the penetration of macromolecules exists at the basement membrane region of epithelial tissues, recent reports suggest that the penetration of smaller molecules may be impeded by this region. Considering the probable importance of the permeability of gingival crevicular tissues in the etiology of inflammatory periodontal disease, the present study was designed to evaluate the barrier function of the basement membrane region of non-keratinized oral mucosal epithelium to a series of radiolabelled penetrating molecules of increasing molecular weight. Tritium labeled inulin (Mw 5,000), dextran 20 (Mw 20,000) and dextran 70 (Mw 70,000) were used as penetrating molecules, and autoradiographic tracer techniques were used to evaluate the barrier function. The study was conducted in vitro to eliminate vascular ''wash-out'' effects and to facilitate study of penetration across the basement membrane region in both directions. The results indicated that although the penetration of inulin and dextran 70 was impeded by the basement membrane region, the penetration of dextran 20 was not affected. Therefore, the barrier function of the basement membrane region is not solely dependent on the molecular weight of the penetration molecule. Mechanisms to account for the findings are described and the significance to periodontal disease is discussed. (author)

  1. Cohort study of lumbar percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel in sciatica refractory to conservative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touraine, Sebastien; Tran, Olivia; Laredo, Jean-Denis; Damiano, Joel

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel (PCEG) in alleviating radicular pain due to disc herniation after failure of conservative treatment. After failure of conservative treatment, PCEG was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in 42 patients with sciatica >4/10 on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for at least 6 weeks and consistent disc herniation on MRI or CT <3 months. The VAS pain score was determined at baseline, then after 1 and 3 months. We assessed the influence of patient-related factors (age, gender, pain duration) and disc herniation-related factors (level, migration pattern, disc herniation-related spinal stenosis) on outcome of PCEG. Mean pain duration was 6.7 months. Pain intensity decreased by 44 % and 62.6 % after 1 and 3 months, respectively, versus baseline (P = 0.007). A mild improvement was noted by the rheumatologist in 30/42 (71.4 %) and 36/42 (85.7 %) patients after 1 and 3 months, respectively, and in 31/42 (73.8 %) and 33/42 (78.6 %) patients by self-evaluation. Patients who failed PCEG were significantly older (49.8 vs. 37.3 years, P = 0.03). None of the other variables studied were significantly associated with pain relief. PCEG may significantly improve disc-related radicular pain refractory to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  2. Cohort study of lumbar percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel in sciatica refractory to conservative treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touraine, Sebastien; Tran, Olivia; Laredo, Jean-Denis [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Radiologie Osteo-Articulaire, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Damiano, Joel [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Rhumatologie, Centre Viggo-Petersen, Paris Cedex 10 (France)

    2015-11-15

    To investigate the efficacy of percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel (PCEG) in alleviating radicular pain due to disc herniation after failure of conservative treatment. After failure of conservative treatment, PCEG was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in 42 patients with sciatica >4/10 on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for at least 6 weeks and consistent disc herniation on MRI or CT <3 months. The VAS pain score was determined at baseline, then after 1 and 3 months. We assessed the influence of patient-related factors (age, gender, pain duration) and disc herniation-related factors (level, migration pattern, disc herniation-related spinal stenosis) on outcome of PCEG. Mean pain duration was 6.7 months. Pain intensity decreased by 44 % and 62.6 % after 1 and 3 months, respectively, versus baseline (P = 0.007). A mild improvement was noted by the rheumatologist in 30/42 (71.4 %) and 36/42 (85.7 %) patients after 1 and 3 months, respectively, and in 31/42 (73.8 %) and 33/42 (78.6 %) patients by self-evaluation. Patients who failed PCEG were significantly older (49.8 vs. 37.3 years, P = 0.03). None of the other variables studied were significantly associated with pain relief. PCEG may significantly improve disc-related radicular pain refractory to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  3. MRI-guided percutaneous retrograde drilling of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerimaa, Pekka; Ojala, Risto; Markkanen, Paula; Tervonen, Osmo; Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oulu (Finland); Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Korhonen, Jussi [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Oulu (Finland); Hyvoenen, Pekka [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of MRI guidance for percutaneous retrograde drilling in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus (OCDT). Four patients, one juvenile and three adults, with one OCDT lesion each and persisting ankle pain after conservative treatment, were treated with MRI-guided retrograde drilling. All lesions were stable and located in the middle or posterior medial third of the talar dome. Pain relief and the ability to return to normal activities were assessed during clinical follow-up. MRI and plain film radiographs were used for imaging follow-up. Technical success was 100 % with no complications and with no damage to the overlying cartilage. All patients experienced some clinical benefit, although only one had complete resolution of pain and one had a relapse leading to surgical treatment. Changes in the pathological imaging findings were mostly very slight during the follow-up period. MRI guidance seems accurate, safe and technically feasible for retrograde drilling of OCDT. Larger series are needed to reliably assess its clinical value. (orig.)

  4. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and conservative management for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengui; Lu Jinyu; Sun Jianhua; Liang Ding; Li Zhiwei; Wang Hesheng; Guo Shanfeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the better therapeutic measures for painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) through comparing the efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) with that of conservative management. Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients, encountered from December 2009 to December 2010 in authors' hospital, were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into PVP group (n=22) and conservative group (n=21). Visual analog score (VAS) for pain and Oswestry disability index (ODI) questionnaire scores were assessed before and 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 12 months after the treatment. Patients' activity levels and other information, including complications and new fractures after treatment, were also evaluated. Results: Before the treatment both the VAS and ODI scores showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Significant reduction of both VAS and ODI was observed in PVP group at 1 week and at 1 and 3 months after treatment when compared with those in conservative group (P<0.05). Patients' activity levels in PVP group were significantly improved than that in conservative group (P<0.01). One new fracture was observed in the conservative group, while no new fracture was seen in the PVP group. Conclusion: Immediate pain relief and improvement of daily activities after PVP can be achieved in all patients. PVP should be considered as the treatment of first choice for symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures. (authors)

  5. Experimental studies of methemoglobinemia due to percutaneous absorption of sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T; Takeichi, S; Nakajima, Y; Yukawa, N; Osawa, M

    1997-01-01

    Methemoglobin formation caused by a liniment solution containing sodium nitrite (30 g/L and 140 g/L) was studied in rats with normal or abraded skin, by measuring the methemoglobin concentration before and after application of liniment solutions with differing nitrite concentration. Each liniment solution (120 microL) was applied. Methemoglobin was measured for 180 minutes using a hemoximeter. Simultaneously, arterial blood pressure and cutaneous blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and a pressure transducer. After the application of each liniment solution to normal skin, the methemoglobin concentration was not significantly modified depending on the time after application. Application of liniment solution to abraded skin (140 g/L) resulted in a marked increase in methemoglobin concentration. A remarkable decrease in arterial blood pressure and subcutaneous blood flow were observed after application of liniment solution to abraded skin (140 g/L). Each of these findings are characteristic of nitrite and they imply the percutaneous absorption of nitrite. Regardless of the nitrite concentration, the methemoglobin concentration was consistently higher in abraded skin than in normal skin.

  6. Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Carpal Tunnel Release: Study Upon Clinical Efficacy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrover, David, E-mail: dpetrover@yahoo.fr; Silvera, Jonathan, E-mail: silvera.jonathan@gmail.com [Imagerie Médicale Paris Centre Bachaumont-clinique Blomet RamsayGDS, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Baere, Thierry De, E-mail: Debaere@igr.fr [Gustave Roussy Institute (France); Vigan, Marie, E-mail: marie.vigan@gmail.com [Association pour la recherche en chirurgie de l’épaule et du coude, clinique Drouot (France); Hakimé, Antoine, E-mail: thakime@yahoo.com [Imagerie Médicale Paris Centre Bachaumont-clinique Blomet RamsayGDS, Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2017-04-15

    ObjectivesTo evaluate the feasibility and 6 months clinical result of sectioning of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) and median nerve decompression after ultra-minimally invasive, ultrasound-guided percutaneous carpal tunnel release (PCTR) surgery.MethodsConsecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were enrolled in this descriptive, open-label study. The procedure was performed in the interventional radiology room. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and 1 month. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was administered at baseline, 1, and 6 months.Results129 patients were enrolled. Significant decreases in mean symptom severity scores (3.3 ± 0.7 at baseline, 1.7 ± 0.4 at Month 1, 1.3 ± 0.3 at Month 6) and mean functional status scores (2.6 ± 1.1 at baseline, 1.6 ± 0.4 at Month 1, 1.3 ± 0.5 at Month 6) were noted. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a complete section of all TCL and nerve decompression in 100% of patients. No complications were identified.ConclusionsUltrasound-guided PCTR was used successfully to section the TCL, decompress the median nerve, and reduce self-reported symptoms.

  7. MRI-guided percutaneous retrograde drilling of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimaa, Pekka; Ojala, Risto; Markkanen, Paula; Tervonen, Osmo; Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto; Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Korhonen, Jussi; Hyvoenen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of MRI guidance for percutaneous retrograde drilling in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus (OCDT). Four patients, one juvenile and three adults, with one OCDT lesion each and persisting ankle pain after conservative treatment, were treated with MRI-guided retrograde drilling. All lesions were stable and located in the middle or posterior medial third of the talar dome. Pain relief and the ability to return to normal activities were assessed during clinical follow-up. MRI and plain film radiographs were used for imaging follow-up. Technical success was 100 % with no complications and with no damage to the overlying cartilage. All patients experienced some clinical benefit, although only one had complete resolution of pain and one had a relapse leading to surgical treatment. Changes in the pathological imaging findings were mostly very slight during the follow-up period. MRI guidance seems accurate, safe and technically feasible for retrograde drilling of OCDT. Larger series are needed to reliably assess its clinical value. (orig.)

  8. Percutaneous injection of hemostatic agents for severe blunt hepatic trauma: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jie; Lv, Faqin; Li, Wenxiu; Zhang, Huiqin; Luo, Yukun; An, Lichun; Li, Tanshi

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether percutaneous injection of hemostatic agents under the guidance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can stop hemorrhage from severe hepatic trauma. Eighteen dogs were impacted by a miniature impactor to create blunt hepatic trauma. Fourteen with appropriate liver lesions were divided into two groups: the treatment group (n=7) and the control group (n=7). In the treatment group, hemocoagulase atrox and α-cyanoacrylate were respectively injected into the injury sites and transected micro-vessels under the guidance of CEUS. In the control group, normal saline was injected into the injury sites. CEUS and CT were performed at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after the focal injection. Surviving animals were killed on the 21st day for pathologic examination. All animals of the treatment group survived. Three dogs of the control group died in the first 24 h. In the treatment group, CEUS and CT demonstrated that hepatic lesions became smaller gradually from the 3rd to the 21st day after injection. The focal injection of hemostatic agents under the guidance of CEUS can stop hemorrhage from hepatic trauma of grade III∝IV or IV. During the period of 3 weeks, no side effect was found. (orig.)

  9. Percutaneous injection of hemostatic agents for severe blunt hepatic trauma: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jie; Lv, Faqin; Li, Wenxiu; Zhang, Huiqin; Luo, Yukun; An, Lichun [Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Department of Ultrasound, Beijing (China); Li, Tanshi [Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether percutaneous injection of hemostatic agents under the guidance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can stop hemorrhage from severe hepatic trauma. Eighteen dogs were impacted by a miniature impactor to create blunt hepatic trauma. Fourteen with appropriate liver lesions were divided into two groups: the treatment group (n=7) and the control group (n=7). In the treatment group, hemocoagulase atrox and {alpha}-cyanoacrylate were respectively injected into the injury sites and transected micro-vessels under the guidance of CEUS. In the control group, normal saline was injected into the injury sites. CEUS and CT were performed at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after the focal injection. Surviving animals were killed on the 21st day for pathologic examination. All animals of the treatment group survived. Three dogs of the control group died in the first 24 h. In the treatment group, CEUS and CT demonstrated that hepatic lesions became smaller gradually from the 3rd to the 21st day after injection. The focal injection of hemostatic agents under the guidance of CEUS can stop hemorrhage from hepatic trauma of grade III{proportional_to}IV or IV. During the period of 3 weeks, no side effect was found. (orig.)

  10. Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Carpal Tunnel Release: Study Upon Clinical Efficacy and Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrover, David; Silvera, Jonathan; Baere, Thierry De; Vigan, Marie; Hakimé, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesTo evaluate the feasibility and 6 months clinical result of sectioning of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) and median nerve decompression after ultra-minimally invasive, ultrasound-guided percutaneous carpal tunnel release (PCTR) surgery.MethodsConsecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were enrolled in this descriptive, open-label study. The procedure was performed in the interventional radiology room. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and 1 month. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was administered at baseline, 1, and 6 months.Results129 patients were enrolled. Significant decreases in mean symptom severity scores (3.3 ± 0.7 at baseline, 1.7 ± 0.4 at Month 1, 1.3 ± 0.3 at Month 6) and mean functional status scores (2.6 ± 1.1 at baseline, 1.6 ± 0.4 at Month 1, 1.3 ± 0.5 at Month 6) were noted. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a complete section of all TCL and nerve decompression in 100% of patients. No complications were identified.ConclusionsUltrasound-guided PCTR was used successfully to section the TCL, decompress the median nerve, and reduce self-reported symptoms.

  11. Percutaneous nephrostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, In Hoon; Ryu, Kook Hyun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyeon De [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    Percutaneous nephrostomy was performed in 82 patients under the fluoroscopic guidance for recent 3 years. The cause of hydronephrosis were as follows: unknown origin of stricture (N=37), stone (N=20), tumor (N=14), tuberculosis (N=8), postoperative ureteral injury (N=1), postoperative anastomotic stricture(N=1)and renal transplantation complication (N=1). Successful nephrostomy was achieved in 79 patients (96%). Causes if failure were minimal dilatation of pelvocaliceal system (N=2) and staghorn calculi (N=1). Follow up laboratory test shows high BUN and creatinine level returned to normal limit within 1 or 3 weeks in 73 patient. Major complication was not found, but temporary hematuria (N=4) or fever (N=1) was noted. In conclusion, percutaneous nephrostomy is the safe and effective method for the temporary and permanent relief of urinary obstruction and maintenance of ureteral patency.

  12. Percutaneous nephrostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, In Hoon; Ryu, Kook Hyun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyeon De

    1990-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrostomy was performed in 82 patients under the fluoroscopic guidance for recent 3 years. The cause of hydronephrosis were as follows: unknown origin of stricture (N=37), stone (N=20), tumor (N=14), tuberculosis (N=8), postoperative ureteral injury (N=1), postoperative anastomotic stricture(N=1)and renal transplantation complication (N=1). Successful nephrostomy was achieved in 79 patients (96%). Causes if failure were minimal dilatation of pelvocaliceal system (N=2) and staghorn calculi (N=1). Follow up laboratory test shows high BUN and creatinine level returned to normal limit within 1 or 3 weeks in 73 patient. Major complication was not found, but temporary hematuria (N=4) or fever (N=1) was noted. In conclusion, percutaneous nephrostomy is the safe and effective method for the temporary and permanent relief of urinary obstruction and maintenance of ureteral patency

  13. Assessing the Penetrating Abilities of Experimental Preparation with Dental Infiltrant Features Using Optical Microscope: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Tanasiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the infiltration technique is to penetrate demineralized enamel with a low viscosity resin. Icon® (DMG) is the first ever and so far the only dental infiltrant. Bacteriostaticity is one of the properties that should be inherent in dental infiltrants, but Icon lacks this feature. The aim of the preliminary study was to properly choose a dye which would allow us to assess the penetrating abilities of our own, experimental preparation with features of a dental infiltrant with bacteriostatic properties and to compare using an optical microscope the depth of infiltration of the designed experimental preparation with the infiltrant available on the market. The preparation is supposed to infiltrate decalcified human enamel and be assessed with an optical microscope. Eosin, neutral fuchsine and methylene blue were added to experimental preparation with dental infiltrant features and to Icon® (DMG) in order to assess the depth of penetration of the experimental solution into the decalcified layers of enamel. The experimental solution mixes well with eosin, neutral fuchsine, and methylene blue. During the preliminary study, the authors concluded that the experimental solution mixes well with methylene blue, neutral fuchsine, and eosin. An addition of eosin to a preparation which infiltrates inner, demineralized enamel layers, facilitates the assessment of such a preparation with an optical microscope. A designed experimental solution with the main ingredients, i.e., 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with a ratio of 75% to 25% penetrates the demineralized (decalcified) inner parts of the enamel and polymerizes when exposed to light. In order to assess the infiltration of the experimental solution into the demineralized enamel layers, it is required to improve the measurement techniques that utilize optical microscopy.

  14. Percutaneous bioprosthetic venous valve: a long-term study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavcnik, Dusan; Uchida, Barry T; Timmermans, Hans A; Corless, Christopher L; O'Hara, Michael; Toyota, Naoyuki; Moneta, Gregory L; Keller, Frederick S; Rösch, Josef

    2002-03-01

    A long-term evaluation of a new percutaneously placed bioprosthetic, bicuspid venous valve (BVV) consisting of a square stent and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) covering was performed in 12 sheep. Of 26 BVVs placed into the jugular veins, 25 exhibited good valve function on immediate venography and 22 on venograms obtained before the sheep were killed. Gross and histologic examination results demonstrated incorporation of remodeled and endothelialized SIS BVVs into the vein wall. Slight to moderate leaflet thickening was found mostly at their bases. Percutaneously placed SIS BVV is a promising one-way, competent valve that resists venous back-pressure while allowing forward flow.

  15. [Study on pulmonary lesions in which nontuberculous mycobacteria were detected by percutaneous aspiration--a proposal to add "culture positivity of percutaneous aspiration material" to the bacteriological diagnostic criteria of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yasuharu; Mochizuki, Yoshiro; Kawamura, Tetsuji; Sasaki, Shin; Morimoto, Akie; Mizumori, Yasuyuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Etsuko; Yokoyama, Toshihide

    2013-03-01

    deterioration was seen in the other 2. Aspiration from solitary small cavitary lesions showed a relatively high number of NTM colonies. Pneumothorax was the only complication of the aspiration procedure. If the diagnostic criteria for pulmonary NTM diseases include positive culture in percutaneous aspiration material, the diagnosis of solitary nodular NTM lesions would become easier; at present, these lesions are often diagnosed only upon surgical resection. Further, clinical studies on the possibility of spontaneous shrinkage of the solitary lesion and the value of its medical treatment would be promoted. Aspiration can easily differentiate NTM disease from pulmonary abscess or fungal infection in patients with a solitary lesion or small cavity.

  16. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Versus Conservative Treatment and Rehabilitation in Women with Vertebral Fractures due to Osteoporosis: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Chávez-Arias, Daniel David; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; Diez-García, María Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty is commonly used in the management of osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures, although there is controversy on its superiority over conservative treatment. Here we compare pain and function in women with vertebral osteoporotic fractures who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty versus conservative treatment with a protocolized rehabilitation program. A longitudinal and comparative prospective study was conducted. Women ≥ 60 years of age with a diagnosis of osteoporosis who had at least one vertebral thoracic or lumbar compression fracture were included and divided into two groups, conservative treatment or vertebroplasty. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were used to assess pain and function, respectively, as the outcome measures. We included 31 patients, 13 (42%) treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty and 18 (58%) with conservative treatment. Baseline clinical characteristics, bone densitometry and fracture data were similar in both groups. At baseline, VAS was 73.1 ± 28.36 in the vertebroplasty group and 68.6 ± 36.1 mm in the conservative treatment group (p = 0.632); at three months it was 33.11 ± 10.1 vs. 42 ± 22.21 mm (p = 0.111); and at 12 months, 32.3 ± 11.21 vs. 36.1 ± 12.36 mm (p = 0.821). The ODI at baseline was 83% in the vertebroplasty group vs. 85% for conservative management (p = 0.34); at three months, 36 vs. 39% (p = 0.36); and at 12 months, 29.38 vs. 28.33% (p = 0.66). Treatment with percutaneous vertebroplasty had no advantages over conservative treatment for pain and function in this group of women ≥ 60 years of age with osteoporosis.

  17. Novel Percutaneous Epicardial Autonomic Modulation in the Canine for Atrial Fibrillation: Results of an Efficacy and Safety Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Malini; Venkatachalam, K. L.; Swale, Matthew J.; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Gard, Joseph J.; Johnson, Susan B.; Suddendorf, Scott H.; Mikell, Susan B.; Ladewig, Dorothy J.; Nosbush, Toni Grabinger; Danielsen, Andrew J.; Knudson, Mark; Asirvatham, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Endocardial ablation of atrial ganglionated plexi (GP) has been described for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Our objective in this study was to develop percutaneous epicardial GP ablation in a canine model using novel energy sources and catheters. Methods Phase 1: The efficacy of several modalities to ablate the GP was tested in an open chest canine model (n=10). Phase 2: Percutaneous epicardial ablation of GP was done in 6 dogs using the most efficacious modality identified in phase 1 using 2 novel catheters. Results Phase 1: DC in varying doses [blocking (7 -12μA), electroporation (300-500μA), ablation (3000- 7500μA)], radiofrequency ablation (25–50 W), ultrasound (1.5MHz), and alcohol (2-5ml) injection were successful at 0/8, 4/12, 5/7, 3/8, 1/5 and 5/7 GP sites. DC (500–5000μA) along with alcohol irrigation was tested in phase 2. Phase 2: Percutaneous epicardial ablation of the right atrium, oblique sinus, vein of Marshall, and transverse sinus GP was successful in 5/6 dogs. One dog died of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during DC ablation at 5000 μA. Programmed stimulation induced AF in 6 dogs pre-ablation and no atrial arrhythmia in 3, flutter in 1 and AF in 1 post-ablation. Heart rate, blood pressure, effective atrial refractory period and local atrial electrogram amplitude did not change significantly post-ablation. Microscopic examination showed elimination of GP, and minimal injury to atrial myocardium. Conclusion Percutaneous epicardial ablation of GP using direct current and novel catheters is safe and feasible and may be used as an adjunct to pulmonary vein isolation in the treatment of atrial fibrillation in order to minimize additional atrial myocardial ablation. PMID:26854009

  18. A novel osseointegrated percutaneous prosthetic system for the treatment of patients with transfemoral amputation: A prospective study of 51 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brånemark, R; Berlin, O; Hagberg, K; Bergh, P; Gunterberg, B; Rydevik, B

    2014-01-01

    Patients with transfemoral amputation (TFA) often experience problems related to the use of socket-suspended prostheses. The clinical development of osseointegrated percutaneous prostheses for patients with a TFA started in 1990, based on the long-term successful results of osseointegrated dental implants. Between 1999 and 2007, 51 patients with 55 TFAs were consecutively enrolled in a prospective, single-centre non-randomised study and followed for two years. The indication for amputation was trauma in 33 patients (65%) and tumour in 12 (24%). A two-stage surgical procedure was used to introduce a percutaneous implant to which an external amputation prosthesis was attached. The assessment of outcome included the use of two self-report questionnaires, the Questionnaire for Persons with a Transfemoral Amputation (Q-TFA) and the Short-Form (SF)-36. The cumulative survival at two years' follow-up was 92%. The Q-TFA showed improved prosthetic use, mobility, global situation and fewer problems (all p reported following treatment with osseointegrated percutaneous prostheses.

  19. Effectiveness and Complications of Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy with a Large Needle for Muscle Contractures: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnel, Camille; Genêt, François; Almangour, Waleed; Denormandie, Philippe; Parratte, Bernard; Schnitzler, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two percent of institutionalised elderly persons have muscle contractures. Contractures have important functional consequences, rendering hygiene and positioning in bed or in a chair difficult. Medical treatment (such as botulinum toxin injections, physiotherapy or positioning) is not very effective and surgery may be required. Surgery is carried out in the operating theatre, under local or general anaesthesia but is often not possible in fragile patients. Mini-invasive tenotomy could be a useful alternative as it can be carried out in ambulatory care, under local anaesthesia. To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous needle tenotomy and the risks of damage to adjacent structures in cadavers. Thirty two doctors who had never practiced the technique (physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, geriatricians and orthopaedic surgeons) carried out 401 tenotomies on the upper and lower limbs of 8 fresh cadavers. A 16G needle was used percutaneous following location of the tendons. After each tenotomy, a neuro-orthopaedic surgeon and an anatomist dissected the area in order to evaluate the success of the tenotomy and any adjacent lesions which had occurred. Of the 401 tenotomies, 72% were complete, 24.9% partial and 2.7% failed. Eight adjacent lesions occurred (2%): 4 (1%) in tendons or muscles, 3 (0.7%) in nerves and 1 (0.2%) in a vessel. This percutaneous needle technique effectively ruptured the desired tendons, with few injuries to adjacent structures. Although this study was carried out on cadavers, the results suggest it is safe to carry out on patients.

  20. Percutaneous Soft Tissue Release for Treating Chronic Recurrent Myofascial Pain Associated with Lateral Epicondylitis: 6 Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin’s technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale, pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer, and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and the pressure pain threshold and the grasping strength were significantly increased (P<0.01 immediately after the treatment. This significant effectiveness lasts for at least one year. Conclusions. It is suggested that percutaneous soft tissue release can be used for treating chronic recurrent lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain.

  1. Anatomic Assessment of K-Wire Trajectory for Transverse Percutaneous Fixation of Small Finger Metacarpal Fractures: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandizio, Louis C; Speeckaert, Amy; Kozick, Zach; Klena, Joel C

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this cadaveric study is to evaluate the trajectory of percutaneous transverse Kirschner wire (K-wire) placement for fifth metacarpal fractures relative to the sagittal profile of the fifth metacarpal in order to develop a targeting strategy for the treatment of fifth metacarpal fractures. Using 12 unmatched fresh human upper limbs, we evaluated the trajectory of percutaneous transverse K-wire placement relative to the sagittal profile of the fifth metacarpal in order to develop a targeting strategy for treatment of fifth metacarpal fractures. The midpoint of the small and ring finger metacarpals in the sagittal plane was identified at 3 points. At each point, a K-wire was inserted from the small finger metacarpal into the midpoint of the ring finger metacarpal ("center-center" position). The angle of the transverse K-wire relative to the table needed to achieve a center-center position averaged 20.8°, 18.9°, and 16.7° for the proximal diaphysis, middiaphysis, and the collateral recess, respectively. Approximately 80% of transversely placed K-wires obtained purchase in the long finger metacarpal. These results can serve as a guide to help surgeons in the accurate placement of percutaneous K-wires for small finger metacarpal fractures and may aid in surgeon training.

  2. [Lung perfusion studies after percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Bravo, José Rafael; Apolonio-Martínez, Adriana; Estrada-Loza, María de Jesús; Beirana-Palencia, Luisa Gracia; Ramírez-Portillo, César Iván

    2015-01-01

    The closure of patent ductus arteriosus with multiple devices has been associated with a reduction in lung perfusion. We evaluated the pulmonary perfusion after percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder device using perfusion lung scan. Thirty patients underwent successful percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus occlusions using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder device were included in this study. Lung perfusion scans were preformed 6 months after the procedure. Peak flow velocities and protrusion of the device were analyzed by Doppler echocardiography. A left lung perfusionductus arteriosus and the minimum and maximum diameter/length of the ductus arteriosus ratio were statistically significant in patients with abnormalities of lung perfusion. It was observed protrusion the device in 6 patients with a higher maximum flow rate in the left pulmonary artery. The left lung perfusion may be compromised after percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder. The increased flow velocity in the origin of the left pulmonary artery can be a poor indicator of reduction in pulmonary perfusion and can occur in the absence of protrusion of the device. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. CLINICAL OUTCOME OF PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY IN CORNEAL OPACITIES OF DIFFERENT AETIOLOGY- A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Bhuyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Corneal transplantation or grafting is an operation in which abnormal corneal host tissue is replaced by healthy donor cornea. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, corneal diseases are among the major causes of vision loss and blindness in the world today after cataract and glaucoma. The aim of the study is to- 1. Evaluate the different aetiology of corneal opacity including active infective aetiology as indicated for penetrating keratoplasty. 2. Determine the clinical outcome of penetrating keratoplasty in relation to graft survival, graft rejection and peri-operative complications in different aetiology groups. 3. Determine the final visual outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Candidates for keratoplasty were selected from- 1. Eye Bank of Regional Institute of Ophthalmology (R.I.O. 2. R.I.O OPD. The study period was from September 2014 to August 2015. 30 cases were taken in the study. Descriptive statistics were applied to analyse the data wherever necessary. RESULTS 34.6±19.73 yrs. (mean±SD was the mean age at which transplants were done in the study. Out of total 30 cases, 13 (43.33% and 17 (56.66% were male and female, respectively. The different indications for penetrating keratoplasty are- Post ulcer corneal opacity in 14 cases (46.66%, posttraumatic corneal opacity 9 cases (30%, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy 4 cases (13.33%, corneal dystrophy in 2 cases (6.66% and non-healing corneal ulcer in 1 case (3.33%. 16 cases (53.33% showed clear graft till the last follow up while 11 (33.33% cases showed partially clear graft resulting in improved visual outcome while 3 cases (10.00% of the grafts were opaque due to graft failure. CONCLUSION The major indications for penetrating keratoplasty in this part of the world are post ulcer and posttraumatic corneal opacity and majority of them are illiterate agricultural workers who failed to get adequate treatment on time. Graft survival rate is high, which can be attributed to the

  4. The study of penetration of energetic ions in botanic samples with transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.G.; Chen, Q.Z.; Xue, J.M.; Du, G.H.; Qin, H.L; Zhang, W.M.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Botanic samples (onion endocuticles, kidney bean slices) were exposed to energetic ions. By recording transmission spectra, we studied the energy loss in such samples. Individual protrusion-like damage produced in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate allowed us to analyze the mass density of the samples by scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The experimental results showed that the botanic sample is inhomogeneous in mass density, some incident ions lose only a small part of their energy after being stopped by a layer of botanic sample. Additionally, about 10 -7 of the incident ions with energy of tens of keV can penetrate through the botanic slice with a thickness of 50 μm. The dynamic change of the transmission spectrum of MeV heavy ions through a layer of botanic slice showed that the penetration ability of the incident ions increases with increasing ion fluence. These experimental results indicate that the inhomogeneousity of mass density of botanic samples and irradiation damage are the main reasons of the ultra-depth penetration of low-energy ions in such kind of botanic samples

  5. The study of heat penetration of kimchi soup on stationary and rotary retorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F 0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F 0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R(2)=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F 0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%.

  6. Longitudinal Evaluation of Wound Healing after Penetrating Corneal Injury: Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang Keng; Cai, Jianhao; Rong, Shi Song; Peng, Kun; Xia, Honghe; Jin, Chuan; Lu, Xuehui; Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Haoyu; Jhanji, Vishal

    2017-07-01

    Ocular imaging can enhance our understanding of wound healing. We report anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) findings in penetrating corneal injury. Serial ASOCT was performed after repair of penetrating corneal injury. Internal aberrations of wound edges were labeled as "steps" or "gaps" on ASOCT images. The wound type was characterized as: type 1: continuous inner wound edge or step height ≤ 80 µm; type 2: step height > 80 µm; type 3: gap between wound edges; and type 4: intraocular tissue adherent to wound. Surgical outcomes of different wound types were compared. 50 consecutive patients were included (6 females, 44 males; mean age 33 ± 12 years). The average size of wound was 4.2 ± 2.6 mm (type 1, 8 eyes; type 2, 27 eyes; type 3, 12 eyes; type 4, 3 eyes). At the end of 3 months, 70% (n = 35) of the wounds were type 1. At the end of 6 months, all type 1 wounds had healed completely, whereas about half of type 2 (48.1%) and type 3 (50%) wounds had recovered to type 1 configuration. The wound type at baseline affected the height of step (p = 0.047) and corneal thickness at 6 months (p = 0.035). ASOCT is a useful tool for monitoring wound healing in cases with penetrating corneal injury. Majority of the wound edges appose between 3 and 6 months after trauma. In our study, baseline wound configuration affected the healing pattern.

  7. Study for the water penetration chemistry of bentonite under temperature gradation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Naohiro; Imakita, Tsuyoshi

    2003-02-01

    This work have been studied for the water fluctuation in time and space in case of the ground water penetration into the unsaturated bentonite with development of the necessary test equipment. The test equipment necessary for this test, was designed on consideration of the adiabatic condition, sensors for pH, salt and water measurement. The thickness of the bentonite specimen was set to 10 cm and the temperature slope was enable to set between 80degC and 100degC at the both end of the specimen. The water for penetration was pushed by gas constant pressure up to 1 MPa. The glass electrode for pH, electric conductivity for salinity and moisture sensor for lower water content and water sensor for higher were used as the sensors. The fluctuation of salt and water in the ground water penetration test to bentonite was estimated. The sensor data were treated as parametric data, because those data could not calibrated in those high temperature and under those high bentonite swollen pressure. For another development should be needed for water sensor. (author)

  8. Analytical and experimental studies on the strain rate effects in penetration of 10wt % ballistic gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L; Jia, Z; Ma, X L; Fan, Y R

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates on modeling the super-elastic behavior of 10wt% ballistic gelatin at 4°C and the mechanical responses at quasi-static and high-speed penetrations. Uniaxial compression and simple shearing experiments were carried out to determine the moduli in Mooney-Rivlin model describing the elastic behavior of gelatin at low strain rates. The failure mode is determined to be elastic fracture as the tensile stretch ratio exceeds a critical value. For high compression strain rates, the available results from the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments for 10wt% gelatin were carefully examined and assessed. Linear relationship between the moduli and the strain rate is established. Based on these material parameters, an analytic solution of stress for the quasi-static and quasi-dynamic expansion of spherical cavity in gelatin is derived. As a consequence, the work needed to open unit volume of cavity, P s , which is the key parameter in studying penetration problems, is linearly increasing with the characteristic strain rate. The application of P s to our quasi-static and high-speed penetration experiments is discussed and assessed

  9. Challenging the wisdom of puncture at the calyceal fornix in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy: feasibility and safety study with 137 patients operated via a non-calyceal percutaneous track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, Iason; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Vasilas, Marinos; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Kamal, Wissam; Liatsikos, Evangelos

    2017-05-01

    To present our experience with a central, non-calyceal puncture protocol for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) in an attempt to challenge the opinion of worldwide adopted calyceal puncture as the less traumatic site of percutaneous entrance into the collecting system. During 2012, a total of 137 consecutive, unselected patients were subjected to PCNL in our department. Non-calyceal punctures were performed to all cases and followed by subsequent track dilations up to 30 Fr. Perioperative and postoperative data were prospectively collected and analyzed. Mean operative time (from skin puncture to nephrostomy tube placement) was 48 min. Patients with single, multiple and staghorn stones had primary stone-free rates of 89.2, 80.4 and 66.7 % after PCNL, respectively. The overall complication rate was 10.2 %, while bleeding complications were minimal. Only 4 patients (2.9 %) required blood transfusion. Five patients (3.6 %) had Clavien Grade IIIa complications requiring an intervention for their management and none Grade IV or V. Despite the absence of evidence that non-calyceal percutaneous tracts could be a risk factor for complications, the concept of calyceal puncture has been worldwide adopted by PCNL surgeons as the sole safe percutaneous entrance into the collective system. Based on our experience, other pathways than the worldwide recognized rule, calyceal puncture, are possible and probably not as dangerous as has been previously stated.

  10. A ten-year study of penetrating injuries of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesanya, Adedoyin A; Ekanem, Ekanem E

    2004-12-01

    Colon injury has been associated with a high risk of septic complications and mortality. We prospectively studied the pattern, management, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients who sustained penetrating colon injuries. Sixty patients who presented to our hospital with penetrating colon injuries over a ten-year period (1992 to 2001) were studied. Colon wounds were caused by gunshots in 55 (91.7 percent) patients and knife stabs in 5 (8.3 percent). There was a delay of more than 12 hours before laparotomy in 30 (50 percent) patients. Moderate or major fecal contamination of the peritoneal cavity occurred in 58 (96.7 percent) patients. The average penetrating abdominal trauma index score was 25.9 and 20 (33.3 percent) patients sustained Flint Grade 3 colon injury. Associated intra-abdominal injuries occurred in the small bowel (73.3 percent), liver (25 percent), stomach (23.3 percent), and mesentery (16.7 percent). Right colon wounds (35) were managed by primary repair in 24 (68.6 percent) patients and proximal diverting colostomy in 11 (31.4 percent), whereas left colon wounds (25) were managed by diverting colostomy in 22 (88.0 percent) patients and primary repair in 3 (12.0 percent) patients. Common complications included wound infection (56.7 percent), septicemia (31.7 percent), and enterocutaneous fistula (16.7 percent). The overall mortality rate was 33.3 percent and colon injury-related mortality was 21.7 percent. Presence of destructive colon injury was associated with a greater than fourfold increased incidence of death. Other significant risk factors included shock on admission, major fecal contamination, duration of operation more than four hours, penetrating abdominal trauma index score >25, and more than two postoperative complications. There was no difference in outcome between patients who had primary repair and those undergoing diverting colostomy. Colostomy closure-related morbidity was 21 percent and mortality was 5.3 percent. A more liberal

  11. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Cadaver study. Comparative groups. HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (PHELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A and Group C whatever at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). Small-sample preclinical study. HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127).

  12. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO System: A Cadaver Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxin Fan

    Full Text Available Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence.This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO system in puncture reduction of PTED.Cadaver study.Comparative groups.HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A. Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B. On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C.At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P0.05. There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05.Small-sample preclinical study.HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127.

  13. Mechanistic studies of ocular peptide absorption and its enhancement by various penetration enhancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojanasakul, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Two major aspects of corneal peptide absorption, namely the transport mechanisms and the promoting effect of some penetration enhancers, were investigated. Studies on transport mechanisms involve (a) identification of transport pathways of peptides across the cornea, (b) determination of rate-limiting barrier(s) for peptide absorption, and (c) permselective properties of the cornea. To study the transport pathways of peptides, four model peptides differing in molecular size and charge were either fluorescently or radioactively labeled and their movement across the cornea was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy and autoradiography. Results from these studies indicate that peptides can penetrate the cornea via different pathways, depending on the physicochemical properties and membrane specificity of the peptides. In all cases, the outermost layer of the corneal epithelium presents the rate-limiting barrier for peptide absorption. The results also indicate a charge discrimination effect to transport of negatively charged peptides. In permselectivity studies, it has been shown that the cornea, due to the presence of ionizable charged groups, is amphoteric and exhibits dual selective characteristics to transport of charged molecules. At pH's above the isoelectric point, 3.2, the cornea carries a net negative charge and is selective to positively-charged molecules. Below the isoelectric pH, the reverse is valid. The promoting mechanisms of penetration enhancers were studied microscopically using confocal fluorescence microscopy with the aid of a specific fluorescent membrane probe (3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine) and a non-permeating polar tracer. All enhancers, including chelators, non-ionic surfactants, bile salts, and cytoskeleton-active agents, significantly increase membrane permeability depending on concentration and exposure time

  14. Underdiagnosis and prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after percutaneous coronary intervention: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Pere; Lapuente, Anna; Pareja, Julia; Yun, Sergi; Garcia, Maria Estela; Padilla, Ferrán; Heredia, Josep Ll; De la Sierra, Alex; Soriano, Joan B

    2015-01-01

    Background Retrospective studies based on clinical data and without spirometric confirmation suggest a poorer prognosis of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of undiagnosed COPD in these patients is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of COPD – previously or newly diagnosed – in patients with IHD treated with PCI. Methods Patients with IHD confirmed by PCI were consecutively included. After PCI they underwent forced spirometry and evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors. All-cause mortality, new cardiovascular events, and their combined endpoint were analyzed. Results A total of 133 patients (78%) male, with a mean (SD) age of 63 (10.12) years were included. Of these, 33 (24.8%) met the spirometric criteria for COPD, of whom 81.8% were undiagnosed. IHD patients with COPD were older, had more coronary vessels affected, and a greater history of previous myocardial infarction. Median follow-up was 934 days (interquartile range [25%–75%]: 546–1,160). COPD patients had greater mortality (P=0.008; hazard ratio [HR]: 8.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.76–44.47) and number of cardiovascular events (P=0.024; HR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.04–3.33), even those without a previous diagnosis of COPD (P=0.01; HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.12–2.83). These differences remained after adjustment for sex, age, number of coronary vessels affected, and previous myocardial infarction (P=0.025; HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.08–3.1). Conclusion Prevalence and underdiagnosis of COPD in patients with IHD who undergo PCI are both high. These patients have an independent greater mortality and a higher number of cardiovascular events during follow-up. PMID:26213464

  15. Hemorrhagic Complications of Percutaneous Cryoablation for Renal Tumors: Results from a 7-year Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakarala, Bharat; Frangakis, Constantine E.; Rodriguez, Ron; Georgiades, Christos S.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeCryoablation of renal tumors is assumed to have a higher risk of hemorrhagic complications compared to other ablative modalities. Our purpose was to establish the exact risk and to identify hemorrhagic risk factors.Materials and MethodsThis IRB approved, 7-year prospective study included 261 renal cryoablations. Procedures were under conscious sedation and CT guidance. Pre- and postablation CT was obtained, and hemorrhagic complications were CTCAE tabulated. Age, gender, tumor size, histology, and probes number were tested based on averages or proportions using their exact permutation distribution. “High-risk” subgroups (those exceeding the thresholds of all variables) were tested for each variable alone, and for all combinations of variable threshold values. We compared the subgroup with the best PPV using one variable, with the subgroup with the best PPV using all variables (McNemmar test).ResultsThe hemorrhagic complication rate was 3.5 %. Four patients required transfusions, two required emergent angiograms, one required both a transfusion and angiogram, and two required bladder irrigation for outlet obstruction. Perirenal space hemorrhage was more clinically significant than elsewhere. Univariate risks were tumor size >2 cm, number of probes >2, and malignant histology (P = 0.005, 0.002, and 0.033, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that patients >55 years with malignant tumors >2 cm requiring 2 or more probes yielded the highest PPV (7.5 %).ConclusionsAlthough older patients (>55 years old) with larger (>2 cm), malignant tumors have an increased risk of hemorrhagic complications, the low PPV does not support the routine use of embolization. Percutaneous cryoablation has a 3.5 % risk of significant hemorrhage, similar to that reported for other types of renal ablative modalities.

  16. Percutaneous nerve stimulation in chronic neuropathic pain patients due to spinal cord injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsky, David Jos; Ettema, Frank Willem Leo; van der Leeden, Marike; Dekker, Joost; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke Marjan

    2014-03-01

    The long-term prognosis for neuropathic pain resolution following spinal cord injury (SCI) is often poor. In many SCI patients, neuropathic pain continues or even worsens over time. Thus, new treatment approaches are needed. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility and effect of percutaneous (electrical) nerve stimulation (P(E)NS) in SCI patients with chronic neuropathic pain. In 18 weeks, 12 P(E)NS treatments were scheduled. Assessment with questionnaires was performed at baseline (T0), after 8 weeks (T8), 18 weeks (T18), and 12 weeks post-treatment (T30). From 26 screened patients, 17 were included. In total, 91.2% questionnaires were returned, 2 patients dropped out, and 4.2% of the patients reported minor side effects. Pain scores on the week pain diary measured with the numerical rating scale improved significantly at T8, from 6.5 at baseline to 5.4, and were still significantly improved at T18. Pain reduction of ≥ 30% directly after a session was reported in 64.6% sessions. In total, 6 patients experienced reduction in size of the pain areas at T18 and T30, with a mean reduction of 45.8% at T18 and 45.3% at T30. P(E)NS is feasible as an intervention in SCI patients and might have a positive effect on pain reduction in a part of this patient group. © 2013 The Authors Pain Practice © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  17. Temperature Measurement During Polymerization of Bone Cement in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: An In Vivo Study in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmetti, Giovanni Carlo; Manca, Antonio; Kanika, Khanna; Murphy, Kieran; Eminefendic, Haris; Masala, Salvatore; Regge, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the study was to 'in vivo' measure temperature, during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV), within a vertebral body injected with different bone cements. According to the declaration of Helsinki, 22 women (60-80 years; mean, 75 years) with painful osteoporotic vertebral collapse underwent bilateral transpedicular PV on 22 lumbar vertebrae. Two 10-G vertebroplasty needles were introduced into the vertebra under digital fluoroscopy; a 16-G radiofrequency thermoablation needle (Starburst XL; RITA Medical System Inc., USA), carrying five thermocouples, was than coaxially inserted. Eleven different bone cements were injected and temperatures were measured every 30 s until temperatures dropped under 45 o C. After the thermocouple needle was withdrawn, bilateral PV was completed with cement injection through the vertebroplasty needle. Unpaired Student's t-tests, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to evaluate significant differences (p o C), B (from 50 o to 60 o C), and C (below 50 o C). Peak temperature in Group A (86.7 ± 10.7 o C) was significantly higher (p = 0.0172) than that in Groups B (60.5 ± 3.7 o C) and C (44.8 ± 2.6 o C). The average of all thermocouples showed an extremely significant difference (p = 0.0002) between groups. None of the tested cements maintained a temperature ≥45 o C for more than 30 min. These data suggest that back-pain improvement is obtained not by thermal necrosis but by mechanical consolidation only. The relative necrotic thermal effect in vertebral metastases seems to confirm that analgesia must be considered the main intent of PV.

  18. Percutaneous intradiscal ozone (O3)-injection: an experimental study in canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhijian; He Xiaofeng; Chen Yong; Zeng Qingle; Liu Chihong; Zhao Zhongqing; Lu Yong; Li Yanhao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of ozone on normal nucleus pulpous and the safety of intradiscal ozone-injection for the treatment of herniated lumbar disc. Methods: Ozone was injected into selected lumbar discs (3 ml) and the para-spinal space (7 ml) with 20 G Chiba needle under fluoroscopy in five canines. The ozone concentration was 30 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml respectively. Two discs were selected for each concentration. Total 20 discs were injected. Three of the canines were given one-time ozone-injection and were sacrificed for pathology one week, one month and two months respectively after the procedure, and the other two canines were given two-time ozone-injection and were sacrificed one month and two months respectively after the procedure. The specimens including nucleus pulpous, end-plate, spinal cord, nerve root, and greater psoas muscle were observed macroscopically and microscopically. Results: No serious behavior abnormalities were observed in all animals. The atrophy of nucleus pulpous could be observed one month after ozone-injection due to significant reduction of water and extensive proliferation of collagenous fiber. The influence on the atrophy of nucleus pulpous demonstrated no apparent difference between the selected two concentrations of ozone, but was more apparent with two-time injection than that with one-time injection. The end-plates increased slightly or moderately in thickness in 16 simples and a few of fibers in greater psoas muscle suffered slight atrophy in 5 samples. Conclusion: It is suggested that percutaneous intradiscal ozone-injection is a safe method, and can cause gradual atrophy of nucleus pulpous. This study provides the evidence of the feasibility and value of this procedure's application in clinics

  19. Hemorrhagic Complications of Percutaneous Cryoablation for Renal Tumors: Results from a 7-year Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakarala, Bharat, E-mail: bkakara1@jhmi.edu, E-mail: bharat.kakarala@gmail.com [Johns Hopkins University, Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Frangakis, Constantine E., E-mail: cfrangak@jhsph.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Rodriguez, Ron, E-mail: rodriguezr32@uthscsa.edu [University of Texas Health Science Center, Urologic Surgery (United States); Georgiades, Christos S., E-mail: g-christos@hotmail.com [Johns Hopkins University (United States)

    2016-11-15

    PurposeCryoablation of renal tumors is assumed to have a higher risk of hemorrhagic complications compared to other ablative modalities. Our purpose was to establish the exact risk and to identify hemorrhagic risk factors.Materials and MethodsThis IRB approved, 7-year prospective study included 261 renal cryoablations. Procedures were under conscious sedation and CT guidance. Pre- and postablation CT was obtained, and hemorrhagic complications were CTCAE tabulated. Age, gender, tumor size, histology, and probes number were tested based on averages or proportions using their exact permutation distribution. “High-risk” subgroups (those exceeding the thresholds of all variables) were tested for each variable alone, and for all combinations of variable threshold values. We compared the subgroup with the best PPV using one variable, with the subgroup with the best PPV using all variables (McNemmar test).ResultsThe hemorrhagic complication rate was 3.5 %. Four patients required transfusions, two required emergent angiograms, one required both a transfusion and angiogram, and two required bladder irrigation for outlet obstruction. Perirenal space hemorrhage was more clinically significant than elsewhere. Univariate risks were tumor size >2 cm, number of probes >2, and malignant histology (P = 0.005, 0.002, and 0.033, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that patients >55 years with malignant tumors >2 cm requiring 2 or more probes yielded the highest PPV (7.5 %).ConclusionsAlthough older patients (>55 years old) with larger (>2 cm), malignant tumors have an increased risk of hemorrhagic complications, the low PPV does not support the routine use of embolization. Percutaneous cryoablation has a 3.5 % risk of significant hemorrhage, similar to that reported for other types of renal ablative modalities.

  20. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF COMPLICATIONS RELATED TO PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY IN ICU PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokanath S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The first percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy performed on a child was on June 12, 1979, at the Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Dr. Michael W.L. Gauderer, paediatric surgeon; Dr. Jeffrey Ponsky, endoscopist; and Dr. James Bekeny, surgical resident, performed the procedure on a 4 1 ⁄2-month-old child with inadequate oral intake. The authors of the technique, Dr. Michael W.L. Gauderer and Dr. Jeffrey Ponsky, first published the technique in 1980. In 2001, the details of the development of the procedure were published. Gastrostomy maybe indicated in numerous situations usually those in which normal or nutrition (or nasogastric feeding is impossible. The causes for these situations maybe neurological (e.g. stroke, anatomical (e.g. cleft lip and palate during the process of correction or other (e.g. radiation therapy for tumours in head and neck region. In certain situations where normal or nasogastric feeding is not possible, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy maybe of clinical benefit. This provides enteral nutrition (making use of the natural digestion process of the gastrointestinal tract despite bypassing the mouth; enteral nutrition is generally preferable to parenteral nutrition (which is only used when the GI tract must be avoided. The PEG procedure is an alternative to open surgical gastrostomy insertion and does not require a general anaesthetic; mild sedation is typically used. PEG tubes may also be extended into the small intestine by passing a jejunal extension tube (PEG-J tube through the PEG tube and into the jejunum via the pylorus. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in the Department of General Medicine on 32 patients who underwent PEG placement by gastroenterologist at Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital, Visakhapatnam, from January 2016 to December 2016. Patients were aged 18 years and above. All patients had placement of Ponsky pull PEs either in the

  1. Experimental study of the penetrating of plates by projectile at low initial speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. Yu; Orlova, Yu N.; Smakotin, Ig L.; Glazyrin, V. P.; Orlov, Yu N.

    2017-11-01

    The research of the penetration process of lightweight plates by a projectile in the range of initial velocities up to 325 m/s was attempted. The projectile was a shell bullet and the barriers were of ice, MDF-panels and plexiglas barriers. The response of barriers to impact loading is studied. High-speed shooting of each experiment is obtained, including photos of the front and rear sides of the barriers. An attempt was made to reproduce the scenario of the destruction of barriers. The results of experiments can be interpreted only as qualitative tests. Projectile was not destroyed.

  2. Customized photorefractive keratectomy to correct high ametropia after penetrating keratoplasty: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    De Rosa, Giuseppe; Boccia, Rosa; Santamaria, Carmine; Fabbozzi, Lorenzo; De Rosa, Luigi; Lanza, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate preliminarily the safety and efficacy of customized photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) to correct ametropia and irregular astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Methods: This pilot study included five eyes of five patients with a mean spherical equivalent of −5.1 ± 1.46 D (range from −2.75 to −6.50 D). In all cases, ametropia and irregular astigmatism was corrected with topography-guided customized PRK. Ocular examinations with topographic analysis were perfor...

  3. Ahmed glaucoma valve in post-penetrating-keratoplasty glaucoma: A critically evaluated prospective clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Anita; Prakash, Vadivelu Jaya; Dada, Tanuj; Gupta, Anoop Kishore; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Vanathi, Murugesan

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the outcome of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) in post-penetrating-keratoplasty glaucoma (PKPG). Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 20 eyes of 20 adult patients with post-PKPG with intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg, on two or more antiglaucoma medications, underwent AG (model FP7) implantation and were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. Absolute success was defined as 5 glaucoma managed by AGV implantation revealed a satisfactory outcome up to 6 months of follow-up. PMID:21586837

  4. A simulation study of impulsive penetration of solar wind irregularities into the magnetosphere at the dayside magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.W.; Hawkins, J.G.; Lee, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic code is used to study impulsive penetration processes that occur when a plasma irregularity in the magnetosheath, modeled as a field-aligned filament, impinges on the dayside magnetopause. If the magnetic fields in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere are parallel or antiparallel, then a filament in the magnetosheath can always penetrate into the magnetosphere. However, if the fields in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere are not aligned, then a filament can only penetrate into the magnetosphere when its initial kinetic energy density exceeds the magnetic energy density attributed to the transverse component of the magnetic field by a factor of 50. In this case, the magnetospheric field lines reconnect behind the filament, thereby trapping it within the magnetosphere. Otherwise, the increasing magnetic stress in front of the filament will eventually stop the filament from further penetration. For typical parameters found at the dayside magnetopause, the threshold condition obtained from this two-dimensional model predicts that penetration is possible only when the angle between the fields is within approximately 5 of parallel or antiparallel. During the penetration process, velocity vortices are observed both inside the filament and in the external plasma. Either increased β within the magnetosphere, or the larger plasma density at the magnetopause associated with antiparallel magnetic fields, will act to reduce the penetration velocity

  5. Clinical study of ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for primary hepatic carcinoma adjacent to the diaphragm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Meng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound (US-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA for primary hepatic carcinoma adjacent to the diaphragm. MethodsThis study included 277 patients with 362 lesions of primary hepatic carcinoma managed with US-guided percutaneous RFA in 302 Hospital of PLA from January 2011 to October 2014. Sixty-six patients with 71 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs located less than 5 mm from the diaphragm were in study group, and 95 patients with 114 HCCs located more than 10 mm from the hepatic surface were in control group. The patients′ symptoms and complications were observed after the therapy. The complete ablation rate, local tumor progression rate, and complication rate were compared between the two groups. Comparison of continuous data between the two groups was made by independent-samples t test, while comparison of categorical data was made by chi-square test. ResultsAt one month after operation, 65 (91.5% of 71 tumors in the study group and 107 (93.9% of 114 tumors in the control group achieved complete ablation, according to contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (χ2=0.36, P=0.55. The postoperative follow-up showed that the local tumor progression rates in the study group and control group were 16.9% and 13.2%, respectively, without significant difference between the two groups (χ2=0.49, P=0.48. In the study group, 22 patients developed adverse reactions, versus 37 patients in the control group (χ2=2.60, P=0.11. ConclusionUS-guided percutaneous RFA is a safe and effective means for the treatment of primary hepatic carcinoma adjacent to the diaphragm.

  6. Percutaneous cholecystostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhan, Okan; Akinci, Devrim; Oezmen, Mustafa N.

    2002-01-01

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC), a technique that consists of percutaneous catheter placement in the gallbladder lumen under imaging guidance, has become an alternative to surgical cholecystostomy in recent years. Indications of PC include calculous or acalculous cholecystitis, cholangitis, biliary obstruction and opacification of biliary ducts. It also provides a potential route for stone dissolution therapy and stone extraction. Under aseptic conditions and ultrasound guidance, using local anesthesia, the procedure is carried out by using either modified Seldinger technique or trocar technique. Transhepatic or transperitoneal puncture can be performed as an access route. Several days after the procedure transcatheter cholangiography is performed to assess the patency of cystic duct, presence of gallstones and catheter position. The tract is considered mature in the absence of leakage to the peritoneal cavity, subhepatic, subcapsular, or subdiaphragmatic spaces. Response rates to PC in the literature are between the range of 56-100% as the variation of different patient population. Complications associated with PC usually occur immediately or within days and include haemorrhage, vagal reactions, sepsis, bile peritonitis, pneumothorax, perforation of the intestinal loop, secondary infection or colonisation of the gallbladder and catheter dislodgment. Late complications have been reported as catheter dislodgment and recurrent cholecystitis. PC under ultrasonographic guidance is a cost-effective, easy to perform and reliable procedure with low complication and high success rates for critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis. It is generally followed by elective cholecystectomy, if possible. However, it may be definitive treatment, especially in acalculous cholecystitis

  7. Percutaneous cholecystostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhan, Okan E-mail: akhano@tr.net; Akinci, Devrim; Oezmen, Mustafa N

    2002-09-01

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC), a technique that consists of percutaneous catheter placement in the gallbladder lumen under imaging guidance, has become an alternative to surgical cholecystostomy in recent years. Indications of PC include calculous or acalculous cholecystitis, cholangitis, biliary obstruction and opacification of biliary ducts. It also provides a potential route for stone dissolution therapy and stone extraction. Under aseptic conditions and ultrasound guidance, using local anesthesia, the procedure is carried out by using either modified Seldinger technique or trocar technique. Transhepatic or transperitoneal puncture can be performed as an access route. Several days after the procedure transcatheter cholangiography is performed to assess the patency of cystic duct, presence of gallstones and catheter position. The tract is considered mature in the absence of leakage to the peritoneal cavity, subhepatic, subcapsular, or subdiaphragmatic spaces. Response rates to PC in the literature are between the range of 56-100% as the variation of different patient population. Complications associated with PC usually occur immediately or within days and include haemorrhage, vagal reactions, sepsis, bile peritonitis, pneumothorax, perforation of the intestinal loop, secondary infection or colonisation of the gallbladder and catheter dislodgment. Late complications have been reported as catheter dislodgment and recurrent cholecystitis. PC under ultrasonographic guidance is a cost-effective, easy to perform and reliable procedure with low complication and high success rates for critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis. It is generally followed by elective cholecystectomy, if possible. However, it may be definitive treatment, especially in acalculous cholecystitis.

  8. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  10. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  11. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy after percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Clinical pilot trial; feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popowski, Youri; Verin, Vitali; Urban, Philippe; Nouet, Philippe; Rouzaud, Michel; Schwager, Michaeel; Rutishauser, Wilhelm; Kurtz, John

    1996-01-01

    Introduction. With the aim of reducing the incidence of restenosis, we developed a technique of intracoronary beta irradiation using an enylenediamine centered pure metallic 90-yttrium source fixed to a thrust wire. The outer diameter of both the active and thrust wires is 0.34 mm. A centering balloon with a monorail design and a blind lumen for source advancement has been developed. The source can be advanced manually in 10-13'' from the protection container to the target site. Its flexibility allows easy insertion despite tortuous anatomy. Dosimetric tests have been performed with 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4 mm centering balloons. The standard deviation values varied between 8 and 12 % of the mean surface doses, which confirms the efficacy of the source centering. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its technical feasibility and short-term safety in the clinical setting. Methods and results. Between June 21 and November 15, 1995 fifteen patients (6 women and 9 men, aged 72 ± 5 years) underwent intracoronary beta irradiation immediately after a conventional percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (P TCA) procedure. Both the PTCA and the irradiation procedure were done in an ordinary catheterization laboratory. They were technically feasible in all cases, and the delivery of the 18 Gy dose was accomplished within a local exposure time 391 ± 206 sec (range 153 - 768 sec) without any complication. In four patients, the intervention was completed by intraarterial stent implantation because of dissection induced by the initial PTCA. No in-hospital complications occurred, and serial creatine kinase measurements remained within the normal range in all cases. During a follow-up period of 54±46 days (range 20 days - 5 months) all patients remained well and free of cardiac events. Conclusions. Our early experience thus suggests that this approach is both feasible and safe on a short-term basis. Whether beta-irradiation will favorably influence post PTCA restenosis in

  12. Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoname, E A; Craig, W F; White, P F; Ahmed, H E; Hamza, M A; Henderson, B N; Gajraj, N M; Huber, P J; Gatchel, R J

    1999-03-03

    Low back pain (LBP) contributes to considerable disability and lost wages in the United States. Commonly used opioid and nonopioid analgesic drugs produce adverse effects and are of limited long-term benefit in the management of this patient population. To compare the effectiveness of a novel nonpharmacologic pain therapy, percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS), with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and flexion-extension exercise therapies in patients with long-term LBP. A randomized, single-blinded, sham-controlled, crossover study from March 1997 to December 1997. An ambulatory pain management center at a university medical center. Twenty-nine men and 31 women with LBP secondary to degenerative disk disease. Four therapeutic modalities (sham-PENS, PENS, TENS, and exercise therapies) were each administered for a period of 30 minutes 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and posttreatment visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain, physical activity, and quality of sleep; daily analgesic medication usage; a global patient assessment questionnaire; and Health Status Survey Short Form (SF-36). PENS was significantly more effective in decreasing VAS pain scores after each treatment than sham-PENS, TENS, and exercise therapies (after-treatment mean +/- SD VAS for pain, 3.4+/-1.4 cm, 5.5+/-1.9 cm, 5.6+/-1.9 cm, and 6.4+/-1.9 cm, respectively). The average +/- SD daily oral intake of nonopioid analgesics (2.6+/-1.4 pills per day) was decreased to 1.3+/-1.0 pills per day with PENS (PTENS, and exercise, respectively. Compared with the other 3 modalities, 91 % of the patients reported that PENS was the most effective in decreasing their LBP. The PENS therapy was also significantly more effective in improving physical activity, quality of sleep, and sense of well-being (PTENS, and exercise. In this sham-controlled study, PENS was more effective than TENS or exercise therapy in providing short-term pain relief and improved physical function in

  13. A STUDY ON FRACTURE FIXATION OF DISTAL END OF RADIUS BY PERCUTANEOUS PINNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Various treatment modalities have been described for the treatment of distal radius fractures each with its own merits and demerits. Most of the work done with percutaneous pinning has shown a significant residual stiffness of the hand and wrist. Our technique involves percutaneous pinning of the fracture and immobilisation in neutral position of the wrist for. This study's aim was to examine the functional outcome of percutaneous K-wiring of these distal radius fractures with immobilisation in neutral position of the wrist. METHODS A prospective study conducted on thirty adult patients with distal radial fractures treated at Department of Orthopaedics, Rangaraya Medical college, Kakinada between October 2013 to September 2015. RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Standard radiographs in PA and lateral views were taken for confirmation of the diagnosis and also to know the type of fracture. Oblique views were also taken in a few patients who had complex comminuted fractures. The fracture fragments were analysed and involvement of radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints were assessed and classified according to the Frykman classification. Of the cases, 6(20% of the fractures were type I, 2(6.6% of type II, 3(10% of type III, 6(20% of type IV, 8(26.6% of type V, 5(16.6% of type VI, no cases of type VII and VIII.SURGICAL PROCEDURE The procedures were performed under regional anaesthesia in all cases. After sterile preparation and draping, fracture is reduced by traction and the reduction was evaluated fluoroscopically. A 1.5 cm incision given longitudinally (if needed beginning at the radial styloid and proceeds proximally across to the medial metaphysis and diaphysis. At least two pins (1.6 mm Kirschner wire were inserted and adequate reduction was confirmed on AP/LAT views under image intensifier. Another 1.6 mm K-wire percutaneously 90 degrees orthogonally to these wires starting at the dorsal rim of distal radius just distal to the Lister

  14. Effectiveness and Complications of Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy with a Large Needle for Muscle Contractures: A Cadaver Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Chesnel

    Full Text Available Twenty-two percent of institutionalised elderly persons have muscle contractures. Contractures have important functional consequences, rendering hygiene and positioning in bed or in a chair difficult. Medical treatment (such as botulinum toxin injections, physiotherapy or positioning is not very effective and surgery may be required. Surgery is carried out in the operating theatre, under local or general anaesthesia but is often not possible in fragile patients. Mini-invasive tenotomy could be a useful alternative as it can be carried out in ambulatory care, under local anaesthesia.To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous needle tenotomy and the risks of damage to adjacent structures in cadavers.Thirty two doctors who had never practiced the technique (physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, geriatricians and orthopaedic surgeons carried out 401 tenotomies on the upper and lower limbs of 8 fresh cadavers. A 16G needle was used percutaneous following location of the tendons. After each tenotomy, a neuro-orthopaedic surgeon and an anatomist dissected the area in order to evaluate the success of the tenotomy and any adjacent lesions which had occurred.Of the 401 tenotomies, 72% were complete, 24.9% partial and 2.7% failed. Eight adjacent lesions occurred (2%: 4 (1% in tendons or muscles, 3 (0.7% in nerves and 1 (0.2% in a vessel.This percutaneous needle technique effectively ruptured the desired tendons, with few injuries to adjacent structures. Although this study was carried out on cadavers, the results suggest it is safe to carry out on patients.

  15. Percutaneous Tracheostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Chitra; Mehta, Yatin

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is a commonly performed procedure in critically sick patients. It can be safely performed bedside by intensivists. This has resulted in decline in the use of surgical tracheostomy in intensive care unit (ICU) except in few selected cases. Most common indication of tracheostomy in ICU is need for prolonged ventilation. About 10% of patients requiring at least 3 days of mechanical ventilator support get tracheostomised during ICU stay. The ideal timing of PDT remains undecided at present. Contraindications and complications become fewer with increase in experience. Various methods of performing PDT have been discovered in last two decades. Preoperative work up, patient selection and post tracheostomy care form key components of a successful PDT. Bronchoscopy and ultrasound have been found to be useful procedural adjuncts, especially in presence of unfavorable anatomy. This article gives a brief overview about the use of PDT in ICU. PMID:28074819

  16. Percutaneous gastroenterostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittich, G.R.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Casola, G.; Jantsch, H.; Walter, R.; Lechner, G.

    1987-05-01

    Percutaneous gastrostomies or gastroenterostomies serve for temporary or permanent enteric feeding in patients with obstruction or functional derangement of the esophagus or hypopharynx. In addition, this radiological procedure may be indicated for small bowel decompression. The authors present their experience in 71 patients. Insufflation of air through a nasogastric tube or catheter is the preferred method for gastric distension. The inferior margin of the left lobe of the liver and the transverse colon are localized sonographically and fluoroscopically prior to puncture. Either Seldinger or Trocartechniques have proven effective in establishing access to the stomach. The feeding tube is advanced into the proximal jejunum to reduce the likelyhood of gastroesophageal reflux and possible aspiration. Complications were encountered in four patients and included catheter dislocation in three and respiratory distress in one patient.

  17. Percutaneous angioscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.

    1987-01-01

    In dogs and 11 patients a new endoscopic method for arteries has been developed. The approach is transfemoral, and endoscopy is combined with angiography, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), and local lysis. An ultrathin endoscope with a diameter of 2.4 mm is used, which also provides a working channel with a diameter of 0.4 mm. Guide wires, contrast media, and drugs for local lysis can be inserted through this channel. Under fluoroscopic control, the endoscope is placed in the region of interest, followed by a special method for decreasing blood flow. Endoscopy is documented by video or by a high-speed camera. No complications have occurred. In all patients, it was possible to demonstrate the results of dilatation, recanalization, or local lysis before and after the interventional procedure. (orig.) [de

  18. Mini vs standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stones: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Elmarakbi, Akram A; Hytham, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Hamdy; Khadgi, Sanjay; Al-Kandari, Ahmed M

    2018-03-16

    To compare the outcome of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (Mini-PNL) versus standard-PNL for renal stones. Retrospective study was performed between March 2010 and May 2013 for patients treated by Mini-PNL or standard-PNL through 18 and 30 Fr tracts, respectively, using pneumatic lithotripsy. Semirigid ureteroscope (8.5/11.5 Fr) was used for Mini-PNL and 24 Fr nephroscope for standard-PNL. Both groups were compared in stone free rate(SFR), complications and operative time using Student-t, Mann-Whitney, Chi square or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate in addition to logistic regression analysis. P PNL (378) and standard-PNL (151) were nearly comparable in patients and stones criteria including stone burden (3.77 ± 2.21 vs 3.77 ± 2.43 cm 2 ; respectively). There was no significant difference in number of tracts or supracostal puncture. Mini-PNL had longer operative time (68.6 ± 29.09 vs 60.49 ± 11.38 min; p = 0.434), significantly shorter hospital stay (2.43 ± 1.46 vs 4.29 ± 1.28 days) and significantly higher rate of tubeless PNL (75.1 vs 4.6%). Complications were significantly higher in standard-PNL (7.9 vs 20.5%; p PNL (89.9 vs 96%; p = 0.022). This significant difference was found with multiple stones and large stone burden (> 2 cm 2 ), but the SFR was comparable between both groups with single stone or stone burden ≤ 2 cm. Logistic regression analysis confirmed significantly higher complications and SFR with standard-PNL but with significantly shorter operative time. Mini-PNL has significantly lower SFR when compared to standard-PNL (but clinically comparable) with markedly reduced complications and hospital stay. Most of cases can be performed tubeless. The significant difference in SFR was found with multiple stones or large stone burden (> 2 cm 2 ), but not with single stones or stone burden ≤ 2 cm 2 .

  19. Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy for Lumbar Disc Herniation in Parkinson's Disease: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Giovannopoulou, Eirini; Charitoudis, George; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    A case-control study. To investigate the effectiveness of transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (TPED) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients with PD frequently suffer from radiculopathy and low back pain. Additionally, they demonstrate higher complication rates after open spine surgery. However, the clinical outcome of minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, such as TPED, have not been established for this population. Patients diagnosed with lumbar disc hernia were divided into Group A (11 patients diagnosed with PD), and Group B (10 patients as the control, non-PD group). All patients underwent TPED. Indexes of visual analogue scale (VAS) for leg pain and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were assessed right before surgery and at six weeks, three months, six months and one year post-surgery. At the baseline visit, groups did not differ significantly with age (p=0.724), gender (p=0.835), level of operation (p=0.407), ODI (p=0.497) and VAS (p=0.772). Parkinson's patients had higher scores in ODI at every visit, but the outcome was statistically significant only at 3 months (p=0.004) and one year (p=0.007). Similarly, VAS measurements were higher at each time point, with the difference being significant at 3 (p<0.001), 6 (0.021), and 12 (p<0.001) months after surgery. At the end of a year of follow up, ODI was reduced by 49.6% (±16.7) in Group A and 59.2% (±8.0) in Group B (p=0.111), translating to a 79.5% (±13.0) and 91.5% (±4.1) average improvement in daily functionality (p=0.024). VAS was reduced by 59.1 mm (±11.8) in Group A and 62.2 mm (±7.4) in Group B (p=0.485), leading to an 85.3 % (±4.0) and 91.9% (±2.6) general improvement in leg pain (p<0.001). Our data indicate that TPED led to satisfactory improvement in leg pain and daily living in PD patients a year after surgery.

  20. Cost of elective percutaneous coronary intervention in Malaysia: a multicentre cross-sectional costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun Yun; Ong, Tiong Kiam; Low, Ee Vien; Liow, Siow Yen; Anchah, Lawrence; Hamzah, Syuhada; Liew, Houng Bang; Ali, Rosli Mohd; Ismail, Omar; Ahmad, Wan Azman Wan; Said, Mas Ayu; Dahlui, Maznah

    2017-05-28

    Limitations in the quality and access of cost data from low-income and middle-income countries constrain the implementation of economic evaluations. With the increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease in Malaysia, cost information is vital for cardiac service expansion. We aim to calculate the hospitalisation cost of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), using a data collection method customised to local setting of limited data availability. This is a cross-sectional costing study from the perspective of healthcare providers, using top-down approach, from January to June 2014. Cost items under each unit of analysis involved in the provision of PCI service were identified, valuated and calculated to produce unit cost estimates. Five public cardiac centres participated. All the centres provide full-fledged cardiology services. They are also the tertiary referral centres of their respective regions. The cost was calculated for elective PCI procedure in each centre. PCI conducted for urgent/emergent indication or for patients with shock and haemodynamic instability were excluded. The outcome measures of interest were the unit costs at the two units of analysis, namely cardiac ward admission and cardiac catheterisation utilisation, which made up the total hospitalisation cost. The average hospitalisation cost ranged between RM11 471 (US$3186) and RM14 465 (US$4018). PCI consumables were the dominant cost item at all centres. The centre with daycare establishment recorded the lowest admission cost and total hospitalisation cost. Comprehensive results from all centres enable comparison at the levels of cost items, unit of analysis and total costs. This generates important information on cost variations between centres, thus providing valuable guidance for service planning. Alternative procurement practices for PCI consumables may deliver cost reduction. For countries with limited data availability, costing method tailored based on country setting can be used for

  1. Underdiagnosis and prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after percutaneous coronary intervention: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pere Almagro,1 Anna Lapuente,2 Julia Pareja,1 Sergi Yun,1 Maria Estela Garcia,3 Ferrán Padilla,4 Josep Ll Heredia,2 Alex De la Sierra,1 Joan B Soriano5 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Pneumology Service, Mutua de Terrassa University Hospital, Terrassa, Spain; 3Medical Department, Menarini Pharmaceutical, Barcelona, Spain; 4Cardiology Service, Mutua de Terrassa University Hospital, Terrassa, Spain; 5Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Background: Retrospective studies based on clinical data and without spirometric confirmation suggest a poorer prognosis of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. The impact of undiagnosed COPD in these patients is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of COPD – previously or newly diagnosed – in patients with IHD treated with PCI.Methods: Patients with IHD confirmed by PCI were consecutively included. After PCI they underwent forced spirometry and evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors. All-cause mortality, new cardiovascular events, and their combined endpoint were analyzed.Results: A total of 133 patients (78% male, with a mean (SD age of 63 (10.12 years were included. Of these, 33 (24.8% met the spirometric criteria for COPD, of whom 81.8% were undiagnosed. IHD patients with COPD were older, had more coronary vessels affected, and a greater history of previous myocardial infarction. Median follow-up was 934 days (interquartile range [25%–75%]: 546–1,160. COPD patients had greater mortality (P=0.008; hazard ratio [HR]: 8.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.76–44.47 and number of cardiovascular events (P=0.024; HR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.04–3.33, even those without a previous diagnosis of COPD (P=0.01; HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.12–2.83. These differences remained after adjustment for sex, age, number of coronary vessels affected

  2. Longitudinal Study of the Market Penetration of Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Harry Paul, III; Sireli, Yesim; Ozan, Erol; Kauffmann, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the longitudinal research of the market penetration of cockpit weather information systems (CWIS) is to contribute to the body of knowledge on modeling advanced technology feasibility in aviation by tracking and analyzing the market adoption of CWIS over a three year period. This research takes advantage of a previous study, conducted by Dr. Paul Kauffmann in 2000, which demonstrated an integrated and cost effective approach to evaluate advanced technology feasibility, examining the feasibility of CWIS in five market segments: transport, commuter, general aviation, business, and rotorcraft. The longitudinal research consists of two consecutive studies and produced two reports. The first report was submitted in August 2003 and included general market analysis about the CWIS products in the market at the time, identified their characteristics and examined developing market dynamics.

  3. Erratum to: Study on Chloride Ion Penetration Resistance of Rubberized Concrete Under Steady State Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Noor Nurazuwa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of crumb rubber, CR as fine aggregate in the concrete to enhance concrete durability against chloride ion diffusion was studied. Chloride ion diffusion in rubberized concrete was tested by migration test under steady state condition. Concrete specimen with water-to-cement ratio of 0.50 was prepared to study the CR effectiveness in comparison with lower water-to-cement ratio. In addition, 10% silica fume, SF was added to provide denser concrete and to understand its effectiveness against chloride ion diffusion. Results showed that chloride transport characteristics were improved by the increasing amount of CR in all mixed due to the fact that CR has the ability to repel water. Meanwhile, rubberized concrete with w/c = 0.35 gave better resistance against chloride ion penetration compared to w/c = 0.50. This was much improved with combination of CR and SF.

  4. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease: 2-year follow-up of the FAME (Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pijls, Nico H J; Fearon, William F; Tonino, Pim A L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the 2-year outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) guided by fractional flow reserve (FFR) in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD).......The purpose of this study was to investigate the 2-year outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) guided by fractional flow reserve (FFR) in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  5. STUDY OF THE ANATOMICAL AND VISUAL RESULTS OF THERAPEUTIC PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaya Ashok Shinde

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty for corneal infections restores anatomical integrity. Improvement in instrumentation and surgical techniques, better postoperative management have improved corneal transplant outcome. Purpose of the study was to know what are the anatomical and visual results after therapeutic keratoplasty and to judge what could be the factors affecting the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective, non-comparative, observational cohort study was done in 56 patient (56 eyes operated for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty at tertiary care institute .Patients were reviewed for demographic data, postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, graft clarity, and complications. Pre-operative treatment in bacterial infections included Cefazolin 50 mg/ml and Tobramycin 1.4 % or gentamicin 1.4% half hourly, 1% atropine drops. Fungal infections were treated with Natamycin 5% suspension. Debridement was done. Amphotericin B was used against yeasts. Voriconazole (1% eye drops were given in Aspergillus species. With full aseptic precautions penetrating keratoplasty was carried out. The graft was 0.5 mm larger than the lesion. Keratoplasties were evaluated for (1 Graft clarity at 1 month and 1 year postoperative. (2 Cure of the infectious disease after surgery. (3 Anatomical success rate and visual results. RESULTS At the end of one year clear graft with bacterial keratitis was seen in 23 eyes (74.19% out of 31 eyes. In fungal keratitis clear graft was seen in 10 eyes (45.45% out of 22 eyes. 48.22% patients had vision of FC 1m-6/60 compared to preoperative vision at the end of one year. At the end of one year anatomical integrity was maintained in 53 (94.64% cases and it was lost in 5.36% patients. CONCLUSION Patients who underwent keratoplasty with 7.5 mm graft size had maximum graft clarity at the end of one year. Graft was clear in 36 patients (64.29% out of total 56 patients. At the end of 1 year vision improved to FC 1 mt

  6. Study liquid length penetration results obtained with a direct acting piezo electric injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, Raul; Gimeno, Jaime; Bardi, Michele; Plazas, Alejandro H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A direct acting injector capable of controlling needle lift has been used to determine liquid phase penetration. ► The influence of injection pressure, chamber density and chamber temperature have been measured. ► When needle lift is reduced the stabilized liquid length is shortened. ► The relationship between needle lift and liquid length makes needle lift as a new way to control the injection event. - Abstract: A state of the art prototype common rail injector featuring direct control of the needle by means of a piezo stack (direct acting) has been tested. Liquid phase penetration of the sprays in diesel engine-like conditions has been studied via imaging technique in a novel continuous flow test chamber that allows an accurate control on a wide range of thermodynamic conditions (up to 1000 K and 15 MPa). This state of the art injector fitted with a 7-hole nozzle, allows a fully flexible control on the nozzle needle movement, enabling various fuel injection rate typologies. The temporal evolution of the seven sprays has been studied recording movies of the injection event in evaporative conditions via Mie scattering imaging technique and using a high speed camera. The results showed a strong influence of needle position on the stabilized liquid length while the effect of the injection pressure is negligible: the decrease of the needle lift causes a pressure drop in the needle seat and thus a reduction in the effective pressure upstream of the orifices (in the nozzle sac). According to known literature the stabilized liquid-length depends mainly on effective diameter, spray cone-angle and fuel/air properties and does not depend on fuel velocity at the orifice outlet. Therefore, due to small change in the spray cone-angle, higher injection pressures give slightly lower liquid length. However, partial needle lifts has an opposite effect: when needle is partially lifted a dramatic increase of the spray cone-angle and a consequent reduction of

  7. The structural study of prefabrication stress stent and the hemodynamics in percutaneous transhepatic portacaval shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Jianguo; Sun Xiaoli; Zhou Yijun; Huang He; Zhou Hua; Lv Chunyan; Yang Shuhui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To present a preliminary latest procedure for portal hypertension and evaluate the technical feasibility and efficacy of portacaval shunt creation through the percutaneous transhepatic approach in order to make a hemodynamic comparison with that of the classic TIPS. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with portal hypertension (36 men; mean age 57 years, range 32-73) were referred for PTPS procedure because of bleeding varices (n=36), intractable ascites (n=1), and hepatopulmonary syndrome (n=1). The severity of liver disease was classified as Child-Pugh B in 27 and C in 11. The PTPS was created by a percutaneous transhepatic puncture into right portal vein and then through left portal vein to the hepatic segment of IVC followed by a prefabrication stress stent-graft placement at the very site. Results: Technical and functional success of 100% was achieved in all patients, without related complications. The postprocedural portal vein-IVC gradients mean 13 cmH 2 O was achieved with the follow-up period mean 493 days. No recurrence of variceal bleeding and controlled refractory ascites were achieved, and still more with primary patency rate of the involved vascular structure up to 94.8% at 365 days, much better than classic TIPS. Conclusions: Portacaval shunt creation using the prefabrication stress stent via percutaneous transhepatic technique is safe and feasible. the compact coincidence was obtained between the stent and the involved vessel with restoration of intrahepatic portal venous hemodynamics together with partial lowering of portal venous pressure and guaranteeing intrahepatic perfusion through right portal vein. It is also obviously to have postoperative prevention of shunt restenoses and lowering postoperative incidence of hepato-encephalopathy. (authors)

  8. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Rahivere peat bog, eastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Plado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current case study presents results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR profiling at one of the Saadjärve drumlin field interstitial troughs, the Rahivere bog, eastern Estonia. The study was conducted in order to identify the bog morphology, and the thickness and geometry of the peat body. The method was also used to describe the applicability of GPR in the evaluation of the peat deposit reserve as the Rahivere bog belongs among the officially registered peat reserves. Fourteen GPR profiles, ~ 100 m apart and oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the depression, covering the bog and its surrounding areas, were acquired. In order to verify the radar image interpretation as well as to evaluate the velocity of electromagnetic waves in peat, a common source configuration was utilized and thirteen boreholes were drilled on the GPR profiles. A mean value of 0.036 m ns–1 corresponding to relative dielectric permittivity of 69.7 was used for the time–depth conversion. Radar images reveal major reflection from the peat–soil interface up to a depth of about 4 m, whereas drillings showed a maximum thickness of 4.5 m of peat. Minor reflections appear from the upper peat and mineral soil. According to the borehole data, undecomposed peat is underlain by decomposed one, but identifying them by GPR is complicated. Mineral soil consists of glaciolimnic silty sand in the peripheral areas of the trough, overlain by limnic clay in the central part. The calculated peat volumes (1 200 000 m3 were found to exceed the earlier estimation (979 000 m3 that was based solely on drilling data. Ground-penetrating radar, as a method that allows mapping horizontal continuity of the sub-peat interface in a non-destructive way, was found to provide detailed information for evaluating peat depth and extent.

  9. Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy versus CT-guided Percutaneous Sampling of Peripheral Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Kavita M; Tandon, Yasmeen K; Graham, Ruffin; Lau, Charles T; Lempel, Jason K; Azok, Joseph T; Mazzone, Peter J; Schneider, Erika; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Bolen, Michael A

    2018-03-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic yield and complication rates of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopic (ENB)-guided and computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous tissue sampling of lung nodules. Materials and Methods Retrospectively identified were 149 patients sampled percutaneously with CT guidance and 146 patients who underwent ENB with transbronchial biopsy of a lung lesion between 2013 and 2015. Clinical data, incidence of complications, and nodule pathologic analyses were assessed through electronic medical record review. Lung nodule characteristics were reviewed through direct image analysis. Molecular marker studies and pathologic analyses from surgical excision were reviewed when available. Multiple-variable logistic regression models were built to compare the diagnostic yield and complication rates for each method and for different patient and disease characteristics. Results CT-guided sampling was more likely to be diagnostic than ENB-guided biopsy (86.0% [129 of 150] vs 66.0% [99 of 150], respectively), and this difference remained significant even after adjustments were made for patient and nodule characteristics (P guided sampling (P guided sampling, 88.9% [32 of 36]; CT-guided sampling, 82.0% [41 of 50]). The two groups had similar rates of major complications (symptomatic hemorrhage, P > .999; pneumothorax requiring chest tube and/or admission, P = .417). Conclusion CT-guided transthoracic biopsy provided higher diagnostic yield in the assessment of peripheral pulmonary nodules than navigational bronchoscopy with a similar rate of clinically relevant complications. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  10. Percutaneous Fascia Release for Treating Chronic Recurrent Gluteal Myofascial Pain—A Pilot Study of a New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Shui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of percutaneous fascia release to treat chronic recurrent gluteal myofascial pain related to recurrent tendonitis or bursitis at the attachment sites. Methods Five patients (three males, two females; aged 48.6 ± 8.9 years with myofascial trigger points in the gluteus medius muscle were treated. Outcome measures, including pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, and the relative strength of hip abduction, were assessed before, immediately after, and six months after the treatment. The data measured before and after treatment (different times on visual analog scale, pressure pain threshold, and relative hip abduction strength were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t -test, respectively, for the comparisons between time points. Results Reduction in pain intensity and increase in the pressure pain threshold and the relative hip abduction strength were found in all five patients after treatment when compared with those of before treatment ( P 0.05. Conclusions Percutaneous fascia release of gluteal muscle insertion sites can be used to treat chronic gluteal pain related to subtrochanteric bursitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment cannot control the recurrence, although this was demonstrated only on a small sample size without control and blind assessment in the pilot study.

  11. Percutaneous discectomy on lumbar radiculopathy related to disk herniation: Why under CT guidance? An open study of 100 consecutive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Hauger, Olivier; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Amoretti, Marie-eve; Lesbats, Virginie; Yvonne, Maratos; Ianessi, Antoine; Boileau, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study conducted on 100 patients is to demonstrate that performing CT-guided percutaneous discectomy for herniated disks results in a significant improvement in pain symptoms at several times (D1, D2, D7, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months). This objective assesses the effectiveness and feasibility of this technique under CT guidance in patients presenting documented lower back pain related to disk herniation that has not improved with appropriate medical treatment. The impact of various factors on the effectiveness of discectomy will also be evaluated. At 1 week, we notes a decrease in average VAS respectively of 71% and 67% in patients treated for posterolateral and foraminal herniated disks; the result for posteromedian herniated disks is only 45% in average decrease. At 6 months post op, 79% of lateralized herniated disks have a satisfactory result (≥70% decrease in pain as compared to initial pain), whereas post median herniated disks had a satisfactory result in only 50% of cases. Percutaneous fine needle discectomy probe under combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance is a minimally invasive spine surgery which should be considered as an alternative to surgery. This technique presents several advantages: the small diameter of the probe used (maximum 16G or 1.5 mm) allows a cutaneous incision of only a few millimeters, and a trans-canal approach can be possible; it also decreases the risk of ligamentary lesion and does not cause an osseous lesion of the posterior arc or of the adjacent muscular structures.

  12. A Study to Increase Weld Penetration in P91 Steel During TIG Welding by using Activating Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Kumar, Mayank; Dey, Vidyut; Naresh Rai, Ram

    2017-08-01

    Activated Flux TIG (ATIG) welding is a unique joining process, invented at Paton Institute of electric welding in 1960. ATIG welding process is also known as flux zoned TIG (FZTIG). In this process, a thin layer of activating flux is applied along the line on the surface of the material where the welding is to be carries out. The ATIG process aids to increase the weld penetration in thick materials. Activating fluxes used in the literature show the use of oxides like TiO2, SiO2, Cr2O3, ZnO, CaO, Fe2O3, and MnO2 during welding of steels. In the present study, ATIG was carried out on P-91 steel. Though, Tungsten Inert Gas welding gives excellent quality welds, but the penetration obtained in such welding is still demanding. P91 steel which is ferritic steel is used in high temperature applications. As this steel is, generally, used in thick sections, fabrication of such structures with TIG welding is limited, due to its low depth of penetration. To increase the depth of penetration in P91while welding with ATIG, the role of various oxides were investigated. Apart from the oxides mentioned above, in the present study the role of B2O3, V2O5 and MgO, during ATIG welding of P91 was investigated. It was seen that, compared to TIG welding, there was phenomenal increase in weld penetration during ATIG welding. Amongst all the oxides used in this study, maximum penetration was achieved in case of B2O3. The measurements of weld penetration, bead width and heat affected zone of the weldings were carried out using an image analysis technique.

  13. CT-guided percutaneous spine biopsy in suspected infection or malignancy. A study of 214 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, J.; Veith, S.; Kauczor, H.U.; Weber, M.A.; Akbar, M.

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively determine the effectiveness and accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of malignant and inflammatory bone lesions of the spine and to assess the reliability of pre-biopsy CT and MRI. 214 patients with lesions of the spine, which were suspicious either for being malignant or inflammatory, underwent CT-guided biopsy for pathological and/or microbiological detection. Biopsy samples were sent for histological examination in 128/214 patients, for microbiological analysis in 17/214 patients and for both analyses in 69/214 patients. Retrospectively, the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity/specificity of the pre-interventional imaging (CT and MRI) were determined. In addition, the influence of the biopsy on subsequent patient management was assessed. The accuracy was 94.4% for histopathological analysis and 97.7% for microbiological analysis. In 25% of cases the microbiological analysis revealed an underlying pathogen that was not significantly affected by pre-biopsy antibiotic therapy. The sensitivity/specificity of the pre-biopsy cross-sectional imaging concerning suspected malignancy was 69%/78%. For suspected infection, the sensitivity/specificity of pre-biopsy imaging was 81%/44%. In 52% of all cases, the biopsy result changed subsequent patient management. Percutaneous CT-guided spine biopsy is a useful and reliable diagnostic procedure to establish a definitive diagnosis but with a relatively low yield of microorganisms in the case of infection.

  14. CT-guided percutaneous spine biopsy in suspected infection or malignancy. A study of 214 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, J.; Veith, S.; Kauczor, H.U.; Weber, M.A. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Akbar, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine

    2016-12-15

    To retrospectively determine the effectiveness and accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of malignant and inflammatory bone lesions of the spine and to assess the reliability of pre-biopsy CT and MRI. 214 patients with lesions of the spine, which were suspicious either for being malignant or inflammatory, underwent CT-guided biopsy for pathological and/or microbiological detection. Biopsy samples were sent for histological examination in 128/214 patients, for microbiological analysis in 17/214 patients and for both analyses in 69/214 patients. Retrospectively, the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity/specificity of the pre-interventional imaging (CT and MRI) were determined. In addition, the influence of the biopsy on subsequent patient management was assessed. The accuracy was 94.4% for histopathological analysis and 97.7% for microbiological analysis. In 25% of cases the microbiological analysis revealed an underlying pathogen that was not significantly affected by pre-biopsy antibiotic therapy. The sensitivity/specificity of the pre-biopsy cross-sectional imaging concerning suspected malignancy was 69%/78%. For suspected infection, the sensitivity/specificity of pre-biopsy imaging was 81%/44%. In 52% of all cases, the biopsy result changed subsequent patient management. Percutaneous CT-guided spine biopsy is a useful and reliable diagnostic procedure to establish a definitive diagnosis but with a relatively low yield of microorganisms in the case of infection.

  15. Improving 6061-Al Grain Growth and Penetration across HIP-Bonded Clad Interfaces in Monolithic Fuel Plates: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCabe, Rodney J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montalvo, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Edwards, Randall L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crapps, Justin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, R. Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aikin, Beverly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vargas, Victor D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hollis, Kendall J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lienert, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forsyth, Robert T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harada, Kiichi L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-05-06

    Grain penetration across aluminum-aluminum cladding interfaces in research reactor fuel plates is desirable and was obtained by a legacy roll-bonding process, which attained 20-80% grain penetration. Significant grain penetration in monolithic fuel plates produced by Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) fabrication processing is equally desirable but has yet to be attained. The goal of this study was to modify the 6061-Al in such a way as to promote a much greater extent of crossinterface grain penetration in monolithic fuel plates fabricated by the HIP process. This study documents the outcomes of several strategies attempted to attain this goal. The grain response was characterized using light optical microscopy (LOM) electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) as a function of these prospective process modifications done to the aluminum prior to the HIP cycle. The strategies included (1) adding macroscopic gaps in the sandwiches to enhance Al flow, (2) adding engineering asperities to enhance Al flow, (3) adding stored energy (cold work), and (4) alternative cleaning and coating. Additionally, two aqueous cleaning methods were compared as baseline control conditions. The results of the preliminary scoping studies in all the categories are presented. In general, none of these approaches were able to obtain >10% grain penetration. Recommended future work includes further development of macroscopic grooving, transferred-arc cleaning, and combinations of these with one another and with other processes.

  16. Photon penetration depth in human brain for light stimulation and treatment: A realistic Monte Carlo simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light has been clinically utilized as a stimulation in medical treatment, such as Low-level laser therapy and photodynamic therapy, which has been more and more widely accepted in public. The penetration depth of the treatment light is important for precision treatment and safety control. The issue of light penetration has been highlighted in biomedical optics field for decades. However, quantitative research is sparse and even there are conflicts of view on the capability of near-infrared light penetration into brain tissue. This study attempts to quantitatively revisit this issue by innovative high-realistic 3D Monte Carlo modeling of stimulated light penetration within high-precision Visible Chinese human head. The properties of light, such as its wavelength, illumination profile and size are concern in this study. We made straightforward and quantitative comparisons among the effects by the light properties (i.e., wavelengths: 660, 810 and 980nm; beam types: Gaussian and flat beam; beam diameters: 0, 2, 4 and 6cm which are in the range of light treatment. The findings include about 3% of light dosage within brain tissue; the combination of Gaussian beam and 810nm light make the maximum light penetration (>5cm, which allows light to cross through gray matter into white mater. This study offered us, the first time as we know, quantitative guide for light stimulation parameter optimization in medical treatment.

  17. Percutaneous anterior C1/2 transarticular screw fixation: salvage of failed percutaneous odontoid screw fixation for odontoid fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ai-Min; Jin, Hai-Ming; Lin, Zhong-Ke; Chi, Yong-Long; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate the outcomes and safety of using percutaneous anterior C1/2 transarticular screw fixation as a salvage technique for odontoid fracture if percutaneous odontoid screw fixation fails. Methods Fifteen in 108 odontoid fracture patients (planned to be treated by percutaneous anterior odontoid screw fixation) were failed to introduce satisfactory odontoid screw trajectory. To salvage this problem, we chose the percutaneous anterior C1/2 trans...

  18. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar for Locating Contraband Aboard Ocean Going Vessels: Feasibility Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Llopis, Jose

    2001-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys were conducted over various stockpiled materials at the Alabama state Docks located in Mobile, AL, to determine whether GPR is a viable method for rapidly detecting contraband materials...

  19. Modified Standard Penetration Test–based Drilled Shaft Design Method for Weak Rocks (Phase 2 Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-15

    In this project, Illinois-specific design procedures were developed for drilled shafts founded in weak shale or rock. In particular, a modified standard penetration test was developed and verified to characterize the in situ condition of weak shales ...

  20. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  1. Experimental and numerical studies on penetration of shaped charge into concrete and pebble layered targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on penetrating into concrete and pebble layered targets were performed by shaped charge with different cone angles, liner wall thicknesses, length to diameter ratios and charge diameters at different standoffs. Based on the experimental data, the influence of shaped charge’s structural parameters on crater diameter, hole diameter, crater depth and penetration depth was analyzed in detail. Meanwhile, formation and penetration processes of all shaped charges were simulated by AUTODYN software for investigating the more intrinsic mechanisms, in which the numerical models are the same as those set up in the experiments. The results obtained in this paper indicate that there are obvious differences between jetting projectile charge (JPC and explosively formed projectile (EFP in penetrating into multi-layer targets. For the same charge diameter, the values of hole diameter formed by EFP were much larger than JPC. However, for the same standoff, the penetration depth caused by JCP were larger than EFP. The interfacial effect exists in the penetration progress of JPC.

  2. Numerical and Experimental Study on the Formation and Dispersion Patterns of Multiple Explosively Formed Penetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract Three-dimensional numerical simulations and experiments were performed to examine the formation and spatial dispersion patterns of integral multiple explosively formed penetrators (MEFP warhead with seven hemispherical liners. Numerical results had successfully described the formation process and distribution pattern of MEFP. A group of penetrators consisting of a central penetrator surrounded by 6 penetrators is formed during the formation process of MEFP and moves in the direction of aiming position. The maximum divergence angle of the surrounding penetrator group was 7.8°, and the damage area could reach 0.16 m2 at 1.2 m. The laws of perforation dispersion patterns of MEFP were also obtained through a nonlinear fitting of the perforation information on the target at different standoffs. The terminal effects of the MEFP warhead were performed on three #45 steel targets with a dimension of 160cm ( 160cm ( 1.5cm at various standoffs (60, 80, and 120 cm. The simulation results were validated through penetration experiments at different standoffs. It has shown excellent agreement between simulation and experiment results.

  3. PERCUTANEOUS ELECTROHEMOSTASIS AFTER PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Trushkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the clinical case in a patient with bilateral nephrolithiasis, chronic kidney disease of the 4th stage, after which bleeding from the left kidney developed after simultaneous bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL, leading to severe hemic hypoxia. Conservative therapy, blood transfusion did not lead to a persistent effect, the bleeding continued to recur. Given the presence of chronic renal failure (CRF from the embolization of the branches of the renal artery, it was decided to abstain, given the extremely high risk of aggravation of nephropathy after the administration of the contrast drug. Left-sided nephrectomy would inevitably lead to the development of terminal chronic renal failure. Patients performed an electrocoagulation of the fistula wall with a Karl Storz 26C resectoscope in 60W mode. The bleeding was completely stopped. The patient is discharged from the hospital in a satisfactory condition. At the time of discharge in the conduct of replacement renal therapy did not need. When analyzing publications in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline and Web of Science, we did not find a description of such a method of hemostasis.

  4. Simulation for ground penetrating radar (GPR) study of the subsurface structure of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Wenzhe

    2013-12-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is currently within the scope of China's Chang-E 3 lunar mission, to study the shallow subsurface of the Moon. In this study, key factors that could affect a lunar GPR performance, such as frequency, range resolution, and antenna directivity, are discussed firstly. Geometrical optics and ray tracing techniques are used to model GPR echoes, considering the transmission, attenuation, reflection, geometrical spreading of radar waves, and the antenna directivity. The influence on A-scope GPR echoes and on the simulated radargrams for the Sinus Iridum region by surface and subsurface roughness, dielectric loss of the lunar regolith, radar frequency and bandwidth, and the distance between the transmit and receive antennas are discussed. Finally, potential scientific return about lunar subsurface properties from GPR echoes is also discussed. Simulation results suggest that subsurface structure from several to hundreds of meters can be studied from GPR echoes at P and VHF bands, and information about dielectric permittivity and thickness of subsurface layers can be estimated from GPR echoes in combination with regolith composition data.

  5. Pain associated with liver biopsies through percutaneous approach under sono-graphic guidance-a cross sectional pilot study in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Pain is one of the most common and feared complication of percutaneous liver biopsy under local anaesthesia using sonographic guidance. This observational study was set to judge the intensity of pain felt by adult patients presenting for percutaneous liver biopsy with known/suspected underlying hepatic pathology. Methods: This observational cross sectional study which was piloted on 10% of the original sample size was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Study population was the adult patients coming for percutaneous liver biopsy at the Department of Radiology. Descriptive statistics were run, data was checked for normality. Means and Standard deviations were done for continuous variables and where data was skewed, median with inter quartile range was computed. Later data was clumped in categories, frequency and percentages were reported for categorical variables. Graphical representation of data was done. Results: A total of 50 patients were recruited. Minimum pain reported on visual analogue scale (VAS) was 0 and maximum as 4.30% of patients rated 3 and similarly 30% of the people rated 4 on the VAS. Mean pain experienced was 2.7 ± 1.11 and a median of 3 on VAS. This indicates that a minority of patients in our survey had a complaint of mild pain during the procedure. Conclusions: Percutaneous liver biopsy is a very safe procedure and minimal pain was felt by a minority of patients whereas the rest showed satisfaction from the procedure with no post procedural complaints. (author)

  6. Sodium lauryl sulfate enhances nickel penetration through guinea-pig skin. Studies with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, M.; Sagstroem, S.R.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), a common ingredient of detergents, on the penetration of nickel through the stratum corneum in the guinea-pig skin model was studied with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) to evaluate the barrier-damaging properties of this common detergent. The EDX technique allows a simultaneous determination of physiologically important elements, e.g., Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca and S in addition to Ni at each point of measurement in epidermal cell strata. Our results show that SLS reduces the barrier function to Ni-ion penetration of the stratum corneum. In addition we have shown that EDX allows analysis of the influence of different factors involved in nickel penetration through the skin by giving data on the physiological effects on the epidermal cells caused by the applied substances

  7. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal

  8. An energy approach study of the penetration of concrete by rigid missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirgis, Sameh; Guirguis, Ehab

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an energy approach for investigating the penetration of concrete by rigid missiles and the associated phenomena. However, the principal assumptions made here must be validated experimentally before giving the proposed subject further considerations. In the following, a new measure for concrete resistance to penetration by hard missiles is presented. The suggested term for this measure is 'the Volumetric Crushing Energy Density' of concrete which can be described as the energy required for converting a unit volume of concrete to separate particles under compressive loading so that the particles of the crushed volume meet certain gradation criteria. Using this quantity, an explanation of the scale effect is postulated. Moreover, a dimensionless semi-analytical formula for the penetration depth of a rigid missile in a concrete target is proposed which includes a large number of the variables of the problem. The formula assumes that the penetration incident may include several successive phases where the set of variables that governs the impact is different during each phase, and the variables that characterize the impact during each phase correlate in a different manner as well. Furthermore, many of the penetration depth formulae available in the literature are rewritten according to the formula proposed here where the concrete penetration resistance of any incident is estimated by modifying the resistance of 'reference impact incidents.' The rewritten formulae show the wide variation of the values of concrete resistance which are implicitly included in the original formulae. Finally, the proposed formula is applied using data of penetration experiments presented by Forrestal et al. [Forrestal, M.J., Altman, B.S., Cargile, J.D., Hanchak, S.J., 1994. An empirical equation for penetration depth of ogive-nose projectiles into concrete targets. Int. J. Impact Eng. 15(4), 395-405; Forrestal, M.J., Frew, D.J., Hickerson, J.P., Rohwer, T.A., 2003

  9. Enhanced skin penetration of lidocaine through encapsulation into nanoethosomes and nanostructured lipid carriers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, S; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Adib, Z M; Kouhsoltani, M; Davaran, S; Hamishehkar, H

    2016-05-01

    Lipid based nanoparticles have become a major research object in topical drug delivery to enable drugs to pass the stratum corneum and reach the desired skin layer. The present investigation deals with the encapsulation of lidoacine into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and nanoethosomes for improving its dermal delivery and consequently local anesthetic efficacy. Concurrently these two topical delivery systems were compared. Lidocaine-loaded NLCs and nanoethosomes were characterized by various techniques and used for an in vitro skin penetration study using excised rat skin and Franz diffusion cells. The nanoparticles were tracked in the skin by following the Rhodamine-labled nanocarriers under fluorescent microscopy. Optimized lidocaine-loaded NLCs (size 96 nm, zeta potential -13.7 mV, encapsulation efficiency (EE) % 69.86% and loading capacity (LC) % 10.47%) and nanoethosomes (size 105.4 nm, zeta potential -33.6 mV, EE 40.14% and LC 8.02%) were chosen for a skin drug delivery study. Higher skin drug deposition of NLCs and nanoethosomal formulations compared to lidocaine hydroalcoholic solution represented a better localization of the drug in the skin. NLC formulation showed the lowest entered drug in the receptor phase of Franz diffusion cell in comparison with nanoethosomes and hydroalcoholic solution confirming the highest skin accumulation of drug. Both colloidal systems showed superiority over the drug solution for dermal delivery of lidocaine, however, NLC exhibited more promising characteristics than nanoethosomes regarding drug loading and skin targeted delivery.

  10. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fölster-Holst R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 5Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route. Keywords: aeroallergens, atopic eczema, seasonality, skin antigen-presenting cells, skin barrier penetration

  11. The comparative study of CT guided and ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heping; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Zhuang Wenquan; Huang Yulian; Chen Jianye

    2005-01-01

    Objective: An comparative study of the interventional approach of CT guided and ultiasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection(PEI) in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst. Methods: CT guided PEI was performed in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst in 38 patients while ultrasound guided PEI was performed in 45 cases. Results: The puncture procedure of CT guided PEI was totally performed 83 times in treating 56 intra-abdominal cysts in 38 patients and CT guided PEI was unsuccessful in 6 patients. The puncture procedure of ultrasound guided PEI were performed 87 times in treating 71 intra-abdominal cysts in 55 patients and ultrasound guided PEI only failed only in 1 patient. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided PEI is superior to CT guided PEI in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst. (authors)

  12. Skin-mimetic chromatography for prediction of human percutaneous absorption of biologically active compounds occurring in medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepnik, Katarzyna; Malinowska, Irena

    2017-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to predict quantitatively human percutaneous absorption of chosen compounds commonly occurring in plants which can be used as medicinal extracts in the drug and beauty industries. The most important human percutaneous descriptors, i.e. logK p (logarithm of the water/skin partition coefficient) and logJ max (logarithm of the maximum flux of solutes penetrating the skin), of fatty acids and polyphenols were determined using both in vitro and in silico methods. For in vitro determination of human percutaneous absorption, micellar liquid chromatography based on hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether (Brij35) was used. Human percutaneous absorption was characterized by entirely new QSAR/QRAR models based on retention, lipophilic, steric and electronic data as well as on the linear free energy relationship parameters. Many different correlations between human skin absorption and different physicochemical parameters were performed, e.g. the in silico estimated logK p value was correlated with the retention parameter logk w (logarithm of the retention factor extrapolated to pure water) from the systems imitating a cutaneous environment (R 2  = 0.92). Moreover, the influence of lipophilicity on percutaneous absorption was examined. The obtained correlation was excellent (R 2  = 0.95). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Ahmed glaucoma valve in post-penetrating-keratoplasty glaucoma: A critically evaluated prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Panda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate the outcome of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV in post-penetrating-keratoplasty glaucoma (PKPG. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 20 eyes of 20 adult patients with post-PKPG with intraocular pressure (IOP >21 mmHg, on two or more antiglaucoma medications, underwent AG (model FP7 implantation and were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. Absolute success was defined as 5 < IOP < 21 mmHg and qualified success as 5 < IOP < 21 mmHg with medications or minor procedures. Results: The mean IOP decreased from 42.95 ± 10.24 to 17.69 ± 3.64 mmHg (P < 0.001 and the use of medications dropped from 2.92 to 0.39 (P < 0.001 after AGV implantation. The absolute success was achieved in 11 eyes and qualified success in 9. There was no significant change in best corrected visual acuity, graft clarity, or graft thickness. Six device-related complications occurred after AGV implantations which were successfully managed with medical or minor surgical therapy. Conclusions: Postkeratoplasty refractory glaucoma managed by AGV implantation revealed a satisfactory outcome up to 6 months of follow-up.

  14. A study of 23 unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus: open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of bone powder with autogenous bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Hyung; Micic, Ivan Dragoljub; Jeon, In-Ho

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration and local injection of steroid, autologous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to curettage and open bone-grafting. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of demineralized bone powder with autogenous bone marrow in management of calcaneal cysts. Twenty-three calcaneal unicameral cysts in 20 patients were treated. Lyophilized irradiated chip allogeneic bone (CAB) and autogenous bone marrow were used for treatment of 13 cysts in 11 patients, and 10 cysts in 9 patients were treated with percutaneous injection of irradiated allogeneic demineralized bone powder (DBP) and autogenous bone marrow. There were 11 males and 9 female patients with mean age of 17 years. The patients were followed for an average of 49.4 months. Complete healing was achieved in 9 cysts treated with chip allogeneic bone and in 5 cysts treated with powdered bone. Four cysts treated with CAB and 3 cysts treated with DBP healed with a defect. Two cysts treated with powdered bone and autogenous bone marrow were classified as persistent. No infections or pathological fractures were observed during the followup period. Percutaneous injection of a mixture of allogeneic bone powder with autogenous bone marrow is a minimal invasive method and could be an effective alternative in the treatment of unicameral calcaneal bone cysts. The postoperative morbidity was low, the hospital stay was brief, and patient's comfort for unrestricted activity was enhanced.

  15. Study on mixed convective flow penetration into subassembly from reactor hot plenum in FBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, J.; Ohshima, H.; Kamide, H.; Ieda, Y. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Fundamental experiments using water were carried out in order to reveal the phenomenon of mixed convective flow penetration into subassemblies from a reactor`s upper plenum of fast breeder reactors. This phenomenon appears under a certain natural circulation conditions during the operation of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for decay heat removal and might influence the natural circulation head which determines the core flow rate and therefore affects the core coolability. In the experiment, a simplified model which simulates an upper plenum and a subassembly was used and the ultrasonic velocity profile monitor as well as thermocouples were applied for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature distributions in the subassembly. From the measured data, empirical equations related to the penetration flow onset condition and the penetration depth were obtained using relevant parameters which were derived from dimensional analysis.

  16. Efficacy of percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy for nodular hepatic tumor : a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Hee; Bang, Sun Woo; Baek, Seung Il; Kim, Ho Kyun [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Seok [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    Percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT) uses a new energy source, microwave, in the treatment of solid neoplasms. We evaluated the efficacy of PMCT for nodular hepatic tumors in nine patients. Between December 1998 and June 1999, we performed PMCT in six patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), two with one and three metastatic nodules each from colon cancer, and one with adenomatous hyperplasia. Four patients were female and five were male, and their age ranged between 44 and 71 (mean, 58.8) years. Under sonographic guidance a 14-gauge guiding needle was inserted percutaneously toward the lesion, and within it a needle electrode was precisely positioned. Microwave 2450MHz in frequency and with 60 or 80-watt emission was generated for 80{approx}90 seconds. We evaluated the ultrasound findings obtained during the procedure, pre-PMCT and follow-up CT images, changes in tumor marker(AFP or CA19-9) levels and the results of liver function tests, and complications arising during the six-month period following PMCT. Immediately after microwave emission, characteristic hyperechogenicity appeared on the real-time sonogram. Two patients with HCC underwent CT before PMCT, and typical enhancement during the arterial phase and washout during the portovenous phase was observed. In one patient, two metastatic lesions from colon cancer showed delayed enhancement on pre-PMCT CT. Initial follow-up CT, performed between I and 4 weeks after the PMCT procedure, showed that eight lesions-including two HCCs which were highly enhanced on CT before PMCT-showed no contrast enhancement, and three others showed delayed enhancement. Two of the eight lesions which showed no contrast enhancement at initial follow-up CT were markedly decreased in size (from 2.9 and 4.0 cm to 1.0 and 2.0 cm, respectively) at subsequent follow-up 3 months and 6 months later, respectively. One of the three lesions showing delayed enhancement had increased in size from 4.1 to 5.5 cm at subsequent

  17. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  18. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  19. Combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and percutaneous ethanol injection for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Seong Tae; Ahn, Bo Young; Song, Kyung Sup; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Chung, Kyu Won [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and subsequent percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) was attempted in 8 patients with 9 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCCs) for complete tumor necrosis of HCCs less than 5 cm in greatest diameter. PEI was performed with 2-8 ml of absolute (99.9%) ethanol two weeks after TACE under CT or ultrasound guidance. For each patient PEI was done twice to four times within 4-10 days of each procedure. After completion of a series of PEI, follow up examination (range: 3 months-1.5 year period) was done with angiography, CT or ultrasound and correlated with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level. On follow up angiograms, the lesions completely disappeared or decreased in size without tumor vessels or staining in 5 of 6 patients. On follow up CT of 6 patients, the lipiodol-laden HCCs were surrounded by non-enhancing low density and the lesion sizes were slightly decreased or not changed. These are suggestive of necrosis of tumor itself and adjacent liver parenchyma. The tumors could not be detected on follow up ultrasound examination in 2 patients. Serum AFP was decreased in 7 patients and was well corresponded to the results of imaging modalities. The authors concluded that the combined TACE and PEI is an appropriate treatment for small HCCs having high surgical risks.

  20. A study of 60 patients with percutaneous trigger finger releases: clinical and ultrasonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabi, D; Cecen, G S; Bekler, H I; Saglam, F; Tanju, N

    2014-09-01

    We present the clinical results and ultrasonographic findings of 61 trigger digits treated with percutaneous A1 pulley release. An endoscopic carpal tunnel knife was used for the release in the outpatient department. The mean follow-up period was 3.5 months. A total of 55 digits (90%) had complete relief of their triggering postoperatively. Six digits (10%) had Grade 2 triggering clinically in the early postoperative period.The complications included six cases of insufficient release (10%), scar sensitivity in one patient, short-term hypoaesthesia in three digits (5%), and flexor tendon laceration noted on postoperative ultrasonography in eight digits (13%). No neurovascular damage was noted on the postoperative ultrasonography. Ultrasonograpy provides information about tendon laceration and changes in thickness of the pulleys and confirm A1 pulley release after surgery, but it does not alter clinical decision-making. We believe that pre- and postoperative ultrasonograpy does not need to be included as a routine examination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Isolated Liver Perfusion Using Percutaneous Methods:[ql An Experimental Study in the Pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnek, Jan; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Bergqvist, Lennart; Persson, Bo; Stridbeck, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for isolated perfusion of the liver using radiological methods. Methods: Twenty-one pigs, weighing about 20 kg, were divided into three groups. By transjugular and transfemoral approaches two occlusion balloons were placed in the inferior vena cava cranial and caudal, respectively, to the origin of the hepatic veins. One occlusion balloon was placed transfemorally in the common hepatic artery. Another occlusion balloon was inserted in the main branch of the portal vein via the transjugular-transhepatic approach in 11 pigs (groups 1 and 2), and in 10 pigs (group 3) by a percutaneous transhepatic route. After inflation of the balloons, patency of the isolated liver circulation was evaluated by recirculation of 99 Tc m -labelled human albumin during 30 min. Blood tests were obtained after 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min to evaluate leakage from the liver to the systemic circulation. Results: Increasing leakage to the systemic circulation from the isolated liver circulation was observed in groups 1 and 2. In the third group the leakage was less than 10%. Conclusion: In an experimental animal model, isolated perfusion of the liver with minor leakage to the systemic circulation may be achieved using radiological methods

  2. Studies on penetration of antibiotic in bacterial cells in space conditions (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Cytos 2 experiment was performed aboard Salyut 7 in order to test the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria cultivated in vitro in space. An increase of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) in the inflight cultures (i.e., an increase of the antibiotic resistance) was observed. Complementary studies of the ultrastructure showed a thickening of the cell envelope. In order to confirm the results of the Cytos 2 experiment, we performed the ANTIBIO experiment during the D1 mission to try to differentiate, by means of the 1 g centrifuge in the Biorack, between the biological effects of cosmic rays and those caused by microgravity conditions. The originality of this experiment was in the fact that it was designed to test the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria cultivated in vitro during the orbital phase of the flight. The results show an increase in resistance to Colistin in in-flight bacteria. The MIC is practically double in the in-flight cultures. A cell count of living bacteria in the cultures containing the different Colistin concentrations showed a significant difference between the cultures developed during space flight and the ground based cultures. The comparison between the 1 g and 0 g in-flight cultures show similar behavior for the two sets. Nevertheless, a small difference between the two sets of ground based control cultures was noted. The cultures developed on the ground centrifuge (1.4 g) present a slight decrease in comparison with the cultures developed in the static rack (1 g). In order to approach the mechanisms of the increase of antibiotic resistance on bacteria cultivated in vitro in space, we have proposed the study on penetration of antibiotics in bacterial cells in space conditions. This experiment was selected for the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission.

  3. Tumor stroma-containing 3D spheroid arrays: A tool to study nanoparticle penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priwitaningrum, Dwi L.; Priwitaningrum, Dwi Lestari; Blondé, Jean-Baptiste Gabriel Marie; Blonde, Jean-Baptiste G.; Sridhar, Adithya; van Baarlen, Joop; Hennink, Wim E.; Storm, Gerrit; le Gac, Severine; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle penetration through tumor tissue after extravasation is considered as a key issue for tumor distribution and therapeutic effects. Most tumors possess abundant stroma, a fibrotic tissue composed of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and extracellular matrix (ECM), which acts as a

  4. A theoretical study of cold nuclear fusion using barrier penetration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    1989-06-01

    The cold nuclear fusion process is investigated in terms of barrier penetration calculations by considering both the deuteron-molecule and colliding deuteron-deuteron atoms. Atomic collisions with strongly screened interatomic potential and the resonant state formation can bring agreement with present experimental results. Analysis of the data in terms of the reaction rates is also discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 tab

  5. Development of a HPLC method for determination of four UV filters in sunscreen and its application to skin penetration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the development, validation and application of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of the in vitro skin penetration profile of four UV filters on porcine skin. Experiments were carried out on a gel-cream formulation containing the following UV filters: diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (BEMT), methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (MBBT) and ethylhexyl triazone (EHT). The HPLC method demonstrated suitable selectivity, linearity (10.0-50.0 μg/mL), precision, accuracy and recovery from porcine skin and sunscreen formulation. The in vitro skin penetration profile was evaluated using Franz vertical diffusion cells for 24 h after application on porcine ear skin. None of the UV filters penetrated the porcine skin. Most of them stayed on the skin surface (>90%) and only BEMT, EHT and DHHB reached the dermis plus epidermis layer. These results are in agreement with previous results in the literature. Therefore, the analytical method was useful to evaluate the in vitro skin penetration of the UV filters and may help the development of safer and effective sunscreen products. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A study of changes in the primary dose penetrating the protective apron on SID in x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seong Kwan

    2016-01-01

    This study is to figure out the amount of primary X-ray generated in SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m penetrating protective aprons in X-ray radiography for hands, skull, and lumbar spine. Results are as follows: Firstly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is low such as that of hand X-ray may be reduced by 270 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still slightly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Secondly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is moderate such as that of skull X-ray may be reduced by 22 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still fairly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Thirdly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is very high such as that of lumbar spine X-ray may be reduced b y 13 times if protective aprons a re worn, but it still penetrates a lot 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Therefore, people in X-ray room should not only wear protective aprons at any spaces that the primary X-ray can reach, but also need to stand behind the thick Pb shield to protect the body if it is inevitable to stay in the room

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of triple-contrast multi-detector computed tomography for detection of penetrating gastrointestinal injury: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksobhavivat, Nitima [Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Ratchathewi, Bangkok (Thailand); Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Boscak, Alexis R.; Sliker, Clint W.; Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Archer-Arroyo, Krystal; Miller, Lisa A.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Alexander, Melvin T.; Mirvis, Stuart E. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M.; Scalea, Thomas M. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, R. Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Neither the performance of CT in diagnosing penetrating gastrointestinal injury nor its ability to discriminate patients requiring either observation or surgery has been determined. This was a prospective, single-institutional observational study of patients with penetrating injury to the torso who underwent CT. Based on CT signs, reviewers determined the presence of a gastrointestinal injury and the need for surgery or observation. The primary outcome measures were operative findings and clinical follow-up. CT results were compared with the primary outcome measures. Of one hundred and seventy-one patients (72 gunshot wounds, 99 stab wounds; age range, 18-57 years; median age, 28 years) with penetrating torso trauma who underwent CT, 45 % were followed by an operation and 55 % by clinical follow up. Thirty-five patients had a gastrointestinal injury at surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CT for diagnosing a gastrointestinal injury for all patients were each 91 %, and for predicting the need for surgery, they were 94 %, 93 %, 93 %, respectively. Among the 3 % of patients who failed observation, 1 % had a gastrointestinal injury. CT is a useful technique to diagnose gastrointestinal injury following penetrating torso injury. CT can help discriminate patients requiring observation or surgery. (orig.)

  8. A study of changes in the primary dose penetrating the protective apron on SID in x-ray radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong Kwan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Kwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study is to figure out the amount of primary X-ray generated in SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m penetrating protective aprons in X-ray radiography for hands, skull, and lumbar spine. Results are as follows: Firstly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is low such as that of hand X-ray may be reduced by 270 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still slightly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Secondly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is moderate such as that of skull X-ray may be reduced by 22 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still fairly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Thirdly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is very high such as that of lumbar spine X-ray may be reduced b y 13 times if protective aprons a re worn, but it still penetrates a lot 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Therefore, people in X-ray room should not only wear protective aprons at any spaces that the primary X-ray can reach, but also need to stand behind the thick Pb shield to protect the body if it is inevitable to stay in the room.

  9. Evaluation of Skin Penetration of Diclofenac from a Novel Topical Non Aqueous Solution: A Comparative Bioavailability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivsarkar, Manish; Maroo, Sanjaykumar H; Patel, Ketan R; Patel, Dixit D

    2015-12-01

    Different topical formulations of diclofenac have varying skin penetration profile. Recent advances in science and technology has led to the development of many new formulations of drugs for topical drug delivery. One such technological development has led to the innovation of Dynapar QPS, a novel, non-aqueous, quick penetrating solution (QPS) of diclofenac diethylamine. This study was aimed to measure the total exposure from the drug penetrating the skin in healthy human subjects and comparing the relative systemic bioavailability of Dynapar QPS(®) with diclofenac emulgel. A 200 mg of diclofenac from either Dynapar QPS(®) (5 ml) or emulgel (20 g) was applied on back of subject as per the randomisation schedule. Blood samples were collected up to 16 hours post drug application. Plasma concentration of diclofenac was measured by pre-validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters like Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Kel, of diclofenac were determined for both the formulations. Mean Cmax after administration of Dynapar QPS(®) and diclofenac emulgel were 175.93 and 40.04 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax of diclofenac was almost half with QPS compared to emulgel (5.24 hrs versus 9.53 hrs respectively). The mean AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ after administration of Dynapar QPS(®) was higher as compared to diclofenac emulgel (AUC0-t: 1224.19 versus 289.78 ng.h/ml, respectively; AUC0-∞: 1718.21 versus 513.83 ng.h/ml, respectively). None of the subject experienced any adverse event during the study. The results indicate an enhanced penetration and subsequent absorption of diclofenac from Dynapar QPS(®) as compared to diclofenac emulgel. Higher penetration is likely to translate into better pain relief in patients.

  10. [Ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliev, B G

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness and results of ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) for the treatment of patients with large stones in renal pelvis. The results of PNL in 138 patients who underwent surgery for kidney stones from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed. Seventy patients (Group 1) underwent surgery with combined ultrasound and radiological guidance, and 68 patients (Group 2)--only with ultrasound guidance. The study included patients with large renal pelvic stones larger than 2.2 cm, requiring the formation of a single laparoscopic approach. Using the comparative analysis, the timing of surgery, the number of intra- and postoperative complications, blood loss and length of stay were evaluated. Percutaneous access was successfully performed in all patients. Postoperative complications (exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis, gross hematuria) were observed in 14.3% of patients in Group 1 and in 14.7% of patients in Group 2. Bleeding requiring blood transfusion, and injuries of adjacent organs were not registered. Efficacy of PNL in the Group 1 was 95.7%; 3 (4.3%) patients required additional interventions. In Group 2, the effectiveness of PNL was 94.1%, 4 (5.9%) patients additionally underwent extracorporeal lithotripsy. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of PNL, the volume of blood loss and duration of hospitalization. Ultrasound guided PNL can be performed in large pelvic stones and sufficient expansion of renal cavities, thus reducing radiation exposure of patients and medical staff.

  11. Factors Influencing Complications of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Single-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Sedat; Okumus, Muhammed Masuk; Demirbas, Murat; Onen, Efe; Aydos, Mustafa Murat; Ustun, Mehmet Hakan; Kilic, Metin; Avci, Sinan

    2015-11-14

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is a minimally invasive procedure used for successful treatment of renal calculi. However, it is associated with various complications. We assessed the complications and their potential influencing factors in patients who had undergone PNL. In total, 1750 patients who had undergone PNL from November 2003 to June 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. PNL complications and possible contributing risk factors (age, sex, serum creatinine level, previous operations, hydronephrosis, calculi size, localization, opacity, surgeon's experience, accessed calyxes, number of accesses, and costal entries) were determined. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the cutoff values of the data. Ideal cutoff value was determined by Youden's J statistic. All the demographic and clinical variables were examined using backward stepwise logistical regression analysis. Continuous variables were categorized with logistic regression analysis according to the cutoff values. Complications occurred in 396 (24.4%) patients who had undergone PNL. Hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion occurred in 221 (12.6%) patients, hemorrhage requiring arterial embolization occurred in 7 (0.4%) patients, perirenal hematoma occurred in 17 (0.97%) patients, hemo-pneumothorax occurred in 32 (1.8%) patients, and colon perforation occurred in 4 (0.22%) patients. Three patients (0.06%) died of severe urosepsis, and one patient (0.02%) died of severe bleeding. The calculus size, localization, access site, number of accesses, presence of staghorn stones, surgeon's experience, and duration of the operation significantly affected the complication risk. Our retrospective evaluation of this large patient series reveals that, PNL is a very effective treatment modality for kidney stones. However, although rare, serious complications including death can occur.

  12. Ipsilateral Dual-Site, Same-Sitting Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, Joseph; Tavare, Aniket N.; Khan, Sajid; Saini, Ashish; Creer, Dean D.; Hare, Samanjit S.

    2017-01-01

    PurposePatients with thoracic malignancies often have more than one site of pulmonary, nodal or pleural disease within one hemithorax. In addition, large heterogeneous lesions may comprise distinct, mixed pathological entities. Histological analysis of these lesions can alter tumour staging and treatment options. We investigated the feasibility, safety and benefit of performing image-guided percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB) of two lesions in the same hemithorax at a single sitting.Materials and MethodsTen consecutive outpatients with two or more potential disease foci within the same hemithorax were analysed over a 15-month period. The mean age of the patients was 66 years (range 46–81 years). Patients underwent CT-guided coaxial 20G   core biopsy of both lesions, with separate coaxial punctures for each lesion. Patients were managed as per established local institution ambulatory lung biopsy protocol using small-calibre Heimlich-valve chest drain (HVCD) to treat significant post-PLB pneumothorax in an outpatient setting. Data regarding lesion characteristics, diagnoses and complications were recorded.ResultsAll 10 patients (n = 20 biopsies, 100% technical success) received informative histological diagnosis on both lesions. This altered management in all cases. Although a high rate of pneumothorax occurred (60%; 6/10), only two of these patients required treatment with HVCD. No other significant complications occurred in those patients with small asymptomatic pneumothoraces or those that required HVCD placement.ConclusionsDual-site lung biopsy, performed as a single procedure, is potentially a safe and effective technique for diagnosing patients with multiple thoracic lesions, and can provide useful staging information to guide patient management.

  13. Usefulness of real-time three-dimensional ultrasonography in percutaneous nephrostomy: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongzhang, Hong; Xiaojuan, Qin; Shengwei, Zhang; Feixiang, Xiang; Yujie, Xu; Haibing, Xiao; Gallina, Kazobinka; Wen, Ju; Fuqing, Zeng; Xiaoping, Zhang; Mingyue, Ding; Huageng, Liang; Xuming, Zhang

    2018-05-17

    To evaluate the effect of real-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography (US) in guiding percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). A hydronephrosis model was devised in which the ureters of 16 beagles were obstructed. The beagles were divided equally into groups 1 and 2. In group 1, the PCN was performed using real-time 3D US guidance, while in group 2 the PCN was guided using two-dimensional (2D) US. Visualization of the needle tract, length of puncture time and number of puncture times were recorded for the two groups. In group 1, score for visualization of the needle tract, length of puncture time and number of puncture times were 3, 7.3 ± 3.1 s and one time, respectively. In group 2, the respective results were 1.4 ± 0.5, 21.4 ± 5.8 s and 2.1 ± 0.6 times. The visualization of needle tract in group 1 was superior to that in group 2, and length of puncture time and number of puncture times were both lower in group 1 than in group 2. Real-time 3D US-guided PCN is superior to 2D US-guided PCN in terms of visualization of needle tract and the targeted pelvicalyceal system, leading to quick puncture. Real-time 3D US-guided puncture of the kidney holds great promise for clinical implementation in PCN. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ipsilateral Dual-Site, Same-Sitting Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Joseph; Tavare, Aniket N. [Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Barnet Hospital (United Kingdom); Khan, Sajid [Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Barnet Hospital (United Kingdom); Saini, Ashish [Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Barnet Hospital (United Kingdom); Creer, Dean D. [Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Barnet Hospital (United Kingdom); Hare, Samanjit S., E-mail: samhare@nhs.net [Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Barnet Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    PurposePatients with thoracic malignancies often have more than one site of pulmonary, nodal or pleural disease within one hemithorax. In addition, large heterogeneous lesions may comprise distinct, mixed pathological entities. Histological analysis of these lesions can alter tumour staging and treatment options. We investigated the feasibility, safety and benefit of performing image-guided percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB) of two lesions in the same hemithorax at a single sitting.Materials and MethodsTen consecutive outpatients with two or more potential disease foci within the same hemithorax were analysed over a 15-month period. The mean age of the patients was 66 years (range 46–81 years). Patients underwent CT-guided coaxial 20G   core biopsy of both lesions, with separate coaxial punctures for each lesion. Patients were managed as per established local institution ambulatory lung biopsy protocol using small-calibre Heimlich-valve chest drain (HVCD) to treat significant post-PLB pneumothorax in an outpatient setting. Data regarding lesion characteristics, diagnoses and complications were recorded.ResultsAll 10 patients (n = 20 biopsies, 100% technical success) received informative histological diagnosis on both lesions. This altered management in all cases. Although a high rate of pneumothorax occurred (60%; 6/10), only two of these patients required treatment with HVCD. No other significant complications occurred in those patients with small asymptomatic pneumothoraces or those that required HVCD placement.ConclusionsDual-site lung biopsy, performed as a single procedure, is potentially a safe and effective technique for diagnosing patients with multiple thoracic lesions, and can provide useful staging information to guide patient management.

  15. Percutaneous Ureteral stent insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous ureteral stent insertion is a treatment of permanent or temporary urinary diversion to maintain continuity and function of the obstructed and injured ureter. We performed 31 cases of percutaneous double pig tall ureteral stent insertion in 21 patients, included 13 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and eight patients with injured ureter as well as benign inflammatory stricture. Satisfactory resulted was obtained in all patients but one, who need percutaneous nephrostomy on week later for urinary diversion. No significant complication was encountered. The authors concluded that percutaneous ureteral stent insertion, an interventional procedure alternative to urologic retrograde method, is an effective method for urinary diversion.

  16. A Case Study on the Perceptions of Educators on the Penetration of Personal Learning Environments in Typical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Armakolas, Stefanos; Mikroyannidis, Alexander; Panagiotakopoulos, Christos; Panousopoulou, Theofania

    2016-01-01

    Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) help students manage and take control of their own learning. As such, the PLE promotes self-regulation in learning and allows learners to aggregate, manipulate and share digital artefacts within a flexible and versatile online space. This paper presents a case study in Greece, concerning an investigation about the penetration of PLEs in typical education. In particular, this case study aims at investigating the perceptions of educators about PLEs and thei...

  17. Image guided percutaneous splenic interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Mandeep; Kalra, Naveen; Gulati, Madhu; Lal, Anupam; Kochhar, Rohit; Rajwanshi, Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of image-guided percutaneous splenic interventions as diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective review of our interventional records from July 2001 to June 2006. Ninety-five image-guided percutaneous splenic interventions were performed after informed consent in 89 patients: 64 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 5 months to 71 years (mean, 38.4 years) under ultrasound (n = 93) or CT (n = 2) guidance. The procedures performed were fine needle aspiration biopsy of focal splenic lesions (n = 78) and aspiration (n = 10) or percutaneous catheter drainage of a splenic abscess (n = 7). Results: Splenic fine needle aspiration biopsy was successful in 62 (83.78%) of 74 patients with benign lesions diagnosed in 43 (58.1%) and malignancy in 19 (25.67%) patients. The most common pathologies included tuberculosis (26 patients, 35.13%) and lymphoma (14 patients, 18.91%). Therapeutic aspiration or pigtail catheter drainage was successful in all (100%) patients. There were no major complications. Conclusions: Image-guided splenic fine needle aspiration biopsy is a safe and accurate technique that can provide a definitive diagnosis in most patients with focal lesions in the spleen. This study also suggests that image-guided percutaneous aspiration or catheter drainage of splenic abscesses is a safe and effective alternative to surgery

  18. Preliminary study of corneal penetration of /sup 125/I-labelled idoxuridine liposome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharma, S.K.; Fishman, P.H.; Peyman, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    We compared corneal penetration of idoxuridine (IDU) to liposome-encapsulated IDU. Liposomes of phosphatidic acid, phosphatidyl choline and alphatocopherol in a molar ratio 1:8:1 were prepared using the reverse phase evaporation method. New Zealand albino rabbits received either 0.1% solution of I/sup 125/-labelled aqueous IDU or liposome-encapsulated IDU topically every 2 min for 6 min. Corneal, aqueous, and vitreous samples were assayed for I/sup 125/ radioactivity at 15 min and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 h following drug application. Our results indicated that corneal penetration of liposomal IDU was significantly increased over the regular form of the drug for a time interval of 6 h.

  19. A preliminary study of corneal penetration of 125I-labelled idoxuridine liposome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharma, S.K.; Fishman, P.H.; Peyman, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    We compared corneal penetration of idoxuridine (IDU) to liposome-encapsulated IDU. Liposomes of phosphatidic acid, phosphatidyl choline and alphatocopherol in a molar ratio 1:8:1 were prepared using the reverse phase evaporation method. New Zealand albino rabbits received either 0.1% solution of I 125 -labelled aqueous IDU or liposome-encapsulated IDU topically every 2 min for 6 min. Corneal, aqueous, and vitreous samples were assayed for I 125 radioactivity at 15 min and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 h following drug application. Our results indicated that corneal penetration of liposomal IDU was significantly increased over the regular form of the drug for a time interval of 6 h. (author)

  20. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease: 2-year follow-up of the FAME (Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pijls, Nico H J; Fearon, William F; Tonino, Pim A L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the 2-year outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) guided by fractional flow reserve (FFR) in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  1. [The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, W; Schmid, K; Botta, L; Kobayashi, K; Moppert, J; Schneider, W; Sioufi, A; Strusberg, A; Tomasi, M

    1986-07-01

    The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac diethylammonium 1.16% (w/w) in a combination of emulsion cream and gel (Voltaren Emulgel) and of diclofenac sodium 1% (w/w) in a cream formulation (Voltaren cream) was investigated in guinea-pig, rabbit and man. The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac sodium in guinea-pig was 3 to 6% of the dose when the cream formulation in doses of 320, 100 or 40 mg was applied on 10 cm2 of occluded skin and left in place for 6 h. The transdermal delivery of 14C-labelled diclofenac yielded plateau plasma concentrations of radiotracer from 1.5 h after application until removal of the residual cream. Subsequently the steady state drug depots in the skin and muscle tissue were depleted promptly. During daily administration the steady state levels in the muscle tissue in proximity to the application site were about 3 times higher than in distant muscle tissue. By topical application on knee joints of rabbits diclofenac penetrated into the patellar ligament, the adipose corpus and the synovial fluid. In man the percutaneous absorption was 6% of the dose when the Emulgel formulation was spread by 5 mg/cm2 and left for 12 h on non-occluded skin. The pattern of metabolites of diclofenac in human urine was the same after topical and oral administration. In man, upon daily topical administration of 3 times 2.5 g cream formulation (10 mg/cm2) the diclofenac steady state plasma levels were 20 to 40 nmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Treatment of the calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle lavage. Two years prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-González, Federico Del; Ramos-Álvarez, Juan José; Rodríguez-Fabián, Guillermo; González-Pérez, José; Calderón-Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: to evaluate the short and long term effectiveness of ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous needle lavage in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To study the evolution of the size of calcifications and pain in the two years after treatment. Methods: study design: A 2 year longitudinal prospective study is carried out after applying the UGPL technique on a number of patients diagnosed with calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Clinical, ultrasound and radiology follow-up controls were performed, 3 months, 6 months, one year and two years after the treatment. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess the pain. The degree and point of pain is selected on a 10 cm line, arranged horizontally or vertically. The “0” represents no pain and “10” represents worst pain. The population studied was made up of 121 patients that required our service as a result of suffering from a painful shoulder. Results: the pain (VAS) and the size of the calcification significantly decreased with the application of the technique (ptendinitis of the shoulder. The intervention is simple, cost-effective, does not require hospitalization, involves no complications, rehabilitation treatment is not required and it shows very few side effects without sequelae, significantly reducing the size of the calcification and pain in the majority of patients. PMID:25332939

  3. Robotics in percutaneous cardiovascular interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourdjabbar, Ali; Ang, Lawrence; Behnamfar, Omid; Patel, Mitul P; Reeves, Ryan R; Campbell, Paul T; Madder, Ryan D; Mahmud, Ehtisham

    2017-11-01

    The fundamental technique of performing percutaneous cardiovascular (CV) interventions has remained unchanged and requires operators to wear heavy lead aprons to minimize exposure to ionizing radiation. Robotic technology is now being utilized in interventional cardiology partially as a direct result of the increasing appreciation of the long-term occupational hazards of the field. This review was undertaken to report the clinical outcomes of percutaneous robotic coronary and peripheral vascular interventions. Areas covered: A systematic literature review of percutaneous robotic CV interventions was undertaken. The safety and feasibility of percutaneous robotically-assisted CV interventions has been validated in simple to complex coronary disease, and iliofemoral disease. Studies have shown that robotically-assisted PCI significantly reduces operator exposure to harmful ionizing radiation without compromising procedural success or clinical efficacy. In addition to the operator benefits, robotically-assisted intervention has the potential for patient advantages by allowing more accurate lesion length measurement, precise stent placement and lower patient radiation exposure. However, further investigation is required to fully elucidate these potential benefits. Expert commentary: Incremental improvement in robotic technology and telecommunications would enable treatment of an even broader patient population, and potentially provide remote robotic PCI.

  4. Recombinant butyryl-cholinesterase (RBuChe) therapy following VX poisoning by the percutaneous route: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speakman, P.; Armstrong, S.

    2009-01-01

    Medical countermeasures to prevent or mitigate the effects of nerve agent poisoning are part of the UK MoD's integrated approach to CBRN defence. Protexia is currently in advanced development as a pretreatment for nerve agent poisoning by PharmAthene in collaboration with US DoD. The principle of its use in this context has been demonstrated in a model of inhalation exposure. Nerve agent poisoning by the percutaneous route poses additional challenges for medical countermeasures. The present study investigates the effects of non-pegylated rBuChE administered following poisoning by VX in an animal model of percutaneous exposure. This investigation is part of an ongoing programme of work assessing the potential of candidate medical interventions. Male guinea pigs implanted with dermal and blood microdialysis probes were maintained under anaesthesia. VX (296 micro g/kg or 740 micro g/kg) was applied to the dorsal skin and non-pegylated rBuChE or placebo was administered (i.v.) 30 minutes later. Dialysate fractions were collected for 8 hours and VX was analysed by LC-MS-MS. Cholinesterase levels were measured in selected tissues post mortem. Following VX (296 micro g/kg), non-pegylated rBuChE significantly reduced the concentration of VX in the blood but had no effect on dermal concentrations; additionally following VX (740 micro g/kg), non-pegylated rBuChE prevented lethality. Tissue cholinesterase activity was inhibited following VX exposure but in those animals treated with rhBuChE, activities were similar to control values. To our knowledge these results provide the first evidence of the mechanism of therapeutic intervention with rBuChE. Further work is necessary to increase confidence in these preliminary observations by conducting confirmatory studies. Crown Copyright 2008. This work was carried out as part of the UK MoD NBC Research Programme. Non-pegylated rBuChE was supplied by PharmAthene under a materials transfer and non-disclosure agreement. (author)

  5. The results interpretation of thermogasdynamic studies of vertical gas wells incomplete in terms of the reservoir penetration degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Shamsiev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed for interpreting thermogasdynamic studies of vertical gas wells that are incomplete in terms of the reservoir penetration degree on the basis of inverse tasks theory. The inverse task has the aim to determine the reservoir parameters for nonisothermal filtration of a real gas to a vertical well in an anisotropic reservoir. In this case, the values ​​of the pressure and temperature at the well bottom, recorded by deep instruments, are assumed to be known. The solution of the inverse task is to minimize the functional. The iterative sequence for minimizing the functional is based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The convergence and stability of the iterative process for various input information have been studied on specific examples. The effect of reservoir anisotropy on the pressure and temperature changes at the bottom of the well is studied. It is shown that if the reservoir is not completely penetrated by the results of pressure and temperature measurements at the bottom of the well, anisotropy of the reservoir can be estimated after its launch. It should be noted that when studying thermodynamic processes in the vicinity of a well, which penetrates thick layers, it is necessary to take into account not only the heat exchange of the reservoir with the surrounding rocks, but also the geothermal temperature gradient.

  6. Exercise radionuclide ventriculographic study of mitral stenosis before and after percutaneous mirtal valvuloplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Yun; Shim, Won Heum; Cho, Seung Yun; Kim, Sung Soon; Lee, Woong Ku; Kim, Myeong Jin; Choe, Kyu Ok [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Jung [Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    We performed radionuclide ventriculography before and within 1 week after percutaneous mirtal valvuloplasty (PMV) to evaluate left ventricular (LV) function in 20 patients (2 meals and 17 females, mean age of 38 {+-} 10 years) who were pure mitral stenosis before PMV and less than grade 1 mirtal regurgitation developed after PMV. 9 out of 20 patients had atrial fibrillation and 3 patients developed a small left-to-right shunt (Qp/Qs < 1.5) after PMV. PMV using double-balloon technique resulted in a increase in mitral valve area (0.9 {+-} 0.3 to 2.1 {+-} 0.8cm{sup 2}, {rho} < 0.001) and in rest cardiac output (4.2 {+-} 1.0 to 4.8 {+-} 1.4 L/min, {rho} < 0.005). And also a decrease in mean mitral gradient (16.2 {+-} 7.0 to 5.2 {+-} 3.0 mmHg, {rho} < 0.001) was noted. Comparisons of LV function by supine bicycle exercise radionuclide ventriculography before and after PMV showed no significant changes in rest LV ejection fraction (LVEF, 55.2 {+-} 9.7 to 56.1 {+-} 11.0%, {rho} > 0.05), maximal exercise LVEF (60.9 {+-} 10.3 to 59.3 {+-} 11.1%, {rho} > 0.05), peak ejection rate (2.02 {+-} 0.58 to 2.15 {+-} 0.60 EDV/ses, {rho} > 0.05), and peak filling rate (1.04 {+-} 0.55 to 1.52 {+-} 0.49 EDV/ses, {rho} > 0.05). However, LV end diastolic volume (LVEDV, -29.3 {+-} 19.0 to +3.3 {+-} 32.9%, {rho} < 0.001), stroke volume (SV,-22.0 {+-} 22.0 to +11.2 {+-} 40.0%, {rho} < 0.001), and cardiac output (CO, 64.6 {+-} 54.0 to 100.4 {+-} 69.7%, {rho} < 0.05) with exercise compared to resting values were significantly increased. We conclude that PMV resulted in a significant increase in LVEDV, SV, and CO with exercise, but decreased LV systolic performance and no improvement in diastolic filling.

  7. Comparative study of radiofrequency ablation and percutaneous ethanol injection in treating postoperative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zuobing

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the clinical effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI in treating postoperative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and to provide reference for clinical treatment of recurrent HCC. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 175 patients who had a single recurrent lesion after surgical treatment of HCC from August 2007 to January 2010. These patients were divided into PEI group (n=101 and RFA group (n=74 according to the modalities of treatment for recurrent HCC. All cases underwent color Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound or CT before and after treatment. The two groups were compared in terms of number of treatments, complete ablation rate, and complication rate. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates after treatment were also recorded. The measurement data were subjected to t-test, while the enumeration data were subjected to chi-square test. ResultsThe PEI group had a significantly larger mean number of treatments than the RFA group (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in complication rate between the two groups (P>0.05. For the recurrent lesions smaller than 2.0 cm in diameter, the complete ablation rate showed no significant difference between the RFA group and PEI group (P>0.05, while this rate was significantly higher in the RFA group than in the PEI group for the recurrent lesions with a diameter of 2.0-5.0 cm (P<005. Among the patients with recurrent lesions smaller than 2.0 cm in diameter, those receiving PEI had 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates of 89.1%, 69.1%, and 49.1%, respectively, versus 90.2%, 70.7%, and 53.7% for those receiving RFA (P>0.05; among the patients with recurrent lesions with a diameter of 2.0-5.0 cm, those receiving PEI had significantly lower 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates than those receiving RFA (63.0% vs 84.8%, P<0.05; 43.5% vs 66.7%, P<0.05; 21.7% vs 45.5%, P<0

  8. Building application of solar energy. Study no. 2: Representative buildings for solar energy performance analysis and market penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) Assignment of population to microclimatic zones; (2) specifications of the mix of buildings in the SCE territory; (3) specification of four typical buildings for thermal analysis and market penetration studies; (4) identification of the materials and energy conserving characteristics of these typical buildings; (5) specifications of the HVAC functions used in each typical building, and determination of the HVAC systems used in each building; and (6) identification of the type of fuel used in each building.

  9. Clinical study on minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion combined with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation for degenerative lumbar scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao WU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the operative essentials and therapeutic effects of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF combined with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation for degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS.  Methods A total of 17 DLS patients without prior spinal diseases were treated by MIS-TLIF and percutaneous pedicle screw fixation from January 2013 to September 2015 in Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, and postoperative complication were recorded in each patient. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI were used to evaluate postoperative improvement of low back and leg pain, and clinical effects were assessed according to Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. Coronal Cobb angle, sagittal lordosis angle and spinal deviation distances on coronal and sagittal plane were measured before operation, one week, 3 months after operation and in the last follow-up in spinal full-length X-ray examination. Fusion rate was calculated according to X-ray or CT scan, and the degree of decompression was evaluated by MRI.  Results Decompression and fusion levels ranged from T12-S1 vertebrae, and interbody fusion was performed in 17 patients and 56 levels were fused. Average operation time was 200 min (180-300 min, intraoperative blood loss was 320 ml (200-1000 ml and hospital stay was 8.21 d (5-12 d. All patients were followed-up for 12.13 months (5-24 months. Compared with preoperation, VAS (P = 0.000, for all and ODI scores (P = 0.000, for all decreased significantly, SF-36 score increased (P = 0.000, for all, coronal Cobb angle (P = 0.000, for all, sagittal lordosis angle (P = 0.000, for all, coronal and sagittal deviation (P = 0.000, for all decreased significantly one week and 3 months after operation and in the last follow-up. The improvement rate of ODI was (86.51 ± 6.02%, fusion rate of vertebral bodies

  10. A Simplified Method of Opacifying and Mixing Acrylic Cement for Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: A Clinical and In Vitro Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Gaojun; He Shicheng; Deng Gang; Guo Jinhe; Fang Wen; Zhu Guangyu

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to simplify the opacifying mixing process of the bone cement and contrast used for percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). We performed a biomechanical study of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) (Corinplast TM 3) using three different mixtures of PMMA, monomer, and contrast: group I, 2:1; group II, 3:2; group III, 3:2:1 ratio of powder/monomer/iodinated contrast (Omnipaque). In vitro biomechanical testing of ultimate compressive strength was carried out in all samples. Following the conclusion of a proper bone cement mixture regimen drawn from the in vitro study, PVP was performed in 125 patients: 58 with cancer, 12 with hemangioma, and 54 with osteoporotic fracture. The ultimate compressive strength in group III was decreased by 38% compared to groups II and I. Proper fluoroscopic visualization was achieved in all PVP procedures using this mixture. There were no major complications associated with injection of the cement mixture. Complete (CR) and partial response (PR) was obtained in 64% and 32.8%, respectively. No further vertebral collapse occurred during follow-up. The regimen using iodinated contrast for cement visualization during PVP provides a simple and convenient new method for mixing. Although the biomechanical strength is altered by the contrast medium added, it seems insignificant in clinical practice based on the authors' limited experience

  11. Comparison of Infection and Urosepsis Rates of Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone Prophylaxis before Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Prospective and Randomised Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Demirtas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the choice and administration duration of ideal antibiotic prophylaxis before percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL operation, a treatment modality for nephrolithiasis. The study included 90 patients who had no internal problem, yet had a negative urine culture and underwent a PNL operation. We compared infection rates between ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone groups and their subgroups. The results showed no statistical difference between ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone groups in terms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS (CIPP=0.306, CTX P=0.334. As a result of this study no statistical difference was observed between ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone in terms of SIRS. It seems, however, reasonable to choose ceftriaxone, considering antibiotic sensitivity of microorganisms and detection of three cases accepted as urosepsis in the ciprofloxacin group. As there is no difference between short, and long-term prophylactic use of these antibiotics, preference of short-term prophylaxis for patients with no risk of infection will be important to avoid inappropriate antibiotic usage.

  12. Lipid nanoparticles for topical and transdermal application for alopecia treatment: development, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro release and penetration studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, M. J.; Martins, S.; Ferreira, D.

    2014-01-01

    with few side effects, new drug-delivery systems able to improve alopecia therapy are urgently required. With this purpose in mind, the present study aimed to develop lipid nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers) with the ability to incorporate and deliver anti-alopecia active compounds (minoxidil...... less than 30% was achieved for minoxidil nanoparticles, over 28 days. Controlled release assays in physiological conditions demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil yielded a prolonged release, as desired. Penetration assays through pig ear skin demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded...... with minoxidil and finasteride had low levels of penetration. These results suggest that the proposed novel formulation presents several good characteristics indicating their suitability for dermal delivery of anti-alopecia active compounds....

  13. Application of CT-guided percutaneous thyroid biopsy in basic study of interventional therapy for Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Genfa; Zhao Wei; Hu Jihong; Jin Cangzheng; Yang Huiying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of application of CT-guided percutaneous thyroid biopsy in basic study of interventional treatment for Graves disease. Methods: Fifteen patients of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease had been undertaken transcathter arterial embolizsation with PVA micropheres including 52 core needle biopsy(CNB)of pre-or post-interventional procedure. All procedures were divided into 2 groups according to the size of the thyroid enlargement: (1) II degree enlargement (n=19)under palpation puncture. (2) No enlargement or under II degree enlargement (n=33)with palpation and CT-guided puncture. Results: In group (1), 17 of the 19 procedures with palpation puncture were succeeded, reaching a successful rate of 89.5%. For group (2), the successful rate of CT-guided puncture was 91.7%. The difference between the successful rate of two groups showed statistical significance (P<0.05). No complication occurred during procedures in all cases. Conclusions: CT-guided thyroid core needle biopsy is an accurate, safe and high successful procedure providing the basic study for post-interventional treatment of Graves disease. (authors)

  14. Extended indications for percutaneous tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Nun, Alon; Altman, Eduard; Best, Lael Anson

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, percutaneous tracheostomy has become a routine practice in many hospitals. In the early publications, most authors considered adverse conditions such as short, fat neck or obesity as relative contraindications whereas cervical injury, coagulopathy, and emergency were regarded as absolute contraindications. More recently, several reports demonstrated the feasibility of percutaneous tracheostomy in patients with some of these contraindications. The aim of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of percutaneous tracheostomy in conditions commonly referred to as contraindications. Between June 2000 and July 2001, 157 consecutive percutaneous tracheostomy procedures were performed on 154 critically ill adult patients in the general intensive care unit of a major tertiary care facility. The Griggs technique and Portex set were used at the bedside. All procedures were performed by staff thoracic surgeons and anesthesiologists experienced with the technique. Anatomical conditions, presence of coagulopathy and anti-coagulation therapy, demographics, and complication rates were recorded. Five of 157 procedures (154 patients owing to three repeat tracheostomies) had complications. In patients with normal anatomical conditions and coagulation profiles, there was one case of bleeding (50 cc to 120 cc) and one case of mild cellulitis around the stoma. In patients with adverse conditions, there was one case of bleeding (50 cc to 120 cc) and two cases of minor bleeding (< 50 cc). Patients with adverse conditions had a low complication rate similar to patients with normal conditions. For this reason, we believe that percutaneous tracheostomy is indicated in patients with short, fat neck; inability to perform neck extension; enlarged isthmus of thyroid; previous tracheostomy; or coagulopathy and anti-coagulation therapy.

  15. Microwave study of magnetic field penetration parallel to thin niobium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grbic, M.S.; Janjusevic, D.; Pozek, M.; Dulcic, A.; Wagner, T.

    2007-01-01

    Complex conductivity of high quality niobium thin films has been investigated by microwave technique in parallel static magnetic field. For the 40 nm thick film no vortices can be formed and the microwave penetration is defined by the strength of the superconducting order parameter which varies with the applied magnetic field. 160 nm thick measured film allows formation of two rows of vortices. Microwave dissipiation is dominated by dynamics of vortices which is strongly affected by size effects. Results have been compared with the generalised models of complex conductivity for low-dimensional superconductor in mixed state following earlier considerations by other authors

  16. Study of temperature increase and optic depth penetration in photo irradiated human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolik, Suren; Delgado, Jose A.; Perez, Arllene M.; Anasagasti, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Optical radiation is widely applied in the treatment and diagnosis of different pathologies. If the power density of the incident light is sufficiently high to induce a significant temperature rise in the irradiated tissue, then it is also needed the knowledge of the thermal properties of the tissue for a complete understanding of the therapeutic effects. The thermal penetration depth of several human tissues has been measured applying the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation for the distribution of optical radiation. The method, the experimental setup and the results are presented and discussed. (Author)

  17. Theoretical study of the attenuation of a gaussian beam penetrating into a dielectric circular wave guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenn, J.P.

    1981-07-01

    It is proposed to draw up an approximate formula directly giving the attenuation of a gaussian beam penetrating into a superdimensioned dielectric circular wave guide. This formula is derived from optical laws, i.e. Fresnel's formulae of the reflexion of a wave on a dielectric to which a correcting term due to diffraction has been added. The results given by this formula are compared with the existing results, based on the breakdown of a gaussian beam into propagation modes, thereby enabling their validity and the field of use to be checked. An application is then made to the wave guides that will be employed in the infrared interferometer fitted in JET [fr

  18. Computed tomographic diagnosis for hepatofugal collaterals in portal hypertension. Comparative study of CT with percutaneous transhepatic portography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Akihiko; Sano, Akira; Imanaka, Kazufumi; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Sasai, Keisuke

    1984-08-01

    This paper deals with the diagnostic capability of CT scan for hepatofugal collaterals in 22 patients with portal hypertension. The patients studied were those who underwent percutaneous transhepatic portography (PTP) and CT scan within a short period. Each collateral vein demonstrated by PTP was classified into three grades according to its caliber (d): (1) Grade I, d<5mm, (2) Grade II, 5mm

  19. An experimental study of percutaneous vertebroplasty using instruments and drugs made in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Gang; Jin Peng; Xie Zonggui; Yi Yumei; Zhang Xuping; Cong Yongjian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) using instruments and drugs made in China, and to provide the data for the clinical application. Methods: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) without adding contrast was classified into 3 groups according to the ratio of powder/liquid as 2:1, 3:2, 1:1, PMMA with contrast was also classified into 3 groups according to the ratio of powder/liquid/contrast as 2:1:1, 3:2:1, 1:1:1. There were 6 groups totally. the periods and temperature of polymerizing process were measured. The PMMA specimens of different group were made, with the diameter of 1.0 cm, height of 3.0 cm. The density was determined in X-ray pictures and mechanical testing with universal testing machine was performed. PVP was performed in the spines of 3 human cadavers with transpedicular route under fluoroscopic control. The PMMA was injected into vertebra at an interval of one vertebra from T4-L4, 7 vertebra were injected on each cadaver. The injected volume was recorded. the spines were dissected into 42 single vertebrae, with all soft tissues removed. Overall, 21 pairs of adjacent vertebrae were subjected to axial compression in an universal testing machine. The cranial vertebra of each pair was injected with PMMA, the caudal one served as a control. Results: Lower temperature was observed in the PMMA groups with adding contrast than those without adding contrast during the polymerizing process, the average temperature in the PMMA group with the ratio of powder/liquid/contrast as 3:2:1 was 67.4 degree C. There was significant X-ray density difference between the groups with contrast and corresponding groups without contrast (t=20.00, t=20.00, t=22.86, P 0.05). The group with ratio of power/liquid/contrast 3:2:1 was (127±4.70) s in the period of the paste, and the ultimate compressive strength (mPa) was 47.23. The punctures were successfully reached in all vertebra. The injected PMMA average volume was 5 ml in the thoracic vertebra and 7

  20. The functions of atrial strands interdigitating with and penetrating into sinoatrial node: a theoretical study of the problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Huang

    Full Text Available The sinoatrial node (SAN-atrium system is closely involved with the activity of heart beating. The impulse propagation and phase-locking behaviors of this system are of theoretical interest. Some experiments have revealed that atrial strands (ASs interdigitate with and penetrate into the SAN, whereby the SAN-atrium system works as a complex network. In this study, the functions of ASs are numerically investigated using realistic cardiac models. The results indicate that the ASs penetrating into the central region of the SAN play a major role in propagating excitation into the atrium. This is because the threshold SAN-AS coupling for an AS to function as an alternative path for propagation is lower at the center than at the periphery. However, ASs penetrating into the peripheral region have a great effect in terms of enlarging the 1:1 entrainment range of the SAN because the automaticity of the SAN is evidently reduced by ASs. Moreover, an analytical formula for approximating the enlargement of the 1:1 range is derived.

  1. Study of the Penetration Bias of ENVISAT Altimeter Observations over Antarctica in Comparison to ICESat Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Michel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the penetration bias of the ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT radar altimeter over the Antarctic ice sheet through comparison with the more accurate measurements of the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat altimeter at crossover points. We studied the difference between ENVISAT and ICESat fluctuations over six years. We observed the same patterns between the leading edge width and the elevation difference. Both parameters are linked, and the major bias is due to the lengthening of the leading edge width due to the radar penetration. We show that the elevation difference between both altimeters and the leading edge width are linearly well-linked with a 0.8 Pearson correlation coefficient, whereas the slope effect over the coasts is difficult to analyze. When we analyze each crossover point temporal evolution locally, the linear correlation between the leading edge width and the elevation difference is between −0.6 and −1. Fitting a linear model between them, we find a reliability index greater than 0.7 for the Antarctic Plateau and Dronning Maud Land, which confirms that the penetration effect has a linear influence on the retrieved height. Moreover, we present results from SARAL/AltiKa (launched in February 2013 that confirm SARAL/AltiKa accuracy and the promising information it will provide.

  2. Field penetration induced charge redistribution effects on the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes - a first-principle study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-W.; Lee, M.-H.; Clark, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of field penetration induced charge redistribution on the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied by the first-principle calculations. It is found that the carbon nanotube becomes polarized under external electric field leading to a charge redistribution. The resulting band bending induced by field penetration into the nanotube tip surface can further reduce the effective workfunction of the carbon nanotubes. The magnitude of the redistributed charge ΔQ is found to be nearly linear to the applied external field strength. In addition, we found that the capped (9, 0) zigzag nanotube demonstrates better field emission properties than the capped (5, 5) armchair nanotube due to the fact that the charge redistribution of π electrons along the zigzag-like tube axis is easier than for the armchair-like tube. The density of states (DOS) of the capped region of the nanotube is found to be enhanced with a value 30% higher than that of the sidewall part for the capped (5, 5) nanotube and 40% for the capped (9, 0) nanotube under an electric field of 0.33 V/A. Such enhancements of the DOS at the carbon nanotube tip show that electrons near the Fermi level will emit more easily due to the change of the surface band structure resulting from the field penetration in a high field

  3. A study of penetration test for applying a remote monitoring system for virtual private network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Park, I. J.; Min, K. S.; Choi, Y. M. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jo, D. K. [A3 Security Consulting Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    A penetration test has been performed to verify the vulnerability of Virtual Private Network that is substitute for communication method of an existing remote monitoring system. An existing RMS was used for the private telephone and the RMS was applied of all PWR in Korea. But, due to communication fee, IAEA wanted to replace current telephone line to the internet line to reduce transmission cost in operating remote monitoring system. The communication cost of telephone line was estimated about $66,000/yr. Internet technology would reduce the operating cost up to 1/5. The purpose of the penetration test was to demonstrate the security of the data and system against both various external and internal hacking scenarios. In most cases, hacker could not even identify the VPN system. In any cases, the system did not allow the access of the hacker to the system needless to say the data alteration or system shutdown. Two kinds of test method is chosen; one is external attack and another is internal attack. During the test, the hacking tool was used. The result of test was proved that VPN was secure against internal/external attack.

  4. A study of penetration test for applying a remote monitoring system for virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Park, I. J.; Min, K. S.; Choi, Y. M.; Jo, D. K.

    2003-01-01

    A penetration test has been performed to verify the vulnerability of Virtual Private Network that is substitute for communication method of an existing remote monitoring system. An existing RMS was used for the private telephone and the RMS was applied of all PWR in Korea. But, due to communication fee, IAEA wanted to replace current telephone line to the internet line to reduce transmission cost in operating remote monitoring system. The communication cost of telephone line was estimated about $66,000/yr. Internet technology would reduce the operating cost up to 1/5. The purpose of the penetration test was to demonstrate the security of the data and system against both various external and internal hacking scenarios. In most cases, hacker could not even identify the VPN system. In any cases, the system did not allow the access of the hacker to the system needless to say the data alteration or system shutdown. Two kinds of test method is chosen; one is external attack and another is internal attack. During the test, the hacking tool was used. The result of test was proved that VPN was secure against internal/external attack

  5. Photoacoustic study of the penetration kinetics of nimesulid into human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barja, P R; Veloso, D J D V

    2010-01-01

    The photoacoustic (PA) effect is observed when modulated (or pulsed) light is absorbed by a sample inside a closed chamber and converted in heat, generating acoustic waves; PA measurements have been employed to evaluate transdermal penetration of topically applied drugs. Phonophoresis is the utilization of ultrasonic (US) energy to enhance absorption of drugs across the epidermal barrier, and its usefulness has been shown by PA measurements. The aim of the present work was to determine the characteristic absorption times of the anti-inflammatory Nimesulid (gel) in human skin, with and without help of therapeutic phonophoresis. After local cleaning, measurements were performed in the forearm of each volunteer before Nimesulid application and for different times after application through massage with the US equipment head; the protocol was repeated for the opposite forearm, but without US emission. Curves of the PA signal level as a function of time were adjusted by a Boltzmann equation, leading to the determination of the characteristic absorption time (about 12 minutes). No significant gain was observed in Nimesulid absorption with the utilization of US radiation, indicating that topic application of Nimesulid does not require the use of phonophoresis, due to the natural fast penetration of the Nimesulid gel.

  6. Short-term outcomes and safety of computed tomography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer: A multi-center retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Min; Ye, Xin; Yang, Xia; Zheng, Aimin; Huang, Guang Hui; Wei, Zhigang [Dept. of Oncology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated with Shandong University, Jinan (China); Fan, Wei Jun [Imaging and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Kaixian [Dept. of Oncology, Teng Zhou Central People' s Hospital Affiliated with Jining Medical College, Tengzhou (China); Bi, Jing Wang [Dept. of Oncology, Jinan Military General Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Jinan (China)

    2016-11-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the short-term outcomes and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) of solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer. From May 2010 to April 2014, 31 patients with unilateral adrenal metastasis from lung cancer who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous MWA were enrolled. This study was conducted with approval from local Institutional Review Board. Clinical outcomes and complications of MWA were assessed. Their tumors ranged from 1.5 to 5.4 cm in diameter. After a median follow-up period of 11.1 months, primary efficacy rate was 90.3% (28/31). Local tumor progression was detected in 7 (22.6%) of 31 cases. Their median overall survival time was 12 months. The 1-year overall survival rate was 44.3%. Median local tumor progression-free survival time was 9 months. Local tumor progression-free survival rate was 77.4%. Of 36 MWA sessions, two (5.6%) had major complications (hypertensive crisis). CT-guided percutaneous MWA may be fairly safe and effective for treating solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer.

  7. Clinical efficacy, safety, and costs of percutaneous occlusive balloon catheter-assisted ureteroscopic lithotripsy for large impacted proximal ureteral calculi: a prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shiyong; Li, Yanni; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Changwen; Zhang, Hongtuan; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and costs of percutaneous occlusive balloon catheter-assisted ureteroscopic lithotripsy (POBC-URSL) for large impacted proximal ureteral calculi. 156 patients with impacted proximal ureteral stones ≥1.5 cm in size were randomized to ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL), POBC-URSL, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) group between May 2010 and May 2013. For URSL, the calculi were disintegrated with the assistance of anti-retropulsion devices. POBC-URSL was performed with the assistance of an 8F percutaneous occlusive balloon catheter. PNL was finished with the combination of an ultrasonic and a pneumatic lithotripter. A flexible ureteroscope and a 200 μm laser fiber were used to achieve stone-free status to a large extent for each group. Variables studied were mean operative time, auxiliary procedure, postoperative hospital stay, operation-related complications, stone clearance rate, and treatment costs. The mean lithotripsy time for POBC-URSL was shorter than URSL, but longer than PNL (42.6±8.9 minutes vs 66.7±15.3 minutes vs 28.1±6.3 minutes, p=0.014). The auxiliary procedure rate and postoperative fever rate for POBC-URSL were significantly lower than URSL and comparable to PNL (pPNL (98.1% vs 75.0% vs 96.2%, pPNL group and similar to URSL group (p=0.016, pPNL.

  8. Skull penetrating wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Orlandi, Yvei; Junco Martin, Reinel; Rojas Manresa, Jorge; Duboy Limonta, Victor; Matos Herrera, Omar; Saez Corvo, Yunet

    2011-01-01

    The cranioencephalic trauma is common in the emergence centers to care for patients with multiple traumata and it becames in a health problem in many countries. Skull penetrating trauma is located in a special place due to its low frequency. In present paper a case of male patient aged 52 severely skull-injured with penetrating wound caused by a cold steel that remained introduced into the left frontotemporal region. After an imaging study the emergence surgical treatment was applied and patient evolves adequately after 25 days of hospitalization. Nowadays, she is under rehabilitation treatment due to a residual right hemiparesis.(author)

  9. Outcome of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Kumar, N.; Baloch, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the implementation of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in renal stone management and evaluate the factors for efficacy and safety of PCNL. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Patients aged above 12 years of age, irrespective of gender with normal renal function, mean stone size > 2 cm, lower pole stones > 1 cm, and ESWL failure were selected. After the procedure, on the first postoperative day, a plain abdominal radiograph was obtained to verify stone clearance. A nephrostomy tube was clamped overnight and subsequently removed when no residual stone which needs second sitting was seen. Results: In 175 patients, 62.86% (n=110) were male and the mean age was 35 A +- 9.56 years. One hundred and seventeen (66.85%) patients were primarily stone free and 13.71% (n=24) patients needed a second look procedure, thus, a total of 80.57% (n=141) patients were stone free in the same admission. Complications included failure in 4.0% (n=7) patients, bleeding in 8.57% (n=15) patients, a small residual stone in 15.43% (n=27) patients; and puncture site pain almost in every patient. Transient fever occurred in 55.43% (n=97) patients, urinary leakage in 8.57% (n=15) patients, urinary tract infections in 5.14% (n=9) patients, ureteric colic in 3.43% (n=6) patients, colonic injury in 0.57% (n=1) patient; and nephrectomy was required in 0.57% (n=1) patient due to severe bleeding. One patient (0.57%) expired due to anaesthesia complications. Conclusion: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has a good success rate. There is minimal blood loss, and few major complications. (author)

  10. Magnetometry and Ground-Penetrating Radar Studies in the Sihuas Valley, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnicki, E.; Papadimitrios, K.; Bank, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Quillcapampa la Antigua site in Peru's Sihuas Valley is a settlement from Peru's Middle Horizon (600-100 A.D.). Archaeological interest in the area stems from the question of whether ancient civilizations were able to have extensive state control of distant groups, or whether state influence occurred through less direct ties (e.g., marriage, religion, or trade). Our geophysical surveys are preliminary to archaeological digging in the area. Ground-penetrating radar and magnetometry attempt to locate areas of interest for focused archaeological excavation, characterize the design of architectural remains and burial mounds in the area, and allow archaeologists to interpret the amount of influence the Wari civilization had on the local residents.

  11. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Hong, Seong Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1982-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was successfully made 20 times on 17 patients of obstructive jaundice for recent 1 year since June 1981 at Department of Radiology in Seoul National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice was CBD Ca in 13 cases, metastasis in 2 cases, pancreatic cancer in 1 case and CBD stone in 1 case. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a relatively ease, safe and effective method which can be done after PTC by radiologist. It is expected that percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be done as an essential procedure for transient permanent palliation of obstructive jaundice

  12. Model track studies on fouled ballast using ground penetrating radar and multichannel analysis of surface wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, P.; Lijun, Su; Buddhima, Indraratna; Cholachat, Rujikiatkamjorn

    2011-08-01

    Ballast fouling is created by the breakdown of aggregates or outside contamination by coal dust from coal trains, or from soil intrusion beneath rail track. Due to ballast fouling, the conditions of rail track can be deteriorated considerably depending on the type of fouling material and the degree of fouling. So far there is no comprehensive guideline available to identify the critical degree of fouling for different types of fouling materials. This paper presents the identification of degree of fouling and types of fouling using non-destructive testing, namely seismic surface-wave and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey. To understand this, a model rail track with different degree of fouling has been constructed in Civil engineering laboratory, University of Wollongong, Australia. Shear wave velocity obtained from seismic survey has been employed to identify the degree of fouling and types of fouling material. It is found that shear wave velocity of fouled ballast increases initially, reaches optimum fouling point (OFP), and decreases when the fouling increases. The degree of fouling corresponding after which the shear wave velocity of fouled ballast will be smaller than that of clean ballast is called the critical fouling point (CFP). Ground penetrating radar with four different ground coupled antennas (500 MHz, 800 MHz, 1.6 GHz and 2.3 GHz) was also used to identify the ballast fouling condition. It is found that the 800 MHz ground coupled antenna gives a better signal in assessing the ballast fouling condition. Seismic survey is relatively slow when compared to GPR survey however it gives quantifiable results. In contrast, GPR survey is faster and better in estimating the depth of fouling.

  13. Precision insertion of percutaneous sacroiliac screws using a novel augmented reality-based navigation system: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huixiang; Wang, Fang; Leong, Anthony Peng Yew; Xu, Lu; Chen, Xiaojun; Wang, Qiugen

    2016-09-01

    Augmented reality (AR) enables superimposition of virtual images onto the real world. The aim of this study is to present a novel AR-based navigation system for sacroiliac screw insertion and to evaluate its feasibility and accuracy in cadaveric experiments. Six cadavers with intact pelvises were employed in our study. They were CT scanned and the pelvis and vessels were segmented into 3D models. The ideal trajectory of the sacroiliac screw was planned and represented visually as a cylinder. For the intervention, the head mounted display created a real-time AR environment by superimposing the virtual 3D models onto the surgeon's field of view. The screws were drilled into the pelvis as guided by the trajectory represented by the cylinder. Following the intervention, a repeat CT scan was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the system, by assessing the screw positions and the deviations between the planned trajectories and inserted screws. Post-operative CT images showed that all 12 screws were correctly placed with no perforation. The mean deviation between the planned trajectories and the inserted screws was 2.7 ± 1.2 mm at the bony entry point, 3.7 ± 1.1 mm at the screw tip, and the mean angular deviation between the two trajectories was 2.9° ± 1.1°. The mean deviation at the nerve root tunnels region on the sagittal plane was 3.6 ± 1.0 mm. This study suggests an intuitive approach for guiding screw placement by way of AR-based navigation. This approach was feasible and accurate. It may serve as a valuable tool for assisting percutaneous sacroiliac screw insertion in live surgery.

  14. Percutaneous coronary intervention patients’ and cardiologists’ experiences of the informed consent process in Northern England: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probyn, Joy; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Holt, Janet; Conway, Dwayne; Astin, Felicity

    2017-01-01

    Objective Informed consent is central to ethical medical practice, but little is known about how the process takes place in clinical practice. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a common revascularisation procedure. Studies report that patients overestimate benefits, forget the risks and are unaware of alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to describe PCI patients’ and cardiologists’ experiences of the informed consent process in acute care settings. Design/setting/participants A qualitative study with a maximum variation sample of elective and acute PCI patients and cardiologists taking their consent, recruited from a district general hospital and tertiary centre. In-depth interviews were conducted, and consent discussions were audio recorded. Data collection, coding and theorising occurred simultaneously. Findings Forty-one (26 male) patients scheduled for elective (20) or urgent (21) PCI and 19 cardiologists (5 female) participated. Despite diversity in patients’ experiences of informed consent, elective and acute patients experienced a common four-stage process of consent. Most patients made the decision to have treatment at PCI referral and took a passive role in the discussions we recorded. They recognised cardiologists as experts, trusted the medical system to ‘fix’ their health problem and were unaware of their role in the informed consent process. Informed consent discussions functioned as a formal ‘event’,enabling cardiologists to check patients’ understanding and enabling patients to access treatment. Conclusions The configuration of services and patients’ perceptions of their role in informed consent underpin a mismatch between legal and ethical principles of informed consent and current practice. The variation in patients’ experiences of the current place of informed consent in service delivery represents a missed opportunity for cardiologists to work in decision-making partnerships with patients. In light of

  15. Percutaneous coronary intervention patients' and cardiologists' experiences of the informed consent process in Northern England: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probyn, Joy; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Holt, Janet; Conway, Dwayne; Astin, Felicity

    2017-06-24

    Informed consent is central to ethical medical practice, but little is known about how the process takes place in clinical practice. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a common revascularisation procedure. Studies report that patients overestimate benefits, forget the risks and are unaware of alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to describe PCI patients' and cardiologists' experiences of the informed consent process in acute care settings. A qualitative study with a maximum variation sample of elective and acute PCI patients and cardiologists taking their consent, recruited from a district general hospital and tertiary centre. In-depth interviews were conducted, and consent discussions were audio recorded. Data collection, coding and theorising occurred simultaneously. Forty-one (26 male) patients scheduled for elective (20) or urgent (21) PCI and 19 cardiologists (5 female) participated. Despite diversity in patients' experiences of informed consent, elective and acute patients experienced a common four-stage process of consent. Most patients made the decision to have treatment at PCI referral and took a passive role in the discussions we recorded. They recognised cardiologists as experts, trusted the medical system to 'fix' their health problem and were unaware of their role in the informed consent process. Informed consent discussions functioned as a formal 'event',enabling cardiologists to check patients' understanding and enabling patients to access treatment. The configuration of services and patients' perceptions of their role in informed consent underpin a mismatch between legal and ethical principles of informed consent and current practice. The variation in patients' experiences of the current place of informed consent in service delivery represents a missed opportunity for cardiologists to work in decision-making partnerships with patients. In light of recent changes in the law, a new approach to informed consent is required.

  16. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Auricular Percutaneous Electrical Neural Field Stimulation for Fibromyalgia: Protocol for a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre, Melat; Woodbury, Anna; Napadow, Vitaly; Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri; Krishnamurthy, Lisa C; Sniecinski, Roman; Crosson, Bruce

    2018-02-06

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain state that includes widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, psychiatric symptoms, cognitive and sleep disturbances, and multiple somatic symptoms. Current therapies are often insufficient or come with significant risks, and while there is an increasing demand for non-pharmacologic and especially non-opioid pain management such as that offered through complementary and alternative medicine therapies, there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend these therapies. Percutaneous electrical neural stimulation (PENS) is an evidence-based treatment option for pain conditions that involves electrical current stimulation through needles inserted into the skin. Percutaneous electrical neural field stimulation (PENFS) of the auricle is similar to PENS, but instead of targeting a single neurovascular bundle, PENFS stimulates the entire ear, covering all auricular branches of the cranial nerves, including the vagus nerve. The neural mechanisms of PENFS for fibromyalgia symptom relief are unknown. We hypothesize that PENFS treatment will decrease functional brain connectivity between the default mode network (DMN) and right posterior insula in fibromyalgia patients. We expect that the decrease in functional connectivity between the DMN and insula will correlate with patient-reported analgesic improvements as indicated by the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) and will be anti-correlated with patient-reported analgesic medication consumption. Exploratory analyses will be performed for further hypothesis generation. A total of 20 adults from the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center diagnosed with fibromyalgia will be randomized into 2 groups: 10 subjects to a control (standard therapy) group and 10 subjects to a PENFS treatment group. The pragmatic, standard therapy group will include pharmacologic treatments such as anticonvulsants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical agents and physical therapy individualized to

  17. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intrapulmonary fluid collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, E. D.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, P. Y.; Jung, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    With the success of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, attention is now being focused on the use of similar techniques in the thorax. We studied to evaluate the effect of percutaneous drainage in parenchymal fluid collections in the lungs. We performed percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other parenchymal fluid collections of the lungs in 15 patients. All of the procedures were performed under the fluoroscopic guidance with an 18-gauge Seldinger needle and coaxial technique with a 8-10F drainage catheter. Among 10 patients with lung abscess, 8 patients improved by percutaneous catheter drainage. In one patient, drainage was failed by the accidental withdrawal of the catheter before complete drainage. One patient died of sepsis 5 hours after the procedure. Among three patients with complicated bulla, successful drainage was done in two patients, but in the remaining patient, the procedure was failed. In one patient with intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, the drainage was not successful due to the thick internal contents. In one patient with traumatic hematoma, after the drainage of old blood clots, the signs of infection disappeared. Overally, of 14 patients excluding one who died, 11 patients improved with percutaneous catheter drainage and three patients did not. There were no major complications during and after the procedure. We conclude that percutaneous catheter drainage is effective and safe procedure for the treatment of parenchymal fluid collections of the lung in patients unresponsive to the medical treatment

  18. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intrapulmonary fluid collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, E. D.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, P. Y.; Jung, S. H. [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    With the success of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, attention is now being focused on the use of similar techniques in the thorax. We studied to evaluate the effect of percutaneous drainage in parenchymal fluid collections in the lungs. We performed percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other parenchymal fluid collections of the lungs in 15 patients. All of the procedures were performed under the fluoroscopic guidance with an 18-gauge Seldinger needle and coaxial technique with a 8-10F drainage catheter. Among 10 patients with lung abscess, 8 patients improved by percutaneous catheter drainage. In one patient, drainage was failed by the accidental withdrawal of the catheter before complete drainage. One patient died of sepsis 5 hours after the procedure. Among three patients with complicated bulla, successful drainage was done in two patients, but in the remaining patient, the procedure was failed. In one patient with intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, the drainage was not successful due to the thick internal contents. In one patient with traumatic hematoma, after the drainage of old blood clots, the signs of infection disappeared. Overally, of 14 patients excluding one who died, 11 patients improved with percutaneous catheter drainage and three patients did not. There were no major complications during and after the procedure. We conclude that percutaneous catheter drainage is effective and safe procedure for the treatment of parenchymal fluid collections of the lung in patients unresponsive to the medical treatment.

  19. Standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy alone versus in combination with intraoperative anterograde flexible nephroscopy for staghorn stones: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goksel Goktug

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the outcomes of standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL to PCNL with intraoperative antegrade flexible nephroscopy (IAFN for treating stones of staghorn nature. We retrospectively analyzed patients treated using PCNL between January 2007 and July 2013. A total of 1250 patients were treated using PCNL, and 166 patients had staghorn stones. All patients had been subjected to a complete blood count, routine biochemical analyses, coagulation tests, a complete urine analysis, and urine cultures. Patients with a positive urine culture had been treated with appropriate antibiotics until the urine culture became negative. After purchasing a flexible renoscope in March 2012, we routinely used this tool to improve the stone-free (SF rate. The 105 patients who underwent standard PCNL prior to March 2012 were classified as Group 1, and the 61 patients who underwent PCNL + IAFN after that date were classified as Group 2. The two groups had similar and homogeneous demographic data. The fluoroscopy and total operative times were significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p < 0.01. Additionally, the hospitalization time (p < 0.01 and the mean hematocrit decrease (p < 0.01 were significantly lower in Group 1. In both groups, the SF rates were higher than 85%, similar to those reported in the literature. Although Group 2 had a slightly better SF rates, this difference was not statistically significant. For staghorn calculi, PCNL combined with IAFN yields excellent outcomes. However, similar prospective studies on larger cohorts should be performed to support our findings.

  20. Risk factors for percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage-related cholangitis in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Hongtao; Zhai Renyou; Wang Jianfeng; Huang Qiang; Yu Ping; Dai Dingke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) related cholangitis in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Methods: One hundred and fifty-four consecutive patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and without leukocytosis, fever and other manifestations of biliary tract infection received initial PTBD drainage. They were enrolled in this study. An uncontrolled prospective study was conducted of cholangitis occurrence within 30 days after PTBD. Twenty potential preoperative risk factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Fifty-five patients (55/154, 35.7%) developed PTBD-related cholangitis, which composed of cholangitis group. Other patients composed of non-cholangitis group (99/154). The cholangitis-related mortality rate was 2.6% (4/154). Intraoperative bile culture were performed for 131 patients (131/154), including 45 in cholangitis group and 86 in non-cholangitis group. Positive result occurred in 26 patients (26/45) in cholangitis group and 17 patients (17/86) in non-cholangitis group. There was statistical significant difference between these two groups (χ 2 =19.357, P 2 = 10.470, P 2 =36.324, P 2 =9.540, P 2 =9.856, P 2 =14.196, P 2 =6.190, P 2 =5.439, P<0.05) were significantly different between cholangitis group and non-cholangitis group. By multivariate analysis, diabetes (OR=5.093, P<0.01), Child-Pugh C grade (OR=13.412, P<0.01), undrained biliary duct (OR=3.348, P<0.05), external-internal drainage (OR=3.168, P<0.05) and history of ERCP or cholangiojejunostomy (OR=8.330, P<0.01) remained significant difference. Conclusions: PTBD is an effective and safe palliative treatment for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Sufficient preoperative preparation and effective control of risk factors may reduce the incidence of cholangitis after PTCD. (authors)

  1. Perceived Cognition after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Association with Quality of Life, Mood and Fatigue in the THORESCI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijndam, Stefanie; Denollet, Johan; Nyklíček, Ivan; Kupper, Nina

    2017-08-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a common invasive procedure for the treatment of coronary artery diseases. Long-term cognitive functioning after PCI and its association with health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychological factors is relatively unknown. The aim of this study is to examine whether perceived cognitive functioning during the year after PCI is associated with HRQL over this time period, and whether mood, fatigue, and age are associated with changes in perceived cognition and HRQL. Patients undergoing PCI (n = 384, 79% male, mean age = 63, SD = 10) were recruited in the observational Tilburg Health Outcome Registry of Emotional Stress after Coronary Intervention (THORESCI) cohort study. Perceived concentration and attention problems, HRQL, mood, and fatigue were assessed at baseline, at 1-month and 12-month follow-up. General linear mixed modeling analysis showed that across time, between- and within-subject differences in perceived concentration problems were associated with a reduced HRQL in all domains independent of clinical and demographic covariates. Only a part of this association could be explained by negative mood, fatigue, and older age. Similar findings were found for between-subject differences in perceived attention problems. Between-subject differences and within-subject changes in perceived cognition in PCI patients were strongly associated with HRQL across time, such that poorer perceived cognition was associated with poorer HRQL, independent of demographic and clinical variables. Most of the associations were also independent of mood and fatigue. The results should increase the awareness of clinicians for the role of cognition in the cardiac rehabilitation and recovery post-PCI.

  2. Phase I/II Multi-Institutional Study of Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation for Painful Osteoid Osteoma (JIVROSG-0704)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Masaya, E-mail: mmiyazak@gunma-u.ac.jp [Gunma University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology and Clinical Ultrasound Center (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki [National Center Hospital, Division of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Myoui, Akira [Osaka University Hospital, Medical Center for Translational Research (Japan); Gobara, Hideo [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sone, Miyuki [National Center Hospital, Division of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Rosenthal, Daniel I. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States); Tsushima, Yoshito [Gunma University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology and Clinical Ultrasound Center (Japan); Kanazawa, Susumu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ehara, Shigeru [Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Endo, Keigo [Gunma University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology and Clinical Ultrasound Center (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    PurposeThis multicenter prospective study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for painful osteoid osteoma (OO).Materials and MethodsPatients with OO (femur: n = 17, tibia: n = 2, humerus: n = 1, rib: n = 1) were enrolled and treated with RFA. In phase I, nine patients were evaluated for safety. In phase II, 12 patients were accrued, and an intent-to-treat analysis was performed on all patients. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the treatment safety. The secondary endpoint was to evaluate the efficacy for pain relief by the visual analogue scale (VAS) at 4 weeks after RFA. Treatment efficacy was classified as significantly effective (SE) when VAS score decreased by ≥5 or score was <2, moderately effective when VAS score decreased by <5–≥2 and score was ≥2, and not effective (NE) when VAS score decreased by <2 or score was increased. Cases where the need for analgesics increased after treatment were also NE.ResultsRFA procedures were completed in all patients. Minor adverse effects (AEs) were observed as 4.8–14.3 % in 12 patients, and no major AEs were observed. Mean VAS score was 7.1 before treatment, 1.6 at 1 week, 0.3 at 4 weeks, and 0.2 at 3 months. All procedures were classified as SE. Pain recurrence was not noted in any patient during follow-up (mean: 15.1 months).ConclusionRFA is a safe, highly effective, and fast-acting treatment for painful extraspinal OO. Future studies with a greater number of patients are needed.

  3. Current status of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a general hospital in Japan: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Chika; Yamada, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masaji; Gotoda, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been debate over the indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in recent years in Japan. In addition, the level of satisfaction of patients and patient’s family after PEG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of PEG and the level of satisfaction of patients and patients’ families after PEG in Japan. Methods: We reviewed the existing data of all patients who underwent PEG tube insertion at Yuri Kumiai General Hospital (Akita, Japan) between February 2000 and December 2010. We examined the following points: underlying diseases requiring PEG, levels of consciousness, and performance status. We also sent a questionnaire to the patients and patient’s families to ask about their satisfaction with and thoughts about PEG. Results: The data of 545 patients who underwent PEG were reviewed. There were 295 men and 250 women, with a mean age of 77.2 ± 11.4 years. PEG was indicated most frequently for cerebrovascular disorders (48.2%, 239/545). There were 515 (94.4%, 515/545) patients showing consciousness disturbance and 444 (81.5%, 444/545) bedridden patients. The questionnaire was answered by one patient himself and 316 patients’ families. When asked, “Was performing PEG a good decision?”, 57.5% (182/316) of the patients’ families answered yes. Meanwhile, when patients’ family members were asked if they would wish to undergo PEG if they were in the same condition as the patient, 28.4% (90/316) answered yes, whereas 55.3% (175/316) answered no. Conclusions: Few patients were able to make their own decision about PEG tube placement because of consciousness disturbance. As a result, many family members of the patients did not want to experience PEG for themselves. Future studies should be performed to clarify the quality of life and ethical aspects associated with PEG. PMID:27313796

  4. Large impacted upper ureteral calculi: A comparative study between retrograde ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy in the modified lateral position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufid, Kamal; Abbaka, Najib; Touiti, Driss; Adermouch, Latifa; Amine, Mohamed; Lezrek, Mohammed

    2013-07-01

    The treatment for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial, especially at institutions with limited resources. The aim of this study is to compare and to evaluate the outcome and complications of two main treatment procedures for impacted proximal ureteral calculi, retrograde ureterolithotripsy (URS), and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy (Perc-URS). Our inclusion criteria were solitary, radiopaque calculi, >15 mm in size in a functioning renal unit. Only those patients in whom the attempt at passing a guidewire or catheter beyond the calculus failed were included in this study. Between January 2007 and July 2011, a total of 52 patients (13 women and 39 men) with large impacted upper-ureteral calculi >15 mm and meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. Of these, Perc-URS was done in 22 patients (group 1) while retrograde ureteroscopy was performed in 30 patients (group 2). We analyzed operative time, incidence of complications during and after surgery, the number of postoperative recovery days, median total costs associated per patient per procedure, and the stone-free rate immediately after 5 days and after 1 month. Bivariate analysis used the Student t-test and the Mann-Whitney test to compare two means and Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to compare two percentages. The significance level was set at 0.05. The mean age was 42.3 years (range 22-69). The mean stone sizes (mm) were 34 ± 1.2 and 29.3 ± 1.8 mm in group 1 and 2, respectively. In the Perc-URS group, 21 patients (95.45%) had complete calculus clearance through a single tract in one session of percutaneous surgery, whereas in the URS group, only 20 patients (66.7%) had complete stone clearance (P = 0.007). The mean operative time was higher in the Perc-URS group compared to group 2 (66.5 ± 21.7 vs. 52.13 ± 17.3 min, respectively; P = 0.013). Complications encountered in group 1 included transient postoperative fever (2 pts) and simple urine outflow (2

  5. Potential of the octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) to predict the dermal penetration behaviour of amphiphilic compounds in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Gintautas; Wellner, Tanja; Schaller, Karl Heinz; Drexler, Hans

    2012-11-23

    Aqueous amphiphilic compounds may exhibit enhanced skin penetration compared with neat compounds. Conventional models do not predict this percutaneous penetration behaviour. We investigated the potential of the octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) to predict dermal fluxes for eight compounds applied neat and as 50% aqueous solutions in diffusion cell experiments using human skin. Data for seven other compounds were accessed from literature. In total, seven glycol ethers, three alcohols, two glycols, and three other chemicals were considered. Of these 15 compounds, 10 penetrated faster through the skin as aqueous solutions than as neat compounds. The other five compounds exhibited larger fluxes as neat applications. For 13 of the 15 compounds, a consistent relationship was identified between the percutaneous penetration behaviour and the logP. Compared with the neat applications, positive logP were associated with larger fluxes for eight of the diluted compounds, and negative logP were associated with smaller fluxes for five of the diluted compounds. Our study demonstrates that decreases or enhancements in dermal penetration upon aqueous dilution can be predicted for many compounds from the sign of logP (i.e., positive or negative). This approach may be suitable as a first approximation in risk assessments of dermal exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental Study of Leaching and Penetration of Nitrite ions in Nitrite-type Repair Materials on the Surface of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the leaching properties of nitrite ions in nitrite-type repair materials exposed to rainfall. Repaired concrete specimens were prepared for leaching tests using a lithium nitrite solution, and the amounts of leaching and penetration of nitrite ions were measured under simulated rainfall. The results demonstrated that the amount of leaching could be controlled by using polymer cement paste and mortar surface coatings containing lithium nitrite solution, and by using polymer cement mortar surface coatings following direct lithium nitrite solution coatings. Furthermore, the amount of nitrite ion leaching in all cases was lower than the discharge standard value established by the water pollution control law.

  7. Intra-biliary contrast-enhanced ultrasound for evaluating biliary obstruction during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Er-jiao [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Zheng, Rong-qin, E-mail: zhengrq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Su, Zhong-zhen; Li, Kai; Ren, Jie; Guo, Huan-yi [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: The aimed of this study was to investigate the value of intra-biliary contrast-enhanced ultrasound (IB-CEUS) for evaluating biliary obstruction during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Materials and methods: 80 patients with obstructive jaundice who underwent IB-CEUS during PTBD were enrolled. The diluted ultrasound contrast agent was injected via the drainage catheter to perform IB-CEUS. Both conventional ultrasound and IB-CEUS were used to detect the tips of the drainage catheters and to compare the detection rates of the tips. The obstructive level and degree of biliary tract were evaluated by IB-CEUS. Fluoroscopic cholangiography (FC) and computer tomography cholangiography (CTC) were taken as standard reference for comparison. Results: Conventional ultrasound displayed only 43 tips (43/80, 53.8%) of the drainage catheters within the bile ducts while IB-CEUS identified all 80 tips (80/80, 100%) of the drainage catheters including 4 of them out of the bile duct (P < 0.001). IB-CEUS made correct diagnosis in 44 patients with intrahepatic and 36 patients with extrahepatic biliary obstructions. IB-CEUS accurately demonstrated complete obstruction in 56 patients and incomplete obstruction in 21 patients. There were 3 patients with incomplete obstruction misdiagnosed to be complete obstruction by IB-CEUS. The diagnostic accuracy of biliary obstruction degree was 96.3% (77/80). Conclusion: IB-CEUS could improve the visualization of the drainage catheters and evaluate the biliary obstructive level and degree during PTBD. IB-CEUS may be the potential substitute to FC in the PTBD procedure.

  8. Bone cement distribution is a potential predictor to the reconstructive effects of unilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty in OVCFs: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiachen; Qian, Lie; Jiang, Changqing; Chen, Xiuyuan; Feng, Fan; Lao, Lifeng

    2018-06-07

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) is a common type of fracture, and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) is an eligible solution to it. Previous studies have revealed that both the volume and filling pattern of bone cement correlate with the clinical outcomes after PKP procedure. However, the role of bone cement distribution remains to be illustrated. To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between the bone cement distribution and the clinical outcomes of unilateral PKP, we enrolled 73 OVCF patients receiving unilateral PKP treatment. All the intervened vertebrae were classified into three groups based on the bone cement distribution observed on postoperative X-ray films. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic parameters including the vertebral height and kyphotic Cobb angle were recorded, and anterior vertebral height restoration rate (AVHRR) and Cobb angle correction (CR) were then calculated to assess the vertebral height reconstruction. Preoperative and postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were adopted by interviewing patients to assess the mobility improvement and pain relief. Demographic data, body mass index (BMI), lumbar bone mineral density (evaluated by BMD T-score) of each patient, bone cement volume (BV), and bone cement extravasation (BE) were also recorded. Between- and within-group comparisons and multivariable correlation analysis were carried out to analyze the data. VAS and ODI scores were both significantly improved in all of the enrolled cases with no significant differences between groups. Among the three groups, the average age, AVHRR, and BV were significantly different. Occurrence of BE was significantly different between two of the three groups. AVHRR was demonstrated to correlate negatively with preoperative anterior vertebral height ratio and positively with preoperative Cobb angle, CR, diffusion score, and ODI changes. Bone cement distribution is a potential predictor to the

  9. Paraplegia-quadriplegia Independently Increases All Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Complications: A Comparative Study Using the Modified Clavien System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danawala, Zeeshan A; Singh, Dinesh

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the perioperative complication rates for paraplegic-quadriplegic patients (PQPs) undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) as compared with non-PQPs using a standardized method of complication reporting via the Clavien system. Two hundred thirteen consecutive PCNLs performed by a single surgeon were analyzed. There were 31 and 115 patients separated into PQP and non-PQP groups, respectively. Data collection included demographic and clinical factors, as well as perioperative and delayed complications. Complications were organized by the Clavien grade. All- and initial-procedure complications were analyzed. The rate of adverse events for each Clavien grade was calculated, and statistical comparisons were made. The relationship between PQP and complication severity was investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. There were 38 and 43 initial-procedure complications in the PQP and non-PQP groups, respectively. The rate of adverse events was higher across the spectrum of Clavien grades for the PQP group, specifically grade 1 (48.4% vs 20.2%; P = .002), grade 2 (22.6% vs 5.3%; P = .004), grade 3b (12.9% vs 2.6%; P = .038), grade 4a (6.5% vs 0%), and grade 4b (9.7% vs 1.8%; P = .066). Approximately 51.6% and 31.5% of PQPs and non-PQPs experienced ≥ 1 complications, respectively (odds ratio = 2.34; P = .05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated paraplegia or quadriplegia status to be an independent risk factor for the development of perioperative complications after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio = 2.91; P = .040). PCNL complication rates are higher in PQPs compared with non-PQPs. This study is one of the first in PCNL to use a standardized reporting system to highlight high-risk individuals within the stone population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Significance of preoperative planning software for puncture and channel establishment in percutaneous endoscopic lumbar DISCECTOMY: A study of 40 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhouyang; Li, Xinhua; Cui, Jian; He, Xiaobo; Li, Cong; Han, Yingchao; Pan, Jie; Yang, Mingjie; Tan, Jun; Li, Lijun

    2017-05-01

    Preoperative planning software has been widely used in many other minimally invasive surgeries, but there is a lack of information describing the clinical benefits of existing software applied in percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD). This study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of preoperative planning software in puncture and channel establishment of PELD with routine methods in treating lumbar disc herniation (LDH). From June 2016 to October 2016, 40 patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 disc herniation were divided into two groups. Group A adopted planning software for preoperative puncture simulation while Group B took routine cases discussion for making puncture plans. The channel establishment time, operative time, fluoroscopic times and complications were compared between the two groups. The surgical efficacy was evaluated according to the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and modified Macnab's criteria. The mean channel establishment time was 25.1 ± 4.2 min and 34.6 ± 5.4 min in Group A and B, respectively (P  0.05). The findings of modified Macnab's criteria at each follow-up also showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). The application of preoperative planning software in puncture and cannula insertion planning in PELD was easy and reliable, and could reduce the channel establishment time, operative time and fluoroscopic times of PELD significantly. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Percutaneous cryoablation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Doo Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Local ablation therapy is considered as a conventional treatment option for patients with early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Although radiofrequency (RF ablation is widely used for HCC, the use of cryoablation has been increasing as newer and safer cryoablation systems have developed. The thermodynamic mechanism of freezing and thawing used in cryoablation is the Joule-Thomson effect. Cryoablation destroys tissue via direct tissue destruction and vascular-related injury. A few recent comparative studies have shown that percutaneous cryoablation for HCCs is comparable to percutaneous RF ablation in terms of long term therapeutic outcomes and complications. Cryoablation has several advantages over RF ablation such as well visualization of iceball, no causation of severe pain, and lack of severe damage to great vessels and gallbladder. It is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of cryoablation compared with RF ablation for improvement of therapeutic efficacy and safety.

  12. Investigating skin penetration depth and shape following needle-free injection at different pressures: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Joon; Oh, Chang Taek; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Tae Rin; Choi, Eun Ja; Choi, Sun Young; Mun, Seog Kyun; Han, Seung-Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of needle-free injection devices in neocollagenesis for treating extended skin planes is an area of active research. It is anticipated that needle-free injection systems will not only be used to inject vaccines or insulin, but will also greatly aid skin rejuvenation when used to inject aesthetic materials such as hyaluronic acid, botulinum toxin, and placental extracts. There has not been any specific research to date examining how materials penetrate the skin when a needle-free injection device is used. In this study, we investigated how material infiltrates the skin when it is injected into a cadaver using a needle-free device. Using a needle-free injector (INNOJECTOR™; Amore Pacific, Seoul, Korea), 0.2 ml of 5% methylene blue (MB) or latex was injected into cheeks of human cadavers. The device has a nozzle diameter of 100 µm and produces a jet with velocity of 180 m/s. This jet penetrates the skin and delivers medicine intradermally via liquid propelled by compressed gasses. Materials were injected at pressures of 6 or 8.5 bars, and the injection areas were excised after the procedure. The excised areas were observed visually and with a phototrichogram to investigate the size, infiltration depth, and shape of the hole created on the skin. A small part of the area that was excised was magnified and stained with H&E (×40) for histological examination. We characterized the shape, size, and depth of skin infiltration following injection of 5% MB or latex into cadaver cheeks using a needle-free injection device at various pressure settings. Under visual inspection, the injection at 6 bars created semi-circle-shaped hole that penetrated half the depth of the excised tissue, while injection at 8.5 bars created a cylinder-shaped hole that spanned the entire depth of the excised tissue. More specific measurements were collected using phototrichogram imaging. The shape of the injection entry point was consistently spherical regardless of the

  13. Combination of hydrotropic nicotinamide with nanoparticles for enhancing tacrolimus percutaneous delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan W

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wenhui Pan, Mengyao Qin, Guoguang Zhang, Yueming Long, Wenyi Ruan, Jingtong Pan, Zushuai Wu, Tao Wan, Chuanbin Wu, Yuehong Xu Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Tacrolimus (FK506, an effective immunosuppressant for treating inflammatory skin diseases, hardly penetrates into and through the skin owing to its high hydrophobicity and molecular weight. The aim of this study was to develop a hybrid system based on nicotinamide (NIC and nanoparticles (NPs encapsulating FK506, such as FK506–NPs–NIC, for facilitating percutaneous delivery, which exploited virtues of both NIC and NPs to obtain the synergetic effect. Solubility and percutaneous permeation studies were carried out. The results showed that NIC could increase the solubility and permeability of FK506 and that 20% (w/v NIC presented higher FK506 permeability and was thus chosen as the hydrotropic solution to solubilize FK506 and prepare FK506–NPs–NIC. Hyaluronic acid (HA was chemically conjugated with cholesterol (Chol to obtain amphiphilic conjugate of HA–Chol, which self-assembled NPs in 20% NIC solution containing FK506. The particle size, zeta potential, and morphology of NPs were characterized. The encapsulation efficiency and in vitro percutaneous permeation of NPs were evaluated in the presence and absence of NIC. The results demonstrated that hydrotropic solubilizing FK506 was readily encapsulated into NPs with a higher encapsulation efficiency of 79.2%±4.2%, and the combination of NPs with NIC exhibited a significantly synergistic effect on FK506 deposition within the skin (2.39±0.53 µg/cm2 and penetration through the skin (13.38±2.26 µg/cm2. The effect of the combination of NPs with NIC on drug permeation was further visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope through in vivo permeation studies, and the results confirmed that NPs–NIC synergistically enhanced

  14. DENSITY AND PENETRATION INSURANCE ON ACCIDENT & HEALTH PREMIUMS IN FUTURE IMPLEMENTATION OF SOLVENCY II – EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PODOABÃ LUCIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an empirical study regarding density and penetrat ion on accident & health premiums. At the beginning, we have presented the motivations of this research, highlighting and explaining the specific factors which influence the density and insurance penetration. Implementation of Solvency Directive at European level, in the field of insurance is through specific consequences. The changes made to accounting legislation at national, European and international level, with consequences on specific information presented in the financial statements of insurance companies, was another reason of our research. The appearance of the IFRS 4 "Insurance contracts", followed by its evolution phases allowed the creation of XBRL's in as the international standard of publication, exchange and financial analysis of data reported . Also, we cannot forget that the legislative changes in accounting have interesting consequences on economic risk management specific to this field, in terms of huge efforts from national and European supervisory authorities to control and prevent the ban kruptcy of its firms. For planning and implementation of supervisors’ measures, the important tasks were established by the quantitative impact studies, the stress tests and the analyses of different scenarios, all performed in insurance companies. Thus, w e conduct an analysis on a sample of 32 countries and a horizon of 10 years (2004 -2013, being tested 2 linear regression models. The results will confirm the link between level of economic development and accident & health insurance activity, but exclude the relationship between penetration factor and this type of insurance

  15. Percutaneous aspiration of hydatid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, G.; Serrano, R.

    1996-01-01

    A perspective study was carried out to assess the efficacy of a combination of percutaneous aspiration plus oral albendazole to assess its efficacy as an alternative to surgery in the treatment of hydatid cyst. We performed percutaneous aspiration followed by injection of 20% hypertonic saline solution into 16 hydatid cysts in 13 patients. All the patients received oral albendazole (400 mg/12 hours) starting 2 days before and lasting until there weeks after the procedure. There were no anaphylactic reactions during or after the procedure. Follow-up included monthly ultrasound over a period ranging between 10 and 36 months. Three cysts disappeared completely; in 10 cases, the cysts cavity was replaced by a complex ultrasonographic findings, with strong signals similar to those of a pseudotumor. In another case, the aspirate was sterile and its morphology remained unchanged. In two cases, infection of the cyst ensued, requiring surgical treatment. We consider that percutaneous aspiration in combination with albendazole may prove to be a good alternative to surgery for the management of hepatic hydatid disease. (Author) 15 refs

  16. Penetration route of functional molecules in stratum corneum studied by time-resolved small- and wide-angle x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Ichiro; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto; Nakazawa, Hiromitsu; Obata, Yasuko; Inoue, Katsuaki

    2011-01-01

    We studied effects of functional molecules on corneocytes in stratum corneum using time-resolved small- and wide-angle x-ray diffraction after applying a functional molecule. From these results it was revealed that in the stratum corneum a typical hydrophilic molecule, ethanol, penetrates via the transcellular route and on the other hand a typical hydrophobic molecule, d-limonene, penetrates via the intercellular route.

  17. Impact Study of PMSG-Based Wind Power Penetration on Power System Transient Stability Using EEAC Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs are widely used in wind power generation. According to the dynamic characteristics of PMSGs, an impact analysis of PMSG-based wind power penetration on the transient stability of multi-machine power systems is carried out in this paper based on the theory of extended equal area criterion (EEAC. Considering the most severe PMSG integration situation, the changes in the system’s equivalent power-angle relationships after integrating PMSGs are studied in detail. The system’s equivalent mechanical input power and the fault period electrical output power curves are found to be mainly affected. The analysis demonstrates that the integration of PMSGs can cause either detrimental or beneficial effects on the system transient stability. It is determined by several factors, including the selection of the synchronous generators used to balance wind power, the reactive power control mode of PMSGs and the wind power penetration level. Two different simulation systems are also adopted to verify the analysis results.

  18. Long-Term Outcomes of Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation Treated with Percutaneous Discectomy: Comparative Study with Microendoscopic Discectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengui; Wu Xiaotao; Guo Jinhe; Zhuang Suyang; Teng Gaojun

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the long-term outcomes of patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with percutaneous lumbar discectomy (PLD) or microendoscopic discectomy (MED). A retrospective study was performed in consecutive patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with PLD (n = 129) or MED (n = 101) in a single hospital from January 2000 to March 2002. All patients were followed up with MacNab criteria and self-evaluation questionnaires comprising the Oswestry Disability Index and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Several statistical methods were used for analyses of the data, and a p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 104 patients (80.62%) with PLD and 82 patients (81.19%) with MED were eligible for analyses, with a mean follow-up period of 6.64 ± 0.67 years and 6.42 ± 0.51 years, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, number of lesions, major symptoms and physical signs, and radiological findings. According to the MacNab criteria, 75.96% in the PLD group and 84.15% in the MED group achieved excellent or good results, respectively, this was statistically significant (p = 0.0402). With the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaires, the average scores and minimal disability, respectively, were 6.97 and 71.15% in the PLD group and 4.89 and 79.27% in the MED group. Total average scores of Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were 75.88 vs. 81.86 in PLD group vs. MED group (p = 0.0582). The cost and length of hospitalization were higher or longer in MED group, a statistically significant difference (both p < 0.0001). Long-term complications were observed in two patients (2.44%) in the MED group, no such complications were observed in the PLD group. Both PLD and MED show an acceptable long-term efficacy for treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Compared with MED patients, long-term satisfaction is slightly lower in the PLD patients; complications

  19. Percutaneous Nerve Stimulation in Chronic Neuropathic Pain Patients due to Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopsky, D.J.; Ettema, F.W.L.; van der Leeden, M.; Dekker, J.; Stolwijk-Swuste, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The long-term prognosis for neuropathic pain resolution following spinal cord injury (SCI) is often poor. In many SCI patients, neuropathic pain continues or even worsens over time. Thus, new treatment approaches are needed. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility and

  20. A qualitative study exploring male cancer patients' experiences with percutaneous nephrostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Lene Hyldgaard; Spielmann, Marlène Elisabeth; Juhl, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to describe how a nephrostomy is perceived by patients and its effects on their everyday lives. Material and methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the patients' home using a mind map. The inclusion criteria were locally advanced or metastatic urological cancer treated...

  1. Robot assisted navigated drilling for percutaneous pedicle screw placement: A preliminary animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The preliminary study supports the view that computer assisted pedicle screw fixation using spinal robot is feasible and the robot can decrease the intraoperative fluoroscopy time during the minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation surgery. As spine robotic surgery is still in its infancy, further research in this field is worthwhile especially the accuracy of spine robot system should be improved.

  2. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  3. Questioning the wisdom of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL): a prospective randomized controlled study of early tube removal vs tubeless PCNL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shashikant; Sabnis, Ravindra B; Kurien, Abraham; Ganpule, Arvind; Muthu, Veeramani; Desai, Mahesh

    2010-10-01

    To establish the efficacy of early removal of a nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), to challenge the wisdom of tubeless PCNL, as we hypothesized that it would result in a shorter hospital stay, comparable benefit and safety, while maintaining the option of check nephroscopy ensuring far superior stone clearance. In all, 22 patients were prospectively randomized equally into two groups, group 1 (early nephrostomy removal) or group 2 (tubeless) during a 1-month study period. Inclusion criteria for the study were: a simple stone of Foley catheter were used, while in group 2 only a 6 F retrograde ureteric catheter and Foley catheter were placed at the end of the procedure. Computed tomography (CT) with no contrast medium was done on the first morning after surgery before removing all catheters/tubes, and patients discharged subsequently. The variables assessed were stone clearance, hospital stay, analgesic requirement, postoperative complications and auxiliary procedures. The mean (SD) stone bulk was similar between the groups, at 2737 (946.9) and 2934.2 (2090.7) µL, respectively. Despite an on-table complete clearance, clearance assessed by CT was nine of 11 vs eight of 11 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. CT showed a 6 mm stone in one patient in group 1, while the remaining patients had stones of haematuria in none vs three (P= 0.21), urinoma none vs one, and fever in two vs one, respectively; one patient in group 1 required a check nephroscopy for a residual fragment. Overall clearance including re-treatment was 10/11 vs eight of 11 (P= 0.009), respectively. Early tube removal after PCNL results in an equivalent analgesic requirement, decrease in haemoglobin and hospital stay as tubeless PCNL. It has a significantly lower incidence of early haematuria, better clearance rates and preserves the option of check nephroscopy. It can be considered as an accepted standard of care, with the preserved advantages of tubeless PCNL. © 2010 THE AUTHORS

  4. APpropriAteness of percutaneous Coronary interventions in patients with ischaemic HEart disease in Italy: the APACHE pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Marcello; Crimi, Gabriele; Maiorana, Florinda; Rizzotti, Diego; Lettieri, Corrado; Bettari, Luca; Zuccari, Marco; Sganzerla, Paolo; Tresoldi, Simone; Adamo, Marianna; Ghiringhelli, Sergio; Sponzilli, Carlo; Pasquetto, Giampaolo; Pavei, Andrea; Pedon, Luigi; Bassan, Luciano; Bollati, Mario; Camisasca, Paola; Trabattoni, Daniela; Brancati, Marta; Poli, Arnaldo; Panciroli, Claudio; Lettino, Maddalena; Tarelli, Giuseppe; Tarantini, Giuseppe; De Luca, Leonardo; Varbella, Ferdinando; Musumeci, Giuseppe; De Servi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To first explore in Italy appropriateness of indication, adherence to guideline recommendations and mode of selection for coronary revascularisation. Design Retrospective, pilot study. Setting 22 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-performing hospitals (20 patients per site), 13 (59%) with on-site cardiac surgery. Participants 440 patients who received PCI for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome were independently selected in a 4:1 ratio with half diabetics. Primary and secondary outcome measures Proportion of patients who received appropriate PCI using validated appropriate use scores (ie, AUS≥7). Also, in patients with stable CAD, we examined adherence to the following European Society of Cardiology recommendations: (A) per cent of patients with complex coronary anatomy treated after heart team discussion; (B) per cent of fractional flow reserve-guided PCI for borderline stenoses in patients without documented ischaemia; (C) per cent of patients receiving guideline-directed medical therapy at the time of PCI as well as use of provocative test of ischaemia according to pretest probability (PTP) of CAD. Results Of the 401 mappable PCIs (91%), 38.7% (95% CI 33.9 to 43.6) were classified as appropriate, 47.6% (95% CI 42.7 to 52.6) as uncertain and 13.7% (95% CI 10.5% to 17.5%) as inappropriate. Median PTP in patients with stable CAD without known coronary anatomy was 69% (78% intermediate PTP, 22% high PTP). Ischaemia testing use was similar (p=0.71) in patients with intermediate (n=140, 63%) and with high PTP (n=40, 66%). In patients with stable CAD (n=352) guideline adherence to the three recommendations explored was: (A) 11%; (B) 25%; (C) 23%. AUS was higher in patients evaluated by the heart team as compared with patients who were not (7 (6.8) vs 5 (4.7); p=0.001). Conclusions Use of heart team approaches and adherence to guideline recommendations on coronary revascularisation in a real-world setting

  5. Comparison Study of Percutaneous Osseointegrated Bone Conduction Device Complications When Using the 9 mm Abutment Versus 6 mm Abutment at Initial Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sean R; LaRouere, Jacqueline S; Bojrab, Dennis I; LaRouere, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    To assess differences in the incidence, type, and management of complications encountered with implantation of percutaneous osseointegrated bone conduction devices when using a 9 mm abutment versus 6 mm abutment at initial implantation. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred thirty consecutive patients between January 2010 and December 2011 underwent single-stage percutaneous osseointegrated bone conduction device implantation using a 9 or 6 mm abutment. Clinical outcomes assessed for the two groups included the incidence, type, and management of postoperative complications. Abutment size, age, sex, indication for surgery, implant device type, duration of follow-up, and patient comorbidities were evaluated as potential factors affecting outcomes. Average duration of follow-up was 16 months (range 6-29 mo). Postoperative complications occurred in 38 (29.2%) patients. Twenty-four (18.4%) patients experienced minor complications requiring simple, local care; eight (6.1%) patients required in-office procedural intervention; and six (4.6%) patients required revision surgery in the operating room. Implant extrusion occurred in three (2.3%) patients. Eleven (8.5%) patients required placement of a longer abutment. Patients receiving the 6 mm abutment at initial surgery were significantly more likely to encounter a complication requiring in-office procedural intervention or revision surgery (p = 0.001). Minor complications after implantation of percutaneous osseointegrated bone conduction devices are common. The vast majority of these complications are due to localized skin reactions, most of which are readily addressed through local care. Patients receiving the 9 mm abutment during initial implantation are significantly less likely to require in-office procedural intervention or revision surgery postoperatively as compared with those receiving the shorter, 6 mm abutment.

  6. Does Imaging Modality Used For Percutaneous Renal Access Make a Difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andonian, Sero; Scoffone, Cesare; Louie, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess peri-operative outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) using ultrasound or fluoroscopic guidance for percutaneous access. METHODS A prospectively collected international CROES database containing 5806 patients treated with PCNL was used for the study. Patients were...... divided into two groups based on the methods of percutaneous access: ultrasound vs. fluoroscopy. Patient characteristics, operative data and post-operative outcomes were compared. RESULTS Percutaneous access was obtained using ultrasound guidance only in 453 patients (13.7%) and fluoroscopic guidance only...

  7. Radioisotopic studies in renovascular hypertension before and after surgery or percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantero, F.; Fallo, F.; Scaroni, C.; Ridolfi, P.; Sicolo, M.; Varotta, L.; Bui, F.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past few years, radioisotopic studies have emerged as reliable diagnostic procedures in the screening for renovascular hypertension. More specifically, dynamic reno-scintigraphy (DRS) has been proved to be very sensitive in revealing hypoperfusion due to renal artery stenosis, although it cannot compete with the accuracy of arteriography, which only may provide a definitive diagnosis. Moreover, DRS appears to be a convenient test in clinical routine investigation because of its simplicity, low dose of tracer and high margin of safety for the patients

  8. Outflow protection filters during percutaneous recanalization of lower extremities' arterial occlusions: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siablis, Dimitrios; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Kraniotis, Pantelis; Kagadis, George C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Filter devices are already employed for the protection of carotid, coronary and renal distal vascular bed during endovascular procedures. This is a pilot study investigating their feasibility, safety and distal emboli protection capability during recanalization of lower extremities' acute and subacute occlusions. Materials and methods: Study population included 16 patients, 11 with a subacute arterial occlusion and 5 with an acute episode. The Trap filter (Microvena, USA) and its successor the Spider filter (EV3, USA) were utilized. Subacute occlusions were dealt with standard angioplasty and stenting procedures, while acute ones were managed primarily with Angiojet rheolytic thrombectomy. Outflow arterial tree was checked angiographically in-between consequent procedural steps. Embolic material collected after filter recovery was analyzed histopathologically. Patients' follow-up was scheduled at 1 month. Results: Seventeen filter baskets were applied in the recanalization of 16 target lesions in total. Mean length of the occluded segments was 6.1 (range: 2-15 cm; S.D. = 3.7 cm). Mean in situ time of the filters was 38.75 min (range: 20-60 min; S.D. 12.71 min). Technical success rate of deployment and utilization of the filtration devices was 100% (17/17). Procedural success rate of the recanalization was 100% (16/16) without any clinical or angiographic evidence of periprocedural distal embolization. Macroscopic particulate debris was extracted from all the filters (17/17) containing fresh thrombus, calcification minerals, cholesterol and fibrin. Mean diameter of the largest particle per specimen was 1702.80 (range: 373.20-4680.00 μm; S.D. 1155.12 μm). No adverse clinical events occurred at 1-month follow-up with 100% limb salvage (16/16). Conclusion: The application of outflow protection filters is safe, feasible and efficacious in hindering distal embolization complications and safeguarding the distal capillary bed. Nevertheless, this is a pilot study

  9. An experimental study of percutaneous laser nucleotomy of the intervertebral cervical disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiqing; Wang Zhimin; Guo Weiping; Zhang Hongxin; Guan Yan; Li Wenxian; Ni Daihui

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effectiveness and safety of laser nucleotomy of the intervertebral cervical disc. Methods: The experimental study was performed in 10 dogs, and each dog was treated with laser nucleolysis in C3-4 and C4-5. The laser energy was turned on in 1.0-second pulses with 1.0 second (C3-4) and 5.0 second (C4-5) pause interval, and the total energy was up to 1000 joules. The temperatures were measured at the place between the posterior longitudinal ligament and the dura and at the vertebral foramen by using a tip type thermometer. Chronic histologic changes were observed by light microscopy at 2-4 weeks after laser irradiation. Results: The temperatures at the place between the posterior longitudinal ligament and the dura and at the vertebral Forman did not exceed 40 degree C when the pause interval was 5 second. Two dogs were euthanized immediately after treatment, and the oval-shaped cavity was observed on the macroscopic view in the nucleus. The cavity measured between 5 mm and 6 mm in long axis and between 2 mm and 4 mm in short. 4 weeks after the laser irradiation, the nucleus pulposus was replaced by cartilaginous cells and fibrous tissues. Conclusion: The laser nucleotomy of the intervertebral cervical disc is effective and feasible at the suitable condition

  10. Pullout characteristics of percutaneous pedicle screws with different cement augmentation methods in elderly spines: An in vitro biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Y P; Pelletier, H; Hydier, P; Schuller, S; Garnon, J; Sauleau, E A; Steib, J-P; Clavert, P

    2015-05-01

    Vertebroplasty prefilling or fenestrated pedicle screw augmentation can be used to enhance pullout resistance in elderly patients. It is not clear which method offers the most reliable fixation strength if axial pullout and a bending moment is applied. The purpose of this study is to validate a new in vitro model aimed to reproduce a cut out mechanism of lumbar pedicle screws, to compare fixation strength in elderly spines with different cement augmentation techniques and to analyze factors that might influence the failure pattern. Six human specimens (82-100 years) were instrumented percutaneously at L2, L3 and L4 by non-augmented screws, vertebroplasty augmentation and fenestrated screws. Cement distribution (2 ml PMMA) was analyzed on CT. Vertebral endplates and the rod were oriented at 45° to the horizontal plane. The vertebral body was held by resin in a cylinder, linked to an unconstrained pivot, on which traction (10 N/s) was applied until rupture. Load-displacement curves were compared to simultaneous video recordings. Median pullout forces were 488.5 N (195-500) for non-augmented screws, 643.5 N (270-1050) for vertebroplasty augmentation and 943.5 N (750-1084) for fenestrated screws. Cement augmentation through fenestrated screws led to significantly higher rupture forces compared to non-augmented screws (P=0.0039). The pullout force after vertebroplasty was variable and linked to cement distribution. A cement bolus around the distal screw tip led to pullout forces similar to non-augmented screws. A proximal cement bolus, as it was observed in fenestrated screws, led to higher pullout resistance. This cement distribution led to vertebral body fractures prior to screw pullout. The experimental setup tended to reproduce a pullout mechanism observed on radiographs, combining axial pullout and a bending moment. Cement augmentation with fenestrated screws increased pullout resistance significantly, whereas the fixation strength with the vertebroplasty

  11. Developmental Neurotoxic Effects of Percutaneous Drug Delivery: Behavior and Neurochemical Studies in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huali Wu

    Full Text Available Dermatosis often as a chronic disease requires effective long-term treatment; a comprehensive evaluation of mental health of dermatology drug does not receive enough attention. An interaction between dermatology and psychiatry has been increasingly described. Substantial evidence has accumulated that psychological stress can be associated with pigmentation, endocrine and immune systems in skin to create the optimal responses against pathogens and other physicochemical stressors to maintain or restore internal homeostasis. Additionally, given the common ectodermal origin shared by the brain and skin, we are interested in assessing how disruption of skin systems (pigmentary, endocrine and immune systems may play a key role in brain functions. Thus, we selected three drugs (hydroquinone, isotretinoin, tacrolimus with percutaneous excessive delivery to respectively intervene in these systems and then evaluate the potential neurotoxic effects. Firstly, C57BL/6 mice were administrated a dermal dose of hydroquinone cream, isotretinoin gel or tacrolimus ointment (2%, 0.05%, 0.1%, respectively, 5 times of the clinical dose. Behavioral testing was performed and levels of proteins were measured in the hippocampus. It was found that mice treated with isotretinoin or tacrolimus, presented a lower activity in open-field test and obvious depressive-like behavior in tail suspension test. Besides, they damaged cytoarchitecture, reduced the level of 5-HT-5-HT1A/1B system and increased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus. To enable sensitive monitoring the dose-response characteristics of the consecutive neurobehavioral disorders, mice received gradient concentrations of hydroquinone (2%, 4%, 6%. Subsequently, hydroquinone induced behavioral disorders and hippocampal dysfunction in a dose-dependent response. When doses were high as 6% which was 3 times higher than 2% dose, then 100% of mice exhibited depressive-like behavior. Certainly

  12. Cost implications of intraprocedural thrombotic events and bleeding in percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from the CHAMPION PHOENIX ECONOMICS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, Hector; Généreux, Philip; Yeh, Robert W; Amin, Amit P; Fan, Weihong; White, Harvey D; Kirtane, Ajay J; Stone, Gregg W; Gibson, C Michael; Harrington, Robert A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Pinto, Duane S

    2018-05-04

    Despite improvements in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), intraprocedural thrombotic events (IPTE) and bleeding complications occur and are prognostically important. These have not been included in prior economic studies. PHOENIX ECONOMICS was a substudy of the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, evaluating cangrelor during PCI. Hospital bills were reviewed from 1,171 patients enrolled at 22 of 63 US sites. Costs were estimated using standard methods including resource-based accounting, hospital billing data, and the Medicare fee schedule. Bleeding and IPTE, defined as abrupt vessel closure (transient or sustained), new/suspected thrombus, new clot on wire/catheter, no reflow, side-branch occlusion, procedural stent thrombosis or urgent need for CABG were identified. Costs were calculated according to whether a complication occurred and type of event. Multivariate analyses were used to estimate the incremental costs of IPTE and postprocedural events. IPTE occurred in 4.3% and were associated with higher catheterization laboratory and overall index hospitalization costs by $2,734 (95%CI $1,117, $4,351; P = 0.001) and $6,354 (95% CI $4,122, $8,586; P < 0.001), respectively. IPTE were associated with MI (35.4% vs. 3.6%; P < 0.001), out-of-laboratory stent thrombosis (4.2% vs. 0.1%; 0 = 0.005), ischemia driven revascularization (12.5% vs. 0.3%; P < 0.001), but not mortality (2.1% vs. 0.2%; P = 0.12) vs. no procedural thrombotic complication. By comparison, ACUITY minor bleeding increased hospitalization cost by $1,416 (95%CI = 312, $2,519; P = 0.012). ACUITY major bleeding increased cost of hospitalization by $7,894 (95%CI $4,154, $11,635; P < 0.001). IPTE and bleeding complications, though infrequent, are associated with substantial increased cost. These complications should be collected in economic assessments of PCI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. MINIMUM INCISION PERCUTANEOUS PLATE OSTEOSYNTHESIS FOR DISTAL FIBULAR FRACTURES: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Reddy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distal fibular fractures are usually communitted and most of the times osteoporotic especially if they are occurring in females and in geriatric age group. These fractures are usu ally associated with other fractures, which necessitates them to be fixed accurately. Owing to the fact that distal fragment is subcutaneous with scanty soft tissue over bone, which pose these fracture fixations become difficult by open methods in view of wound healing. A prospective study of 26 patients with distal fibular fractures were treated with MIPPO with hook plate were healed with less complications and better outcome. With this background we suggest a minimally invasive incision over proximal frag ment where sufficient soft tissue cover is present. From there pushing the special hook plate subperiosteally to distal fragment, hooking the tip of fibula and fixing the proximal fragment after reduction gives a simple and effective stable fixation

  14. Evaluation of percutaneous absorption of the repellent diethyltoluamide and the sunscreen ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco; Castelli, Francesco; Micieli, Dorotea; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia

    2009-08-01

    Diethyltoluamide and ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) are two active ingredients in insect repellent and sunscreen products, respectively. The concurrent application of these two substances often increases their systemic absorption, compromising the safety and efficiency of the cosmetic product. In this study, diethyltoluamide and OMC were incorporated into solid lipid nanoparticles, a colloidal drug delivery system, to reduce percutaneous absorption and avoid toxic effects and also maintain the efficacy of the two active compounds on the skin surface for a long duration. Solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared based on an ultrasonication technique and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. In-vitro studies determined the percutaneous absorption of diethyltoluamide and OMC. DSC data carried out on unloaded and diethyltoluamide- and/or OMC-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles highlighted that diethyltoluamide and OMC modified the temperature and the enthalpy change associated to the calorimetric peak of solid lipid nanoparticles. The concurrent presence of the two compounds in the solid lipid nanoparticles caused a synergic effect, indicating that the lipid matrix of nanoparticles guaranteed a high encapsulation of both diethyltoluamide and OMC. Results from the in-vitro study demonstrated that the particles were able to reduce the skin permeation of the two cosmetic ingredients in comparison with an oil-in-water emulsion. This study has provided supplementary evidence as to the potential of lipid nanoparticles as carriers for topical administration of cosmetic active compounds.

  15. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  16. Study on production mechanism of welding residual stress at the juncture of a pipe penetrating a thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Enomoto, Kunio; Okamoto, Noriaki; Saitoh, Hideyo; Hayashi, Eisaku.

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies welding residual stresses at the intersection of a small diameter pipe penetrating a thick plate. The pipe is welded to the plate, and Tungsten Innert Gas (TIG) cladding is melted on the inner surface of the pipe to protect it from stress corrosion cracking due to long operation in nuclear power plants. Stresses are calculated by heat conduction analysis and thermal elasto-plastic analysis, and also measured by strain gauges. Welding residual stresses are shown to have no corrosive influence on the inner pipe surface, and the stresses are compressed enough to protect the pipe against stress corrosion cracking on the outer surface. It was also studied to make clear the production mechanism of the residual stresses which were generated by welding processes at the pipe. (author)

  17. An experimental study of domestic bone cement used on percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Long; Ni Caifang; Ding Yi; Liu Yizhi; Jin Yonghai; Zou Jianwei; Yang Huilin; Tang Tiansi; Wang Yijin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the material properties of domestic bone cement (DBC) and imported bone cement (IBC) with different mixing ratio, and to determine whether the biomechanical properties of vertebral bodies (VBs) subjected to compression fractures and subsequently treated by vertebroplasty with DBC or IBC were different. Methods: There were two groups in this study. One was DBC, whose ratio of powder/liquid (g/ml) was 3:2 and the percentage of BaSO 4 in powder was 20%, the other was IBC, whose mixing ratio followed manufacturer's recommendation. Polymerization time, strength, and stiffness of bone cement were measured respectively in each group. 20 lumbar VBs from four female cadavers (age, 75 ± 5 years) were disarticulated and compressed in a materials testing machine to determine initial strength and stiffness. The fractures were subsequently repaired using DBCor IBCon vertebroplasty. After augmentation, the VBs were scanned by CT, then recrushed, and stiffness and strength of VBs were measured again. Results: The stiffness of DBC whose mixing ratio was altered was (2711.8 ± 612.3) N/mm, while the stiffness of IBC was (2874.7 ± 457.6) N/mm, there was no significant differences between the two groups (t=0.609, P>0.05). But the strength of DBC (7271.3 ± 365.4) N was lower than that of IBC (8481.3 ± 397.3) N, (t=6.281, P 0.05), while the strength of VBs augmentated with DBC and IBC were(1.226 ± 0.44) MPa and (1.202 ± 0.38) Mpa, respectively (F=0.001, P>0.05). CT value of DBC and IBC used on VBs were (2982.9 ± 102.0) Hu and (1554.3 ± 172.7) HU, respectively, and there was significant differences in radiopacity between them (t=22.525, P<0.05). Conclusion: DBC has an excellent radiopacity. VBs augmented by both DBC or IBC could attain satisfactory biomechanical properties, but these results have yet to be substantiated in clinical studies. (authors)

  18. CT guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the chest: initial experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this article is to report our first experience of CT guided percutaneous thoracic biopsy and to demonstrate the accuracy and safety of this procedure. This was a retrospective study of 28 CT-Guided Percutaneous Needle Biopsies of the Chest performed on 24 patients between November 2014 and April 2015.

  19. Percutaneous dual-switching monopolar radiofrequency ablation using a separable clustered electrode: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Tae Won; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To prospectively evaluate the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of dual-switching monopolar (DSM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to retrospectively compare the results with those of single-switching monopolar (SSM) RFA in a historical control group. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, with informed consent obtained from all patients. Fifty-two HCC patients who underwent DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode and dual-generators were prospectively enrolled. Technical parameters, complications, technical success, technical effectiveness, and local tumor progression (LTP) rates were evaluated by means of post-procedural and follow-up imaging. Thereafter, the outcome of DSM-RFA was compared with those of 249 retrospectively included HCC patients treated with SSM-RFA.There were two major complications (3.8%, 2/52) including pleural and pericardial effusion in the DSM-RFA group. The DSM-RFA yielded a 100% technical success rate, a 98.1% technical effectiveness rate, and a 4.3% 2-year LTP rate. In a retrospective comparison between the two groups, DSM-RFA created significantly larger ablation volume (4.20 ± 2.07 cm{sup 3}/min vs. 3.03 ± 1.99 cm{sup 3}/min, p < 0.01), and delivered higher energy (1.43 ± 0.37 kcal/min vs. 1.25 ± 0.50 kcal/min, p < 0.01) per given time, than SSM-RFA. There was no significant difference in major procedure-related complications (3.8% vs. 4.4%) and technical effectiveness rate (98.1% vs. 96.4%) between the two groups (p = 1.00). In addition, the 2-year LTP rate of DSM-RFA and SSM-RFA were 4.3% and 10.1%, respectively (p = 0.15). DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode is safe and provides high local tumor control and good preliminary clinical outcome for small HCCs, which are at least comparable to those of SSM-RFA.

  20. Percutaneous dual-switching monopolar radiofrequency ablation using a separable clustered electrode: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Tae Won; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of dual-switching monopolar (DSM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to retrospectively compare the results with those of single-switching monopolar (SSM) RFA in a historical control group. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, with informed consent obtained from all patients. Fifty-two HCC patients who underwent DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode and dual-generators were prospectively enrolled. Technical parameters, complications, technical success, technical effectiveness, and local tumor progression (LTP) rates were evaluated by means of post-procedural and follow-up imaging. Thereafter, the outcome of DSM-RFA was compared with those of 249 retrospectively included HCC patients treated with SSM-RFA.There were two major complications (3.8%, 2/52) including pleural and pericardial effusion in the DSM-RFA group. The DSM-RFA yielded a 100% technical success rate, a 98.1% technical effectiveness rate, and a 4.3% 2-year LTP rate. In a retrospective comparison between the two groups, DSM-RFA created significantly larger ablation volume (4.20 ± 2.07 cm"3/min vs. 3.03 ± 1.99 cm"3/min, p < 0.01), and delivered higher energy (1.43 ± 0.37 kcal/min vs. 1.25 ± 0.50 kcal/min, p < 0.01) per given time, than SSM-RFA. There was no significant difference in major procedure-related complications (3.8% vs. 4.4%) and technical effectiveness rate (98.1% vs. 96.4%) between the two groups (p = 1.00). In addition, the 2-year LTP rate of DSM-RFA and SSM-RFA were 4.3% and 10.1%, respectively (p = 0.15). DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode is safe and provides high local tumor control and good preliminary clinical outcome for small HCCs, which are at least comparable to those of SSM-RFA

  1. Radiation exposure and contrast agent use related to radial versus femoral arterial access during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-Results of the FERARI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Tobias; Behnes, Michael; Ünsal, Melike; Baumann, Stefan; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Fastner, Christian; Kuschyk, Jürgen; Papavassiliu, Theano; Hoffmann, Ursula; Mashayekhi, Kambis; Borggrefe, Martin; Akin, Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Data regarding radiation exposure related to radial versus femoral arterial access in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain controversial. This study aims to evaluate patients enrolled in the FERARI study regarding radiation exposure, fluoroscopy time and contrast agent use. The Femoral Closure versus Radial Compression Devices Related to Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (FERARI) study evaluated prospectively 400 patients between February 2014 and May 2015 undergoing PCI either using the radial or femoral access. In these 400 patients, baseline characteristics, procedural data such as procedural duration, fluoroscopy time, dose-area product (DAP) as well as the amount of contrast agent used were documented and analyzed. Median fluoroscopy time was not significantly different in patients undergoing radial versus femoral access (12.2 vs. 9.8min, p=0.507). Furthermore, median DAP (54.5 vs. 52.0 Gycm2, p=0.826), procedural duration (46.0 vs. 45.0min, p=0.363) and contrast agent use (185.5 vs. 199.5ml, p=0.742) were also similar in radial and femoral PCI. There was no difference regarding median fluoroscopy time, procedural duration, radiation dose or contrast agent use between radial versus femoral arterial access in PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Percutaneous intervention in obstructive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souftas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous intervention procedures in obstructive uropathy include percutaneous nephrostomy tube placements, nephroureteral stents, percutaneous nephrostomy combined with ureteral embolization, percutaneous management of stone disease, suprapubic tube placements into the bladder, and perinephric/retroperitoneal urinomas/abscesses drainages. Percutaneous nephrostomy is performed to relieve urinary obstruction or divert the urinary stream away from the ureter or bladder. Patients are given preprocedure antibiotics. Percutaneous nephrostomies can be emergent cases because of risk of pyuria and sepsis from a stagnant urine collection. The procedure is performed using both ultrasound and fluoroscopy (or fluoroscopy alone using anatomic landmarks, or an internal radiopaque calculus, or delayed phase excretion of the contrast into the renal collecting system) under local anesthesia or conscious sedation. Ureteral stents are placed to bypass an obstructing stone or to stent across of an area of stricture or ureteral laceration. Stents may be placed by the urologist via a transurethral approach or by the interventional radiologist via a percutaneous approach. The decision as to method of stent placement is based upon the location and accessibility of the ureteral pathology. Ureteral embolization is performed in patients with unresectable tumors of the pelvis with long-standing nephrostomy tubes and distal urine leaks refractory to other treatments. Coils, gelfoam and liquid embolic materials can be used. Ureteral embolization for ureteral fistulas and incontinence is technically successful in 100% of the patients. Complications include bleeding, infection, ureteral or renal injury, and deployment (or movement) of the coils within the renal pelvis. Percutaneous management of stone disease, including renal, ureteral, and bladder stones requires close cooperation between the urologist and interventional radiologist, because of availability of sonographic lithotripsy

  3. Percutaneous transhepatic sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandin, G.; Zanon, E.; Righi, D.; Fonio, P.; Ferrari, A.; Recchia, S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the techique employed for percutaneous trans-hepatic sphincterotomy as performed on 3 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones. In all patients, previous endoscopic attempt had failed for anatomical reasons (Billroth II gastric resection or partial gastric resection with brown anastomosis), and the ampulla could not be correctly incannulated with the sphincterotome. In all aptients endoscopy was useful to check the position of the diethermic loop inserted percutaneously. Conplete and immediate success was obtained in all 3 cases. No major complications occurred during transhepatic treatment. To date, 1 recurrence has been observed, and the patient has been retreated with bilioplasty. All patients were followed after 5-6 months with US, plain X-rays of the abdomen and blood tests (γGt, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubinemia). The authors suggest that percutaneous transhepatic sphincterotomy be employed electively in patients with biliary tree diseases in case the endoscopic approach failes

  4. A Mass Loss Penetration Model to Investigate the Dynamic Response of a Projectile Penetrating Concrete considering Mass Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NianSong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the dynamic response of a projectile penetrating concrete is conducted. The evolutional process of projectile mass loss and the effect of mass loss on penetration resistance are investigated using theoretical methods. A projectile penetration model considering projectile mass loss is established in three stages, namely, cratering phase, mass loss penetration phase, and remainder rigid projectile penetration phase.

  5. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  6. Two-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation. A minimum 3-year follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong-Yeob; Lee, Sang-Ho; Maeng, Dae-Hyeon

    2010-01-01

    The clinical and radiological outcomes of two-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (PSF) were evaluated in 24 consecutive patients who underwent two level ALIF with percutaneous PSF for segmental instability and were followed up for more than 3 years. Clinical outcomes were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Sagittal alignment, bone union, and adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) were assessed using radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. The mean age of the patients at the time of operation was 56.3 years (range 39-70 years). Minor complications occurred in 2 patients in the perioperative period. At a mean follow-up duration of 39.4 months (range 36-42 months), VAS scores for back pain and leg pain, and ODI score decreased significantly (from 6.5, 6.8, and 46.9% to 3.0, 1.9, and 16.3%, respectively). Clinical success was achieved in 22 of the 24 patients. The mean segmental lordosis, whole lumbar lordosis, and sacral tilt significantly increased after surgery (from 25.1deg, 39.2deg, and 32.6deg to 32.9deg, 44.5deg, and 36.6deg, respectively). Solid fusion was achieved in 21 patients. ASD was found in 8 of the 24 patients. No patient underwent revision surgery due to nonunion or ASD. Two-level ALIF with percutaneous PSF yielded satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes and could be a useful alternative to posterior fusion surgery. (author)

  7. Two-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation. A minimum 3-year follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Yeob; Lee, Sang-Ho; Maeng, Dae-Hyeon [Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    The clinical and radiological outcomes of two-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (PSF) were evaluated in 24 consecutive patients who underwent two level ALIF with percutaneous PSF for segmental instability and were followed up for more than 3 years. Clinical outcomes were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Sagittal alignment, bone union, and adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) were assessed using radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. The mean age of the patients at the time of operation was 56.3 years (range 39-70 years). Minor complications occurred in 2 patients in the perioperative period. At a mean follow-up duration of 39.4 months (range 36-42 months), VAS scores for back pain and leg pain, and ODI score decreased significantly (from 6.5, 6.8, and 46.9% to 3.0, 1.9, and 16.3%, respectively). Clinical success was achieved in 22 of the 24 patients. The mean segmental lordosis, whole lumbar lordosis, and sacral tilt significantly increased after surgery (from 25.1deg, 39.2deg, and 32.6deg to 32.9deg, 44.5deg, and 36.6deg, respectively). Solid fusion was achieved in 21 patients. ASD was found in 8 of the 24 patients. No patient underwent revision surgery due to nonunion or ASD. Two-level ALIF with percutaneous PSF yielded satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes and could be a useful alternative to posterior fusion surgery. (author)

  8. Minimal adverse effects profile following implantation of periauricular percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulators: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthur Roberts,1–3 Alec Sithole,4 Marcos Sedghi,5 Charles A Walker,6,7 Theresa M Quinn,8 1Indiana Craniofacial Center, 2Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Management, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 4Department of Computer Science, Mathematics and Physics, Missouri Western State University, St Joseph, MO, 5Conservative Care Specialists Medical Group, Los Angeles, CA, 6Walker Pain Management Center, Jackson, TN, 7Bethel University, Paris, TN, 8Wisconsin Pain Solutions, Menomonee Falls, WI, USA Abstract: The periauricular percutaneous implantation of the Neuro-Stim System™ family of devices EAD, MFS, and BRIDGE is a procedure involving the use of a non-opiate, neuromodulation analgesic for relieving acute and chronic pain. It has been approved as a minimal-risk procedure by multiple governmental and institutional facilities. This retrospective report of findings will help quantify the incidence of clinically observed bleeding, localized dermatitis, and infections at the implantation sites of the electrode/needle arrays, dermatitis at the site of the generator, and patient syncope. A total of 1,207 devices, each producing up to 16 percutaneous punctures, for a total of 19,312 punctures were monitored for adverse effects, based on retrospective chart audits conducted at six clinical facilities over a 1-year period. Keywords: clinical risks and discomfort, percutaneous auricular neuro-stimulation, Neuro-Stim System™ devices, EAD, MFS, Bridge, neuromodulation, adverse effects

  9. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Faily, Shamal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C.

    2015-01-01

    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  10. Demonstration of the Safety and Feasibility of Robotically Assisted Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Complex Coronary Lesions: Results of the CORA-PCI Study (Complex Robotically Assisted Percutaneous Coronary Intervention).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ehtisham; Naghi, Jesse; Ang, Lawrence; Harrison, Jonathan; Behnamfar, Omid; Pourdjabbar, Ali; Reeves, Ryan; Patel, Mitul

    2017-07-10

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and technical success of robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention (R-PCI) for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) in clinical practice, especially in complex lesions, and to determine the safety and clinical success of R-PCI compared with manual percutaneous coronary intervention (M-PCI). R-PCI is safe and feasible for simple coronary lesions. The utility of R-PCI for complex coronary lesions is unknown. All consecutive PCI procedures performed robotically (study group) or manually (control group) over 18 months were included. R-PCI technical success, defined as the completion of the procedure robotically or with partial manual assistance and without a major adverse cardiovascular event, was determined. Procedures ineligible for R-PCI (i.e., atherectomy, planned 2-stent strategy for bifurcation lesion, chronic total occlusion requiring hybrid approach) were excluded for analysis from the M-PCI group. Clinical success, defined as completion of the PCI procedure without a major adverse cardiovascular event, procedure time, stent use, and fluoroscopy time were compared between groups. A total of 315 patients (mean age 67.7 ± 11.8 years; 78% men) underwent 334 PCI procedures (108 R-PCIs, 157 lesions, 78.3% type B2/C; 226 M-PCIs, 336 lesions, 68.8% type B2/C). Technical success with R-PCI was 91.7% (rate of manual assistance 11.1%, rate of manual conversion 7.4%, rate of major adverse cardiovascular events 0.93%). Clinical success (99.1% with R-PCI vs. 99.1% with M-PCI; p = 1.00), stent use (stents per procedure 1.59 ± 0.79 with R-PCI vs. 1.54 ± 0.75 with M-PCI; p = 0.73), and fluoroscopy time (18.2 ± 10.4 min with R-PCI vs. 19.2 ± 11.4 min with M-PCI; p = 0.39) were similar between the groups, although procedure time was longer in the R-PCI group (44:30 ± 26:04 min:s vs. 36:34 ± 23:03 min:s; p = 0.002). Propensity-matched analysis confirmed that procedure time was longer

  11. Customized photorefractive keratectomy to correct high ametropia after penetrating keratoplasty: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Our pilot study suggests that customized PRK can be a safe and effective method for treating ametropia and irregular astigmatisms after PK. Future studies with larger samples and longer follow-ups should be performed to confirm these results.

  12. Accuracy and efficacy of percutaneous biopsy and ablation using robotic assistance under computed tomography guidance: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koethe, Yilun; Xu, Sheng; Velusamy, Gnanasekar; Wood, Bradford J.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the accuracy of a robotic interventional radiologist (IR) assistance platform with a standard freehand technique for computed-tomography (CT)-guided biopsy and simulated radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The accuracy of freehand single-pass needle insertions into abdominal phantoms was compared with insertions facilitated with the use of a robotic assistance platform (n = 20 each). Post-procedural CTs were analysed for needle placement error. Percutaneous RFA was simulated by sequentially placing five 17-gauge needle introducers into 5-cm diameter masses (n = 5) embedded within an abdominal phantom. Simulated ablations were planned based on pre-procedural CT, before multi-probe placement was executed freehand. Multi-probe placement was then performed on the same 5-cm mass using the ablation planning software and robotic assistance. Post-procedural CTs were analysed to determine the percentage of untreated residual target. Mean needle tip-to-target errors were reduced with use of the IR assistance platform (both P < 0.0001). Reduced percentage residual tumour was observed with treatment planning (P = 0.02). Improved needle accuracy and optimised probe geometry are observed during simulated CT-guided biopsy and percutaneous ablation with use of a robotic IR assistance platform. This technology may be useful for clinical CT-guided biopsy and RFA, when accuracy may have an impact on outcome. (orig.)

  13. Accuracy and efficacy of percutaneous biopsy and ablation using robotic assistance under computed tomography guidance: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koethe, Yilun [National Institutes of Health, Center for Interventional Oncology, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Xu, Sheng [National Institutes of Health, Center for Interventional Oncology, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); Velusamy, Gnanasekar [Perfint Healthcare Pvt. Ltd., Chennai (India); Wood, Bradford J. [National Institutes of Health, Center for Interventional Oncology, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); Venkatesan, Aradhana M. [National Institutes of Health, Center for Interventional Oncology, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); National Institutes of Health, Center for Interventional Oncology, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-03-15

    To compare the accuracy of a robotic interventional radiologist (IR) assistance platform with a standard freehand technique for computed-tomography (CT)-guided biopsy and simulated radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The accuracy of freehand single-pass needle insertions into abdominal phantoms was compared with insertions facilitated with the use of a robotic assistance platform (n = 20 each). Post-procedural CTs were analysed for needle placement error. Percutaneous RFA was simulated by sequentially placing five 17-gauge needle introducers into 5-cm diameter masses (n = 5) embedded within an abdominal phantom. Simulated ablations were planned based on pre-procedural CT, before multi-probe placement was executed freehand. Multi-probe placement was then performed on the same 5-cm mass using the ablation planning software and robotic assistance. Post-procedural CTs were analysed to determine the percentage of untreated residual target. Mean needle tip-to-target errors were reduced with use of the IR assistance platform (both P < 0.0001). Reduced percentage residual tumour was observed with treatment planning (P = 0.02). Improved needle accuracy and optimised probe geometry are observed during simulated CT-guided biopsy and percutaneous ablation with use of a robotic IR assistance platform. This technology may be useful for clinical CT-guided biopsy and RFA, when accuracy may have an impact on outcome. (orig.)

  14. Fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography by using carbon dioxide: a pilot study in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fei; Hernandez, Javier; Crisostomo, Veronica; Pineda, Luis-Fernando; Lima, Juan Rafael; Uson, Jesus; Maynar, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography and its potential clinical applications. Three Belgian landrace pigs received fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography by using CO 2 as a contrast agent. Under fluoroscopic and B-mode ultrasonic guidance, right or left lobe of liver was punctured with a 22-G Chiba needle, through which CO 2 was injected with a dedicated CO 2 injector at injection rate of 20 ml/s for 20 ml, 40 ml/s for 40 ml, 40 ml/s for 60 ml, and 40 ml/s for 80 ml, respectively. The portal venograms were obtained by use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system with animal in supine position. In one pig transarterial portal venography was performed, in addition, using iodinated contrast agent. The portal vein was visualized in each run of venography. Optimal images of portal tree structure up to four-order branches were obtained in all those with CO 2 injection rate of 40 ml/s, which appeared much better in quality than those obtained by cranial mesenteric arteriography with iodinated contrast agent. No extravasation of CO 2 , liver laceration, or any other complication occurred during the procedures. The technique we proposed demonstrated optimal portography, which appeared to be safe, minimally invasive, less time-consuming, cost-effective, and easy to perform, with great potential in clinical applications. (orig.)

  15. Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-30

    Mar 30, 1974 ... Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography can play a major role in expediting the early diagnosis of surgically correctable jaundice. The need for this is emphasised by the fact that in a group of 46 patients the delay between the onset of jaundice and diagnosis ranged from 20 to 90 days. Transhepatic ...

  16. The role of hair follicles in the percutaneous absorption of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otberg, Nina; Patzelt, Alexa; Rasulev, Utkur; Hagemeister, Timo; Linscheid, Michael; Sinkgraven, Ronald; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2008-04-01

    * In recent years, it has been suggested that hair follicles represent important shunt routes into the skin for drugs and chemicals [1-3]. * In vitro studies have shown the importance of skin appendages for skin penetration by hydrophilic compounds [4]. Investigation of follicular penetration in vivo has been difficult due to the absence of appropriate analytical methods or suitable animal model systems. * Recently, a new method was described that quantifies follicular penetration in vivo by using selective closure of hair follicles [5]. * Caffeine is frequently used in skin penetration experiments as a model for highly water-soluble compounds. Occlusion [6] and skin thickness [7] seem to have little influence on the penetration of caffeine. However, percutaneous absorption rates for caffeine exhibit regional skin differences in humans in vivo[1]. * The results of the present study demonstrate that a fast drug delivery of caffeine occurs through shunt routes. Therefore, hair follicles are considerable weak spots in our protective sheath against penetration into the body by hydrophilic substances. * We showed that there is a quantitative distinction between follicular penetration and interfollicular diffusion of caffeine in vivo. * These findings are of importance for the development and optimization of topically applied drugs and cosmetics. In addition, such properties must be considered in the development of skin protection measures. The skin and its appendages are our protective shield against the environment and are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis. Hypotheses concerning the penetration of substances into the skin have assumed diffusion through the lipid domains of the stratum corneum. It is believed that while hair follicles represent a weakness in the shield, they play a subordinate role in the percutaneous penetration processes. Previous investigation of follicular penetration has mostly addressed methodical and technical problems. Our study

  17. The Gly2019Ser mutation in LRRK2 is not fully penetrant in familial Parkinson's disease: the GenePD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbett Alastair

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report age-dependent penetrance estimates for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2-related Parkinson's disease (PD in a large sample of familial PD. The most frequently seen LRRK2 mutation, Gly2019Ser (G2019S, is associated with approximately 5 to 6% of familial PD cases and 1 to 2% of idiopathic cases, making it the most common known genetic cause of PD. Studies of the penetrance of LRRK2 mutations have produced a wide range of estimates, possibly due to differences in study design and recruitment, including in particular differences between samples of familial PD versus sporadic PD. Methods A sample, including 903 affected and 58 unaffected members from 509 families ascertained for having two or more PD-affected members, 126 randomly ascertained PD patients and 197 controls, was screened for five different LRRK2 mutations. Penetrance was estimated in families of LRRK2 carriers with consideration of the inherent bias towards increased penetrance in a familial sample. Results Thirty-one out of 509 families with multiple cases of PD (6.1% were found to have 58 LRRK2 mutation carriers (6.4%. Twenty-nine of the 31 families had G2019S mutations while two had R1441C mutations. No mutations were identified among controls or unaffected relatives of PD cases. Nine PD-affected relatives of G2019S carriers did not carry the LRRK2 mutation themselves. At the maximum observed age range of 90 to 94 years, the unbiased estimated penetrance was 67% for G2019S families, compared with a baseline PD risk of 17% seen in the non-LRRK2-related PD families. Conclusion Lifetime penetrance of LRRK2 estimated in the unascertained relatives of multiplex PD families is greater than that reported in studies of sporadically ascertained LRRK2 cases, suggesting that inherited susceptibility factors may modify the penetrance of LRRK2 mutations. In addition, the presence of nine PD phenocopies in the LRRK2 families suggests that these susceptibility

  18. Recent Advances in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erem Kaan Basok

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuous innovations in technology, instrumentations, and techniques allow urologists to perform percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL with increasing efficacy. Although recent advances have facilitated the procedure, some steps are still challenging. A thorough review of the recent urologic literature was performed to identify these improvements in PCNL technique. The newer developments mainly focused on multimodal imaging techniques, miniaturisation of instruments, tracking and navigation systems during access to the stone, and robotic systems. Further studies are necessary to better define the benefits of these new fruitful developments which remain an active research field.

  19. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Compared to Conservative Treatment in Patients With Painful Acute or Subacute Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures: Three-Months Follow-up in a Clinical Randomized Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Rikke; Andersen, Mikkel Østerheden; Jespersen, Stig M.

    2009-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Clinical randomized study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) to conservative treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures in a clinical randomized study with respect to pain, physical and mental outcome, and to asses...... patients (41 females) were included from January 2001 until January 2008. Patients with acute (treatment. Pain was assessed with a visual analogue scale and physical and mental...... within both groups and between the groups after 3 months with a few exceptions. We observed 2 adjacent fractures in the PVP group and non in the conservative group. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with acute or subacute painful osteoporotic compression fractures in the spine will recover after a few...

  20. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2018-02-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  1. Speech Understanding with a New Implant Technology: A Comparative Study with a New Nonskin Penetrating Baha System

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Anja; Flynn, Mark; Caversaccio, Marco; Kompis, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare hearing and speech understanding between a new, nonskin penetrating Baha system (Baha Attract) to the current Baha system using a skin-penetrating abutment. Methods. Hearing and speech understanding were measured in 16 experienced Baha users. The transmission path via the abutment was compared to a simulated Baha Attract transmission path by attaching the implantable magnet to the abutment and then by adding a sample of artificial skin and the external parts of the Baha...

  2. Penetration Evaluation of Explosively Formed Projectiles Through Air and Water Using Insensitive Munition: Simulative and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of formation, flying, penetration of explosively-formed projectiles (EFP and the effect of water on performance of the charge for underwater applications is simulated by Ansysis Autodyn 2D-Hydro code. The main objective of an explosively formed projectile designed for underwater applications is to disintegrate the target at longer standoff distances. In this paper we have simulated the explosively formed projectile from OFHC-Copper liner for 1200 conical angle. The Affect of water on the penetration of EFP is determined by simulations from Ansysis Autodyn 2-D Hydrocode and by varying depth of water from 1CD-5CD. The depth of penetration against steel target is measured experimentally. Flash X-Ray Radiography (FXR is used to capture EFP jet formation and its penetration against target is measured by depth of penetration experiments. Simulation results are compared with experimental results. The difference in simulated and experimental results for depth of penetration is about 7 mm, which lies within favorable range of error. The jet formation captured from FXR is quite clear and jet velocity determined from Flash X-ray radiography is the same as the ones obtained by using other high explosives. Therefore, it is indicated that Insensitive Munition (8701 can be utilized instead of Polymer Bonded Explosives (PBX for air and underwater environments with great reliability and without any hazard.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Dispersion Patterns and Penetration Properties of MEFP with Seven Arc-Cone Liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianFeng Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract A new MEFP warhead with seven arc-cone liners which can form 7, 13 or 19 penetrators at different standoffs is designed. Dispersion patterns and penetration properties of MEFP are performed on five #45 steel targets of dimension 160cm x 160cm x 1.5cm at various standoffs (45cm, 60cm, 80cm, 120cm, 170cm. It reaches the conclusion that every surrounding liner is broken into three penetrators during the formation process of MEFP and a group of aimable penetrators consisting a central projectile surrounded by 18 penetrators is finally formed. Maximum divergence angle of surrounding penetrator is 9.8° and the damage area reaches 0.37m2 at 1.7m. A nonlinear surface fitting about perforations information on the targets at different standoffs provides a method of predicting the dispersion patterns of MEFP. Once initiated, damage probability for defeating light armor of MEFP warhead with seven arc-cone liners is significantly improved and the results provide important reference to the design and optimization of MEFP warhead in engineering.

  4. Percutaneous biliary drainage and stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totev, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is an X-ray or US guided procedure that involves the injection of a contrast material directly into the bile ducts inside the liver to produce pictures of them. If a blockage or narrowing is found, additional procedures may be performed: 1. insertion of a catheter to drain excess bile out of the body or both - internal and external; 2. plastic endoprothesis placement; 3. self-expandable metal stents placement to help open bile ducts or to bypass an obstruction and allow fluids to drain. Current percutaneous biliary interventions include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and biliary drainage to manage benign and malignant obstructions. Internal biliary stents are either plastic or metallic, and various types of each kind are available. Internal biliary stents have several advantages. An external tube can be uncomfortable and have a psychological disadvantage. An internal stent prevents the problems related to external catheters, for example, pericatheter leakage of bile and the need for daily flushing. The disadvantages include having to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or new PTC procedures to obtain access in case of stent obstruction. Better patency rates are reported with metallic than with plastic stents in cases of malignant obstruction, though no effect on survival is noted. Plastic internal stents are the cheapest but reportedly prone to migration. Metallic stents are generally not used in the treatment of benign disease because studies have shown poor long-term patency rates. Limited applications may include the treatment of patients who are poor surgical candidates or of those in whom surgical treatment fails. Most postoperative strictures are treated surgically, though endoscopic and (less commonly) percutaneous placement of nonmetallic stents has increasingly been used in the past few years. Now there are some reports about use of biodegradable biliary

  5. Integration of wind power in the Danish generation system. EC wind power penetration study, phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-06-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has asked utilities in the member countries to carry out a coordinated study of the wind energy potential. The main objective is to show the consequences for the future electricity system when integrating wind power production covering 5, 10 or 15% of total demand. In addition to the best estimate scenario believed to be operational, some additional calculations have been carried out: wind power production as a negative load only (not operational for the total system); different levels of investment in wind farms. The methodology is based on the following steps: define a reference scenario for year 2000; define an alternative scenario with a certain amount of wind power production; calculate time-series for electrical load and district heating from combined heat/power production; calculate time-series for wind power production; make economic evaluation and sensitivity analysis; show environmental differences. Incorporation of wind power into the ELSAM power system, with the wind energy meeting, about 5% of demand will give rise to additional control capacity, or call for new contracts with neighbouring countries. The study includes estimated network investments. The simulations have been made with the SIM and SLUMP computer programmes. The economic analyses and the sensitivity analyses have been carried out using spreadsheets. The conclusion concerning profitability - based on the best estimate assumptions - is that the studied wind power scenarios are unprofitable. (EG)

  6. Stochastic Optimization Model to STudy the Operational Impacts of High Wind Penetrations in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Barth, R.; Hasche, B.

    2011-01-01

    A stochastic mixed integer linear optimization scheduling model minimizing system operation costs and treating load and wind power production as stochastic inputs is presented. The schedules are updated in a rolling manner as more up-to-date information becomes available. This is a fundamental...... change relative to day-ahead unit commitment approaches. The need for reserves dependent on forecast horizon and share of wind power has been estimated with a statistical model combining load and wind power forecast errors with scenarios of forced outages. The model is used to study operational impacts...

  7. Effect of Maintaining Apical Patency on Irrigant Penetration into the Apical Two Millimeters of Large Root Canals : An In Vivo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera, Jorge; Hernandez, Erick M.; Romero, Monica; Arias, Ana; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Factors such as complex root canal anatomy and the vapor lock phenomenon have been shown to limit the penetration of irrigating solutions into the apical third in both in vivo and in vitro studies involving small and wide canals. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine whether

  8. Study on Chloride Ion Penetration Resistance of Rubberized Concrete Under Steady State Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Noor Nurazuwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamed concrete is a controlled low density ranging from 400kg/m3 to 1800kg/m3, and hence suitable for the construction of buildings and infrastructures. The uniqueness of foamed concrete is does not use aggregates in order to retain low density. Foamed concrete contains only cement, sand, water and foam agent. Therefore, the consumption of cement is higher in producing a good quality and strength of foamed concrete. Without the present of aggregates, the compressive strength of foamed concrete can only achieve as high as 15MPa. Therefore, this study aims to introduce the pelletized coconut fibre aggregate to reduce the consumption of cement but able to enhance the compressive strength. In the experimental study, forty-five (45 cube samples of foamed concrete with density 1600kg/m3 were prepared with different volume fractions of pelletized coconut fibre aggregate. All cube samples were tested using the compression test to obtain compressive strength. The results showed that the compressive strength of foamed concrete containing 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of pelletized coconut fibre aggregate are 9.6MPa, 11.4MPa, 14.6MPa and 13.4MPa respectively. It is in fact higher than the controlled foamed concrete that only achieves 9MPa. It is found that the pelletized coconut fibre aggregate indicates a good potential to enhance the compressive strength of foamed concrete.

  9. Relationship between arterial access and outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction with a pharmacoinvasive versus primary percutaneous coronary intervention strategy : Insights from the STrategic reperfusion early after myocardial infarction (STREAM) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shavadia, Jay; Welsh, Robert; Gershlick, Anthony; Zheng, Yinggan; Huber, Kurt; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Steg, Phillipe G.; Van de Werf, Frans; Armstrong, Paul W.; Kaff, A.; Malzer, R.; Sebald, D.; Glogar, D.; Gyöngyösi, M.; Weidinger, F.; Weber, H.; Gaul, G.; Chmelizek, F.; Seidl, S.; Pichler, M.; Pretsch, I.; Vergion, M.; Herssens, M.; Van Haesendonck, C.; Saraiva, J. F K; Sparenberg, A. L F; Souza, J. A.; Moraes, J. B M; Sant'anna, F. M.; Tarkieltaub, E.; Hansen, J. R.; Oliveira, E. M.; Leonhard, O.; Cantor, W.; Senaratne, M.; Aptecar, E.; Asseman, P.; Belle, L.; Belliard, O.; Berland, J.; Berthier, A.; Besnard, C.; Bonneau, A.; Bonnefoy, E.; Brami, M.; Canu, G.; Capellier, G.; Cattan, S.; Champagnac, D.; Chapon, P.; Cheval, B.; Claudel, J.; Cohen Tenoudji, P.; Coste, P.; Debierre, V.; Domergue, R.; Echahed, K.; El Khoury, C.; Ferrari, E.; Garrot, P.; Henry, P.; Jardel, B.; Jilwan, R.; Julie, V.; Ketelers, R.; Lapostolle, F.; Le Tarnec, J.; Livarek, B.; Mann, Y.; Marchand, X.; Pajot, F.; Perret, T.; Petit, P.; Probst, V.; Ricard Hibon, A.; Robin, C.; Salama, A.; Salengro, E.; Savary, D.; Schiele, F.; Soulat, L.; Tabone, X.; Taboulet, P.; Thicoïpe, M.; Torres, J.; Tron, C.; Vanzetto, G.; Villain-Coquet, L.; Piper, S.; Mochmann, H. C.; Nibbe, L.; Schniedermeier, U.; Heuer, H.; Marx, F.; Schöls, W.; Lepper, W.; Grahl, R.; Muth, G.; Lappas, G.; Mantas, I.; Skoumbourdis, E.; Dilanas, C.; Kaprinis, I.; Vogiatzis, I.; Zarifis, I.; Spyromitros, G.; Konstantinides, S.; Symeonides, D.; Rossi, G. P.; Bermano, F.; Ferlito, S.; Paolini, P.; Valagussa, L.; Della Rovere, F.; Miccoli, F.; Chiti, M.; Vergoni, W.; Comeglio, M.; Percoco, G.; Valgimigli, M.; Berget, K.; Skjetne, O.; Schartum-Hansen, H.; Andersen, K.; Rolstad, O. J.; Aguirre Zurita, O. N.; Castillo León, R. P.; Villar Quiroz, A. C.; Glowka, A.; Kulus, P.; Kalinina, S.; Bushuev, A.; Barbarash, O.; Tarasov, N.; Fomin, I.; Makarov, E.; Markov, V.; Danilenko, A.; Volkova, E.; Frolenkov, A.; Burova, N.; Yakovlev, A.; Elchinskaya, L.; Boldueva, S.; Klein, G.; Kolosova, I.; Ovcharenko, E.; Fairushin, R.; Andjelic, S.; Vukcevic, V.; Neskovic, A.; Krotin, M.; Rajkovic, T.; Pavlovic, M.; Perunicic, J.; Kovacevic, S.; Petrovic, V.; Mitov, V.; Ruiz, A.; García-Alcántara, A.; Martínez, M.; Díaz, J.; Paz, M. A.; Manzano, F. L.; Martín, C.; Macaya, C.; Corral, E.; Fernández, J. J.; Martín, F.; García, R.; Siriwardena, N.; Rawstorne, O.; Baumbach, A.; Manoharan, G.; Menown, I.; McHechan, S.; Morgan, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background-The effectiveness of radial access (RA) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been predominantly established in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) with limited exploration of this issue in the early postfibrinolytic patient. The purpose of this study was to

  10. Quantitative study of the penetration of insoluble particles into the tissue of the conducting airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, D J; Patrick, G [Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative study is presented of the spatial distribution of both inhaled UO/sub 2/ particles and intra-tracheally administered BaSO/sub 4/ particles in the wall of the airways in the rat. The results show that in the intrapulmonary airways between 7 and 17 days after inhalation, UO/sub 2/ particles are situated most frequently at a depth of 8-10 ..mu..m from the luminal surface. At 24 h in the trachea, BaSO/sub 4/ particles concentrate between 10 and 15 ..mu..m beneath the surface, corresponding to the zone immediately beneath the basement membrane; by 7 days the distribution is broader but otherwise similar. This pattern of retention should assist in assessing the dose from radioactive particles absorbed by the basal cells of the epithelium, which are likely to be the origin of carcinoma of the airways.

  11. An Overview of the Percutaneous Antibiotic Delivery Technique for Osteomyelitis Treatment and a Case Study of Calcaneal Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Jeffrey C

    2017-11-01

    A percutaneous antibiotic delivery technique (PAD-T) used for the adjunctive management of osteomyelitis is presented. This surgical technique incorporates a calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate) bone void filler acting as a carrier vehicle with either an antibiotic or an antifungal medicine, delivering this combination directly into the area of osteomyelitis. The benefit of the PAD-T is reviewed with a case presentation of a successfully treated calcaneal osteomyelitis. No previously reported PAD-T using a simple bone cortex incision in the adjunctive treatment of osteomyelitis has been reported. The PAD-T safely and effectively uses a calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite bone void filler carrier vehicle to deliver either an antibiotic or an antifungal medicine directly into the area of osteomyelitis.

  12. Glyburide increases risk in patients with diabetes mellitus after emergent percutaneous intervention for myocardial infarction - A nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C H; Gislason, G H; Bretler, D

    2011-01-01

    Danish patients receiving glucose-lowering drugs admitted with myocardial infarction between 1997 and 2006 who underwent emergent percutaneous coronary intervention were identified from national registers. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the risk of cardiovascular.......9%) received metformin. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, comorbidity and concomitant pharmacotherapy showed an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-6.72 ; p=0.012), cardiovascular mortality...... and nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR 2.69 , 95% CI 1.21-6.00; p=0.016), and all-cause mortality (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.11-5.47; p=0.027), respectively, with glyburide compared to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: Glyburide is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes...

  13. Lipid nanoparticles for topical and transdermal application for alopecia treatment: development, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro release and penetration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes MJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria João Gomes,1 Susana Martins,2,3 Domingos Ferreira,2 Marcela A Segundo,1 Salette Reis1 1REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 3Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Alopecia is a dermatological disorder, commonly known as hair loss, which affects up to half of the Caucasian male population by middle age, and almost all (95% Caucasian men by old age. Considering that alopecia affects so many people and that there is currently no scientifically proven treatment with few side effects, new drug-delivery systems able to improve alopecia therapy are urgently required. With this purpose in mind, the present study aimed to develop lipid nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers with the ability to incorporate and deliver anti-alopecia active compounds (minoxidil and finasteride into the dermis and hair follicles. Lipid nanoparticles, prepared by ultrasonication method, showed mean particle sizes around 200 nm, which is sufficient for reaching the dermis and hair follicles, and zeta potential values around -30 mV, which indicates good physical stability. Over 28 days of storage, no significant variations in these parameters were observed, which indicates that all nanoformulations are stable in storage over that period. Cryo-scanning electron microscope measurements showed that all the lipid nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and a smooth surface regardless of their composition. Differential scanning calorimetry studies allowed the determination of phase transition temperatures and confirmed the recrystallization of the lipid nanoparticles (recrystallization index between 11% and 86%. A high loading efficiency was achieved for finasteride (between 70% and 90%, while less than 30% was

  14. The Use of Color-Coded Duplex Scanning in the Selection of Patients with Lower Extremity Arterial Disease for Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsman, Bernard H.P.; Legemate, Dink A.; Heyden, Frank W.H.M. van der; Vos, Henk de; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Eikelboom, Bert C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To exploit the potential benefits of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with short obstructive lesions in the lower extremity, it is preferable to select patients suitable for PTA before proceeding to hospital admission and angiography. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the role of color-coded duplex scanning in the correct selection of patients for PTA and its influence on planning the approach to the lesion. Methods: On the basis of clinical history, physical examination, pressure indices, and ultrasound duplex scanning, 109 patients were scheduled for PTA. Results: The indication for PTA was correct in 103 patients (94%), while the procedure was performed successfully in 98 patients (90%). The approach to the lesion was planned successfully in the majority of patients. Conclusion: This study shows that it is justifiable to plan PTA on the basis of information obtained by duplex scanning. Results of the duplex scan may guide the catheterization route

  15. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training for overactive bladder syndrome in women: results of a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Vecchioli Scaldazza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction This study compared percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training (ES + PFMT in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB. Materials and Methods 60 women with OAB were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. In group A, women underwent ES with PFMT, in group B women underwent PTNS. Results A statistically significant reduction in the number of daily micturitions, episodes of nocturia and urge incontinence was found in the two groups but the difference was more substantial in women treated with PTNS; voided volume increased in both groups. Quality of life improved in both groups, whereas patient perception of urgency improved only in women treated with PTNS. Global impression of improvement revealed a greater satisfaction in patients treated with PTNS. Conclusion This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTNS and ES with PFMT in women with OAB, but greater improvements were found with PTNS.

  16. Radiation exposure and contrast agent use related to radial versus femoral arterial access during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)—Results of the FERARI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, Tobias, E-mail: Tobias.Becher@umm.de [First Department of Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Heidelberg/Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Behnes, Michael; Ünsal, Melike; Baumann, Stefan; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Fastner, Christian; Kuschyk, Jürgen; Papavassiliu, Theano; Hoffmann, Ursula [First Department of Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Heidelberg/Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Mashayekhi, Kambis [Division of Cardiology and Angiology II, University Heart Center Freiburg Bad Krozingen, Bad Krozingen (Germany); Borggrefe, Martin; Akin, Ibrahim [First Department of Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Heidelberg/Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Summary: Background: Data regarding radiation exposure related to radial versus femoral arterial access in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain controversial. This study aims to evaluate patients enrolled in the FERARI study regarding radiation exposure, fluoroscopy time and contrast agent use. Methods: The Femoral Closure versus Radial Compression Devices Related to Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (FERARI) study evaluated prospectively 400 patients between February 2014 and May 2015 undergoing PCI either using the radial or femoral access. In these 400 patients, baseline characteristics, procedural data such as procedural duration, fluoroscopy time, dose–area product (DAP) as well as the amount of contrast agent used were documented and analyzed. Results: Median fluoroscopy time was not significantly different in patients undergoing radial versus femoral access (12.2 vs. 9.8 min, p = 0.507). Furthermore, median DAP (54.5 vs. 52.0 Gycm2, p = 0.826), procedural duration (46.0 vs. 45.0 min, p = 0.363) and contrast agent use (185.5 vs. 199.5 ml, p = 0.742) were also similar in radial and femoral PCI. Conclusion: There was no difference regarding median fluoroscopy time, procedural duration, radiation dose or contrast agent use between radial versus femoral arterial access in PCI. - Highlights: • Data comparing radiation exposure in radial versus femoral PCI remain controversial. • 400 enrolled in the FERARI study were prospectively evaluated. • There was no difference regarding radiation exposure in radial versus femoral access. • Furthermore, there was no significant difference regarding contrast agent use.

  17. Radiation exposure and contrast agent use related to radial versus femoral arterial access during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)—Results of the FERARI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, Tobias; Behnes, Michael; Ünsal, Melike; Baumann, Stefan; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Fastner, Christian; Kuschyk, Jürgen; Papavassiliu, Theano; Hoffmann, Ursula; Mashayekhi, Kambis; Borggrefe, Martin; Akin, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Background: Data regarding radiation exposure related to radial versus femoral arterial access in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain controversial. This study aims to evaluate patients enrolled in the FERARI study regarding radiation exposure, fluoroscopy time and contrast agent use. Methods: The Femoral Closure versus Radial Compression Devices Related to Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (FERARI) study evaluated prospectively 400 patients between February 2014 and May 2015 undergoing PCI either using the radial or femoral access. In these 400 patients, baseline characteristics, procedural data such as procedural duration, fluoroscopy time, dose–area product (DAP) as well as the amount of contrast agent used were documented and analyzed. Results: Median fluoroscopy time was not significantly different in patients undergoing radial versus femoral access (12.2 vs. 9.8 min, p = 0.507). Furthermore, median DAP (54.5 vs. 52.0 Gycm2, p = 0.826), procedural duration (46.0 vs. 45.0 min, p = 0.363) and contrast agent use (185.5 vs. 199.5 ml, p = 0.742) were also similar in radial and femoral PCI. Conclusion: There was no difference regarding median fluoroscopy time, procedural duration, radiation dose or contrast agent use between radial versus femoral arterial access in PCI. - Highlights: • Data comparing radiation exposure in radial versus femoral PCI remain controversial. • 400 enrolled in the FERARI study were prospectively evaluated. • There was no difference regarding radiation exposure in radial versus femoral access. • Furthermore, there was no significant difference regarding contrast agent use

  18. Women's experiences of using vaginal trainers (dilators) to treat vaginal penetration difficulties diagnosed as vaginismus: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Kat; Gregory, Angela; Nunns, David; das Nair, Roshan

    2015-06-20

    Recent research has highlighted controversies in the conceptualisation, diagnosis and treatment of vaginismus. Vaginal trainers are currently the most widely used treatment. Critiques have highlighted concerns that the evidence-base of its effectiveness is limited, with controlled trials reporting disappointing results, and its prescription promotes 'performance-based' sexuality which may be detrimental. Despite this, little has been done to seek women's views about their treatment. This study set out to explore women's experiences of vaginismus treatment with vaginal trainers, and to use their voices to propose guidelines for improving treatment. 13 women who had used vaginal trainers for vaginal penetration difficulties diagnosed as vaginismus were recruited through a specialist clinic, university campuses, and online forums. The women took part in semi-structured individual interviews (face-to-face/telephone/Skype), which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Thematic Analysis. Four superordinate themes were elicited and used to draft 'better treatment' guidelines. Themes were: (1) Lack of knowledge, (2) Invalidation of suffering by professionals, (3) Difficult journey, and (4) Making the journey easier. This paper describes themes (3) and (4). Difficult Journey describes the long and arduous 'Journey into treatment', including difficulties asking for help, undergoing physical investigations and negotiating 'the system' of medical referrals. It also describes the sometimes demoralising process of 'being in treatment', which includes emotional and practical demands of treatment. Making the journey easier highlights the importance of and limits to 'partner support'. 'Professional support' comprises personal qualities of professionals/therapeutic relationship, the value of specialist skills and knowledge and the need for facilitating couple communication about vaginismus. 'Peer support/helping each other' describes the importance of

  19. Ground penetrating radar study of a thickness of biogenic sediments in the vicinity of the Czechowskie Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The paper present results of investigations, which have made on a biogenic plain in the north-east part of the vicinity of the Czechowskie Lake. The basin of Lake Czechowskie occupies a deep depression located in the immediate hinterland of the maximum range of the Pomeranian Phase ice sheet in the northern part of Poland (Błaszkiewicz 2005). Drillings carried out within the peat plain in the western part of the lake basin indicate that there are relatively diversified lake sediments of up to 12 m in thickness. The ground penetrating radar profiling method (GPR) was used to determine a thickness of biogenic sediments. To tests was used GSS'I SIR SYSTEM-2000™ radar device with two antennae - the high resolution 400 MHz central frequency - for shallow prospecting of the subsurface layers and the low resolution 35 MHz - for determining the shape of the mineral bedrock. Overall, 33 GPR profiles was made all in all more than 3000 meters along and crosswise the longer axis of the biogenic plain. The range of radar penetration was set to 200 ns for 400 MHz antenna and 600 ns for the 35 MHz one, what is the equivalent respectively 4 m and 12,5 m in depth of biogenic sediments thickness. Horizontal scaling was made by GSSI survey wheel device. The thickness of biogenic sediments recognized by GPR reaches 10 meters only using 35 MHz antenna. In the case of the 400 MHz antenna, relatively high conductivity water-saturated peat and gyttia did not allow for the achievement of greater thickness than 3-4 meters testing. In a large part of the profiles was able to see the shape of the mineral bedrock in the form of a former lake basin. Also observed elevations and thresholds in the bedrock. Depth of the mineral deposits forming former lake bottom was confirmed by drillings. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis -ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association. References: Błaszkiewicz M, 2005. Późnoglacjalna i

  20. Percutaneous balloon dilatation and long-term drainage as treatment of anastomotic and nonanastomotic benign biliary strictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Jan Jaap; van Delden, Otto M.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Laméris, Johan S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of percutaneous balloon dilation and long-term drainage of postoperative benign biliary strictures. Medical records of patients with postoperative benign biliary strictures, in whom percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and balloon

  1. Percutaneous Injuries in Nigerian Dentists | Utomi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency of percutaneous injuries among Nigerian dentists and to describe the factors associated with the injuries. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey of 160 practicing dentists in Lagos, Ibadan, Ife and Benin. Result: A total of 208 injuries were reported by ...

  2. Randomized study of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy versus nasogastric tubes for enteral feeding in head and neck cancer patients treated with (chemo)radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corry, J.; Poon, W.; McPhee, N.; Milner, A. D.; Cruickshank, D.; Rischin, D.; Peters, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes have largely replaced nasogastric tubes (NGT) for nutritional support of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing curative (chemo)radiotherapy without any good scientific basis. A randomized trial was conducted to compare PEG tubes and NGT in terms of nutritional outcomes, complications, patient satisfaction and cost. The study was closed early because of poor accrual, predominantly due to patients' reluctance to be randomized. There were 33 patients eligible for analysis. Nutritional support with both tubes was good. There were no significant differences in overall complication rates, chest infection rates or in patients' assessment of their overall quality of life. The cost of a PEG tube was 10 times that of an NGT. The duration of use of PEG tubes was significantly longer, a median 139 days compared with a median 66 days for NGT. We found no evidence to support the routine use of PEG tubes over NGT in this patient group

  3. Percutaneous lumbar discectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chengjiang; Su Huanbin; Xu Sui; He Xiaofeng; Li Yanhao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To probe the therapeutic effects, indications and safety of the percutaneous lumbar discectomy (PLDP). Methods: To ameliorate percutaneous punctured route based on classic PLD and modified jaw structure of pulpiform nacleus forceps, with statistic analysis of the therapeutic results of 352 cases of patient undergone PLDP and follow up ranging from 6 to 38 months retrospectively. Results: The effective ratios were excellent in 45.5%, good for 45.4% and bad in 9.1%. 44 of 352 cases with pulps prolapse were cured. No intervertebral inflammation and paradisc hematoma took place. One case complicated with cauda equina injury and 4 cases with appliances broken inside the disc. Conclusions: PLDP is effective and safe, not only adaptive to the contained disc herniation, but also for noncontained herniation. (authors)

  4. Ameliorative percutaneous lumbar discectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chengjiang; Su Huanbin; He Xiaofeng; Li Yanhao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To ameliorate the percutaneous lumbar discectomy (APLD) for improving the effectiveness and amplifying the indicative range of PLD. Methods: To ameliorate percutaneous punctured route based on classic PLD and discectomy of extracting pulp out of the herniated disc with special pulpforceps. The statistical analysis of the therapeutic results on 750 disc protrusions of 655 cases undergone APLD following up from 6 to 54 months retrospectively. Results: The effective ratios were excellent in 40.2%, good for 46.6% and bad of 13.3%. No occurrance of intervertebral inflammation and paradiscal hematoma, there were only 1 case complicated with injuried cauda equina, and 4 cases with broken appliance within disc. Conclusions: APLD is effective and safe, not only indicative for inclusion disc herniation, but also for noninclusion herniation. (authors)

  5. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybojewski, J.Z.; Weich, H.F.H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review PTCA, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, which can be considered to be a truly revolutionary and fairly simple invasive form of intervention to atherosclerotic obstruction. The 'epidemic' of IHD, ischaemic heart disease, in the Republic of South Africa calls for the employment of this technique, which has already been carried out in a few teaching hospitals in this country. Very recently, modified balloon dilatation catheters have been used percutaneously in the non-operative transluminal correction of congenital coarctation of the aorta in infants and children, congenital pulmonary value stenosis, and hypoplasia and stenosis of the pulmonary arteries. It has also been employed for PTCA and for the simultaneous occlusion of coronary-bronchial artery anastomosis using a detachable balloon. The isotopes thallium 201 and technetium 99 were also used in scintiscanning

  6. Muon-spin rotation (. mu. SR) study of the temperature dependence of the London penetration depth in copper oxide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, H.; Kuendig, W.; Savic, I.M.; Simmler, H.; Staeuble-Puempin, B.; Warden, M.; Zech, D.; Zimmermann, P. (Physik-Inst., Univ. Zurich (Germany)); Kaldis, E.; Karpinski, J.; Rusiecki, S. (Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)); Brewer, J.H.; Riseman, T.M.; Schneider, J.W. (TRIUMF and Dept. of Physics, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Maeno, Y.; Rossel, C. (IBM Research Div., Zurich Research Lab., Rueschlikon (Switzerland))

    1991-12-01

    A {mu}SR study of the temperature dependence of the London penetration depth {lambda} in sintered samples of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (with various oxygen contents x), YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} is presented. It is found that the temperature behavior of {lambda} of all these cuprate superconductors is consistent with conventional s-wave pairing. However, there are significant differences concerning the exact temperature dependence of {lambda} in these materials. In YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} with high x, the behavior of {lambda}(T) is well described by the two-fluid model (strong coupling), whereas {lambda}(T) in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} with low x, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} is in better agreement with weak-coupling BCS theory. Possible reasons for the different temperature behavior of {lambda} in these materials are discussed. (orig.).

  7. Type D Personality, Social Support, and Depression Among Ethnic Chinese Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undergoing a Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Fen; He, Chung-Ping

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between Type D personality, depression, and social support among ethnic Chinese coronary artery disease (CAD) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Type D personality is associated with CAD, and may increase patients' depression and mortality rate. However, very few studies have explored the relationships between depression and social support among ethnic Chinese Type D CAD patients. A longitudinal, repeated-measures design was used; 105 Taiwanese CAD patients undergoing a percutaneous coronary intervention were recruited between January and December 2015. A demographic questionnaire, Type D Scale, ENRICHD Social Support Inventory, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 were completed by 102 participants (mean age = 64.42, SD = 13.67 years) at hospitalization, and at the second week and third month after discharge. Data were analyzed using t tests and a generalized estimating equation. Results indicated that 46.7% of participants who had Type D personality had lower social support and higher depression than did the remaining (non-Type D) participants. At two weeks after discharge, the improvement in social support was higher among Type D patients than non-Type D participants; the same was true for depression at two weeks and three months after discharge each. Type D Taiwanese CAD patients showed lower perceived social support and higher depression during hospitalization than did non-Type D participants. Furthermore, the more social support patients received at home, the lower was their depression. Health-care providers should provide continuous mental health care, conduct early screening of mental health issues, and ensure that patients receive sufficient social support to reduce depression.

  8. Adding Endoscopist-Directed Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing to the Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study Increased the Detection Rates of Penetration, Aspiration, and Pharyngeal Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won Young; Lee, Tae Hee; Ham, Nam Seok; Park, Ji Woong; Lee, Yang Gyun; Cho, Sang Jin; Lee, Joon Seong; Hong, Su Jin; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Hyun Gun; Cho, Joo Young; Kim, Jin Oh; Cho, Jun Hyung; Lee, Ji Sung

    2015-09-23

    Currently, the videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) is the standard tool for evaluating dysphagia. We evaluated whether the addition of endoscopist-directed flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) to VFSS could improve the detection rates of penetration, aspiration, and pharyngeal residue, compared the diagnostic efficacy between VFSS and endoscopist-directed FEES and assessed the adverse events of the FEES. In single tertiary referral center, a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted. Fifty consecutive patients suspected of oropharyngeal dysphagia were enrolled in this study between January 2012 and July 2012. The agreement in the detection of penetration and aspiration between VFSS and FEES of viscous food (κ=0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.53) and liquid food (κ=0.22; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.42) was "fair." The agreement in the detection of pharyngeal residue between the two tests was "substantial" with viscous food (κ=0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.94) and "fair" with liquid food (κ=0.37; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.63). Adding FEES to VFSS significantly increased the detection rates of penetration, aspiration, and pharyngeal residue. No severe adverse events were noted during FEES, except for two cases of epistaxis, which stopped spontaneously without requiring any packing. This study demonstrated that the addition of endoscopist-directed FEES to VFSS increased the detection rates of penetration, aspiration, and pharyngeal residue.

  9. Safety and Effectiveness of Percutaneously Inserted Peritoneal Ports Compared to Surgically Inserted Ports in a Retrospective Study of 87 Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma over a 10-Year Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley-Cook, Joel; Tarulli, Emidio; Tan, Kong T.; Rajan, Dheeraj K.; Simons, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    PurposePlacement of peritoneal ports has become a favorable technique for direct chemotherapy infusion in treating peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer. We aim to outline an approach to the percutaneous insertion of peritoneal ports and to characterize success and complication rates compared to surgically inserted ports.Materials and MethodsRetrospective analysis was collected from 87 patients who had peritoneal port insertion (28 inserted surgically and 59 percutaneously) for treatment of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer from July 2004 to July 2014. Complications were classified according to the SIR Clinical Practice Guidelines as major or minor.ResultsTechnical success rates for surgically and percutaneously inserted ports were 100 and 96.7 %, respectively (p = 0.44), with the two percutaneous failures successful at a later date. There were no major complications in either group. Minor complication rates for surgically versus percutaneously inserted ports were 46.4 versus 22.0 %, respectively (p = 0.02). The infection rate for surgically inserted versus percutaneously inserted ports was 14.3 and 0 %, respectively (p = 0.002). The relative risk of developing a complication from percutaneous peritoneal port insertion without ascites was 3.4 (p = 0.04). For percutaneously inserted ports, the mean in-room procedure time was 81 ± 1.3 min and mean fluoroscopy time was 5.0 ± 4.5 min.ConclusionPercutaneously inserted peritoneal ports are a safe alternative to surgically inserted ports, demonstrating similar technical success and lower complication rates.

  10. Safety and Effectiveness of Percutaneously Inserted Peritoneal Ports Compared to Surgically Inserted Ports in a Retrospective Study of 87 Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma over a 10-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley-Cook, Joel, E-mail: jwoodleycook@gmail.com [The Scarborough Hospital, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Canada); Tarulli, Emidio; Tan, Kong T.; Rajan, Dheeraj K.; Simons, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    PurposePlacement of peritoneal ports has become a favorable technique for direct chemotherapy infusion in treating peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer. We aim to outline an approach to the percutaneous insertion of peritoneal ports and to characterize success and complication rates compared to surgically inserted ports.Materials and MethodsRetrospective analysis was collected from 87 patients who had peritoneal port insertion (28 inserted surgically and 59 percutaneously) for treatment of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer from July 2004 to July 2014. Complications were classified according to the SIR Clinical Practice Guidelines as major or minor.ResultsTechnical success rates for surgically and percutaneously inserted ports were 100 and 96.7 %, respectively (p = 0.44), with the two percutaneous failures successful at a later date. There were no major complications in either group. Minor complication rates for surgically versus percutaneously inserted ports were 46.4 versus 22.0 %, respectively (p = 0.02). The infection rate for surgically inserted versus percutaneously inserted ports was 14.3 and 0 %, respectively (p = 0.002). The relative risk of developing a complication from percutaneous peritoneal port insertion without ascites was 3.4 (p = 0.04). For percutaneously inserted ports, the mean in-room procedure time was 81 ± 1.3 min and mean fluoroscopy time was 5.0 ± 4.5 min.ConclusionPercutaneously inserted peritoneal ports are a safe alternative to surgically inserted ports, demonstrating similar technical success and lower complication rates.

  11. Interactions of calcium ions with weakly acidic active ingredients slow cuticular penetration: a case study with glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönherr, Jörg; Schreiber, Lukas

    2004-10-20

    Potassium and calcium salts of glyphosate were obtained by titrating glyphosate acid with the respective bases to pH 4.0, and rates of penetration of these salts across isolated astomatous cuticular membranes (CMs) were measured at 20 degrees C and 70, 80, 90, and 100% humidity. K-glyphosate exhibited first-order penetration kinetics, and rate constants (k) increased with increasing humidity. Ca-glyphosate penetrated only when the humidity above the salt residue was 100%. At 90% humidity and below, Ca-glyphosate formed a solid residue on the CMs and penetration was not measurable. With Ca-glyphosate, the k value at 100% humidity decreased with time and the initial rates were lower than for K-glyphosate by a factor of 3.68. After equimolar concentrations of ammonium oxalate were added to Ca-glyphosate, high penetration rates close to those measured with K-glyphosate were measured at all humidities. Adding ammonium sulfate or potassium carbonate also increased rates between 70 and 100% humidity, but they were not as high as with ammonium oxalate. The data indicate that at pH 4.0 one Ca2+ ion is bound to two glyphosate anions. This salt has its deliquescence point near 100% humidity. Therefore, it is a solid at lower humidity and does not penetrate. Its molecular weight is 1.82 times larger than that of K-glyphosate, and this greatly slows down rates of penetration, even at 100% humidity. The additives tested have low solubility products and form insoluble precipitates with Ca2+ ions, but only ammonium oxalate binds Ca2+ quantitatively. The resulting ammonium salt of glyphosate penetrates at 70-100% humidity and at rates comparable to K-glyphosate. The results contribute to a better understanding of the hard water antagonism observed with glyphosate. It is argued that other pesticides and hormones with carboxyl functions are likely to respond to Ca2+ ions in a similar fashion. In all of these cases, ammonium oxalate is expected to overcome hard water antagonism

  12. Is mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy a safe alternative to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in pediatric age group in borderline stones? a randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Ahmed; Tawfick, Ahmed; Shoeb, Mohamed; Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; Mostafa, Diaa Eldin; Hasan, Mohamed; Abdalla, Hany M

    2018-02-15

    The extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) remains the most common first line of treatment for renal stones in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the outcomes of the ESWL and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL). A total of 108 patients younger than 12 years of age with 1-2 cm single renal stone (pelvic or calyceal) were randomized into two groups, each containing 54 patients. Patients in group A were subjected to mini-PCNL using 16.5 Fr percutaneous sheath while those in group B underwent ESWL using Dornier Compact Sigma. The stone-free rate (SFR) after first session was 88.9% (48 cases) and 55.6% (30 cases) for groups A and B, respectively. The difference is highly statistically significant P = 0.006. Two patients (3.7%) in group A needed 2nd session of PCNL, while 18 patients (33.3%)in group B needed a 2nd session, of theses 18 patients six patients needed a 3rd session of ESWL. After the third session of ESWL and second look PCNL the stone-free rates were 92.59% (50 cases) and 88.89% (48 cases) for groups A and B, respectively, (P = 0.639), which is statistically insignificant. The mean hospital stay and fluoroscopy exposure were significantly longer in the mini-PCNL group. The complication rate in groups A and group B were (22.2%) and (14.8%), respectively, which is statistically insignificant (P = 0.484). According to Clavien grade of complications mini-PCNL is a safe procedure, and after three session of ESWL, mini-PCNL has a similar stone-free rate with a lower retreatment rate. However, the mini-PCNL has more radiation exposure, and requires a longer hospital stay.

  13. Complications of Percutaneous Nephrostomy, Percutaneous Insertion of Ureteral Endoprosthesis, and Replacement Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaskarelis, Ioannis S.; Papadaki, Marina G.; Malliaraki, Niki E.; Robotis, Epaminondas D.; Malagari, Katerina S.; Piperopoulos, Ploutarchos N.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to record and identify the frequency of complications following percutaneous nephrostomy, replacement of nephrostomy drains and percutaneous insertion of ureteral endoprostheses.Methods: During a 10-year period 341 patients were referred to our department with indications for percutaneous nephrostomy and/or percutaneous insertion of a ureteral endoprosthesis, and a total of 1036 interventional procedures were performed (nephrostomy, catheter change, stenting).Results: There were three major complications (0.29%): two patients died during the first 30 days after the procedure, due to aggravation of their condition caused by the procedure, and one patient had retroperitoneal bleeding requiring surgery. There were 76 complications of intermediate severity (7.33%): catheter or stent displacement (n = 37, 3.57%) catheter occlusion (n = 18, 1.73%), hematuria (n = 12, 1.16%), and urinary tract infection (n = 9, 0.87%). The 55 minor complications (5.3%) comprised inflammation of the skin at the site of insertion of the percutaneous catheter.Conclusion: The small number of complications observed during acts of interventional uroradiology prove transcutaneous manipulations to be safe medical procedures

  14. Accuracy of percutaneous lung biopsy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, F.A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Gow, K.; Davidoff, A. [Dept. of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Flynn, P.M. [Dept. of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Background. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is fulminant and often fatal in immunosuppressed patients. Percutaneous biopsy may select patients who could benefit from surgical resection. Objective. We sought to determine the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy for pediatric invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed 28 imaging-guided percutaneous biopsies of the lungs of 24 children with suspected pulmonary aspergillosis. Twenty-two were being treated for malignancy and two for congenital immunodeficiency; 15 had received bone-marrow transplants. The accuracy of the percutaneous lung biopsy was determined by subsequent surgical resection, autopsy, or clinical course. Results. Histopathological studies showed ten biopsy specimens with septate hyphae, indicating a mold, and seven with Aspergillus flavus colonies in culture. The remaining 18 biopsies revealed no fungi. No patient had progressive aspergillosis after negative biopsy. Invasive pulmonary mold was detected by percutaneous biopsy with 100 % (10/10) sensitivity and 100 % (18/18) specificity. Percutaneous biopsy results influenced the surgical decision in 86 % (24 of 28) of the cases. Bleeding complicated the biopsy in 46 % (13/28) and hastened one death. Conclusion. Percutaneous biopsy of the lung is an accurate technique for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and correctly determines which immunosuppressed pediatric patients would benefit from therapeutic pulmonary resection. (orig.)

  15. Accuracy of percutaneous lung biopsy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffer, F.A.; Gow, K.; Davidoff, A.; Flynn, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is fulminant and often fatal in immunosuppressed patients. Percutaneous biopsy may select patients who could benefit from surgical resection. Objective. We sought to determine the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy for pediatric invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed 28 imaging-guided percutaneous biopsies of the lungs of 24 children with suspected pulmonary aspergillosis. Twenty-two were being treated for malignancy and two for congenital immunodeficiency; 15 had received bone-marrow transplants. The accuracy of the percutaneous lung biopsy was determined by subsequent surgical resection, autopsy, or clinical course. Results. Histopathological studies showed ten biopsy specimens with septate hyphae, indicating a mold, and seven with Aspergillus flavus colonies in culture. The remaining 18 biopsies revealed no fungi. No patient had progressive aspergillosis after negative biopsy. Invasive pulmonary mold was detected by percutaneous biopsy with 100 % (10/10) sensitivity and 100 % (18/18) specificity. Percutaneous biopsy results influenced the surgical decision in 86 % (24 of 28) of the cases. Bleeding complicated the biopsy in 46 % (13/28) and hastened one death. Conclusion. Percutaneous biopsy of the lung is an accurate technique for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and correctly determines which immunosuppressed pediatric patients would benefit from therapeutic pulmonary resection. (orig.)

  16. Potential of Probing the Lunar Regolith using Rover-Mounted Ground Penetrating Radar: Moses Lake Dune Field Analog Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horz, F.; Heggy, E.; Fong, T.; Kring, D.; Deans, M.; Anglade, A.; Mahiouz, K.; Bualat, M.; Lee, P.; Bluethmann, W.

    2009-01-01

    Probing radars have been widely recognized by the science community to be an efficient tool to explore lunar subsurface providing a unique capability to address several scientific and operational issues. A wideband (200 to 1200 MHz) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) mounted on a surface rover can provide high vertical resolution and probing depth from few tens of centimeters to few tens of meters depending on the sounding frequency and the ground conductivity. This in term can provide a better understand regolith thickness, elemental iron concentration (including ilmenite), volatile presence, structural anomalies and fracturing. All those objectives are of important significance for understanding the local geology and potential sustainable resources for future landing sites in particular exploring the thickness, structural heterogeneity and potential volatiles presence in the lunar regolith. While the operation and data collection of GPR is a straightforward case for most terrestrial surveys, it is a challenging task for remote planetary study especially on robotic platforms due to the complexity of remote operation in rough terrains and the data collection constrains imposed by the mechanical motion of the rover and limitation in data transfer. Nevertheless, Rover mounted GPR can be of great support to perform systematic subsurface surveys for a given landing site as it can provide scientific and operational support in exploring subsurface resources and sample collections which can increase the efficiency of the EVA activities for potential human crews as part of the NASA Constellation Program. In this study we attempt to explore the operational challenges and their impact on the EVA scientific return for operating a rover mounted GPR in support of potential human activity on the moon. In this first field study, we mainly focused on the ability of GPR to support subsurface sample collection and explore shallow subsurface volatiles.

  17. Joint application of Geoelectrical Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar techniques for the study of hyper-saturated zones. Case study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S. Mesbah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the application of the Geoelectrical Resistivity Sounding (GRS and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR for outlining and investigating of surface springing out (flow of groundwater to the base of an service building site, and determining the reason(s for the zone of maximum degree of saturation; in addition to provide stratigraphic information for this site. The studied economic building is constructed lower than the ground surface by about 7 m. A Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES survey was performed at 12 points around the studied building in order to investigate the vertical and lateral extent of the subsurface sequence, three VES's were conducted at each side of the building at discrete distances. And a total of 9 GPR profiles with 100- and 200-MHz antennae were conducted, with the objective of evaluating the depth and the degree of saturation of the subsurface layers. The qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the acquired VES's showed easily the levels of saturations close to and around the studied building. From the interpretation of GPR profiles, it was possible to locate and determine the saturated layers. The radar signals are penetrated and enabled the identification of the subsurface reflectors. The results of GPR and VES showed a good agreement and the integrated interpretations were supported by local geology. Finally, the new constructed geoelectrical resistivity cross-sections (in contoured-form, are easily clarifying the direction of groundwater flow toward the studied building.

  18. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  19. Experimental study on the penetration effect of ceramics composite projectile on ceramic / A3 steel compound targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-qi Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the penetration of projectiles into ceramic composite armors, the nose of 30 mm standard projectile was replaced by a toughened ceramic nose, and the performance of ceramic-nose projectiles penetrating into ceramic/A3 steel composite targets has been experimentally researched. According to impact dynamics theory,, the performances of 30 mm ceramic-nose projectile and 30 mm standard projectile penetrating into the ceramic/A3 steel composite targets were analyzed and compared using DOP method, especially focusing on the effects made by different nose structures and materials. The aperture and depth of perforation of projectile into the armor plates as well as the residual mass of bullet core under the same conditions were comparatively analyzed. A numerical simulation was built and computed by ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Based on the simulated results, the penetration performance was further analyzed in terms of the residual mass of bullet core. The results show that the ceramic nose has a great effect on the protection of bullet core.

  20. Preclinical pilot study monitoring topical drug penetration and dermal bioavailability of a peptidase inhibitor from different galenic formulations into pig dermis, using cutaneous microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, S R; Heimburg, A; Bank, U; Mahnkopf, D; Koch, G; Gollnick, H; Täger, M; Ansorge, S

    2017-08-01

    Cutaneous microdialysis (CM) is an ex vivo technique that allows study of tissue chemistry, including bioavailability of actual tissue concentration of unbound drug in the interstitial fluid of the body. To test the penetration and dermal bioavailability of galenic formulations of the small-molecule IP10.C8, a dual-protease inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase and aminopeptidase families. Using CM, we tested the penetration and dermal bioavailability of IP10.C8 into the dermis and subcutis of pigs, and determined the tissue concentration of IP10.C8 enzymatically, using an enzyme activity assay (substrate Gly-Pro-pNA) and high performance liquid chromatography. Dermal bioavailability was enhanced by using microemulsion or the addition of the penetration enhancer oleic acid to a hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gel formulation. Dermal bioavailability was also enhanced when galenic formulations were prepared with higher pH (7.5 vs. 6.5) or higher drug concentration (5% vs. 1%) in HEC gel. It seems possible, using CM for topical skin penetration testing in anaesthetized domestic pigs, to test the bioavailability of newly designed drugs. However, the experimental time is limited due to the anaesthesia, and is dependent on drug recovery. Validation of this technique for routine use is challenging, and more experiments are needed to validate this preclinical set-up. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Acute Stent Thrombosis After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Peter; Wiberg, Sebastian; Van't Hof, Arnoud

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine clinical, procedural, and treatment factors associated with acute stent thrombosis (AST) in the EUROMAX (European Ambulance Acute Coronary Syndrome Angiography) trial. BACKGROUND: Bivalirudin started during transport for primary percutaneous coronary...

  2. US-guided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: comparative study of right-sided and left-sided approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Cha, Soon Joo

    2002-01-01

    To compare the feasibility and safety of US-guided right and left percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Between March 1998 and May 1999, 32 patients underwent 36 US-guided right or left PTBD in referred order, alternatively. The causes of biliary obstruction were bile duct stone (n=2), bile duct carcinoma (n=10), carcinoma of the pancreas (n=9), GB carcinoma (n=7), metastasis to the porta hepatis (n=3), and carcinoma of the ampulla of vater (n=1). Technical success, procedure time, fluoroscopic time, and complications were evaluated. PTBD was successful in 94% of both right and left approach. The average procedure time was 9.7 ±3.8 min. in the right approach and 9.6 ±3.1 min. in the left approach, respectively (p=0.794). The average fluoroscopic time were 3.9±2.4 min. in the right approach and 3.8±2.2 min. in the left approach (p=0.892). A major complication, bile peritonitis, occurred in one of 16 patient with right-sided approach. Minor complications occurred in six right (2 hemobilia, 3 tube malfunction, 1 cholangitis) and three left (1 hemobilia, 1 fever, 1cholangitis) PTBD. There were no significant difference in the complication rates between right and left PTBD (p=0.729). There were no significant differences in feasibility and safety in US-guided right and left PTBD

  3. Percutaneous transhepatic vs. endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage for suspected malignant hilar obstruction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kawas, Firas; Aslanian, Harry; Baillie, John; Banovac, Filip; Buscaglia, Jonathan M; Buxbaum, James; Chak, Amitabh; Chong, Bradford; Coté, Gregory A; Draganov, Peter V; Dua, Kulwinder; Durkalski, Valerie; Elmunzer, B Joseph; Foster, Lydia D; Gardner, Timothy B; Geller, Brian S; Jamidar, Priya; Jamil, Laith H; Keswani, Rajesh N; Khashab, Mouen A; Lang, Gabriel D; Law, Ryan; Lichtenstein, David; Lo, Simon K; McCarthy, Sean; Melo, Silvio; Mullady, Daniel; Nieto, Jose; Bayne Selby, J; Singh, Vikesh K; Spitzer, Rebecca L; Strife, Brian; Tarnaksy, Paul; Taylor, Jason R; Tokar, Jeffrey; Wang, Andrew Y; Williams, April; Willingham, Field; Yachimski, Patrick

    2018-02-14

    The optimal approach to the drainage of malignant obstruction at the liver hilum remains uncertain. We aim to compare percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) to endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) as the first intervention in patients with cholestasis due to suspected malignant hilar obstruction (MHO). The INTERCPT trial is a multi-center, comparative effectiveness, randomized, superiority trial of PTBD vs. ERC for decompression of suspected MHO. One hundred and eighty-four eligible patients across medical centers in the United States, who provide informed consent, will be randomly assigned in 1:1 fashion via a web-based electronic randomization system to either ERC or PTBD as the initial drainage and, if indicated, diagnostic procedure. All subsequent clinical interventions, including crossover to the alternative procedure, will be dictated by treating physicians per usual clinical care. Enrolled subjects will be assessed for successful biliary drainage (primary outcome measure), adequate tissue diagnosis, adverse events, the need for additional procedures, hospitalizations, and oncological outcomes over a 6-month follow-up period. Subjects, treating clinicians and outcome assessors will not be blinded. The INTERCPT trial is designed to determine whether PTBD or ERC is the better initial approach when managing a patient with suspected MHO, a common clinical dilemma that has never been investigated in a randomized trial. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT03172832 . Registered on 1 June 2017.

  4. US-guided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: comparative study of right-sided and left-sided approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Cha, Soon Joo [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    To compare the feasibility and safety of US-guided right and left percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Between March 1998 and May 1999, 32 patients underwent 36 US-guided right or left PTBD in referred order, alternatively. The causes of biliary obstruction were bile duct stone (n=2), bile duct carcinoma (n=10), carcinoma of the pancreas (n=9), GB carcinoma (n=7), metastasis to the porta hepatis (n=3), and carcinoma of the ampulla of vater (n=1). Technical success, procedure time, fluoroscopic time, and complications were evaluated. PTBD was successful in 94% of both right and left approach. The average procedure time was 9.7 {+-}3.8 min. in the right approach and 9.6 {+-}3.1 min. in the left approach, respectively (p=0.794). The average fluoroscopic time were 3.9{+-}2.4 min. in the right approach and 3.8{+-}2.2 min. in the left approach (p=0.892). A major complication, bile peritonitis, occurred in one of 16 patient with right-sided approach. Minor complications occurred in six right (2 hemobilia, 3 tube malfunction, 1 cholangitis) and three left (1 hemobilia, 1 fever, 1cholangitis) PTBD. There were no significant difference in the complication rates between right and left PTBD (p=0.729). There were no significant differences in feasibility and safety in US-guided right and left PTBD.

  5. Isolated human/animal stratum corneum as a partial model for 15 steps in percutaneous absorption: emphasizing decontamination, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Xiaoying; Lamel, Sonia; Qiao, Peter; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-03-01

    Since the advent of World War II, governments and laboratories have made a concerted effort to improve prophylactic and therapeutic interventions counteracting cutaneously directed chemical warfare agents (CWA), and by inference, common industrial and consumer dermatotoxicants. In vitro percutaneous penetration assays, first utilized by Tregear in the 1940s and presently in various modifications, have been fundamental to this effort. Percutaneous penetration, often considered a simple one-step diffusion process, consists of at least 15 steps. The first part of this review covers the initial steps related to absorption and excretion kinetics, vehicle characteristics, and tissue disposition. Importantly, the partitioning behavior and stratum corneum (SC) diffusion by a wide physicochemical array of compounds shows that many compounds have similar diffusion coefficients determining their percutaneous absorption in vivo. After accounting for anatomical SC variation, the penetration flux value of a substance depends mainly on its SC/vehicle partition coefficient. Additionally, the SC acts as a 'reservoir' for topically applied molecules and application of tape stripping has been found to quantify the chemical remaining in the SC which can predict total molecular penetration in vivo. Decontamination is of particular concern and even expediting standard washing procedures after dermal chemical exposure often fails to remove chemicals. This overview summarizes knowledge of percutaneous penetration extending insights into the complexities of penetration, decontamination and potential newer assays that may be of practical importance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Impact of abciximab in elderly patients with high-risk acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: an observational registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Allan Z; Galatius, Soeren; Haahr-Pedersen, Sune Ammentorp

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are classified as elderly (aged =70 years). The glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab is known to reduce adverse outcomes in patients aged

  7. Total Percutaneous Aortic Repair: Midterm Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, Clare L.; Fotiadis, Nikolas; Renfrew, Ian; Walsh, Michael; Brohi, Karim; Kyriakides, Constantinos; Matson, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate and midterm outcomes of percutaneous endovascular repair of thoracic and abdominal aortic pathology. Between December 2003 and June 2005, 21 patients (mean age: 60.4 ± 17.1 years; 15 males, 6 females) underwent endovascular stent-graft insertion for thoracic (n = 13) or abdominal aortic (n = 8) pathology. Preprocedural computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was performed to assess the suitability of aorto-iliac and common femoral artery (CFA) anatomy, including the degree of CFA calcification, for total percutaneous aortic stent-graft repair. Percutaneous access was used for the introduction of 18- to 26-Fr delivery devices. A 'preclose' closure technique using two Perclose suture devices (Perclose A-T; Abbott Vascular) was used in all cases. Data were prospectively collected. Each CFA puncture site was assessed via clinical examination and CTA at 1, 6, and 12 months, followed by annual review thereafter. Minimum follow-up was 36 months. Outcome measures evaluated were rates of technical success, conversion to open surgical repair, complications, and late incidence of arterial stenosis at the site of Perclose suture deployment. A total of 58 Perclose devices were used to close 29 femoral arteriotomies. Outer diameters of stent-graft delivery devices used were 18 Fr (n = 5), 20 Fr (n = 3), 22 Fr (n = 4), 24 Fr (n = 15), and 26 Fr (n = 2). Percutaneous closure was successful in 96.6% (28/29) of arteriotomies. Conversion to surgical repair was required at one access site (3.4%). Mean follow-up was 50 ± 8 months. No late complications were observed. By CT criteria, no patient developed a >50% reduction in CFA caliber at the site of Perclose deployment during the study period. In conclusion, percutaneous aortic stent-graft insertion can be safely performed, with a low risk of both immediate and midterm access-related complications.

  8. Pars Plana-Modified versus Conventional Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Patients Undergoing Penetrating Keratoplasty: A Prospective Comparative Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Jitendra Kumar Singh; Jain, Vaibhav Kumar; Kaushik, Jaya; Mishra, Avinash

    2017-03-01

    To compare the outcome of pars-plana-modified Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) versus limbal-based conventional AGV into the anterior chamber, in patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for glaucoma with coexisting corneal diseases. In this prospective randomized clinical trial, 58 eyes of 58 patients with glaucoma and coexisting corneal disease were divided into two groups. Group 1 (29 eyes of 29 patients) included patients undergoing limbal-based conventional AGV into the anterior chamber (AC) along-with PK and group 2 (29 eyes of 29 patients) included those undergoing pars-plana-modified AGV along-with PK. Outcome measures included corneal graft clarity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of antiglaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Patients were followed up for a minimum period of 2 years. Out of 58 eyes (58 patients), 50 eyes (50 patients: 25 eyes of 25 patients each in group 1 and group 2) completed the study and were analyzed. Complete success rate for AGV (group 1: 76%; group 2: 72%; p = 0.842) and corneal graft clarity (group 1: 68%; group 2: 76%; p = 0.081) were comparable between the two groups at 2 years. Graft failure was more in conventional AGV (32%) as compared to pars plana-modified AGV (24%) but not statistically significant (p = 0.078) at 2 years. Though both procedures were comparable in various outcome measures, pars-plana-modified AGV is a viable option for patients undergoing PK, as it provides a relatively better corneal graft survival rate and lesser complications that were associated with conventional AGV.

  9. The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) field study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Hahn, Intaek; Fortune, Christopher R; Rodes, Charles E; Portzer, Jeffrey W; Lee, Sangdon; Wiener, Russell W; Smith, Luther A; Wheeler, Michael; Seagraves, Jeremy; Stein, Mark; Eisner, Alfred D; Brixey, Laurie A; Drake-Richman, Zora E; Brouwer, Lydia H; Ellenson, William D; Baldauf, Richard

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) field study examined indoor and outdoor exposure to traffic-generated air pollution by studying the individual processes of generation of traffic emissions, transport and dispersion of air contaminants along a roadway, and infiltration of the contaminants into a residence. Real-time instrumentation was used to obtain highly resolved time-series concentration profiles for a number of air pollutants. The B-TRAPPED field study was conducted in the residential Sunset Park neighborhood of Brooklyn, NY, USA, in May 2005. The neighborhood contained the Gowanus Expressway (Interstate 278), a major arterial road (4(th) Avenue), and residential side streets running perpendicular to the Gowanus Expressway and 4(th) Avenue. Synchronized measurements were obtained inside a test house, just outside the test house façade, and along the urban residential street canyon on which the house was located. A trailer containing Federal Reference Method (FRM) and real-time monitors was located next to the Gowanus Expressway to assess the source. Ultrafine particulate matter (PM), PM(2.5), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction were monitored. Different sampling schemes were devised to focus on dispersion along the street canyon or infiltration into the test house. Results were obtained for ultrafine PM, PM(2.5), criteria gases, and wind conditions from sampling schemes focused on street canyon dispersion and infiltration. For comparison, the ultrafine PM and PM(2.5) results were compared with an existing data set from the Los Angeles area, and the criteria gas data were compared with measurements from a Vancouver epidemiologic study. Measured ultrafine PM and PM(2.5) concentration levels along the residential urban street canyon and at the test house façade in Sunset Park

  10. An update on percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tefekli, A; Cordeiro, E; de la Rosette, J J M C H

    2013-01-01

    Since its introduction in late 1970's, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) has undergone an evolution in both equipment and technique. This evolution still continues today in the era of minimally invasive treatment options, and is evidenced by the numerous publications. PNL is generally advantageous...... in the management of large renal stones (>1.5-2 cm) with high stone-free rates and considerable complication rates. However this technique is especially competing with retrograde intrarenal surgery and laparoscopic techniques. Therefore the CROES Global PNL Study Group prospectively collected data of over 5800...... patients managed with PNL worldwide and analyzed the data in detail, producing more than 25 scientific papers. And this update focuses on the lessons learned from the CROES PCNL Global Study....

  11. Feasibility Study of Needle Placement in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Guidance Versus Conventional Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braak, Sicco J., E-mail: sjbraak@gmail.com [St. Antonius Hospital, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Zuurmond, Kirsten, E-mail: kirsten.zuurmond@philips.com; Aerts, Hans C. J., E-mail: hans.cj.aerts@philips.com [Philips Medical, Department of Clinical Development (Netherlands); Leersum, Marc van, E-mail: m.van.leersum@antoniusziekenhuis.nl; Overtoom, Timotheus T. Th., E-mail: overtm@knoware.nl; Heesewijk, Johannes P. M. van, E-mail: j.heesewijk@antoniusziekenhuis.nl; Strijen, Marco J. L. van, E-mail: m.van.strijen@antoniusziekenhuis.nl [St. Antonius Hospital, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the accuracy, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and dose area product (DAP) of needle placement during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance versus fluoroscopy.Materials and MethodsOn 4 spine phantoms with 11 vertebrae (Th7-L5), 4 interventional radiologists (2 experienced with CBCT guidance and two inexperienced) punctured all vertebrae in a bipedicular fashion. Each side was randomization to either CBCT guidance or fluoroscopy. CBCT guidance is a sophisticated needle guidance technique using CBCT, navigation software, and real-time fluoroscopy. The placement of the needle had to be to a specific target point. After the procedure, CBCT was performed to determine the accuracy, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and DAP. Analysis of the difference between methods and experience level was performed.ResultsMean accuracy using CBCT guidance (2.61 mm) was significantly better compared with fluoroscopy (5.86 mm) (p < 0.0001). Procedure time was in favor of fluoroscopy (7.39 vs. 10.13 min; p = 0.001). Fluoroscopy time during CBCT guidance was lower, but this difference is not significant (71.3 vs. 95.8 s; p = 0.056). DAP values for CBCT guidance and fluoroscopy were 514 and 174 mGy cm{sup 2}, respectively (p < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in favor of experienced CBCT guidance users regarding accuracy for both methods, procedure time of CBCT guidance, and added DAP values for fluoroscopy.ConclusionCBCT guidance allows users to perform PVP more accurately at the cost of higher patient dose and longer procedure time. Because procedural complications (e.g., cement leakage) are related to the accuracy of the needle placement, improvements in accuracy are clinically relevant. Training in CBCT guidance is essential to achieve greater accuracy and decrease procedure time/dose values.

  12. Development of transethosomes formulation for dermal fisetin delivery: Box-Behnken design, optimization, in vitro skin penetration, vesicles-skin interaction and dermatokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolakkadath, Thasleem; Aqil, Mohd; Ahad, Abdul; Imam, Syed Sarim; Iqbal, Babar; Sultana, Yasmin; Mujeeb, Mohd; Iqbal, Zeenat

    2018-05-07

    The present study was conducted for the optimization of transethosomes formulation for dermal fisetin delivery. The optimization of the formulation was carried out using "Box-Behnken design". The independent variables were Lipoid S 100, ethanol and sodium cholate. The prepared formulations were characterized for vesicle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro skin penetration study. The vesicles-skin interaction, confocal laser scanning microscopy and dermatokinetic studies were performed with optimized formulation. Results of the present study demonstrated that the optimized formulation presented vesicle size of 74.21 ± 2.65 nm, zeta potential of -11.0 mV, entrapment efficiency of 68.31 ± 1.48% and flux of 4.13 ± 0.17 µg/cm 2 /h. The TEM image of optimized formulation exhibited sealed and spherical shape vesicles. Results of thermoanalytical techniques demonstrated that the prepared transethosomes vesicles formulation had fluidized the rigid membrane of rat's skin for smoother penetration of fisetin transethosomes. The confocal study results presented well distribution and penetration of Rhodamine B loaded transethosomes vesicles formulation up to deeper layers of the rat's skin as compared to the Rhodamine B-hydro alcoholic solution. Present study data revealed that the developed transethosomes vesicles formulation was found to be a potentially useful drug carrier for fisetin dermal delivery.

  13. Experimental and numerical study on penetration of micro/nano diamond particle into metal by underwater shock wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tanaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop composite materials, new attempting was conducted. When an explosive is exploded in water, underwater shock wave is generated. Metal plate is accelerated by the underwater shock wave and collided with diamond particles at high velocity. In this paper, pure aluminum and magnesium alloy plates are used as matrix. Micro and nano sized diamond particles were used as reinforcement. Micro diamond particles were closely coated on metal surface. Some of micro diamond particles were penetrated into aluminum. Improvement of base metal property (wearing resistance was verified by wear test for recovering metal plate. In order to confirm the deformation of the aluminum plate during the collision with diamond particles, simplified numerical simulation was conducted by using LS-DYNA software. From the result of numerical simulation, large deformation of aluminum and process of particle penetration were verified.

  14. Electrode alignment of transverse tripoles using a percutaneous triple-lead approach in spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, V.; Buitenweg, J. R.; Holsheimer, J.; Veltink, P.

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this modeling study is to determine the influence of electrode alignment of transverse tripoles on the paresthesia coverage of the pain area in spinal cord stimulation, using a percutaneous triple-lead approach. Transverse tripoles, comprising a central cathode and two lateral anodes, were modeled on the low-thoracic vertebral region (T10-T12) using percutaneous triple-lead configurations, with the center lead on the spinal cord midline. The triple leads were oriented both aligned and staggered. In the staggered configuration, the anodes were offset either caudally (caudally staggered) or rostrally (rostrally staggered) with respect to the midline cathode. The transverse tripolar field steering with the aligned and staggered configurations enabled the estimation of dorsal column fiber thresholds (IDC) and dorsal root fiber thresholds (IDR) at various anodal current ratios. IDC and IDR were considerably higher for the aligned transverse tripoles as compared to the staggered transverse tripoles. The aligned transverse tripoles facilitated deeper penetration into the medial dorsal columns (DCs). The staggered transverse tripoles always enabled broad and bilateral DC activation, at the expense of mediolateral steerability. The largest DC recruited area was obtained with the rostrally staggered transverse tripole. Transverse tripolar geometries, using percutaneous leads, allow for selective targeting of either medial or lateral DC fibers, if and only if the transverse tripole is aligned. Steering of anodal currents between the lateral leads of the staggered transverse tripoles cannot target medially confined populations of DC fibers in the spinal cord. An aligned transverse tripolar configuration is strongly recommended, because of its ability to provide more post-operative flexibility than other configurations.

  15. Penetration Enhancing Effect of Polysorbate 20 and 80 on the In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the penetration enhancing effect of two polysorbates - polyoxyethylene 20 (POE-20) and polyoxyethylene 80 (POE-80) - on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of ascorbic acid (AA). Methods: For the permeation experiments, Franz diffusion cell covered with aluminum foil providing an effective ...

  16. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System: Preliminary Report of Prospective Hello Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    Prospective nonrandomized control study.The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory.The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic times, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time.A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture times were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P HELLO system is accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory. This preliminary report indicated that the HELLO system significantly improves the puncture accuracy of PTED and reduces the fluoroscopic times, preoperative location time, as well as operation time. (ChiCTR-ICR-15006730).

  17. Application of ground penetrating radar in placer mineral exploration for mapping subsurface sand layers: A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Barnwal, R.P.; Singh, V.K.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    radar reflections using time-domain reflectometry and sedimentological analyses, Sedimentology, v. 47, p. 435-449. Jol, H.M. & Bristow, C.S., 2003. GPR in sediments: advice on data collection, basic processing and interpretation, a good practice... guide, In: Bristow, C.S. and Jol, H.M. (Eds.), GPR in sediments, Geological Society of London, Special Publication, 211. Neal, A., 2004. Ground Penetrating Radar and its use in sedimentology: Principles, Problems and Progress. Earth-Science Reviews...

  18. Novel design of honeybee-inspired needles for percutaneous procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlabadi, Mohammad; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2018-04-18

    The focus of this paper is to present new designs of innovative bioinspired needles to be used during percutaneous procedures. Insect stingers have been known to easily penetrate soft tissues. Bioinspired needles mimicking the barbs in a honeybee stinger were developed for a smaller insertion force, which can provide a less invasive procedure. Decreasing the insertion force will decrease the tissue deformation, which is essential for more accurate targeting. In this study, some design parameters, in particular, barb shape and geometry (i.e. front angle, back angle, and height) were defined, and their effects on the insertion force were investigated. Three-dimensional printing technology was used to manufacture bioinspired needles. A specially-designed insertion test setup using tissue mimicking polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gels was developed to measure the insertion and extraction forces. The barb design parameters were then experimentally modified through detailed experimental procedures to further reduce the insertion force. Different scales of the barbed needles were designed and used to explore the size-scale effect on the insertion force. To further investigate the efficacy of the proposed needle design in real surgeries, preliminary ex vivo insertion tests into bovine liver tissue were performed. Our results show that the insertion force of the needles in different scales decreased by 21-35% in PVC gel insertion tests, and by 46% in bovine liver tissue insertion tests.

  19. Study of the vitamins A, E and C esters penetration into the skin by confocal Raman spectroscopy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevych, Borys; Isensee, Debora; Rangel, Joao L.; Dal Pizzol, Carine; Martinello, Valeska C. A.; Dieamant, Gustavo C.; Martin, Airton A.

    2015-06-01

    Vitamins A, E and C play important role in skin homeostasis and protection. Hence, they are extensively used in many cosmetic and cosmeceutic products. However, their molecules are unstable, and do not easily penetrate into the skin, which drastically decreases its efficiency in topical formulations. Liposoluble derivative of the vitamin A - retinyl palmitate, vitamin E - tocopheryl acetate, and vitamin C - tetraisopalmitoyl ascorbic acid, are more stable, and are frequently used as an active ingredient in cosmetic products. Moreover, increased hydrophobicity of these molecules could lead to a higher skin penetration. The aim of this work is to track and compare the absorption of the liposoluble derivatives of the vitamins and their encapsulated form, into the healthy human skin in vivo. We used Confocal Raman Spectroscopy (CRS) that is proven to be helpful in label-free non-destructive investigation of the biochemical composition and molecular conformational analysis of the biological samples. The measurements were performed in the volar forearm of the 10 healthy volunteers. Skin was treated with both products, and Raman spectra were obtained after 15 min, 3 hours, and 6 hours after applying the formulation. 3510 Skin Composition Analyzer (River Diagnostics, The Netherlands) with 785 nm laser excitation was used to acquire information in the fingerprint region. Significant difference in permeation of the products was observed. Whereas only free form of retinyl palmitate penetrate the skin within first 15 minutes, all three vitamin derivatives were present under the skin surface in case of nanoparticulated form.

  20. A Hybrid Genetic Programming Method in Optimization and Forecasting: A Case Study of the Broadband Penetration in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Salpasaranis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a hybrid genetic programming method (hGP in fitting and forecasting of the broadband penetration data is proposed. The hGP uses some well-known diffusion models, such as those of Gompertz, Logistic, and Bass, in the initial population of the solutions in order to accelerate the algorithm. The produced solutions models of the hGP are used in fitting and forecasting the adoption of broadband penetration. We investigate the fitting performance of the hGP, and we use the hGP to forecast the broadband penetration in OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The results of the optimized diffusion models are compared to those of the hGP-generated models. The comparison indicates that the hGP manages to generate solutions with high-performance statistical indicators. The hGP cooperates with the existing diffusion models, thus allowing multiple approaches to forecasting. The modified algorithm is implemented in the Python programming language, which is fast in execution time, compact, and user friendly.

  1. The study of mutations of low penetrates candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in patients from different regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasnikov, S.O.; Bogdanova, N.V.; Bokut', S.B.; Feshchenko, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most widespread malignancy in the world. It is supposed, that all factors influencing on breast cancer onset can be divided into 4 groups: environmental factors, state of woman's health, heredity and concomitant disease. The inherited disposition towards breast cancer is complex, and many genetic variants and polymorphisms have been postulated to play a role in this condition. Despite genes with a high penetrance, known some genes with a low penetrance, such as ATM, CHEK2 and XRCC4. Ionizing radiation is for long being recognized as a potent carcinogen. The link between exposition to high doses of radiation and a subsequent development of breast cancer has been shown in numerous epidemiological studies. Because mutations in the known genes explain less than half of all multiple-case families, other genes involved in these repair pathways are now under current investigation in many different labs worldwide to define their role in breast cancer predisposition. The purpose of this paper is to study mutations of low penetrate candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in Byelorussian patients. This study is for the first time reveals the mutations of breast cancer genes in the Byelorussian population. Were used such methods as extraction of DNA, PCR, ARMAS-PCR and restriction analysis for this study. As a result of the work frequent mutations of CHEK2 and XRCC4 were found in family cases. It is shown that following methods are useful for cancer risk prediction for patients and their blood relatives. (authors)

  2. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  3. Phenotype, genotype, and worldwide genetic penetrance of LRRK2-associated Parkinson's disease: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Daniel G; Falchi, Mario; O'Sullivan, Sean S; Bonifati, Vincenzo; Durr, Alexandra; Bressman, Susan; Brice, Alexis; Aasly, Jan; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Goldwurm, Stefano; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Tolosa, Eduardo; Kay, Denise M; Klein, Christine; Williams, David R; Marras, Connie; Lang, Anthony E; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Berciano, Jose; Schapira, Anthony HV; Lynch, Timothy; Bhatia, Kailash P; Gasser, Thomas; Lees, Andrew J; Wood, Nicholas W

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Mutations in LRRK2, the gene that encodes leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, are a cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). The International LRRK2 Consortium was established to answer three key clinical questions: can LRRK2-associated PD be distinguished from idiopathic PD; which mutations in LRRK2 are pathogenic; and what is the age-specific cumulative risk of PD for individuals who inherit or are at risk of inheriting a deleterious mutation in LRRK2? Methods Researchers from 21 centres across the world collaborated on this study. The frequency of the common LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation was estimated on the basis of data from 24 populations worldwide, and the penetrance of the mutation was defined in 1045 people with mutations in LRRK2 from 133 families. The LRRK2 phenotype was defined on the basis of 59 motor and non-motor symptoms in 356 patients with LRRK2-associated PD and compared with the symptoms of 543 patients with pathologically proven idiopathic PD. Findings Six mutations met the consortium's criteria for being proven pathogenic. The frequency of the common LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation was 1% of patients with sporadic PD and 4% of patients with hereditary PD; the frequency was highest in the middle east and higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe. The risk of PD for a person who inherits the LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation was 28% at age 59 years, 51% at 69 years, and 74% at 79 years. The motor symptoms (eg, disease severity, rate of progression, occurrence of falls, and dyskinesia) and non-motor symptoms (eg, cognition and olfaction) of LRRK2-associated PD were more benign than those of idiopathic PD. Interpretation Mutations in LRRK2 are a clinically relevant cause of PD that merit testing in patients with hereditary PD and in subgroups of patients with PD. However, this knowledge should be applied with caution in the diagnosis and counselling of patients. Funding UK Medical Research Council; UK Parkinson's Disease Society; UK Brain Research

  4. Metasploit penetration testing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a Cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for penetration testing with WLAN, VOIP, and even cloud computing. There is plenty of code and commands used to make your learning curve easy and quick.This book targets both professional penetration testers as well as new users of Metasploit, who wish to gain expertise over the framework and learn an additional skill of penetration testing, not limited to a particular OS. The book requires basic knowledge of scanning, exploitation, and the Ruby language.

  5. Effectiveness of Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography Quantitative Analysis during Adenosine Stress versus Visual Analysis before Percutaneous Therapy in Acute Coronary Pain: A Coronary Artery TIMI Grading Comparing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Mu, Yuming; Quaglia, Luiz Augusto; Tang, Qi; Guan, Lina; Wang, Chunmei; Shih, Ming Chi

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to compare two different stress echocardiography interpretation techniques based on the correlation with thrombosis in myocardial infarction (TIMI ) flow grading from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Forty-one patients with suspected ACS were studied before diagnostic coronary angiography with myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) at rest and at stress. The correlation of visual interpretation of MCE and TIMI flow grade was significant. The quantitative analysis (myocardial perfusion parameters: A, β, and A × β) and TIMI flow grade were significant. MCE visual interpretation and TIMI flow grade had a high degree of agreement, on diagnosing myocardial perfusion abnormality. If one considers TIMI flow grade <3 as abnormal, MCE visual interpretation at rest had 73.1% accuracy with 58.2% sensitivity and 84.2% specificity and at stress had 80.4% accuracy with 76.6% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity. The MCE quantitative analysis has better accuracy with 100% of agreement with different level of TIMI flow grading. MCE quantitative analysis at stress has showed a direct correlation with TIMI flow grade, more significant than the visual interpretation technique. Further studies could measure the clinical relevance of this more objective approach to managing acute coronary syndrome patient before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). PMID:22778555

  6. Percutaneous absorption of several chemicals, some pesticides included, in the red-winged blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J.G.; Cagan, R.H.; Kare, M.R.

    1974-01-01

    Percutaneous absorption in vivo through the skin of the feet of the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) has been investigated. Absorption after 18-24 hours exposure to 0.01 M solutions of salicylic acid, caffeine, urea, 2,4-D, dieldrin, diethylstilbesterol, and DDT was measured. Of these, only DDT and diethylstilbesterol were not absorbed to a measurable degree. The solvents ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and vegetable oil were compared with water in their effects on the absorption ofcaffeine, urea, and salicylic acid. Ethanol, DMSO,and oil each decreased percutaneous absorption of salicylic acid. DMSO increased absorption of caffeine, and ethanol had no effect on it. Neither DMSO nor ethanol affected penetration of urea. Partition coefficients (K) (epidermis/water) were determined for all seven penetrants. Compounds with higher values of K showed lower percutaneous absorption. These findings suggest that K may be useful to predict percutaneous absorption in vivo. It appears unlikely that percutaneous absorption contributes greatly to the body burden of 2,4-D and dieldrin in A. phoeniceus.

  7. Localization of dexamethasone within dendritic core-multishell (CMS) nanoparticles and skin penetration properties studied by multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidpour, S; Lohan, S B; Anske, M; Unbehauen, M; Fleige, E; Haag, R; Meinke, M C; Bittl, R; Teutloff, C

    2017-07-01

    The skin and especially the stratum corneum (SC) act as a barrier and protect epidermal cells and thus the whole body against xenobiotica of the external environment. Topical skin treatment requires an efficient drug delivery system (DDS). Polymer-based nanocarriers represent novel transport vehicles for dermal application of drugs. In this study dendritic core-multishell (CMS) nanoparticles were investigated as promising candidates. CMS nanoparticles were loaded with a drug (analogue) and were applied to penetration studies of skin. We determined by dual-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) how dexamethasone (Dx) labelled with 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (PCA) is associated with the CMS. The micro-environment of the drug loaded to CMS nanoparticles was investigated by pulsed high-field EPR at cryogenic temperature, making use of the fact that magnetic parameters (g-, A-matrices, and spin-lattice relaxation time) represent specific probes for the micro-environment. Additionally, the rotational correlation time of spin-labelled Dx was probed by continuous wave EPR at ambient temperature, which provides independent information on the drug environment. Furthermore, the penetration depth of Dx into the stratum corneum of porcine skin after different topical applications was investigated. The location of Dx in the CMS nanoparticles is revealed and the function of CMS as penetration enhancers for topical application is shown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of lavage and brush preparation on cement penetration and primary stability in tibial unicompartmental total knee arthroplasty: An experimental cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Christian; Pietschmann, Matthias F; Schröder, Christian; Grupp, Thomas; Holderied, Melanie; Jansson, Volmar; Müller, Peter E

    2017-03-01

    Unicompartmental total knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a well-established treatment option for unicondylar osteoarthritis, and generally leads to better functional results than tricompartimental total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, revision rates of UKAs are reported as being higher; a major reason for this is aseptic loosening of the tibial component due to implant-cement-bone interface fatigue. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of trabecular bone preparation, prior to implantation of tibial UKAs, on morphological and biomechanical outcomes in a cadaver study. Cemented UKAs were performed in 18 human cadaver knees after the bone bed was cleaned using pulsed lavage (Group A), conventional brush (Group B) or no cleaning at all (Group C, control). Morphologic cement penetration and primary stability were measured. The area proportion under the tibial component without visible cement penetration was significantly higher in Group C (21.9%, SD 11.9) than in both Group A (7.1%, SD 5.8), and Group B (6.5%, SD 4.2) (P=0.007). The overall cement penetration depth did not differ between groups. However, in the posterior part, cement penetration depth was significantly higher in Group B (1.9mm, SD 0.3) than in both Group A (1.3mm, SD 0.3) and Group C (1.4mm, SD 0.3) (P=0.015). The mode of preparation did not show a substantial effect on primary stability tested under dynamic compression-shear test conditions (P=0.910). Bone preparation significantly enhances cement interdigitation. The application of a brush shows similar results compared with the application of pulsed lavage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vehicle and enhancer effects on human skin penetration of aminophylline from cream formulations: evaluation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai-Hao; Wang, Chia-Chen; Kuo, Su-Ching

    2007-01-01

    The effects of four essential oils (rosemary, ylang, lilacin, and peppermint oils), and three plant oils (jojoba oil, corn germ oil, and olive oil) on the permeation of aminophylline were studied using human skin. The permeation effects of these oils were compared with those of three chemical penetration enhancers. Although all oils enhanced the permeation of aminophylline, their effects were less than that of ethanol. Jojoba oil was found to be the most active, causing about a 32% peak height decrease of N-H bending absorbances in comparison with the control, while peppermint, lilacin, rosemary, and ylang oils caused 28%, 24%, 18%, and 12% peak height decreases, respectively. Microemulsions containing 10% jojoba oil and 30% corn germ oil were found to be superior vehicles for the percutaneous absorption of aminophylline. Comparision with results obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography shows good agreement.

  10. Penetration testing with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Berdeaux, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    If you are an expert Perl programmer interested in penetration testing or information security, this guide is designed for you. However, it will also be helpful for you even if you have little or no Linux shell experience.

  11. penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISS), penetrating ... ileus, reduced pulmonary function and loss of muscle mass and function, all of .... pathophysiology and rehabilitation. ... quality of life after surgery for colorectal cancer.

  12. Epidemiology of percutaneous exposure to needlestick and sharp object injuries in the Botswana public health sector: A health facility cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styn M Jamu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the extent and distribution of needlestick and sharp object injuries in the Botswana public health sector. Methods This was a cross-section study carried out in eight hospitals and 72 clinics and health posts. Results The study comprised of 885 randomly selected healthcare workers. The sample included medical doctors, nurses, laboratory staff, and dental staff and housekeeping staff. The reference group was a sample of housekeeping staff. The lifelong prevalence of needle-stick injuries was 48.9% (95% CI: 45.6, 52.2. Life-long prevalence was significantly higher in nurses (Adjusted Odds ratio [Adj. OR] = 4.1, 95% CI: 3.0, 5.7, medical doctors (Adj. OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1, 8.4 compared with the reference. The prevalence of needlestick and sharp object injuries in six-month duration was 11.8% (95% CI: 9.6%, 14.0%. Nurses (Adj. OR = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.0, 6.1 were three times likely to sustain injuries in a six-month period compared with the reference group. Most injuries occurred at patient’s bedside and in the emergency departments. Disposable syringes caused most of the injuries, often during and immediately after a medical procedure. Conclusions: Healthcare workers in Botswana remain at risk of percutaneous exposure to needlestick and sharp object injuries. They are at an increased risk of bloodborne infections including HIV.

  13. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (TPED) for lumbar disc herniation: A prospective cohort study - early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, S; Giovannopoulou, E; Charitoudis, G; Kazakos, K

    2017-11-06

    Lumbar discectomy is among the most frequently performed procedures in spinal surgery. Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (TPED) is a minimally invasive technique that gains ground among surgeons in the recent years. TPED has been studied in terms of effectiveness, however little is known about its overall impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the patients. To investigate the progress of HRQoL following TPED. Seventy-six (76) patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 56.5 ±12.1 years with 38 (50%) males and 38 (50%) females. All patients underwent TPED at L3-L4 (27.6%), L4-L5 (52.6%) and L5-S1 (19.7%). SF-36 was used for the assessment of HRQoL preoperatively and at 6 weeks, at 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure. All aspects of SF-36 questionnaire showed statistically significant improvement one year after the procedure (p< 0.001). Role limitations due to physical problems, bodily pain and role limitations due emotional problems showed the highest improvement, followed by physical functioning, vitality, social functioning, mental health and general health. TPED for lumbar disc herniation is associated with significant improvement in all aspects of health-related quality of life within 6 weeks postoperatively and the improvement remains significant one year after surgery, as measured by the SF-36 questionnaire.

  14. Novel micelle carriers for cyclosporin A topical ocular delivery: in vivo cornea penetration, ocular distribution and efficacy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tommaso, Claudia; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Valamanesh, Fatemeh; Trubitsyn, Gregory; Torriglia, Alicia; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Gurny, Robert; Möller, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Cornea transplantation is one of the most performed graft procedures worldwide with an impressive success rate of 90%. However, for "high-risk" patients with particular ocular diseases in addition to the required surgery, the success rate is drastically reduced to 50%. In these cases, cyclosporin A (CsA) is frequently used to prevent the cornea rejection by a systemic treatment with possible systemic side effects for the patients. To overcome these problems, it is a challenge to prepare well-tolerated topical CsA formulations. Normally high amounts of oils or surfactants are needed for the solubilization of the very hydrophobic CsA. Furthermore, it is in general difficult to obtain ocular therapeutic drug levels with topical instillations due to the corneal barriers that efficiently protect the intraocular structures from foreign substances thus also from drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo the effects of a novel CsA topical aqueous formulation. This formulation was based on nanosized polymeric micelles as drug carriers. An established rat model for the prevention of cornea graft rejection after a keratoplasty procedure was used. After instillation of the novel formulation with fluorescent labeled micelles, confocal analysis of flat-mounted corneas clearly showed that the nanosized carriers were able to penetrate into all corneal layers. The efficacy of a 0.5% CsA micelle formulation was tested and compared to a physiological saline solution and to a systemic administration of CsA. In our studies, the topical CsA treatment was carried out for 14 days, and the three parameters (a) cornea transparency, (b) edema, and (c) neovascularization were evaluated by clinical observation and scoring. Compared to the control group, the treated group showed a significant higher cornea transparency and significant lower edema after 7 and 13 days of the surgery. At the end point of the study, the neovascularization was reduced by 50% in the CsA-micelle treated

  15. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  16. Polyamide nanocapsules and nano-emulsions containing Parsol® MCX and Parsol® 1789: in vitro release, ex vivo skin penetration and photo-stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanno, Ibrahim; Anselmi, Cecilia; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2012-02-01

    To prepare polyamide nanocapsules for skin photo-protection, encapsulating α-tocopherol, Parsol®MCX (ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate) and/or Parsol®1789 (butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane). Nanocapsules were obtained by combining spontaneous emulsification and interfacial polycondensation reaction between sebacoyl chloride and diethylenetriamine. Nano-emulsions used as control were obtained by the same process without monomers. The influence of carrier on release rate was studied in vitro with a membrane-free model. Epidermal penetration of encapsulated sunscreens was ex vivo evaluated using Franz diffusion cells. Ability of encapsulated sunscreens to improve photo-stability was verified by comparing percentage of degradation after UV radiation exposure. Sunscreen-containing nanocapsules (260-400 nm) were successfully prepared; yield of encapsulation was >98%. Parsol®MCX and Parsol®1789 encapsulation led to decreased release rate by up to 60% in comparison with nano-emulsion and allowed minimum penetration through pig ear epidermis. Presence of polyamide shell protected encapsulated sunscreen filters from photo-degradation without affecting their activity. Encapsulation of Parsol®MCX and Parsol®1789 into oil-core of polyamide nanocapsules allowed protection from photo-degradation, controlled release from nanocapsules, and limited penetration through pig ear epidermis.

  17. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, F; el Nawar, A; Van Gossum, A

    1992-01-01

    From March 87 to March 92, fifty eight patients were referred to our department for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). The modality of the feeding tube insertion is described. The most common indications for placement were neurologic disorders in 62% of the cases (n = 36) and malignant diseases in 32% (n = 19). The success rate of the technique was 98.3% (n = 57). No procedure-related mortality was observed. A low rate of major complication (1.7%) and minor complication (10.5%) was noted. Feeding tubes were removed in 21% of patients (n = 12); none of them with malignant disease. Survival curve analysis demonstrated that 50% of patients died within 3 months of PEG placement. Such results raise questions about the selection of patients undergoing PEG. Our experience of patients undergoing PEG. Our experience suggests that PEG is easy and safe, even in debilitated patients, having an acceptable life expectancy.

  18. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano T. DeMarco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi.

  19. Change in coronary blood flow after percutaneous coronary intervention in relation to baseline lesion physiology: results of the JUSTIFY-PCI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Petraco, Ricardo; van de Hoef, Tim P; Sen, Sayan; van Lavieren, Martijn A; Foale, Rodney A; Meuwissen, Martijn; Broyd, Christopher; Echavarria-Pinto, Mauro; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Foin, Nicolas; Sethi, Amarjit; Malik, Iqbal S; Mikhail, Ghada W; Hughes, Alun D; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P; Di Mario, Carlo; Escaned, Javier; Piek, Jan J; Davies, Justin E

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) aims to increase coronary blood flow by relieving epicardial obstruction. However, no study has objectively confirmed this and assessed changes in flow over different phases of the cardiac cycle. We quantified the change in resting and hyperemic flow velocity after PCI in stenoses defined physiologically by fractional flow reserve and other parameters. Seventy-five stenoses (67 patients) underwent paired flow velocity assessment before and after PCI. Flow velocity was measured over the whole cardiac cycle and the wave-free period. Mean fractional flow reserve was 0.68±0.02. Pre-PCI, hyperemic flow velocity is diminished in stenoses classed as physiologically significant compared with those classed nonsignificant (PPCI, resting flow velocity over the wave-free period increased little (5.6±1.6 cm/s) and significantly less than hyperemic flow velocity (21.2±3 cm/s; P0.80 had a significantly smaller gain (Δ4.6±2.3 cm/s; PPCI physiology is strongly associated with post-PCI increase in hyperemic coronary flow velocity. Hyperemic flow velocity increases 6-fold more when stenoses classed as physiologically significant undergo PCI than when nonsignificant stenoses are treated. Resting flow velocity measured over the wave-free period changes at least 4-fold less than hyperemic flow velocity after PCI. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Duration of clopidogrel treatment and risk of mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction among 11 680 patients with myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Køber Lars

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal duration of clopidogrel treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is unclear. We studied the risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction (MI in relation to 6- and 12-months clopidogrel treatment among MI patients treated with PCI. Methods Using nationwide registers of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies we identified 11 680 patients admitted with MI, treated with PCI and clopidogrel. Clopidogrel treatment was categorized in a 6-months and a 12-months regimen. Rates of death, recurrent MI or a combination of both were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Bleedings were compared between treatment regimens. Results The Kaplan Meier analysis indicated no benefit of the 12-months regimen compared with the 6-months in all endpoints. The Cox proportional hazards analysis confirmed these findings with hazard ratios for the 12-months regimen (the 6-months regimen used as reference for the composite endpoint of 1.01 (confidence intervals 0.81-1.26 and 1.24 (confidence intervals 0.95-1.62 for Day 0-179 and Day 180-540 after discharge. Bleedings occurred in 3.5% and 4.1% of the patients in the 6-months and 12-months regimen (p = 0.06. Conclusions We found comparable rates of death and recurrent MI in patients treated with 6- and 12-months' clopidogrel. The potential benefit of prolonged clopidogrel treatment in a real-life setting remains uncertain.

  1. Change in Coronary Blood Flow After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Relation to Baseline Lesion Physiology Results of the JUSTIFY-PCI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder S.; Petraco, Ricardo; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Sen, Sayan; van Lavieren, Martijn A.; Foale, Rodney A.; Meuwissen, Martijn; Broyd, Christopher; Echavarria-Pinto, Mauro; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Foin, Nicolas; Sethi, Amarjit; Malik, Iqbal S.; Mikhail, Ghada W.; Hughes, Alun D.; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P.; Di Mario, Carlo; Escaned, Javier; Piek, Jan J.; Davies, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) aims to increase coronary blood flow by relieving epicardial obstruction. However, no study has objectively confirmed this and assessed changes in flow over different phases of the cardiac cycle. We quantified the change in resting and hyperemic flow velocity after PCI in stenoses defined physiologically by fractional flow reserve and other parameters. Methods and Results Seventy-five stenoses (67 patients) underwent paired flow velocity assessment before and after PCI. Flow velocity was measured over the whole cardiac cycle and the wave-free period. Mean fractional flow reserve was 0.68±0.02. Pre-PCI, hyperemic flow velocity is diminished in stenoses classed as physiologically significant compared with those classed nonsignificant (PPCI, resting flow velocity over the wave-free period increased little (5.6±1.6 cm/s) and significantly less than hyperemic flow velocity (21.2±3 cm/s; P0.80 had a significantly smaller gain (Δ4.6±2.3 cm/s; PPCI physiology is strongly associated with post-PCI increase in hyperemic coronary flow velocity. Hyperemic flow velocity increases 6-fold more when stenoses classed as physiologically significant undergo PCI than when nonsignificant stenoses are treated. Resting flow velocity measured over the wave-free period changes at least 4-fold less than hyperemic flow velocity after PCI. PMID:26025217

  2. The Effect of Listening to Music During Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tube Placement on Pain, Anxiety, and Success Rate of Procedure: A Randomized Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Nurullah; Ozturk, Erdem

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of listening to music on pain, anxiety, and success of procedure during office-based percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement (PNTP). One hundred consecutive patients (age >18 years) with hydronephrosis were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were prospectively randomized to undergo office-based PNTP with (Group I, n = 50) or without music (Group II, n = 50). Anxiety levels were evaluated with State Trait Anxiety Inventory. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain levels, patient's satisfaction, and willingness to undergo the procedure. We also compared success rates of procedures. The mean age, duration of procedure, and gender distribution were statistically similar between the two groups. The mean postprocedural heart rates and systolic blood pressures in Group I patients were significantly lower than Group II patients (p = 0.01 and p = 0.028, respectively), whereas preprocedural pulse rate and systolic blood pressure were similar. The mean anxiety level and mean pain score of Group I were significantly lower than those of Group II (p = 0.008 and p music during office-based PNTP decreases anxiety or pain and increases success rate of procedure. As an alternative to sedation or general anesthesia, music is easily accessible without side effect and cost.

  3. Speech Understanding with a New Implant Technology: A Comparative Study with a New Nonskin Penetrating Baha System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kurz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare hearing and speech understanding between a new, nonskin penetrating Baha system (Baha Attract to the current Baha system using a skin-penetrating abutment. Methods. Hearing and speech understanding were measured in 16 experienced Baha users. The transmission path via the abutment was compared to a simulated Baha Attract transmission path by attaching the implantable magnet to the abutment and then by adding a sample of artificial skin and the external parts of the Baha Attract system. Four different measurements were performed: bone conduction thresholds directly through the sound processor (BC Direct, aided sound field thresholds, aided speech understanding in quiet, and aided speech understanding in noise. Results. The simulated Baha Attract transmission path introduced an attenuation starting from approximately 5 dB at 1000 Hz, increasing to 20–25 dB above 6000 Hz. However, aided sound field threshold shows smaller differences and aided speech understanding in quiet and in noise does not differ significantly between the two transmission paths. Conclusion. The Baha Attract system transmission path introduces predominately high frequency attenuation. This attenuation can be partially compensated by adequate fitting of the speech processor. No significant decrease in speech understanding in either quiet or in noise was found.

  4. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Christopher; Gupta, Nikhil; Leavitt, David; Hoenig, David; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, ...

  5. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Gupta, Nikhil; Leavitt, David; Hoenig, David; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, exit strategies, and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.

  6. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Left Main Disease: Pre- and Post-EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE Everolimus Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) and NOBLE (Nordic-Baltic-British Left Main Revascularization Study) Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duk-Woo; Park, Seung-Jung

    2017-06-01

    For nearly half a century, coronary artery bypass grafting has been the standard treatment for patients with obstructive left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease. However, there has been considerable evolution in the field of percutaneous coronary intervention, and especially, percutaneous coronary intervention for LMCA disease has been rapidly expanded with adoption of drug-eluting stents. Some, but not all randomized trials, have shown that percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents might be a suitable alternative for selected patients with LMCA disease instead of bypass surgery. However, none of previous trials involving early-generation drug-eluting stents was sufficiently powered and comparative trials using contemporary drug-eluting stents were limited. Recently, primary results of 2 new trials of EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE Everolimus Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) and NOBLE (Nordic-Baltic-British Left Main Revascularization Study) were reported. However, these trials showed conflicting results, which might pose uncertainty on the optimal revascularization strategy for LMCA disease. In this article, with the incorporation of a key review on evolution of LMCA treatment, we summarize the similarity or disparity of the EXCEL and NOBLE trials, focus on how they relate to previous trials in the field, and finally speculate on how the treatment strategy may be changed or recommended for LMCA treatment. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Ice volume changes (1936–1990–2007 and ground-penetrating radar studies of Ariebreen, Hornsund, Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lapazaran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ariebreen is a small (0.37 km2-valley glacier located in southern Spitsbergen. Our ground-penetrating radar surveys of the glacier show that it is less than 30 m thick on average, with a maximum thickness of 82 m, and it appears to be entirely cold. By analysing digital terrain models of the ice surface from different dates, we determine the area and volume changes during two periods, 1936–1990 and 1990–2007. The total ice volume of the glacier has decreased by 73% during the entire period 1936–2007, which is equivalent to a mean mass balance rate of −0.61±0.17 m y−1 w.eq. The glacier thinning rate has increased markedly between the first and second periods, from −0.50±0.22 to −0.95±0.17 m y−1 w.eq.

  8. Penetration portion shielding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  9. Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy via Griggs Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Hasan Ali; Vafaii, Kamran; Chalechale, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saeed; Kaviannezhad, Rasool

    2017-01-01

    Tracheostomy is considered the airway management of choice for patients who need prolonged mechanical ventilation support. Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheotomy (PDT) is a technique that can be performed easily and rapidly at bedside and is particularly useful in the intensive care setting. The Griggs percutaneous tracheotomy is unique in its utilization of a guide wire dilator forceps. We aimed to describe the early perioperative and late postoperative complications of PDT using the Griggs technique in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This cross-sectional study was conducted on all patients who underwent tracheostomy in the ICU of the Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, from June 2011 to June 2015. PDT was performed in 184 patients with the Griggs technique. Demographic variables, as well as perioperative and late postoperative complications were recorded. The mean age of patients was 57.3 ± 15.37 years. The most common primary causes of tracheostomy were hypoxic brain damage disorders (43.2%) and pneumonia (14.8%). Perioperative and early complications occurred in 16.7 % of procedures, of which 9.3% were bleedings (minor, significant and major). Furthermore, the incidence of late complications was 8.6%, including: stomal infection, difficult replace tracheostomy tube, tracheoesophageal fistula, tracheal stenosis, and tracheomalacia. PDT via Griggs technique is a safe, quick, and effective method. The low incidence of complications indicates that bedside percutaneous tracheostomy can be performed safely as a routine procedure for daily care implemented in the ICU.

  10. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M. [University of Maryland, Department of Surgery, Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Melvin [National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  11. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Alexander, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  12. Silver percutaneous absorption after exposure to silver nanoparticles: a comparison study of three human skin graft samples used for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, C; Adami, G; Crosera, M; Larese, F; Casarin, S; Castagnoli, C; Stella, M; Maina, G

    2014-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly applied to a wide range of materials for biomedical use. These enable a close contact with human skin, thanks to the large release of silver ions that is responsible for a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Silver can permeate the skin; however, there are no data available on silver permeation through skin grafts commonly used in burns recovery. The aim of our study was to evaluate silver penetration using fresh, cryopreserved, and glycerolized human skin grafts after exposure to a suspension of AgNPs in synthetic sweat using a Franz diffusion cell apparatus for 24 h. Silver permeation profiles revealed a significantly higher permeation through glycerolized skin compared with both fresh and cryopreserved skin: 24-h silver flux penetration was 0.2 ng cm(-2) h(-1) (lag time: 8.2 h) for fresh skin, 0.3 ng cm(-2) h(-1) (lag time: 10.9 h) for cryopreserved skin, and 3.8 ng cm(-2) h(-1) (lag time: 6.3 h) for glycerolized skin. Permeation through glycerolized skin is significantly higher compared to both fresh and cryopreserved skin. This result can generate relevant clinical implications for burns treatment with products containing AgNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Therapeutic results after ultrasound-guided intratissue percutaneous electrolysis (EPI®) in the treatment of rectus abdominis-related groin pain in professional footballers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Carlos; Mattiussi, Gabriele; Núñez, Francisco J

    2016-10-01

    Rectus abdominis-related groin pain (RAGP) is one of the possible clinical patterns that determine pubalgia. RAGP is one of the typical patterns in footballers and is due to the degeneration and tendinopathy of the distal tendon, at the level of the two pubic tubercles. Intratissue percutaneous electrolysis (EPI) is a novel technique used in the treatment of tendinopathies. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic benefits of EPI by contrasting the two basic components that characterize RAGP: painful symptoms and resultant functional deficits. Eight professional footballers at Udinese Calcio Spa Football Club underwent ultrasound-guided EPI intervention. No other type of treatment was combined with EPI. Pain was monitored with the Verbal Rating Scale, while functional deficit was monitored using the Patient Specific Functional Scale. The scales implementation took place before treatment, then 24 hours, 1 week, 1 month and 6 months after the end of treatment. Treatment with EPI produced a complete reduction of pain symptoms in one month and enabled excellent functional recovery for walking and jogging in one week; for getting out of bed, running, jumping and kicking within one month from the end of the treatment. Treatment with ultrasound-guided EPI has shown encouraging clinical results for RAGP. Data are preliminary: considering the limitations of this study more complex design studies are necessary to test the efficacy of the technique. This study introduces the EPI technique for the first time in the treatment of professional footballers suffering from RAGP. Its future use is proposed as a treatment solution, including complementary to conservative treatment.

  14. Blood loss predictive factors and transfusion practice during percutaneous nephrolithotomy of kidney stones: a prospective study [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firtantyo Adi Syahputra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Bleeding is the most common complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. Injudicious transfusion is frequently performed in current practice, even though it is not always needed. This study aimed to identify the predictive factors of blood loss in the PCNL procedure and evaluate the perioperative transfusion practice.   Methods A prospective study of PCNL was randomly performed by two consultants of endo-urology at our institution. The inclusion criteria were adults with kidney pelvic stones >20 mm or stone in inferior calyx >10 mm or staghorn stone. Those with coagulopathy, under anti-coagulant treatment or open conversion were excluded. A full blood count was taken at baseline and during 12, 24, 36, 72-hours post-operatively. Factors such as stone burden, sex, body surface area, shifting of hematocrit level and amount of blood transfused were analyzed statistically using line regression to identify the predictive factors of total blood loss (TBL.   Results Eighty-five patients were enrolled in this study. Mean TBL was 560.92 ± 428.43 mL for both endo-urology surgeons. Stone burden was the most influential factor for TBL (p=0.037. Our results revealed that TBL (mL = -153.379 + 0.229 × stone burden (mm2 + 0.203 x baseline serum hematocrit (%; thus considerably predicted the need for blood transfusion. A total of 87.1% patients did not receive perioperative transfusion, 3.5% received intra-operative transfusion, 7.1% received post-operative transfusion, 23% had both intra and post-operative transfusion, resulting in a cross-matched transfusion ratio of 7.72. Mean perioperative blood transfused was 356.00 ± 145.88 mL.

  15. Peritonitis following percutaneous gastrostomy tube insertions in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dookhoo, Leema; Mahant, Sanjay; Parra, Dimitri A.; John, Philip R.; Amaral, Joao G.; Connolly, Bairbre L.

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy has a high success rate, low morbidity, and can be performed under different levels of sedation or local anesthesia in children. Despite its favourable safety profile, major complications can occur. Few studies have examined peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children. To identify potential risk factors and variables influencing the development and early diagnosis of peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of children who developed peritonitis within 7 days of percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy between 2003 and 2012. From the 1,504 patients who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy, patients who developed peritonitis (group 1) were matched by closest date of procedure to those without peritonitis (group 2). Peritonitis was defined according to recognized clinical criteria. Demographic, clinical, procedural, management and outcomes data were collected. Thirty-eight of 1,504 children (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy developed peritonitis ≤7 days post procedure (group 1). Fever (89%), irritability (63%) and abdominal pain (55%) occurred on presentation of peritonitis. Group 1 patients were all treated with antibiotics; 41% underwent additional interventions: tube readjustments (8%), aspiration of pneumoperitoneum (23%), laparotomy (10%) and intensive care unit admission (10%). In group 1, enteral feeds started on average 3 days later and patients were discharged 5 days later than patients in group 2. There were two deaths not directly related to peritonitis. Neither age, gender, weight, underlying diagnoses nor operator was identified as a risk factor. Peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children occurs in approximately 2.5% of cases. No risk factors for its development were identified. Medical management is usually sufficient for a good outcome

  16. Peritonitis following percutaneous gastrostomy tube insertions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dookhoo, Leema; Mahant, Sanjay; Parra, Dimitri A; John, Philip R; Amaral, Joao G; Connolly, Bairbre L

    2016-09-01

    Percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy has a high success rate, low morbidity, and can be performed under different levels of sedation or local anesthesia in children. Despite its favourable safety profile, major complications can occur. Few studies have examined peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children. To identify potential risk factors and variables influencing the development and early diagnosis of peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of children who developed peritonitis within 7 days of percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy between 2003 and 2012. From the 1,504 patients who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy, patients who developed peritonitis (group 1) were matched by closest date of procedure to those without peritonitis (group 2). Peritonitis was defined according to recognized clinical criteria. Demographic, clinical, procedural, management and outcomes data were collected. Thirty-eight of 1,504 children (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy developed peritonitis ≤7 days post procedure (group 1). Fever (89%), irritability (63%) and abdominal pain (55%) occurred on presentation of peritonitis. Group 1 patients were all treated with antibiotics; 41% underwent additional interventions: tube readjustments (8%), aspiration of pneumoperitoneum (23%), laparotomy (10%) and intensive care unit admission (10%). In group 1, enteral feeds started on average 3 days later and patients were discharged 5 days later than patients in group 2. There were two deaths not directly related to peritonitis. Neither age, gender, weight, underlying diagnoses nor operator was identified as a risk factor. Peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children occurs in approximately 2.5% of cases. No risk factors for its development were identified. Medical management is usually sufficient for a good outcome

  17. Peritonitis following percutaneous gastrostomy tube insertions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dookhoo, Leema [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, ON (Canada); Mahant, Sanjay [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Parra, Dimitri A.; John, Philip R.; Amaral, Joao G.; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy has a high success rate, low morbidity, and can be performed under different levels of sedation or local anesthesia in children. Despite its favourable safety profile, major complications can occur. Few studies have examined peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children. To identify potential risk factors and variables influencing the development and early diagnosis of peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of children who developed peritonitis within 7 days of percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy between 2003 and 2012. From the 1,504 patients who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy, patients who developed peritonitis (group 1) were matched by closest date of procedure to those without peritonitis (group 2). Peritonitis was defined according to recognized clinical criteria. Demographic, clinical, procedural, management and outcomes data were collected. Thirty-eight of 1,504 children (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy developed peritonitis ≤7 days post procedure (group 1). Fever (89%), irritability (63%) and abdominal pain (55%) occurred on presentation of peritonitis. Group 1 patients were all treated with antibiotics; 41% underwent additional interventions: tube readjustments (8%), aspiration of pneumoperitoneum (23%), laparotomy (10%) and intensive care unit admission (10%). In group 1, enteral feeds started on average 3 days later and patients were discharged 5 days later than patients in group 2. There were two deaths not directly related to peritonitis. Neither age, gender, weight, underlying diagnoses nor operator was identified as a risk factor. Peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children occurs in approximately 2.5% of cases. No risk factors for its development were identified. Medical management is usually sufficient for a good outcome

  18. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  19. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  20. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various other investigations ...

  1. Duodenal perforation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Bansal

    2016-06-03

    Jun 3, 2016 ... Calculus;. Duodenum;. Injury;. Paediatric;. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Abstract. Introduction: Colonic perforations are known complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, to the best of our knowledge, small bowel perforation has rarely been reported.. Observation: We report the ...

  2. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  3. Effect of intravenous TRO40303 as an adjunct to primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: MITOCARE study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Dan; Arheden, Håkan; Berdeaux, Alain; Bonnet, Jean-Louis; Carlsson, Marcus; Clemmensen, Peter; Cuvier, Valérie; Danchin, Nicolas; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Engblom, Henrik; Erlinge, David; Firat, Hüseyin; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Hauke, Wilfried; Heiberg, Einar; Koul, Sasha; Larsen, Alf-Inge; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Paganelli, Franck; Pruss, Rebecca M; Rousseau, Hélène; Schaller, Sophie; Sonou, Giles; Tuseth, Vegard; Veys, Julien; Vicaut, Eric; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2015-01-07

    The MITOCARE study evaluated the efficacy and safety of TRO40303 for the reduction of reperfusion injury in patients undergoing revascularization for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Patients presenting with STEMI within 6 h of the onset of pain randomly received TRO40303 (n = 83) or placebo (n = 80) via i.v. bolus injection prior to balloon inflation during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in a double-blind manner. The primary endpoint was infarct size expressed as area under the curve (AUC) for creatine kinase (CK) and for troponin I (TnI) over 3 days. Secondary endpoints included measures of infarct size using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and safety outcomes. The median pain-to-balloon time was 180 min for both groups, and the median (mean) door-to-balloon time was 60 (38) min for all sites. Infarct size, as measured by CK and TnI AUCs at 3 days, was not significantly different between treatment groups. There were no significant differences in the CMR-assessed myocardial salvage index (1-infarct size/myocardium at risk) (mean 52 vs. 58% with placebo, P = 0.1000), mean CMR-assessed infarct size (21.9 g vs. 20.0 g, or 17 vs. 15% of LV-mass) or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (46 vs. 48%), or in the mean 30-day echocardiographic LVEF (51.5 vs. 52.2%) between TRO40303 and placebo. A greater number of adjudicated safety events occurred in the TRO40303 group for unexplained reasons. This study in STEMI patients treated with contemporary mechanical revascularization principles did not show any effect of TRO40303 in limiting reperfusion injury of the ischaemic myocardium. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Percutaneous electrochemotherapy in the treatment of portal vein tumor thrombosis at hepatic hilum in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Luciano; Busto, Giuseppina; Nasto, Aurelio; Fristachi, Raffaele; Cacace, Luigi; Talamo, Maria; Accardo, Catello; Bortone, Sara; Gallo, Paolo; Tarantino, Paolo; Nasto, Riccardo Aurelio; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Ambrosino, Pasquale

    2017-02-07

    To treated with electrochemotherapy (ECT) a prospective case series of patients with liver cirrhosis and Vp3-Vp4- portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in order to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of this new non thermal ablative technique in those patients. Six patients (5 males and 1 female), aged 61-85 years (mean age, 70 years), four in Child-Pugh A and two in Child-Pugh B class, entered our study series. All patients were studied with three-phase computed tomography (CT), contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of the thrombus before ECT. All patients underwent ECT treatment (Cliniporator Vitae ® , IGEA SpA, Carpi, Modena, Italy) of Vp3-Vp4 PVTT in a single session. At the end of the procedure a post-treatment biopsy of the thrombus was performed. Scheduled follow-up in all patients entailed: CEUS within 24 h after treatment; triphasic contrast-enhanced CT and CEUS at 3 mo after treatment and every six months thereafter. Post-treatment CEUS showed complete absence of enhancement of the treated thrombus in all cases. Post-treatment biopsy showed apoptosis and necrosis of tumor cells in all cases. The follow-up ranged from 9 to 20 mo (median, 14 mo). In 2 patients, the follow-up CT and CEUS demonstrated complete patency of the treated portal vein. Other 3 patients showed a persistent avascular non-tumoral shrinked thrombus at CEUS and CT during follow-up. No local recurrence was observed at follow-up CT and CEUS in 5/6 patients. One patient was lost to follow-up because of death from gastrointestinal hemorrage 5 wk after ECT. In patients with cirrhosis, ECT seems effective and safe for curative treatment of Vp3-Vp4 PVTT from HCC.

  5. Evaluation of efficacy of amikacin for attenuation of catheter-related bladder discomfort in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ruchi; Agarwal, Anil; Singh, Prabhat Kumar; Gupta, Devendra; Shamim, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) is the most distressing symptom in patients due to intraoperative urinary catheterization. Amikacin significantly inhibits detrusor contraction evoked by prejunctional stimulation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of amikacin in prevention of CRBD in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Study areas were operation theater and postanesthesia care unit of the Department of Anesthesiology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow. One hundred adult patients of either sex were randomly assigned into two groups of fifty each. Patients in control group received normal saline whereas patients in amikacin group received amikacin 10 mg/kg just before induction. Grading of CRBD was done as none, mild, moderate, and severe by a blinded observer at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. Data were analyzed using Student's t -test and Chi-square test among groups. Incidence of CRBD was compared with Chi-square test whereas severity was analyzed by the test of proportions (Z-test). Visual analog score was compared using Mann-Whitney U-test for surgical site pain. Incidence of CRBD in control group was 66% as compared to 44% observed in amikacin group ( P < 0.05). During intergroup comparison at different time points, incidence of CRBD was reduced at 1 and 6 h in the amikacin group ( P < 0.05). Significant reduction in the severity of CRBD (moderate) was also observed at 1 h in the amikacin group ( P < 0.05). At rest of the time points, there was no significant difference. Amikacin can significantly reduce the incidence and severity of CRBD in the first few hours after surgery.

  6. Early versus late percutaneous revascularization in patients hospitalized with non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: The atherosclerosis risk in communities surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sameer; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Qamar, Arman; Stacey, R Brandon; Caughey, Melissa C

    2018-02-01

    Current guidelines recommend early invasive intervention (<24 hr) for high risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). A delayed invasive strategy (24-72 hr) is considered reasonable for low risk patients. The real-world effectiveness of this strategy is unknown. The ARIC Study has conducted hospital surveillance of acute myocardial infarction (MI) since 1987. NSTEMI was classified using a validated algorithm. We limited our study to patients undergoing early (<24 hr of the event onset), or late (≥24 hr) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were stratified into low (TIMI score 2-4), and high risk (TIMI score 5-7, or presence of cardiogenic shock, ventricular fibrillation, or cardiac arrest). Associations between early versus late PCI and mortality were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for demographics, hospitalization year, TIMI score, and comorbidities. From 1987 to 2012, 6,746 patients were hospitalized with NSTEMI and underwent PCI. Most were white (79%), male (68%), with mean age 61 years. The 28-day and 1-year mortality were 2% and 5%, respectively. Most revascularizations (65%) were late. After accounting for potential confounders, early PCI was associated with a 58% reduced 28-day mortality (OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21-0.84) for the entire population, and 57% reduced mortality (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21-0.88) for high risk patients. By 1-year of follow up, there was no significant difference in mortality with respect to early vs. late PCI. In hospitalized NSTEMI patients with high risk of clinical events, early PCI is associated with improved 28-day survival. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Clinical utility of new bleeding criteria: a prospective study of evaluation for the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium definition of bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong-Min; Lee, Dong Hyun; Park, Kyungil; Kim, Young-Dae

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the new bleeding criteria, proposed by the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC), compared with the old criteria for determining the action of physicians in contact with bleeding events, after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The BARC criteria were independently associated with an increased risk of 1-year mortality after PCI, and provided a predictive value, in regard to 1-year mortality. The standardized bleeding definitions will be expected to help the physician to correctly analyze the bleeding events, to select an optimal treatment, and to objectively compare the results of multiple trials and registries. All the patients undergoing PCI from June to September 2012 were prospectively enrolled. Patients who experienced a bleeding event were further classified, based on three different bleeding severity criteria: BARC, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI), and Global Use of Strategies To Open coronary arteries (GUSTO). The primary outcome was the occurrence of bleeding events requiring interruption of antiplatelet therapy (IAT) by physicians. A total of 376 consecutive patients were included in this study. Total bleeding events occurred in 46 patients (12.2%). BARC type ≥2 bleeding occurred in 30 patients (8.0%); however, TIMI major or minor bleeding, and GUSTO moderate or severe bleeding occurred in 6 (1.6%) and 11 patients (2.9%), respectively. Of the 46 patients, 28 (60.9% of patients) required IAT. On receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, bleeding defined BARC type ≥2 effectively predicted IAT, with a sensitivity of 89.3%, and a specificity of 98.5% (pdefinition may be a more useful tool for the detection of bleeding with clinical relevance, for patients undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In-Lab Upfront Use of Tirofiban May Reduce the Occurrence of No-Reflow During Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. A Pilot Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Igor Matos; Novaes, Gustavo Caires; Badran, André Vannucchi; Pavão, Rafael Brolio; Barbosa, Ricardo; Figueiredo, Geraldo Luiz de; Lima, Moysés de Oliveira; Haddad, Jorge Luiz; Schmidt, André; Marin, José Antônio

    2016-11-01

    Despite successful opening of culprit coronary artery, myocardial reperfusion does not always follows primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are used in the treatment of no-reflow (NR), but their role to prevent it is unproven. To evaluate the effect of in-lab administration of tirofiban on the incidence of NR in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with PPCI. STEMI patients treated with PPCI were randomized (24 tirofiban and 34 placebo) in this double-blinded study to assess the impact of intravenous tirofiban on the incidence of NR after PPCI according to angiographic and electrocardiographic methods. End-points of the study were: TIMI-epicardial flow grade; myocardial blush grade (MBG); resolution of ST-elevation grupos. A ocorrência de fluxo TIMI grupos tirofibana (25%) e placebo (35,3%). MBG ≤ 2 não ocorreu no grupo tirofibana, e foi detectado em 11,7% dos pacientes do grupo placebo (p=0,13). RST grupos tirofibana e placebo, respectivamente. NR grave (RST ≤ 30%) ocorreu em 0% x 26,5% (p=0,01) aos 90 minutos, e em 4,2% x 23,5% (p=0,06) em 24 horas nos grupos tirofibana e placebo, respectivamente. Este estudo piloto mostrou uma tendência de redução de NR associada ao uso, em laboratório, de tirofibana em pacientes com IAMCSST tratados com ICPP, e abre caminho para um estudo em escala real que teste essa hipótese.

  9. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  10. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  11. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  12. Safe percutaneous suprapubic catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, N K; Goel, A; Sankhwar, S N

    2012-11-01

    We describe our technique of percutaneous suprapubic catheter insertion with special reference to steps that help to avoid common complications of haematuria and catheter misplacement. The procedure is performed using a stainless steel reusable trocar under local infiltrative anaesthesia, usually at the bedside. After clinical confirmation of a full bladder, the trocar is advanced into the bladder through a skin incision. Once the bladder is entered, the obturator is removed and the assistant inserts a Foley catheter followed by rapid balloon inflation. Slight traction is applied to the catheter for about five minutes. Patients with previous lower abdominal surgery, an inadequately distended bladder or acute pelvic trauma do not undergo suprapubic catheterisation using this method. The procedure was performed in 72 men (mean age: 42.4 years, range: 18-78 years) with urinary retention with a palpable bladder. The average duration of the procedure was less than five minutes. No complications were noted in any of the patients. Trocar suprapubic catheter insertion is a safe and effective bedside procedure for emergency bladder drainage and can be performed by resident surgeons. The common complications associated with the procedure can be avoided with a few careful steps.

  13. Percutaneous brachial artery catheterization for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions (pci): an encouraging experience of 100 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Z.U.; Maken, G.R.; Saif, M.; Khattak, Z.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the practicability and safety of the percutaneous transbrachial approach (TBA) for diagnostic coronary angiography and therapeutic percutaneous coronary interventions. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology- National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD) from March 2009 to May 2011. Patients and Methods: We collected data of 100 consecutive patients who underwent coronary catheterization by the percutaneous transbrachial approach. Transbrachial catheterization was performed only if the radial access failed or radial pulse was feeble. Study endpoints included successful brachial artery catheterization, vascular and neurological complications at access site and procedure success rate. Results: Mean age of the patients was 54 years (range 33-79 yrs) and 65(65%) were males and 35 (35%) were females. The right brachial artery was used in all of the cases. Procedural success was achieved in 100% of the patients. Coronary angiography was performed in 70 patients and percutaneous coronary interventions were done in 30 cases. Out of these 30 cases, PCI to left coronary arteries (LAD and LCX) were performed in 19 patients while 11 patients had PCI to right coronary artery (RCA). No case of vascular complications such as major access site bleeding, vascular perforation, brachial artery occlusion causing forearm ischemia, compartment syndrome, vascular spasm or failure to catheterize coronary arteries requiring alternate vascular access were observed. Conclusion: Brachial artery i